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1 Special Inspector General for OCT 30 2018 Afghanistan Reconstruction SIGAR TO THE QUARTERLY REPORT UNITED STATES CONGRESS

2 The National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2008 (Pub. L. No. 110- 181) established the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). SIGAR’s oversight mission, as dened by the legislation, is to provide for the independent and objective • conduct and supervision of audits and investigations relating to the programs and operations funded with amounts appropriated or otherwise made available for the reconstruction of Afghanistan. • leadership and coordination of, and recommendations on, policies designed to promote economy, efciency, and effectiveness in the administration of the programs and operations, and to prevent and detect waste, fraud, and abuse in such programs and operations. • means of keeping the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense fully and currently informed about problems and deciencies relating to the administration of such programs and operation and the necessity for and progress on corrective action. Afghanistan reconstruction includes any major contract, grant, agreement, or other funding mechanism entered into by any department or agency of the U.S. government that involves the use of amounts appropriated or otherwise made available for the reconstruction of Afghanistan. As required by the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2018 (Pub. L. No. 115-91), this quarterly report has been prepared in accordance with the Quality Standards for Inspection and Evaluation issued by the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efciency. Source: Pub.L. No. 110-181, “National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2008,” 1/28/2008, Pub. L. No. 115-91, ”National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2018,” 12/12/2017. (For a list of the congressionally mandated contents of this report, see Appendix A.) Cover photo: An Afghan boy plays in the ruins of a 13th century house on the outskirts of Mazar-e Sharif. (AFP photo by Farshad Usyan) PUBLISHED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CIGIE QUALITY STANDARDS FOR INSPECTION AND EVALUATION.

3 BADAKHSHAN KUNDUZ JOWZJAN TAKHAR BALKH SAMANGAN BAGHLAN FARYAB SAR-E PUL PANJSHIR NURISTAN BADGHIS KAPISA PARWAN KUNAR BAMYAN LAGHMAN HERAT KABUL WARDAK NANGARHAR LOGAR GHOR DAYKUNDI PAKTIYA GHAZNI KHOST URUZGAN FARAH PAKTIKA ZABUL NIMROZ HELMAND Provinces where SIGAR has conducted KANDAHAR or commissioned audit, inspection, special project, and/or investigation work as of September 30, 2018. 2530 CRYSTAL DRIVE ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 22202

4 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I am pleased to submit to Congress and the Secretaries of State and Defense, SIGAR’s 41st quarterly report on the status of reconstruction in Afghanistan. As this report was going to press, U.S. Army General Austin Scott Miller, commander of the NATO- led Resolute Support mission and of United States Forces-Afghanistan, escaped unharmed from an October 18, 2018, attack that killed Kandahar’s police and intelligence chiefs and gravely wounded its provincial governor. The attack came two days before parliamentary elections were held in all provinces except for Ghazni and Kandahar. It was a reminder of the violence that continues to torment Afghanistan and the difculty of imposing security anywhere in that long-troubled country. SIGAR will be monitoring the situation. Section 1 discusses SIGAR’s recently released Lessons Learned Program report entitled , which this quarter prompted the Counternarcotics: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan U.S. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control to request that SIGAR “conduct a thorough review of the U.S. government’s current counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan.” Those efforts have cost U.S. taxpayers more than $8 billion since 2002, yet Afghanistan’s opium crisis is worse than ever. The country remains the world’s leading producer of opium, with production hitting an all-time high last year. In addition to increasing the human misery associated with drug abuse, Afghanistan’s narcotics industry helps nance the insurgency, supports criminal networks, fosters public corruption, and undermines the Afghan state. Although this poison contributes a minimal amount to the narcotics epidemic in the United States, Afghanistan’s deadly crop is the largest source of street heroin in Europe and Canada. Despite its importance, and with an international ministerial conference set to meet in Switzerland in November to advance Afghanistan’s reform and development, counternarcotics seems to have fallen completely off the U.S. agenda. While the Afghan government is working on a new regional drug strategy, the United States is not. The State Department’s new “Integrated Country Strategy” for Afghanistan no longer includes counternarcotics as a priority, but instead apparently subsumes the issue into general operations there. Meanwhile, the U.S. military says it has no counternarcotics mission in Afghanistan, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) says it will not plan, design, or implement new programs to address opium-poppy cultivation. The consequences of these decisions will be part of the scope of the new, Senate-requested review of U.S. counternarcotics efforts that SIGAR has agreed to perform. As I reported last quarter, in the Joint Explanatory Statement from the Conference Report (H. Rept. 115-863) to accompany H.R. 5515, the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, conferees noted that they are disappointed by DOD’s lack of transparency about its efforts in Afghanistan. Despite that Congressional concern, DOD this quarter classied even more data for this quarterly report concerning the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF), including the number of women in the forces. SIGAR published two performance audit reports this quarter. These audits examined USAID’s $216 million Promoting Gender Equity in National Priority Programs (Promote) and DOD’s ability to assess, monitor, and evaluate advisors assigned to the Ministries of Defense and Interior. According to USAID, Promote is the largest program the United States has ever undertaken to advance women. Yet, SIGAR found that after three years and $89.7 million spent, USAID has not fully assessed the extent to which Promote has improved the status of women in Afghanistan. SIGAR completed eight nancial audits of U.S.-funded contracts to rebuild Afghanistan covering a range of topics, including the Department of the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range Clearance Operation; USAID’s Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations Project; and the Department of 2530 CRYSTAL DRIVE ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 22202

5 the Air Force’s construction of the Afghan Ministry of Defense headquarters facility. These nancial audits identied $3 million in questioned costs as a result of internal-control deciencies and noncompliance issues. To date, SIGAR’s nancial audits have identied more than $414.6 million in questioned costs. SIGAR also published two inspection reports. These reports examined the construction, use, and maintenance of the Marshal Fahim National Defense University and the Afghan National Police women’s compound at the Ministry of Interior headquarters. This quarter, SIGAR’s Ofce of Special Projects issued three products, on USAID-funded education facilities in Parwan Province, on DOD Commander’s Emergency Response Program-funded bridges in Baghlan Province, and on State-funded Good Performers Initiative Program operations in Takhar Province. During the reporting period, SIGAR investigations resulted in one arrest, ve convictions, four sentencings, a civil settlement of nearly $295,000, and $2,000 in criminal nes. To date, SIGAR investigations have resulted in a cumulative total of 132 criminal convictions. Criminal nes, restitutions, forfeitures, civil settlements, and U.S. government cost savings and recoveries total approximately $1.5 billion. Of special signicance, on September 24, 2018, Adam Doost, the former owner of a now-defunct marble mining company in Afghanistan, was found guilty after a seven-day trial by a federal jury for his role in defrauding the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), a U.S. government agency, and defaulting on a $15.8 million loan. SIGAR led the four-year investigation of this case with assistance from the FBI. This quarter, SIGAR’s suspension and debarment program referred three individuals and two entities for suspension or debarment based on evidence developed as part of investigations conducted by SIGAR in Afghanistan and the United States. These referrals bring the total number of individuals and companies referred by SIGAR since 2008 to 905, encompassing 505 individuals and 400 companies to date. My staff and I look forward to working together with Congress and other stakeholders to make reconstruction more efcient and effective, and to continue to save U.S. taxpayer dollars in Afghanistan. Respectfully, John F. Sopko John F. Sopko Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction 2530 CRYSTAL DRIVE ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 22202

6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report summarizes SIGAR’s oversight work and updates developments in the four major sectors of reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan from July 1 to September 30, 2018.* It also includes an essay on the ongoing counternarcotics ght in Afghanistan. During this reporting period, SIGAR published 15 audits, inspections, reviews, and other products assessing U.S. efforts to build the Afghan security forces, improve governance, facilitate economic and social development, and combat the production and sale of narcotics. During the reporting period, SIGAR criminal investigations resulted in one arrest, ve convictions, four sentencings, a civil settlement of nearly $295,000, and $2,000 in criminal nes. SIGAR OVERVIEW AUDITS AND INSPECTIONS This quarter, SIGAR published two perfor noncompliant re doors and inadequate - maintenance place building occupants mance audits, eight nancial audits, and two at risk. inspection reports. • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers- examined: The performance audit reports contracted construction of the Afghan • The performance and sustainment of National Police women’s compound at USAID’s $216 million Promoting Gender the Ministry of Interior headquarters Equity in National Priority Programs generally met contract requirements, but (Promote) • DOD’s ability to assess, monitor, and use and maintenance remain concerns. evaluate advisors assigned to the Ministries of Defense and Interior SPECIAL PROJECTS The nancial audit reports identied This quarter, SIGAR’s Ofce of Special more than $3 million in questioned costs as Projects wrote three reviews expressing a result of internal-control deciencies and concern on a range of issues including: • USAID-supported schools in noncompliance issues. Parwan Province found: • CERP-funded bridges in The inspection reports Phase I construction of the Marshal • Baghlan Province • Six Good Performers Initative projects Fahim National Defense University in Takhar Province generally met contract requirements, but * As provided in its authorizing statute, SIGAR may also report on products and events occurring after September 30, 2018, up to the publication date of this report. Unless otherwise noted, all afghani-to-U.S. dollar conversions used in this report are derived by averaging the last three months of exchange-rate data available through Da Afghanistan Bank (www.dab.gov.af). Data as of September 26, 2018. iv SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY crosses a river in Baghlan Province. (SIGAR photo) A DOD-funded pedestrian bridge LESSONS LEARNED highlights include: SIGAR’s Lessons Learned Program has four Investigations projects in development, three of which • A former owner of a marble were initiated this quarter: U.S. and coali- mining company was convicted for defrauding the U.S. and defaulting on a tion responsibilities for security-sector assistance, U.S. government support to $15.8 million loan. • Three high-ranking Ministry of Interior elections, monitoring and evaluation of ofcials were convicted and sentenced reconstruction contracting, and reintegra- for embezzlement. tion of ex-combatants. • A U.S. contractor was sentenced for conspiracy to defraud the U.S. INVESTIGATIONS • A U.S. contractor employee was convicted for theft and sale of During the reporting period, SIGAR investigations resulted in one arrest, ve U.S. government property. • convictions, four sentencings, a civil settle- A SIGAR investigation resulted in the arrest of a French citizen in Afghanistan. ment of nearly $295,000, and $2,000 in criminal nes. SIGAR initiated 11 new cases A SIGAR investigation resulted in a • and closed 14, bringing the total number of $294,800 civil settlement. ongoing investigations to 177. SIGAR’s sus- pension and debarment program referred three individuals and two entities for sus- pension or debarment based on evidence developed as part of investigations con- ducted by SIGAR in Afghanistan and the United States. v REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

8 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 1 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN ON KEY NARCOTICS FIGHT 6 What’s Signicant About This Report? 9 What Does The LLP Report Cover? What Lessons Emerge From The Past 16 Years? 11 13 What Ought To Be Done? Conclusion 16 SECTION 2 21 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES Audits 22 28 Inspections 31 Special Projects 33 Lessons Learned 34 Investigations 39 Other SIGAR Oversight Activities SIGAR Impact On FY 2019 Defense Authorization Law 41 SIGAR Budget 41 SIGAR Staff 41 SECTION 3 43 RECONSTRUCTION UPDATE 47 Status of Funds 65 Security 107 Governance 133 Economic and Social Development 154 Quarterly Highlight: Current Status of Afghanistan’s Power Sector 161 Quarterly Highlight: Assessing Maternal Mortality: A Representative Case of Data Limitations in Developing-Country Contexts 167 Counternarcotics

9 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 4 185 OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT 187 Completed Oversight Activities Ongoing Oversight Activities 191 APPENDICES AND ENDNOTES 192 Appendix A: Cross-Reference of Report to Statutory Requirements 196 Appendix B: U.S. Funds for Afghanistan Reconstruction 198 Appendix C: SIGAR Written Products 203 Appendix D: SIGAR Investigations and Hotline 209 Appendix E: SIGAR Data Call Questions That Received Classied or Otherwise Restricted Responses 219 Appendix F: Resolute Support-Dened Stability Data For Afghanistan’s 407 Districts as of July 31, 2018 230 Appendix G: Enemy-Initiated Attacks by Province 231 Appendix H: Abbreviations and Acronyms 238 Endnotes

10 “No counterdrug program undertaken [2002–2017] by the United States, its coalition partners, or the Afghan government resulted in lasting reductions in poppy cultivation or opium production.” —SIGAR Lessons Learned Program Source: SIGAR, Counternarcotics: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan , SIGAR 18-52-LL, 6/2018.

11 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN ON KEY 1 NARCOTICS FIGHT 1

12 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN ESSAY CONTENTS CONTENTS 6 What’s Signicant About This Report? What Does The LLP Report Cover? 9 What Lessons Emerge From The Past 16 Years? 11 What Ought To Be Done? 13 Conclusion 16 Photo on previous page Afghan farmers tend poppy plants in Nangarhar Province. (AFP photo by Noorullah Shirzada) 2 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

13 LOW RETURN HIGH COST, HIGH COST, LOW RETURN ON KEY NARCOTICS FIGHT From 2002 through September 2018, the United States has committed an average of more than $1.5 million a day to help the Afghan government 1 As of September 30, 2018, U.S. counternarcotics-related combat narcotics. 2 appropriations for that purpose had reached $8.88 billion. The United States has compelling reasons to engage in this costly effort, as the U.S. Senate’s Caucus on International Narcotics Control has explained: The illegal drug trade contributes to nearly every major challenge Afghanistan faces. It funds the insurgency, fuels corruption, and poses a serious public health challenge in Afghanistan and beyond . . . The Afghan drug trade is a cross- 3 cutting problem that impacts all U.S. efforts in Afghanistan. Despite the importance of the threat narcotics pose to reconstruction and despite massive expenditures for programs including poppy-crop eradication, drug seizures and interdictions, alternative-livelihood support, aviation support, and incentives for provincial governments, the drug trade remains entrenched in Afghanistan, and is growing. Cover of the SIGAR Lessons Learned The United Nations Ofce on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has reported Program report on counternarcotics. that Afghan opium poppy cultivation “increased sharply to an unprec- (SIGAR photo) edented record high of 328,000 hectares from an estimated 201,000 hectares 4 A hectare is about 2.5 acres. The 328,000-hectare opium cultiva- in 2016.” tion area is equivalent to 1,266 square miles, or 20 times the land area of Washington, DC. Likewise, the 2017 poppy cultivation level is more than four times the 74,000 hectares reported by the UNODC for 2002, the rst full year of the 5 U.S. intervention in Afghanistan. Opium’s economic impact in Afghanistan has also ballooned. The UNODC estimates that in 2017 alone, the poppy crop generated approxi- mately $1.4 billion for Afghan farmers, plus billions more for reners and trafckers within the country, making the total value of the 2017 opium 6 production at $4.1 billion to $6.6 billion. While there is “great uncertainty” about the estimates, the UNODC reckons that opium accounts for the equiv- 7 alent of 19% to 32% of Afghanistan’s gross domestic product. 3 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

14 LOW RETURN HIGH COST, AFGHANISTAN TOTAL POPPY CULTIVATION ESTIMATES, 1999–2017 (HECTARES) 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000  CNC 150,000 100,000 UNODC  50,000 0 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 2014 2017 2016 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 1999 2009 2008 2007 2006 Note: UNODC = UN Ofce on Drugs and Crime, CNC = Crime and Narcotics Center , Source: UNODC, Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and Production 11/2017, p. 13; CIA, Crime and Narcotics Center, data provided to SIGAR, 10/2015, 3/2017, and 3/2018. Tragically, opium cultivation alone—i.e., not counting processing, transporting, or marketing it—may provide the equivalent of up to 590,000 8 That number greatly exceeds the 352,000 target strength of full-time jobs. Afghanistan’s army and police forces. The monetary proceeds of the Afghan opium sector are a major source of income to farmers in the desperately poor country, but the cash ow also lls the purses of the Taliban insurgents who continue in their efforts to topple the internationally recognized government based in Kabul. In February of this year, Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that some 65% of Taliban revenues are 9 The Department of Defense (DOD) noted this year derived from narcotics. that “it’s plausible the Taliban now place greater emphasis on narcotics as a primary source of revenue” than previously, but opinions vary on the extent 10 of narcotics revenue owing to the insurgency. What does all of this signify? “To put it bluntly,” as SIGAR has repeatedly 11 stressed, “these numbers spell failure.” Failure in the counternarcotics effort in Afghanistan entails more than a waste of U.S. taxpayers’ money. As UNODC noted earlier this year, “The illicit economy discourages private and public investment by fueling insecurity, violence and insurgency—all factors that create a conducive environment for illicit drug cultivation and production. The illegal economy 12 In addition, as SIGAR thus creates a vicious cycle that is hard to break.” has explained in congressional testimony, “The narcotics trade is poison- ing the Afghan nancial sector and fueling a growing illicit economy. This, 4 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

15 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN poppy eld. (OSDR photo) a Children weeding in turn, is undermining the Afghan state’s legitimacy by stoking corruption 13 [and] nourishing criminal networks.” The failure also outs a mandate of the Afghan constitution, which provides that “The state shall prevent . . . cultivation and smuggling 14 of narcotics.” SIGAR has repeatedly cited the narcotics economy—along with per - vasive corruption and persistent insurgency—as an existential threat to the Afghan state, and to the U.S. mission in the country. But State’s 2018 Integrated Country Strategy for Afghanistan does not list coun- 15 The U.S. Agency for ternarcotics as a mission objective or a priority. International Development (USAID), the chief conduit for nonsecurity- related programming in Afghanistan, informed SIGAR in spring 2018 that it would not plan, design, or implement any new programs address- ing opium-poppy cultivation, but would instead focus on helping licit Afghan enterprises link to domestic and international markets, and would coordinate with State’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law 16 Enforcement (INL) on alternative-development programs. State has indicated that counternarcotics is now being integrated throughout the components of the current South Asia strategy. And while the U.S. mili- tary conducts air strikes against opium-processing labs in Afghanistan, DOD characterizes these strikes as “counter-threat revenue” rather than 17 counternarcotics operations. The long record of failure in counternarcotics programs and the grave risks that drug-related threats pose to the Afghan state created the need for 5 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

16 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN poppy eld. (David Manseld photo) Farmers in a blooming a deep review and a systematic harvesting of lessons for improved efforts in Afghanistan and elsewhere. Responding to that need for answers and best practices, SIGAR recently Counternarcotics: published another in its series of lessons-learned reports, 18 Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan , to this critical topic. WHAT’S SIGNIFICANT ABOUT THIS REPORT? The Lessons Learned Program (LLP) report was released during its debut event at the New America policy and research institution in Washington, DC, in June. Inspector General John F. Sopko’s remarks at the event described the 223-page report as “the most comprehensive, independent government 19 More than two assessment of counternarcotics programs in Afghanistan.” and a half years of work went into it, including interviews with more than 80 current and former ofcials, academics, and researchers with many years of on-the-ground experience in Afghanistan. The report also reects LLP staff’s review of previously unpublished ofcial documents and the use of geospatial imagery to provide visual evidence of the extent and impact of hundreds of counternarcotics projects in Afghanistan. One of the more striking uses of the geospatial-imagery research was to identify changes in poppy cultivation over successive years in select areas. Some of the sequenced images showed increases in opium-poppy cultivation in the wake of eradication campaigns or rural development initiatives, and of increases in areas ostensibly under Afghan government control. 6 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

17 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN prior to the scarring that releases the narcotic resin. Farmer displays a poppy seed pod (UNODC photo) The LLP report includes an extensive narrative of counternarcotics strat- egies and programs, ndings of fact, lessons learned, and recommendations for action by Congress and the Administration. The single most portentous sentence in the report may be one that occurs on the rst page of its introduction: Our analysis reveals no counterdrug program undertaken by the United States, its coalition partners, or the Afghan government resulted in lasting reductions in poppy cultivation or opium production—and, without a stable 20 security environment, there was little possibility of success. [Emphasis added.] The LLP report cautions, however, that the failure to suppress opium production in Afghanistan is not solely a function of awed counternar - cotics efforts, but also stems from lack of security, a poor economy, and 21 deciencies in the wider reconstruction effort. Those critical points fueled a vigorous panel discussion at the New 22 LLP’s project lead for the counternarcotics report, America debut venue. Kate Bateman, said two key features of the document were its use of geo- spatial imagery and the emphasis it places on integrating counternarcotics efforts into broader goals. The narcotics problem “impacts every part of the U.S. reconstruction effort,” Bateman said, “and yet, for years, the issue of counternarcotics has often been . . . relegated as a side project and not well integrated into the United States’ broader security, governance, and development goals.” For example, she said, irrigation projects are good for 7 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

18 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN showing opium resin. (David Manseld photo) Lanced poppy seed capsules agriculture in general, but it’s helpful to know whether increased irrigation is bolstering poppy cultivation. New America Vice President Peter Bergen, who led the session, called the report “a very thorough piece of work.” Former U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan Ronald Neumann agreed with the report, saying it dem- onstrates the problem of planning strategies and making decisions with incomplete information, and conducting programs whose planners will no longer be in country to observe and modify them. The need is for “a learn- ing culture” that reacts to failures and adjusts approaches, Neumann said, but “We have a bureaucratic and a political culture that is designed to make that sort of adjustment as difcult as possible.” Neumann also commended the report for stressing the role of security as part of counternarcotics strategy: “We’re going to have to make enormous progress in security” before real progress against narcotics can be made, as well as cracking down on corruption and providing “certainty of justice” for offenders. Doug Wankel, a former chief of intelligence and operations with the Drug Enforcement Administration and former director of the U.S. Embassy Kabul’s Counter Narcotics Task Force, said “It’s very valuable to have this report . . . We can learn from it.” Wankel echoed Ambassador Neumann’s comment about the need for security, rule of law, and anticorruption mea- sures, adding that progress against narcotics also requires “a functioning state” committed to change. “The real tragedy of the last 17 years,” Wankel said, “that may soon become a crisis is that Afghanistan now has become the largest per-capita 8 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

19 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN user of opiates in the world.” He said he had met with two Afghan ministers who told him there may be four million drug users in Afghanistan, including three million opiate users, perhaps accounting for a quarter of the country’s rural households. (That would be broadly consistent with UN gures indi- cating that 11% of the Afghan population would test positive from one or more drugs, and that 30.6% of households sampled tested positive for some 23 form of illicit drug.) WHAT DOES THE LLP REPORT COVER? SIGAR’s LLP report lays the groundwork for its ndings, lessons, and rec- ommendations with a narrative that traces U.S. counternarcotics strategies and programs in Afghanistan since 2002. It analyzes programs according to four “strands” of effort: interdiction and counterdrug law enforcement, poppy eradication, alternative development to offer farmers livelihoods not based on illicit drugs, and mobilizing Afghan political and institutional support for counternarcotics activity. The four strands comprised a variety 24 of programs: Interdiction and Counterdrug Law Enforcement • Seizure of illegal narcotics » » Destruction of drug production facilities Arrest and prosecution of those who trafc drugs » » Intelligence collection and operations to trace, freeze, or conscate proceeds from the drug trade » Support to Afghan units and institutions that carry out interdiction and counterdrug law enforcement activities Eradication • Physical destruction of a standing opium crop, done manually or » by spraying herbicides » Support to Afghan and contractor eradication forces, as well as payments, reimbursement, and assistance for conducting eradication • Alternative Development » Development assistance intended to reduce dependence on poppy cultivation, contribute to rural economic development, and provide licit alternative livelihood opportunities Mobilization of Afghan Political Support and Institution Building • » Programs to build institutional capacity at the ministerial and provincial levels Programs to increase political will to reduce opium production, » including development assistance as a reward for local reductions in poppy cultivation Programs to raise public awareness of the costs of involvement in » cultivation, production, trade, and consumption of illicit drugs 9 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

20 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN from chemically treated opium to make morphine base. Workers dry residue (DEA Museum photo) The report identies numerous problems with counternarcotics pro- grams in Afghanistan. Problems included conducting eradication and development in insecure areas, eliciting Afghan government and popular opposition with proposals to eradicate poppy elds by aerial spraying, eradicating crops without providing opportunities for legal income, fail- ure to develop accurate data and comprehensive indicators of progress, and failure to address corruption and poor capacity within the Afghan 25 justice system. To cite one example of corruption within Afghan ofcialdom, a com- bined DEA and Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan raid in 2005 found more than nine metric tons of opium in the ofces of the then governor of Helmand Province, Sher Mohammed Akhundzada. “Afghan govern- ment actors, including at the highest levels,” the report says, “have played a role in the drug trade, serving as facilitators and collecting payments 26 from trafckers.” In 2010, the FBI-mentored Major Crimes Task Force of the Afghan gov- ernment arrested Mohammed Zia Salehi, an aide to then President Hamid Karzai, on corruption charges. The outraged president ordered the seizure of all les related to the arrest and began to dismantle the law-enforcement infrastructure that had been established, including wiretaps, polygraphs, and presence of DOJ personnel mentoring Afghan staff, causing DEA to become increasingly reluctant to invest resources in an environment where 27 its agents could not develop cases. The report also describes unintended consequences of U.S.-funded pro- grams. For example, the Helmand Food Zone project involved distributing 10 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

21 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN wheat seed and fertilizer to persuade farmers to forego growing poppy. But poppy cultivation is seven times more labor intensive than wheat: workers need to scar and collect sap from each poppy bud. As landowners switched from poppy to wheat, they hired fewer laborers and made fewer sharecrop- ping or rental agreements. This deprived many poor, landless people of work and caused many to lose their homes. Some responded by moving into desert areas and growing poppy, expanding cultivation to areas where 28 none had taken place before. Problems also manifested at higher levels of our government. The LLP report notes that the U.S. State Department produced four counternarcot- ics strategies between 2005 and 2012 that presumed coordinated efforts by State, DOD, USAID, and DEA. However, State and its INL branch had no authority to direct other agencies to provide the inputs called for in the strategies. The strategies called for a multi-agency, multi-pronged, coordi- 29 nated approach that never achieved adequate alignment or coordination. Meanwhile, as SIGAR has regularly noted in its quarterly reports, State has no successor plan to the 2012 strategy—a potentially serious weak- ness given the great reductions in U.S. military and civilian presence in Afghanistan since 2011. As noted, Embassy Kabul’s new Integrated Country Strategy does not explicitly address counternarcotics as a priority. The many difculties and disappointments in the U.S. counternarcotics effort were not unique to that activity. The LLP report notes: Counternarcotics policies and programs suffered from many of the same obstacles that dogged the wider reconstruction effort: persistent insecurity, corruption, and weak rule of law; lack of consensus among senior policymakers; chang- ing strategies and priorities; uneven coordination among U.S. agencies, Afghan stakeholders, and Coalition partners; stove-piping of issues and goals; short-term metrics poorly suited to long-term efforts; unreliable data on funding lev- els, program outcomes, and conditions on the ground; and a weak understanding of the local Afghan political and socio- 30 economic context. WHAT LESSONS EMERGE FROM THE PAST 16 YEARS? The LLP report distills 11 lessons from the U.S. experience with counternar - cotics programs and policies during the reconstruction effort in Afghanistan to date. A few are Afghanistan-specic. All aim to shape and strengthen U.S. 31 The lead lesson concerns the need counterdrug policies and programs. for a whole-of-government U.S. counternarcotics strategy to coordinate involved agencies’ activities around shared, long-term goals. In settings like Afghanistan, illicit drug crops may form a backbone of the economy. U.S. and host-nation efforts to combat the drug trade may risk impoverishing or alienating rural populations. Drug-related corruption may touch many parts of the host-nation government, at all levels. U.S. security, 11 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

22 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN CROP MAPPING FOR A DISTRICT IN NANGARHAR PROVINCE 2011 2006 March 22 (0.12 ha poppy) April 6 (15.4 ha poppy) Poppy is <1% of total agriculture. No eradication efforts within 2 km. Poppy is 24% of total agriculture. Some eradication efforts in vicinity and two eradication points in center of grid. 2012 2016 April 8 (21.2 ha poppy) April 20 (43.8 ha poppy) Poppy is 69% of total agriculture. No eradication data. Poppy is 36% of total agriculture. Signicant eradication efforts in vicinity and within grid. Poppy Other Crops Eradication Orchard Wheat Prepared Vineyard Note: Crop mapping shows signicant growth of poppy in areas that were targeted by eradication, with poppy cultivation rising from less than 1% of the total land in 2006 to 69% in 2016. Counternarcotics: Lessons from the Source: SIGAR visualization of imagery provided by MDA Information Systems LLC. For the original imagery, see gure A.12 in Appendix A in the LLP report, . U.S. Experience in Afghanistan 12 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

23 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN development, and governance efforts must therefore account for how the drug trade can impact their efforts, as well as how those efforts may impact the drug trade, and act in a coordinated way in seeking lasting results. Another important lesson is the need for overall direction. Unity of effort is critical to prevent duplicative and wasteful programs. SIGAR has concluded from its review of the Afghan experience that only the U.S. ambassador, as chief of mission, has sufcient authority over all agencies in country—generally excluding active military personnel—to direct those 32 agencies toward shared counternarcotics goals. Unless the ambassador and U.S. military commander agree on counternarcotics goals, and coor - dinate efforts and resources to achieve these goals, their efforts are likely to be disjointed and ineffective. A unied effort is also important to enable U.S. agencies to coordinate with the host-nation government and other donors. If the ambassador is unable to dedicate sufcient attention to lead the implementation of a counternarcotics strategy, the United States should reconsider whether it should be funding and administering a large-scale counterdrug effort. Meanwhile, the goals of a U.S. counternarcotics strategy should be aligned with and integrated into the larger security, development, and governance objectives of the United States and the host nation. In Afghanistan, the counterdrug effort was often justied as a means to weaken insurgent groups and strengthen the Afghan government. However, counternarcotics programs were commonly implemented and assessed independent of these strategic goals. This led to programs that were at times out of sync with U.S. objectives or unrealistic given the security situation in the country. For example, if applying only a counternarcotics lens (i.e., seeking to stem the drug trade), investigating and arresting any illicit drug traf- cker would appear to be as worthwhile as investigating and arresting trafckers connected to an insurgency or corrupt government ofcials engaged in the drug trade. But if the policy guidance is that counternarcot- ics activities should support larger U.S. security and governance goals, then the insurgency-connected trafcker and corrupt ofcial become higher-priority targets. These and other lessons in the LLP report lay the groundwork for recom- 33 mendations to Congress and the Executive Branch. WHAT OUGHT TO BE DONE? The 13 recommendations in the SIGAR LLP report begin with three that are specic to Afghanistan. The rst of these is foundational: The U.S. government should nalize a revised counternarcotics strategy for Afghanistan. This strategy should prioritize efforts to disrupt drug-related nancial ows to insurgent and 13 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

24 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN to eradicate a poppy eld near the city of Qalat, Zabul Province. Afghan police use sticks (Resolute Support photo by 1st Lt. Brian Wagner) terrorist groups, promote licit livelihood options for rural communities, and combat drug-related corruption within the Afghan government. SIGAR believes the new, revised U.S. counternarcotics strategy should focus on: (1) disrupting insurgent and terrorist groups’ nancing from the drug trade, informed by a robust understanding of how these networks operate at local levels; (2) advancing the development of viable alternative livelihoods in more secure rural areas, to include steps to ensure development assistance pro- grams do not inadvertently contribute to drug production; and (3) combating drug-related corruption within the Afghan government. In support of the rst and third goals, U.S. agencies should continue to assist and mentor the small, specialized Afghan counterdrug units that are trusted partners. These units are an important starting point for improv- ing Afghan police, investigative, and prosecutorial capacity. All the above measures t within and advance larger U.S. security, development, and gov- ernance goals. Levels of opium-poppy cultivation remain an important indicator of progress, or lack thereof, against the Afghan drug trade. However, given the current security situation, the entrenched nature of the drug trade, and limited mobility of U.S. and international actors in Afghanistan, it is not realistic to expect U.S. efforts to substantially reduce poppy cultivation. Furthermore, an overemphasis on cultivation levels skews policy- makers’ attention toward measures, like eradication, that may produce 14 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

25 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN short-term results, but do little to address the underlying causes of culti- vation and drug production and may even undermine broader U.S. goals. Thus, the United States should not establish a near-term goal to reduce overall levels of poppy cultivation. The second Afghanistan-specic recommendation is that the U.S. Director of National Intelligence should produce an annual assessment of how much funding the Afghan insurgency obtains from the drug trade and the extent of the insurgency’s direct involvement in that trade. The funding the drug trade provides to insurgent and terrorist groups has been one of the key justications for the U.S. counternarcotics effort in Afghanistan, yet there is limited consensus on the extent and nature of these nancial ows. U.S. government ofcials publicly cite estimates of how much money insurgent groups obtain from the drug trade, but these estimates differ, and ofcial statements rarely acknowledge the uncertainty around the gures. A better understanding of insurgent nancing from the Afghan drug trade is critical to designing effective, sustainable efforts to cut off that nancing. The recommended intelligence assessment should provide a consensus estimate of the amount of money from Afghan drug cultivation, produc- tion, and trafcking that is going to insurgent and terrorist groups. The assessment should detail how intelligence agencies calculate the consensus estimate, and how insurgent groups get that money. This assessment should inform and support ongoing U.S. military and civilian efforts to cut off insurgent nancing from the drug trade. With this assessment, policymakers and implementers would be better equipped to judge whether counter- threat nance efforts, such as air strikes on drug labs, are likely to impose signicant costs on insurgent groups. The third Afghanistan-specic recommendation, in view of ongo- ing U.S. military operations and the signicant numbers of U.S. forces still in country, is that civilian leaders should coordinate coun- ternarcotics efforts closely with the commander of United States Forces-Afghanistan (USFOR-A). The State Department, through the U.S. ambassador, should remain the lead coordinator for U.S. counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan, but those efforts should also be integrated into military campaign and opera- tional plans. Many counterdrug programs in Afghanistan were reliant on the security and support provided by U.S. or international Coalition forces. Until the United States transitions to a more traditional diplo- matic and security presence in Afghanistan, the leadership of the U.S.-led, NATO-supported Operation Resolute Support and of USFOR-A will have signicant inuence over resources and factors that make U.S. counternar- cotics efforts possible. Additionally, U.S. programs to counter the drug trade can have sig- nicant effects on the security environment and stabilization goals. So 15 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

26 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN counternarcotics efforts should be integrated into Resolute Support and USFOR-A plans to more effectively ensure that counternarcotics program- ming is aligned with broader security goals, and to prevent duplicative or contradictory efforts. The report’s eight general recommendations for Congress and the Executive Branch include strengthening reporting requirements for coun- terdrug programs, requiring certication that viable alternative-livelihood options are in place for local people before money is obligated for opium- eradication programs, assessing the impact that development programs might have on illicit drug production, and giving USAID primary respon- sibility for designing development programs in drug-producing countries. These and other recommendations could be expected to improve outcomes both in Afghanistan and in other countries where illicit drugs are a target of governmental concern. Full discussions are presented in the LLP report. CONCLUSION SIGAR’s Lessons Learned Program report on counternarcotics operations in Afghanistan makes for sobering and frustrating reading. The details of its narrative and ndings reveal an array of deciencies in strategy formula- tion, program design, coordination of effort, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and adjustment to changing conditions. In one sense, this should not be surprising. The United States has been waging a presidentially declared “war on drugs” for almost 50 years: 34 President Richard Nixon announced it in July 1971. But commentators and 35 researchers commonly deem that war a failure. The Centers for Disease Control reported earlier this year that U.S. deaths from drug overdoses continue to rise, setting an estimated record high of approximately 72,000 36 overdose deaths in 2017. Another indicator of the scope of the domes- tic challenge is the U.S. Senate’s 99–1 vote in September 2018 approving a new, $8.4 billion package of 70 bills addressing the opioid epidemic in 37 this country. The ght against narcotics in Afghanistan presents even greater obstacles than the stateside struggle: entrenched and pervasive corrup- tion within Afghan institutions, the deciencies of the Afghan security and law-enforcement entities, the general poverty that makes poppy cultivation economically attractive to farmers, and the presence of an active insurgency with powerful incentives to protect its narcotics rev- 38 enues. (Afghan opioids, however, largely ow to markets other than the 39 ) United States. The LLP report has already drawn a strong response from the U.S. Senate’s Caucus on International Narcotics Control. On September 17, 2018, caucus chairman Senator Charles Grassley of Iowa and co-chair Senator Diane Feinstein of California wrote to Inspector General Sopko that they 16 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

27 HIGH COST, LOW RETURN AFGHAN OPIUM-POPPY CULTIVATION, ERADICATION, AND PRODUCTION SINCE 2008 HECTARES TONS 350,000 10,000 224 209 280,000 8,000 210,000 6,000 157 154 131 123 123 140,000 4,000 70,000 2,000 0 0 2011 2016 2013 2012 2015 2014 2008 2009 2010 2017 Opium production (HECTARES) Eradication (TONS) (HECTARES) Opium-poppy cultivation Source: UNODC, , 5/2016, Annex, vii, ix, xii; UNODC, , 11/2017, pp. 5–6, 64–70. World Drug Report 2016 Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and Production were “especially concerned” about the LLP report’s ndings about lack of priority for counternarcotics efforts among U.S. and Afghan ofcials and the lack of success in reducing opium cultivation and production. The Senators asked SIGAR to “conduct a thorough review of the U.S. gov- ernment’s current counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan, including the effectiveness of the current airstrike campaign and the effects of money 40 laundering and corruption on counternarcotics efforts.” SIGAR is following up on that Senate request, and will also be tracking the status of the recommendations offered in the LLP report. The United States must learn from its experience over the past 16 years for two key reasons: First, to avoid failure and wasted resources in the ght against narcotics in Afghanistan, which may lead to that country descend- ing into a narco-terrorist state; and second, to help the United States and other donor countries facing drug-related challenges. We hope that SIGAR’s LLP report can help improve the odds of success in both instances. 17 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

28 “One of the most consistent failures SIGAR has identied in all of our work has been the lack of coherent, whole-of-government strategies to address challenges facing the reconstruction effort.” —Inspector General John Sopko Source: SIGAR, Inspector General John Sopko, Speech at the University of Ottawa, 9/19/2018.

29 SIGAR OVERSIGHT 2 19

30 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT CONTENTS CONTENTS 22 Audits Inspections 28 31 Special Projects Lessons Learned 33 Investigations 34 Other SIGAR Oversight Activities 39 SIGAR Impact on FY 2019 Defense Authorization Law 41 SIGAR Budget 41 41 SIGAR Staff Photo on previous page Inspector General Sopko and SIGAR staff on a recent inspection of the U.S.-funded Marshal Fahim Defense University in Kabul. Accompanying the IG are members of his movement team from the State Department’s Diplomatic Security Service who provide vital support for SIGAR’s oversight work in Afghanistan. (SIGAR photo by Alexandra Hackbarth) 20 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

31 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES COMPLETED PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORTS • Audit 18-69-AR: Promoting Gender This quarter, SIGAR issued 15 products. SIGAR work to date has identied Equity in National Priority Programs (Promote): USAID Needs to Assess this approximately $2.1 billion in savings for the U.S. taxpayer. $216 Million Program’s Achievements SIGAR published two performance audit reports this quarter. These and the Afghan Government’s Ability to Sustain Them audits examined USAID’s $216 million Promoting Gender Equity in National • Audit 19-03-AR: Afghanistan National Priority Programs and DOD’s ability to assess, monitor, and evaluate advi- Defense and Security Forces: DOD Lacks sors assigned to the Ministries of Defense and Interior. Performance Data to Assess, Monitor, and Evaluate Advisors Assigned to the SIGAR completed eight nancial audits of U.S.-funded contracts to Ministries of Defense and Interior rebuild Afghanistan. These nancial audits covered a range of topics includ- COMPLETED FINANCIAL AUDIT REPORTS ing the Department of the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, • Financial Audit 18-66-FA: USAID’s and Range Clearance Operation; USAID’s Initiative to Strengthen Local Afghanistan Engineering Support Program: Audit of Costs Incurred by Tetra Administrations Project; and the Department of the Air Force’s construc- Tech EM Inc. tion of the Afghan Ministry of Defense headquarters facility. These nancial • Financial Audit 18-68-FA: USAID’s audits identied more than $3 million in questioned costs as a result of Strengthening Political Entities and Civil Society Program: Audit of Costs Incurred internal-control deciencies and noncompliance issues. To date, SIGAR’s by the National Democratic Institute for nancial audits have identied more than $414.6 million in questioned costs, International Affairs • Financial Audit 18-71-FA: Department of interest, and other amounts payable to the U.S. government. the Air Force’s Construction of the Afghan SIGAR also published two inspection reports. These reports examined Ministry of Defense Headquarters Facility: Audit of Costs Incurred by the construction, use, and maintenance of Phase I of the Marshal Fahim Gilbane Federal National Defense University and the Afghan National Police women’s com- • Financial Audit 18-72-FA: Department of pound at the Ministry of Interior headquarters. the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range Clearance Operation– This quarter, SIGAR’s Ofce of Special Projects issued three products, Phase II, Effort 1: Audit of Costs Incurred on USAID-funded education facilities in Parwan Province, CERP-funded by Janus Global Operations LLC • Financial Audit 18-73-FA: Department of bridges in Baghlan Province, and State INL-funded projects in Takhar the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Province as part of the Good Performers Initiative. Area, and Range Clearance Operation– Phase II, Effort 2: Audit of Costs Incurred During the reporting period, SIGAR investigations resulted in one arrest, by Janus Global Operations LLC ve convictions, four sentencings, a civil settlement of nearly $295,000, and • Financial Audit 18-74-FA: USAID’s $2,000 in criminal nes. SIGAR initiated 11 new cases and closed 14, bring- Eastern Provinces Monitoring Under the Monitoring Support Project: Audit of ing the total number of ongoing investigations to 177. Costs Incurred by the QED Group LLC This quarter, SIGAR’s suspension and debarment program referred three • Financial Audit 18-75-FA: USAID’s Initiative to Strengthen Local individuals and two entities for suspension or debarment based on evidence Administrations Project: Audit of Costs developed as part of investigations conducted by SIGAR in Afghanistan and Incurred by ARD Inc. the United States. These referrals bring the total number of individuals and • Financial Audit 19-01-FA: Department of the Air Force’s Construction of the companies referred by SIGAR since 2008 to 905, encompassing 505 indi- Afghan Ministry of Defense Headquarters viduals and 400 companies to date. Support and Security Brigade Expansion: Audit of Costs Incurred by Gilbane Federal Continued on the next page 21 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

32 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES AUDITS Continued from previous page SIGAR conducts performance and nancial audits of programs and projects COMPLETED INSPECTION REPORTS connected to the reconstruction effort in Afghanistan. Since its last report • Inspection Report 18-76-IP: Marshal to Congress, SIGAR has issued two performance audits and eight nancial Fahim National Defense University: Phase I Construction Generally Met audits. This quarter, SIGAR has 11 ongoing performance audits and 39 ongo- Contract Requirements, but Non- ing nancial audits. Compliant Fire Doors and Inadequate Maintenance Place Building Occupants at Risk Performance Audit Reports Published • Inspection Report 19-04-IP: Afghan SIGAR published two performance audit reports this quarter. These audits National Police Women’s Compound at the Ministry of Interior Headquarters: examined USAID’s $216 million Promoting Gender Equity in National Priority Construction Generally Met Programs and DOD’s ability to assess, monitor, and evaluate advisors assigned Requirements, but Use and Maintenance Remain Concerns to the Ministries of Defense and Interior. A list of completed and ongoing per - formance audits can be found in Appendix C of this quarterly report. COMPLETED SPECIAL PROJECTS REPORTS • Review 18-67-SP: Schools in Parwan Province, Afghanistan: Observations from Performance Audit 18-69-AR: Promoting Gender Site Visits at 14 Schools Equity in National Priority Programs • Review 18-70-SP: Bridges in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan: Six of Eight USAID Needs to Assess This $216 Million Program’s Achievements Bridges Constructed or Rehabilitated and the Afghan Government’s Ability to Sustain Them by DOD Remain in Generally Good, Usable Condition; Two Appeared to Have In July 2013, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Structural Issues Needing Attention announced the ve-year, $216 million Promoting Gender Equity in National • Review 19-02-SP: State Department’s Good Performers Initiative: Status of Six Priority Programs (Promote). According to USAID, Promote capitalizes on Completed Projects in Takhar Province the previous investment in education for Afghan women and girls. The pro- gram’s goal is to improve the status of more than 75,000 young women in all levels of society. In 2014, the USAID Mission for Afghanistan (USAID/Afghanistan) awarded three indenite delivery/indenite quantity contracts to Chemonics International Inc., Tetra Tech ARD, and Development Alternatives Inc. to implement Promote. Subsequently, the agency awarded the contrac- tors task orders for the program’s four components: Women’s Leadership Development, Women in Government, Women in the Economy, and Women’s Rights Groups and Coalitions (Musharikat), which focuses on women in civil society. According to USAID, Promote is the agency’s largest single invest- ment globally to advance women. SIGAR found that after three years and $89.7 million spent, USAID/ Afghanistan has not fully assessed the extent to which Promote is meet- ing its overarching goal of improving the status of more than 75,000 young women in Afghanistan’s public, private, and civil society sectors. Instead of assessing the overall program, USAID/Afghanistan measures the perfor - mance of the four individual components. As of September 30, 2017, only one component—Musharikat—was meeting its performance indicator tar - gets. Promote’s achievements have been mixed due to factors within and outside of USAID/Afghanistan’s control. USAID/Afghanistan fullled some oversight requirements, but did not Afghan women attend a Promote class conduct timely or consistent reviews of the contractors’ performance or workshop. (USAID photo) 22 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

33 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES maintain complete contract records. Also, USAID/Afghanistan has not dem- onstrated whether Promote’s results are sustainable. COMPLETED PERFORMANCE AUDITS SIGAR made three recommendations to USAID: conduct an overall • Audit 18-69-AR: Promoting Gender assessment of Promote and use the results to adjust the program and mea- Equity in National Priority Programs (Promote): USAID Needs to Assess this sure future program performance; provide written guidance and training to $216 Million Program’s Achievements contracting ofcer’s representatives on maintaining records in a consistent, and the Afghan Government’s Ability to Sustain Them accurate manner; and conduct a new sustainability analysis for the program. • Audit 19-03-AR: Afghanistan National Defense and Security Forces: DOD Lacks Performance Audit 19-03-AR: Performance Data to Assess, Monitor, and Evaluate Advisors Assigned to the Afghanistan National Defense and Security Forces Ministries of Defense and Interior DOD Lacks Performance Data to Assess, Monitor, and Evaluate Advisors Assigned to the Ministries of Defense and Interior According to DOD, one of the United States’ main goals in Afghanistan is to create well-trained, equipped, and sustainable Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) that are capable of securing the country. To achieve this goal, DOD, through United States Forces-Afghanistan (USFOR-A), works with other members of NATO and the international com- munity through the NATO Resolute Support (RS) train, advise, and assist mission. The mission provides advisors to the Afghan Ministries of Defense (MOD) and Interior (MOI) to improve their resource management, procure- ment, logistics, maintenance capabilities, and overall sustainability. Although the advising effort at the MOD and MOI is one of DOD’s primary missions in Afghanistan, SIGAR found that DOD does not know whether the advisors assigned to the MOD and MOI are meeting goals and mile- stones because it has not assessed, monitored, or evaluated their efforts, as required by its own guidance. In addition, DOD cannot track any progress at the MOD and MOI because the advising goals and rating systems used to measure progress toward meeting goals have frequently changed. Moreover, DOD cannot assess the performance of contract advisors because its two current contracts with DynCorp, valued at $421 million, do not have measurable performance standards against which to assess the contractor’s performance. SIGAR also found that DOD reassigns personnel to advising duties once they are in Afghanistan, but does not track these reassignments, despite its own requirements to monitor the resources applied to security-cooperation efforts. Finally, SIGAR found that DOD does not ensure that all uniformed personnel complete advisor training before deploying to Afghanistan, despite a CENTCOM requirement that all advi- sors attend training. SIGAR made three recommendations to DOD to comply with its security- cooperation policies: incorporate measureable performance standards into its current and future ministerial advising contracts, implement a mechanism to accurately identify and track all personnel advising at the MOD and MOI, NATO advisor oversees ANA marksmanship and ensure that all uniformed U.S. personnel receive advisor-specic training training. (Resolute Support photo) before deploying to Afghanistan to be advisors at the MOD and MOI. 23 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

34 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT Financial Audits TABLE 2.1 SIGAR launched its nancial-audit program in 2012, after Congress and the oversight community expressed concerns about oversight gaps and the SIGAR’S FINANCIAL AUDIT growing backlog of incurred-cost audits for contracts and grants awarded COVERAGE ($ BILLIONS) in support of overseas contingency operations. SIGAR competitively $7.06 121 completed audits selects independent accounting rms to conduct the nancial audits and 39 ongoing audits 1.11 ensures that the audit work is performed in accordance with U.S. govern- Total $8.17 ment auditing standards. Financial audits are coordinated with the federal Note: Numbers have been rounded. Coverage includes audit- inspector-general community to maximize nancial-audit coverage and able costs incurred by recipients of U.S.-funded Afghanistan reconstruction contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements. avoid duplication of effort. SIGAR has 39 ongoing nancial audits with $1.1 billion in auditable costs, Source: SIGAR Audits and Inspections Directorate. as shown in Table 2.1. A list of completed and ongoing nancial audits can be found in Appendix C of this quarterly report. This quarter, SIGAR completed eight nancial audits of U.S.-funded contracts to rebuild Afghanistan. These audits help provide the U.S. govern- ment and the American taxpayer reasonable assurance that the funds spent Questioned amounts: the sum of on these awards were used as intended. The audits question expenditures potentially unallowable questioned costs that cannot be substantiated or are potentially unallowable. and unremitted interest on advanced SIGAR issues each nancial-audit report to the funding agency that federal funds or other revenue amounts made the award(s). The funding agency is responsible for making the nal payable to the government. questioned amounts identied in the report’s audit nd- determination on ings. Since the program’s inception, SIGAR’s nancial audits have identied costs determined to Questioned costs: be potentially unallowable. The two types and $364,373 in unremitted more than $414.6 million in questioned costs of questioned costs are ineligible costs interest on advanced federal funds or other revenue amounts payable to (violation of a law, regulation, contract, the government. As of September 30, 2018, funding agencies had disallowed grant, cooperative agreement, etc., or an about $27.9 million in questioned amounts, which are subject to collection. unnecessary or unreasonable expenditure It takes time for funding agencies to carefully consider audit ndings and of funds) and unsupported costs (those not recommendations. As a result, nal disallowed-cost determinations remain supported by adequate documentation or to be made for several of SIGAR’s issued nancial audits. SIGAR’s nancial proper approvals at the time of an audit). audits have also identied and communicated 405 compliance ndings and 432 internal-control ndings to the auditees and funding agencies. Financial Audits Published This quarter, SIGAR completed eight nancial audits of U.S.-funded con- tracts to rebuild Afghanistan. These audits identied more than $3 million in questioned costs because of internal-control deciencies and noncompli- ance issues, such as billing for work outside of the period of performance and for ineligible travel costs. Financial Audit 18-66-FA: USAID’s Afghanistan Engineering Support Program Audit of Costs Incurred by Tetra Tech EM Inc. On November 9, 2009, USAID awarded a cost-plus-xed-fee, ve-year task order for $62,984,016 to Tetra Tech EM Inc. (Tetra Tech) to implement 24 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

35 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT the Afghanistan Engineering Support program. The program provides the USAID Mission for Afghanistan’s Ofce of Infrastructure, Engineering, and COMPLETED FINANCIAL AUDITS Energy with engineering support to help build safe, long-lasting, and energy- • Financial Audit 18-66-FA: USAID’s efcient facilities. The agency modied the task order 25 times, increasing Afghanistan Engineering Support Program: Audit of Costs Incurred by Tetra the total cost to $97 million and extending the period of performance to Tech EM Inc. November 8, 2016. • Financial Audit 18-68-FA: USAID’s SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Castro & Company LLC (Castro), Strengthening Political Entities and Civil Society Program: Audit of Costs Incurred reviewed $25,079,922 in expenditures and xed fees charged to the task by the National Democratic Institute for order from November 9, 2015, through November 8, 2016. Castro found International Affairs three deciencies in Tetra Tech’s internal controls and four instances of • Financial Audit 18-71-FA: Department of the Air Force’s Construction of the Afghan noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the task order. Because of Ministry of Defense Headquarters these internal-control deciencies and instances of noncompliance, Castro Facility: Audit of Costs Incurred by Gilbane Federal identied $91,133 in questioned costs. • Financial Audit 18-72-FA: Department of the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Financial Audit 18-68-FA: USAID’s Strengthening Political Area, and Range Clearance Operation– Phase II, Effort 1: Audit of Costs Incurred Entities and Civil Society Program by Janus Global Operations LLC Audit of Costs Incurred by the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs • Financial Audit 18-73-FA: Department of On July 6, 2013, USAID awarded the National Democratic Institute for the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range Clearance Operation– year, $18 million, cooperative agreement International Affairs (NDI) a three- Phase II, Effort 2: Audit of Costs Incurred to implement the Strengthening Political Entities and Civil Society program. by Janus Global Operations LLC The program’s objectives were to get political and civil society groups to • Financial Audit 18-74-FA: USAID’s Eastern Provinces Monitoring Under the engage the public in the political process. USAID modied the cooperative Monitoring Support Project: Audit of agreement 10 times, decreasing the estimated cost to $17.8 million, but the Costs Incurred by the QED Group LLC agreement’s end date did not change. • Financial Audit 18-75-FA: USAID’s Initiative to Strengthen Local SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Crowe LLP (Crowe), reviewed Administrations Project: Audit of Costs $1.7 million charged to the cooperative agreement from October 1, 2015, Incurred by ARD Inc. through July 5, 2016. Crowe identied three material weaknesses and one • Financial Audit 19-01-FA: Department of the Air Force’s Construction of the signicant deciency in NDI’s internal controls, and four instances of non- Afghan Ministry of Defense Headquarters compliance with the terms and conditions of the cooperative agreement. Support and Security Brigade Expansion: Audit of Costs Incurred by Gilbane Federal Because of these internal-control deciencies and instances of noncom- pliance, Crowe identied $1,129 in interest due to USAID. Crowe did not identify any questioned costs. Financial Audit 18-71-FA: Department of the Air Force’s Construction of the Afghan Ministry of Defense Headquarters Facility Audit of Costs Incurred by Gilbane Federal On April 21, 2009, the 772nd Enterprise Sourcing Squadron, in sup- port of the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, issued a cost-plus-xed-fee task order for $48,739,238 to Innovative Technical Solutions Inc. (ITSI) to build the Afghan Ministry of Defense’s headquarters facility. After 14 modications, the task order’s fund- ing increased to $107,343,542, and the period of performance was extended from October 11, 2011, to December 30, 2014. In 2010, Gilbane Federal (Gilbane) acquired ITSI, and in 2012, the Air Force Center for 25 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

36 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES Engineering and the Environment reorganized into the Air Force Civil Engineer Center. SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Crowe LLP (Crowe), reviewed $5,880,740 charged to the task order from November 30, 2013, through December 30, 2014. Crowe identied seven material weaknesses and three signicant deciencies in Gilbane’s internal controls, and 11 instances of material noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the task order and applicable regulations. Because of these internal-control decien- cies and instances of noncompliance, Crowe identied $2,450,895 in total questioned costs. Financial Audit 18-72-FA: Department of the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range Clearance Operation–Phase II, Effort 1 Audit of Costs Incurred by Janus Global Operations LLC On July 30, 2014, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), through the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, awarded Sterling Operations Inc. (Sterling) a 33-month, $249 million task order to implement Phase II of the Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range Clearance opera- tion. The operation was divided into Efforts 1 and 2. Effort 1’s objectives were to conduct technical and nontechnical surveys, and mine, battle area, and range clearance. USACE modied the task order nine times, increas- ing the value of Effort 1 from $70.9 million to $156.8 million and extending the period of performance from December 31, 2015, to May 1, 2018. In May 2016, Sterling changed its name to Janus Global Operations LLC. SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Castro & Company LLC (Castro), reviewed $43,601,698 charged to the task order from January 1, 2016, through May 1, 2017. Castro did not identify any internal-control decien- cies or instances of noncompliance with the terms of the task order and applicable laws and regulations. Accordingly, Castro did not identify any questioned costs. Financial Audit 18-73-FA: Department of the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range Clearance Operation–Phase II, Effort 2 Audit of Costs Incurred by Janus Global Operations LLC On July 30, 2014, USACE, through the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, awarded Sterling Operations Inc. (Sterling) a 33-month, $249 million task order to implement Phase II of the Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range Clearance operation. The operation was divided into Efforts 1 and 2. Effort 2’s objectives were to conduct subsurface, battle area, range, and mine clearance. USACE modied the task order 11 times, decreasing the value of Effort 2 from $178.1 million to $170.9 million, and extending its period of performance from May 1, 2017, to May 1, 2018. In May 2016, Sterling changed its name to Janus Global Operations LLC. 26 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

37 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Castro & Company LLC (Castro), reviewed $106,787,213 charged to the task order from December 1, 2015, through December 1, 2017. Castro did not identify any internal-control de- ciencies or any instances of noncompliance with the terms of the task order and applicable laws and regulations. Accordingly, Castro did not identify any questioned costs. Financial Audit 18-74-FA: USAID’s Eastern Provinces Monitoring Under the Monitoring Support Project Audit of Costs Incurred by The QED Group LLC On July 27, 2015, USAID awarded a $29,080,209 cost-plus-xed-fee task order to the QED Group LLC (QED) to implement Eastern Provinces Monitoring under the Monitoring Support Project (MSP). QED was required to provide additional data on the MSP’s implementation to help USAID Mission for Afghanistan’s technical teams compare monitoring information and make management decisions on the project’s performance. The period of performance was from July 27, 2015, to July 26, 2020, with a three-year option period. USAID modied the task order three times, but did not change its amount or period of performance. SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Crowe LLP (Crowe), reviewed $5,861,322 in expenditures and xed fees charged to the task order from July 27, 2015, through July 26, 2017. Crowe found one material weak- ness and two signicant deciencies in QED’s internal controls, and four instances of noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the task order and applicable laws and regulations. Because of these internal-control deciencies and instances of noncompliance, Crowe identied a total of $14,405 in questioned costs. Financial Audit 18-75-FA: USAID’s Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations Project Audit of Costs Incurred by ARD Inc. On February 1, 2015, USAID awarded a ve- year cost-plus-xed-fee contract for $62,364,687 to Tetra Tech ARD to support the Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations (ISLA) project. The project’s purpose was to improve the Afghan government’s provincial governance in scal and development planning, citizen representation, and delivery of public services. USAID modied the contract four times, including updating the contractor’s name from Tetra Tech ARD to ARD Inc. (ARD). None of the modications affected the contract’s period of performance or the total estimated amount. SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Crowe LLP (Crowe), reviewed $9,356,162 charged to the contract from October 1, 2016, through September 30, 2017. Crowe identied one deciency in ARD’s internal con- trols and one instance of noncompliance with the terms and conditions 27 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

38 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT of the contract and applicable regulations. Crowe did not identify any questioned costs. Financial Audit 19-01-FA: Department of the Air Force’s Construction of the Afghan Ministry of Defense Headquarters Support and Security Brigade Expansion, Phase II Audit of Costs Incurred by Gilbane Federal On September 8, 2011, the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment issued a cost-plus-xed-fee task order for $16,456,710 to Innovative Technical Solutions Inc. (ITSI) to construct Phase II of the Afghan Ministry of Defense Headquarters Support and Security Brigade. After nine modications, the task order funding increased to $35,288,805, and the period of performance was extended from September 7, 2013, to September 30, 2015. In 2010, Gilbane Federal (Gilbane) acquired ITSI, and in 2012, the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment reorga- nized into the Air Force Civil Engineer Center. SIGAR’s nancial audit, performed by Crowe LLP (Crowe), reviewed $11,672,885 charged to the task order from November 30, 2013, through September 30, 2015. Crowe identied ve material weaknesses and ve signicant deciencies in Gilbane’s internal controls, and nine instances of material noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the task order and applicable regulations. Because of these internal-control deciencies and instances of noncompliance, Crowe identied $534,792 in total ques- tioned costs. INSPECTIONS Inspection Reports Published This quarter, SIGAR published two inspection reports. These reports exam- COMPLETED INSPECTION REPORTS ined the construction, use, and maintenance of Phase I of the Marshal • Inspection Report 18-76-IP: Marshal Fahim National Defense University: Fahim National Defense University and the Afghan National Police women’s Phase I Construction Generally Met compound at the Ministry of Interior headquarters. A list of completed and Contract Requirements, but Non- ongoing inspections can be found in Appendix C of this quarterly report. Compliant Fire Doors and Inadequate Maintenance Place Building Occupants at Risk Inspection Report 18-76-IP: • Inspection Report 19-04-IP: Afghan Marshal Fahim National Defense University National Police Women’s Compound at the Ministry of Interior Headquarters: Phase I Construction Generally Met Contract Requirements, but Non-Compliant Fire Construction Generally Met doors and Inadequate Maintenance Place Building Occupants at Risk Requirements, but Use and Maintenance Remain Concerns In September 2008, the Air Force Civil Engineering Center (AFCEC) awarded the rst of four contracts to construct facilities at the Afghan National Army’s Marshal Fahim National Defense University (MFNDU) in Kabul, Afghanistan. AFCEC awarded a $70.2 million contract to AMEC Earth & Environmental Incorporated (AMEC E&E), an American company, 28 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

39 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES at the Marshal Fahim National Defense University. ANA soldiers stand in formation (SIGAR photo) to design and construct 85 buildings, support facilities, and other structures for MFNDU Phase I. After 18 contract modications, the contract’s value increased by $24.5 million to $94.7 million. The modications included increasing security for the facility during construction, as well as adding equipment for classroom buildings. Between August 8 and December 19, 2011, AFCEC accepted the MFNDU Phase I construction and transferred the completed Phase I buildings, support- ing facilities, and other structures to the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A). By December 2011, CSTC-A had trans- ferred all of Phase I to the Ministry of Defense. The nal warranty period for Phase I expired in December 2012. Although the Phase I construction generally met contract require- ments, and most of the facilities are being used, SIGAR found that AMEC E&E failed to install certied re doors in 14 buildings as required by the contract. Further, SIGAR found recurring maintenance issues in all of the buildings, including broken or missing door-locking assemblies in 20 of the 38 buildings and empty or counterfeit re extinguishers in 19 buildings. SIGAR also found that the water-treatment plant, which cost $1.8 million, had not been used since 2015 due to maintenance issues, and that untreated wastewater was being discharged towards a nearby village. This untreated wastewater can spread disease and contaminate drinking-water sources, which may create health hazards for local residents. The MFNDU facility manager told SIGAR that the budget to purchase equipment and supplies for repairs is not sufcient to maintain the facilities. Because the Afghan government is now responsible for operating and maintaining the MFNDU, SIGAR made no recommendations in this report. 29 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

40 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES Inspection Report 19-04-IP: ANP Women’s Compound at the Ministry of Interior Headquarters Construction Generally Met Requirements, but Use and Maintenance Remain Concerns On September 15, 2015, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) awarded a $3 million rm-xed-price contract to Afghan Construction Companies Umbrella (ACCU) to design and build an Afghan National Police women’s compound at the Ministry of Interior (MOI) headquarters in Kabul. The project included construction of multiple facilities, including a barrack, childcare center, conference center, administration building, tness center, laundry facility, and a perimeter wall with entrance gates. After four con- tract modications, the contract’s price rose to $3.1 million. On July 8, 2017, USACE transferred the completed project to CSTC-A, which, in turn, trans- ferred the project to the MOI on August 24, 2017. SIGAR found that ACCU generally constructed the women’s compound according to contract requirements. However, SIGAR also found seven construction deciencies that USACE did not detect during the construc- tion or the contract’s warranty period. For example, ACCU substituted carbon dioxide re extinguishers in 17 locations where dry chemical re extinguishers were required, putting occupants at greater risk if certain types of res occur, and did not install thumb latches on the inside of 47 doors to rooms in the barrack. In addition, SIGAR identied four items that were installed but not operating properly. SIGAR advised USACE of these deciencies and nonoperable items, and USACE directed ACCU to correct them. As of August 28, 2018, ACCU had corrected all seven deciencies and the four nonoperable items. SIGAR also found that USACE did not con- sistently enforce all elements of its three-phase quality control inspection process, reducing its ability to oversee ACCU and enforce contract compli- ance. Finally, SIGAR found that the ANP women’s compound is being used but not at full capacity. With a few minor exceptions, the compound is being maintained, but the lack of a maintenance contract raises concerns about the compound’s maintenance in the long term. SIGAR recommended that the USACE Commanding General and Chief of Engineers enforce requirements for USACE personnel to adhere to the organization’s three-phase quality assurance inspection process, including requiring the contractor to conduct all meetings during the preparatory and initial phases for each of the denable features of work under the contract, and document the minutes of those meetings. Status of SIGAR Recommendations The Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended, requires SIGAR to report on the status of its recommendations. This quarter, SIGAR closed 18 recom- mendations contained in seven audit and inspection reports. These reports 30 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

41 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT contained recommendations that resulted in the recovery of $35,862 in ineli- gible or unsupported contract costs paid by the U.S. government. From 2009 through September 2018, SIGAR published 304 audits, alert letters, and inspection reports, and made 899 recommenda- tions to recover funds, improve agency oversight, and increase program effectiveness. SIGAR has closed 758 of these 899 recommendations, more than 84%. Closing a recommendation generally indicates SIGAR’s assessment that the - audited agency has either implemented the recommendation or has other wise appropriately addressed the issue. In some cases where the agency has failed to act, SIGAR will close the recommendation as “Not Implemented”; this quarter SIGAR closed nine recommendations in this manner. In some cases, these recommendations will be the subject of follow-up audit or inspection work. SIGAR is also required to report on any signicant recommendations from prior reports on which corrective action has not been completed. This quarter, SIGAR continued to monitor agency actions on 141 open recom- mendations. Fifty-seven of these recommendations have been open more than 12 months; these remain open because the agency involved has not yet produced a corrective-action plan that SIGAR believes would resolve the identied problem, or has otherwise failed to appropriately respond to the recommendation(s). For a complete list of open recommendations see www.sigar.mil. SPECIAL PROJECTS SIGAR’s Ofce of Special Projects was created to quickly obtain and access information necessary to fulll SIGAR’s oversight mandates; examine COMPLETED SPECIAL PROJECTS REPORTS emerging issues; and deliver prompt, actionable reports to federal agencies • Review 18-67-SP: Schools in Parwan and the Congress. Special Projects reports and letters focus on providing Province, Afghanistan: Observations from Site Visits at 14 Schools timely, credible, and useful information to Congress and the public. The • Review 18-70-SP: Bridges in Baghlan directorate is made up of a team of analysts supported by investigators, Province, Afghanistan: Six of Eight lawyers, subject-matter experts, and other specialists who can quickly Bridges Constructed or Rehabilitated by DOD Remain in Generally Good, and jointly apply their expertise to emerging problems and questions. The Usable Condition; Two Appeared to Have team conducts a variety of assessments, producing reports on all facets of Structural Issues Needing Attention Afghanistan reconstruction. • Review 19-02-SP: State Department’s Good Performers Initiative: Status of Six This quarter, SIGAR’s Ofce of Special Projects issued three reports: Completed Projects in Takhar Province USAID-funded education facilities in Parwan Province, CERP-funded bridges in Baghlan Province, and State INL-funded projects in Takhar Province. Of the three reports issued by Special Projects, in accordance with CIGIE blue book standards, one report had a total of two recom- mendations. Both are closed as implemented. A list of Special Projects completed this quarter can be found in Appendix C of this quarterly report. 31 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

42 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT Review 18-67-SP: Schools in Parwan Province, Afghanistan Observations from Site Visits to 14 Facilities This report is the seventh in a series that discusses SIGAR ndings from site visits at 14 schools built or rehabilitated by USAID in Afghanistan. SIGAR found that all 14 schools were open and in generally usable condition, but there may be problems with stafng and with student and teacher atten- dance at several of the schools. SIGAR also found that some schools have structural deciencies (such as damaged walls, leaking roofs, and/or holes in windows) that may affect student safety and the delivery of education. To help ensure the accuracy of Ministry of Education (MOE) and USAID for girls in USAID-funded high school reporting on the number of students and teachers enrolled and attending Parwan Province. (SIGAR photo) classes at schools in Parwan Province, SIGAR recommended that USAID share the results of this review with the Afghan government and advise the MOE to investigate the two schools with the lowest observed levels of attendance. In addition, to help ensure that students and teachers in Parwan Province are able to attend schools that are safe and provide a min- imum level of required utilities, SIGAR recommended that USAID share the results of this review with the Afghan government and advise the MOE to x structural and other deciencies that may negatively impact the delivery of education. In response to these recommendations, USAID states that (1) it will inform the appropriate authorities within the MOE of the schools identied by SIGAR that lack water, have poor sanitation conditions, or show signs of structural damage and safety hazards, (2) USAID stated it would alert the MOE and the Parwan Provincial Education Director of the observed low attendance rates in the schools that SIGAR identied. Review 18-70-SP: Bridges in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan Six of Eight Bridges Constructed or Rehabilitated by DOD Remain in Generally Good, Usable Condition; Two Appeared to Have Structural Issues Needing Attention This report discusses the results of SIGAR’s review of eight DOD-funded bridges in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan that were constructed or rehabilitated using funds from the Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP) between 2008 and 2013. SIGAR found that the location information maintained in DOD systems was generally accurate, with seven of the eight bridges reviewed within one kilometer of their recorded coordinates. However, one bridge was more than 18 kilometers from its CERP-funded 70-meter long bridge in recorded coordinates. Baghlani Jadid District, Baghlan Province. SIGAR also found that six of the eight bridges were in generally good, (SIGAR photo) usable condition, and all eight were identied as “very useful” by commu- nity members and an Afghan government ofcial SIGAR interviewed. Two of the bridges appeared to be inadequately maintained, in need of repair, and potentially pose a safety hazard. SIGAR issued two alert letters to DOD to inform the Afghan government of the bridges’ conditions. 32 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

43 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT Review 19-02-SP: Good Performers Initiative: Status of Six Completed Projects in Takhar Province Four of Six Projects Are Maintained and Used as Intended: Two Projects (Hostel Buildings) Are Unusable The six Good Performers Initiative (GPI) projects examined in this report were funded by the State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL). SIGAR conducted the site visits as part of an ongoing effort to verify the location and operating conditions of facilities built, refurbished, or funded by the U.S. as part of the recon- struction effort in Afghanistan. SIGAR found that INL’s reported geospatial in Warsaj GPI-funded irrigation system coordinates for the six projects were each within one kilometer from the District, Takhar Province. (SIGAR photo) actual project location. Additionally, SIGAR found that the two hostel building projects had missing and broken furniture, a general lack of facil- ity maintenance and sanitation, and nonoperational dining facilities. Site visits to the four other projects indicated problems, such as a lack of clean water or well-maintained toilets, but each was functioning and fullling its intended purpose. LESSONS LEARNED SIGAR’s Lessons Learned Program was created to identify lessons and make recommendations to Congress and executive agencies on ways to improve current and future reconstruction efforts. To date, the program has pub- lished ve reports. Four projects are in development, three of which were initiated this quarter: U.S. and coalition responsibilities for security-sector assistance, U.S. government support to elections; monitoring and evaluation of reconstruction contracting; and reintegration of ex-combatants. The published lessons-learned reports and their companion interactive versions are posted on SIGAR’s website, www.sigar.mil. Divided Responsibilities for Security Sector Assistance Initiated in March 2018, this report will complement Reconstructing the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan , published in September 2017, and examine how the U.S. government divided security sector assistance tasks among itself and its external partners, including NATO and non-NATO countries. It will look at how the Departments of Defense, State, and Justice, and other key U.S. government stakeholders selected, prepared, and deployed U.S. personnel to train, advise, assist, and equip the ANDSF and the Afghan Ministries of Defense and Interior. Additionally, this project will examine how the United States sought to leverage NATO and non-NATO partners, as well as how the U.S. government monitored and tracked the impact of these efforts on overall ANDSF goals. 33 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

44 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT Elections Initiated in July 2018, this report will look at Afghanistan’s ve elections since 2001, as well as the preparations for the sixth and seventh elections in 2018 and 2019, respectively, in order to: (1) examine Afghanistan’s electoral - framework and the challenges posed by trying to enact reforms before, dur ing, and after elections; (2) identify challenges and best practices in U.S. efforts to support the Afghan government as it prepared for, administered, and addressed disputes in the aftermath of elections; and (3) identify les- sons and make recommendations to U.S. agencies on how to best support future elections in Afghanistan. Reintegration Also initiated in July 2018, this report will examine the four reintegra- tion programs undertaken in Afghanistan since 2003 to assess how these programs functioned, the key challenges to their effectiveness, and best practices that can inform future reintegration efforts there. The report will also examine the current context in Afghanistan to assess the con- straints, opportunities, and risks the situation presents for a renewed reintegration effort. Monitoring and Evaluation of Contracting Initiated in September 2018, this report will examine the use of monitor - ing and evaluation (M&E) tools and systems in Afghanistan since 2001 to: (1) assess how effective M&E systems have been in holding implementing partners accountable, supervising their work, measuring progress, and FIGURE 2.1 designing future programs; (2) determine the contributions and inuence of executive agencies, Congress, and other stakeholders on contracting SIGAR INVESTIGATIONS: NUMBER OF OPEN outcomes through their requirements for accountability; and (3) identify a INVESTIGATIONS, AS OF OCTOBER 5, 2018 set of best practices in order to draw lessons and make recommendations to U.S. agencies on how to use M&E to improve contracting outcomes in Total: 177 Afghanistan and other contingency situations. The report will look at recon- struction contracting activities of USAID, State, and DOD. Other/ Miscellaneous 33 INVESTIGATIONS Procurement and Contract Corruption During the reporting period, SIGAR investigations resulted in one arrest, Fraud and Bribery 74 ve convictions, four sentencings, a civil settlement of nearly $295,000, and 39 $2,000 in criminal nes. SIGAR initiated 11 new cases and closed 14, bring- ing the total number of ongoing investigations to 177, as seen in Figure 2.1. Money Theft To date, SIGAR investigations have resulted in a cumulative total of Laundering 21 132 criminal convictions. Criminal nes, restitutions, forfeitures, civil 10 settlements, and U.S. government cost savings and recoveries total approxi- Source: SIGAR Investigations Directorate, 10/5/2018. mately $1.5 billion. 34 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

45 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT Former Owner of Marble Mining Company Convicted for Defrauding the U.S. and Defaulting on a $15.8 Million Loan On September 24, 2018, Adam Doost, the former owner of a now-defunct marble mining company in Afghanistan, was found guilty by a federal jury for his role in defrauding the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), a U.S. government agency, and defaulting on a $15.8 million loan. After a seven-day trial, Doost was convicted of three counts of major fraud against the United States, eight counts of wire fraud, four counts of false statements on loan applications or extensions, and ve counts of money laundering. Sentencing is scheduled for December 14, 2018. The evidence admitted at trial showed that in February 2010, while working at his company, Equity Capital Mining LLC, Doost, along with his brother, obtained a $15.8 million loan from OPIC for the development, maintenance, and operation of a marble mine in western Afghanistan. The loan proceeds were paid directly from OPIC to the alleged vendors, who provided equipment for the mine, as reported to OPIC by Doost or his consultant. Doost was required to deal with these companies in arms-length trans- actions or, to the extent any transactions were other than at arms-length, he was required to report to OPIC any afliation he had with a vendor. Instead, Doost falsely informed OPIC that he had no afliation with any of the vendors with whom he dealt, when in fact he had nancial relationships with several of them. The evidence further showed that Doost’s business partner was listed on the bank accounts for a number of these vendors and, upon receiving money from OPIC into the respective accounts, signicant amounts of this money were then transferred to companies and individuals with whom Doost was associated, or to pay debts Doost owed. For exam- ple, Doost’s consultant received a commission of $444,000 for his purported consulting services with the rst of three disbursements from OPIC, yet $40,000 was transferred from the consultant’s account to a Doost company in California. The evidence at trial further showed that when the time came for Equity Capital Mining LLC to repay the loan to OPIC, Doost provided purported reasons to OPIC why it was not able to make those repayments at a time when Doost had sufcient funds. Ultimately, Doost and his brother failed to repay any of the principal on the OPIC loan, paying only a limited amount of interest, and ultimately defaulted on the loan. SIGAR, with assistance from the FBI, investigated the case. Three High-Ranking Ministry of Interior Ofcials Convicted and Sentenced for Embezzlement Scheme On September 26, 2018, the Anti-Corruption Justice Center (ACJC) Primary Court convicted a high-ranking MOI ofcial, Major General Mohammad Major General Mohammad Anwar Kohistani Anwar Kohistani, for misuse of authority and embezzling over 109,398,000 on the day of his arrest. (MOI photo) 35 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

46 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES afghani (approximately $1.7 million) and sentenced him to 11 years in prison. Kohistani’s co-conspirators, Mohammad Amin, MOI Procurement Ofcer at the Police Cooperative Fund, and Ghulam Ali Wahadat, MOI Deputy Minister, were convicted and sentenced to 13 months and three years in prison, respectively. In 2016, the Inspector General of the MOI requested SIGAR’s assistance in investigating the director of the MOI Police Cooperative Fund, Major General Kohistani, and the MOI Police Cooperative Fund. A joint investiga- tion by SIGAR and ACJC prosecutors uncovered signicant evidence of fraud and abuse of the Cooperative Fund by Kohistani. In November 2017, ACJC prosecutors outlined numerous violations in a report to the Afghan Attorney General’s Ofce (AGO) and requested Kohistani’s arrest and pros- ecution. On January 15, 2018, Kohistani was arrested by Major Crimes Task Force investigators and charged with embezzlement. U.S. Contractor Sentenced for Conspiracy to Defraud the U.S. On July 25, 2018, in the Middle District of Florida, James Barber, the owner of Effects Analytics LLC, was sentenced to 36 months’ probation and ordered to pay a $2,000 ne. In 2012, a $249 million U.S. Army contract was awarded to Leonie Industries LLC (Leonie), for face-to-face public opinion polling in Afghanistan. In exchange for condential government information, Barber offered a $25,000 kickback to an employee of Leonie, Jeremy Serna, who was assigned to work the contract. Serna stole the requested information and provided it to Barber, who used it to negotiate and obtain a subcon- tract award from Leonie. Additionally, Barber offered Serna employment with ORB International, a United Kingdom public opinion polling company. Serna was sentenced for theft of government property on January 24, 2018. The investigation was conducted by SIGAR, Defense Criminal Investigative Service (DCIS), and U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID), with assistance from the Defense Finance and Accounting Service. U.S. Contractor Convicted for Theft and Sale of U.S. Government Property On July 18, 2018, in the District of Arizona, Michael D. Gilbert was convicted of one count of theft of government property, two counts of unau- thorized sale, conveyance and disposition of government property, and one count of interstate transportation of stolen property. Gilbert was an employee of PAE, a U.S. government contractor, and served as an escort for the Department of State at Kandahar Air Field (KAF). Gilbert also served as the point of contact for the State Foreign Excess Property program, through which usable government property no longer needed by the original user was reallocated to other government users. 36 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

47 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT Gilbert stole and shipped approximately 40 boxes of government prop- erty from KAF to relatives in Florida. While on home leave in Arizona, Gilbert drove to Florida to transfer the items to his home. Gilbert shipped additional boxes of government-owned items directly to his home. Some of the items shipped were subsequently sold for personal gain. SIGAR and State OIG investigated this matter. SIGAR Investigation Results in $294,800 Civil Settlement On July 9, 2018, a federal civil settlement was entered into by the U.S. DOJ, Southern District of Illinois United States Attorney’s Ofce, and Liberty Global Logistics LLC (LGL), by which LGL will pay the U.S. government $294,800 for breach of contract claims with U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). An investigation was initiated after USTRANSCOM reported that LGL submitted invoices for security services which allegedly were never pro- vided. USTRANSCOM had received a Request for Equitable Adjustment (REA) from LGL requesting payment for convoy security services related to the transportation of military cargo to various military bases in Afghanistan. However, USTRANSCOM identied several security call signs used as veri- cation that security was provided by the Afghanistan Public Protection Force that were false. The investigation determined at least 33 false call signs were submitted to LGL by its subcontractors and which LGL included in the invoices submitted to USTRANSCOM for payment during 2016 and 2017. The investigation was conducted by SIGAR, Naval Criminal Investigative Service, DCIS, and CID. Investigation Results in Arrest of French Citizen in Afghanistan On September 5, 2018, as a result of a joint SIGAR/Afghan Major Crimes Task Force (MCTF) investigation, Michel LeMaire, a French citizen, was arrested in Kabul by members of MCTF and is currently incarcerated pend- ing Afghan judicial proceedings. An investigation was initiated based upon allegations from Afghan Diamond Logistics Services Company (ADLSC), that an individual iden- tifying himself as James Woods represented himself as an American procurement ofcer for Mercy Corps and awarded two ctitious subcon- tracts for the delivery of fuel and beverages to Camp Camelot, in Kabul. ADLSC was never paid for approximately $752,864 worth of goods deliv- ered to Camp Camelot. Woods was later identied as Michel LeMaire. LeMaire was implicated as one of the orchestrators of the criminal scheme. The investigation identied numerous, additional victims of LeMaire. MCTF reported the investigative ndings to the AGO and requested LeMaire’s arrest and prosecution. SIGAR 37 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

48 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT collaborated on several occasions with AGO prosecutors to further the execution of arrest warrants for LeMaire. Suspensions and Debarments This quarter, SIGAR’s suspension and debarment program referred three individuals and two entities for suspension or debarment based on evidence developed as part of investigations conducted by SIGAR in Afghanistan and the United States. These referrals bring the total number of individuals and companies referred by SIGAR since 2008 to 905, encompassing 505 indi- viduals and 400 companies to date, as shown in Figure 2.2. As of the end of September 2018, SIGAR’s efforts to utilize suspen- sion and debarment to address fraud, corruption, and poor performance in Afghanistan have resulted in a total of 136 suspensions and 538 nal- ized debarments/special-entity designations of individuals and companies engaged in U.S.-funded reconstruction projects. An additional 23 individuals and companies have entered into administrative compliance agreements with the U.S. government in lieu of exclusion from contracting since the ini- tiation of the program. During the fourth quarter of 2018, SIGAR’s referrals resulted in ve debarments. An additional 10 individuals and companies are currently in proposed debarment status, awaiting nal adjudication. Suspensions and debarments are an important tool for ensuring that agencies award contracts only to responsible entities. SIGAR’s program addresses three challenges posed by U.S. policy and the contingency FIGURE 2.2 SIGAR INVESTIGATIONS: CUMULATIVE REFERRALS FOR SUSPENSION AND DEBARMENT, Q2 FY 2011–Q4 FY 2018 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Q3 Q4 Q3 Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 FY 16 FY 14 FY 13 FY 12 FY 15 FY 11 FY 18 FY 17 Note: For a comprehensive list of nalized suspensions, debarments, and special entity designations, see Appendix D. Source: SIGAR Investigations Directorate, 10/5/2018. 38 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

49 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES contracting environment in Afghanistan: the need to act quickly, the limited U.S. jurisdiction over Afghan nationals and Afghan companies, and the vetting challenges inherent in the use of multiple tiers of subcontractors. SIGAR continues to look for ways to enhance the government’s responses to these challenges through the innovative use of information resources and investigative assets both in Afghanistan and the United States. SIGAR makes referrals for suspensions and debarments—actions taken by U.S. agencies to exclude companies or individuals from receiving federal contracts or assistance because of misconduct—based on completed inves- tigations that SIGAR conducts or participates in. In most cases, SIGAR’s referrals occur in the absence of acceptance of an allegation for criminal prosecution or remedial action by a contracting ofce and are therefore the primary remedy to address contractor misconduct. In making referrals to agencies, SIGAR provides the basis for a suspen- sion or debarment decision by the agency as well as all of the supporting documentation needed for an agency to defend that decision should it be challenged by the contractor at issue. Based on the evolving nature of the contracting environment in Afghanistan and the available evidence of con- tractor misconduct and/or poor performance, SIGAR at times has found it necessary to refer individuals or companies on multiple occasions for con- sideration by agency suspension and debarment ofcials. OTHER SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES OTHER SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES Inspector General Sopko Addresses OECD • Inspector General Sopko Addresses OECD Anti-Corruption Task Team Meeting Anti-Corruption Task Team Meeting • Inspector General Sopko Addresses On October 26, 2018, Inspector General Sopko spoke in Copenhagen, International Corruption Hunters Alliance Denmark, at the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development • Deputy Inspector General Aloise Speaks (OECD) Special Consultation Meeting on joint donor responses to corrup- at the University of Denver’s Korbel School of International Relations, tion hosted by the Anti-Corruption Task Team of the OECD’s Development Denver, Colorado Assistance Committee’s Network on Governance. IG Sopko shared his • Inspector General Sopko Addresses the experiences of working on anticorruption efforts in Afghanistan in support University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada of the meeting’s objective to allow senior eld staff to share their experi- • Deputy Inspector General Aloise Meets with NATO Partners in Vicenza and ences of managing joint donor responses to corruption, with particular Rome, Italy emphasis on new and innovative strategies that have worked in a variety of country contexts. Inspector General Sopko Addresses International Corruption Hunters Alliance On October 25, 2018, Inspector General Sopko spoke at the fourth bien- nial meeting of the World Bank Group’s International Corruption Hunters Alliance (ICHA) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The meeting brought together senior ofcials, heads of corruption-investigating bodies, and prosecuting 39 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

50 SIGAR OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES authorities from over 100 countries. IG Sopko spoke on the issue of “Corruption, Fragility, and Security: Preventing Harm and Managing Risks,” and shared examples of SIGAR’s work in Afghanistan in an effort to bet- ter protect international development nancing designated for countries affected by conict, where corruption risks are high, and signicant secu- rity concerns often impede oversight. The objective of the event was to provide ICHA members and practitioners with tools and case studies to allow them to achieve results while properly managing risks to donors oper - ating in challenging environments. Deputy Inspector General Aloise Speaks at the University of Denver’s Korbel School of International Studies, Denver, Colorado On September 20, 2018, Deputy Inspector General Gene Aloise spoke to the University of Denver’s Korbel School of International Studies. Aloise explained SIGAR’s unique mission in Afghanistan, described the role of over - sight in evidence-based policymaking, and explained how problems with sustainability and agency coordination have hurt reconstruction efforts. Inspector General Sopko Addresses the University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada On September 19, 2018, IG Sopko addressed the University of Ottawa and spoke about the challenges facing policymakers in Afghanistan. His remarks, “Lessons Learned from American Stabilization and Reconstruction Efforts in Afghanistan,” discussed key ndings and recommendations identied by SIGAR’s Lessons Learned Program, including the effects of politically driven timelines, counterproductive personnel policies, and how the U.S. and its Coalition partners unwittingly contributed to corruption. Deputy Inspector General Aloise Meets with to students at the speaks IG Spoko University of Ottawa. (SIGAR photo) NATO Partners in Vicenza and Rome, Italy In September 2018, Deputy IG Aloise and James Cunningham, security lead analyst for LLP, met with NATO partners in Vicenza and Rome, Italy, at the NATO Stability Police Centre of Excellence, Centre of Excellence for Stability Police Units, European Gendarmerie Forces, Carabinieri Headquarters, and the NATO Security Force Assistance Centre of Excellence. The Carabinieri commanding general expressed to Deputy IG Aloise his hope that SIGAR will: (1) advocate for U.S. support of the NATO Stability Police Concept which is under review at NATO HQ and (2) support the Carabinieri’s training program for the Afghan National Police which is currently being held up due to funding issues. The Carabinieri are in Iraq training the national police, but cannot do the same in Afghanistan without a formal tasking from NATO headquarters. Deputy IG Aloise told the com- manding general that SIGAR will look into the issues and will potentially 40 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

51 ACTIVITIES SIGAR OVERSIGHT have discussions with General Joseph F. Dunford, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, upon arriving back in Washington, DC. The NATO Centres of Excellence for Stability Police and Security Force Assistance further expressed hope that the United States will assume the role as deputy director for both organizations in the future. SIGAR IMPACT ON FY 2019 DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION LAW On August 13, 2018, President Trump signed the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for scal year 2019 into law. The Act contains Deputy IG Aloise and James Cunningham provisions based on recommendations from SIGAR’s Lessons Learned meet with Carabinieri ofcials in Vicenza, Reconstructing the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces: report Italy. (NATO photo) Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan (SIGAR 17-62-LL). One provision of the new NDAA requires that during the development and plan- ning of a program to build the capacity of the national security forces of a foreign country, the Secretary of Defense and Secretary of State shall jointly consider political, social, economic, diplomatic, and historical factors, if any, of the foreign country that may impact that effective- ness of the program. Another provision modies existing law regarding assessing, monitoring, and evaluating security-cooperation programs to require incorporating lessons learned from any security-cooperation pro- grams and activities of the Department of Defense carried out on or after September 11, 2001. SIGAR BUDGET SIGAR is fully funded through FY 2019 at $54.9 million under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018. The budget supports SIGAR’s over - sight activities and products by funding SIGAR’s Audits and Inspections, Investigations, Management and Support, and Research and Analysis Directorates, as well as the Special Projects Team and the Lessons Learned Program. SIGAR STAFF SIGAR’s staff count remained steady since the last report to Congress, with 193 employees on board at the end of the quarter. Of that total, 28 SIGAR employees were at the U.S. Embassy Kabul and two others were at Bagram Aireld. SIGAR employed ve Afghan nationals in its Kabul ofce to support the Investigations and Audits Directorates. In addition, SIGAR sup- plements its resident staff with personnel assigned to short-term temporary duty in Afghanistan. This quarter, SIGAR had 17 employees on temporary duty in Afghanistan for a total of 190 days. 41 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

52 “The Afghans are committed to securing their people as the country moves forward to conduct its first parliamentary elections in eight years, later this month. The taste for peace and reconciliation remains strong following this summer’s cease-fire, and we continue to see local reconciliation initiatives around the country.” —General Joseph Votel Source: DOD, "Department of Defense Press Brieng by General Joseph Votel via teleconference from Tampa, Florida," 10/4/2018.

53 RECONSTRUCTION RECONSTRUCTION UPDATE UPDATE 3 3 43 43

54 TITLE OF THE SECTION RECONSTRUCTION UPDATE CONTENTS CONTENTS Reconstruction in Brief 45 46 Status of Funds 64 Security Governance 106 132 Economic and Social Development Counternarcotics 166 Photo on previous page Afghan troops form up for the arrival of U.S. Secretary of Defense James N. Mattis at the Presidential Ofce Building in Kabul, September 7, 2018, for meetings with Afghan ofcials. (DOD photo by Lisa Ferdinando) 44 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

55 RECONSTRUCTION IN BRIEF Section 3 of this quarterly report summarizes the key events of the reporting period as well as programs and projects concerning Afghanistan reconstruction across ve sectors: Funding, Security, Governance, Economic and Social Development, and Counternarcotics. ELECTIONS HELD FOR THE LOWER HOUSE DROUGHT STRIKES LARGE SWATHS OF AFGHANSTAN 263,000 Afghans OF A drought has displaced more than • PARLIAMENT The Afghan government held the long-delayed • in 2018. elections for 2018 exclusive of opium is Economic growth • for the lower house of parliament on projected to be just 2.4%, while growth inclusive of October 20 and 21, 2018 . the opium economy was 7.2% in 2017. • All provinces but Ghazni and Kandahar • participated in the election. licit exports Through the rst two quarters of 2018, Approximately • grew by 33% 2,500 candidates competed for , compared to the same period last year. • Three major mining contracts were signed by the 249 seats in the lower house of parliament. Afghan government, but the legality of two of the • The announced rst-ever election for district contracts has been questioned by NGOs. . not held councils was • At least 10 of the parliamentary candidates were killed prior to the election. NO NEW U.S. COUNTERNARCOTICS STRATEGY • The U.S. government will not issue a new, stand- “TOUGH FIGHT” KEEPS THE ANDSF FROM for Afghanistan. alone counternarcotics strategy Afghan government is developing a new IMPROVING SECURIT Y THIS QUARTER • The regional drugs strategy new commander with support from the , the General Austin Scott Miller • United Nations Ofce on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). of U.S. forces in Afghanistan, escaped a Taliban appropriated $8.88 billion • The United States has . General Abdul attack unharmed on October 18 and Kandahar’s Raziq, Kandahar’s police chief, for counternarcotic efforts since 2002. intelligence chief were both killed, and the provincial FUNDING AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 governor was wounded. • In a major assault on Ghazni City over ve days for reconstruction Cumulative appropriations • in mid-August, the and related activities in Afghanistan since FY 2002 Taliban killed at least 100 , of which $132.07 billion totaled approximately ANDSF personnel and 150 civilians . 84.9% $112.12 billion, or , was appropriated to the • Though the exact numbers are classied, Resolute ANDSF Support said that the average number of seven major reconstruction funds. • Of the amount appropriated to the casualties from May 1 to October 1, 2018, is the seven major $11.79 billion since FY 2002, approximately funds during like periods. greatest it has ever been remained to be disbursed. Afghan government’s control • As of July 2018, the for reconstruction cumulative appropriations The • or inuence of Afghanistan’s districts fell to increased by the lowest level (55.5%) during the quarter ending since SIGAR began $5.77 billion receiving the data in November 2015. The Afghan DOD September 30, primarily because (1) the , signed into law on Appropriations Act, 2019 government controls or inuences districts in which $4.93 billion lives, unchanged to two DOD September 28, appropriated about 65% of the population reconstruction accounts for FY 2019; and (2) State and since October 2017. 312,328 personnel in July 2018 • The ANDSF had Congress agreed during the quarter on the allocation (not including civilians), down 1,914 personnel since of foreign assistance account funds for Afghanistan for two reconstruction accounts managed by State last quarter and down 8,827 personnel since the same period last year. and USAID totaling $0.70 billion for FY 2018. | | RECONSTRUCTION UPDATE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION OCTOBER 30, 2018

56 FUNDS STATUS OF STATUS OF FUNDS CONTENTS U.S. Reconstruction Funding for Afghanistan 48 50 Afghanistan Reconstruction Funding Pipeline Afghanistan Security Forces Fund 52 53 ASFF Budget Activities Commander’s Emergency Response Program 56 Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund 57 58 Task Force for Business and Stability Operations DOD Drug Interdiction and 59 Counter-Drug Activities 60 Economic Support Fund International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 61 International Reconstruction Funding for Afghanistan 62 46 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

57 STATUS OF FUNDS STATUS OF FUNDS To fulll SIGAR’s legislative mandate, this section details the status of U.S. funds appropriated, obligated, and disbursed for reconstruction activities in ASFF: Afghanistan Security Forces Fund Afghanistan. As of September 30, 2018, the United States had appropriated Commander’s Emergency CERP: approximately $132.07 billion for reconstruction and related activities in Response Program Afghanistan since FY 2002. This amount includes $4.93 billion appropriated Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund AIF: through the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2019, enacted into Task Force for Business and TFBSO: law on September 28, 2018, and providing funds for FY 2019. This total has Stability Operations been allocated as follows: DOD CN: DOD Drug Interdiction and • $83.14 billion for security ($4.57 billion for counternarcotics initiatives) Counter-Drug Activities • $33.72 billion for governance and development ($4.31 billion for ESF: Economic Support Fund counternarcotics initiatives) International Narcotics Control and INCLE: • $3.52 billion for humanitarian aid Law Enforcement • $11.68 billion for civilian operations Figure 3.1 shows the major U.S. funds that contribute to these efforts. FIGURE 3.1 ($ BILLIONS) U.S. FUNDS SUPPORTING AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS (TOTAL: $132.07) FUNDING SOURCES Other Civilian ESF INCLE ASFF CERP TFBSO AIF DOD CN Reconstruction Operations Funds $20.38 $5.22 $77.75 $3.70 $0.99 $0.82 $3.25 $11.68 $8.26 AGENCIES Distributed Distributed Department of Department of Defense (DOD) USAID to Multiple to Multiple State (State) a a $86.52 $20.38 Agencies Agencies $5.22 $8.26 $11.68 TOTAL MAJOR FUNDS $112.12 Note: Numbers have been rounded. a Multiple agencies include DOJ, State, DOD, USAID, Treasury, USDA, DEA, BBG, and SIGAR. See Appendix B for these agency appropriations. Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 10/18/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/8/2018, 10/12/2017, 10/22/2012, 10/14/2009, and 10/1/2009; State, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/5/2018, 1/10/2018, 10/11/2017, 5/4/2016, 10/20/2015, 4/15/2015, 4/15/2014, 6/27/2013, 10/5/2012, and 6/27/2012; Treasury, response to SIGAR data call, 7/10/2018; OMB, response to SIGAR data call, 1/31/2018, 4/16/2015, 7/14/2014, 7/19/2013, and 1/4/2013; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/15/2010, 1/15/2010, and 10/9/2009; DEA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018, 6/30/2018, and 7/7/2009; USDA, response to SIGAR data call, 4/2009; DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018; OSD Comptroller, 16-22 PA: Omnibus 2016 Prior Approval Request, 6/30/2016; Pub. L. Nos. 115-141, 115-31, 114-113, 113-235, 113-76, 113-6, 112-74, 112-10, 111-212, 111-118. 47 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

58 FUNDS STATUS OF U.S. RECONSTRUCTION FUNDING FOR AFGHANISTAN ESF INCLE ORF CO AIF CERP CN DOD TFBSO ASFF As of September 30, 2018, cumulative appropriations for reconstruction and related activities in Afghanistan totaled approximately $132.07 billion, as shown in Figure 3.2. This total can be divided into four major categories of USAID DOD State reconstruction and related funding: security, governance and development, humanitarian, and oversight and operations. Approximately $8.88 billion The amount provided to the seven major of these funds support counternarcotics initiatives which crosscut both U.S. funds represents more than 84.9% the security ($4.57 billion) and governance and development ($4.31 billion) (over $112.12 billion) of total reconstruc- categories. For complete information regarding U.S. appropriations, see tion assistance in Afghanistan since Appendix B. ASFF FY 2002. Of this amount, nearly 89.1% President Donald J. Trump signed the Consolidated Appropriations (over $99.88 billion) has been obligated, Act, 2018, on March 23, funding the U.S. government through the end and over 84.6% (nearly $94.91 billion) has DOD of the scal year. The nal allocations for the global foreign assistance been disbursed. An estimated $5.43 billion accounts, principally the Department of State-managed International of the amount appropriated for these funds Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) account and the USAID- has expired. managed Economic Support Fund (ESF), were made to specic countries CERP FIGURE 3.2 CUMULATIVE APPROPRIATIONS BY FUNDING CATEGORY AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 ($ BILLIONS) DOD $150 $132.07 $127.14 $121.38 120 $115.20 DOD CN $109.66 $103.38 $96.57 $86.94 90 DOD 60 ESF 30 USAID 0 a 2018 2016 2015 2014 2017 2013 2012 2019 Humanitarian Governance/Development Security Civilian Operations Total Note: Numbers have been rounded. DOD reprogrammed $1 billion from FY 2011 ASFF, $1 billion from FY 2012 ASFF, and $178 million from FY 2013 ASFF to fund other DOD OCO requirements. DOD reprogrammed $230 million into FY 2015 ASFF. ASFF data reects the following rescissions: $1 billion from FY 2012 in Pub. L. No. 113-6, $764.38 million from FY 2014 in Pub. L. No. 113-235, $400 million from FY 2015 in Pub. L. No. 114-113, $150 million from FY 2016 in Pub. L. No. 115-31, and $100 million for FY 2017 in Pub. L. No. 115-141. DOD INCLE transferred $101 million from FY 2011 AIF, $179.5 million from FY 2013 AIF, and $55 million from FY 2014 AIF to the ESF to fund infrastructure projects implemented by USAID. a The Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2019, was signed into law on September 28, 2018. Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 10/18/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/8/2018, 10/12/2017, 10/22/2012, 10/14/2009, and 10/1/2009; State, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/5/2018, 1/10/2018, 10/11/2017, 5/4/2016, 10/20/2015, 4/15/2015, 4/15/2014, 6/27/2013, 10/5/2012, and 6/27/2012; Treasury, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018; OMB, response to SIGAR data call, 1/31/2018, 4/16/2015, 7/14/2014, 7/19/2013, and 1/4/2013; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/15/2010, 1/15/2010, and State 10/9/2009; DEA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018 and 7/7/2009; USDA, response to SIGAR data call, 4/2009; DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018; OSD Comptroller, 16-22 PA: Omnibus 2016 Prior Approval Request, 6/30/2016; Pub. L. Nos. 115-141, 115-31, 114-113, 113-235, 113-76, 113-6, 112-74, 112-10, 111-212, 111-118. AIF 48 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I DOD TFBSO DOD

59 FUNDS STATUS OF TABLE 3.1 including Afghanistan in the quarter ending September 30. At the end of the quarter, on September 28, President Trump signed the Department of U.S. ON-BUDGET ASSISTANCE TO Defense Appropriations Act, 2019, into law, providing specic appropria- AFGHANISTAN, SINCE 2002 ($ MILLIONS) tion amounts for the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) and the Government-to-Government Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP) for FY 2019. These DOD $8,277 appropriations totaled $4.93 billion and are presented in Figure 3.3 for State 85 FY 2019. 684 USAID Since 2002, the United States has provided nearly $14.10 billion in Multilateral Trust Funds on-budget assistance to the government of Afghanistan. This includes $1,669 LOTFA about $9.05 billion to Afghan government ministries and institutions, and 3,228 ARTF about $5.05 billion to three multinational trust funds—the World Bank’s 154 AITF Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), the United Nations Note: Numbers have been rounded. Figures reect amounts Development Programme’s Law and Order Trust Fund (LOTFA), and the the United States has disbursed in on-budget assistance to Afghan government entities and multilateral trust funds. Asian Development Bank’s Afghanistan Infrastructure Trust Fund (AITF). Table 3.1 shows U.S. on-budget assistance disbursed to the Afghan govern- Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/16/2018; State, response to SIGAR data call, 10/18/2018; DOD, ment and multilateral trust funds. response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018; World Bank, ARTF: Administrator’s Report on Financial Status as of July 22, 2018 , accessed 10/21/2018; UNDP, (end of 7th month of FY 1397) LOTFA Receipts 2002–2018 , 10/19/2018. FIGURE 3.3 APPROPRIATIONS BY FISCAL YEAR, AMOUNT, AND CATEGORY ($ BILLIONS) $16 $14.71 12 $9.63 8 $6.81 $6.28 $6.18 $5.75 $5.54 $4.93 4 0 a 2012 2018 2019 2013 2015 2016 2017 2014 Total Civilian Operations Humanitarian Governance/Development Security Note: Numbers have been rounded. DOD reprogrammed $1 billion from FY 2011 ASFF, $1 billion from FY 2012 ASFF, and $178 million from FY 2013 ASFF to fund other DOD OCO requirements. DOD reprogrammed $230 million into FY 2015 ASFF. ASFF data reects the following rescissions: $1 billion from FY 2012 in Pub. L. No. 113-6, $764.38 million from FY 2014 in Pub. L. No. 113-235, $400 million from FY 2015 in Pub. L. No. 114-113, $150 million from FY 2016 in Pub. L. No. 115-31, and $100 million for FY 2017 in Pub. L. No. 115-141. DOD transferred $101 million from FY 2011 AIF, $179.5 million from FY 2013 AIF, and $55 million from FY 2014 AIF to the ESF to fund infrastructure projects implemented by USAID. a The Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2019, was signed into law on September 28, 2018. Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 10/18/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/8/2018, 10/12/2017, 10/22/2012, 10/14/2009, and 10/1/2009; State, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/5/2018, 1/10/2018, 10/11/2017, 5/4/2016, 10/20/2015, 4/15/2015, 4/15/2014, 6/27/2013, 10/5/2012, and 6/27/2012; Treasury, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018; OMB, response to SIGAR data call, 1/31/2018, 4/16/2015, 7/14/2014, 7/19/2013, and 1/4/2013; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/15/2010, 1/15/2010, and 10/9/2009; DEA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018 and 7/7/2009; USDA, response to SIGAR data call, 4/2009; DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018; OSD Comptroller, 16-22 PA: Omnibus 2016 Prior Approval Request, 6/30/2016; Pub. L. Nos. 115-141, 115-31, 114-113, 113-235, 113-76, 113-6, 112-74, 112-10, 111-212, 111-118. 49 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

60 FUNDS STATUS OF AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION FUNDING PIPELINE Since 2002, Congress has appropriated nearly $132.07 billion for reconstruc- tion and related activities in Afghanistan. Of this amount, $112.12 billion (84.9%) was appropriated to the seven major reconstruction funds, as shown in Table 3.2. TABLE 3.2 FIGURE 3.4 STATUS OF APPROPRIATED FUNDS ($ BILLIONS) CUMULATIVE AMOUNTS APPROPRIATED, OBLIGATED, AND DISBURSED ($ BILLIONS) FY 2002–2019 Obligated Disbursed Appropriated Remaining 112.12 Total Appropriated: $ Afghanistan Security Forces Fund $7.44 $68.62 $77.75 $67.58 (ASFF) Remaining Commander’s Emergency Response $11.79 2.29 2.28 0.01 3.70 Program (CERP) 0.76 0.78 0.99 Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) 0.02 Task Force for Business & Stability 0.00 0.65 0.75 0.82 Expired Disbursed Operations (TFBSO) $5.43 $94.91 DOD Drug Interdiction and Counter- 3.25 3.25 3.25 0.00 Drug Activities (DOD CN) 19.23 20.38 Economic Support Fund (ESF) 16.16 3.45 International Narcotics Control & 0.86 4.23 4.96 5.22 Law Enforcement (INCLE) $99.88 $11.79 $94.91 112.12 Total Seven Major Funds 8.26 Other Reconstruction Funds 11.68 Civilian Operations $132.07 Total Note: Numbers have been rounded. Amount remaining reects the total disbursement potential of the seven major reconstruction funds after deducting approximately $5.4 billion that expired without being obligated. Obligated and disbursed DOD CN funds reect amounts transferred to the military services and defense agencies to be spent for Afghanistan. Figures reect transfers, rescissions, and reprogramming activity to date. Source: SIGAR, analysis of appropriating legislation and quarterly obligation and disbursement data provided by DOD, State, and USAID, 10/23/2018. As of September 30, 2018, approximately $11.79 billion of the amount appropriated to the seven major reconstruction funds remained for possible disbursement, as shown in Figure 3.4. These funds will be used to train, equip, and sustain the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF); com- plete on-going, large-scale infrastructure projects, such as those funded by the AIF and ESF; combat narcotics production and trafcking; and advance the rule of law, strengthen the justice sector, and promote human rights. The total amount remaining to be disbursed increased by $5.77 bil- lion during the quarter ending September 30, primarily because (1) the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2019, signed into law on September 28, appropriated $4.93 billion to the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) and the Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP) for FY 2019; and (2) the Department of State and Congress agreed during the quarter through the Section 653(a) consultation process on the alloca- tion of foreign assistance accounts for Afghanistan for the International 50 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

61 FUNDS STATUS OF Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) account and the Economic Support Fund (ESF) totaling $0.70 billion for FY 2018. Congress appropriated more than $20.26 billion to the seven major reconstruction funds for scal years 2014 through 2017: $5.63 billion for FY 2014, $5.03 billion for FY 2015, $4.49 billion for FY 2016, and $5.11 billion for FY 2017. Of the combined total, more than $3.11 billion remained for possible disbursement, as of September 30, 2018, as shown in Table 3.3 and Figure 3.5. FIGURE 3.5 TABLE 3.3 STATUS OF APPROPRIATED FUNDS, FY 2014–2017 AMOUNTS APPROPRIATED, OBLIGATED, AND DISBURSED ($ BILLIONS) FY 2014–2017 ($ MILLIONS) Appropriated Obligated Disbursed Remaining ASFF $15,566.65 $15,206.77 $14,643.21 $608.73 Total Appropriated: $ 20.26 CERP 50.00 16.02 15.13 0.89 11.85 118.38 130.23 144.00 AIF 17.70 86.00 103.70 122.24 TFBSO 513.33 0.00 513.33 513.33 DOD CN STATUS OF APPROPRIATED FUNDS, ESF 956.90 1,913.93 2,988.00 3,022.17 Disbursed Remaining ($ BILLIONS) FY 2014–2017 $16.62 $3.11 864.51 284.91 556.13 INCLE 845.00 Total Seven Major Funds $20,263.39 $19,822.55 $16,617.87 $3,109.23 Total Appropriated: $ 20.26 Note: Numbers have been rounded. Amount remaining reects the total disbursement potential of the seven major reconstruc- Expired tion funds after deducting approximately $536 million that expired without being obligated. Obligated and disbursed DOD CN funds reect amounts transferred to the military services and defense agencies to be spent for Afghanistan. Figures reect $0.54 transfers, rescissions, and reprogramming activity to date. Source: SIGAR, analysis of appropriating legislation and quarterly obligation and disbursement data provided by DOD, State, and USAID, 10/23/2018. STATUS OF APPROPRIATED FUNDS, Disbursed ($ BILLIONS) FY 2018–2019 Remaining Congress appropriated more than $10.38 billion to ve of the seven major $16.62 $3.11 reconstruction funds for FY 2018 and FY 2019. Of that amount, more than Total Appropriated: $ 10.38 $7.33 billion remained for possible disbursement, as of September 30, 2018, as shown in Table 3.4 and Figure 3.6. Expired $0.54 FIGURE 3.6 TABLE 3.4 STATUS OF APPROPRIATED FUNDS, FY 2018–2019 AMOUNTS APPROPRIATED, OBLIGATED, AND DISBURSED Disbursed Remaining ($ MILLIONS) FY 2018–2019 ($ BILLIONS) $3.05 $7.33 Appropriated Obligated Disbursed Remaining $3,241.99 ASFF $9,586.82 $2,923.02 $6,663.80 10.38 Total Appropriated: $ CERP 15.00 5.00 3.01 11.99 DOD CN 121.54 121.54 118.01 3.54 0.00 ESF 500.00 500.00 0.00 160.00 7.58 6.95 153.05 INCLE $10,383.36 $3,376.11 $3,050.98 $7,332.38 Total Major Funds Disbursed Remaining Note: Numbers have been rounded. Amount remaining reects the total disbursement potential of the seven major $3.05 $7.33 reconstruction funds. Obligated and disbursed DOD CN funds reect amounts transferred to the military services and defense agencies to be spent for Afghanistan. Figures reect transfers, rescissions, and reprogramming activity to date. Source: SIGAR, analysis of appropriating legislation and quarterly obligation and disbursement data provided by DOD, State, and USAID, 10/23/2018. 51 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

62 STATUS OF FUNDS ESF ORF INCLE CO TFBSO DOD CN CERP AIF ASFF USAID DOD State AFGHANISTAN SECURITY FORCES FUND Congress created the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) to provide ASFF the ANDSF with equipment, supplies, services, training, and funding, as 41 The well as facility and infrastructure repair, renovation, and construction. DOD primary organization responsible for building the ANDSF is the Combined 42 Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A). A nancial and ASFF FUNDS TERMINOLOGY activity plan must be approved by the Afghanistan Resources Oversight 43 DOD reported ASFF funds as appropriated, Council (AROC) before ASFF funds may be obligated. obligated, or disbursed The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, enacted on March 23, appropriated nearly $4.67 billion for the ASFF for FY 2018, increasing total CERP Appropriations: Total monies available cumulative funding to more than $72.83 billion. President Donald J. Trump for commitments subsequently signed into law the Department of Defense Appropriations Obligations: Commitments to pay monies DOD Act, 2019, on September 28, providing an additional appropriation for Monies that have Disbursements: the ASFF of $4.92 billion for FY 2019, as shown in Figure 3.7. As of been expended September 30, 2018, cumulative appropriations for ASFF reached $77.75 bil- lion, with more than $68.62 billion in funding having been obligated, and Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 4/13/2010. 44 nearly $67.58 billion having been disbursed, as shown in Figure 3.8. DOD CN DOD reported that cumulative obligations increased by more than $1.08 billion during the quarter ending September 30, 2018, and cumulative 45 disbursements increased by more than $1.16 billion. DOD FIGURE 3.7 FIGURE 3.8 ASFF FUNDS, CUMULATIVE COMPARISON ASFF APPROPRIATED FUNDS BY FISCAL YEAR ($ BILLIONS) ($ BILLIONS) ESF $80 $12 Appropriated $77.75 USAID Appropriated $72.83 70 Obligated 10 Obligated $68.62 $67.54 60 Disbursed Disbursed $66.73 $67.58 8 50 INCLE 40 6 30 State 4 20 2 10 AIF 0 0 As of Jun 30, 2018 As of Sep 30, 2018 11 19 13 15 17 090705 DOD Note: Numbers have been rounded. Data reects reprogramming actions and rescissions. DOD reprogrammed $1 billion of FY 2011, $1 billion of FY 2012, and $178 million of FY 2013 out of the ASFF to fund other DOD requirements. DOD reprogrammed $230 million into FY 2015 ASFF. Pub. L. No. 115-141 rescinded $100 million from FY 2017. Pub. L. No. 115-31 rescinded $150 million from FY 2016. Pub. L. No. 113-6 rescinded $1 billion from FY 2012. Pub. L. No. 113-235 rescinded $764.38 million from FY 2014. Pub. L No. 114-113 rescinded $400 million from FY 2015. Source: DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018; DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts June 2018,” 7/17/2018; Pub. L. Nos. 115-141, 115-31, 114-113, TFBSO 113-235, 113-76, and 113-6; OSD Comptroller, 16-22 PA: Omnibus 2016 Prior Approval Request, 6/30/2016. DOD 52 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

63 FUNDS STATUS OF ASFF BUDGET ACTIVITIES DOD allocated funds to three budget activity groups within the ASFF through September 30, 2018: categories Budget Activity Groups: • Defense Forces (Afghan National Army, ANA) within each appropriation or fund account • Interior Forces (Afghan National Police, ANP) that identify the purposes, projects, • Related Activities (primarily Detainee Operations) or types of activities nanced by the appropriation or fund budget activity group are further allocated to four Funds for each accounting groups Subactivity Groups: : Sustainment, Infrastructure, Equipment and sub-activity groups 46 that break down the command’s Transportation, and Training and Operations. The AROC must approve the disbursements into functional areas requirement and acquisition plan for any service requirements in excess of $50 million annually and any non-standard equipment requirement in excess 47 of $100 million. As of September 30, 2018, DOD had disbursed nearly $67.58 billion from Manual 7110.1-M Department of Defense Budget Source: DOD, , accessed 9/28/2009; Department of Guidance Manual ASFF. Of this amount, nearly $45.99 billion was disbursed for the ANA, and , p. 5, accessed Medical Facility Manager Handbook the Navy, 10/2/2009. nearly $21.24 billion was disbursed for the ANP; the remaining $388.74 mil- lion was directed to related activities such as detainee operations. The combined total—$67.61 billion—is about $36.44 million higher than the cumulative total reported as disbursed due to an accounting adjustment which arises when there is a difference between the amount of disburse- ments or collections reported to the Defense Finance and Accounting 48 Service and the Department of the Treasury. As shown in Figure 3.9, the largest portion of the funds disbursed for the ANA—more than $22.22 billion—supported ANA troop sustainment. Of the funds disbursed for the ANP, the largest portion—nearly $9.18 billion—also 49 supported sustainment of ANP forces, as shown in Figure 3.10. FIGURE 3.10 FIGURE 3.9 ASFF DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE ANP ASFF DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE ANA BY SUBACTIVITY GROUP, BY SUBACTIVITY GROUP, ($ BILLIONS) ($ BILLIONS) FY 2005–SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 FY 2005–SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Total: $21.24 Total: $ 45.99 Infrastructure Infrastructure Training and Training and $5.89 $3.14 Equipment and Operations Operations Equipment and Transportation $4.25 $4.19 Transportation $4.67 $13.68 Sustainment Sustainment $22.22 $9.18 Note: Numbers have been rounded. Source: DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. 53 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

64 STATUS OF FUNDS New ASFF Budget Activity Groups for FY 2019 The DOD ASFF budget request for FY 2019, submitted to Congress in February 2018, restructures the Afghan National Army (ANA) and Afghan National Police (ANP) budget activity groups (BAGs) to better reect the ANDSF force structure and new budget priorities. In FY 2018 and previ- ous years, all costs associated with the Afghan Air Force (AAF) fell under the ANA BAG and costs for the Afghan Special Security Forces (ASSF) were split between the ANA and ANP BAGs. Table 3.5 below presents the FY 2019 budget request for the ANA, ANP, AAF, and ASSF by their sepa- rate BAGs, and Table 3.6 on the opposite page compares the FY 2018 and FY 2019 budget requests when presented on a basis comparable to the origi- 50 nal FY 2018 budget request. NATO ANA Trust Fund The DOD ASFF budget requests for FY 2018 and FY 2019 present planned contributions by the NATO ANA Trust Fund (NATF) to ASFF for adminis- tration by the DOD. The NATF has received contributions from 33 NATO members and other partners (but not the U.S.) to support the ANDSF with a 51 focus on the ANA. The NATF has contributed nearly $1.50 billion to ASFF for the completion of specic projects funded by donor nations through September 30, 2018, and ASFF has returned $366.8 million of these funds following the cancellation or completion of these projects. Not all of the $2.4 billion in donated funds received by the NATF are forwarded to ASFF for execution; approximately 40% of these funds are executed through the 52 NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA). TABLE 3.5 ASFF BUDGET REQUEST FOR FY 2019 ($ MILLIONS) BY NEW BUDGET ACTIVITY GROUPS Afghan Air Afghan Budget Sub-Activity Afghan National Afghan Special Group Force Security Forces Police Total National Army Sustainment $1,554.3 $932.3 $353.7 $537.6 $3,377.9 43.1 254.2 Infrastructure 137.7 30.4 43.0 Equipment and 810.6 71.9 572.3 151.8 14.6 Transportation Training and 756.9 153.4 165.1 267.2 171.2 Operations $5,199.5 $766.3 Total $702.0 $1,802.1 $1,929.0 Note: Numbers have been rounded. Source: Ofce of the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense Budget, Justication for FY 2019 Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO), Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF), February 2018. 54 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

65 FUNDS STATUS OF TABLE 3.6 ($ MILLIONS) ASFF BUDGET REQUESTS FOR FY 2018 AND FY 2019 The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, FY 2018 FY 2019 enacted on March 23, 2018, appropriated Budget Request Budget Request $4,666.8 million for ASFF, or $270.7 million DOD ASFF Budget Request Line items (Former Basis¹) (Comparable Basis¹) below the FY 2018 budget request, and $4,937.5 $5,199.5 Total U.S.-Funded Portion of ASFF the Department of Defense Appropriations Afghan National Army, Total 3,771.8 4,310.2 Act, 2019, enacted on September 28, 2,660.9 2,744.8 Sustainment, Total 2018, appropriated $4,920.0 million for 540.3 Personnel 743.0 ASFF, or $279.5 million below the FY 2019 2 200.0 298.1 Ammunition and Ordnance budget request. 3 936.1 875.0 Air Force Sustainment 4 Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants 185.6 244.9 89.3 176.8 Vehicles Sustainment All Other 494.5 685.9 Equipment and Transportation, Total 754.9 684.8 Air Force Equipment and Transportation 533.7 570.0 Vehicles 142.0 95.0 9.1 89.9 All Other 405.1 Training and Operations, Total 584.5 Air Force Training 184.8 263.3 282.6 Other Training 218.4 38.6 2.0 All Other 206.1 21.0 Infrastructure, Total Afghan National Police, Total 1,165.8 889.2 955.6 613.1 Sustainment, Total Personnel and Forces 306.1 123.2 202.2 128.6 Logistics Facilities 118.3 109.3 169.3 All Other 411.6 55.7 76.0 Equipment and Transportation, Total Training and Operations, Total 94.6 172.3 39.6 48.1 Infrastructure, Total 5 $397.3 $367.0 Total NATO ANA Trust Fund-Funded Portion of ASFF N/A Afghan National Army 323.3 Afghan National Police 43.7 N/A Note: Numbers have been rounded. 1 The budget request for FY 2019 presents the Afghan Air Force (AAF) and Afghan Special Security Forces (ASSF), the newly created Budget Activity Groups (BAGs), as if combined with the Afghan National Army (ANA) and Afghan National Police (ANP) on a comparable basis to the budget request for FY 2018. 2 Ammunition and Ordnance combines several line items for Air Force and Combat Forces. 3 Air Force Sustainment minus Air Force Personnel, Ammunition and Ordnance, and Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants. 4 Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants for Air Force and Logistics. 5 The FY 2019 budget request for the NATO ANA Trust Fund is not allocable between the ANA and ANP as presented. Source: Ofce of the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense Budget, Justication for FY 2019 Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO), Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF), February 2018. 55 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

66 INCLE ORF ESF CO CERP TFBSO AIF CN DOD ASFF State DOD USAID STATUS OF FUNDS ASFF DOD COMMANDER’S EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROGRAM The Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP) enables U.S. CERP commanders in Afghanistan to respond to urgent humanitarian relief and reconstruction requirements in their areas of responsibility by support- DOD ing programs that will immediately assist the local population. Funding under this program is intended for small projects that are estimated to 53 CERP FUNDS TERMINOLOGY CERP-funded projects may not exceed cost less than $500,000 each. 54 $2 million each. DOD reported CERP funds as appropriated, The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, appropriated $5.0 million obligated, or disbursed DOD CN for CERP for FY 2018, and the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, Appropriations: Total monies available 2019, doubled the appropriation to $10.0 million for FY 2019, increasing for commitments 55 total cumulative funding to more than $3.70 billion. Of this amount, DOD DOD Commitments to pay monies Obligations: reported that nearly $2.29 billion had been obligated, of which more than 56 Monies that have Disbursements: Figure 3.11 $2.28 billion had been disbursed as of September 30, 2018. been expended shows CERP appropriations by scal year, and Figure 3.12 provides a cumu- lative comparison of amounts appropriated, obligated, and disbursed for Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 4/14/2010. ESF CERP projects. FIGURE 3.12 FIGURE 3.11 USAID CERP FUNDING ACTIVITY, FY 2016–2019 CERP APPROPRIATIONS BY FISCAL YEAR ($ MILLIONS) ($ MILLIONS) Appropriated $25 $1,000 INCLE $25.00 20 800 State Appropriated 15 600 $15.00 Obligated $12.99 AIF Obligated 10 400 $10.17 Disbursed Disbursed $10.10 DOD $9.05 5 200 0 0 As of Jun 30, 2018 As of Sep 30, 2018 13 19 15 17 11 07 05 09 TFBSO Note: Numbers have been rounded. Data may include interagency transfers. Analysis includes data from a draft DOD nancial report because the nal version had not been completed when this report went to press. Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018 and 7/11/2018; OMB, response to SIGAR data call, 1/4/2013; Pub. DOD L. Nos. 115-141, 115-31, 114-113, 113-235, 113-76, 113-6, 112-74, 112-10. 56 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

67 ESF INCLE ORF CO TFBSO AIF CERP CN DOD ASFF DOD USAID State ASFF DOD CERP DOD DOD CN DOD ESF USAID STATUS OF FUNDS INCLE State AFGHANISTAN INFRASTRUCTURE FUND The AIF was established in FY 2011 to pay for high-priority, large-scale AIF infrastructure projects that support the U.S. civilian-military effort. Congress intended for projects funded by the AIF to be jointly selected DOD and managed by DOD and State. Each AIF-funded project is required to have a plan for its sustainment and a description of how it supports the 57 AIF FUNDS TERMINOLOGY counterinsurgency strategy in Afghanistan. The AIF received appropria- DOD reported AIF funds as appropriated, tions from FY 2011 through FY 2014. Although the AIF no longer receives TFBSO obligated, or disbursed appropriations, up to $50 million of funds appropriated under the Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror title may be used to complete Total monies available Appropriations: these projects. DOD has only once used non-AIF monies to complete an for commitments DOD AIF project, transferring $3.38 million of FY 2017 ASFF funds to complete Commitments to pay monies Obligations: Phase One of the Northeast Power System Arghandi-to-Gardez transmission Monies that have Disbursements: 58 line project. been expended The AIF received cumulative appropriations of over $1.32 billion; how- ever, $335.50 million of these funds were transferred to the ESF for USAID’s Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 4/13/2012. power transmission lines projects, bringing the cumulative amount remain- 59 Figure 3.13 shows AIF appropriations ing in the AIF to $988.50 million. by scal year. As of September 30, 2018, nearly $784.16 million of total AIF funding had been obligated, and nearly $760.13 million had been disbursed, 60 as shown in Figure 3.14. FIGURE 3.14 FIGURE 3.13 AIF FUNDS, CUMULATIVE COMPARISON AIF APPROPRIATIONS BY FISCAL YEAR ($ MILLIONS) ($ MILLIONS) Appropriated Appropriated $1,000 $400 $988.50 $988.50 800 340 Obligated Obligated $784.16 $777.91 Disbursed Disbursed $760.13 $733.55 600 280 400 220 200 160 0 100 As of Sep 30, 2018 As of Jun 30, 2018 2014 2012 2011 2013 Note: Numbers have been rounded. Data reects the following transfers from AIF to USAID's Economic Support Fund: $101 million for FY 2011, $179.5 million for FY 2013, and $55 million for FY 2014. Source: DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018; DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts June 2018,” 7/17/2018; Pub. L. Nos. 113-76, 113-6, 112-74, and 112-10. 57 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

68 ESF INCLE ORF CO CERP AIF TFBSO DOD CN ASFF DOD USAID State ASFF DOD CERP DOD DOD CN DOD ESF USAID INCLE State FUNDS STATUS OF AIF DOD TASK FORCE FOR BUSINESS AND STABILITY OPERATIONS In 2010, the TFBSO began operations in Afghanistan aimed at stabilizing TFBSO the country and countering economically motivated violence by decreasing unemployment and creating economic opportunities for Afghans. TFBSO DOD authorities expired on December 31, 2014, and the TFBSO concluded its operations on March 31, 2015. TFBSO projects included activities intended TFBSO FUNDS TERMINOLOGY to facilitate private investment, industrial development, banking and nan- DOD reported TFBSO funds as appropriated, cial system development, agricultural diversication and revitalization, and 61 obligated, or disbursed energy development. Through September 30, 2018, the TFBSO had been appropriated more Appropriations: Total monies available for than $822.85 million since FY 2009. Of this amount, nearly $751.61 million commitments 62 had been obligated and more than $648.92 million had been disbursed. Commitments to pay monies Obligations: Figure 3.15 displays the amounts appropriated for the TFBSO by scal year, Disbursements: Monies that have been and Figure 3.16 provides the cumulative amount of funds appropriated, obli- expended gated, and disbursed for the TFBSO and its projects. Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 4/13/2010. FIGURE 3.15 FIGURE 3.16 TFBSO FUNDS, CUMULATIVE APPROPRIATED, TFBSO APPROPRIATIONS BY FISCAL YEAR ($ MILLIONS) OBLIGATED, AND DISBURSED ($ MILLIONS) $1,000 $250 Appropriated 800 200 $822.85 Obligated $751.61 Disbursed 600 150 $648.92 400 100 AUTHORITY EXPIRED 200 50 0 0 As of Dec 31, 2014 As of Sep 30, 2018 12 10 18 16 14 Note: Numbers have been rounded. TFBSO authorities expired on December 31, 2014. Of the $822.85 million appropriated the TFBSO, $366.05 million was from the Operations and Maintenance, Army, account to pay for the sustainment of U.S. assets, civilian employees, travel, security, and other operational costs; all FY 2015 funding was from this account. Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data calls, 10/18/2018, 10/12/2017, 7/17/2017, and 10/4/2011; Pub. L. Nos. 113-76, 113-6, 112-74, 112-10. 58 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

69 ESF ORF INCLE CO CN AIF CERP TFBSO DOD ASFF DOD USAID State ASFF DOD STATUS OF FUNDS CERP DOD DOD DRUG INTERDICTION AND COUNTER-DRUG ACTIVITIES The DOD Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities (DOD CN) fund DOD CN supports efforts to stabilize Afghanistan by combating the drug trade and related activities. DOD uses the DOD CN to provide assistance to the DOD counternarcotics effort by supporting military operations against drug traf- ckers; expanding Afghan interdiction operations; and building the capacity of Afghan law-enforcement bodies—including the Afghan Border Police— DOD CN FUNDS TERMINOLOGY 63 DOD reported DOD CN funds as appropriated, with specialized training, equipment, and facilities. obligated, or disbursed DOD CN funds are appropriated by Congress to a single budget line for ESF all military services. DOD reprograms the funds from the Counter-Narcotics Total monies available Appropriations: Central Transfer Account (CTA) to the military services and defense agen- for commitments USAID cies, which track obligations of the transferred funds. DOD reported DOD Commitments to pay monies Obligations: 64 CN accounts for Afghanistan as a single gure for each scal year. Disbursements: Monies that have DOD reported that DOD CN received more than $121.54 million for been expended Afghanistan for FY 2018, bringing cumulative funding for DOD CN to more than $3.25 billion since FY 2004. Of this amount, more than $2.99 billion had Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 4/13/2010. INCLE been transferred to the military services and defense agencies for DOD CN 65 projects, as of September 30, 2018. Figure 3.17 shows DOD CN appropria- tions by scal year, and Figure 3.18 provides a cumulative comparison of State amounts appropriated and transferred from the DOD CN CTA. FIGURE 3.18 FIGURE 3.17 AIF DOD CN FUNDS, CUMULATIVE COMPARISON DOD CN APPROPRIATIONS BY FISCAL YEAR ($ MILLIONS) ($ BILLIONS) DOD $3.5 $500 Appropriated Appropriated and and a a Transferred Transferred $3.25 $3.25 2.8 400 TFBSO 2.1 300 DOD 1.4 200 0.7 100 0.0 0 As of Jun 30, 2018 As of Sep 30, 2018 08 10 12 06 14 16 18 Note: Numbers have been rounded. DOD reprogrammed $125.13 million out of FY 2015 DOD CN due to several requirements for the Afghanistan Special Mission Wing being funded from the ASFF instead of DOD CN. a DOD reprograms all DOD CN funds to the military services and defense agencies for obligation and disbursement. Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data calls, 10/8/2018 and 7/9/2018; OSD Comptroller, 15-23 PA: Omnibus 2015 Prior Approval Request, 6/30/2015, p. 42. 59 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

70 ORF ESF INCLE CO TFBSO DOD CN AIF CERP ASFF USAID State DOD ASFF DOD CERP DOD STATUS OF FUNDS DOD CN DOD ECONOMIC SUPPORT FUND Economic Support Fund (ESF) programs advance U.S. interests by helping ESF countries meet short- and long-term political, economic, and security needs. ESF programs support counterterrorism; bolster national economies; and USAID assist in the development of effective, accessible, independent legal systems 66 for a more transparent and accountable government. ESF FUNDS TERMINOLOGY The ESF was allocated $500.00 million for Afghanistan for FY 2018 USAID reported ESF funds as appropriated, through the Section 653(a) consultation process between Congress and obligated, or disbursed the Department of State concluding in the quarter ending September 30, INCLE 2018. This allocation brings cumulative funding to more than $20.38 bil- Appropriations: Total monies available lion, including amounts transferred from AIF to the ESF for USAID’s power for commitments State transmission lines projects. Of this amount, nearly $19.23 billion had been Obligations: Commitments to pay monies 67 obligated, of which nearly $16.16 billion had been disbursed. Figure 3.19 Disbursements: Monies that have been shows ESF appropriations by scal year. expended USAID reported that cumulative obligations increased by more than AIF $774.85 million for the quarter ending September 30, 2018, and cumulative Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 4/15/2010. 68 disbursements increased by more than $133.40 million over the quarter. Figure 3.20 provides a cumulative comparison of the amounts appropriated, DOD obligated, and disbursed for ESF programs over the past two quarters. FIGURE 3.20 FIGURE 3.19 TFBSO ESF FUNDS, CUMULATIVE COMPARISON ESF APPROPRIATIONS BY FISCAL YEAR ($ BILLIONS) ($ BILLIONS) DOD $24 $4 Appropriated Appropriated $20.38 $19.88 18 3 Obligated Obligated $18.45 $19.23 Disbursed Disbursed $16.16 $16.02 12 2 6 1 0 0 As of Jun 30, 2018 As of Sep 30, 2018 10 08 12 14 16 18 06 0402 Note: Numbers have been rounded. Data reects the following transfers from AIF to the ESF: $101 million for FY 2011, $179.5 million for FY 2013, and $55 million for FY 2014. FY 2016 ESF for Afghanistan was reduced by $179 million and put toward the U.S. commitment to the Green Climate Fund. Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data calls, 10/15/2018 and 7/9/2018; State, response to SIGAR data calls, 10/11/2017, 5/4/2016, 10/20/2015, 4/15/2015, and 4/15/2014. 60 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

71 INCLE ESF ORF CO TFBSO DOD CN CERP AIF ASFF DOD State USAID ASFF DOD CERP DOD DOD CN DOD FUNDS STATUS OF ESF USAID INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT INCLE The U.S. Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) manages the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement State (INCLE) account which funds projects and programs for advancing the rule of law and combating narcotics production and trafcking. INCLE supports INL FUNDS TERMINOLOGY several INL program groups, including police, counternarcotics, and rule of 69 INL reported INCLE and other INL funds as law and justice. AIF appropriated, obligated, or disbursed The INCLE account was allocated $160.00 million for Afghanistan for FY 2018 through the Section 653(a) consultation process between Congress Total monies available Appropriations: DOD and the Department of State concluding in the quarter ending September 30, for commitments 2018. This allocation brings cumulative funding to more than $5.22 billion, Obligations: Commitments to pay monies of which over $4.96 billion has been obligated and nearly $4.23 billion has Disbursements: Monies that have been disbursed. Figure 3.21 shows INCLE appropriations by scal year. been expended TFBSO State reported that cumulative obligations as of September 30, 2018, increased by $166.31 million and cumulative disbursements increased by Source: State, response to SIGAR data call, 4/9/2010. 70 nearly $59.06 million over amounts reported last quarter. Figure 3.22 pro- DOD vides a cumulative comparison of amounts appropriated, obligated, and disbursed for INCLE. FIGURE 3.21 FIGURE 3.22 INCLE FUNDS, CUMULATIVE COMPARISON INCLE APPROPRIATIONS BY FISCAL YEAR ($ BILLIONS) ($ MILLIONS) $6 $800 Appropriated 700 Appropriated $5.22 5 $5.07 Obligated 600 Obligated $4.96 $4.79 4 Disbursed Disbursed 500 $4.17 $4.23 3 400 300 2 200 1 100 0 0 a As of Sep 30, 2018 As of Jun 30, 2018 10 08 12 14 16 18 06 0402 Note: Numbers have been rounded. Data may include interagency transfers. a FY 2018 gure reects amount made available for obligation under continuing resolutions. The FY 2018 allocation for Afghanistan had not been determined. Source: State, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 7/10/2018, and 10/10/2017. 61 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

72 STATUS OF FUNDS INTERNATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION FUNDING FOR AFGHANISTAN In addition to assistance provided by the United States, the international community provides a signicant amount of funding to support Afghanistan relief and reconstruction efforts. Most of the international funding provided is administered through trust funds. Contributions provided through trust funds are pooled and then distributed for reconstruction activities. The two main trust funds are the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) 71 and the Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan (LOTFA). Contributions to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund The largest share of international contributions to the Afghan operational and development budgets comes through the ARTF. From 2002 to July 22, 2018, the World Bank reported that 34 donors had pledged more than 72 $11.00 billion, of which nearly $10.65 billion had been paid in. According to the World Bank, donors had indicated contributions of $646.11 million to the ARTF for Afghan scal year 1397, which runs from December 22, 73 Figure 3.23 shows the 10 largest donors to the 2017, to December 21, 2018. ARTF for FY 1397. Contributions are recorded as indicated when written notication is received from the ARTF partners indicating intent to contrib- ute a specied amount. FIGURE 3.23 ($ MILLIONS) ARTF CONTRIBUTIONS FOR FY 1397 BY DONOR AS OF JULY 22, 2018 $291 Total Commitments: $646 Total Paid In: 207 EC/EU 96 130 United Kingdom 0 100 United States 100 53 Sweden 0 36 Canada 36 35 Denmark 18 24 Australia 24 23 Netherlands 0 15 Italy 0 12 Finland 12 10 Others 5 200 100 50 0 250 150 a Paid In Indications Note: Numbers have been rounded. FY 1397 = 12/22/2017–12/21/2018. a Contributions are recorded as indicated when written notication is received from the ARTF partners indicating intent to contribute a specied amount. , ARTF: Administrator's Report on Financial Status as of July 22, 2018 (end of 7th month of FY1397) Source: World Bank, p. 1. 62 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

73 FUNDS STATUS OF FIGURE 3.24 As of July 22, 2018, the United States had indicated and paid in over 74 $3.23 billion since 2002. The United States and the United Kingdom are the DONOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO ARTF, two biggest donors to the ARTF, together contributing 47% of its total fund- 2002–JULY 22, 2018 (PERCENT) ing, as shown in Figure 3.24. Contributions to the ARTF are divided into two funding channels—the $10.65 billion Total Paid In: 75 As of July 22, Recurrent Cost (RC) Window and the Investment Window. 2018, according to the World Bank, nearly $4.99 billion of ARTF funds had been disbursed to the Afghan government through the RC Window to assist United States 76 The RC Window sup- with recurrent costs such as salaries of civil servants. 30% ports the operating costs of the Afghan government because the government’s United Others 77 Kingdom 24% domestic revenues continue to be insufcient to support its recurring costs. 17% The Investment Window supports the costs of development programs. As of July 22, 2018, according to the World Bank, over $5.19 billion had been EU 9% committed for projects funded through the Investment Window, of which Netherlands 5% more than $4.3 billion had been disbursed. The World Bank reported 36 Canada Germany active projects with a combined commitment value of more than $3.85 bil- 7% 8% 78 lion, of which nearly $2.97 billion had been disbursed. Note: “Others” includes 28 donors. Source: World Bank, ARTF: Administrator's Report on Financial Contributions to the Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan Status as of July 22, 2018 (end of 7th month of FY 1397). The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) administers the LOTFA 79 to pay ANP salaries and build the capacity of the Ministry of Interior (MOI). Since 2002, donors have paid in nearly $5.34 billion to the LOTFA through October 7, 2018. The United States had paid in nearly $1.67 billion since the fund’s inception. Japan, the fund’s second-largest donor, had paid in over $1.52 billion. Although the United States remains the largest donor, its contri- butions to the LOTFA have decreased since 2016. Through October 7, 2018, FIGURE 3.25 80 the United States had contributed only $1.04 million to the LOTFA for 2018. DONOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO LOTFA, Figure 3.25 shows the ve largest donors to the LOTFA since 2016. 2016–OCTOBER 7, 2018 (PERCENT) On July 1, 2015, UNDP divided LOTFA support into two projects: the Support to Payroll Management (SPM) project and the MOI and Police Total Paid In: $1.07 billion development (MPD) project. The SPM project aims to develop the capacity of the Afghan government to independently manage all non-duciary aspects 81 of its pay budget for the ANP and Central Prisons Directorate (CPD) staff. Japan While capacity building is an important aspect of the SPM project, almost 31% 99% of SPM project funding goes toward ANP and CPD staff remunera- Germany 82 Others 14% tion. The MPD project, which ended June 30, 2018, focused on institutional 21% development of the MOI and police professionalization of the ANP. UNDP is United designing successor projects in consultation with MOI and expects to launch States 83 them soon. 13% EU At the end of 2017, UNDP and MOI agreed to extend the SPM project 8% UK 84 through December 31, 2018. From July 1, 2015, through March 31, 2018, 13% UNDP had expended nearly $1.18 billion on the SPM project. Of this amount, more than $1.16 billion was transferred to the MOF to pay for ANP Note: Numbers have been rounded. EU = European Union. UK = United Kingdom. “Others” includes 27 donors. Since and CPD staff. In addition, more than $40.50 million had been expended on 2002, 32 donors have paid in a total of $5.34 billion. 85 Source: UNDP, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018. the MPD project through March 31, 2018. 63 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

74 SECURITY SECURITY CONTENTS 65 Key Issues and Events 68 U.S. Reconstruction Funding for Security 69 District, Population, and Territorial Control 75 United Nations Security Reporting 80 U.S. and Coalition Forces in Afghanistan 87 Afghan Security Ministries and the ANDSF 90 Afghan National Army Afghan National Police 98 Women in the ANDSF 103 ANDSF Medical and Health Care 104 64 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

75 SECURITY SECURITY KEY ISSUES AND EVENTS This quarter, Defense Secretary James Mattis described the security situa- tion in Afghanistan as a “tough ght,” as the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) faced pressure from the Taliban along multiple 86 Regarding the progress toward the goal of reconciliation between fronts. the Taliban and Afghan government, Secretary Mattis said in September, “We’re getting two different messages from [the Taliban]. They’ve increased their violence in some parts of the country, not in all parts of course. But they’ve also shown an increased interest in reconciliation. We’ll have to 87 see which way it goes.” While still commander of United States Forces- Afghanistan (USFOR-A), General John Nicholson said “the Taliban are ghting in order to increase their leverage in the [reconciliation] negotiation U.S. Army General Austin Scott Miller 88 and to maintain their cohesion.” succeeded General Nicholson as The last few months saw several discouraging developments. After commander of USFOR-A and NATO’s accepting a three-day ceasere in June, the Taliban rejected Afghan Resolute Support (RS) mission on 89 President Ashraf Ghani’s August 19, 2018, offer of a second ceasere. September 2, 2018. (Screenshot from DOD video) The Taliban instead continued conducting offensive operations, including a high-prole attack on October 18 targeting an election-security meeting between General Miller, Kandahar Province police chief General Abdul Raziq, and provincial intelligence chief General Abdul Momin, at the pro- vincial governor’s compound in Kandahar. General Miller escaped the attack unharmed, but General Raziq and General Momin were killed. As of the publication of this report, provincial governor General Zalmay Wesa, 404th Police Zone commander General Nabi Elham, and three U.S. citizens were reportedly wounded and receiving medical treatment. The Taliban immediately claimed responsibility for the attack and said that General Miller and General Raziq were their main targets. Former Afghan intelli- gence chief Amrullah Saleh called the incident a “pan-Afghan loss,” adding that General Raziq had been “an architect of stability” who had established “deep political networks” for the government in a province surrounded by 90 insurgent threats. On August 10, the Taliban conducted their second major assault on a provincial capital this year on Ghazni City in Ghazni Province. Like last quarter’s siege of Farah City, the ghting in Ghazni lasted ve days until the insurgents were nally expelled from the city by Afghan commandos 65 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

76 SECURITY “These attacks in cities supported by American air power. International media outlets reported that at least 100 ANDSF and 150 civilians were killed. However, ofcial bring great hardship on reporting on the offensive was initially sparse: much of the communications the Afghan people. The infrastructure in Ghazni was destroyed by the Taliban, leaving the question Taliban repeatedly claim 91 of who controlled the city uncertain for days. Afghan defense ofcials not to cause civilian released their account of the events in Ghazni, along with initial casualty gures, in a press conference in Kabul on August 13, and Resolute Support casualties, but their actions 92 (RS) issued its press statement on August 17. While American ofcials did show otherwise.” not conrm the casualty gures reported in the media, they said that the —General John Nicholson Taliban ultimately lost more ghters than the ANDSF and that they failed to 93 achieve their major objectives. In addition to Ghazni, the Taliban maintained pressure on the ANDSF Source: DOD, “Department of Defense Press Brieng by General Nicholson via Teleconference from Kabul, this quarter by overrunning smaller Afghan military bases in Faryab, Afghanistan,” 8/22/2018. 94 Baghlan, and elsewhere. By late September, media reports that ANDSF casualties had increased in recent months spurred questions for Department of Defense (DOD) ofcials, with Secretary Mattis responding that he could not conrm reported numbers of 30–40 ANDSF personnel killed per day but that “they sound about right.” In early October, General Joseph Votel, Commander of U.S. Central Command, conrmed that 95 ANDSF casualties this year had increased compared to last year. When SIGAR asked RS to comment on the issue, they responded, “From the period of May 1 to the most current data as of October 1, 2018, the average number of casualties the ANDSF suffered is the greatest it has ever been during like periods. May was the most active month, accounting for 26% of all casualties during this ve month period. The preponderance of casual- ties during this time period came as a result of either checkpoint operations (52%) or patrolling (35%). Trends indicate that the number of checkpoint casualties is increasing while the number of patrol casualties is decreas- 96 ing.” SIGAR has reported ANDSF casualty gures in the classied annex of its quarterly reports since RS classied them in September 2017 at the request of the Afghan government. Other unclassied data show the ANDSF made minimal or no progress in pressuring the Taliban over the quarter. RS-provided data showed that the ANDSF failed to gain greater control or inuence over districts, popula- tion, and territory this quarter. While the districts, territory, and population under insurgent control or inuence also decreased slightly, the districts, territory, and population “contested”—meaning under neither Afghan gov- ernment nor insurgent control or inuence—increased. Notably, Afghan government control or inuence of its districts reached the lowest level (55.5%) since SIGAR began tracking district control in November 2015. The Afghan government controls or inuences districts in which about 65% of 97 the population lives, unchanged since October 2017. The ANDSF also struggled to maintain its personnel strength this quarter. The ANDSF’s July 2018 strength of 312,328 personnel—comprising 194,017 66 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

77 SECURITY “The Afghan army has in the Afghan National Army (ANA) and 118,311 in the Afghan National Police (ANP)—was the lowest strength reported for comparable periods taken severe casualties since 2012. ANDSF strength decreased by 1,914 personnel since last quar - over the last year and a 98 ter and by 8,827 personnel since the same period last year. This puts the half. They’ve stayed in the ANDSF at roughly 40,000 personnel, or 11%, below their target strength of 99 eld ghting.” 352,000. According to DOD, ANDSF attrition is due to a number of factors, including personnel being killed in action, going absent without leave, or —Secretary James Mattis 100 declining to reenlist. However, counterterror efforts against Islamic State’s afliate in Source: DOD, “Secretary Mattis Media Availability at the Afghanistan, Islamic State Khorasan (IS-K) scored some successes Pentagon,” 9/24/2018. this quarter. In early August, 250 IS-K militants surrendered to Afghan security forces in Jowzjan Province, a development that General Nicholson described as “eliminat[ing] one of the three pockets of 101 ISIS in Afghanistan.” Then on August 25, U.S. forces conducted an air strike against IS-K in Nangarhar Province that killed their leader, Abu Saad Orakzai, to further disrupt IS-K’s command-and-control and 102 attack-planning capabilities. American forces in Afghanistan also suffered losses this quarter. Three U.S. military personnel were killed in action (KIA) and one U.S. soldier was killed in non-hostile circumstances in Afghanistan from July 18, 2018, 103 For more information on U.S. military casual- through October 15, 2018. ties in Afghanistan this quarter, see page 81. ANDSF Data Classied or Not Publicly Releasable USFOR-A newly classied or marked unreleasable the following data: • Exact ANDSF female personnel assigned and authorized strength (rounded gures are unclassied) • All information about ANA and ANP attrition USFOR-A continued to classify or restrict from public release in accor - dance with classication guidelines or based on other restrictions placed by the Afghan government: • ANDSF casualties, by force element and total • Corps- and zone-level ANA and ANP authorized and assigned strength • All performance assessments for the ANA, ANP, Ministry of Defense (MOD), and Ministry of Interior (MOI) • Information about the operational readiness of ANA and ANP equipment • Information about the Special Mission Wing (SMW), including the number and type of airframes in the SMW inventory, the number of pilots and aircrew, the percent-breakdown of counternarcotics and counterterrorism missions own, and the operational readiness (and associated benchmarks) of SMW airframes • The detailed methodology DOD uses to calculate revenue denied to the insurgency as a result of counter-threat nance air strikes 67 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

78 SECURITY • Reporting on anticorruption efforts by the MOI (unclassied but not publicly releasable) • Reporting on the status of the ANDSF’s progress on security-related benchmarks of the Afghanistan Compact (unclassied but not publicly releasable) SIGAR continues to urge transparency in data relating to the security aspects of Afghanistan reconstruction. A classied annex to this report will cover the classied and nonreleasable data. U.S. RECONSTRUCTION FUNDING FOR SECURITY As of September 30, 2018, the U.S. Congress had appropriated more than $83.14 billion to support the ANDSF, including amounts appropriated for FY 2019. This accounts for 63% of all U.S. reconstruction funding for 104 Of the $4.67 billion appropriated Afghanistan since scal year (FY) 2002. for the ASFF for FY 2018, $3.24 billion had been obligated and $2.42 billion 105 disbursed as of September 30, 2018. In 2005, Congress established the Afghan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) to build, equip, train, and sustain the ANDSF, which comprises all forces under the MOD and MOI. Additionally, ASFF supports the Afghan Local Police (ALP), which falls under the authority of the MOI although it is not included in the 352,000 authorized ANDSF force level that donor nations have agreed to fund. Most U.S.-provided funds supporting the ANDSF are channeled through the ASFF and obligated by either the Combined Security Transition Command- 106 Afghanistan (CSTC-A) or the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. On August 13, President Donald J. Trump signed the FY 2019 National 107 The FY 2019 NDAA includes Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) into law. a different authorized ASFF funding breakdown than in previous years: rather than separating the funds by authorization for the Afghan MOD and MOI, the fund is separated into four categories, the ANA, ANP, Afghan Air 108 Force (AAF), and Afghan Special Security Forces (ASSF). Key changes in NDAA authorizations for the ASFF from FY 2018 to 109 FY 2019 include: • $1.9 billion less in total ANA funds, though most of this is accounted for in the $1.8 billion in funds now designated for the AAF (previously ANA and AAF were combined into an MOD category) • $116.7 million more funding for ANA infrastructure • $428 million less funding for ANP sustainment (which includes salaries, incentive pay, and non-payroll-related expenses such as electricity) • $61.4 million less for ANP equipment funds • $87.3 million more funding for ANP training • $702 million in funds designated for the ASSF (previously these funds would have been designated for MOD and MOI) 68 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

79 SECURITY On September 28, President Trump signed the FY 2019 Department of Defense and Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education 110 Appropriations Act and Continuing Appropriations Act. The act appropri- ated $4.9 billion for the ASFF in FY 2019, about $280 million less than the $5.2 billion authorized by the NDAA, yet a 5% or $250 million increase over 111 FY 2018 levels. According to DOD, the majority of ASFF funds are executed using DOD contracts to equip, train, and sustain the ANDSF. Another major use of ASFF is for ANA and ALP salaries, which are paid via accounts at Afghanistan’s central bank. The Ministry of Finance then transfers funds 112 to the MOD and MOI based on submitted requests. However, unlike the ANA, the ANP’s personnel costs are paid through the United Nations Development Programme’s multidonor Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan (LOTFA), to which the United States has historically been the 113 largest contributor. DISTRICT, POPULATION, AND TERRITORIAL CONTROL This quarter, Afghan government control or inuence of its districts reached the lowest level (55.5%) since SIGAR began tracking district control in November 2015, while control or inuence over the population has remained 114 the same since October 2017 (65.2%). The control of Afghanistan’s dis- tricts, population, and territory overall became more contested this quarter, with both the Afghan government and the insurgency losing districts and 115 land area under their control or inuence. For more information on how RS assesses government and insurgent control and inuence, please see 116 Quarterly Report to the United States Congress. SIGAR’s April 2016 District Control According to RS, using Afghanistan’s 407 districts as the unit of assess- ment, as of July 31, 2018, there were 226 districts under Afghan government control (75) or inuence (151), 55.5% of the total number of districts. This represents a slight decline since last quarter (0.7 percentage points) and the same period last year (1.2 points). Insurgent control or inuence of - Afghanistan’s districts also decreased: there were 49 districts under insur gent control (10) or inuence (39). This is a decrease of seven districts since last quarter (1.7 percentage points) and ve from same period last year (1.2). Therefore, 12% of Afghanistan’s districts are now reportedly 117 under insurgent control or inuence. The number of contested dis- tricts—controlled or inuenced by neither the Afghan government nor the insurgency—increased by 10 since last quarter to 132 districts, meaning that 118 32.4% of Afghanistan’s districts are now contested. Since SIGAR began receiving district-control data in November 2015, Afghan government control and inuence over its districts has declined by 69 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

80 SECURITY FIGURE 3.26 HISTORICAL DISTRICT CONTROL IN AFGHANISTAN 8% 10% 13% 11% 12% 13% 14% 14% 14% 29% 30% 29% 33% 32% 30% 30% 29% 30% 63% 60% 57% 57% 57% 56% 56% 56% 56% Oct 2017 Aug 2017 Feb 2017 Nov 2016 Aug 2016 July 2018 May 2017 Jan 2018 May 2018 Afghan Government Control or Inuence Insurgent Control or Inuence Contested Note: Component numbers may not add to 100 because of rounding. Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 11/27/2015, 1/29/2016, 5/28/2016, 8/28/2016, 11/15/2016, 2/20/2017, 5/15/2017, 8/28/2017, 10/15/2017, 3/22/2018, 6/22/2018, and 9/19/2018; RS, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/16/2018. about 16 percentage points; contested districts have increased by about 119 11 points; and insurgent control or inuence has risen by 5.5 points. A lim- ited historical record of district control is shown in Figure 3.26. RS identied the provinces with the largest percentage of insurgent- controlled or -inuenced districts as Uruzgan Province, with four of its six districts and 53% of the population under insurgent control or inu- ence; Kunduz Province (ve of seven districts, 62% of the population); and Helmand Province (nine of 14 districts, 56% of the population). The num- bers of districts in each of these provinces that are under insurgent control or inuence are all unchanged for the last three quarters. RS noted that the provincial centers of all of Afghanistan’s provinces are under Afghan gov- 120 ernment control or inuence. As seen in Figure 3.27, RS provided a map showing Afghan government and insurgent control or inuence by district. While the assessment cat- egories in the RS narrative assessment (“insurgent control” or “insurgent inuence”) are slightly different than those in the map (“insurgent activ- ity” and “high insurgent activity”) RS explained that the change was not due to adopting new methodology for district-control assessments, but was adopted only for the map to make it unclassied and publicly releas- able. For the other district-control data, as included above, RS used the 121 original terms. 70 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

81 SECURITY FIGURE 3.27 Population Control “There has not been a As with district measures, the Afghan government’s control or inuence over the population showed no improvement since last quarter but showed signicant change one way a slight improvement since last year (one percentage point). According to or the other with respect to RS, as of July 31, 2018, about 65% of the population (21.7 million of an esti- population control.” mated 33.3 million total) lived in areas under Afghan government control or inuence, the same percentage as the last two quarters. However, this —General John Nicholson gure represents a 1.5 percentage-point increase in population under gov- ernment control or inuence compared to the same period last year. The Source: DOD, “Department of Defense Press Brieng insurgency controlled or inuenced areas where 10.5% of the population by General Nicholson via Teleconference from Kabul, Afghanistan,” 8/22/2018. (3.5 million people) lived, a 1.2 percentage-point decrease since last quarter. The population living in contested areas increased to 8.1 million people, a 122 1.2 percentage-point increase since last quarter. The goal of the Afghan government is to control or inuence territory in which 80% of the popula- 123 tion (26.6 million people) live by the end of 2019. 71 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

82 SECURITY As seen in Figure 3.28, since SIGAR began receiving population-control data in August 2016, the overall trend has shown a decrease in the Afghan population living in areas under government control or inuence (by about four percentage points), a uctuation of the population living in contested areas from roughly 23% to 29%, and an increase in people living in areas 124 under insurgent control or inuence (by about two points). FIGURE 3.28 HISTORICAL POPULATION CONTROL IN AFGHANISTAN 8% 9% 9% 11% 11% 11% 12% 12% 12% 23% 25% 29% 24% 23% 23% 25% 24% 24% 66% 69% 65% 65% 65% 64% 64% 65% 64% Aug 2017 Oct 2017 Feb 2017 July 2018 May 2017 Nov 2016 Aug 2016 Jan 2018 May 2018 Insurgent Control or Inuence Contested Afghan Government Control or Inuence Note: Component numbers may not add to 100 because of rounding. Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 8/28/2016, 11/15/2016, 2/20/2017, 5/15/2017, 8/28/2017, 10/15/2017, 3/22/2018, 6/22/2018, and 9/19/2018. RS, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/16/2018. TABLE 3.7 GOVERNMENT AND INSURGENT CONTROL WITHIN AFGHANISTAN AS OF JULY 31, 2018 Control Status Population Territory Districts Number % In Millions % Sq Km % GOVERNMENT Control 75 18% 11.4 34% 106,000 16% 258,000 Inuence 151 37% 10.3 31% 40% CONTESTED 32% 8.1 24% 165,000 26% 132 INSURGENT Control 10 2% 0.5 2% 37,000 6% Inuence 39 10% 3.0 9% 78,000 12% 100% 407 Total 100% 100% 644,000 33.3 Note: Sq Km = square kilometers. Component numbers may not add to 100 because of rounding. Territory gures have been rounded by RS. Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; RS, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 9/2018. 72 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

83 SECURITY Territorial Control Shown in Table 3.7, RS reported that the Afghan government controlled or inuenced 364,000 square kilometers (56%) of Afghanistan’s total land area of roughly 644,000 square kilometers, down about two percentage points since last quarter. The insurgency controlled or inuenced 115,000 square kilometers (18%) of the total land area, also down 1.5 points since last quarter. The remaining 165,000 square kilometers (26%) was contested by the government and insurgents, a 3.5 percentage-point increase since 125 last quarter. Violent Events and District Stability SIGAR conducted an analysis of violent-event data from Armed Conict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), which records district-level data of violent incidents across Afghanistan. SIGAR overlays its ACLED analysis with the RS-provided district-stability data (which is a snapshot reect- ing district stability as of July 31, 2018) and has chosen the date range of May 16, 2018, to July 31, 2018, accordingly. The results are presented in map form in Figure 3.29 on the following page. SIGAR’s analysis found that there were 1,792 violent events in Afghanistan from May 16, 2018, to July 31, 2018. About 8.3% of ACLED-recorded incident-days were in districts assessed as Afghan government-controlled (as of July 31), 26.9% were in districts assessed as Afghan government- inuenced, 47.4% were in districts assessed as contested, 16.6% were in districts assessed as having insurgent activity, and 0.8% were in districts 126 assessed as having high levels of insurgent activity. What is ACLED? The Armed Conict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) is “a disaggregated conict collection, analysis, and crisis-mapping project” funded by the State Department. The project collects the dates, actors, types of violence, locations, and fatalities of all political violence and protest events across Africa, South Asia, South East Asia, and the Middle East reported in open, secondary sources. ACLED codes the event data it collects as “violent events” or “nonviolent events.” It denes a violent event as “a single altercation where often force is used by one or more groups toward a political end, although some nonviolent instances—including protests and strategic developments—are included in the dataset to capture the potential pre-cursors or critical junctures of a violent conict.” The types of violent events ACLED codes include: (1) Battle–No Change in Territory, (2) Battle– Non-State Actor Overtakes Territory, (3) Battle–Government Regains Territory, (4) Violence against Civilians, and (5) Remote Violence (such as bombings, IED attacks, mortar and missile attacks, etc.). Source: ACLED, “About ACLED: What is ACLED?”, “ACLED Methodology,” and “Armed Conict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) Codebook, Version 8 (2017),” pp. 6–8, accessed online on 7/10/2018, available at https://www.acleddata.com/. 73 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

84 SECURITY FIGURE 3.29 As the zoomed-in areas of Figure 3.29 show, when looking only at dis- tricts coded as under Afghan government control or inuence, Nangarhar Province had the highest number of violent events occur within those dis- tricts (129 events in 7 districts), followed by Ghazni Province (101 events in 4 districts), and Kabul Province (46 events in one district). Ghazni District experienced 48 security incidents during the period, all of which occurred 127 before the Taliban’s offensive on its capital city between August 10–15. Enemy-Initiated Attacks For the rst time, SIGAR this quarter requested data from RS on enemy- initiated attacks (EIA) in Afghanistan. According to RS, from January 1 to August 15, 2018, there were 13,940 enemy-initiated attacks throughout Afghanistan, with 8,435 of them occurring last quarter from April 15 to 128 August 15, 2018. 74 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

85 SECURITY FIGURE 3.31 FIGURE 3.30 ENEMY-INITIATED ATTACKS BY ATTACK TYPE, JANUARY 1–AUGUST 15, 2018 29% 10% 5% 75% 4% 6% Total: 13,940 Small Arms Heavy Machine Gun Fire Indirect Fire Other Unknown Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; RS, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/22/2018. Figure 3.30 shows that most of the attacks that have occurred since January 1, 2018, (7,473, or 54%), occurred in seven of Afghanistan’s 34 prov- inces; Badghis, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Helmand, Kandahar, and Uruzgan. The most violent province in terms of EIA was Faryab, with 1,176 EIA, fol- 129 lowed closely by Farah (1,145) and Uruzgan (1,096) Provinces. Figure 3.31 shows that the most common method of attack in the EIA this year was small-arms re (75% of EIA), followed by unknown causes of 130 EIA (10%), heavy machine-gun re (6%), and indirect re (4%). For RS’s full data of EIA by province, see Appendix G at www.sigar.mil. SIGAR will continue to monitor EIA to track trends over time. UNITED NATIONS SECURITY REPORTING Security Incidents Decline; Suicide Attacks and Air Strikes Rise According to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, security inci- dents across the country decreased since last year, but suicide attacks 75 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

86 SECURITY FIGURE 3.32 AVERAGE DAILY SECURITY INCIDENTS BY UN REPORTING PERIOD SINCE 2015 80 Average Since 2015: 64.4 70 71.8 70.9 69.5 68.1 66.6 66.3 64.4 60 63.8 63.1 62.4 58.6 55.9 50 52.1 40 30 20 10 0 8/16/16– 3/1/17– 9/15/17– 11/18/16– 6/15/17– 5/1/15– 2/15/18– 12/1/15– 5/15/18– 12/15/17– 8/1/15– 5/20/16– 2/16/16– 11/17/16 2/14/17 5/31/17 8/31/17 11/15/17 8/15/18 5/15/18 8/15/16 2/15/16 7/31/15 2/15/18 5/19/16 10/31/15 Note: UN reporting periods are occasionally inconsistent, leading to some gaps in data. , reports of the Secretary-General, 6/10/2015, p. 4; 9/1/2015, p. 4; 12/10/2015, p. 5; The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security Source: UN, 3/7/2016, p. 6; 6/10/2016, p. 4; 9/7/2016, p. 5; 12/13/2016, p. 4; 3/3/2017, p. 4; 6/15/2017, p. 4; 9/15/2017, p. 4; 12/15/2017, p. 5; 2/27/2018, p. 5; 6/6/2018, p. 5; 9/10/2018, p. 5; SIGAR, analysis of UN-provided data, 9/2018. and AAF and Coalition air strikes increased notably. The UN reported 5,800 security incidents between May 15, 2018, and August 15, 2018, a 10% Security incidents: reported incidents decrease from the same period in 2017. The decline in security incidents that include armed clashes, improvised during this period may be partially attributed to the Afghan government and explosive devices, targeted killings, the Taliban’s Eid-al Fitr ceaseres that occurred in June. During the week abductions, suicide attacks, criminal acts, that included the holiday, the UN recorded a total of 285 incidents, the low- and intimidation. est number recorded since the 2014 transition of security authority to the 131 Afghan government. As reected in Figure 3.32, the reporting period saw an average of Source: SIGAR, analysis of the Report of the Secretary- The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for General, 62.4 incidents per day, a more than eight incident-per-day decrease com- international peace and security , 12/9/2014. pared to roughly the same period in 2017 (70.9). For the third consecutive quarter, the daily average number of security incidents over the reporting period remained lower than the daily average of 64.4 incidents over roughly the last three years. According to the UN, armed clashes continued to cause the most security incidents (61%). However, the UN continued to report signicant increases in suicide attacks and air strikes, up 38% and 46% 132 respectively since the same period in 2017. As in previous quarters, the UN said the eastern, southern, and south- eastern regions of Afghanistan experienced the most security incidents during the reporting period. This quarter, incidents occurring in these three regions accounted for 67% of the national total, compared to 82% of the total last quarter. However, the UN noted concerns about the “deteriorating 76 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

87 SECURITY security conditions in the north” of the country due to an observed increase UNAMA Collection Methodology in ground engagements in Balkh, Faryab, and Jowzjan Provinces. During According to UNAMA, data on civilian the reporting period, the Taliban succeeded in capturing three district cen- casualties are collected through “direct ters in Faryab Province. Additionally, the surrender of more than 250 IS-K site visits, physical examination of items ghters to government forces in Jowzjan Province allowed the Taliban to and evidence gathered at the scene of further consolidate its position in that province. The UN said they recorded incidents, visits to hospital and medical 17% more security incidents in northern Afghanistan in the rst half of 2018 facilities, still and video images,” reports by 133 than the same period in 2017. UN entities, and primary, secondary, and third-party accounts. Information is obtained UNAMA: Civilian Deaths at Record High for directly from primary accounts where Second Consecutive Quarter possible. Civilians whose noncombatant status is under “signicant doubt,” based The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) issued on international humanitarian law, are not its quarterly update on civilians in armed conict, which reported 8,050 included in the gures. Ground engagement civilian casualties (2,798 deaths and 5,252 injuries) from January 1 through casualties which cannot be denitively 134 September 30, 2018. attributed to either side, such as those As seen in Figure 3.33, UNAMA documented more civilian deaths in incurred during crossre, are jointly the rst nine months of 2018 than they had during the same nine-month attributed to both parties. UNAMA includes reporting period since 2014. While the number of civilian deaths from an “other” category to distinguish between January 1–September 30, 2018, increased by 5% compared to the same these jointly attributed casualties and those period in 2017, the number of injuries decreased by 3%, which kept the caused by other events, such as unexploded overall number of civilian casualties roughly on par with the high level of ordnance or cross-border shelling by 135 casualties over the same period in 2017. Pakistani forces. UNAMA’s methodology has Similar to the last two quarters, improvised explosive device (IED) remained largely unchanged since 2008. attacks (suicide, complex, and non-suicide IED attacks) by antigovernment Source: UNAMA, Protection of Civilians in Armed Conict, 3/6/2018, i–ii; 1/2010, p. 35; 2/11/2009, pp. 4–5; and elements continued to be the primary cause of civilian casualties. UNAMA 8/2015, p. 4. said that the combined use of suicide and non-suicide IEDs caused 45% of all civilian casualties in the rst nine months of 2018. Ground engagements FIGURE 3.33 UNAMA CIVILIAN CASUALTIES: JANUARY THROUGH SEPTEMBER, 2009–2018 10,000 8,539 8,487 Deaths Injuries 8,050 8,084 8,034 8,000 5,916 5,805 6,963 5,418 5,252 5,169 6,069 5,809 4,572 5,631 6,000 3,561 4,732 3,655 3,482 2,814 4,000 2,865 2,798 2,666 2,682 2,000 2,623 2,508 2,391 2,154 2,149 1,918 0 2010 2015 2014 2013 2018 2011 2016 2009 2017 2012 Note: This chart also appears in UNAMA's report. 10/10/2018, p. 1. Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018, Source: UNAMA, 77 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

88 SECURITY FIGURE 3.34 UNAMA: CIVILIAN CASUALTIES BY PARTIES UNAMA: CIVILIAN CASUALTIES BY TO THE CONFLICT INCIDENT TYPE 6% 4% 22% 29% 8% 10% 8% 3% 16% 65% 29% Total: 8,050 Total: 8,050 Antigovernment Elements - 5,243 Suicide and Complex Attacks - 2,343 Progovernment Forces - 1,753 Non-Suicide IEDs - 1,291 Jointly Attributed - 833 Ground Engagements - 2,311 Other - 221 Targeted/Deliberate Killings - 668 Aerial Operations - 649 Explosive Remnants of War - 337 Other - 451 Note: The reporting period for this data is January 1–September 30, 2018. These charts also appear in UNAMA's report. , Source: UNAMA, Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 10/10/2018, pp. 2, 3. were the second leading cause of civilian casualties, accounting for 29% of the total. UNAMA reported that the increase in civilian casualties caused by suicide and complex attacks by antigovernment elements offset decreases in civilian casualties from other incident types, such as the 18% reduction in casualties caused during ground engagements and the 32% decrease from 136 U.S. Air Strikes targeted and deliberate killings. According to U.S. Air Forces Central UNAMA attributed 65% of this year’s casualties through September Command (AFCENT), the United States to antigovernment elements, 22% to progovernment forces, 10% to both conducted 4,429 air strikes in Afghanistan pro- and antigovernment forces, and 3% to other actors. Notably, UNAMA in the rst eight months of 2018. The recorded 649 civilian casualties (313 deaths and 336 injuries) due to aerial number of strikes this year already surpasses operations by progovernment forces from January 1 to September 30, the total number carried out during 2017 2018, a 39% increase in civilian casualties from aerial operations since the (4,361) and is more than three times the same period in 2017. This year’s gures reect a record number of civilian total carried out during 2016. AFCENT casualties caused by this incident type since UNAMA began recording civil- reported the greatest number of air strikes in ian-casualty data in 2009. UNAMA said that air-strike casualties, together July (746) and August (715) of this year. with “a signicant increase in civilian casualties from search operations” Source: AFCENT, “AFCENT Airpower Summary,” 8/31/2018, offset the 17% decrease in civilian casualties from ground ghting by p. 3. 78 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

89 SECURITY Election-Related Violence UNAMA recorded 366 civilian casualties (126 deaths and 240 injuries) from election-related violence between January 1 and September 30, 2018. Most of these casualties (more than 250) came from two IED attacks on April 22 and May 6 in Kabul and Khost Provinces. Antigovernment elements perpetrated election-related violence during the voter registration period through the use of IEDs, suicide attacks, and targeted killings. They mainly targeted national ID distribution centers, voter registration sites, and election personnel, including elections workers and ANP ofcers providing security to election-related sites. UNAMA noted that many of the planned polling centers for the parliamentary elections scheduled in October 2018 and presidential elections in April 2019 are located in schools, health clinics, and mosques. Attacks on such facilities can lead to more civilian deaths and injuries and have a negative impact on access to education, health, and on the freedom of religion. UNAMA said it is also concerned with the increased targeting of electoral candidates. In one recent example, a parliamentary candidate in Kandahar, well-known in his community as a civil-society activist and outspoken critic of corrupt politicians, was shot and killed by Taliban militants on September 25. As of October 18, ten election candidates have been killed while campaigning for ofce over the last two months. Source: UNAMA, , Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 10/10/2018, p. 8; , “U.S. commander in Afghanistan survives deadly attack at governor’s compound that kills Washington Post top Afghan police general,” 10/18/2018. progovernment forces. For UNAMA’s full breakdown of civilian casualties 137 by incident type and parties to the conict, see Figure 3.34. IS-K Continues to Inict Heavy Casualties UNAMA continued to report a record-high number of civilian casualties caused by suicide and complex attacks by antigovernment elements, more than half of which they attributed to IS-K. As it did last quarter, UNAMA expressed “extreme concern” over the doubling of civilian casualties in 138 Nangarhar Province, where IS-K continues to operate. IS-K continues to deliberately and indiscriminately target civilians and has claimed responsibility for several high-prole attacks this quarter. According to ACLED, the group claimed 14 attacks targeting Afghan security forces or civilians from July 16 to October 1, 2018, inicting an estimated 96 fatalities, RS Collection Methodology a decrease of 10 attacks and 46 fatalities compared to the previous period According to DOD, the RS Civilian Casualty 139 Two things likely contributed to the decrease in IS-K (May 1–July 15, 2018). Management Team relies primarily upon attacks this quarter: rst, in early August, 250 IS-K militants surrendered to operational reporting from RS’s Train, Afghan security forces in Jowzjan Province; second, on August 25, U.S. forces Advise, and Assist Commands (TAACs), killed IS-K’s leader Abu Saad Orakzai in an air strike in Nangarhar Province. other Coalition force headquarters, and 140 He was the third IS-K commander killed in just over two years. ANDSF reports from the Afghan Presidential Information Command Centre to collect RS Civilian Casualty Data civilian-casualty data. For the rst time, SIGAR this quarter requested detailed civilian-casualty Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan, Source: DOD, data from RS. From January 1 through August 15, 2018, RS recorded 5,588 12/2017, p. 27. 79 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

90 SECURITY FIGURE 3.35 civilian casualties in Afghanistan, with the highest number of casual- 141 ties occurring in January (875), April (801), and June (777). As seen in RS: CIVILIAN CASUALTIES BY INCIDENT TYPE Table 3.8, RS reported that the provinces with the highest number of civilian casualties by far were Kabul (1,225) and Nangarhar Provinces (935), which 142 together accounted for 38.7% of total casualties nationwide. While RS’s overall civilian-casualty data is difcult to compare accurately 53% 2,973 with UNAMA’s due to their different reporting periods and methodologies, one key difference, is easily discernable. When examining both data sets’ 1% 38 casualty gures by incident type, particularly air strikes, it is clear that RS’s data reects far fewer civilian casualties than UNAMA’s. As seen in 4% 2% Figure 3.35, from January 1 through August 15, RS recorded a total of 102 21% 242 85 1,174 civilian casualties due to U.S. (29 casualties) and AAF (73) air strikes, less 2% 6% 143 than a sixth of the 649 reported by UNAMA through September 30, 2018. 7% 102 328 5% 370 RS recorded no civilian casualties due to U.S. or Afghan air strikes dur - 276 ing their operations to counter the Taliban’s assault on Ghazni in August, Total: 5,588 and only two U.S. air-strike casualties during the Taliban assault on Farah IEDs Explosive Remnants of War in May. In both of these incidents, RS reported that U.S. and Afghan forces Direct Fire Air Strikes conducted many air strikes: in Ghazni alone, RS said U.S. forces conducted Indirect Fire 144 Crossre 32 air strikes from August 10–13 (which killed over 220 Taliban ghters). Assassination Other and Murder Conversely, as of October 7, UNAMA reported that it veried 210 civilian Complex Attack casualties (69 deaths and 141 injured) occurring in Ghazni City between August 10 and 15, the majority of which they attributed to ground ghting Note: The reporting period for this data is January 1–August 15, 2018. Casualties include dead and wounded. between Taliban and progovernment forces, but also from progovernment Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 145 aerial operations. U.S. AND COALITION FORCES IN AFGHANISTAN - According to DOD, as of June 2018, approximately 14,000 U.S. military per sonnel were serving in Afghanistan as part of Operation Freedom’s Sentinel (OFS), the same number reported for the last three quarters. This number does not include an additional 816 DOD civilian personnel and 10,457 U.S. 146 Of the 14,000 U.S. mili- citizens who serve as contractors in Afghanistan. tary personnel, 8,475 U.S. personnel are assigned to the NATO RS mission to train, advise, and assist Afghan security forces, unchanged since last CSTC-A Change of Command 147 The remaining U.S. military personnel support the OFS mission quarter. In addition to the change in the RS and through air operations, training the Afghan special forces, and conducting USFOR-A command, CSTC-A also changed 148 counterterror operations. commands this quarter. On October 12, As of September 2018, the RS mission included roughly 7,754 military U.S. Army Lieutenant General James Rainey personnel from NATO allies and non-NATO partner nations, bringing the succeeded Major General Robin Fontes as current total of RS military personnel to 16,229 (the same as last quarter). CSTC-A commander. The United States contributes the most troops to the RS mission, followed , “Rainey Takes the Lead of Key Source: Stars and Stripes 149 Coalition Command in Afghanistan,” 10/12/2018. by Germany (1,300 personnel) and Italy (895). 80 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

91 SECURITY TABLE 3.8 RS-REPORTED CIVILIAN CASUALTIES: JANUARY– AUGUST 15, 2018 Casualties Per Casualties Per Province Population Thousand Total Casualties Total Casualties Province Thousand Population Ghazni 0.12 1,507,262 176 0.50 Nangarhar 1,864,582 935 Badghis 63 0.10 607,825 551,469 214 0.39 Kunar Nuristan 173,222 0.10 18 Paktiya 677,465 259 0.38 2,326,261 Herat 219 0.09 Logar 481,271 137 0.28 0.08 Nimroz 202,488 17 1,112,152 290 0.26 Helmand Balkh 0.07 111 1,633,048 552,694 0.26 143 Laghman 48 Ghor 845,018 0.06 0.25 109 429,415 Uruzgan Parwan 817,955 0.06 53 169 0.24 704,149 Khost Jowzjan 656,187 36 0.05 0.22 135 620,552 Farah Samangan 26 475,655 0.05 1,225 Kabul 5,452,652 0.22 1,208,745 Takhar 55 0.05 Faryab 1,226,475 247 0.20 30 Badakhshan 1,165,960 0.03 540,051 92 Kapisa 0.17 690,566 23 Sar-e Pul 0.03 0.15 57 374,440 Zabul Panjshayr 0.02 4 187,856 206 1,512,293 Kandahar 0.14 0.01 6 561,651 Daykundi Kunduz 169 0.14 1,237,001 Bamyan 0 549,243 0.00 0.14 73 532,953 Paktika Grand Total 5,588 33,329,050 1,120,511 151 0.13 Baghlan 92 0.13 729,983 Wardak Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. U.S. Forces Casualties According to DOD, three U.S. military personnel were killed in action (KIA) and one U.S. soldier was killed in non-hostile circumstances in Afghanistan from July 18, 2018, through October 15, 2018. On October 4, U.S. Army Specialist James Slape was killed in Helmand Province as a result of wounds sustained from an IED. On September 4, Army Staff Sergeant Diobanjo Sanagustin died from a non-combat related injury at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan. On September 3, Command Sergeant Major Timothy Bolyard, of 3rd Squadron, 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade (SFAB), was killed and another U.S. soldier was wounded in eastern Afghanistan as a result of an apparent insider attack. The attack illustrates the signicant risks SFAB advisors take in working closely with their forward-operating Afghan counterparts. Army Staff Sergeant Reymund Transguracion died on August 12 of wounds sustained when an IED detonated near him while he was conducting combat patrol operations in Helmand Province. DOD is 150 currently investigating these incidents. As of October 15, 2018, a total of 37 U.S. military personnel were KIA (17 in non-hostile circumstances) and 328 military personnel were wounded in action (WIA) since the start of Operation Freedom’s Sentinel 81 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

92 SECURITY on January 1, 2015. Since the beginning of the Afghan war in October 2001, 2,401 U.S. military personnel have died (1,881 KIA and 520 of non-hostile 151 deaths) and 20,422 were WIA. Insider Attacks on U.S. Forces USFOR-A reported that from January 1 to August 26, 2018, ANDSF person- nel turned on Coalition personnel in one conrmed “green-on-blue” insider attack (which does not include the above-mentioned apparent insider attack on September 3). One U.S. soldier was killed and two were wounded during the conrmed attack. All three were assigned to the 1st SFAB, which is assigned to advise and assist ANDSF personnel below the corps level. The same period last year saw six conrmed green-on-blue insider attacks 152 that killed three U.S. military personnel and wounded 10. USFOR-A emphasized last quarter that as the SFAB mission began, USFOR-A shifted personnel and resources to support screening of all SFAB partner brigades within the ANA and ANP. This new requirement was implemented while the screening requirements and processes for Coalition conventional bases throughout Afghanistan remained in place. For more information on USFOR-A’s green-on-blue mitigation Quarterly Report to the United policies, see SIGAR’s January 2018 153 States Congress . Updates on Developing Essential Functions of the ANDSF, MOD, and MOI Highlights for each RS functional area reported to SIGAR this quarter include: • According to ROL, the MOD identied and Rule of Law (ROL): reported six cases believed to be gross violations of human rights (GVHR) after using the legal criteria ROL had provided. While no Bacha bazi: When men, including some DOD determination has yet been made regarding the credibility of government ofcials and security forces, the allegations, MOD legal ofcials believed there were sufcient use young boys for social and sexual grounds to formally investigate all six cases. These cases included entertainment. There are reports that some two allegations of rape or sexual assault (both alleged victims were law-enforcement ofcials, prosecutors, female ANA personnel), two cases of assault and battery or cruel and judges accept bribes from or use their treatment, one case involving cruel treatment and extrajudicial killing, relationships with perpetrators of bacha bazi to allow them to escape punishment. bacha bazi . RS Legal Affairs noted that “while and one case involving [they] appreciate [MOD] reporting on crimes that [MOD] believe meet Leahy Laws: The Leahy laws prohibit U.S. the criteria, not all allegations rise to the level of a GVHR for DOD 154 funding of units of foreign forces that vetting purposes.” Leahy Law commit gross violations of human rights. As of August 22, 2018, MOD investigations of three cases have been completed. One of the cases was dismissed without further action, and the remaining two cases were referred for adjudication by court- , 6/30/2016, p. 66; Trafcking in Persons Report Source: State, martial. One of these two cases has been adjudicated, resulting in hild Sexual Assault in SIGAR, Evaluation Report 17-47-IP: C a conviction and a one-year sentence. ROL said that if insufcient , p. 2. Afghanistan 82 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

93 SECURITY progress is made on open GVHR cases in the coming months, nancial New NATO Command Center Planned penalties will be applied to both ministries. MOD reported to ROL that NATO is planning to replace temporary as of late August, 24% of ANA personnel have received unit-level human structures at its headquarters in Kabul with 155 rights training. hardened, permanent structures. According • MAG-I STRATCOM: MAG-I reported a number of strategic- to RS ofcials, a contract to build a large, communications successes for MOI this quarter. MOI created a concrete command-and-control center weekly Strategic Communication Working Group chaired by the MOI’s on the compound is out for bidding. The chief of staff and attended by senior representatives from many of planned three-story, 120,000-square-foot the major MOI directorates (Religious and Cultural Affairs, Public concrete building would require hundreds of Affairs, Gender and Human Resources, and the ofce of the Deputy personnel living and working at the current headquarters to relocate to other nearby Minister for Security). The working group also developed structural bases while construction is under way. and process changes required to institutionalize sustainable strategic According to a NATO procurement document, communication within the MOI. the complex is expected to have more than In addition, Minister of Interior Wais Barmak had two major 800 workspaces, but further details are engagements with the media that MAG-I STRATCOM felt were unavailable until the bidding and design successful in informing and building trust with the Afghan public. The phase of the project are completed. rst was a media roundtable in early August to discuss the ANP’s efforts Stars and Stripes Source: , “NATO Base in Kabul is Building to provide security to voter-registration sites across Afghanistan and its More amid Open-Ended US Commitment,” 9/17/2018. plans to provide security for polling sites during the October elections. The second was his participation at a joint press conference, with Minister of Defense Tariq Shah Bahrami, on the status of the battle for Ghazni in mid-August. MAG-I STRATCOM identied the following challenges for MOI strategic and tactical communications: (1) vertical coordination and synchronization of communications from tactical (ANP) to strategic (MOI headquarters) levels; (2) access to accurate operational reporting due to insurgents destroying communication infrastructure; (3) message coordination between MOI and USFOR-A/RS advisors, particularly in fast-paced, crisis situations; and (4) poor leadership, with concerns 156 about the efcacy and professionalism of the MOI spokesman. • MAG-D STRATCOM: MAG-D STRATCOM reported no MOD strategic-communications challenges this quarter, but highlighted a few areas of progress. The MOD appointed a new civilian ofcial as director of strategic communications. They also developed a marketing-communications recruiting plan (radio, TV, and billboard 157 advertisements), specically for the new ANA Territorial Force. FD-AIAT reported “notable • Force Development (FD-AIAT): accomplishments” with the Afghan Training and Education Enterprise in three broad areas: enhancement of systems approach to ANA training, rening existing doctrine, and providing Afghan command and institutional staff the means to develop training and doctrine programs in MOD academies and branch schools. FD-AIAT identied three key challenges to these efforts: (1) resources and efforts went to eld units rather than professional military-education institutions; (2) human 83 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

94 SECURITY resource and career-path management continued to perform poorly; and (3) poor leadership was responsible for the poor sustainment of trainees, a lack of an operational readiness cycle, ineffective collective 158 training, and corruption. FD-PIAT reported that 62 female • Force Development (FD-PIAT): ANP personnel graduated from the rst large-scale training course for female police at Balkh Regional Training Center, demonstrating that the 159 ANP can successfully train female police in Afghanistan. • Resource Management (RM): RM reported that it reviewed and analyzed MOD’s internal processes to streamline emergency and urgent procurements, which are awaiting approval from the National Procurement Commission. Emergency and urgent procurements are dened as goods, works, or services that exceed roughly $28,000 per event limit where there is an imminent threat to health, welfare, safety, or damage to property. Final approval for these items and services lies 160 with the Minister of Defense with concurrence from CSTC‐A. Transparency, Accountability, and Oversight (TAO): • TAO reported that MOD IG has begun the process for coordinating next year’s annual inspection plan, developed a plan to create one central complaint center, and restructured its Training and Education branch to include ve permanent instructors and course developers. MOI IG submitted its rst budget request for years 2019–2021, hired subject-matter experts in quality control, and initiated a plan to reorganize for better efciency and independence. TAO also reported that the permanent MOD and ANA general staff inspectors general have not yet been appointed, posing a 161 critical barrier to the decision making process of both organizations. • OS-Logistics reported that the Operational Sustainment (OS): National Maintenance Strategy Ground Vehicle Support Contract, which began full operation on December 29, 2017, has delivered substantial maintenance support to the ANDSF. The contractor completed maintenance on 2,224 ANA vehicles and 9,203 ANP vehicles during the period, and oversaw maintenance conducted by the ANDSF on 1,046 vehicles by the ANA (32% of total ANA vehicle eet) and 249 vehicles by the ANP (2.6% of total ANP vehicle eet). The ANA’s central workshop is also reported to have established inventories for their weapons- and communications-repair divisions, reducing repair wait times for equipment. OS-Medical reported that it has recruited 60 nurses, 30 physicians, and 17 specialty physicians to ll the ANP Hospital’s open billets. Additionally, 20,000 tons of scrap metal from ANDSF sites have been disposed of through an MOD-established contract generating revenue for the Afghan government, and the MOI has demilitarized 518 162 vehicles this year. CJ3/5/7: • MOD produced its Strategic Planning Guidance and MOI produced the annual Strategic Planning Directive during this period, 84 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

95 SECURITY improving their ability to develop strategic documents and planning initiatives. Pursuant to MOI’s rst strategic goal to strengthen public order and ensure security, a total of 13,000 Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) personnel have been transferred to MOD and redesignated as the Afghan National Civil Order Forces (ANCOF), while the remaining 2,200 ANCOP personnel in MOI have been redesignated as Anti-Riot Police Forces. The transfer was designed to improve command and control and unity of effort, and resulted in redened 163 tasks and the loss of police powers for ANCOF. • Intelligence TAA: Six of eight planned ScanEagle systems, which are unmanned aerial vehicles that perform reconnaissance, have been elded to MOD. These six systems are fully operational: the ScanEagle schoolhouse (training center) was recently relocated to Kandahar Aireld (KAF) and has one system, and the other ve systems are located with the ANA Corps. The two remaining ScanEagle systems are scheduled for elding to the 207th and 209th Corps in November 2018 and April 2019, respectively. To support enemy targeting, Intelligence TAA has also shared the current CENTCOM list of over 40,000 no-strike entities with MOD in order to reduce collateral damage from kinetic strikes. MOD Intelligence TAA also reported that the National Military Intelligence Center has created a new intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) module showing the location, maintenance status, and operational tracking for all ANA ISR assets. The ANA is currently training personnel to operate Wolfhounds, which are backpacked, low-level voice-intercept radios, to listen to and locate insurgent hand-held radios. The training and certication of Wolfhound operators within the ANA increased from 20% capacity last quarter to 40% capacity in September 2018. Intelligence TAA anticipates readiness will increase through further 164 personnel training in October and November. This quarter RS Gender Gender Integration Advisory Ofce: • Integration Advisory Ofce reported that the MOI issued an updated human resource manual and a revised gender policy to address sexual harassment but they did not take into consideration recommended policy changes provided by the MOI Human Rights, Women’s Affairs and Children Directorate. RS said that MOI’s Human Resource Manual and Gender Policy lack the necessary roles, responsibilities, processes, and condentiality requirements to be effectively implemented throughout the ministry. In addition, the MOD approved its sexual- harassment policy in April 2018, but the policy was subsequently reviewed by RS Rule of Law advisors who recommended changes. A working group recently convened to nalize a substantive policy, which is slated to be approved and signed by the Minister of Defense 165 in October. 85 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

96 SECURITY Counterthreat-Finance: Disrupting Insurgent Revenue Streams USFOR-A have carried out interdiction missions against drug trade-related targets as part of a broader military effort targeting insurgents’ revenue 166 According to U.S. government ofcials, as of early August, air generation. strikes have hit approximately 200 counter-revenue targets, of which 129 were drug-related. The strikes represent a small percentage of the targets hit in the intensied air campaign launched last November under President 167 Trump’s South Asia strategy. The counterthreat-nance strikes are not explicitly intended to curtail the opium trade but to disrupt nancing for particular insurgent leaders to 168 Between March and July 31, 2018, make reconciliation more attractive. the Afghan Air Force destroyed four narcotics production facilities, inde- 169 Coalition pendently from the U.S. counterthreat-nance (CTF) campaign. forces struck 34 CTF targets between July 1 and September 30, 2018—all targets were narcotics-production facilities. According to USFOR-A, the campaign remains effective at destroying the enemy’s resources and caus- 170 ing it to make tactical changes to avoid strikes. According to DOD, the air campaign has denied the Taliban about $46 million in revenue so far, although USFOR-A told SIGAR that exact - quantities and values for narcotics labs and storage facilities destroyed dur 171 DOD admitted that their estimates of ing air strikes cannot be assessed. revenue denied to the enemy are imperfect because, as they have stated in multiple press briengs, no ground verication takes place to weigh and assess the amounts of the precursors or products actually destroyed by a strike. According to DOD, the numbers represent a sufcient and consistent measure of performance (not effect, which is measured in 172 intelligence reports). SIGAR has raised concerns in previous reports about DOD estimates of revenue denied from destroyed narcotics and the potential for civilian casualties associated with the campaign. DOD’s methodology assigns values to the narcotics-production facilities and a uniform 20% tax rate applied to the total value to determine the potential revenue to the Taliban. It does not account for the various production stages along the opium value chain, nor for the variations in regional tax rates because, according to DOD, these measures would unnecessarily complicate and introduce inconsistencies 173 in the measure of performance. According to David Manseld, an expert on Afghanistan’s opium industry, heroin prots and taxes are not as large as U.S. forces estimate and bombing drug labs will have a negligible effect on 174 According to DOD, however, Mr. Manseld’s views are Taliban revenues. contradicted by CIA classied assessments based on intelligence reviews and the costly changes observed in the tactics, techniques, and procedures of drug-trafcking organizations. USFOR-A reports that no conrmed civil- ian casualties have resulted from the counter-revenue campaign strikes while 29 civilian casualties were reported by DOD from other coalition air 86 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

97 SECURITY strikes and 73 from Afghan Air Force air strikes between January 1 and 175 August 15. AFGHAN SECURITY MINISTRIES AND THE ANDSF ANDSF Strength Declines USFOR-A reported that the actual, assigned strength of the ANDSF as of July 31, 2018, (not including civilians) was 312,328 personnel, which 176 includes 194,017 personnel in the ANA and AAF and 118,311 in the ANP. As shown in Figure 3.36, ANDSF strength this quarter is the lowest it has been in the third quarter of the year since 2012. The ANDSF strength decreased by 1,914 personnel since last quarter and by 8,827 personnel 177 since the same period last year. According to DOD, the ANDSF’s total authorized (goal) end strength in July was 352,000 personnel, including 227,374 ANA and 124,626 ANP personnel, but excluding 30,000 Afghan Local Police, who fall under MOI 178 oversight. Seen in Table 3.9 on the next page, this puts the ANDSF at only FIGURE 3.36 THIRD QUARTER ANDSF ASSIGNED STRENGTH SINCE 2012 350,000 152,123 146,399 153,153 300,000 148,480 148,296 151,179 118,311 250,000 200,000 194,017 190,848 188,170 183,434 169,372 169,229 150,000 169,976 100,000 50,000 0 340,293 317,668 337,247 336,587 312,328 321,155 317,709 7/2017 8/2013 8/2012 7/2018 7/2015 8/2014 7/2016 ANA including AAF ANP Note: ANA = Afghan National Army; AAF = Afghan Air Force; ANP = Afghan National Police; ANDSF = Afghan National Defense and Security Forces. These gures do not include civilian personnel. ANP and Total ANDSF gures do not include "standby" personnel, generally reservists, or personnel not in service while completing training. The change in the individual strengths of the ANA and ANP from 2017 to 2018 is due to the transfer of two force elements from the MOI to MOD. However, this change did not impact the overall strength of the ANDSF. Source: CSTC-A response to SIGAR data call, 9/6/2012, 10/1/2012, 10/1/2013, 10/6/2014, 9/11/2015, 8/30/2016, and 9/19/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/9/2016, 10/11/2016, and 10/11/2018; OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/17/2018; SIGAR, analysis of CSTC-A-provided data, 10/2018. 87 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

98 SECURITY TABLE 3.9 ANDSF ASSIGNED AND AUTHORIZED STRENGTH, AS OF JULY 31, 2018 Difference Between Authorized Assigned % of Target Assigned and Authorization ANDSF Component Difference Strength Authorized Strength 85.3% ANA including AAF 227,374 (14.7%) (33,357) 194,017 118,311 94.9% (6,315) (5.1%) 124,626 ANP ANDSF Total (11.3%) 352,000 312,328 88.7% (39,672) without Civilians Note: ANDSF = Afghan National Defense and Security Forces; ANA = Afghan National Army; AAF = Afghan Air Force; ANP = Afghan National Police. 6/2018, p. 40; USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; Source: DOD, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan, SIGAR, analysis of USAFOR-A-provided data, 9/2018. 88.7% of its authorized strength, down from 91.2% during the same period 179 in 2017. ANDSF Casualties – Data Classied USFOR-A continues to classify ANDSF casualty data at the request of the 180 Afghan government. SIGAR’s questions about ANDSF casualties can be found in Appendix E of this report. ANDSF casualties are reported in the classied annex. Insider Attacks on the ANDSF Increase Since responsibility for security began transitioning to the Afghan govern- ment in 2014, “green-on-green” insider attacks in which ANDSF personnel are attacked from within their own ranks, sometimes by an insurgent inl- 181 trator, have consistently been a severe problem. According to USFOR-A, there were 23 reported green-on-green insider attacks against ANDSF personnel from May 17 to August 26, 2018, bringing this year’s total to 56 insider attacks. This is an increase of eight attacks compared to roughly the 182 same period in 2017. The ANDSF incurred 42 casualties (28 killed and 14 wounded) as a result of this quarter’s insider attacks, and a total of 121 ANDSF casual- ties (85 killed and 36 wounded) from January 1 to August 26, 2018. Though there have been more attacks so far in 2018 compared to the same period in 2017, last year’s attacks were more lethal (97 ANDSF were killed and 183 50 were wounded). ANDSF Force Element Performance – Data Classied USFOR-A continues to classify ANDSF performance assessments. SIGAR’s questions about ANDSF performance can be found in Appendix E of this report. ANDSF performance assessments are reported in the classied annex. 88 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

99 SECURITY This quarter, the Government Accountability Ofce (GAO) released an audit (GAO-19-116) on ANDSF capabilities. The key ndings of the report include: the ANDSF have improved some fundamental capabilities, such as high-level operational planning, but continue to rely on U.S. and Coalition support to ll several important capability gaps; DOD has initiatives to address some of these ANDSF capability gaps, such as country-wide vehicle maintenance and training efforts, yet other capabilities (such as logistics) may take several more years to develop to a self-sustaining level; while DOD has rsthand information on the AAF and the Afghan Special Security Forces’ abilities to operate and maintain U.S.-purchased equipment, it has little reliable information on the equipment prociency of conventional ANDSF units, with DOD relying on the latter’s self assessments; and DOD’s lack of reliable information on conventional forces’ equipment operations- and-maintenance abilities adds to the uncertainty and risk in assessing the 184 For more information about this progress of DOD efforts in Afghanistan. and other U.S. government oversight agency reports on Afghanistan, see Section 4. Ministry Performance Assessments – Data Classied USFOR-A continues to classify MOD and MOI performance assessments. SIGAR’s questions about the ministries’ performance can be found in Appendix E of this report. MOI and MOD performance assessments are reported in the classied annex. AHRIMS and APPS The MOD and MOI, with RS assistance, are implementing and streamlining several systems to accurately manage, pay, and track their personnel—an effort DOD expects will greatly improve protection of U.S. funds. The United States pays the ANA and ALP personnel costs through unilat- eral ASFF funds but it pays ANP personnel costs by contributing to the 185 multilateral LOTFA. The Afghan Human Resource Information Management System (AHRIMS) contains data that includes the name, rank, education level, iden- tication-card number, and approved positions to align with each ANDSF service member. AHRIMS contains all the approved positions within the MOD and the MOI with each position linked to a unit, location, and duty title. The Afghan Personnel Pay System (APPS) is currently being elded and when fully implemented, will integrate AHRIMS data with compensation and payroll data to process authorizations, record unit-level time and attendance 186 data, and calculate payroll amounts. The AHRIMS (and in future, APPS) data is also used to provide background information on ANDSF personnel to 187 assist with assignment, promotions and other personnel actions. As USFOR-A has reported previously, three ongoing efforts aim to ensure that accurate personnel data exist in AHRIMS to support the migration 89 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

100 SECURITY to APPS: (1) “slotting” or matching a person to an authorized position; (2) “data cleansing” or correcting and completing key personnel data; and (3) the personnel asset inventory, which is a continuous process of - physically counting personnel and correcting the employment status of per 188 sonnel retired, separated, or killed in action. This quarter, CSTC-A reported that the MOD became “fully mission capable” in APPS on July 30, 2018, meaning that the APPS system has been delivered, and the MOD has the ability to fully employ the system and maintain it to meet their operational needs. However, as of August 22, 2018, only 75.1% of ANA personnel (including civilians) met minimum data- input requirements to be paid via APPS. The total force slotted in APPS as of the same date was 78.3%. According to CTSC-A, the ANA continues to biometrically enroll and slot personnel into the APPS system to increase 189 these gures. CSTC-A also reported that the MOI are expected to become fully mis- sion capable in APPS by November 30, 2018. As of August 22, 44.9% of ANP personnel (including ALP members and civilian employees) met minimum data-input requirements to be paid via APPS, and 74.5% of the force was slotted in APPS. The ANP completed APPS training for all ANP Zone and Provincial Headquarters personnel and continues to biometrically enroll 190 and slot personnel. Afghanistan Compact – Not Publicly Releasable Much of the detailed data about Afghanistan Compact progress is unclassi- ed but not releasable to the public. SIGAR’s questions about the Compact can be found in Appendix E of this report and information about the Compact is reported in the classied annex. AFGHAN NATIONAL ARMY As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated $46.7 billion and disbursed $46.0 billion of ASFF funds to build, train, equip, and sustain 191 the ANA. ANA Strength – Some Data Classied USFOR-A continues to classify unit-level ANA authorized-strength gures. Detailed assigned- and authorized-strength information appear in the clas- sied annex to this report. SIGAR’s questions about ANA strength can be found in Appendix E of this report. According to DOD, the ANA’s total authorized (goal) end strength was 192 227,374. USFOR-A reported that the actual, assigned strength of the ANA and AAF as of July 31, 2018, (not including civilians) was 194,017 personnel, a decrease of 2,273 personnel since last quarter. This quarter’s ANA strength represents a 24,041-person increase from the same period last year, but this 90 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

101 SECURITY gure is skewed due to the transfer of 30,689 personnel from two MOI force 193 elements (ANCOP and ABP) to MOD. When adjusting for that transfer, 194 the ANA lost 6,648 personnel compared to the same period last year. The ANA’s 194,017 personnel consisted of 85,361 soldiers, 73,364 non- commissioned ofcers, and 35,292 ofcers. This put the ANA at 85.3% of its authorized strength in July 2018, or 33,357 personnel short of their goal strength. This is a one percentage point drop since last quarter, and about a 195 two-point fall from the 87.2% one year prior. ANA Attrition – Data Classied This quarter, USFOR-A classied all ANA attrition information; last quarter it provided limited attrition information. SIGAR’s questions about ANA attri- tion can be found in Appendix E. A detailed analysis of attrition by ANA force element is provided in the classied annex to this report. ANA Sustainment As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated $22.8 billion and 196 disbursed $22.2 billion of ASFF for ANA sustainment. CSTC-A reported that the total amount expended for on-budget ANA sustainment requirements thus far for Afghan FY 1397 (beginning December 21, 2017) was $495.5 million through August 17, 2018, the vast majority of which was expended on ANA salaries and incentive pay ($395.2 million, of which roughly $158.9 million was for incentive pay). This is an increase of about $29.1 million in salaries and incentive payments 197 compared to the same period last year. Roughly $100.3 million was spent on nonpayroll sustainment requirements, the costliest of which were energy-generating equipment ($23.4 million), ofce equipment and computers ($17.6 million), and construction of non-building structures ($10.5 million). This amount reects a $66.1 million increase in non- 198 payroll expenses compared to the same period last year. CSTC-A said this quarter that the funding required for ANA base sala- ries, bonuses, and incentives for FY 2019 is estimated at $735.9 million (an increase from last quarter’s estimate of $651.6 million), but noted that the U.S. contribution to ANA personnel sustainment over the next few years is 199 contingent on congressional appropriations. ANA Equipment and Transportation As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated and disbursed 200 $13.7 billion of ASFF for ANA equipment and transportation. Seen in Table 3.10 on the following page, CSTC-A reported that the highest-cost items of equipment provided to the ANA this quarter included 10 aircraft (valued at a total of $35.5 million), 16 HMMWVs (humvees) valued at a total of $3.6 million, and other equipment (valued at a total of 201 about $1.4 million). As shown in Table 3.11 on the following page, several 91 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

102 SECURITY TABLE 3.10 MAJOR EQUIPMENT ITEMS PROVIDED TO ANA, JULY–SEPTEMBER 2018 Equipment Units Issued in Type Equipment Description Quarter Unit Cost* Total Cost* 5 $20,000,000 UH-60A Helicopter $4,000,000 Aircraft MD-530 Helicopter Aircraft 15,500,000 3,100,000 5 M115A2 HMMWV (Humvee) Vehicle 8 256,000 2,048,000 1,536,000 192,000 8 M115A1 HMMWV (Humvee) Vehicle 100 12,500 1,250,000 M2 Machine Gun Weapon 18,800 10 5 KW Generator Other 188,000 Total Cost of Equipment $40,522,000 Note: *Figures were rounded by CSTC-A. Source: CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 10/5/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/16/2018. TABLE 3.11 VEHICLES ISSUED TO THE ANDSF, AUGUST 1–OCTOBER 3, 2018 Vehicles Not Cargo trucks (left) awaiting transfer Yet Issued Issued to Received Issued to to the ANDSF at the Gear Lot. Afghan Army Afghan Police (as of Oct 3, 2018) * Vehicle Type Afghanistan (Gear International photo) 214 M1151 HMMWV 66 8 87 293 M1152 HMMWV 0 8 106 605 62 0 48 Cargo Truck (MTV International) 78 1200 Gallon Water Tanker 15 1 0 1200 Gallon Fuel Tanker 11 40 0 0 Flatbed Wrecker Truck 0 13 0 0 Wrecker Truck 5 0 0 13 3 0 0 3 Forklift Truck 11 11 0 0 40 Foot Trailer Note: * This is not an exhaustive accounting of vehicles not yet issued to the ANDSF. This gure includes vehicles ready for issue, vehicles waiting for repair, and vehicles waiting for inspection. Source: SIGAR, analysis of Gear International, “Gear International Daily Overview Report 03-OCT-2018,” 10/3/2018. hundred ASFF-funded vehicles were received in Afghanistan, issued to the ANA or ANP, or have yet to be issued to the ANA or ANP this quarter. SIGAR will continue tracking the status of these vehicles in future reports. ANA Equipment Operational Readiness – Data Classied USFOR-A continues to classify data on ANA equipment readiness. SIGAR’s questions about ANA equipment readiness can be found in Appendix E of this report. ANA equipment readiness is reported in the classied annex. ANA Infrastructure The United States had obligated and disbursed $5.9 billion of ASFF for ANA 202 infrastructure projects as of September 30, 2018. 92 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

103 SECURITY TABLE 3.12 MAJOR ANA INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS Estimated Project Location Project Description Agency / Contractor Completion Date Estimated Cost Awarded Projects Special Operations Brigade North Forward Operating Center, Mazar-e Sharif, Balkh Province USACE / Builtek Construction 2/26/2021 $25,353,848 Camp Pratt Afghan National Army Special Operations Corps, Corps 11/1/2020 Pul-e Charkhi, Kabul Province USACE / Builtek Construction 4,993,449 Headquarters Forward Operating Center, Camp Julien Darulaman, Kabul Province MAKRO Mechanics 2,298,703 2/28/2019 Ongoing Projects 72,462,207 Macro Vantage Levant JLT Kabul, Kabul Province Marshal Fahim National Defense University, Phase II 12/31/2017 USACE / Venco-Imtiaz Northern Electrical Interconnect at Camp Shaheen Marmal, Balkh Province 10/21/2019 27,692,414 Construction Company Special Operations Brigade North Forward Operating USACE / Builtek Construction 2/26/2021 25,353,848 Mazar-e Sharif, Balkh Province Command, Camp Pratt Completed Projects ANA Electrical System Repair at North Hamid Karzai USACE / Road & Roof Kabul, Kabul Province 7/11/2018 1,173,048 Construction Company International Airport AAF Airbase Third Well Construction for the Special Mission Wing at 679,998 Kandahar, Kandahar Province 8/14/2018 USACE / Assist Consultants Inc. Kandahar Aireld Planned Projects Afghan Air Force Aviation Enhancement, Mazar-e Sharif TBD 37,904,173 N/A Mazar-e Sharif, Balkh Province Aireld TBD 27,000,000 Afghan Air Force Aviation Enhancement, Kandahar Aireld Kandahar, Kandahar Province N/A New 8th Special Operations Kandak at Forward Operating Logar Province TBD 9,742,320 N/A Base Shank Note: All data is as of August 25, 2018. Marshal Fahim National Defense University’s Phase II is pending completion because the necessary replacement of re doors has not yet been resolved. Source: CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. CSTC-A reported that the estimated annual facilities-sustainment costs for all ANA facility and electrical generator requirements will be Women’s Participation Program: An roughly $68 million—the same as last quarter. According to CSTC-A, as of initiative that seeks to advance and August 25, 2018, the United States completed 454 ANA infrastructure proj- promote women’s participation in 203 ects in Afghanistan valued at a total cost of $5.4 billion. Afghan security institutions. The program promotes safe and secure facilities, proper CSTC-A reported that two projects were completed this quarter, costing equipment, training, and opportunities for $1.9 million. Another 37 projects (valued at $221.6 million) were ongoing, women to increase their membership in four projects were awarded (valued at $32.9 million), and 24 projects (val- the ANDSF. 204 See Table 3.12 for a description ued at $307.9 million) were being planned. of the highest-value awarded, ongoing, completed, and planned ANA infra- structure projects. Included in the projects described above are eight Women’s Participation Source: OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/15/2016. (WPP) projects valued at a total of $13.9 million, three projects in Program 205 the planning phase ($4.4 million), and ve ongoing projects ($9.5 million). See Table 3.13 on the next page for a description of these projects. 93 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

104 SECURITY TABLE 3.13 MAJOR ANA WPP INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS Estimated Project Location Estimated Cost Project Description Completion Date Awarded Projects Women's Training Center in Kabul* Kabul, Kabul Province $2,605,200 11/1/2019 TBD Daycare and Kitchen at Camp Zafar Herat, Herat Province 1,014,000 Kandahar, Kandahar Female Tactical Platoon Facility at Camp Scorpion* 805,200 TBD Province Ongoing Projects 5,278,818 Women's Facilities at Marshal Fahim National Defense University* Kabul, Kabul Province 11/30/2018 Women's Facilities at North Hamid Karzai International Airport Afghan Air Force Airbase* Kabul, Kabul Province 12/8/2018 1,537,747 1/1/2019 Women's Barracks at South Hamid Karzai International Airport / Afghan Air University Kabul, Kabul Province 1,143,739 Note: * Projects are being funded through the multilateral NATO ANA Trust Fund, not through unilateral U.S. ASFF funds. All data is as of August 25, 2018. Source: CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. ANA and MOD Training and Operations As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated $4.3 billion and disbursed $4.2 billion of ASFF for ANA, AAF, and MOD training 206 and operations. At the request of DOD, SIGAR will await the completion of the Government Accountability Ofce’s (GAO) forthcoming audit on the cost of ASFF-funded ANDSF training contracts before reporting on the status of 207 those contracts. For more information about this and other GAO audits related to Afghanistan, see Section 4. Afghan Air Force As of August 31, 2018, the United States has appropriated approximately $6.4 billion to support and develop the AAF from FY 2010 to FY 2018, with - roughly $1.4 billion appropriated in FY 2018, no change since last quar 208 A large portion of these funds ($715.1 million) is earmarked for AAF ter. sustainment costs. According to DOD’s FY 2018 budget-justication docu- ment, the $1.4 billion includes $709.8 million for the second year of the ANDSF Aviation Modernization (AAM) plan which includes the transition from Russian-manufactured helicopters to U.S.-manufactured UH-60 Black 209 Hawk helicopters. Also as of August 31, nearly $3.9 billion has been obligated for the AAF in FYs 2010–2018, with roughly $107 million of those funds obligated in FY 2018, unchanged since last quarter. The majority of the funding obligated since FY 2010 continues to be for sustainment items, which account for 210 42.8% of obligated funds, followed by equipment and aircraft at 38.5%. 94 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

105 SECURITY As seen in Table 3.14 on page 97, the AAF’s current inventory of aircraft, 211 as of September 3, 2018, includes: • 47 Mi-17 helicopters (25 unavailable, three more than last quarter) • 29 MD-530 helicopters (one unavailable, same as last quarter) • 24 C-208 utility airplanes (one unavailable, same as last quarter) • 4 C-130 transport airplanes (one unavailable) • 20 A-29 light attack airplanes (all available, one more than last quarter) • 19 UH-60 utility helicopters (all available, three more than last quarter) TAAC-Air reported this quarter that the AAF received ve MD-530s and three UH-60s, and also successfully returned three of its Mi-17s to service 212 from overhaul or heavy repair. Several aircraft have been purchased for the AAF but not yet elded, including nine A-29s, 10 AC-208s, and 41 213 UH-60s. According to DOD, the current near-term schedule for aircraft delivery to Afghanistan is two UH-60s per month, ve MD-530s per quar - ter, and seven AC-208s by spring 2019, with three AC-208s remaining in the United States for AAF training. Further deliveries are currently being planned. The nal four A-29s to be delivered to the AAF are scheduled to arrive at Moody Air Force Base for AAF training by March 2019. DOD noted that the delivery schedules could vary depending on factors such as availability of trained air crews and maintainers to conduct operations and changes in requirements for numbers of aircraft needed to support 214 training activities. According to TAAC-Air, the AAF’s training for the A-29, C-208, and MD-530 platforms is on track to produce the required number of aircrew. The aircrew for the C-208 and MD-530 become qualied directly out of the initial pilot-training courses that take place outside of Afghanistan. Currently, A-29 training is in the United States, but this is programmed to change by the end of 2020, with DOD and the MOD considering options for a long-term plan for A-29 training beyond 2020. TAAC-Air said the current UH-60 training program is taxing the aircraft-utilization limits to train, sea- 215 son, and upgrade aircrew to create full crews. Five aircraft-qualication classes to train pilots on how to operate the UH-60 and two mission-qualication classes to train pilots and crews on employing the UH-60 for its specic missions have been completed, pro- gressing on track with the UH-60 growth plan. Training is projected to remain on track if aircraft and crews continue to arrive as anticipated. UH-60 aircrew training will be on pace with aircraft delivery for one year, but is capped at up to 64 pilots and special-mission operators. Training of aircraft commanders (pilot in command) will determine how many full crews are established. According to TAAC-Air, a complete UH‐60 crew is a - pilot in command, a co‐pilot, and two special mission operators (four per sonnel total). The current projection is to have 17 UH-60 aircrews trained within the next year, in line with the schedule for FY 2019 UH-60 aircraft 95 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

106 SECURITY delivery. The training for new AC-208 aircrew is just beginning, and TAAC- 216 Air said that it is too early to assess that effort. AAF Task Availability and Operations The task availability rate is dened as the number of aircraft serviceable and ready to be tasked, for combat or training, compared to the number of aircraft in the operational eet (excluding those in depot). For example, if a 12-aircraft eet has ve serviceable aircraft, two aircraft in the maintenance depot, and ve in other status, this calculation yields a 50% task availability (i.e., ve of the 10 airframes not undergoing maintenance) for that aircraft type. Task availability is a capabilities-based measurement for senior leader - ship mission planning, rather than a measurement of how contractors are 217 TAAC-Air has gathered enough performing in maintaining AAF aircraft. data on UH-60 ight hours, sorties, and performance to determine a task- availability benchmark this quarter, which they determined is 75%, the same 218 According to TAAC-Air, benchmark as for the A-29 and C-208 airframes. as of July 31, 2018, only one AAF airframe (the C-208) failed to meet its task availability benchmark with an average task availability of 64.2% from May 219 through July 2018. According to TAAC-Air, the AAF ew an average of roughly 3,165 hours per month this quarter (May 1 to July 31, 2018), a 39% increase in the aver - age amount of hours own per month last quarter and a 12% increase compared to the same period last year. The Mi-17 continued to y the most hours of any airframe, an average of 966 hours per month this reporting period, followed by the MD-530 at 806 average hours per month. This was an increase compared to the Mi-17’s 816-hour average and the MD-530’s 220 598-hour average reported last quarter. USFOR-A said its ight-hours data include all hours own by the airframes, whether for operations, mainte- 221 nance, training, or navigation. Of the six AAF airframes, only two airframes (the Mi-17 and C-130) signicantly exceeded their recommended ight hours, the same as last - quarter. The Mi-17 ew an average of 966 hours this reporting period ver sus a recommended 550 hours (176% of recommended) and the C-130 ew 222 The an average of 116 hours versus a recommended 75 hours (155% of). Mi-17 ew 30.5% of the total hours own by any AAF aircraft from May through July, a roughly ve percentage-point decrease from the 35.7% of the 223 AAF’s total hours the Mi-17 ew last quarter. This quarter, USFOR-A reported that the AAF ew 11,199 sorties from May 1, 2018, through July 31, 2018, the most sorties the AAF has reported ying since SIGAR began tracking this data in March 2017. A sortie is - dened as one takeoff and one landing. There were an average of 3,733 sor ties per month this quarter, with the most sorties (3,990) own in July 2018. This is a 28% increase from the 2,917 average sorties per month reported last quarter and a 34% increase in average sorties per month reported last 96 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

107 SECURITY 224 year. As in previous quarters, the Mi-17 ew the greatest number of sor - 225 ties (5,564) followed by the C-208 (2,184). Personnel Capability TAAC-Air provided the following information on how many fully mission- qualied, or certied mission-ready (CMR) aircrew and pilots the AAF has for each of its airframes, which can be seen in Table 3.14. For more infor - mation about the specic training involved for crew members attaining CMR status, please see SIGAR’s April 2017 Quarterly Report to the United 226 . States Congress TABLE 3.14 AFGHAN AVIATION SUMMARY, AS OF SEPTEMBER 2018 AIRCRAFT Usable Total Command Pilot Other Aircrew Co-Pilots 15 12 12 A-29 0 N/A 25 Mi-17 22 33 47 7 UH-60 19 24 15 9 19 MD-530 30 34 25 0 29 C-130 3 4 8 4 14 11 23 24 19 C-208 3 Note: Only qualied pilots and aircrew are listed in this table. “Other Aircrew” includes loadmasters, ight engineers, and special mission operators and vary by airframe. These gures do not include the aircraft or personnel for the Special Mission Wing, which are classied. Source: TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/3/2018; SIGAR, analysis of TAAC-Air-provided data, 10/2018. TAAC-Air also provided for the rst time information on AAF main- tenance personnel and their training requirements. They said fully mission-capable AAF maintainers must undergo two to three years of train- ing, which includes 36 weeks of English-language training, two to three months of academics, and six to 12 months of on-the-job training, with some gaps between training. Table 3.15 on the following page for the cur- rent number of authorized and assigned AAF maintenance personnel by airframe and other maintenance function, as well as the projected authori- zations for AAF maintenance personnel for 2023. As of September 3, 2018, the AAF’s 1,246 assigned maintenance personnel were at 73.9% of their authorized strength of 1,686. Kabul Airbase has the most maintenance personnel by far (703), followed by Kandahar (316). Kabul had the highest percentage of maintenance personnel against its authorization (85.9%) and Mazar-e Sharif had the lowest (48.2%). In terms of maintenance positions, the AC-208 and the Maintenance Operations teams had the most person- nel against their authorization, at 90.6% and 90.4% respectively. The C-130 (13.3%) and Maintenance Staff (20.2%) teams had the least staff against 227 SIGAR will continue to track AAF maintenance per- their authorizations. sonnel for future quarterly reports. 97 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

108 SECURITY TABLE 3.15 AAF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL STRENGTH, AS OF SEPTEMBER 2018 2018 AUTHORIZED STRENGTH 2023 PROJECTED AUTHORIZATIONS 2018 ASSIGNED STRENGTH Kabul Kand MeS Shind Total Kabul Maintenance Positions MeS Shind Total Kabul Kand MeS Shind Total Kand A-29 59 64 0 0 123 56 30 0 0 86 59 67 83 0 209 0 AC-208 0 0 64 54 4 0 7 58 72 81 62 0 215 57 176 50 50 0 44 144 49 36 0 38 123 48 55 37 36 C-208 2 0 0 0 15 0 0 15 C-130 15 0 0 0 15 2 0 76 137 0 0 52 85 187 0 0 102 85 MD-530 356 0 117 163 0 0 50 0 4 54 0 35 0 3 38 0 0 0 0 Mi-17 42 UH-60 75 79 0 42 196 0 22 0 37 59 105 143 67 357 75 78 0 0 0 UH-60 FFF 221 0 0 68 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 120 416 154 50 123 743 415 Maintenance Operations 112 672 305 224 176 107 812 16 12 137 0 10 54 45 44 36 Munitions Squadron 33 31 0 12 76 28 14 84 20 6 30 28 17 Maintenance Staff 0 24 31 21 1 17 93 2 316 2,591 214 667 883 827 200 1,246 27 Total 703 245 1,686 56 567 818 Note: All personnel listed above are trained and fully mission-capable. The locations on the table refer to AAF airbases. Kand = Kandahar, MeS = Mazar-e Sharif, and Shind = Shindand. Maintenance Operations = non-mechanical functions like quality assurance, analysis, plans, scheduling, documentation, training, and logistics; Munitions Squadron = a squadron that stores, main- tains, inspects, assembles, and issues aircraft munitions; Maintenance Staff = staff that handle command, support, and nance; FFF= Fixed Forward Firing. Source: TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/5/2018, 10/11/2018, and 10/22/2018. TAAC-Air said this quarter that despite beginning to assign some maintainers to the UH-60, UH-60 maintenance operations are currently conducted by contract and the AAF has no organic UH-60 maintenance capability at this time. The qualication of MD-530 maintainers lags behind delivery of those aircraft, while A-29 maintainer qualication is meeting or exceeding delivery, and AC-208 maintainer-training methodology and quali- 228 cation-output goals are still being determined. The Special Mission Wing – Data Classied NSOCC-A continued to classify most of the data on the Special Mission Wing (SMW). SIGAR’s questions on this data can be found in Appendix E of this report and information about the SMW is reported in the classied annex. AFGHAN NATIONAL POLICE As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated $21.6 billion and disbursed $21.2 billion of ASFF funds to build, train, equip, and sustain 229 the ANP. 98 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

109 SECURITY ANP Strength – Some Data Classied USFOR-A continued to classify unit-level ANP authorized-strength gures. Detailed assigned-and authorized-strength information appears in the clas- sied annex to this report. SIGAR’s questions about ANP strength can be found in Appendix E of this report. According to DOD, the ANP’s total authorized (goal) end strength was 124,626, a considerable decrease from the 157,000 personnel authorized in 2016 and 2017. DOD reported in June that this was due to the transfer of the majority of ABP and ANCOP personnel from MOI to MOD. DOD said that while there was a 20% reduction in MOI’s total force size, the MOI headquar - 230 ters “did not reduce at commensurate levels.” The assigned, or actual, strength of the ANP, as of July 31, 2018, was 118,311 personnel, including 24,229 ofcers, 35,424 noncommissioned ofcers, and 58,658 patrolmen. This gure represents an increase of 359 personnel since last quarter, but a 32,868-person decrease since July 2017, most of which was due to the transfer of 30,689 ANCOP and ABP personnel to MOD. After adjusting for that transfer, the ANP lost 2,179 personnel com- 231 pared to the same period last year. The ANP was at 94.9% (or 6,315 personnel below) its authorized strength 232 in July 2018, down from 96.3% of its authorized strength one year prior. ANP Attrition – Data Classied USFOR-A classied all ANP attrition information this quarter, unlike last quarter when limited attrition information was provided. SIGAR’s questions about ANP attrition can be found in Appendix E. A detailed analysis of attri- tion by ANP force element is provided in the classied annex to this report. ANP Sustainment As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated $9.4 billion and 233 disbursed $9.2 billion of ASFF for ANP sustainment. According to CSTC-A, the total estimated annual ANP salary and incentive costs for FY 2018 will be $140.1 million to be paid via LOTFA, a multilateral fund to which the United States has only contributed $1 mil- lion so far this year. Separately, the United States will pay an estimated $42.1 million to fund salaries and incentives for the ALP, a roughly $4.5 mil- 234 lion decrease from last quarter’s estimate. CSTC-A reported this quarter that the total on-budget amount expended for ANP sustainment requirements thus far for Afghan FY 1397 (beginning December 21, 2017) was $65.4 million through August 17, 2018, the majority of which were spent on ANP salaries and incentives and non-payroll-related expenses such as electricity and fuel. CSTC-A disbursed $33.6 million of these funds in salary and incentive pay (mostly for the ALP), $27.8 mil- lion for services (such as electricity, fuel, and natural gas), and roughly 99 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

110 SECURITY Afghan Special Police recruits practice close quarters battle drills during training at the Special Police Training Center, near Kabul, Afghanistan, July 18. (NATO photo by LaShawn Sykes) $4 million for assets (such as land, infrastructure improvements, and com- 235 munications equipment). ANP Equipment and Transportation As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated and disbursed 236 $4.7 billion of ASFF for ANP equipment and transportation. Seen in Table 3.16, CSTC-A reported that the highest-cost items of equip- ment provided to the ANP this quarter included nearly 300 vehicles (valued at a total of $55.1 million) and weapons and other equipment (valued at a 237 total of about $3.1 million). TABLE 3.16 MAJOR EQUIPMENT ITEMS PROVIDED TO ANP, JULY–SEPTEMBER 2018 Equipment Units Issued in Equipment Description Total Cost* Quarter Unit Cost* Type $20,928,000 $192,000 109 Vehicle M115A1 HMMWV (Humvee) M115A2 HMMWV (Humvee) 89 256,000 22,784,000 Vehicle Medium Tactical Vehicle Vehicle 81 140,000 11,340,000 600 Weapon PKM Machine Gun 4,200 2,520,000 Weapon 627,900 2,100 Night Vision Device 299 Other Winch 10 3,700 37,000 Total Cost of Equipment $58,236,900 Note: * Figures were rounded by CSTC-A. Source: CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 10/5/2018, and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/16/2018. 100 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

111 SECURITY Equipment Operational Readiness – Data Classied This quarter, USFOR-A continued to classify data concerning the ANP’s equipment readiness. The questions SIGAR asked about ANP equipment readiness can be found in Appendix E of this report. ANP equipment readi- ness is reported in the classied annex. ANP Infrastructure The United States has obligated $3.2 billion and disbursed $3.1 billion of 238 ASFF for ANP infrastructure projects as of September 30, 2018. CSTC-A reported that the estimated annual facilities-sustainment costs for all ANP facility and generator requirements will be roughly $71.7 mil- lion—the same as last quarter. According to CSTC-A, as of August 25, 2018, the United States completed 766 ANP infrastructure projects in Afghanistan 239 costing $3.0 billion. CSTC-A reported that three projects were completed this quarter, cost- ing $3.1 million; 16 projects were ongoing (valued at $81.3 million); one project was awarded (valued at $32.8 million); and four projects were being 240 Table 3.17 on the following page lists planned (valued at $144.1 million). the highest-value awarded, ongoing, completed, and planned ANP infra- structure projects. Included in the projects described above are 17 Women’s Participation Program (WPP) projects valued at $147.5 million. Two projects were being planned (roughly $70 million), 12 are ongoing projects ($74.4 million), and 241 three have been completed ($3.1 million). ANP Training and Operations As of September 30, 2018, the United States had obligated $4.4 billion and 242 disbursed $4.2 billion of ASFF for ANP and MOI training and operations. At the request of DOD, SIGAR will await the completion of GAO’s forth- coming audit on the cost of ASFF-funded ANDSF training contracts before 243 reporting on the status of those contracts. For more information about this and other GAO audits related to Afghanistan, see Section 4. Afghan Local Police ALP members, known as “guardians,” are usually local citizens selected by village elders or local leaders to protect their communities against insur - gent attack, guard facilities, and conduct local counterinsurgency missions. While the ANP’s personnel costs are paid via the LOTFA, only DOD funds the ALP, including both personnel and other costs. Funding for the ALP’s 244 personnel costs is provided directly to the Afghan government. Although the ALP is overseen by the MOI, it is not counted toward the ANDSF’s 245 authorized end strength. As of July 21, 2018, the NATO Special Operations Component Command- Afghanistan (NSOCC-A) reported that according to the ALP Staff Directorate, 101 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

112 SECURITY TABLE 3.17 MAJOR ANP INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS Estimated Completion Date Project Description Project Location Agency / Contractor Estimated Cost Awarded Projects Women's Participation Program (WPP) Police Town, USACE / Macro Vantage Levant DMCC 3/31/2021 Kabul, Kabul Province $32,831,000 Phase II Ongoing Projects 11/23/2018 23,646,225 USACE / Macro Vantage Levant DMCC Kabul, Kabul Province WPP Police Town, Phase I WPP Police Town, Phase II Kabul, Kabul Province USACE / Macro Vantage Levant DMCC 32,831,000 3/31/2021 6/23/2019 WPP Women's Facilities at Kabul Police Academy Kabul, Kabul Province USACE / Macro Vantage Levant DMCC 7,072,803 Completed Projects Daycare for the Afghan Border Police Regional Training Nangarhar, Jalalabad 5/28/2018 USACE / Assist Consultants Inc. 837,006 Center, Zone 301 Headquarters Province Nangarhar, Jalalabad Daycare for the ANP Regional Training Center, Zone 301 1,232,874 7/31/2018 USACE / State Women Corporation Headquarters Province Daycare and Barracks for the Afghan Uniform Police Panjshir, Panjshir Province USACE / Assist Consultants Inc. 1,016,006 7/15/2018 Provincial Headquarters in Panjshir Planned Projects WPP Police Town, Phase III Kabul, Kabul Province TBD 30,000,000 6/30/2021 8/30/2021 TBD Kabul, Kabul Province WPP Police Town, Phase IV 40,000,000 Note: All data are as of August 25, 2018. All WPP Police Town projects listed above are being funded through the multilateral NATO ANA Trust Fund, not through unilateral U.S. ASFF funds. The estimated cost of the two WPP Police Town projects in the planning phase are rough estimates based upon recent contract awards. CSTC-A did not report the Afghan Border Police daycare to SIGAR last quarter due to an unexpectedly early completion of the project. Source: CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. the ALP has roughly 28,000 guardians on hand, roughly 24,000 of whom are trained, about 5,000 untrained, and about 100 in training. The ALP’s strength declined by roughly 1,000 personnel since last quarter, as did the number of trained personnel, with the number of untrained personnel increasing by about 1,000. However, the percentage of the force that is untrained increased 246 this quarter to 17%, up three percentage points since last quarter. When asked about the large number of untrained personnel, NSOCC-A said the ALP receive a four‐week training course covering basic weapons use, human rights, and logistics and supplies, which is taught at the ANP’s Regional Training Centers. NSOCC-A said the ALP has the most personnel killed in action of any unit in Afghanistan because they ght in locations without signicant backup. For example, ALP will lose (killed in action, absent, contract ended) approximately 3,000 trained personnel over a three- month period. During the same time period, they will hire approximately 5,000 new personnel, all of whom require training. NSOCC-A said even if the training centers are full for the year, there probably will not be an appre- ciable increase in the number or percentage of ALP personnel trained, due 247 to the number of losses and new recruits. 102 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

113 SECURITY This quarter, NSOCC-A reported on the ALP’s continuing efforts to enroll personnel in APPS, to transition ALP salary payments to an electronic funds-transfer (EFT) process, and to inventory materiel. According to NSOCC-A, as of August 9, 2018, roughly 70% of ALP have been slotted into 248 APPS, a substantial decrease from the 80% reported last quarter. NSOCC-A reported no change to the estimated $90 million of ASFF needed to fund the ALP for FY 2018 (assuming an ALP force authorization 249 of 30,000 personnel). WOMEN IN THE ANDSF – SOME DATA CLASSIFIED RS classied the exact strength data for female personnel in the ANDSF this quarter. A detailed analysis of female ANDSF personnel strength is provided in the classied annex to this report. SIGAR’s questions about women in the ANDSF can be found in Appendix E. For rounded strength gures, see Table 3.18. RS’s Gender Integration Advisory Ofce reported efforts to recruit women for the ANA are currently on hold. MOD is not actively recruiting women for the ANA while the ministry is working to create a dedicated force-development plan that will allow the ANDSF to conduct targeted recruiting of qualied women in the future. There are no lieutenant posi- tions open at this time to either men or women, leaving no vacancies for newly trained recruits. Therefore, if women are recruited with no vacant positions, they go straight into the inactive reserve. Personnel assigned to the inactive reserve are no longer paid now that APPS is ofcially online. RS said the ANA recruiting goal will be 200 women per quarter once recruiting resumes. It is anticipated that the ratio for female recruits will be some- 250 where near 30–40% ofcers to 70–60% NCOs. TABLE 3.18 ANDSF FEMALE PERSONNEL, ROUNDED ASSIGNED STRENGTH, AS OF JULY 2018 Non-commissioned Soldiers/ Ofcers Cadets Total Patrolmen Ofcers 0 1,200 1,200 ANP 3,200 800 ANA 600 400 200 100 1,300 4,500 Total Afghan Air Force (AAF) 60 20 10 10 100 AAF Afghan Special Security Forces (ASSF) ANP 10 80 10 0 100 10 10 0 30 ANA 10 Note: The AAF strength is included in the ANA’s total strength number. The ASSF numbers are included in the ANP and ANA numbers, respectively. Source: RS Gender Integration Advisory Ofce, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 103 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

114 SECURITY The ANP is also minimally recruiting women as the MOI works to realign targets for female recruitment by rank due to pending tashkil changes to allow for career progression. RS said that current ANP recruitment efforts are focused, for the time being, on recruiting women to attend the 251 RS Sivas Police Training Academy course in Turkey in October 2018. commented generally that focusing on recruiting numbers alone fails to capture the challenge of identifying valid personnel requirements, training needs, and career progression opportunities before placing an emphasis 252 on recruitment. Separately, the Gender Integration Advisory Ofce reported that as of August 29, 2018, there are 76 female cadets in training at the Afghan - National Military Academy (ANMA). There are also 42 ANDSF women cur rently attending the Afghan Armed Forces Academy of Medical Sciences (Afghan Army Medical School), who are receiving broad exposure and hands-on training in combat casualty, ethics, leadership, operational medicine, intensive care/critical care medicine, general medicine, surgery, 253 pediatric, obstetrics, geriatrics, and anesthesia. When asked this quarter how RS uses the funds authorized by Congress in the NDAA for women in the ANDSF, they responded that funds are pri- marily used for: the construction of facilities to recruit and retain women and to ensure their safety, incentive pay for female ANDSF personnel, pub- lic awareness campaigns to recruit women to work in the ANDSF, and the procurement of training and education classes (both domestic and interna- 254 tional) for the professional development of ANDSF female personnel. ANDSF MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE As of August 28, 2018, the total cost of CSTC-A-procured medical items for the ANDSF since the beginning of the Afghan scal year (December 21, 2017) was $29.5 million. The highest-cost items included, the intravenous (IV) solutions Ringer’s Lactate Solution (475,000 units costing $1.4 mil- lion) and sodium chloride (465,000 units costing $301,000); IV pumps (machines used to administer and monitor the IV uids being given to a patient, 275 units costing $617,000), and amoxicillin (4 million units costing $406,000) and ceftriaxone (1 million units costing $908,000), both antibiot- 255 ics used to treat bacterial infections. As of August 17, 2018, there were 881 physicians (a 43-person decrease since May 2018), and 2,469 other medical staff (a 225-person decrease) in the ANDSF health care system. Of the non-physician staff, 714 were nurses and 379 were medics. The remaining medical staff include dental, medical administration, bio-environmental and preventive medicine, laboratory, and radiology staff. A number of medical positions in the ANDSF remained unlled, including 92 physician positions (9.5% of those required) and 256 699 other medical positions (22.1%). 104 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

115 SECURITY CSTC-A reported this quarter that in response to an increase in tashkil positions, the Ofce of the Surgeon General (OTSG) ordered the “aggres- sive” recruitment of qualied medical personnel from the civilian sector for the ANDSF. The Surgeon General took pride in the quality of his recruits and said most of the nurses were Kabul Medical University graduates. The OTSG had also recruited physicians from some of the best hospitals in Kabul, such as the French Medical Institute for Children. OTSG anticipates the full complement of new recruits will be available by March 2019. The delay is primarily due to a backlog of available seats in the Ofcer Basic 257 According to CSTC-A, the new hires will be reected in the Course. 258 ANDSF medical personnel strength once the recruits nish their training. 105 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

116 GOVERNANCE GOVERNANCE CONTENTS Key Issues and Events 107 108 U.S. Reconstruction Funding for Governance 108 Elections 110 Reconciliation and Reintegration Afghanistan Compact 112 U.S. Assistance to the 114 Afghan Government Budget 117 National Governance 119 Subnational Governance Rule of Law and Anticorruption 121 Refugees and Internal Displacement 127 Gender 129 106 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

117 GOVERNANCE GOVERNANCE KEY ISSUES AND EVENTS Elections for 249 seats in the lower house of parliament were held on October 20–21, 2018, in all provinces except Ghazni and Kandahar. Voting was delayed in those two provinces due to security challenges. As this report went to print, ofcials planned to hold the election in Kandahar Province a week later, following the October 18 assassination of the prov- ince police and intelligence chiefs. Afghan media cited the minister of interior saying that 17 civilians and 11 members of the Afghan security forces were killed in 192 election-day security incidents. Also, at least 10 of the approximately 2,500 parliamentary candidates were killed prior to the election. The Afghan government plans to announce the preliminary results on November 10. The rst-ever elections for district councils, originally scheduled for October 20, did not occur because, according to USAID, an insufcient number of candidates were nominated to hold com- President Ashraf Ghani showing his dyed petitive elections in a majority of districts in the country. The plan for the nger after casting his vote in the October 259 district council elections remains unclear. 2018 parliamentary elections. (Afghanistan Presidential Palace photo) According to State, the 2018 parliamentary and 2019 presidential elections are the rst Afghan-led and -conducted elections. These are the rst elec- tions in which the Afghan government has funded the electoral operations. According to the UN, this represents a signicant step toward the sustainabil- 260 ity of the elections and Afghan national ownership of the electoral process. The most recent elections were the 2014 presidential and provincial council 261 elections and the 2010 election for the lower house of parliament. On August 12, the Afghan government and the United Nations (UN) of- cially began preparing for the November 28 Geneva Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan. The conference will see the introduction of a new set of accountability parameters, the Geneva Mutual Accountability Framework. This new framework will likely replace the 24 SMART Self-Reliance through Mutual Accountability Framework (SMAF) indicators that covered 2017 through 2018. The SMART SMAF articulated a number of Afghan govern- ment reform targets, but did not dene nancial consequences for failing to meet these goals. According to the UN Secretary-General, the confer - ence takes place at “a critical juncture,” halfway between the 2016 Brussels Conference on Afghanistan and the next donor pledging conference, 262 expected to be held in 2020. 107 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

118 GOVERNANCE U.S. RECONSTRUCTION FUNDING FOR GOVERNANCE As of September 30, 2018, the United States had provided nearly $33.72 bil- lion to support governance and economic development in Afghanistan. Most of this funding, more than $20.38 billion, was appropriated to the Economic Support Fund (ESF) administered by the State Department (State) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). ELECTIONS On October 20–21, 2018, the long-delayed parliamentary elections were held in all provinces but Ghazni and Kandahar. According to USAID, the parlia- mentary election in Ghanzi will be held in conjunction with the April 2019 presidential election. On election day, President Ashraf Ghani was quoted in Afghan media saying the election in Kandahar Province would be held one week after the other 32 provinces. He said this delay was at the request of the people of Kandahar following the October 18 assassination of their 263 The last national parliamentary provincial police and intelligence chiefs. elections were held in 2010 and, despite the constitutional limits of a ve- 264 year term, the mandated 2015 elections were not held until this quarter. District council elections that were scheduled to take place alongside the parliamentary elections were not held. According to USAID, district council elections were not held because an insufcient number of candidates were the body of An honor guard escorts nominated to hold competitive elections in a majority of districts in the parliamentary candidate Abdul Jabar country. Further, USAID said the Afghan government did not make an of- Qahraman who was killed on October 17. 265 (Afghanistan Presidential Palace photo) cial announcement to formalize the postponement. According to the State Department, credible parliamentary elections in 2018 and presidential elections in 2019 are critical for demonstrating that - the Afghan government is “inclusive” and has the necessary political coher ence to achieve and implement a peace settlement. As Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs, Ambassador Alice Wells testied in June 2018, the U.S. government believes timely, 266 transparent, and credible elections could sap support for the insurgency. Conversely, protracted and politically motivated disputes over electoral results could make it more difcult for the Afghan government to claim it is 267 inclusive, USAID said. TABLE 3.19 USAID ELECTION-RELATED PROGRAMS Cumulative Disbursements, Total Estimated End Date Cost Start Date Project Title as of 9/30/2018 Electoral Support Activity (ESA) $12,215,918 5/20/2015 12/31/2019 $78,995,000 491,676 8/9/2018 8/8/2021 14,000,000 Strengthening Civic Engagement in Elections in Afghanistan Activity (SCEEA) 205,773 Global Elections and Political Transitions Program 1/1/2018 12/30/2018 222,445 Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 108 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

119 GOVERNANCE Despite hope in the transformative power of legitimate elections, State acknowledges that elections in Afghanistan have always been “sensitive” 268 events. As State described the situation in September, the 2018 parliamen- tary and 2019 presidential elections are “both a threat and an opportunity 269 Further, the UN given [Afghanistan’s present] political fragility.” Secretary-General recently warned that “while timely and credible technical preparations [for elections] are essential, they cannot, by themselves, solve 270 political concerns.” U.S. Funding Support to Elections As shown in Table 3.19, the U.S. government is primarily supporting Afghan elections in 2018 and 2019 through a grant of up to $79 million to the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) Election Support Activity. Through this grant, UNDP provides support to Afghanistan’s electoral management bodies—the Independent Election Commission (IEC) and the 271 Electoral Complaint Commission (ECC). As of April 2018, the UNDP had expended over $834 million on electoral assistance for three rounds of presidential and provincial council elections (2004, 2009, and 2014) and two parliamentary elections (2005 and 2010). The United States, European Union, and the United Kingdom were the three 272 largest donors for these efforts. As shown in Figure 3.37, USAID has dis- 273 bursed $298 million to UNDP for elections-related programs since 2005. On August 8, USAID signed a three-year, $14 million cooperative agree- ment with the Consortium for Elections and Political Process Strengthening FIGURE 3.37 ($ MILLIONS) USAID DISBURSEMENTS TO UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP) ELECTIONS-RELATED PROGRAMS $80 71 70 57.3 60 55.3 50 40.8 40 30 16.3 20 14.4 13.1 9.7 8.4 10 2.9 2.9 2.4 1.8 1.1 0 2011 2015 2016 2017 2018 2007 2008 2009 2012 2005 2006 2013 2014 2010 Source: SIGAR, analysis of USAID response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 109 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

120 GOVERNANCE (CEPPS) to support domestic Afghan observation of the 2018 parliamen- tary elections, the 2019 presidential elections, and to promote longer term electoral reforms. According to USAID, this program will improve the understanding and application of international standards for elections mon- itoring among domestic observers, enhance coordination among Afghan civil-society organizations (CSOs) on election observation, and improve the engagement of CSOs and agents of candidates with election-management bodies. CEPPS has awarded more than $600,000 to ve domestic observa- tion groups, which planned to eld approximately 6,600 observers in 33 provinces for the October 2018 parliamentary elections. Elections in the remaining province, Ghazni, did not occur. Two organizations were also planned to monitor the campaign period, with 230 long-term observers cov- 274 ering the pre- and post-election periods. RECONCILIATION AND REINTEGRATION Peace Efforts with the Taliban The U.S. and Afghan governments agree that the best way to ensure lasting peace and security in Afghanistan is through reconciliation and a sustainable 275 According to State, the U.S. Embassy political settlement with the Taliban. has augmented its stafng, both in Kabul and in the eld, and created an inte- grated system with military and intelligence counterparts to take advantage of openings to peace. State aims to support Afghan-led efforts to reduce vio- 276 lence, including at a grassroots level, and promote development. Last quarter, the Afghan government announced a temporary halt to offen- 277 sive operations against the Taliban. The Taliban eventually reciprocated 278 and, on June 15, began a three-day ceasere with the Afghan government. According to State, the three-day overlapping ceaseres created hope that a peace process was imminent. However, the Taliban did not respond to either President Ghani’s June 16 offer to extend the three-day ceasere 279 Ghani’s or his August 19 call for a joint ceasere starting over Eid al-Adha. proposed August–November ceasere was conditional on the Taliban announcing a reciprocal ceasere. According to the UN Secretary-General, 280 the Taliban did not formally respond. State says that while the Taliban continue to publicly claim that they support a peaceful solution to the Afghan war, they have not yet agreed to peace talks with the Afghan government and continue to publicly demand 281 direct negotiations with the United States. On September 4, Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo told reporters that former Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad would be State’s lead for recon- Special Representative for Afghanistan ciliation efforts in Afghanistan, saying this would be his “singular mission Zalmay Khalilzad spoke with Reconciliation statement.” Ambassador Khalilzad, in his role as Special Representative for political and civil-society gures during his Afghanistan Reconciliation, traveled to Afghanistan, Pakistan, the United visit to Kabul this quarter. (State photo) 110 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

121 GOVERNANCE Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia this quarter to coordinate and Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad was appointed Special Representative for lead U.S. efforts to bring the Taliban to the negotiating table. Ambassador Afghanistan Reconciliation this quarter. Khalilzad previously served as the U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan, Special Representative Khalilzad previously Iraq, and the UN. Ambassador Khalilzad was born in the Afghan city served as the U.S. ambassador to of Mazar-e Sharif and during his time as U.S. Ambassador, helped draft Afghanistan, Iraq, and the UN. He was born 282 Afghanistan’s constitution. in the Afghan city of Mazar-e Sharif and This quarter, State reported that there were many reports of groups of during his time as U.S. Ambassador, helped insurgent ghters across the country who reportedly seek to demobilize and draft Afghanistan’s constitution. reconcile with the government but are unsure of how to proceed. Further, these groups reportedly fear retribution from other ghters if they move 283 forward with those initiatives. Fear of retribution appears to be an enduring challenge in the absence of an overarching peace agreement. According to the Afghan government, there is some evidence that many reintegrees experienced severe personal 284 A UN-sponsored security threats during previous reintegration efforts. evaluation of previous peace efforts in Afghanistan found that 225 out of nearly 11,000 claimed reintegrees were killed. The evaluators recounted how a prominent Taliban leader was assassinated after his attempt to rec- oncile. Additionally, at least one insurgent commander seemed to imply that he directed 150 potential reintegrees to not participate in the formal rein- tegration process for fear of having their identities exposed and becoming 285 more prominent targets for retribution. Implementation of the Peace Agreement with Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin In September 2016, the Afghan government nalized a peace agreement with Gulbuddin Hekmatyar’s Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG) insurgent 286 group. When the peace deal with HIG was announced, some, including President Ghani, expressed hope that reconciling with Hekmatyar could 287 facilitate a broader peace. According to State, however, the peace agree- ment with HIG thus far has had no denitive impact on the reconciliation calculations of other resistance groups, including the Taliban. Nevertheless, State considers the peace agreement with HIG an important precedent that will inuence other armed groups, particularly leaders who see that 288 Hekmatyar has emerged as an inuential political leader. This quarter, the UN Secretary-General reported that the Afghan govern- ment made limited progress implementing its peace agreement with HIG. On July 25, HIG representatives met with NATO Resolute Support to dis- cuss a list of 59 prisoners HIG proposed for release. According to the UN, these prisoners remain in custody as there are insufcient guarantees that they would not rejoin the insurgency. Also in July, representatives from Afghan government security institutions discussed future HIG prisoner releases and land allocation, as well as the possible effect of a recent wave 289 of security-sector retirements on HIG-afliated security personnel. 111 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

122 GOVERNANCE U.S. Support to Peace and Reconciliation State provided $3.9 million to the UNDP to support reconciliation, including the activities of the High Peace Council (HPC), in September 2017. While this support was originally intended to last only through 2017, the initial 290 pilot was extended to October 30, 2018. State plans to disburse an addi- 291 tional $6 million before September 30. According to State, these funds have supported the HPC to build consensus for peace throughout the country and develop Afghanistan’s institutional capacity to facilitate reconciliation. HPC activities include out- reach activities at the national, provincial, and district levels to assess social attitudes toward reconciliation, document challenges, mobilize support for 292 reconciliation, and develop the capacity to facilitate reconciliation. Regional Dynamics for Peace On May 14, the Afghan and Pakistani governments agreed to the Afghanistan-Pakistan Action Plan for Peace and Solidarity (APAPPS). According to the Afghan and Pakistani governments, APAPPS provides a framework to strengthen mutual trust and deepen interaction in all spheres 293 of bilateral engagements. The inaugural APAPPS meeting was held on July 22 in Islamabad, Pakistan. According to State, a joint bilateral gathering of religious schol- ars was planned for September 6 in Islamabad, but Pakistan cancelled the 294 In late September, however, the HPC announced that it was still meeting. 295 in talks with Pakistani religious scholars on the matter. AFGHANISTAN COMPACT In August 2017, the U.S. and Afghan governments announced the launch of the “Afghanistan Compact.” The Afghanistan Compact is an Afghan-led ini- 296 tiative designed to demonstrate the government’s commitment to reforms. The Afghan government does not appear to face any direct nancial conse- 297 quences if it fails to meet the Afghanistan Compact reform commitments. For more information on the Afghanistan Compact, see pages 122–123 of . Quarterly Report to the United States Congress SIGAR’s April 30, 2018, This quarter, State attributed the following governance-related Afghan government actions to the pressure created by the Afghanistan Compact and the upcoming Geneva Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan scheduled for November 2018 (according to the UN, the Geneva Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan will be “crucial in measuring results against the $15.2 billion 298 committed by the international community for Afghanistan in 2016”): • The Kabul Bank Receivership informed State that recent progress in collecting debtor payments and seizing assets was solely attributable to pressure from the Compact. This quarter, DOJ reported that the AGO has made some progress seizing assets submitted as collateral by 112 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

123 GOVERNANCE Kabul Bank debtors. According to DOJ, money and asset recovery is 299 approximately 48% of total estimated losses. • The Afghan government reported that it has registered the assets of 13,600 Afghan government ofcials to meet its obligations under the 300 Compact. According to DOJ, these reports have not been veried. • The rst-ever Special Court was formed to hear the corruption case of former Minister of Communications and Information Technology Abdul Razaq Wahidi. According to DOJ, Wahidi was suspended from his post on January 2, 2017, based on allegations of nepotism, overpayments, illegally contracted workers, embezzlement, and misappropriation of tax revenue. Further, DOJ said the Attorney General’s Ofce (AGO) substantiated these allegations in an investigation that concluded in February 2017. Although Wahidi was tried by the Special Court, the two-year-old case is still pending since 301 it was returned back to the AGO. • The AGO started investigating the individuals named in the Farooqi Report on fuel-related corruption. According to DOJ, the investigation that produced this report in October 2015 uncovered collusion, price xing, and bribery related to bids for fuel contracts totaling nearly $1 billion. The investigation concluded that crimes were committed and specic individuals should be prosecuted, including a former minister 302 DOJ says that no charges have yet been who was a Ghani supporter. 303 led in this case. • The Afghan government passed an important amendment to the Access to Information Law and created a monetary awards system for individuals who advance anticorruption reform. • The AGO introduced an Anti-Corruption Justice Center referral mechanism for corruption cases. • A whistleblower protection law was drafted and nearly adopted in September. An anticorruption law that meets international standards likewise failed to win approval. However, according to State, the Afghan Ministry of Justice said that these two laws were approved by presidential decree on September 5, 2018. This anticorruption law calls for the creation of a commission to prevent corruption and coordinate and monitor the government’s ght against corruption. One of the commission’s functions will be developing and monitoring the progress of anticorruption strategies and policies. These strategies and policies would require the approval of the High Council for Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption that is chaired by President Ghani. Further, the commission will register and assess the assets of Afghan government 304 authorities and high ranking ofcials. 113 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

124 GOVERNANCE U.S. ASSISTANCE TO THE AFGHAN GOVERNMENT BUDGET encompasses On-budget assistance: donor funds that are aligned with Afghan Summary of Assistance Agreements government plans, included in Afghan At the Brussels Conference in October 2016, the United States and other government budget documents, and international participants conrmed their intention to provide $15.2 billion included in the budget approved by the between 2017 and 2020 in support of Afghanistan’s development priori- parliament and managed by the Afghan 305 Although the United States did not commit to a specic amount, ties. treasury system. On-budget assistance is then-Secretary of State John Kerry promised to work with Congress to pro- primarily delivered either bilaterally from 306 vide civilian assistance at or near the 2016 levels through 2020. a donor to Afghan government entities, In several conferences since the 2010 Kabul Conference, the United or through multidonor trust funds. (DOD States and other international donors have supported an increase to 50% in prefers the term “direct contributions” when on-budget through the the proportion of civilian development aid delivered referring to Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) monies executed via Afghan Afghan government or multidonor trust funds to improve governance, cut 307 government contracts or Afghan spending costs, and align development efforts with Afghan priorities. on personnel). While USAID does not feel that it is necessarily committed to the 50% on- budget target, it says the agency will provide on-budget assistance to honor encompasses Off-budget assistance: the U.S. government’s international commitments coming out of the 2012 donor funds that are excluded from the 308 Tokyo and 2016 Brussels Conferences on Afghanistan. Afghan national budget and not managed As shown in Table 3.20, USAID’s active, direct bilateral-assistance pro- through Afghan government systems. grams have a total estimated cost of $392 million. USAID also expects to contribute $2.7 billion to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) from 2012 through 2020 in addition to $1.37 billion disbursed under Source: SIGAR, , Quarterly Report to the United States Congress the previous grant agreement between USAID and the World Bank (2002– 7/30/2014, p. 130; Ministry of Finance, “Aid Management Policy for Transition and Beyond,” 12/10/2012, p. 8; State, 2011). USAID has disbursed $154 million to the Afghanistan Infrastructure response to SIGAR vetting, 1/14/2016; DOD, OSD-P, response 309 to SIGAR vetting, 1/15/2018. Trust Fund (AITF). TABLE 3.20 USAID ON-BUDGET PROGRAMS Cumulative Disbursements, Total Estimated Afghan Government as of 9/30/2018 End Date Cost Start Date On-Budget Partner Project/Trust Fund Title Bilateral Government-to-Government Projects Da Afghanistan Breshna Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity $316,713,724 $183,695,904 12/31/2018 1/1/2013 Sherkat (DABS) Project (PTEC) 75,000,000 - Textbook Printing and Distribution Ministry of Education 9/15/2017 12/31/2019 Multi-Donor Trust Funds Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) 7/31/2019 Multiple 3/31/2012 1,900,000,000 1,475,686,333 (current award)* Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) 9/1/2015 7/31/2019 Multiple 800,000,000 380,000,000 (New Development Partnership)** Afghanistan Infrastructure Trust Fund (AITF) 3/7/2013 3/6/2023 153,670,184 153,670,184 Multiple Note: USAID had a previous award to the ARTF that concluded in March 2012 and totaled $1,371,991,195 in disbursements. Cumulative disbursements from all ARTF awards are currently * $3,227,677,528. ** USAID formally ended the New Development Partnership on July 11, 2018. Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 114 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

125 GOVERNANCE On July 11, 2018, participants in the NATO Brussels Summit committed to extend “nancial sustainment of the Afghan forces through 2024.” The 310 public declaration did not specify an amount of money. Civilian On-Budget Assistance USAID delivers on-budget civilian assistance in two ways: bilaterally to Afghan government entities, and through contributions to two multidonor 311 trust funds, the ARTF and the AITF. According to USAID, all bilateral- assistance funds are deposited in separate bank accounts established by the 312 Ministry of Finance (MOF) for each program. The ARTF, administered by the World Bank, provides funds to the Afghan government’s operating and development budgets in support of Afghan government operations, policy reforms, and national-priority 313 - The AITF, administered by the Asian Development Bank, coor programs. 314 dinates donor assistance for infrastructure projects. According to USAID, the majority of on-budget funding has been and will continue to be directed 315 As of July, the through the multidonor trust funds, particularly the ARTF. United States remains the largest cumulative donor to the ARTF (30.3% of actual, as distinct from pledged, contributions) with the next-largest donor 316 being the United Kingdom (16.9% of actual contributions). The ARTF recurrent-cost window supports operating costs, such as Afghan government non-security-related salaries. As of July, the ARTF recurrent- cost window has cumulatively provided the Afghan government $2.6 billion for wages, $600 million for operations and maintenance costs, $1.1 billion in 317 incentive program funds, and $703 million in ad hoc payments since 2002. In July, the World Bank updated ARTF donors on its efforts to increase the physical verication of Afghan civil servants. The ARTF Monitoring Agent (MA) is responsible for verifying physical presence of a random sample of civil servants as part of the expenditure validation process for the ARTF recurrent-cost window. However, the World Bank reported that the MA has been unable to reach a signicant portion (40–50%) of the selected civil servants because the MA contract did not cover deploying agents to remote and/or insecure locations. As a short-term remedy, the World Bank directed its ARTF Supervisory Agent (SA) to collaborate with the MA. The MA claimed it was unable to reach 2,401 civil servants spread over 25 prov- inces. According to the World Bank, the SA was able to verify 1,524 (70.9%) of the civil servants as being physically present and 541 (25.2%) as not being physically present. Insecurity prevented the SA from accessing the sites for 318 224 (9%) of the randomly selected civil servants. New Development Partnership Effective March 1, 2018, but not formally communicated until July 11, 2018, USAID canceled its August 2015 memorandum of understand- ing with the Ministry of Finance for the $800 million New Development 115 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

126 GOVERNANCE 319 Partnership (NDP). According to USAID, they ended the NDP because (1) the Afghan government requested that donors consolidate and align their incentive-based development assistance programs and (2) the World Bank modied their ARTF Incentive Program to better align with USAID’s devel- 320 opment objectives in Afghanistan. In the August 2015 agreement, the U.S. and Afghan governments pro- posed 40 development results that the Afghan government would be expected to achieve. The Afghan government was to receive $20 million through U.S. funds provided via the ARTF’s recurrent-cost window for 321 achieving each development result. USAID’s last disbursement for NDP was in November 2017, bringing the total NDP disbursements to $380 million of the planned $800 million set aside to encourage Afghan government achievement of the NDP develop- 322 ment results. nance technician An Afghan Air Force demonstrates what he learned during the On-Budget Assistance to the ANDSF AAF’s rst Microsoft Excel training class. More than 60% of total U.S. on-budget assistance goes toward the require- (Photo by Staff Sgt. Jared Duhon) 323 ments of the Afghan security forces. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) provides on-budget assistance to the Afghan government through direct contributions from the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) to the Afghan government to fund a portion of Ministry of Defense (MOD) and Ministry of Interior (MOI) requirements, and through ASFF contri- butions to the multidonor Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan (LOTFA). According to DOD, most of the ASFF appropriation is spent on equipment, supplies, and services for the Afghan security forces using 324 DOD contracts. LOTFA is administered by the UNDP and primarily funds 325 Direct-contribution fund- Afghan National Police salaries and incentives. ing is provided to the MOF, which allots it incrementally to the MOD and 326 MOI, as required. The U.S. Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A) monitors and formally audits the execution of those funds. The aim is to assess ministerial capability and to ensure proper controls and compliance with documented accounting procedures and provisions of annual commit- 327 ment letters used to enforce agreements with the Afghan government. For Afghan scal year (FY) 1397 (December 2017–December 2018), DOD plans to provide the Afghan government the equivalent of $779.5 million to 328 support the MOD and $156.3 million to support the MOI. As of August 17, CSTC-A provided the Afghan government the equivalent of $468 million to support the MOD for FY 1397. The majority of these funds 329 (80%) was for salaries. Additionally, as of August 17, CSTC-A provided the equivalent of $62.8 million to support the MOI. Of these funds, $1 million was delivered via the UNDP-managed LOTFA, while $61.8 million was provided directly to 330 the Afghan government. 116 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

127 GOVERNANCE CSTC-A reports that it did not apply any conditions-based penalties this quarter. According to CSTC-A, this decision was due to the Afghan security 331 forces undertaking offensive operations. This follows CSTC-A’s previous decision to not apply penalties in the nal quarter of FY 1396 and the rst 332 quarter of FY 1397. Despite not applying penalties, CSTC-A reports that it held several meetings this quarter to review the status of commitment let- ter conditions that they say the Afghan government “must meet in order to 333 execute funding in support of defense and security requirements.” Regardless, CSTC-A did identify a number of commitment-letter-dened conditions that the MOD and MOI have failed to satisfy. Both the MOD and MOI failed to provide CSTC-A with required information on gross violations of human rights, personnel accountability, and monthly fuel and ammunition usage. Further, MOD and MOI did not meet their required network cyberse- curity standards. Contrary to their agreement with CSTC-A, MOD continues to grant promotions without using the required promotion boards, and has 334 been decient in developing plans to recruit and train females. In 2015, LOTFA donors and the Afghan government agreed to the terms for the transition of LOTFA’s nonduciary payroll-management functions to 335 the Afghan government. This quarter, CSTC-A reported that it still does not believe the MOI payroll system should be transferred from UNDP to MOI management. CSTC-A said that it will reevaluate this position when the 336 MOI meets the minimum set of conditions to take over the payroll system. NATIONAL GOVERNANCE Capacity-Building Programs As shown in Table 3.21, USAID capacity-building programs seek to improve Afghan government stakeholders’ ability to prepare, manage, and account for on-budget assistance. These programs also provide general assistance to support broader human and institutional capacity building of Afghan gov- 337 ernment entities such as civil-society organizations and the media. Civil Society and Media The Afghan Civic Engagement Program’s (ACEP) goal is to promote civil- society and media engagement that enables Afghan citizens to inuence TABLE 3.21 USAID CAPACITY-BUILDING PROGRAMS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL Cumulative Afghan Government Disbursements, Partner End Date Total Estimated Cost Project Title Start Date as of 9/30/2018 Afghan Civic Engagement Program (ACEP) N/A 12/4/2013 12/4/2019 $79,120,000 $65,326,541 3/28/2020 N/A 9,000,000 3/29/2017 3,280,600 Rasana (Media) Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 117 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

128 GOVERNANCE policy, monitor government accountability, and serve as advocates for politi- 338 cal reform. In July, USAID approved the extension and modication of ACEP to focus its civil-society organization (CSO) support on civic and voter 339 education for the 2018 and 2019 elections. This past quarter, ACEP facilitated meetings of the Civil Society Election Coordination Group (CECG), providing a platform for civil society to engage with the electoral management bodies and other Afghan government and international stakeholders. According to ACEP, the CECG has developed into an effective platform for civil society to raise concerns on security, women’s participation, voter registration, and national identication card 340 distribution. Additionally, two of ACEP’s Kabul-based CSO partners Free and Fair Election Forum of Afghanistan (FEFA), and Transparent Election Foundation of Afghanistan (TEFA), carried out elections-related activities during the quarter. For example, FEFA reported that it monitored the work of the Electoral Complaints Commission, while TEFA reported holding advo- 341 cacy and public-awareness meetings in a number of provinces. In March 2017, USAID launched the $9 million Rasana program. According to USAID, Rasana, which means “media” in Dari, provides support to women journalists and women-run or women-owned media orga- nizations. The program has four program areas: (1) support and training for women journalists, (2) investigative journalism initiatives, (3) advocacy and TABLE 3.22 COMPARISON OF RESOLUTE SUPPORT-DEFINED DISTRICT CONTROL AND USAID THIRD-PARTY MONITORING DISTRICT-ACCESSIBILITY ASSESSMENTS (JULY 2018) BY PERCENT AND COUNT BY PERCENT OF DISTRICTS USAID Third-Party Monitor Accessibility Resolute Support-dened district control (as of July 31, 2018) Limited Permissibility Partially Permissive Permissive 15.07% 79.45% Afghan government control 5.48% Afghan government inuence 35.57% 45.64% 18.79% 40.00% 41.54% 18.46% Contested 64.86% Insurgent activity 27.03% 8.11% 20.00% High insurgent activity 80.00% 0% BY NUMBER OF DISTRICTS USAID Third-Party Monitor Accessibility Resolute Support-dened district control (as of July 31, 2018) Limited Permissibility Partially Permissive Permissive 4 11 58 Afghan government control 28 Afghan government inuence 68 53 54 Contested 52 24 Insurgent activity 10 24 3 0 2 8 High insurgent activity Note: How to read the table showing percent: The percentages represent the percent of districts within a given Resolute Support-dened category that fall in a particular USAID third-party monitor- dened permissibility category. For example, in the row labeled “Afghan government control,” 5.48% percent of districts assessed by Resolute Support as being under Afghan government control are assessed by USAID’s third-party monitor as having only limited permissibility. Put another way, four of the 73 districts Resolute Support assessed as being under government control were also considered by the USAID third-party monitor as having only limited permissibility. There are eight more districts identied in Resolute Support’s dataset than in the USAID third-party monitoring datasets. There are 407 districts in Resolute Support’s dataset and 399 districts in USAID’s third-party monitor’s dataset. The additional districts in the Resolute Support dataset were dropped from this comparison. Source: RS, DCOS-SSP, AAG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; USAID, OAPA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 118 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

129 GOVERNANCE training for the protection of journalists, and (4) expanding the outreach of 342 media through small grants for content production in underserved areas. This past quarter, Rasana-supported journalists issued investigative reports on challenges to female access to education and health services in Khost, Nangarhar, and Logar Provinces. Another Rasana-supported media outlet published a report on the crimes of a local commander Daykundi Province that both elicited public reaction as well as threats to the journal- 343 ists involved. SUBNATIONAL GOVERNANCE USAID’s method for ensuring that its programming does not legitimize the Taliban rst requires identifying which areas are Taliban-controlled. To identify Taliban-controlled areas, USAID relies primarily on open-source data, as well as monthly maps generated by a USAID third-party monitor. The July 2018 assessments show the level of permissibility for third-party monitoring by district on a declining scale of access from “permissive” (34.59% of districts) to “partially permissive” (36.34% of districts) to “limited 344 permissibility” (29.07% of districts). As shown in Table 3.22, there are some differences between USAID’s third-party assessment of accessibility and Resolute Support’s assess- ment of district stability. For example, USAID third-party monitors reported that they were able to access or partially access 93 districts Resolute Support assessed as being actively contested by insurgents or having insurgent activity. Additionally, USAID third-party monitors reported having only limited permissibility (the lowest accessibility rat- ing) in 32 districts Resolute Support assessed as either under Afghan government control or inuence. USAID reported that it had decided against collecting data specically on the question of Taliban control and legitimacy, believing the costs to be prohibitive and the alternative data 345 sources sufcient. USAID says that the monthly accessibility estimates reect the permis- sibility on the date that the third-party monitor attempted travel to the area. These assessments can vary, as permissibility on one day may be different the next day. Therefore, USAID believes that it is not easy to compare the third-party monitoring accessibility with Resolute Support’s 346 assessment of district stability. Provincial and Municipal Programs USAID has two subnational programs focused on provincial centers and municipalities: the Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations (ISLA) and Strong Hubs for Afghan Hope and Resilience (SHAHAR) programs. Table 3.23 on the following page summarizes total program costs and dis- bursements to date. 119 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

130 GOVERNANCE TABLE 3.23 USAID SUBNATIONAL (PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL) PROGRAMS Cumulative Disbursements, End Date Total Estimated Cost as of 9/30/2018 Project Title Start Date $47,319,072 Strong Hubs for Afghan Hope and Resilience (SHAHAR) 11/30/2014 11/29/2019 $62,000,000 48,000,000 Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations (ISLA) 2/1/2015 1/31/2020 29,819,019 Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations The $48 million ISLA program is meant to enable the Afghan government to improve provincial governance in the areas of scal and development plan- ning, representation of citizens, and enhanced delivery of public services. ISLA aims to strengthen subnational systems of planning, operations, com- munication, representation, and citizen engagement, leading to services that more closely respond to all citizens’ needs in health, education, security, 347 justice, and urban services. According to USAID, one of the key provisions of the Afghan govern- ment’s provincial budget policy is to link the provincial development plans 348 (PDP) with the Afghan budget. According to ISLA, of the 2,126 projects proposed in the PDPs of the 16 ISLA-supported provinces, 233 (11%) were ultimately reected in the FY 1397 national budget. Besides the PDP-proposed projects, the 16 ISLA- supported provinces had an additional 1,245 projects contained in the national budget that were apparently not derived from the PDPs. The PDPs were the source of only 16% of the total number of projects associated with 349 the 16 ISLA-supported provinces. This quarter, SIGAR examined expenditures of the PDP-proposed and non-PDP-proposed projects ISLA identied as being reected in the FY 1397 national budget. For the rst seven months of 1397, PDP-proposed projects had expenditures equivalent to approximately $13 million. Non-PDP- proposed projects, however, had expenditures equivalent to approximately $142 million. The Ministry of Public Works spent the most in these two categories, reportedly spending $6 million on PDP-proposed projects and 350 $54 million on non-PDP-proposed projects. Strong Hubs for Afghan Hope and Resilience The objective of the $62 million SHAHAR program is to create well-gov- erned, scally sustainable Afghan municipalities capable of meeting the needs of a growing urban population. SHAHAR partners with municipalities to, among other things, deliver capacity-building for outreach and citizen - consultation, improved revenue forecasting and generation, and budget for 351 mulation and execution. 120 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

131 GOVERNANCE SHAHAR’s geographic coverage has decreased signicantly, from 20 province municipalities in the rst two years of the program, to ve munici- palities in its current fourth year (Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif, 352 and Jalalabad). According to USAID, the four remaining municipalities house the majority of Afghanistan’s urban population and an increased 353 number of refugee returnees. RULE OF LAW AND ANTICORRUPTION Rule of Law and Anticorruption Programs The United States has assisted the formal and informal justice sectors through several mechanisms. These include State’s Justice Sector Support Program (JSSP) and Justice Training Transition Program (JTTP). These and other rule-of-law and anticorruption programs are shown in Table 3.24. USAID has a cooperation arrangement with the UK’s Department for International Development to fund the Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring and Evaluation Committee (MEC). USAID funds the MEC’s monitoring, analysis, and reporting activities, including its vulnerability-to- 354 corruption assessments. State’s Justice Sector Support Program is the largest rule-of-law program in Afghanistan. JSSP was established in 2005 to provide capacity-building support to the Afghan justice system through training, mentoring, and advi- sory services. The current JSSP contract began in August 2017 and has an estimated cost of $26 million. The previous JSSP contract, which began in 355 2010, cost $280 million. JSSP provides technical assistance to the Afghan justice-sector institutions through (1) building the capacity of justice insti- tutions to be professional, transparent, and accountable; (2) assisting the TABLE 3.24 RULE OF LAW AND ANTICORRUPTION PROGRAMS Cumulative Total Estimated Disbursements, End Date Project Title Start Date Cost as of 9/30/2018 $15,767,252 4/15/2016 4/14/2021 $68,163,468 Assistance for Development of Afghan Legal Access and Transparency (ADALAT) 1,351,626 Afghanistan's Measure for Accountability and Transparency (AMANAT) 8/23/2017 8/22/2022 31,986,588 25,187,257 11,627,857 5/31/2022 Corrections System Support Program (OASIS CSSP)* 6/1/2017 8,098,117 8/28/2017 8/28/2022 26,044,546 Justice Sector Support Program OASIS Contract** Continuing Professional Development Support (CPDS)** 2/6/2018 4/6/2020 7,938,401 7,938,401 Delegated Cooperation Agreement (DCAR) with the Department for International 2,000,000 8/31/2020 4,600,000 Development (DFID) for Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring and 5/19/2015 Evaluation Committee (MEC) Note: * Disbursements as of 10/15/2018. ** Disbursements as of 9/21/2018. Source: State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018 and 10/17/2018; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 121 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

132 GOVERNANCE development of statutes that are clearly drafted, constitutional, and the product of effective, consultative drafting processes; and (3) supporting the case-management system so that Afghan justice institutions work in a harmonized and interlinked manner and resolve cases in a transparent and 356 legally sufcient manner. In March, JSSP received a Supreme Court request to generate a list of individuals who would benet from a presidential-pardon decree sched- uled for June 2018. JSSP generated a list of those who may be eligible for relief from their sentence and presented this list to the Attorney General’s Ofce (AGO) and the Administrative Ofce of the President. The committee issued nal pardon lists after comparing their internally generated lists to 357 the data JSSP provided, and the presidential-pardon decree was issued. In February, State launched the $8 million Continuing Professional Development Support (CPDS) program. According to State, CPDS will respond to an urgent need by the Afghan government to train legal pro- fessionals on the newly revised penal code and build the organizational capacity of the nascent professional training departments of Afghan 358 legal institutions. In April 2016, USAID launched the $68 million Assistance for the Development of Afghan Legal Access and Transparency (ADALAT) pro- gram. ADALAT aims to (1) increase the effectiveness and reach of the formal justice sector, (2) strengthen the linkages between the formal and traditional justice sectors, and (3) increase citizen demand for quality 359 legal services. This quarter, ADALAT completed an initial draft of the Huquq Reference Manual and shared it with Ministry of Justice (MOJ) leadership for com- 360 ments and feedback. Huquq ( ofces are part of the MOJ and provide Afghan citizens an opportunity to settle civil cases within the formal sys- 361 tem before being brought into the court system. ) Additionally, ADALAT reported this quarter that the program has improved its relationship with the Supreme Court following USAID’s approval of an ADALAT-proposed study tour in Jordan. According to ADALAT, the Supreme Court had refused all senior-level meetings with ADALAT personnel following the cancelation of the previous year’s ADALAT-sponsored study tours for the 362 Supreme Court. In August 2017, USAID awarded the Afghanistan’s Measure for Accountability and Transparency (AMANAT) contract to support the Afghan government’s efforts to reduce and prevent corruption in gov- ernment public services. As of the end of June 2018, AMANAT was still 363 primarily focused on project startup. Afghan Correctional System As of July 31, 2018, the General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Centers (GDPDC) incarcerated 28,555 males and 752 females, while the 122 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

133 GOVERNANCE MOJ’s Juvenile Rehabilitation Directorate (JRD) incarcerated 539 male and 33 female juveniles. These incarceration totals do not include detainees held by any other Afghan governmental organization, as State’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) does not have 364 access to their data. Overcrowding is a persistent, substantial, and widespread problem within GDPDC facilities for adults, despite stagnant prison population num- bers. As of July 31, the total male provincial-prison population was at 179% of capacity, as dened by the International Committee of the Red Cross’s (ICRC) minimum standard of 3.4 square meters per inmate. The total female provincial-prison population was at 97% of the ICRC-recommended capac- ity. The JRD’s juvenile-rehabilitation centers’ population was at 42% of 365 ICRC-recommended capacity. According to State, the major corrections-related accomplishments this quarter were the Afghan government’s employing nine social workers in police stations across Kabul and the Afghan government’s continued control of provincial prisons despite major insurgent attacks. The State- supported social workers assist judges to consider alternative sanctions for juvenile offenders. State hopes that such alternative sanctions will help alle- 366 viate prison overcrowding and nancial burdens. Anticorruption As of its most recent report in June, DOJ views the situation in Afghanistan SIGAR AUDIT as “consistent with a largely lawless, weak, and dysfunctional government” with many corruption cases languishing due to the lack of political will— As directed by the Consolidated 367 rather than capacity—of the Afghan government. For the period covering Appropriations Act, 2018, SIGAR will April to June 2018 (the latest data available), DOJ reports that there was no submit an updated assessment of the signicant progress in the major corruption cases that are tracked by the Afghan government’s implementation 368 U.S. Embassy. of its national anticorruption strategy This quarter, State reported that it has prioritized a number of cor - to Congress next year that includes ruption-related Afghanistan Compact benchmarks. The new priority an examination of whether the Afghan benchmarks include: executing Anti-Corruption Justice Center (ACJC) government is making progress toward warrants, prosecuting high-prole corruption cases, implementing the achieving its anticorruption objectives. State-supported Case Management System (CMS), and collecting on Kabul 369 The latest DOJ assessment of these matters is described in Bank cases. the following sections on the Attorney General’s Ofce and the ACJC. Attorney General’s Ofce According to DOJ, the Afghan attorney general has a poor record of pros- ecuting powerful and inuential corrupt actors. Additionally, the attorney general has failed to respond to repeated DOJ and U.S. Embassy appeals to prosecute stalled corruption cases. DOJ concludes that the attorney gener - al’s performance is decient, his accomplishments are lacking, and he fails 370 to cooperate with the U.S. Embassy on anticorruption matters. 123 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

134 GOVERNANCE In its most recent report to State, DOJ said that the attorney general has 371 misled U.S. ofcials on the progress of anticorruption reform efforts. For example, when DOJ requested information to verify the attorney general’s public statements that the Attorney General’s Ofce (AGO) had arrested and convicted a number of their prosecutors for corruption, no proof was 372 provided. As further evidence, DOJ cited the attorney general’s optimism that “everyone was happy” with the AGO’s progress (as of February 2018) in responding to the recommendations made by the Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring and Evaluation Committee (MEC) in their 2017 373 vulnerability to corruption assessment of the AGO. According to DOJ, at the time of these statements the MEC was rather critical of the AGO’s efforts (contrary to the attorney general’s charac- 374 terization offered to U.S. ofcials). In an August 2018 update, however, the MEC reported that the AGO had made “remarkable improvements” - in the implementation of the MEC’s recommendations compared to ear lier in the year. The “striking improvements” the MEC identied included construction of AGO ofces, new training programs, the preparation of job descriptions for AGO prosecutors, and improved monitoring of AGO 375 prosecutor performance. Among the stalled cases, DOJ cited the Kabul Bank case as one of particu- lar concern. In 2014, the Afghan Supreme Court ordered the AGO to pursue prosecutions of 16 individuals, investigate 227 additional suspects, and seize assets. DOJ reports that none of these actions have taken place. According to DOJ, the Afghan government is “double-dealing” in publicly promising to take action on the Kabul Bank case but privately reporting to U.S. Embassy ofcials that the attorney general has no intention to pursue further action. DOJ does note, however, that the AGO has made some progress seizing assets submitted as collateral by Kabul Bank debtors. According to DOJ, 376 money and asset recovery is approximately 48% of total estimated losses. AGO resistance to implementing the State-funded Case Management System (CMS) is another area of DOJ concern. CMS is an online database that tracks the status of criminal cases in Afghanistan, across all criminal justice institutions, from the moment a case is initiated to the end of con- nement. According to DOJ, the attorney general has criticized CMS as a foreign-owned system when discussing the matter with largely Afghan gov- ernment audiences. When meeting with U.S. ofcials, the attorney general has promised that the system would be functional by mid-2018. As of June, however, DOJ reported that the AGO was nowhere near a nationwide CMS functionality. DOJ believes that the motive for the attorney general’s resis- tance to implementing CMS is “a concern that more transparency will shine 377 a light on his unproductive, corrupt, and patronage-laden ofce.” 124 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

135 GOVERNANCE Anti-Corruption Justice Center On September 26, 2018, the ACJC primary In May 2016, President Ghani announced the establishment of a specialized court convicted the former director of the 378 anticorruption court, the Anti-Corruption Justice Center (ACJC). At the MOI Police Cooperative Fund, Major General ACJC, elements of the Major Crimes Task Force (MCTF) investigators, AGO Mohammad Anwar Kohistani, for misuse of 379 The ACJC’s prosecutors, and judges work to combat serious corruption. authority and embezzling over 109,398,000 jurisdiction covers major corruption cases committed in any province afghani (approximately $1.7 million) and involving senior ofcials or substantial monetary losses of a minimum of sentenced him to 11 years in prison. 380 ve million afghani (approximately $73,000). According to DOJ, the ACJC is attempting to placate donors by pursuing In March 2016, the MOI IG requested a number of low-level corruption cases, rather than the high-level corrup- SIGAR’s assistance with investigating 381 Kohistani and allegations of fraud and tion cases that are its mandate. CSTC-A agrees that the ACJC appears to embezzlement involving the MOI Police be increasingly focused on low-level defendants instead of senior Afghan Cooperative Fund. The MOI Police government ofcials. As evidence for this conclusion, CSTC-A said the 382 Cooperative Fund was a retirement fund ACJC has tried only four general ofcers in 2018. for Afghan police ofcers employed by the DOJ reported that State ofcials have told ACJC ofcials that the lack MOI. The investigation, conducted jointly by of ACJC productivity is an obstacle to U.S. support. According to DOJ, SIGAR and prosecutors of the AGO assigned ACJC ofcials reportedly responded to this critique with requests for to the ACJC, uncovered signicant evidence additional donor assistance. DOJ described the ACJC as being insuf- of embezzlement, fraud, and abuse of the ciently mission-focused, saying it instead “frets, stews over slights, snipes Cooperative Fund perpetrated by Kohistani. 383 Further, at other colleagues, and has a perpetual sense of entitlement.” DOJ reported that the ACJC has an estimated 100 prosecutors covering 384 DOJ’s 158 cases, a caseload of approximately 1.5 cases per prosecutor. concerns regarding the ACJC appear to be broadly shared as the UN Secretary-General observed that international partners have expressed their 385 concern about the declining performance of the ACJC. As of June, DOJ reports that the ACJC has over 120 outstanding warrants. Further, the MOI’s failure to enforce high-level warrants has become a matter of concern to the U.S. Embassy that could become a discussion topic at the 386 upcoming Geneva Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan in November 2018. Since its establishment in 2016, the ACJC has handled 38 cases involving 152 accused persons. According to the UN, 71 people have been convicted 387 and imprisoned after a nal decision by the Supreme Court in 24 cases. According to CSTC-A, the ACJC has adjudged nes (including nes, restitu- tion, compensation, and conscation) totaling 7,063,000 afghani (equivalent to approximately $100,000), $352,000, and 299,500 Pakistani rupees (equivalent to approximately $2,300). Of these nes, the ACJC has told CSTC-A that the fol- lowing amounts have been paid to the AGO: 96% of the nes levied in afghanis, 388 80% of the nes in dollars, and all of the nes in Pakistani rupees. Afghanistan Security Forces According to CSTC-A, corruption persists within the Afghan security forces. CSTC-A attributes the ongoing, cyclic corruption challenge to Afghan gov- 389 ernment ofcials who enable corrupt actors and inhibit judicial remedies. 125 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

136 GOVERNANCE According to DOD, “corruption remains the top strategic threat to the legiti- 390 macy and success of the Afghan government.” The most common corrupt behaviors CSTC-A has identied are associ- ated with fuel, food, “ghost” or nonexistent soldiers, extortion, narcotics, illicit mining, bribery, and the misuse, theft, or illegal sale of Afghan govern- 391 ment property. This quarter, SIGAR requested copies of the quarterly MOD and MOI counter- and anti-corruption assessments mandated in the 1397/1398 commitment letters. According to the commitment letters, these assess- ments are high priority strategic planning and performance requirements. CSTC-A did not provide copies of either assessment. Instead, CSTC-A only reported that both MOD and MOI met the unspecied anti- and 392 counter-corruption standards. In December 2017, the new MOI strategic policy identied combating corruption as one of the ministry’s objectives. However, as of August 2018, CSTC-A reports MOI has yet to dene how it will monitor and evaluate 393 progress against this objective. Security Ministry Inspectors General CSTC-A provides training, advice, and assistance to the inspectors general (IG) for the MOD (MOD IG) and MOI (MOI IG). When asked for its assess- ment of the quality of MOD IG and MOI IG inspection reports, CSTC-A commented primarily on stylistic and formatting issues. For example, CSTC-A observed that MOD IG reports are inconsistently formatted and lack full descriptions of inspection results and recommendations for correc- tive actions. Regarding MOI IG reports, CSTC-A commented favorably on 394 the detail and recommendations in reports. SIGAR asked CSTC-A for examples of actions taken by senior MOD and MOI leadership during the quarter in response to the issues identied in these reports. Previously, the CSTC-A element that partners with MOD IG and MOI IG suggested that SIGAR pursue this line of inquiry because it, too, 395 is interested in learning the answer. The CSTC-A elements that advise senior ofcials of the MOD and MOI reported that no actions were taken during the quarter in response to issues identied in MOD IG and MOI IG reports. Instead, these CSTC-A elements explained this lack of action by saying that they employ “a holis- tic [train, advise, and assist] methodology rather than focusing on single 396 issues/topics.” Major Crimes Task Force The Major Crimes Task Force (MCTF) is an elite MOI unit chartered to investigate corruption by senior government ofcials and organized criminal networks, and high-prole kidnappings committed throughout 397 Afghanistan. 126 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

137 GOVERNANCE In a break from previous quarters, CSTC-A was more critical in their assessment of the MCTF this quarter. CSTC-A reported that the MCTF does not appear to be the lead Afghan government investigative agency for high prole corruption crimes, as intended. Instead, the MCTF appears to be focusing on low-level cases. CSTC-A reports that MCTF investigators are not the best qualied, with some investigators possibly being assigned to the MCTF as a form of patronage. Further, MCTF leadership and investiga- 398 tors are increasingly subject to political and corruption crimes. DOJ also expressed concerns with the MCTF this quarter, saying that the MCTF is plagued by both corruption and a high polygraph failure rate. DOJ was reportedly informed of the ndings of an Afghan government investigation into the MCTF that revealed corruption by members of the force, including a 399 (In 2016, U.S. military mentors to the MCTF reported that former director. this former director received his appointment thanks to coalition support in the face of parliamentary and MOI opposition. Further, these mentors praised 400 the former director as exemplifying “outstanding leadership” at the time.) REFUGEES AND INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT Afghan Refugees According to State, the Proof of Registration (POR) cards which confer refugee status to 1.4 million Afghans in Pakistan were set to expire on September 30. While State has been informed there are plans to extend the validity of the POR cards through June 30, 2019, the announcement on September 11 to dissolve Pakistan’s Ministry of States and Frontier Regions 401 could complicate this effort. However, in a move State called unprecedented, Pakistan’s newly elected Prime Minister Imran Khan publicly pledged to offer Pakistani citizenship to Afghans and Bangladeshis born in Pakistan. State has no details regarding 402 how and when this plan would be implemented. As of September 26, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that 13,084 refugees have voluntarily returned to Afghanistan in 2018. The majority (11,557) of these refugee returns were 403 As shown in Figure 3.38 on the following page, far from Pakistan. fewer refugees have returned to Afghanistan this quarter than the high in 404 October 2016. Undocumented Afghan Returnees As shown in Figure 3.39 on the following page, as of September 22, IOM reported that 552,071 undocumented Afghans returned from Iran and 25,153 undocumented Afghans returned from Pakistan in 2018. So far, 577,224 405 According to State, the undocumented Afghans have returned in 2018. number of undocumented Afghan returns from Iran is at an all-time high. 127 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

138 GOVERNANCE FIGURE 3.38 AFGHAN REFUGEES RETURNING TO AFGHANISTAN (SINCE JANUARY 2015) 150,000 Country of Asylum 120,000 Iran Pakistan 90,000 60,000 30,000 0 2017 2015 2018 2016 Source: SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary Repatriation 2015,” 1/1/2018; SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary Repatriation 2016,” 11/8/2017; SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary Repatriation 2017,” 9/12/2018; and SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary Repatriation 2018,” 10/3/2018. FIGURE 3.39 CUMULATIVE NUMBER OF UNDOCUMENTED RETURNEES IN 2018 600,000 500,000 Returns from Pakistan Returns from Iran 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 2/3/18 3/3/18 4/7/18 5/5/18 6/2/18 7/7/18 8/4/18 9/1/18 1/6/18 Source: IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 9/22/2018; IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 8/4/2018; IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 7/7/2018; IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 6/2/2018; IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 5/5/2018; IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 4/7/2018; IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 3/3/2018; IOM, "Weekly Situation Report," 2/2/2018. State believes that 96% of the returnees are economic migrants leaving Iran because of the collapse of the value of Iran’s currency and resulting 406 decrease in demand for unregulated labor. Internal Displacement As shown in Figure 3.40, there has been less conict-induced internal displacement this year than in 2017. According to the UN Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), as of August 25, the conicts 128 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

139 GOVERNANCE FIGURE 3.40 CONFLICT-INDUCED DISPLACEMENTS OF PERSONS (THOUSANDS) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 (to Aug 25) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 700 Source: UN OCHA, “Afghanistan: Conict Induced Displacements in 2017 - Snapshot,” 6/18/2017; UN, OCHA, “Afghanistan - Conict Induced Displacements in 2017,” 2/2/2018; UN, OCHA, “Afghanistan - Conict Induced Displacements in 2018,” 9/16/2018. - of 2018 had induced 225,166 people to ee. The ofce recorded 276,544 per 407 In addition to conict-induced internal sons in the same period last year. displacement, OCHA reported that 216,574 people are displaced due to the 408 drought, as of October 8. As shown in Figure 3.41 on the following page, of the conict-induced internally displaced persons recorded so far this year, 33.4% reported being displaced from districts Resolute Support recorded as under Afghan government inuence (as of July 2018), 40.4% were from districts that are 409 contested, and 25.1% were from districts with insurgent activity. Afghan Asylum Seekers in Europe Eurostat, the statistical ofce of the European Union (EU), reported 19,640 rst-time Afghan asylum seekers in the EU in the rst eight months of 2018. As shown in Figure 3.42 on the following page, the number of rst-time Afghan asylum seekers to the EU has decreased signicantly since the high 410 The Afghanistan Analysts Network said that stronger point in 2015/2016. border controls and tightened asylum laws in Europe are the primary cause 411 for the decrease in the number of Afghan asylum seekers. GENDER In July 2013, then-USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah described the Promote partnership in a public speech as “the largest investment USAID has ever made to advance women in development,” which over ve years “will reach over 75,000 Afghan women directly helping them to achieve 129 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

140 GOVERNANCE FIGURE 3.41 FIGURE 3.42 FIRST-TIME AFGHAN ASYLUM APPLICANTS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION (2013 THROUGH AUGUST 2018, BY MONTH) 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2015 2013 2014 2016 2017 2018 Source: EUROSTAT, “Asylum and rst time asylum applicants by citizenship, age and sex, monthly data (rounded),” 9/26/2018. 130 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

141 GOVERNANCE TABLE 3.25 USAID GENDER PROGRAMS Cumulative Disbursements, Total Estimated as of 9/30/2018 Cost End Date Start Date Project Title 7/1/2015 6/30/2019 $71,571,543 $36,932,365 Promote: Women in the Economy 34,461,150 41,959,377 9/22/2019 9/23/2014 Promote: Women's Leadership Development 4/21/2015 4/20/2020 37,997,644 Promote: Women in Government 25,173,091 9/2/2015 9/1/2020 29,534,401 14,894,553 Promote: Women’s Rights Groups and Coalitions 2/21/2017 Promote: Rolling Baseline and End-line Survey 10/20/2020 7,577,638 3,138,336 7,098,717 4,850,707 Combating Human Trafcking in Afghanistan 1/10/2019 1/11/2016 Gender Based Violence (GBV) 6,667,272 6,667,272 7/8/2020 7/9/2015 Promote: Economic Empowerment of Women in Afghanistan 5/8/2015 5/7/2018 1,500,000 1,485,875 Countering Trafcking in Persons (CTIP) II - Empowerment and Advocacy to Prevent Trafcking 356,521 1,483,950 1/10/2018 1/9/2020 1,247,522 3/4/2015 3/3/2020 1,247,522 Promote: Scholarships Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. leadership roles in all parts of society from business to academia and in 412 politics and public policy.” SIGAR AUDIT USAID has since said Shah’s characterization “is not accurate [as] it did This quarter, SIGAR released a not come from the [Promote] design documents or the [USAID] Gender 413 performance audit of Promote that Ofce. Promote does not promise leadership roles in politics.” USAID 414 assessed contract compliance, has committed $280 million to Promote. Table 3.25 shows the current program performance, and Promote programs. implementation challenges for As of September 19, USAID reports that 3,907 female Promote benecia- the ve Promote programs. The ries have secured permanent employment. According to USAID, the Women audit found that, after three years in Leadership program has beneted 22,520 females. Of these, 715 have and $89.7 million spent, USAID/ been subsequently hired by the Afghan government, 533 have been hired Afghanistan has not fully assessed the by nongovernmental organizations, and 271 have been hired in the private extent to which Promote is meeting sector. The Women in the Economy program has beneted 24,393, with its overarching goal of improving the 2,900 of these beneciaries hired for permanent positions. The Women in status of more than 75,000 young Government program has beneted 3,901 women, with 178 hired for perma- 415 women in Afghanistan’s public, private, nent positions in the government. and civil society sectors. For more According to USAID, if one combines the number of beneciaries of information, see Section 2. leadership training, civil service training and internships, civil society advo- cacy work and economic growth activities, Promote has beneted over 416 50,000 women in over 30 provinces. This quarter, USAID reports that Promote, in partnership with the Ministry of Education (MOE), trained 122 teaching instructors. These instructors are planned to train 2,500 woman teachers. In addition, Promote plans train an additional 2,500 women who will have guaranteed positions 417 with the MOE. 131 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

142 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTENTS Key Issues and Events 133 U.S. Reconstruction Funding for Governance and Economic and 135 Social Development Economic Prole 135 Banking and Finance 140 U.S. Economic and Development Support 142 150 Essential Services and Development Quarterly Highlight: Current Status of Afghanistan’s Power Sector 154 156 Economic Growth 157 Education 160 Health Quarterly Highlight: Assessing Maternal Mortality: A Representative Case of Data Limitations in Developing-Country Contexts 161 132 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

143 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT KEY ISSUES AND EVENTS A severe drought continued to affect large swaths of Afghanistan this quarter, contributing to signicant internal displacement, according to the 418 United Nations. The UN said that as of September 9, 2018, the drought had displaced about 275,000 people in 2018—52,000 more than the ongoing 419 conict had displaced over the period. While the gap between conict- induced displacement and drought-induced displacement later narrowed, more than 263,330 people had been displaced in 2018 due to the drought, as of October 14, 2018, compared to 254,796 displaced due to conict, accord- ing to the UN. In May 2018, the UN estimated that approximately 2.2 million Afghans would be affected by the drought, which it had previously called 420 the worst in decades. According to the USAID-funded Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), the drought has resulted in atypically high levels of acute food insecurity (meaning that many Afghans do not have access to adequate nutrition), which is likely to increase in the coming months. FEWS NET said the northwestern provinces of Badghis and Faryab, which border 421 Turkmenistan, have been the worst-affected areas. USAID has reported it expected a 2.5 million metric ton (MMT) wheat-harvest decit for 2018, 422 against a total need of 6 MMT. USAID expected this year’s wheat harvest yield to be just 3.5 MMT—even lower than the 2017 yield of 4.2 MMT, which 423 was already 57% below the then ve-year average. On September 23, 2018, USAID announced it would provide $43.8 million to the UN’s World Food 424 Programme to provide food assistance to drought-affected Afghans. The World Bank continued to report subdued economic growth projec- tions this quarter, with growth likely to dip to 2.4% in 2018, down slightly from 2.7% in 2017. Building momentum in the economy would be difcult within the current context of violence and uncertainty related to parliamen- tary and presidential elections, prevailing drought conditions, and declining business condence, according to the Bank. The Bank pointed to recent survey results suggesting that the percentage of Afghans living under the national poverty line (dened as the cost of covering basic needs, which was approximately $1 per person, per day in 2016–2017) had increased from 38% in 2011–2012 to 55% in 2016–2017. Overall, available indicators, includ- ing new business registrations, measurements of business sentiment, and 133 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

144 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL continued violence, suggested that economic momentum may have slowed 425 in the rst half of 2018. In a more recent assessment of the Afghan economy, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) offered a similar perspective, projecting a 2.3% growth rate in 2018. Like the Bank, the IMF noted this was lower than last year’s estimated 2.7% pace. The World Bank estimated population growth in 2017 at 2.5%, implying that, with the projected low economic growth rate, licit per capita income could either stagnate or decrease in 2018. The IMF ascribed the drop in economic growth rate to deteriorating security condi- tions, political uncertainty, and the ongoing drought. However, the IMF commended Afghan authorities for their sound macroeconomic manage- 426 ment despite challenging circumstances. Former Kabul Bank chairman Sherkhan Farnood died in Bagram Prison this quarter. Farnood was serving time for his role in embezzling more than $900 million in cash and assets from Kabul Bank, which nearly collapsed in 427 Revelations of the fraud led Afghan depositors to withdraw approxi- 2010. mately $500 million over the course of a few days, putting Afghanistan on the verge of a nancial crisis. While Kabul Bank was placed into conserva- torship shortly after its near-collapse, asset recoveries have since stalled. A 2016 report from the United States Institute for Peace said that the crisis symbolized the “pervasive corruption and impunity that have threatened 428 Sustainable Domestic Revenues: Afghan ofcials from the the legitimacy of the Afghan government.” According to Afghanistan Ministry of Kabul Bank Receivership, established to manage the bank’s bad assets, Finance (MOF) ofcials, these are revenues believe that Farnood’s death could adversely affect efforts to recover the like customs, taxes, and non-tax fees. 429 stolen funds. DOJ said that, according to the KBR, Farnood had provided Multilateral institutions such as the World a list of “227 names and areas” where he had distributed the $467 million Bank and the IMF use reports of these he owed, implying that collecting on his debt would be difcult following revenues to judge the Afghan government’s 430 his death. scal performance. SIGAR analysis showed that the Afghan government’s aggregate domestic revenues grew by approximately 4%, year-on-year, over the rst These are One-Off Domestic Revenues: seven months of Fiscal Year (FY) 1397 (December 22, 2017–December 21, nonrecurring revenues arising from one- 431 Afghanistan’s Ministry of Finance classies domestic revenues 2018). time transfers of funds, such as central 432 bank prots, to the Afghan government. The and one-off categories. sustainable into During the period, a large, IMF excludes central bank transfers from nearly AFN 4 billion (approximately $55.5 million) transfer of funds to its denition of domestic revenues for the Afghanistan’s central bank was classied as a one-off transfer. This transfer purpose of monitoring Afghanistan’s scal reduced aggregate revenues, which include both sustainable and one-off performance under its Extended Credit transactions. However, because this transfer was categorized as a one-off, Facility arrangement with the government. sustainable domestic revenues (which do not include one-off transactions) grew by the higher rate of 8.6% over the rst seven months of FY 1397, year- 433 on-year. Both the aggregate and sustainable domestic revenue growth 434 Source: SIGAR, communications with MOF ofcials, rates, while positive, were lower than in recent years. Expenditures, 8/21/2017; SIGAR, communications with IMF ofcials, 435 9/7/2017. meanwhile, grew by nearly 5%. 134 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

145 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT U.S. RECONSTRUCTION FUNDING FOR GOVERNANCE AND ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT As of September 30, 2018, the U.S. government has provided approximately $33.72 billion to support governance and economic and social development Development Objectives (DOs): in Afghanistan since 2002. Most of these funds—nearly $20.38 billion—were correspond to specic development appropriated to USAID’s Economic Support Fund (ESF). Of this amount, challenges that a mission aims to address. 436 $19.23 billion has been obligated and $16.16 billion has been disbursed. A Country Development Cooperation Strategy cannot have more than four DOs. Although USAID’s forthcoming Country Development Cooperation DOs are typically the most ambitious Strategy (CDCS), which will dene the agency’s mid-term development results to which a USAID Mission in a approach to Afghanistan, remained unnalized this quarter, the agency particular country (e.g., the USAID/ signed its latest multiyear assistance agreement with the Afghan govern- Afghanistan Mission), in conjunction with ment on September 6, 2018. The agreement details the agency’s strategic its development partners, can contribute. for Afghanistan as well as intended results, Development Objectives (DOs) 437 Per the articles of the agreement, which extends among other information. to December 31, 2023, the agency intends its assistance to accelerate private- Source: USAID, ADS Chapter 201: Program Cycle Operational sector-driven, export-led economic growth (DO 1); advance social gains Policy, 5/24/2018, p. 29. in health, education, and gender equality (DO 2); and increase the Afghan 438 government’s accountability to its citizens (DO 3). USAID plans to spend 439 approximately $2.5 billion in order to achieve these objectives. The CDCS is also linked to the updated U.S. Integrated Country Strategy (ICS) for Afghanistan, released in late September 2018. According to the ICS, the U.S. policy goal in Afghanistan is to prevent any further USAID initially expected to complete its new attacks on the United States by terrorist groups that enjoy support or Country Development Cooperation Strategy safe haven in Afghanistan. Accomplishing this policy objective, the ICS by the summer of 2018. However, as of said, would not be possible without a growing Afghan economy. One October 11, 2018, the strategy was not goal of the U.S. mission in Afghanistan, therefore, is to create economic yet nalized. prosperity in Afghanistan by advancing private-sector-led export growth Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and job creation and by bolstering social gains in health, education, and and 12/21/2017; USAID, OAPA, response to SIGAR vetting, 440 women’s empowerment. 10/11/2018. ECONOMIC PROFILE Spurred by high levels of donor spending, a large international military presence, and the recovery typically seen in post-conict situations, Afghanistan’s economic growth rate averaged close to double digits for the rst decade of reconstruction. Since the 2014 security transition and draw- down of foreign troop strength, however, growth has been substantially 441 While more muted, even with continuing high levels of foreign assistance. Afghanistan is in the midst of a modest recovery, with growth rising to 2.7% in 2017 following 1.3% growth in both 2014 and 2015, the World Bank 442 said in August 2017 that the momentum appeared to be at risk. Echoing the Bank, the IMF projected a 2.3% growth rate in 2018, which was lower 443 Lower levels of business than the Fund’s 2.7% growth estimate for 2017. condence, the ongoing drought, and the apparent slowing of economic 135 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

146 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT activity collectively represented obstacles to growth, according to the Bank, SIGAR has reported previously that the World which pointed to the results of a recent survey suggesting that the number Bank, IMF, and others exclude the value of Afghans living below the national poverty line had risen from 38% in of opium production from their reported 444 2011–2012 to 55% in 2016–2017. The IMF added that, among other factors, GDP estimates. However, accounting for deteriorating security conditions rendered the current environment even Afghanistan’s economic output (and by 445 more challenging. extension its economic growth rate) without The current state of the Afghan economy, however, is not without its considering opium production provides an bright spots. As SIGAR reported last quarter, data from Afghanistan’s incomplete picture of the Afghan economy. National Statistics and Information Authority (formerly the Central Statistics In contrast to multilateral institutions, Organization) showed that exports of goods increased by 28% from 2016 since 2015–2016, Afghanistan’s National to 2017, driven in part by the initiation of an air corridor with India that Statistics and Information Authority (NSIA) resulted in higher sales of Afghan fruit, according to the Asian Development has reported the country’s GDP and GDP 446 The World Bank added that the resolution of border issues with Bank. growth rates with two gures: one that Pakistan, which had slowed trade between the two countries, also played a includes, and one that excludes the opium 447 Nevertheless, despite the lower growth rate of imports, the merchan- role. economy. Due to what the United Nations 448 dise trade decit still widened in 2017, as SIGAR has reported previously. Ofce on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) The World Bank said merchandise exports remained low in absolute terms described as “record-high” opium production at the equivalent of 6% of Afghanistan’s gross domestic product (GDP), in 2017, Afghanistan’s total economy, including the opium sector, grew by a robust reecting simultaneously the prospect of both additional near-term growth 7.2% in 2017, according to the NSIA, from a low base and a long road ahead to reducing the country’s wide trade 449 compared to 2.9% excluding opium. decit, which the Bank said was equal to 40% of GDP in 2017. With limited visibility into the opium sector, Fiscal Outlook: Recent Improvement is Fragile the NSIA appears to only account for the The Afghan government’s revenue gains have been quite strong in recent farm-gate value of opium and therefore 450 years. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) does not include the value added through 451 In August 2018, the Bank said that Afghanistan’s revenue concur. renement and trafcking. Thus, the NSIA 452 The Bank added that recent performance was now at a record high. may understate opium’s contribution to the Afghan economy. Extrapolating from UNODC improvements in revenue performance were the result of better tax and estimates, the net value of the total opium customs administration and enforcement (with the average value of cus- economy in 2017—which includes value toms declarations for imports trending higher), as well as new fees and added during production and trafcking but 453 charges that led to increases in non-tax revenues. Overall, the Bank said, excludes the value of imported precursor revenues had risen to 12.3% of GDP in 2017, which was higher than the pre- substances—was $3.9–6.3 billion, the 454 Given modest expenditure growth in 2017, vious 11.7% peak of 2011–2012. equivalent of 19.1–30.5% of GDP. 455 all of this reects an encouraging trend line. , Quarterly Report to the United States Congress Source: SIGAR, Nevertheless, the Bank said that while revenue growth has been strong 7/30/2018, p. 149; NSIA, Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2017–2018, p. 110; UNODC, Afghanistan opium survey 2017 for the last several years, it is now slowing (see SIGAR’s analysis of current , Challenges to sustainable development, peace and security 5/2018, pp. 13–14. revenues and expenditures in the next subsection) and noted that revenue 456 growth over the rst half of 2018 barely exceeded the rate of ination. Both the IMF and the Afghan government echoed their assessments that scal risks persisted this year, exacerbated by the parliamentary elec- tions (which occurred this month) and presidential elections slated for April 2019. In May 2018, Afghan authorities pointed to downside revenue risks that coincided with the last election year (2014), which resulted in 457 The Afghan government also a sharp decline in revenue performance. 136 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

147 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT pointed to risks associated with uncertainty surrounding economic growth 458 as well as precarious security conditions. Thus, overall, Afghanistan’s s- cal outlook remained fragile this quarter. Government Revenues and Expenditures: Revenue Gains Continue at Slower Pace SIGAR analysis showed that the Afghan government’s aggregate domes- tic revenues grew by approximately 4%, year-on-year, over the rst seven 459 months of Fiscal Year (FY) 1397 (December 22, 2017–December 21, 2018). Afghanistan’s Ministry of Finance categorizes domestic revenues into one-off sustainable and categories (see page 134 for denitions of these 460 During the period, a large, nearly AFN 4 billion (approximately terms). $55.5 million) transfer of funds to Afghanistan’s central bank that reduced overall revenues was classied as a one-off transaction. Because this trans- fer reduced aggregate revenues, sustainable domestic revenues (which do not include one-off transactions) grew by the higher rate of 8.6% over the 461 rst seven months of FY 1397, year-on-year. Both the aggregate and sustainable domestic revenue growth rates, 462 while positive, were lower than in recent years. The World Bank expected revenue growth to slow in 2018. According to the Bank, revenue gains from recent improvements in administration and enforcement are nearing exhaustion. The Bank said that revenue increases over the rst six months 463 of 2018 only slightly exceeded the rate of ination. Recent revenue data showed that customs duties and taxes continued to represent the largest component of domestic revenues (21.7% through the rst seven months of FY 1397), followed by sales taxes (18.9%), admin- 464 Approximately 11.0% of istrative fees (18.1%), and income taxes (15.2%). revenues were classied as “Miscellaneous” through FY 1397 Month 7, pre- cluding a line-item analysis of year-on-year changes in individual revenue 465 categories. According to MOF ofcials, the “Miscellaneous” category is sometimes used as a catch-all category for uncategorized revenues prior to 466 the MOF’s reconciliation. SIGAR analysis showed that expenditures, meanwhile, grew by approxi- 467 Wages and salaries constituted mately 4.9% over the same time period. the largest share of expenditures (57.1% over the rst seven months of 468 FY 1397), consistent with recent trends. The World Bank projected expenditures to grow by just over 5% in 2018, reecting expected increases 469 Table 3.26 on the following to security and development spending. page shows a comparison of expenditures over the rst seven months of FY 1397, compared to the rst seven months of FY 1396. Trade In 2017, Afghanistan’s merchandise trade decit remained quite high at the equivalent of 33.6% of GDP, widening from the 2016 gure of 31.6%. The 137 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

148 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT TABLE 3.26 EXPENDITURES, FIRST SEVEN MONTHS, AFGHAN FISCAL YEARS 1396 AND 1397 COMPARED (IN AFGHANIS) % Change Category 1396 (Through Month 7) 1397 (Through Month 7) a AFN 95,449,436,844 AFN 98,993,358,639 3.7% Wages and Salaries b Goods and Services 33,283,817,205 29,515,462,068 (11.3%) c Subsidies, Grants, and Social Benets 14,000,008,398 14,612,484,103 4.4% d Acquisition of Assets 34.3% 29,177,193,628 21,725,266,139 e Interest and Repayment of Loans 1,068,861,212 26.1% 847,494,365 AFN 173,367,359,650 Total AFN 165,306,022,951 4.9% Note: a Compensation of government employees. b Includes: (1) payments to private rms in return for goods and/or services, and (2) payments to other government units or agencies in return for services performed. c Includes: (1) expenditures made to entities in return for development assistance and promotional aid, or reimbursement for losses caused by equalization of commodity tariffs, price controls, and other similar purposes that are not repayable; (2) grants to other government units for which unequal value is provided in return; and (3) social assistance benets not covered by social security. d Expenditures related to the purchase, improvement, or construction of assets. e Interest, principal payments, and fees related to government debt. Source: SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 1/8/2018; Government of Afghanistan, MOF, Chart of Account , Version 1, “Object Exp Long Des,” 1/7/2018. Guide Fiscal Year: 1397 country’s services trade decit also rose recently, from the equivalent of 4.2% of GDP in 2016 to 5.6% in 2017. The decit continues to be nanced 470 almost entirely by donor inows. While USAID plans to accelerate Afghanistan’s economic growth by increasing the country’s exports, the World Bank expected the trade balance to remain relatively unchanged in 471 the mid-term. Exports by air have been growing at an impressive rate, albeit from a low base, supporting the proposition that Afghanistan can rapidly grow its exports. USAID said the country’s air exports had grown by 70% over the 472 last two full years, from $230 million in 2015 to $391 million in 2017. While encouraging, many barriers to trade persist. Afghanistan’s land- locked geography, poor infrastructure, institutional decits, and ongoing conict all threaten trade expansion. The IMF said being landlocked intro- duces other challenges: import and export costs and delays are higher for landlocked countries than for those with coastlines. For Afghanistan, high energy costs and low levels of access to electricity, land, and nance also 473 pose obstacles. To address these challenges, in addition to its recent, aggressive expan- sion of air corridors, Afghanistan has signed various bilateral and regional trade agreements with neighboring countries. For example, although geopolitical factors have inhibited its full implementation, a transit trade agreement between Afghanistan and Pakistan allows the countries to leverage one another’s transit corridors. According to the IMF, transit trade represents an opportunity to turn Afghanistan’s landlocked geog- raphy into a comparative advantage. Meanwhile, the agreement between Iran and India to develop the Chabahar seaport in southeastern Iran has 138 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

149 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL the potential to open up further Afghan trade with India, which in turn hopes to use the port to transit Indian goods through Afghanistan into 474 Central Asia. Export and Import Data Afghanistan continued its strong recent record of export growth in goods this quarter. Through the rst two quarters of FY 2018, exports grew by 33%, year-on-year, which represented a slight acceleration over the growth rate of 28% from 2016 to 2017, though growth in the second quarter of 2018 475 slowed to 18%. Through two quarters, India remained the number-one destination for Afghan export goods, 45% of which owed to India over that period. While Pakistan was a distant second, taking in 34% of Afghan prod- ucts through the rst two quarters, exports to Afghanistan’s oft-contentious - neighbor surged from the rst to the second quarter, growing at 34%, per haps reecting de-escalating border tensions that have affected licit trade volume between the two countries. Exports to India, meanwhile, dropped dramatically from the rst to the second quarter of FY 2018 by 42%. This decrease was driven in part by a 45%—or more than $15 million—decrease asefetida in exports of (also known as “devil’s dung”), a fetid gum resin 476 used as avoring in Indian cooking. While coal was Afghanistan’s number- two export in the second quarter of 2018, agricultural products continued to dominate the list of the country’s top exports, constituting nine of the top 10 merchandise exports in the rst quarter of 2018 and eight out of the top 10 477 in the second. Nevertheless, even with lower growth in Afghan imports of goods, the merchandise trade decit for FY 2018 was approximately $3.4 billion through the rst two quarters of the year, signaling that from a low base, even dramatic increases in exports have little material effect on shoring up 478 Afghanistan’s trade balance, which is nanced primarily by foreign aid. Through the rst two quarters of 2018, the majority of imported products (approximately 66%) originated in ve countries: Pakistan (16.1%), Iran 479 (15.6%), China (14.0%), Kazakhstan (11.3%), and Uzbekistan (9.2%). Afghanistan’s number-one import through the rst two quarters of 2018 was 480 wheat our. Iran Sanctions Could Affect the Afghan Economy, but Full Impact Not Yet Clear In May, President Donald J. Trump announced that the U.S. was with- drawing from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)—more commonly known as the “Iran Nuclear Deal” of 2015—that lifted sanctions on Iran in return for Iran’s limiting its nuclear-power activity to ensure that it is unable to produce nuclear weapons. According to Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo, the President withdrew from the Iran deal because it 481 failed to guarantee the safety of the American people. 139 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

150 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT This quarter, State provided an assessment of how the Iran sanctions could affect Afghanistan’s economy. While the renewed sanctions have not yet been fully applied—those most signicant to Afghanistan, affect- ing Iran’s ports and crude oil exports, are scheduled to take effect on November 5, 2018—State said that remittances to Afghanistan from Iran have dropped sharply to “almost zero,” the consequence of a precipitous slide in the Iranian rial. The loss of remittance incomes to families already suffering from the ongoing drought will represent a signicant challenge to local economies and communities in western Afghanistan, according to State. Iran’s currency collapse has also signicantly increased returns of Afghan migrant workers from Iran. State said that Afghanistan’s western region would be stressed by the need to reintegrate the 500,000-plus return- ees (compared to 230,000 in 2017), exacting a heavy economic toll and 482 adding to less-stable western provinces’ social-support systems. While the Afghan and Indian governments hope the U.S. will grant a sanc- tions waiver for the Chabahar Port in southeastern Iran, State reported that, according to Afghanistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry ofcials, the volume of goods destined for Afghanistan by way of Chabahar and Iran’s 483 The Bandar-e-Abbas ports had dropped considerably in recent months. Chabahar port is hardly the only issue at stake: State also emphasized that fuel products, which will also be subject to sanctions, make up the lion’s share of Afghanistan’s imports from Iran. According to State, approximately 40% of Afghanistan’s ofcial fuel imports come from Iran, with estimates of unofcial imports likely raising that gure above 50%. State said that if fully reimposed, sanctions could eliminate Afghanistan’s fuel imports from Iran. However, State added, fully applied sanctions would likely push trade under - 484 ground, with higher levels of illicit trade in both fuel and steel. As State detailed, Afghanistan is already experiencing some repercus- sions as a result of renewed U.S. sanctions. Nevertheless, with potential waivers for fuel, steel, and Chabahar still under review, it is not yet clear what the nal effects of U.S. sanctions will be. As of October 15, 2018, State said it was still reviewing how its Iran sanctions policy will 485 be implemented. BANKING AND FINANCE Afghanistan’s nancial sector consists of 15 banks. Three banks are state-owned; of the remaining 12, nine are private and three are foreign 486 commercial-bank branches. The banking sector remains vulnerable to adverse shocks due to poor asset quality, capital shortfalls, and manage- ment deciencies at several banks. However, Afghan nancial institutions 487 have recently been reducing their exposure to risk. By the end of 2017, the ratio of nonperforming loans to gross loans was at the lowest level seen since the beginning of 2015, according to data presented by the IMF. 140 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

151 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT The ratio of adversely classied loans (loans that banks doubt will be repaid) to gross loans, meanwhile, dropped dramatically from the third to the fourth quarter of 2017, while the ratio of regulatory capital to risk- weighted assets climbed from 2016 to 2017, before leveling off in the rst 488 quarter of 2018. Nevertheless, access to credit in Afghanistan remains minimal: asset-to- deposit ratios remain exceedingly high—74% at the end of 2017—reecting weak intermediation of credit from banks to the country’s private sector. In 2017, the value of intermediated credit in Afghanistan was the equivalent of 3.3% of GDP, down from approximately 3.6% in 2016. According to the World Bank, weak condence was continuing to inhibit credit demand, with 489 current economic conditions limiting the number of feasible projects. Treasury Technical Assistance: Additional Third-Country Meetings/Training Sessions Under Consideration In March 2015, the U.S. Treasury’s Ofce of Technical Assistance (OTA) signed an agreement with Afghanistan’s MOF to develop and execute technical-assistance and capacity-building programs aimed at strengthen- ing the government’s public nancial management. OTA also aims to help the government of Afghanistan provide better oversight of its nancial sec- tor. President Ghani requested OTA renew its engagement with the Afghan 490 government in 2014 to assist with budget reforms, among other activities. OTA’s current work in Afghanistan is funded through an interagency agree- 491 ment with USAID that expires in September 2019. During the reporting period, Treasury said that all travel to Kabul had been on hold as a result of security concerns. While OTA advisors were able to engage in limited remote-advising work—for example by support- ing Afghanistan’s Fiscal Performance Improvement Plan, a reform program designed to strengthen public nancial management—it was unable to pursue other technical advisory work such as efforts to help the Afghan Problem bank resolution: a process - government improve how it costs new policy initiatives for budgeting pur 492 through which authorities resolve a poses. Because security concerns have affected OTA’s ability to deliver situation in which a nancial institution training on-site in Kabul, OTA is exploring the option of more frequently is in danger of failing. Examples include conducting training in other venues such as Baku, Azerbaijan. For example, deposit payoffs and purchase and problem bank resolution workshop in late August, Treasury delivered a assumption (P&A) transactions. In a P&A organized in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Commerce to Afghan transaction, a healthy institution agrees to counterparts in Baku. OTA said that even when advisors have been able to purchase some or all of the assets, and travel to Kabul, U.S. Embassy security protocols required for Afghan coun- to assume some or all of the liabilities, of terparts to enter the Embassy compound have proved onerous, introducing a failed institution. Effective resolution is 493 bureaucratic obstacles to holding multiday meetings. believed to foster stable nancial systems. Kabul Bank Theft: Substantive Progress Remains Elusive Due to embezzlement and fraud by a handful of politically connected indi- , 12/23/2014, pp. 5–6; Resolutions Handbook Source: FDIC, viduals and entities, Kabul Bank—a systemically important Afghan nancial IMF, “Bank Resolution Powers and Tools,” 10/20/2016, p. 5. 141 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

152 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 494 institution—nearly collapsed in September 2010. The Afghan government subsequently organized an $825 million bailout (an amount equivalent to approximately 5%–6% of GDP), rendering the scam one of the largest 495 banking catastrophes in the world, relative to GDP. The aftermath of the scandal exposed an elaborate fraud and money-laundering scheme orches- trated by Kabul Bank founder Sherkhan Farnood (who died while serving time in Bagram Prison this quarter), chief executive ofcer Khalilullah Ferozi, and other key shareholders and administrators. According to a 2016 report from the United States Institute of Peace (USIP), years later, the legacy of Kabul Bank remains a striking symbol of the extensive corruption 496 The and criminality that undermine the Afghan government’s legitimacy. U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) has referred to the scandal as “one of 497 the most notorious fraud cases in Afghan history.” Every quarter, SIGAR requests an update from relevant agencies on Kabul Bank Receivership (KBR) efforts to recover funds stolen from the Kabul Bank. The KBR was 498 established to manage Kabul Bank’s bad assets. Both DOJ and State reported that, overall, Kabul Bank debtors (i.e. those responsible for the stolen funds) still owe just over $594 million, unchanged 499 However, State reported that, according to the KBR, from last quarter. 500 State said approximately $1.6 million has been recovered since May 2018. that recent debtor payments had been made “under signicant Compact pressure”—referring to the Afghanistan Compact, initiated in August 2017 with the intent of prioritizing Afghan government commitments and mea- suring progress against key benchmarks, including Kabul Bank repayment 501 agreements. DOJ conrmed that the U.S. Embassy has been demanding 502 progress through periodic Compact meetings. Additionally, DOJ reported that President Ghani issued a new decree this quarter ordering that the market value of borrowers’ collateral and assets be determined and that a public announcement be made to sell those collat- eral and assets. Nevertheless, DOJ added that it does not believe the Afghan government possesses the political will to move forward on Kabul Bank 503 asset recoveries, despite having the capacity to do so. U.S. ECONOMIC AND DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT Most assistance from the Economic Support Fund goes toward USAID’s development programs. According to the agency’s recently signed, $2.5 bil- lion assistance agreement with the Afghan government that extends through December 31, 2023, USAID aims to render Afghanistan a more inclusive, economically viable, and self-reliant country with which the U.S. 504 USAID government can better partner in its national-security strategy. hopes to achieve this end state through programming that accelerates pri- vate sector-driven and export-led economic growth, advances social gains, 505 and increases the Afghan government’s accountability to its citizens. 142 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

153 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FIGURE 3.43 USAID DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE, CUMULATIVE DISBURSEMENTS, AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 4,308 Infrastructure 2,670 Governance 2,432 Stabilization 2,199 Agriculture * 1,273 Unpreferenced 1,222 Health 1,214 Economic Growth 1,017 Education 425 Program Support 140 Gender 3,000 2,000 1,000 $0 5,000 4,000 Note: USAID Mission-managed funds. Numbers are rounded. USAID gender programs are presented as a separate category this quarter. Reclassication of some projects from other categories (such as economic growth) to the new gender category reduced some previously reported cumulative disbursements. Agriculture programs include alternative development. Infrastructure programs include power, roads, extractives, and programs that build health and education facilities. Ofce of Financial Management activities (e.g. audits and pre-award assessments) included under Program Support funds. Additional Ofce of Financial Management activities added due to increased data coverage. * Unpreferenced funds are U.S. contributions to the ARTF that can be used for any ARTF-supported initiatives. Administrator’s Source: SIGAR analysis of USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018; SIGAR analysis of World Bank, ARTF, Report on Financial Status , as of July 22, 2018. USAID is developing its rst Country Development Cooperation Strategy (CDCS) for Afghanistan. The CDCS will articulate how USAID plans to support the new U.S. South Asia strategy. USAID expected the CDCS to be 506 completed this summer. However, USAID said this quarter that the new 507 Figure 3.43 shows USAID assistance strategy had not yet been nalized. by sector. Natural Resources Remain an Under-Tapped Source of Government Revenue and Economic Growth Afghanistan is endowed with a plethora of natural resources. These include rare earth elements, gold, chromite, copper, talc, sulfur, lead, iron, coal, construction stone, and natural gas, among others. Yet, despite this poten- tial wealth and the presence of numerous mines, most of the resources have yet to be extracted. While some efforts have been made to mine iron, gold, copper and other minerals, thus far neither donors nor the Afghan govern- 508 ment have been able to facilitate large-scale extraction. According to evaluators of USAID’s now-concluded agship mining pro- gram—the Mining Investment and Development for Afghan Sustainability project—the extractives sector is the “country’s best, and perhaps only” option to generate the level of economic growth that would support inclu- sive job creation (i.e., job creation where economic benets are distributed 509 However, in 2017 mining among most Afghans as opposed to only a few). contributed only 0.97% of added value to the country’s licit GDP. Including 143 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

154 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT the opium economy, value-added from the mining sector was even lower: 510 0.92% of GDP. The Afghan government believes that underdeveloped infrastructure, declining commodity prices, and ongoing security challenges 511 all hinder progress in this important sector. Though licit mining languishes, illegal mining—broadly dened—has ourished in Afghanistan. According to USIP, most mineral extraction in the country is either illicit or unregulated. While some local communities have operated for decades under informal agreements brokered before the current regulatory regime took effect, the Taliban and various criminal net- 512 works control other sites. U.S. Support to Afghanistan’s Extractives Sector Remains Limited There appeared to be renewed interest in developing Afghanistan’s extrac- tives sector following President Trump’s August 2017 announcement of SIGAR INVESTIGATION 513 a new South Asia strategy, as SIGAR reported last year. Following that announcement, President Trump met with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani On September 24, 2018, Adam Doost, on the sidelines of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in New York the former owner of a now-defunct where they discussed, among other topics, how American companies could marble mining company in Afghanistan, rapidly develop Afghanistan’s rare-earth minerals to lower the costs of U.S. was found guilty by a federal jury for 514 Those discussions assistance and render Afghanistan more self-reliant. his role in defrauding the Overseas were widely reported by U.S. media, generating speculation that the United Private Investment Corporation States would pursue a reinvigorated effort to develop the country’s extrac- (OPIC), a U.S. government agency, 515 tives sector. and defaulting on a $15.8 million No subsequent meeting occurred during the UN General Assembly held loan. Doost obtained the loan in this quarter: President Ghani canceled a planned trip to New York to attend February 2010 while working at his 516 Thus, nearly one year after the Trump administration made the assembly. company, Equity Capital Mining LLC. the decision to recommit to Afghanistan, U.S. extractives-sector program- The loan from OPIC was to help fund ming, as measured by direct U.S. funding of extractives-related programs, the development, maintenance, and remains relatively small-scale. USAID has interagency agreements with the operation of a marble mine in western Department of Commerce to provide legal assistance to the sector. The Afghanistan. SIGAR led the four-year agency also has an agreement with the United States Geological Survey investigation, with assistance from the (USGS) to provide technical advisory services, but these represent the only FBI. For more, see p. 35 of this report. 517 current U.S.-led initiatives to develop Afghanistan’s natural resources. Some Movement on Previous DOD-Facilitated Mining Tenders, but Legality of Two Contracts is Questioned DOD is no longer involved in Afghanistan’s extractives sector and has no 518 authority or funding to support extractives projects. In the past, DOD pursued the development of the sector through the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO), which sought to reduce violence, enhance stability, and support economic normalcy in Afghanistan through 519 TFBSO was a temporary orga- strategic business and economic activities. 520 nization with a nontraditional mission whose funding ended in 2014. 144 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

155 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT TFBSO sought to develop Afghanistan’s mining sector through a $51 mil- lion obligation originally intended to facilitate the award of between eight and 12 large-scale mining contracts to international companies. TFBSO ofcials and contractors said they overestimated the speed at which the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum could work and underestimated the resis- tance from other ministries. Nevertheless, four contracts were advanced to the point that they only needed the Afghan government’s signature. The Afghan government refused to sign any of these contracts because of politi- 521 cal concerns surrounding mining contracts. However, both DOD and State indicated this quarter there had been 522 recent movement on these stalled contracts. According to State, the Afghan government recently approved a contract for the Shaida cop- 523 per mine, located in Herat Province. Of the four contracts, Shaida was the highest-valued ($433 million) and was expected to deliver more than $1.3 billion to the Afghan government over the lifetime of the project, 524 Although these according to consultant projections from November 2012. were older, inherently imprecise estimates (particularly given that explora- tion activity had not yet been initiated), State said the $1.3 billion gure could be achievable, based on a nal negotiated contract royalty rate of 7.1% and the potential to extract an estimated $18 billion in commercial 525 copper. State said that an environmental-impact assessment and other necessary processes would take an estimated two to three years to com- 526 plete before any extraction activities could begin. Two other TFBSO-related contracts that had previously been stalled— one for the Balkhab copper mine in Sar-e Pul and Balkh Provinces and 527 the other for a gold mine in Badakhshan—were also signed this quarter. According to State, the Afghan Gold and Minerals Company (AGMC) is the majority stakeholder in the Balkhab contract. AGMC is a consortium of international investors backed by London nancier Ian Hannam, former BHP Billiton chief executive Chip Goodyear, and former Afghan Minister of Urban Development Sadat Naderi. AGMC’s joint venture, the Turkish- Afghan Mining Company, in which the Turkish mining rm Eti Gümüs has a 528 majority stake, is developing the mine in Badakhshan. However, State added that both the Sar-e Pul/Balkh and Badakhshan 529 contracts had received heavy scrutiny due to the involvement of Naderi. According to Global Witness, a nongovernmental organization (NGO) that aims to expose corruption and human rights abuses, Naderi, who resigned from his position as minister in June 2018, is the president of the Afghan Krystal mining company, which the NGO referred to as a “major partner” in both contracts (while State said that Naderi was no longer a major - ity stakeholder in either project, he still holds ownership stakes in both). According to Global Witness, the 2014 Afghan mining law set a ve-year “cooling off” period before a former minister or his or her direct relatives are permitted to hold a mining contract. Naderi’s sister, Farkhunda Zahra 145 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

156 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FIGURE 3.44 Naderi, is currently serving as an advisor for UN affairs to President Ghani. Nevertheless, according to Global Witness, Naderi has challenged the law’s applicability on the grounds that he was not a minister when the Afghan Krystal mining company was named as a preferred bidder in 2012. Global Witness, however, emphasized that revisions to the law occurred while Naderi was serving as a minister and that downward revisions to the royalty 530 Centar rates on the contracts amounted to a renegotiation of the deals. Ltd., meanwhile, an investment rm founded by Hannam that participated in the signing of the contracts in Washington, DC, on October 5, 2018, said the deal was negotiated “in strict adherence to Afghan law and international 531 standards,” according to the New York Times . 146 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

157 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL While lack of security and infrastructure make mining difcult in Financial Times Afghanistan, Centar told the it will provide for its own security and emphasized that the copper concession in Sar-e Pul and Balkh was located near a major rail hub in Mazar-e Sharif (see Figure 3.44 for a 532 map depicting the three mining sites). According to State, Afghanistan’s Ofce of the President made great effort this quarter to secure approval for 533 the contracts. At this time, SIGAR is drawing no conclusions regarding the legality of these two contracts. However, SIGAR will be examining the contracts and other matters through an ongoing audit assessing the Afghan government’s progress in implementing its anticorruption strategy. Agriculture: A Key Component of Both the Licit and Illicit Economy The World Bank has called agriculture a “pillar of economic development 534 More than half of the rural labor and national security in Afghanistan.” force works in the agricultural sector, which employs about 40% of Afghans overall. Historically, agriculture has made substantial contributions to 535 Afghanistan’s economic growth. In 2017, however, agriculture’s contribution to economic growth showed In its response to SIGAR’s requests for a darker side, with opium production reaching a new peak. While the Bank information this quarter, USAID downplayed projected the value of licit agriculture in 2018 at 18% of GDP, the United the effects of the drought, describing it as “localized.” While it is true that the drought Nations Ofce on Drugs and Crime estimated the value of the opium econ- 536 is not affecting all areas of Afghanistan, this Reecting the spectacular omy to be the equivalent of 20–30% of licit GDP. seems to minimize the scale of the natural (approximately 90%) growth of opium production in 2017, Afghanistan’s disaster. USAID’s internal humanitarian National Statistics and Information Authority reported that GDP growth update stated that Afghanistan’s 2018 537 inclusive of the opium economy was 7.2%. drought continued to “intensify in the north, Thus, the World Bank’s characterization of agriculture as a pillar of west, and central highlands, adding acute national security requires a major caveat—SIGAR has reported that opium- new pressures to rural Afghan communities poppy cultivation has undermined security goals by providing a major already strained by years of war and poverty.” revenue source for the insurgency, eroding Afghan government legitimacy, 538 For example, USAID previously pointed out and exacting an enormous human and nancial toll. that the 2018 wheat harvest was likely to yield just 3.5 million metric tons (MMT), Afghanistan Suffers “Worst Drought in Decades” resulting in a projected decit of 2.5 MMT - A severe drought continued to affect large swaths of Afghanistan this quar for this year. USAID added the drought ter, contributing to ongoing waves of internal displacement, according to would likely have ripple effects on Afghan 539 the UN. Testifying to the scale of the natural disaster, the UN said that as pastoralists who depend on rangelands, of September 9, 2018, the drought had displaced about 275,000 people in increasing food insecurity. However, 540 2018—52,000 more than the ongoing conict during the same time period. the drought may not have signicant While the gap between conict-induced displacement and drought-induced implications for USAID’s agricultural displacement later narrowed, more than 263,330 people had been displaced programs, which generally focus on irrigated in 2018 due to the drought, as of October 14, 2018, compared to 254,796 dis- crops that do not directly rely on rain. 541 placed due to conict, according to the UN. Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; , 9/15/2018, p. 1; USAID, Humanitarian Update #19 USAID, The scale of the natural disaster remained severe: As of May 2018, the UN response to SIGAR vetting, 4/10/2018; USAID, OAG, response 542 to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. The estimated that approximately 2.2 million Afghans would be affected. 147 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

158 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 543 UN previously called the drought the worst in decades. According to the USAID-funded Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), the drought has resulted in atypically high levels of acute food insecurity (mean- ing that many Afghans do not have access to adequate nutrition), which was likely to increase in the coming months. FEWS NET said the northwest- ern provinces of Badghis and Faryab, which border Turkmenistan, have 544 been the worst-affected areas. The extent of anticipated food insecurity appeared high: USAID previously reported it expected a 2.5 million metric 545 ton (MMT) wheat harvest decit for 2018, against a total need of 6 MMT. On September 23, 2018, USAID announced it would provide $43.8 mil- lion to the UN’s World Food Programme to provide food assistance to 546 drought-affected Afghans. USAID Assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock According to USAID’s recently signed four-year assistance agreement with the Afghan government, licit agriculture will remain an area of particular focus for the agency. USAID programs aim to support Afghan agribusi- nesses to develop competitive value chains, strengthen public and private agricultural service delivery, and increase the productivity of key agricul- tural crops. As in other sectors, USAID’s support for agribusinesses will be oriented on rms that have the potential to serve as anchors for key value chains—that is, on businesses that can best put investment capital to use, generate both supply and demand along value chains, and benet from 547 international partnerships. Since 2002, USAID has disbursed nearly $2.2 billion to improve agri- cultural production, increase access to markets, and develop income 548 Pages 175–183 of alternatives to growing poppy for opium production. this quarterly report discuss USAID’s agriculture alternative-development programs. USAID’s active agriculture programs have a total estimated cost of $444 million and can be found in Table 3.27. Agricultural Development Fund Update: USAID Extends Technical Assistance by Four Months, but Sustainability Still in Question SIGAR remains concerned this quarter about the sustainability of an Afghan credit facility to which USAID has provided funding and technical assis- tance. Given the centrality of agriculture to the Afghan economy and the difculties Afghan farmers faced in accessing credit, USAID established the Agricultural Development Fund (ADF) in July 2010 through a $100 million grant to the Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL). The purpose of the ADF, which remains active, is to provide credit to agribusi- nesses, commercial farmers, and processors and exporters of agricultural 549 Initially managed by USAID through its $50 million Agricultural products. 148 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

159 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT TABLE 3.27 USAID ACTIVE AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS Cumulative Disbursements, Total Estimated Project Title Start Date End Date Cost as of 9/30/2018 Strengthening Watershed and Irrigation Management (SWIM) $9,453,159 $87,905,437 12/6/2021 12/7/2016 Regional Agriculture Development Program (RADP North) 5/20/2019 78,429,714 56,906,996 5/21/2014 Commercial Horticulture and Agriculture Marketing Program (CHAMP) 2/1/2010 12/31/2019 71,292,850 57,322,706 Afghan Value Chains - Livestock Activity 6/6/2018 6/5/2021 778,367 55,672,170 8/2/2018 0 54,958,860 8/1/2023 Afghanistan Value Chains - High-Value Crops 9,022,776 28,126,111 7/20/2021 7/21/2016 RADP East (Regional Agriculture Development Program-East) Grain Research and Innovation (GRAIN) 3/13/2017 7,305,193 19,500,000 9/30/2022 9/20/2017 1,703,361 19,000,000 9/19/2020 Promoting Value Chain - West 6/23/2015 ACE II (Agriculture Credit Enhancement II) 6/30/2019 18,234,849 15,171,274 Catalyzing Afghan Agricultural Innovation 5/28/2018 5/27/2023 8,000,000 176,578 1,538,075 SERVIR 9/14/2015 9/30/2020 3,100,000 $444,219,991 Total $159,378,486 Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. Credit Enhancement (ACE) project, the ADF was transferred to the Afghan 550 government in 2015. Since the conclusion of ACE, a follow-on program— the Agricultural Credit Enhancement Phase-II (ACE-II) project—has been 551 providing technical assistance to the ADF. For several quarters now, SIGAR has documented what appear to be sig- 552 The nancial performance of nicant sustainability challenges at the ADF. SIGAR learned this quarter that the ADF has suffered due to the prevailing political, economic, and security independent auditor Deloitte recommended that the Agricultural Development Fund conditions, which according to ACE-II project implementers has contrib- (ADF), established by USAID, strengthen its uted to a more prolonged time frame “required for the ADF to achieve . . . 553 due diligence process and closely monitor operating sustainability, one of its primary objectives.” Additionally, in overdue loans to reduce risk of defaults. early 2016, the ADF changed its loan write-off policy so that only loans that This recommendation echoes what SIGAR are overdue by more than 1,095 days (three years) are counted as losses. has reported for several quarters: that The new policy signicantly lengthened the period of time after which loans despite high levels of loan losses and were counted as losses, deviated substantially from Afghan central bank loan-loss provisions, the ADF changed its (Da Afghanistan Bank or DAB) standards, and altered the denition of a key loss policy to count as losses only those indicator used to assess the performance of USAID’s assistance to the ADF. nonperforming loans overdue by more than 554 The ADF is not a bank and is thus not regulated by DAB. 1,095 days (three years), which contrasts This quarter SIGAR learned that USAID had approved a four-month, sharply with the current Afghanistan central no-cost extension (NCE) for ACE-II that extended the contract’s period of bank standard of 360 days. 555 The purpose of the NCE is to continue performance to October 31, 2018. Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) Source: USAID, , 8/13/2018, Program Monthly Report No. 37, July 2018 USAID’s support of the ADF’s transition to an independent agricultural , p. 4; SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) 7/30/2018; USAID, nance institution. However, according to the agency’s implementing part- , Program Quarterly Report: Q2-FY 2018 January–March, 2018 ners, the NCE’s scale, in conjunction with the brief period of performance 4/30/2018, p. 37. 149 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

160 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL remaining, could impact ACE-II’s ability to retain staff for the remainder of 556 the project. SIGAR also learned that Deloitte, an independent auditor, had prepared draft 2017 nancial statements for the ADF. Deloitte noted that while income rose by 15% to AFN 153.4 million (~$2.1 million), loan-loss provi- sions for the year were substantial: AFN 65.3 million (~$907,000). Moreover, despite the fact that the ADF was intended to facilitate access to credit by loaning funds to agribusinesses, the majority of the increase in income was due to interest earned by placing surplus funds with nancial institutions 557 rather than through the ADF’s loan portfolio. - While this could be inter preted as a positive sign of healthy liquidity, it may simultaneously signal that the ADF is not meeting its original intent to inject much-needed credit into the agricultural sector. Deloitte also highlighted that the present ADF loan-loss provision policy—which differs from DAB loan-classication criteria, as SIGAR has emphasized for several quarters now—“could be problematic,” according to the project’s most recently available monthly report. Deloitte recommended that the ADF strengthen its due-diligence process and closely monitor over - 558 due loans to reduce risk of defaults. ESSENTIAL SERVICES AND DEVELOPMENT SIGAR SPECIAL PROJECT The United States has provided reconstruction funds to increase the elec- tricity supply, build roads and bridges, and construct and improve health A SIGAR Special Project released in 559 and education facilities in Afghanistan since 2002. This section addresses September 2018 reported the results key developments in U.S. efforts to improve the government’s ability to of site inspections conducted at eight deliver these essential services, focusing specically on ongoing projects DOD-funded bridge projects in Baghlan intended to increase access to electricity in Afghanistan. Province. SIGAR found that the location information for the bridges maintained Power Supply: Lack of Access to Electricity in DOD systems was generally Remains a Key Challenge accurate. SIGAR also found that six According to USAID, only about 30% of Afghans had access to grid-based of the eight bridges were in generally 560 Lack of access constitutes a crucial barrier electricity, as of August 2017. good, usable condition. Additionally, all to progress on a wide range of development indicators, including poverty eight were identied as “very useful” reduction, education, health, livelihoods, and food security, according to the by community members and an Afghan 561 World Bank. government ofcial. Two of the bridges, USAID has said that lack of reliable, available, and affordable power however, appeared to have signicant represents a fundamental constraint to economic growth. While compre- structural issues that could pose a hensive data on the current set of challenges Afghan businesses face as a risk to people using the bridge. As a consequence of low electricity access is unavailable, the agency pointed result, SIGAR issued two alert letters to the results of the World Bank’s 2014 Enterprise Survey for Afghanistan, and USFOR-A notied the appropriate which showed that 66% of private enterprises reported that limited access Afghan authorities. For more, see p. 32 to electricity represented a major constraint. At that time, 70% of businesses of this report. experienced signicant electricity outages and attributed an average of 10% 150 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

161 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 562 in annual sales losses due to such outages. USAID said that data from Afghanistan’s Chamber of Commerce showed the situation may have grown worse in more recent years, with Kabul-based factory owners reporting they receive only eight hours of power per day, and with outages causing $200– 563 $1,000 in losses due to damaged materials and equipment per outage. Overall, many enduring challenges in the power sector remain, accord- ing to USAID. Those challenges include insufcient supply to meet growing demand, Afghanistan’s heavy (80%) dependence on electricity imports, and 564 weak sector governance. U.S. Power-Sector Assistance: Large-Scale Projects to Expand the National Power Grid Predominate Large capital projects represent the majority of the U.S. government’s cur - rent work in the Afghan power sector. A top priority has been expanding and connecting islanded power grids, with both USAID and DOD work- ing to connect Afghanistan’s Northeast Power System (NEPS) with its 565 southeastern counterpart, the Southeast Power System (SEPS). USAID is funding the construction of a 511-kilometer transmission line connect- ing the two networks and improvements to SEPS. DOD, meanwhile, has funded a signicant expansion of NEPS, the expansion and improvement of infrastructure associated with SEPS, and a bridging solution for power in Kandahar City, designed to provide power to key industrial parks to buy 566 time for other infrastructure to be built. Both DOD and USAID power-infrastructure projects are funded through the Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF), with monies appropriated by Congress in FYs 2011–2014. USAID is also using the Economic Support 567 Fund to cover the costs of some projects. No additional AIF monies have 568 been appropriated since FY 2014. However, up to $50 million of Title IX Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) funds appropriated in later acts 569 may be used to complete these projects. DOD has completed the majority of its AIF power-infrastructure projects. Only two remain: a single project encompassing both the improvement of three substations in SEPS (which is now complete) and the construction of a transmission line from Sangin to Lashkar Gah in Afghanistan’s restive Helmand Province; as well as the construction of transmission lines from Paktiya Province to Khost Province. Approximately $186.4 million has been obligated for those two projects, of which $156.0 million has been disbursed, signaling that these projects are close to completion. In total, $599.6 million has been obligated for DOD’s AIF-funded power infrastruc- ture projects (including $141.7 million for the aforementioned Kandahar 570 Power Bridging Solution project), with $561.4 million disbursed. As SIGAR reported in April 2018, USAID recently faced signicant challenges in completing its large energy-sector projects, moving nearly $400 million of previously on-budget power-sector funds off-budget. The 151 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

162 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT TABLE 3.28 USAID ACTIVE POWER-INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS Cumulative Disbursement, Total Estimated as of 9/30/2018 Start Date Project Title Cost End Date Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity (PTEC) 1/1/2013 12/31/2020 $316,713,724 $183,695,904 Contributions to the Afghanistan Infrastructure Trust Fund (AITF) 3/7/2013 3/6/2023 153,670,184 153,670,184 125,000,000 Engineering Support Program 7/23/2016 7/22/2019 48,988,595 8/25/2019 2/23/2017 10,000,000 Kandahar Solar Project 1,000,000 Design and Acquisition of SEPS Completion and NEPS-SEPS Connector 917,680 3/7/2019 3/7/2018 503,142 $387,857,825 $606,301,588 Total Note: PTEC end date reects USAID’s anticipated end date for the project. Because some PTEC contracts have not yet been awarded, the project’s nal total estimated cost will likely be higher than the reported amount. Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018; USAID, OI, “Status of USAID-funded Power Projects,” 7/24/2018. Large-scale economic development projects move resulted from the agency’s conclusion that Afghanistan’s national in Afghanistan often face signicant delays. utility, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS), lacked sufcient procure- For example, a SIGAR audit released in ment and oversight capacity, rendering the utility unable to manage the October 2017 found that three power-sector 571 on-budget monies. projects funded with Fiscal Year 2011 Cumulatively, USAID has disbursed more than $1.5 billion in Economic Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund monies Support Funds to build power plants, substations, and transmission lines, were incomplete and up to ve years behind 572 and provide technical assistance in the power sector since 2002. The their original schedule. agency’s active power-infrastructure programs have a total estimated cost Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund: Agencies Have Source: SIGAR, of more than $606 million and are listed in Table 3.28. Not Assessed Whether Six Projects That Began in Fiscal Year 2011, Worth about $400 million, Achieved Counterinsurgency , SIGAR 18-10-AR, 10/2017, ii. Objectives and Can Be Sustained USAID Project to Construct 10 MW Solar Power Plant in Kandahar Faces 12-Month Delay In August 2017, USAID initiated a $10 million project to help construct a 10 megawatt (MW) solar power plant near Kandahar City. The agency’s $10 million contribution represented an incentive payment to encourage private investment in the project, with India-based contractor Dynasty Oil and Gas Ltd. covering the remaining $10 million cost to construct the plant. Under a 15-year power purchase agreement with DABS, Dynasty plans to sell energy to Afghanistan’s national utility to increase power supply in what remains a volatile area of the country. DABS, in turn, committed to constructing a 6.5 km transmission line to connect the plant to the national grid. According to USAID, the plant, when complete, will be the rst pri- vately built and operated power plant of this capacity in Afghanistan. During a September 2017 groundbreaking ceremony, DABS chief executive ofcer Amanullah Ghalib said the plant will be “an important step toward 573 solving the critical shortage of power in Kandahar.” Although USAID intended the project to serve as a model for future pri- vate investment in Afghanistan’s power sector, the agency informed SIGAR 152 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

163 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT USAID broke ground on its 10 MW solar power plant project in Kandahar on September 24, 2017. (USAID photo) this quarter that the project was signicantly delayed. USAID’s contract with Dynasty was modied to extend the period of performance by one year 574 to August 26, 2019, from the original completion date of August 26, 2018. USAID said the delay was due to land-encumbrance issues encountered at the beginning of the activity as well as an issue with the customs-duty 575 exemption for materials imported through Karachi, Pakistan. According to USAID, the land-encumbrance issues included the need to relocate public properties located on the site and to adjust to a new site location 576 established by DABS. As a result of the signicant delay, USAID modied the contract to pro- vide payment of $1 million to Dynasty in June 2018 rather than disbursing an initial payment of $2 million upon “cold commissioning” (completed but not yet generating) of the rst two MW of power. The purpose of the pay- ment was to provide cash ow to Dynasty to cover port demurrage charges (fees assessed when cargo remains at a port for too long) incurred as a result of the customs-duty exemption issue, with critical materials such as 577 photovoltaic panels being held in the Port of Karachi. SIGAR will con- tinue to report on progress on the 10 MW solar-power plant. SIGAR provides a comprehensive update on the status of Afghanistan’s power sector this quarter. The following pages include an inserted, two-sided map that presents both existing and planned power infrastructure. One side provides an overall picture of the country’s power-infrastructure projects, including those funded by multilateral institutions such as the Asian Development Bank. The other side shows the current status of projects funded directly by the U.S. A PDF version of the map is posted at www.sigar.mil. 153 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

164 QUARTERLY HIGHLIGHT CURRENT STATUS OF AFGHANISTAN’S POWER SECTOR Every year, the Asia Foundation conducts its high water mark of the U.S. commitment), has disbursed Survey , which provides a sweeping look of the Afghan People more than $561 million to expand and rehabilitate at the current state of affairs in Afghanistan, as viewed Afghanistan’s Northeast Power System (NEPS) and 580 from the perspective of Afghans. Respondents to the Southeast Power System (SEPS). Despite the substantial expenditure of resources, Foundation’s latest (2017) survey reported they consid- ered lack of access to electricity to be the third-biggest the vision of signicantly expanded electricity access has been difcult to realize. Over the years, SIGAR has problem in their local area, behind only unemploy- consistently documented the many challenges associ- ment and security. Despite the many initiatives aimed at expanding the national electrical grid, the Asia ated with the effort, which have ranged from insufcient Foundation said, only 12.2% of Afghans reported their security to land disputes. Such challenges have sig- nicantly delayed the completion of these ambitious electricity supply had improved in 2017, a drop from projects. For example, in 2017, a SIGAR audit found 13.9% in 2016. Approximately 43.3%, meanwhile, said their supply had deteriorated—the same proportion as that three power-sector projects funded with FY 2011 in 2016. The survey also asked respondents whether Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) monies were incomplete and up to ve years behind their original they thought the country was headed in the right or schedules (based on early schedule estimates developed wrong direction. When it came to Afghans’ responses to 581 Through two ongoing this question, the Asia Foundation noted, the strongest before the projects began). audits—one focusing on USAID’s $870 million Power predictor of optimism was whether Afghans believed Transmission Expansion and Connectivity project, conditions within their own households had improved which among other goals, aims to improve Afghanistan’s on a range of factors, one of which was access to elec- transmission system, and the other on DOD and USAID tricity. Overall, in each of the surveys over the period of efforts to expand power generation at the Kajaki Dam, a more than a decade (from 2006 through 2017), access key component of SEPS—SIGAR continues to focus on to electricity rated as one of the top three issues that the question of whether U.S.-funded efforts to expand Afghans faced locally, its ranking uctuating among the 578 582 electricity access are achieving their objectives. top three slots. Currently, these projects stand at varying degrees of The centrality of electricity to Afghanistan’s develop- completion. DOD reported that it has only two power- ment has led the United States to devote considerable infrastructure projects remaining. While one aims to attention and resources to increasing availability of elec- tricity by expanding the transmission grid and tapping rehabilitate three substations and construct a transmis- into supplies from Central Asian countries. Those efforts sion line within SEPS, the other seeks to further expand 583 DOD further reported that all four completed have ranged from large power-infrastructure projects to NEPS. power-infrastructure projects aimed at permanently technical assistance for Afghanistan’s state-owned util- expanding electricity access (as opposed to provid- ity, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkhat. USAID, which has ing power temporarily, as did its provision of diesel said that lack of access to reliable and affordable power represented a fundamental constraint to economic fuel to generators that powered two industrial parks in Kandahar City) had been transferred to the Afghan growth, has cumulatively spent more than $1.5 billion 579 government, with the exception of two substations. DOD, meanwhile, which once on the power sector. said that sufcient electricity supply was key to build- Moreover, transmission lines transferred to DABS were ing Afghans’ condence in their government (but is now energized, according to DOD, meaning that they were simply completing projects that were started during the operational and in use (though to what extent was not 154 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

165 QUARTERLY HIGHLIGHT 584 For its part, as of April 2018, the World Bank car However, SIGAR has previously documented clear). - that transferred infrastructure may not operate as ried a nearly $500 million energy-sector portfolio in intended. For example, SIGAR found that because the Afghanistan. The Bank’s most ambitious project is the Central Asia South Asia Electricity Transmission and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers did not complete contrac- tually required testing of the NEPS III system, consisting Trade Project, more commonly known as CASA-1000. of transmission lines and substations in Parwan and CASA-1000 aims to construct more than 1,200 kilome- Kapisa Provinces, it had no assurance that the system ters of transmission lines spanning four countries—the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan— could be operated safely or could fulll the project’s goal 585 in order to transmit excess summer hydro-power energy of providing one million Afghans access to electricity. For its part, USAID said it had completed only one of from Central Asia to energy-poor South Asia. The total its three power-infrastructure projects, the construction cost of the project is estimated at nearly $1.2 billion, of which $356.5 million in World Bank funding will go to of a transmission line and substations from Arghandi to Ghazni. USAID reported that the transmission line Afghanistan. Construction on the project is expected to 590 was energized (though again, to what extent was not Both CASA- commence in the second quarter of 2019. clear). Two of the agency’s power-infrastructure proj- 1000 and TUTAP are part of a broader effort called the ects remains ongoing: one aims to connect NEPS with East-Central-South Asia Regional Electricity Market SEPS via a transmission line extending from Ghazni to (E-CASAREM), which envisions a shared energy market 591 Kandahar, and the other seeks to further expand SEPS. and increased energy trade. Both of those projects were expected to be completed According to DOD, the results of surveys such as 586 in 2020. See the enclosed map (which can be found the Asia Foundation’s typically improve markedly in at www.sigar.mil) for a detailed status update of U.S.- areas that benet from new projects. DOD pointed out funded power-sector projects. that many donor projects, whether funded directly by Multilateral organizations (to which the United States the U.S. or through multilateral organizations, are not contributes) have also invested heavily in Afghanistan’s yet complete, implying that more time will be required before the effects of power-infrastructure work can be power sector. As of May 2018, the Asian Development 592 fully assessed. However, the signicant delays associ- Bank (ADB) had cumulatively committed nearly $2.2 bil- lion of grant assistance to develop distribution systems ated with these projects, considered within the context of precarious security conditions and political uncer - and domestic generation, promote institutional reforms, tainty, raise the important question of just when those support energy imports for urgent electricity needs, and 587 ADB is funding develop a large renewable program. effects can or will be achieved. The enclosed map (also an initiative known as TUTAP, named for the project’s posted at www.sigar.mil) provides a comprehensive picture of existing and planned power-sector projects ve participating countries: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, in Afghanistan. Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The objective of the TUTAP project is to provide Afghanistan power- transmission connectivity with neighboring countries, in order to improve Afghanistan’s electricity supply and, pending connectivity with Pakistan, the ability to transmit power from its northern neighbors to Pakistan. The project’s two-way lines would also be used to cover 588 seasonal power shortages. According to State, the rst phase of TUTAP is currently supplying Afghanistan with 350 MW of power from Uzbekistan as well as varying levels from Tajikistan. The second phase of the project, 589 however, is still under procurement. 155 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

166 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH Doing Afghanistan ranked 183rd of 190 economies in the World Bank’s report on regulatory quality and efciency, unchanged from Business 2018 593 Since the 2017 report, Afghanistan has substantially last year’s ranking. increased the cost of starting a business at incorporation. Entrepreneurs are now required to pay the business license fee for three years, raising the cost from the equivalent of 19.9% to 82.3% of Afghanistan’s income per 594 As a result, capita (the average income earned per person in the country). Afghanistan’s rank for starting a business declined signicantly, from 42nd last year to 107th this year. Afghanistan remains nearly last in dealing with construction permits (185), getting electricity (163), registering property (186) and enforcing contracts (181). It remains second-worst (189) in pro- 595 tecting minority investors. Its best score was for getting credit (105). USAID has cumulatively disbursed over $1.2 billion for economic-growth 596 programs in Afghanistan. USAID’s active economic-growth programs have a total estimated cost of $109 million and can be found in Table 3.29. TABLE 3.29 USAID ACTIVE ECONOMIC-GROWTH PROGRAMS Cumulative Total Estimated Disbursements, as of 9/30/2018 Cost Project Title Start Date End Date Multi-Dimensional Legal Economic Reform Assistance (MELRA) 2/7/2018 2/6/2023 $19,990,260 $477,799 Extractive Technical Assistance by USGS 1/1/2018 12/31/2022 18,226,206 979,204 4,990,433 Afghanistan Investment Climate Program 3/27/2015 3/26/2020 13,300,000 9,759,661 13,000,000 3/1/2014 Commercial Law Development Program 9/30/2019 Goldozi Project 9,718,763 382,251 4/4/2022 4/5/2018 Livelihood Advancement for Marginalized Population (LAMP) 5/27/2018 5/25/2022 9,491,153 8,889 6/6/2018 6/5/2021 9,416,507 581,000 Establishing Kabul Carpet Export Center (KCEC) Rebranding Afghanistan: Creating Jobs, Changing Perceptions, 11/2/2015 11/1/2018 4,800,000 4,500,000 Empowering Women Trade Show Support (TSS) Activity 6/7/2018 12/6/2020 3,999,174 697,367 Unspecied USAID Subsidy Not provided 2,163,000 0 Not provided Afghanistan International Bank Guarantee Agreement 9/27/2012 9/27/2020 2,000,000 520,800 Development Credit Authority (DCA) with FINCA, OXUS, and First 9/25/2014 9/24/2020 1,958,000 0 Micronance Banks 665,820 Afghanistan Loan Portfolio Guarantee 9/27/2017 9/26/2023 0 Not provided 150,000 Not provided Reduce Disaster Risks through Mitigation 150,000 Total $23,047,404 $108,878,883 Note: SIGAR previously listed USAID’s Women in the Economy (WIE) project under economic growth given its cross-cutting intent. This quarter, however, SIGAR breaks out USAID’s gender programming separately. Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 156 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

167 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT USAID’s Afghanistan Jobs Creation Program: Three Awards So Far Initiated in June 2017 through a solicitation for concept papers, USAID’s Afghanistan Jobs Creation Program (AJCP) has two goals: to generate revenue and sustainable jobs by supporting Afghanistan’s value-chain devel- opment, and to support trade promotion and facilitate Afghan businesses in 597 The program intends to fund multiple awards—with increasing exports. the value of individual grants ranging from $2 million–$10 million—to be implemented within the next ve years. The shared funding ceiling for all 598 projects is $96 million. This quarter, USAID said that its Ofce of Economic Growth had 599 One was a $9.5 million grant for the awarded three grants thus far. Livelihood Advancement for Marginalized Populations project (awarded in May 2018), which aims to create sustainable jobs for internally displaced Afghans, returnees, and some local households in three target urban areas 600 Through the second award, the $9.7 million Goldozi (Dari in Afghanistan. for embroidery) Project (awarded in April 2018), USAID intends to improve the skills of, and increase market access for 15,000 women in and around Kabul. The intent is to increase the commercial potential of the embroi- 601 AJCP’s third and most recent (June 2018) dered products they make. award is intended to establish the Kabul Carpet Export Center (KCEC). The $9.4 million KCEC seeks to address obstacles to Afghanistan’s carpet exports by increasing access to capital for the purchase of wool, improv- ing packaging and export processing, and connecting Afghanistan’s carpet 602 industry to global markets. These projects are too early in their implementation phases to assess. However, because AJCP is designed to achieve quantiable objectives—for example, the Goldozi Project includes a performance indicator expressing the number of new jobs created as a result of U.S. government assis- tance, to be reported quarterly—SIGAR will continue to track tangible outcomes as these projects progress, as well as the methodology behind SIGAR SPECIAL PROJECT 603 such metrics. A SIGAR Special Project released in August 2018 reported the results of site inspections at 14 USAID- EDUCATION supported schools in Parwan Province. Prior to the U.S.-led military intervention of 2001, decades of intermittent SIGAR found that all 14 schools were conict had devastated Afghanistan’s education system. While the current open and in generally usable condition. war continues, donors have generally highlighted Afghanistan’s progress However, SIGAR also found that there in the education sector as a success story. Although gures vary, the total may be problems with student and number of children currently enrolled in school recently rose to 9.2 mil- teacher attendance and stafng at lion, according to USAID, which relies on data from Afghanistan’s Ministry several of the schools. For more, see of Education (MOE). That number represents a dramatic increase over p. 32 of this report. 604 In the some one million students who were enrolled in school in 2002. FY 1396—which roughly corresponds to the year 2017—about 8.95 million 157 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

168 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 605 However, students were enrolled in grades 1–12, according to the MOE. The Taliban periodically disrupt the the MOE counts students who have been absent for up to three years as education system in Afghanistan. In early 606 enrolled because, it says, they might return to school. The number of July 2018, the insurgent group reportedly students actually attending school is therefore generally considered to be closed nearly 40 schools in Logar Province. much lower. According to the United Nations, there were Many Afghan children do not enroll in school at all, or drop out. The 47 Taliban attacks (including threats) against United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) took aim at quantifying the schools and education-related personnel in scope of this issue in June 2018, estimating that about 3.7 million children Afghanistan from April to June 2018. were out of school, about 2.2 million of whom were girls. To generate However, although SIGAR is unable to Afghanistan Living its ndings, UNICEF used data from the 2013–2014 verify them, other reports paint a more Conditions Survey (ALCS), published by Afghanistan’s National Statistics complicated portrait of negotiation and Information Authority (NSIA), among other data sources that were not and compromise between the Afghan published recently, but which presumably were the best available at the government and its adversary. A June 607 time of the analysis. Due to the data lag, the number of children out of 2018 report published by the Overseas 608 school today may be even higher. Development Institute (ODI), a UK think The NSIA said gains in the education sector may be stagnating. The tank, found that Taliban ofcials emphasized 2016–2017 ALCS results showed that net attendance ratios, which express the extent to which they worked with, rather the number of students in a given age cohort as a percentage of the total than against, the Afghan government when it came to issues of education (though the number of children in that cohort, for children of primary-school age (56%), report also framed the relationship as one secondary-school age (36%), and tertiary-school age (10%) in the 2016–2017 of cooptation). According to the ODI report, survey were approximately the same as they were in the 2013–2014 ALCS. “In Taliban areas teachers turned up to work, This may reect that gains in education are more difcult now that many children attended class, books and supplies 609 children are already in school, according to the NSIA. Both adult and did not go missing and there was more order youth literacy rates—35% and 54%, respectively, according to the 2016–2017 in the classroom. Beyond that, however, not 610 results—were also stagnant. a great deal has actually changed.” Numerous other challenges plague the education sector. They include Source: Pajhwok Afghan News , “Taliban shut 39 schools in insecurity, shortages of school buildings and textbooks, rural access issues, Logar,” 7/7/2018; UN, The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security , report of the poor data reliability, and the alleged appointment of teachers on the basis of Secretary-General, 9/10/2018, p. 8; Overseas Development 611 Institute, , 6/2018, Life under the Taliban shadow government cronyism and bribery. pp. 5, 12, 14, 32. USAID Education Programs Focus on Increasing Access, Improving Quality, and Improving Systems According to the recently signed assistance agreement between USAID and the Afghan government (which covers the agency’s aid priorities and goals through December 31, 2023), advancing social gains, including gains in education, represents one of the agency’s three Development Objectives 612 (DOs; see page 135 for a denition). USAID aims to increase Afghans’ access to education, improve the quality and relevance of education in the country, and enhance the management capacity of Afghanistan’s 613 educational systems. USAID has disbursed over $1 billion for education programs in 614 USAID’s active education pro- Afghanistan, as of September 30, 2018. grams have a total estimated cost of $500 million and can be found in Table 3.30. 158 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

169 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL TABLE 3.30 USAID ACTIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMS Cumulative Disbursements, Total Estimated as of 9/30/2018 Cost End Date Start Date Project Title 1/1/2014 $93,158,698 9/30/2019 Afghanistan University Support and Workforce Development Program $77,618,812 Increasing Access to Basic Education and Gender Equality 9/17/2014 77,402,457 77,402,457 12/31/2019 Textbook Printing and Distribution II 75,000,000 9/15/2017 12/31/2019 0 Afghans Read Program (ARP) 4/4/2016 4/3/2021 69,547,810 22,988,772 Support to the American University of Afghanistan (AUAF) 57,407,245 64,400,000 11/29/2019 8/1/2013 Strengthening Education in Afghanistan (SEA II) 28,047,880 44,835,920 9/30/2020 5/19/2014 5,000,000 Let Girls Learn Initiative and Girls' Education Challenge Programme (GEC) 6/29/2016 6/28/2021 25,000,000 2/1/2017 23,212,618 7,395,829 1/31/2022 Capacity Building Activity at the Ministry of Education Afghanistan's Global Partnership for Education 10/11/2012 6/30/2019 15,785,770 10,836,711 6,251,143 Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Social Effects in Community-Based Edu. 1/1/2014 12/31/2018 6,288,391 1,527,821 Financial and Business Management Activity with AUAF 7/5/2017 1/4/2019 4,384,058 PROMOTE Scholarships PAPA 3/4/2015 3/3/2020 1,247,522 1,247,522 $295,724,192 Total $500,263,244 Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. USAID’s USWDP Project: Labor Market Outcomes are Unclear but Show Some Encouraging Signs USAID’s ve-year, $91.9 million Afghanistan University Support and Workforce Development Program (USWDP) assists the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and 11 public universities with implementing strate- gies designed to improve educational quality and labor market outcomes for students. The project also strengthens the management of the partner universities and links universities and potential public and private sector employers. Activities include providing staff training and resources to the MOHE, improving the administrative capacity of the MOHE and partner universities, and providing scholarships for faculty members at public uni- 615 versities to upgrade their qualications. Because one of USWDP’s goals is to assist the MOHE with implementing programs that ensure employment opportunities for students, one of the project’s performance indicators attempts to track the number of individu- als with new or better employment following completion of workforce development programs that receive U.S. government assistance. In the proj- ect’s latest quarterly report, which covers activities conducted from April through June 2018, implementers acknowledge that tracking this indicator represents a “formidable task” in a place like Afghanistan. The implement- ers added, “USWDP cannot provide the exact number of people who 159 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

170 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT employment opportunities.” As a result, tracking is conducted better have through sample surveys and “other less elaborate means of communication 616 with the graduated students.” The results of a recent survey of 256 USWDP graduates and 264 non- USWDP graduates attempted to tease out the effects of the project on the labor-market outcomes of former students, such as employment status and wages. The survey sought data from each of the 12 months prior to the time labor-market outcome data was collected. The results indicated less likely to be employed than their non- that USWDP graduates were USWDP counterparts (although the employment gap between the two groups narrowed over time). However, despite the fact that non-USWDP alumni were more likely to be employed, among alumni and non-alumni who were employed, the annual wages of USWDP graduates in the sample were on average AFN 58,000 (approximately $806) higher than their 617 non-USWDP counterparts. It is difcult to know how to interpret these results, which point to mixed conclusions regarding the project’s effectiveness in advancing this particular indicator. On the one hand, USWDP alumni may be more selec- tive in their job searches than non-USWDP alumni, a possible explanation 618 advanced by implementers in the project’s most recent quarterly report. Yet, without more conclusive evidence that this is the case, higher levels of unemployment among USWDP graduates—particularly in a labor market reportedly experiencing a glut of supply—may not be an encouraging sign. HEALTH Since 2001, health outcomes in Afghanistan have improved substantially despite the country’s lack of security. USAID views these improvements as a signicant development success, although precise estimates regarding the extent of that success are elusive due to data-quality limitations (see highlight on the next page). According to UN estimates, maternal mortality rates declined by 64% from 2000 to 2015, from 1,100 deaths per 100,000 live births in the former year to 396 in the latter. Concurrently, the under-5 child- mortality rate fell from 137 to 91 deaths per 1,000 live births—a drop of 34%. 619 Newborn-mortality rates fell by 32% over the same time period. Nevertheless, in early 2018 the World Bank emphasized there was still 620 Afghanistan’s newborn-mortality rate, signicant room for improvement. for example, still ranks the second-highest among those of 31 low-income countries. Meanwhile, the total number of newborn deaths in 2016—about 46,000—places Afghanistan tenth highest among all countries, accord- ing to estimates from the UN. Afghanistan has a lower population than the other nine countries in the top 10. With a population 58% larger than Afghanistan’s, Tanzania reported approximately the same number of new- 621 born deaths in 2016. 160 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

171 QUARTERLY HIGHLIGHT ASSESSING MATERNAL MORTALITY: A REPRESENTATIVE CASE OF DATA LIMITATIONS IN DEVELOPING-COUNTRY CONTEXTS from Ragh, where maternal mortality was substan- One metric used by USAID and multilateral organiza- tially higher (6,500 deaths per live births) in baseline tions to assess progress in Afghanistan’s health sector data actually would have made USAID’s achieve- is the country’s maternal-mortality rate (MMR), dened ments seem even more impressive (by increasing the as the number of pregnancy-related deaths (i.e. caused baseline gure and providing more room to claim in some way by the pregnancy) per 100,000 live births 627 subsequent reductions). (including pregnancy-related deaths occurring up to 622 However, setting baselines aside, the current mater - 42 days following birth). Reducing the maternal nal mortality gures, such as the UN estimate of 396 mortality rate has been a key objective for USAID’s 623 - deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015, may under health-sector programming. 628 represent the true number. A reduction in the MMR from 1,000 deaths per 100,000 The 2015 Afghanistan live births in the year 2000 to 396 in 2015 (according to Demographic and Health Survey, for example, esti- mated the pregnancy-related mortality (PRM) ratio at the United Nations), if true, would represent a remark- 624 629 While the PRM is able achievement. 1,291 deaths per 100,000 live births. However, data limitations pose technically a different measure than the MMR in that it obstacles to assessing success. For example, as SIGAR includes all deaths occurring during (or within 42 days reported in a January 2017 audit, some USAID public after) child birth regardless of the cause of death, the documents cited a decrease in Afghanistan’s MMR from magnitude of this gure may provide some cause for 1,600 to 327 deaths per 100,000 live births between 2002 - concern. However, the survey said its PRM estimate and 2010. However, the baseline survey used to deter appeared to be high in light of ndings from other data mine the 2002 MMR of 1,600 maternal deaths per 100,000 625 sources and the expected relationship between maternal live births was extremely limited in coverage. Specically, the baseline survey, conducted by the U.S. mortality and overall adult mortality. In particular, the survey said, the share of adult female pregnancy-related Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by the 630 deaths appeared to be overestimated. United Nations Children’s Fund, was performed in only A recent New York Times four of the 360 districts that existed in Afghanistan in article pointed to discrep- 2002. Furthermore, according to the author of the report, ancies in maternal-mortality gures as evidence that the 631 ultimately only data from three of the four districts were U.S. government “misleads the public on Afghanistan.” used in the survey’s estimate. One district (Ragh, located SIGAR emphasized in its January 2017 audit of USAID health-sector programs that the agency should have dis- in Badakhshan Province, which borders Tajikistan, 632 But it is also true that China, and Pakistan in Afghanistan’s northeast), where closed existing data limitations. the rate was signicantly higher, was deemed an outlier. those limitations, combined with data points produced using different methodologies and incomplete baseline While the agency did not mention these limitations in estimates—resulting from the paucity of available data its external reporting on progress made in Afghanistan’s early on in the U.S. effort—make it inherently difcult to health-care sector—despite the fact that USAID’s own 633 quantify progress. internal documentation did—no other baseline data was 626 available at that time, as SIGAR reported. Thus, while the consensus seems to be that U.S., international, and multilateral investment has had posi- It is therefore difcult to know how much progress has been achieved. On the one hand, the exclusion of tive—and perhaps signicantly positive—effects on the data from Ragh in the 2002 survey reduced the sam- Afghanistan’s health sector, it is difcult to quantify the magnitude of those effects, as Afghanistan’s maternal- ple size, rendering the survey results potentially more 634 mortality rate demonstrates. anecdotal. On the other hand, including the results 161 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

172 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Insecurity impacts health-care delivery. According to the UN, there were The Taliban sometimes disrupt health- 12 attacks against health facilities and workers from April through June care service delivery, as the insurgent 2018, although this represented a decrease of four attacks compared to the group did one year ago when it shut down previous reporting period. The majority of these attacks were carried out by nearly all of the health facilities in Uruzgan armed groups (which include unspecied antigovernment elements and the Province. However, although SIGAR cannot Islamic State in addition to the Taliban). However, nearly the same number independently verify them, some reports of attacks (four) were attributed to progovernment forces (which include indicate that the Taliban and the Afghan international troops, the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces, and government more often cooperate in health- 635 progovernment militias) as to the Taliban. care sector. For example, a June 2018 report published USAID Health Programming Intended to Advance by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Gains Made Since 2002 a UK think tank, found that when problems (DOs; see page 135 for a Development Objectives One of USAID’s three with the Taliban emerge, health providers denition) specied in the agency’s recently signed assistance agreement usually resolve them through shuras. The with the Afghan government (which covers the agency’s aid priorities and report also noted that most government goals through December 31, 2023) is advancing social gains, including gains ofcials and NGO workers did not believe 636 in Afghanistan’s health outcomes. USAID believes that continuing to that the Taliban impeded access to health improve health outcomes will help achieve stability by bolstering Afghans’ care. Instead, “most pointed to government 637 condence in the government’s capacity to deliver services. interference and corruption and occupation USAID said that improving health-care delivery will increase the popu- of and theft from clinics by Afghan security forces and militias as being more lation’s support for the government because “healthy people and healthy problematic than Taliban interventions.” communities are the bedrock of a peaceful and stable nation.” USAID said that, among other renements to its health-sector strategy, it may expand its Source: New York Times , “Afghan Province, Squeezed by Taliban, Loses Access to Medical care,” 9/23/2017; private-sector engagement in the health sector, as well as a focus on improv- Life under the Taliban shadow Overseas Development Institute, 638 , 6/2018, p. 17. government ing health outcomes in urban and population centers specically. The 639 majority of Afghans—approximately three in four—live in rural areas. U.S. on- and off-budget assistance to Afghanistan’s health sector totaled 640 more than $1.2 billion as of July 9, 2018. USAID’s active health programs have a total estimated cost of $269 million, and are listed in Table 3.31. System Enhancement for Health Action Yields Some Encouraging Results, but Carries Risk Rating of “Substantial” The World Bank’s System Enhancement for Health Action in Transition project (SEHAT), which concluded on June 30, 2018, aimed to expand the coverage, quality, and scope of health-care services, particularly to Afghans living below the poverty line in project areas. As of July 22, 2018, donors 641 The project also sought to had provided $440.3 million for the program. strengthen the MOPH to integrate its health-services contracting unit and develop uniform performance-monitoring and contracting-management 642 systems. SEHAT, which funded basic primary health-care services, pro- 643 As of July vided support to more than 2,000 facilities across Afghanistan. 2018, the United States, through USAID, had provided approximately one- half ($218.7 million) of total funding for the project, paid through the World 644 Bank-administered Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund. 162 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

173 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL TABLE 3.31 USAID ACTIVE HEALTH PROGRAMS Cumulative Total Estimated Disbursement, Cost Start Date End Date Project Title as of 9/30/2018 Initiative for Hygiene, Sanitation, and Nutrition (IHSAN) 5/11/2016 5/10/2021 $75,503,848 $15,751,094 Helping Mothers and Children Thrive (HEMAYAT) 1/6/2020 1/7/2015 60,000,000 44,887,206 7/1/2014 6/30/2022 41,773,513 26,466,332 Disease Early Warning System Plus (DEWS Plus) 9/28/2015 9/27/2020 Health Sector Resiliency (HSR) 14,698,173 27,634,654 0 Medicines, Technologies and Pharmaceuticals Services (MTaPS) 9/20/2018 9/20/2023 20,000,000 Enhance Community Access, Use of Zinc, Oral Rehydration Salts for 13,000,000 7/21/2015 13,000,000 7/20/2020 Management of Childhood Diarrhea 10,589,395 Challenge Tuberculosis 1/1/2015 9/29/2019 15,000,000 3,880,752 9/30/2020 10/11/2015 Sustaining Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) Plus 12,000,000 4/20/2015 4/19/2020 2,343,773 1,343,772 Global Health Supply Chain Management (GHSCM-PSM) 1,500,000 1/2/2015 Global Health Supply Chain Quality Assessment 1,500,000 12/31/2019 Global Health Supply Chain-Procurement and Supply Management-HIV/AIDS 176,568 4/19/2020 4/20/2015 176,568 Task Order #1 $132,293,292 Total $268,932,356 Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. SIGAR reviewed SEHAT’s latest Implementation Status and Results Report (ISR) this quarter. Much of the data provided in the ISR reviewed by SIGAR was current as of June 1, 2018. With only 30 days remaining before closeout at the time the ISR was published, data provided in the ISR likely provides a very good sense of whether SEHAT eventually met its project 645 development objectives by the project end-date. SEHAT’s latest ISR noted that the project had surpassed three of its six major performance indicators. As of June 1, 2018, SEHAT had expanded coverage of the Pentavalent vaccine, which provides immunization against ve life-threatening diseases (tetanus, hepatitis B, pertussis, diphtheria, and Hib inuenza) and is administered in three doses, to 59.6% of children between 12 and 23 months old in Afghanistan’s lowest income quintile, up from a baseline of 28.9% in June 2012. The target for this indicator, to be 646 The project had also expanded achieved by June 30, 2018, was 60.0%. treatment of acute malnutrition for children under ve years old from a baseline value of 24% to 77% of those children, a gure that was well above 647 the project’s target of 55%. Finally, SEHAT helped increase the number of births attended by skilled health professionals from a baseline of 429,305 in November 2013 to 890,240 as of June 1, 2018. This latter gure was more than 107% above the project baseline and just over 57% more than SEHAT’s 648 target of 566,683. 163 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

174 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT These results are impressive. Nevertheless, with only 30 days remaining before project closeout, SEHAT had not yet achieved end targets for the SIGAR AUDIT additional three of its six major indicators. In particular, SEHAT was lagging signicantly on expanding the use of contraceptives, and was 10 percent- A SIGAR audit of the World Bank’s age points (33%) below its end-program target of 30%. According to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund data presented in the ISR, the contraceptive prevalence rate had increased released in April 2018 found that 649 by only half a percentage point from a June 2012 baseline value of 19.5%. the World Bank did not provide clear Moreover, while SEHAT appeared to have made progress on improving the support or justication for performance quality of health care from a baseline value of 55% (assessed via a balanced and progress ratings it gave certain scorecard) to 63.5% as of December 31, 2017, progress remained 6.5 per - projects. The audit was based on a 650 centage points (or 9.3%) shy of the project’s end target of 70%. Finally, review of six development projects that as of December 31, 2017, SEHAT had not achieved accreditation of the accounted for more than $2.25 billion MOPH’s procurement department, which was part of an effort to strengthen in spending. 651 the ministry’s duciary systems. Despite SEHAT’s achievement of only half of its key performance indica- tors, a World Bank review that examined SEHAT’s progress through June 1, 2018, (30 days before project closeout) claimed that the project was on track to achieve its development objectives. With respect to SEHAT’s goal of expanding the use of contraceptives, the report stated that the project’s 30% target was “very ambitious,” implying that the 20% gure (of June 1, 2018) reected in the latest ISR was satisfactory despite the fact that it did 652 not differ materially from the project baseline of 19.5%. While SEHAT’s nal ISR assigned a risk rating of “Substantial” to the project—meaning there was a substantial likelihood that the project’s development objectives could be impacted by political and governance factors such as reversed political decisions—SEHAT was “on track” to achieve its development objectives, according to the ISR. The ISR rated progress against the proj- ect’s development objectives as “Satisfactory” despite the fact that the project had met (or was close to meeting) only three of its six development 653 While SEHAT is objective indicators thirty days before project closeout. now closed, the World Bank approved the $600 million Sehatmandi project 654 in March 2018. Sehatmandi has similar objectives. Polio: Number of Conrmed Cases in 2018 Continues to Rise Pakistan and Afghanistan, which share a 1,500-mile border, are the only two countries in which polio remains endemic or “usually present,” 655 Large-scale population according to the Centers for Disease Control. movements between the two countries increase the risk of cross-border transmission, and a fatwa issued by the Pakistani Taliban targeting polio 656 The Taliban have falsely workers complicates vaccination outreach. referred to polio-vaccination drops as “poison,” and began targeted kill- ings of polio workers in June 2012—one year after the U.S. military raid 657 (Media reports that killed Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan. that SIGAR cannot conrm indicate that Pakistani doctor Shakil Afridi 164 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

175 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT It now appears inevitable that the number assisted the Central Intelligence Agency in tracking bin Laden down while of conrmed polio cases in Afghanistan in leading a hepatitis B vaccination campaign. The association between 2018 will be higher than in the previous the campaign and the May 2011 bin Laden raid reportedly set back 658 two years. polio-vaccination efforts.) As of October 11, 2018, the total number of conrmed polio cases in 659 2018 was 15. As of September 25, 2018, the total number of conrmed polio cases worldwide was 19, meaning that Afghanistan accounted for 660 nearly 80% of all conrmed cases in the current year. The current g- ure for Afghanistan represented a fairly dramatic increase of ve cases 661 over the course of the last few months alone. According to the United Nations Children’s Fund and the World Health Organization, there were 662 However, 13 ofcially reported cases in 2017—unchanged from 2016. UNAMA reported that the total number of cases in Afghanistan in 2017 663 was 14, as of February 27, 2018. USAID previously informed SIGAR it 664 expected the number of polio cases to rise in 2018. SIGAR has echoed the 665 agency’s concerns. This quarter, USAID reported that several worrisome developments have contributed to the recent rise in the number of conrmed cases. Among them were the growing number of provinces and districts with local bans on house-to-house vaccination and increasing vaccination refusals in 666 accessible areas. As of August 31, 2017, (which was the most recent data provided to SIGAR), USAID had obligated about $28.5 million and disbursed about 667 $28.4 million for polio-eradication efforts in Afghanistan since 2003. 165 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

176 COUNTERNARCOTICS COUNTERNARCOTICS CONTENTS 167 Key Issues and Events U.S. Reconstruction Funding 168 for Counternarcotics Interdiction and Eradication 168 174 U.S.-Funded Drug Demand Reduction Alternative Development 175 166 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

177 COUNTERNARCOTICS COUNTERNARCOTICS KEY ISSUES AND EVENTS The Fiscal Year (FY) 2019 Defense Appropriations Bill provides $153 million for drug interdiction and counterdrug activities associated with the Global War on Terror under the Overseas Contingency Operations title, a decrease 668 It was signed into law on of $43 million from FY 2018 enacted levels. 669 September 28, 2018. The Afghan government, backed by the United Nations Ofce on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working on a new regional drugs strategy to 670 address the country’s dramatic rise in opium cultivation and production. According to the State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL), the United States will not issue a separate counternarcotics strategy that had been under review since 2014. Instead, INL said counternarcotics is interwoven throughout the U.S. Administration’s comprehensive South Asia strategy. The goal of the South Asia strategy is to create conditions for a political process to achieve a lasting, Afghan-led peace. INL programs address the problems created by cultivation, trafcking, and use of Afghan opiates. INL will support the published Afghan counternarcotics strategy (the 2015 National Drug 671 Action Plan ). As of August 2018, counterthreat-nance operations targeting the Taliban’s revenue streams have destroyed 200 drug-related targets and denied the Taliban approximately $46 million in revenue, according to 672 Department of Defense (DOD) statements to the Wall Street Journal . More information is available on pages 86–87 of this report. During the quarter, DOD reported seizures of 257 kilograms (kg) of opium, 918 kg of morphine, 1,404 kg of heroin, 7,210 kg of hashish, and precursor chemicals . A kilogram is about 2.2 pounds. Afghan 7,000 kg of specialized units conducted 24 operations, compared to 17 operations a substance that may Precursor chemical: 673 According to the Afghan Counter Narcotics Justice reported last quarter. be used in the production, manufacture, Center (CNJC), Kabul and Nangarhar Provinces had the most “high-level” and /or preparation of narcotic drugs and cases of smuggling and drug-trafcking between July 22 and August 22, psychotropic substances. 2018. The CNJC sentenced 79 individuals during that one-month period 674 on drug trafcking cases, with sentences ranging from one to 20 years. Two Afghan heroin trafckers arrested in Thailand and extradited were Source: UNODC, Multilingual Dictionary of Precursors and convicted in U.S. federal court and sentenced to 15 years and 10.9 years, , 2008, viii. Chemicals 167 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

178 COUNTERNARCOTICS respectively, for conspiring to import large quantities of heroin into the 675 United States. To encourage farmers to cultivate licit crops and promote the export of Afghan goods, USAID helped facilitate the second annual “Passage to Prosperity” trade show in Mumbai, India, in September. About 200 Afghan businesses and industry leaders, including women entrepreneurs, participated in the four-day event. This year, at least 166 conrmed deals and more than 600 memoranda of understanding were signed. Last year, the event resulted in $27 million dollars in contracts between Afghan and 676 Indian businesses. U.S. RECONSTRUCTION FUNDING FOR COUNTERNARCOTICS As of September 30, 2018, the United States has provided $8.88 billion for counternarcotics (CN) efforts in Afghanistan since 2002. Congress SIGAR AUDIT appropriated most CN funds for Afghanistan through the Department of Defense Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities (DOD CN) Fund An ongoing nancial audit is examining ($3.25 billion), the Afghan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) ($1.31 billion), the Pacic Architects and Engineers the Economic Support Fund ($1.44 billion), and a portion of the State Inc. (PAE) $68.2 million contract for Department’s International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement law-enforcement program operations 677 (INCLE) account ($2.33 billion). and support services in Kabul. The ASFF is primarily used to develop the Afghan National Army and Police, audit is examining $32.4 million including the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) and the in costs incurred over the period of Special Mission Wing (SMW), which support the counternarcotics efforts of March 7, 2016, to March 18, 2017. 678 the Ministries of Defense (MOD) and Interior (MOI). The INL contract provides support services to specialized narcotics law- enforcement units within the CNPA; INTERDICTION AND ERADICATION and support to the CNJC, including The seriousness of Afghanistan’s narcotics problem is underscored by its operations, maintenance, and life and prohibition in the country’s Constitution under Article 7: “The state shall mission support to seven international- prevent all kinds of terrorist activities, cultivation and smuggling of narcot- zone locations in Kabul. 679 ics, and production and use of intoxicants.” The Afghan government’s goals in its national drug action plan are to: • decrease opium poppy cultivation, • decrease production and trafcking of opiates, and • reduce domestic demand for narcotics while increasing treatment provisions for users. To achieve these goals, the Afghan government uses law-enforcement entities to disrupt and dismantle drug production and trafcking organiza- Eradication campaigns are enacted to discourage poppy cultivation. tions. Alternative-livelihood options are also explored and strengthened to 680 decrease poppy cultivation. 168 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

179 COUNTERNARCOTICS No Separate U.S. Government Counternarcotics Strategy, but Interagency Efforts Continue The State Department said a stand-alone strategy would not necessarily improve coordination. Though the Counter Narcotics Working Group has not met since September 2017, according to State, coordination of U.S. government counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan continues. INL hosts an annual counternarcotics workshop in Kabul. Counter Narcotics Justice - Center prosecutors, and Ministry of Interior narcotics investigators par ticipate in recurring anti-money laundering training. The U.S. Embassy in Kabul and USFOR-A conduct monthly counter-threat nance group meet- ings. Multiple U.S. agencies regularly participate in other counternarcotics 681 and counterthreat working groups in Washington and Kabul. Composition of the Afghan Counter Narcotics Police The Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA), comprising regular narcotics police and specialized units, leads counternarcotics efforts by Afghan law-enforcement personnel. The CNPA, authorized at 2,596 person- nel, are located in all 34 provinces. Specialized units include the Sensitive Investigation Unit (SIU), the National Interdiction Unit (NIU), and the 682 Intelligence and Investigation Unit (IIU). A U.S. special forces team men- 683 The IIU was supported and mentored by tors the Afghan specialized units. 684 the United Kingdom until 2016. The Afghan Ministry of Interior and the NATO Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan agreed to increase the authorized stafng level of the NIU by 250 personnel this quarter; the total NIU force ceiling 685 is now 786. The Afghan Uniform Police and Afghan Border Police (ABP) 686 The ABP collaborate also participate in counternarcotics activities. closely with the counternarcotics elements of the Anti-Crime Police and Ministry of Finance, national and international intelligence agencies, as 687 well as border police of neighboring states. In December 2017, a majority of the ABP was transferred from the Ministry of Interior to the Ministry of 688 Defense and renamed the Afghan Border Force. In addition, the General Command of Police Special Units conducts 689 high-risk operations against terrorism, narcotics, and organized crime. The NIU and SIU conduct interdiction operations that target senior narcot- ics trafckers. The NIU maintains forward-based personnel in Kandahar, 690 The Technical Investigative Unit (TIU) is Kunduz, and Herat Provinces. an individual component consisting of 100 translators who work within the Joint Wire Intercept Platform in support of SIU/NIU investigations. Another SIU component has four ofcers responsible for administrative manage- ment of court orders obtained by SIU investigators to conduct Afghan 691 judicially authorized intercepts. 169 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

180 COUNTERNARCOTICS U.S. Funding for Afghan Counternarcotics Elements INL estimates that it funds approximately $26 million per year for operations and maintenance for the NIU and SIU. Costs directly attributable to NIU and SIU include $2.47 million in support of the Joint Wire Intercept Platform program under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and $425,000 per year for NIU salary supplements. 692 SIU supplements are funded by DEA. Salary supplements are used to attract and retain the most qualied and highly trained ofcers to the special- ized units. Supplements are provided to all NIU ofcers, from police ofcers 693 to unit commanders. Supplement amounts are based on rank. DOD provided $675,000 for equipment to the NIU for 2017 and $1 million 694 for equipment to be delivered in 2019. Interdiction Results INL reported that between April 1 and June 30, 2018, the National Interdiction Unit (NIU) and Sensitive Investigation Unit (SIU) seized 12,708 kilograms (kg) of morphine, 5,129 kg of opium, 677 kg of heroin, as well as 5,504 liters of chemicals and 16,100 kg of chemicals. NIU and 695 SIU conducted 15 operations during the period and detained 47 people. Separately, DOD reported this quarter that most interdiction activities occurred in the south and southwest regions of the country. Interdiction activities include routine patrols and searches of vehicles and individuals. Afghan operations between July 1 and September 17, 2018, resulted in 58 696 detentions and the following seizures: • 257 kg of opium • 918 kg of morphine • 1,404 kg of heroin • 7,210 kg of hashish • 7,000 kg of chemicals Between July and September, the U.S. special forces unit assigned to mentor the NIU was reassigned to counterterrorism operations and no anti- money laundering or counternarcotics nancing operations occurred during 697 that time period. A new unit was assigned to the NIU in September 2018. Since 2016, INL has funded capacity building for the CNPA’s Precursor Control Unit (PCU) staff through a UNODC training program. The PCU is a 698 specialized unit devoted to combating the burgeoning precursor problem. Though precursor chemical seizures were declining for several years, they increased signicantly in 2016, which the UN said indicated a potential 699 increase of in-country drug production. Cooperation between the PCU and UNODC’s Container Control Programme resulted in the August 2018 seizure of seven metric tons of acetic anhydride, a main precursor chemical 700 used to produce heroin from opium. 170 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

181 COUNTERNARCOTICS TABLE 3.32 INTERDICTION RESULTS, FISCAL YEARS 2009–2018 2 1 Total 2011 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2010 2009 2012 270 Number of Operations 263 624 518 333 282 190 156 141 3,582 669 152 301 394 442 386 535 862 484 190 Detainees 3,992 197 Hashish seized (kg) 58,677 25,044 182,213 183,776 37,826 19,088 24,785 123,063 227,327 42,017 1,165,169 3,056 39,976 8,392 10,982 3,441 2,489 576 2,859 3,532 1,975 2,397 Heroin seized (kg) 5,925 11,067 10,042 18,040 2,279 5,195 Morphine seized (kg) 10,127 13,041 182,999 505 106,369 41,350 79,110 49,750 38,379 27,600 10,487 24,263 15,991 70,814 471,432 98,327 Opium seized (kg) Precursor chemicals 234,981 130,846 20,397 36,250 53,184 93,031 42,314 89,878 22,663 850,403 122,150 seized (kg) Note: The significant difference in precursor chemicals total seizures between 2014 and 2015 is due to a 12/22/2014 seizure of 135,000 kg of precursor chemicals. 1 Results for period 10/1/2017–9/17/2018. 2 The following FY 2008 results included in the total are not indicated in the table: 136 operations; 49 detainees; 241,353 kg of hash; 277 kg of heroin; 409 kg of morphine; 15,361 kg of opium; and 4,709 kg of precursor chemicals. Source: DOD(CN), response to SIGAR data call, 7/29/2015, 7/20/2017, and 9/24/2018. SIGAR has repeatedly written about the billions of dollars spent on coun- ternarcotics efforts and the modest or limited impact of U.S. government programs aimed at addressing expanding opium cultivation in Afghanistan and the illicit opium trade. Though seizures for certain narcotics and chemi- cals have risen this quarter, they had a negligible impact on the country’s overall potential opium production as shown in Table 3.32. For instance, aggregate opium seizures for the past 10 years accounted for about 5% of Afghanistan’s opium production in 2017 (9,000 tons as reported by UNODC 701 in 2017). New Penal Code Enforcement of Counternarcotics Provisions The Counter Narcotics Justice Center (CNJC) prosecuted 186 cases between July and September 2018 under Afghanistan’s new penal code provisions. Most of the cases adjudicated this year were for the sale and distribution of narcotics and psychotropic drugs to addicts (356 cases), fol- 702 lowed by trafcking heroin, morphine, and cocaine (150 cases). The provinces with the highest number of high-level drug smuggling and 703 trafcking cases in August and September were Kabul and Nangarhar. DEA told SIGAR that no high-value targets were apprehended during the quarter. DOD informed SIGAR that those apprehensions do not lead to measurable reductions in the amount of illicit nances. Rather, they increase friction and pressure on revenue streams and connected networks 704 to prompt the enemy towards negotiations with the Afghan government. Information about counterthreat-nance operations is available in the Security section of this report beginning on page 86. 171 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

182 COUNTERNARCOTICS Eradication Results Opium’s Economic Value As reported in the Economic and Social Governor-Led Eradication Development section on p. 36, organizations Under the Governor-Led Eradication (GLE) program, INL reimburses such as the World Bank exclude opium provincial governors $250 toward the eradication costs of every UNODC- production from their estimate of 705 veried hectare of eradicated poppy. This quarter, INL provided $75,000 in Afghanistan’s GDP. According to data reported by the Ministry of Agriculture, advance payments to the Ministry of Counter Narcotics (MCN) in support Irrigation, and Livestock, when the farm-gate of eradication activities next year in the following provinces: Badakhshan, value of opium production (which does not Kabul, Kapisa, Kunar, Laghman, Nangarhar, Balkh, Jowzjan, Samangan, 706 include proceeds from in-country processing Sar-e Pul, Herat, and Badghis. and marketing) is factored into the economy, GLE resulted in the eradication of 750 hectares in 2017 in 14 provinces, it accounts for more than four percentage 707 INL has obligated compared to 355 hectares in seven provinces in 2016. points of the reported 7.2% growth rate for 708 and disbursed $6.9 million since the program’s inception in 2008. 2017–2018. The Afghan National Statistics As SIGAR noted in its lessons-learned report on counternarcotics, GLE and Information Authority reports GDP used poor data to form policy options and judge the performance of pro- growth as 2.9% excluding poppy production. vincial governors. For example, the 2007 UNODC “credible threat doctrine” Source: GIROA National Statistics and Information Authority, assumed an annual eradication target of 25% was necessary to discourage Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2017–18 , 8/2018, p. 110. future cultivation without any real evidence to back it up. The report also noted that eradication had no lasting impact on the opium-poppy problem. The U.S. government stopped funding large-scale eradication operations 709 As Figure 3.45 illustrates, eradication efforts have had minimal in 2010. impact on curbing opium-poppy cultivation. The cumulative total hectares eradicated between 2008 and 2017 represent only 13% of the total opium 710 cultivation for 2017. FIGURE 3.45 AFGHAN OPIUM-POPPY CULTIVATION, ERADICATION, AND PRODUCTION SINCE 2008 TONS HECTARES 350,000 10,000 224 209 280,000 8,000 210,000 6,000 157 154 131 123 123 140,000 4,000 70,000 2,000 0 0 2010 2011 2013 2012 2016 2015 2014 2017 2008 2009 (HECTARES) (TONS) Opium production (HECTARES) Opium-poppy cultivation Eradication , 11/2017, pp. 5–6, 64–70. Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and Production , 5/2016, Annex, vii, ix, xii; UNODC, World Drug Report 2016 Source: UNODC, 172 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

183 COUNTERNARCOTICS FIGURE 3.46 Opium Cultivation and Afghan Agricultural Area According to Afghan government data, Afghanistan’s total land area is OPIUM CULTIVATION AND AGRICULTURAL 65,223,000 hectares. The agricultural area is 9,610,000 hectares or 15% of the (THOUSAND HECTARES) LAND, 2017–2018 total land area. Opium cultivation for 2017 at 328,000 hectares represents 3% of the agricultural area and 0.5% of the total land area. By comparison, wheat—the country’s major crop for consumption—occupies 2,104,377 3% 711 Though opium hectares for 2017–2018, or 22% of the agricultural area. cultivation takes place on a modest portion of agricultural land, it has sig- nicant economic value. The illicit prots benet not only drug-trafcking organizations and the insurgency, but possibly representatives of the 22% 712 Afghan government. Figures 3.46 illustrate opium’s importance in terms of agricultural land and total land area. 75% Good Performers Initiative The INL-funded Good Performers Initiative (GPI) sought to incentivize provincial governors’ counternarcotics and supply-reduction activities by supporting sustainable, community-led development projects in provinces Agricultural Area 9,610 that signicantly reduced or eliminated poppy cultivation. GPI projects included schools, roads, bridges, irrigation structures, Opium cultivated area 328 713 health clinics, and drug treatment centers. However, no new GPI projects Wheat 2,104 715 714 were approved after April 30, 2016, and GPI is not starting new projects. Other 7,178 According to INL, the program was deemed “ineffectual at curbing opium cultivation” in those provinces receiving awards. MCN’s inability to Note: Agricultural area includes forests and woodlands, 716 irrigated crops, and cultivated rainfed areas adequately manage the program was also a factor in INL’s phasing it out. The number of poppy-free provinces increased from six at the begin- Source: GIROA National Statistics and Information Authority, , 8/2018, p. 124; Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2017–18 ning of the program in 2007 to 15 in 2013—the last year GPI funds were Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and UNODC, Production , 11/2017, p. 8. 717 awarded. UNODC reported that the number of poppy-free provinces 718 decreased from 13 to 10 in 2017. As of August 31, 2018, INL reported that 290 projects valued at Colombo Plan: Instituted as a regional $126.4 million have been contracted. Of those, 281 projects have been intergovernmental organization to further completed and eight are still in progress. Four of the GPI projects were economic and social development, it was 719 recontracted to bring those projects to a safe and usable condition. conceived at a conference held in Colombo, Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) in 1950 with seven Ministry of Counter Narcotics Capacity Building founding-member countries. It has since expanded to 26 member countries. INL INL funds capacity building programs to strengthen law enforcement, 720 supports the Colombo Plan’s Universal Since 2008, INL has obligated drug prevention, treatment, and recovery. Treatment Curriculum, a national level $35.8 million and disbursed $27.7 million to build capacity at the Ministry of training and certication system for drug- 721 Counter Narcotics (MCN). INL is currently implementing a skills-based addiction counselors aimed at improving training grant, an Asian University for Women (AUW) fellowship, and a the delivery of drug treatment services in 722 Under the skills-based training grant, advisors program. Colombo Plan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. the implementer conducted 33 trainings benetting 119 MCN employees. Five of the 10 positions under the Colombo Plan advisors program have been lled. According to INL, MCN’s capacity is improving since the arrival Source: Colombo Plan Secretariat website, “History,” www. colombo-plan.org, accessed 7/1/2017; INL, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control , 3/2018, p. 19. 173 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

184 COUNTERNARCOTICS of these advisors this scal year. To date, INL has disbursed $2.1 million to 723 the Colombo Plan for the AUW fellowship program. SIGAR SPECIAL PROJECT The MCN works on the policy and planning of alternative-livelihood pro- SIGAR issued a report on six GPI grams, but not their implementation. The Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, projects in Takhar Province. The six and Livestock and the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development projects were completed at a cost of 724 implement these programs, and can also implement MCN policy. about $2.7 million. SIGAR found that INL’s reported geospatial coordinates for the six projects were each within U.S.-FUNDED DRUG DEMAND REDUCTION one kilometer from the actual project INL works closely with international partners to coordinate and execute location. Additionally, SIGAR found capacity building and training activities for service providers in drug pre- that two hostel building projects 725 vention, treatment, and recovery. Afghanistan The INL-funded 2015 had missing and broken furniture, a conservatively estimated that roughly 11% of the National Drug Use Survey general lack of facility maintenance population would test positive for one or more drugs, including 5.3% of the and sanitation, and nonoperational urban population and 13% of the rural population. Drug use among women dining facilities. SIGAR also found and children is among the highest documented worldwide, and 30.6% of that two of the projects had problems 726 households tested positive for some form of illicit drug. and the other four other projects were The United States is helping Afghanistan face this public-health crisis by functioning and fullling their intended funding a rural treatment program in Jowzjan Province to expand substance- purpose, despite minor problems. 727 INL provides additional abuse treatment to the hardest-hit communities. More information about the report is assistance for substance-abuse treatment programs through the Colombo available in Section 2. Plan Drug Advisory Programme, which includes residential, outpatient, and outreach programs. INL supports the Colombo Plan with training and 728 INL also started another pilot certication of drug-addiction counselors. rural treatment program in June 2017 in Jowzjan and Laghman Provinces. Its activities, however, have been delayed due to security and winter weather conditions. INL and the Colombo Plan are reviewing proposals that would 729 combine this pilot program into another rural treatment project. Since 2015, INL has transitioned responsibility for 42 of 86 U.S.-funded drug treatment centers in Afghanistan to the Ministry of Public Health 730 (MOPH): 14 of the centers transitioned over to the MOPH in January 2018. INL provided the nal draft of the transition plan to all stakeholders in September 2018 and announced the budget cuts for 2019 at INL’s May 2018 731 stakeholders meeting in Jakarta, Indonesia. The remaining treatment centers are scheduled to transition by the end of 2019. INL reduced funding to all facilities by approximately 20% in 2015, 732 another 15% in 2016, and another 25% in 2017. Most of the patients at the remaining treatment centers are adult males. Of the 86 facilities, 66 are residential and 20 are outpatient centers; 31 are dedicated to female patients. Among the residential treatment centers, 44 also offer home-based services. The residential treatment centers com- prise 40 centers for adult males, eight for adult females, eight for children, ve for adolescent males, and ve for adolescent females. Twelve of the 733 44 home-based programs provide services to adult females. INL has 174 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

185 COUNTERNARCOTICS obligated and disbursed approximately $150.6 million for the Colombo Plan 734 since 2008 on drug demand reduction programs. SIGAR AUDIT According to INL, the demand for treatment and prevention services far An ongoing SIGAR audit of INL’s drug exceeds the capacity of the centers, most of which have extensive wait- treatment programs in Afghanistan ing lists for new patients. The United States supports UNODC’s global is examining the extent to which INL child-addiction program to develop protocols for treating opioid-addicted and its implementers: (1) developed children, training treatment staff, and delivering services through non- strategies and assessed program governmental organizations. The United States also funds an antidrug achievements; (2) conducted curriculum in Afghan schools that has trained over 1,900 teachers and 735 required oversight, and identied and reached over 600,000 students in 900 schools. addressed program challenges; and During FY 2018, INL provided the following funds to various Colombo (3) incorporated sustainment into the Plan drug treatment programs: programs. More information is found in • $346,545 to the Outcome Evaluation of the Drug Treatment Programme Section 2 of this report. • $4,447,103 to the Assistance to Specialized Substance Use Disorders Treatment Facilities • $1,457,948 to the Colombo Plan’s Afghanistan Field Ofce Support program INL also provided $355,271 to UNODC’s Preventing Illicit Drug Use and 736 Treating Drug Use Disorders for Children and Adolescents program. INL has developed a software tool to monitor inventory and procurement of INL-funded drug treatment centers (DTC). In September, INL used the 737 tool to monitor DTCs in Kabul. ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT Boost Alternative Development Intervention Through Licit Livelihoods INL launched this alternative-development project in August 2016. BADILL is expected to follow through on INL’s commitments to those provinces 738 most affected by GPI’s cancellation. According to INL, BADILL takes a community-based, alternative-devel- opment approach, rather than the GPI’s incentive-based approach. The GPI program targeted provincial leadership by providing a political incentive for top-down poppy reduction, and employed a general development approach. BADILL is working directly with small farmers to increase productivity and 739 INL expects that this approach will render the employment opportunities. program more effective than GPI. BADILL is implemented in the following provinces: Helmand, Uruzgan, Nimroz, Samangan, Jowzjan, Takhar, Bamyan, Wardak, Parwan, Panjshir, Paktiya, Paktika, and Nangarhar. The main activities between April and June 2018 were the distribution of agricultural equipment, extension services, trainings, and marketing support in the north to nearly 2,300 175 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

186 COUNTERNARCOTICS Joint MAIL, MCN, and UNODC Monitoring Mission to Sarkhrood District, Nangarhar Province. (INL photo) beneciaries. The establishment of new orchards and greenhouses in Helmand, Nimroz, and Uruzgan increased the total area of orchards created under BADILL to 172 hectares and total greenhouses to six. Poultry and dairy inputs, such as wire mesh for windows, feeders and drinkers, butter- churning equipment, and ventilators were distributed to increase poultry 740 and dairy production. Drought had an acute impact in Bamyan, Helmand, and Uruzgan Provinces, where all or most of the seedlings and saplings died. Unexpected snowfall compounded the damage in Bamyan, as did excessive irrigation in Helmand and Uruzgan. Excessive irrigation occurs when all the stored rain water is used because farmers fear no more rainfall will occur. Training will now be provided explaining the detriment of excessive irrigation and how to store rainwater for proper irrigation. Farmers were supplied with new 741 seedlings and saplings to replace the ones killed by the drought. In Takhar, the drought affected the availability of grazing land, resulting in underweight livestock and low milk production. Agricultural yields were lower than the previous year in Samangan and Jowzjan, and farmers lost 742 their entire rst crop in Bamyan. Community-Based Agriculture and Rural Development INL has additional alternative development projects under the Community-Based Agriculture and Rural Development (CBARD) pro- gram. The projects are implemented by the United Nations and aim to improve household income while reducing dependency on illicit poppy 176 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

187 COUNTERNARCOTICS provides training on quality milk production and processing in Kalfgan A master trainer District, Takhar Province. (INL photo) 743 cultivation for selected communities. Irrigation infrastructure is an important component of the CBARD program. SIGAR’s counternarcotics lessons learned report found evidence, based on Geographic Information System (GIS) imagery, that some US-funded irrigation improvement proj- ects have inadvertently contributed to greater opium-poppy cultivation. In that light, the report concluded that it is important that CBARD proj- ects incorporate risk-mitigation strategies—particularly in areas with a history of opium-poppy cultivation—to ensure that irrigation projects do not lead to more cultivation of poppy, and are instead contributing to licit 744 high-value crops. Table 3.33 provides the funding amounts and project duration dates. All funds have been disbursed. TABLE 3.33 COMMUNITY-BASED AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (CBARD) Cumulative Implementing Disbursements, Total Estimated Start Date End Date as of 9/30/2018 Partner Project Title Cost CBARD-East 11/2017 12/2020 UNDP $22,128,683 All funds disbursed 11/2016 UNDP CBARD-West All funds disbursed 4/2020 24,368,607 Total $46,497,290 $46,497,290 11/09/2017; Source: INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/13/2017 and 1/12/2018; State, INL, Letter of Agreement with UNDP, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 177 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

188 COUNTERNARCOTICS CBARD-West CBARD-West introduces and strengthens community-based local produc- tion and marketing of traditional high-value crops in 70 communities of Farah and Badghis Provinces. The project aims to directly benet an esti- mated 33,240 households. In addition to supporting local farmers with eld schools, CBARD-West will develop, and strengthen existing public and private agribusiness infrastructure in the areas of irrigation, transportation, 745 and agricultural value-chain facilities. During the third quarter of FY 2018, the project trained 575 people, including 130 women, on business development, project monitoring and implementation, and the concept of value-chain and agribusiness devel- opment. The trainings are expected to increase the local beneciaries’ capacity to establish businesses, monitor projects, and work on high-value crops. Furthermore, 279 households reportedly benetted from various program-funded infrastructure, including greenhouses, raisin-drying houses, 746 and irrigation. The infrastructure will increase income and improve accessibility to markets, according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The irrigation infrastructures help protect 806 hectares and irri- gate 2,276 hectares of land which improves access and water management. 747 Approximately 6,500 households are said to benet from these efforts. CBARD-East CBARD-East introduces and strengthens community-based local produc- tion and marketing of traditional high-value crops in 100 communities of Nangarhar Province. The program started in January 2018 and will assess alternative livelihoods in communities with high rates of opium cultivation. It aims to directly benet an estimated 28,500 households. CBARD-East supports local farmers with eld schools, strengthens public and private agribusiness infrastructures in value-chain facilities, irrigation, and trans- portation. As of June 2018, CBARD-East has established 46 hectares of orchards, begun construction of 195 greenhouses, trained women in kitchen gardening, and identied 16 additional crop irrigation projects. An esti- mated 1,900 hectares will be irrigated and approximately 13,450 households 748 will benet from these infrastructures. - The program prioritized recruitment of female staff and highly encour aged female applicants to apply for project employment openings. However, due to the remoteness and security status of the project, no female candi- dates have expressed interest. Currently, two out of the 21 recruited staff 749 According to UNDP, security, community traditions, members are female. and the location of the target provinces present challenges in working with women. CBARD-East will address this challenge by establishing kitchen gardens and home-based greenhouses to ensure women’s involvement in 750 the production of high-value crops. 178 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

189 COUNTERNARCOTICS The 230 greenhouses, constructed in two different sizes for on and off-season vegetable production, are within the home premises or near their homes for cultural reasons. According to INL, the use of green- houses allows greater participation of women. In greenhouses, women are trained in off-season vegetable cultivation and post-harvest management of fruits and vegetables. Overall, 20% of beneciaries on CBARD project activities are women. The project aims to empower women to play an important role in all aspects of agricultural production. According to INL, women account for a majority of the workforce in the livestock and poul- try sectors, and approximately half of the workforce in the farming and 751 horticulture sectors. Afghanistan Value Chains Programs These programs will cover the regions previously targeted by now-inactive 752 Regional Agricultural Development (RADP) programs. Table 3.34 pro- vides program value, duration and expenditures to date. TABLE 3.34 AFGHANISTAN VALUE CHAINS (AVC) Cumulative Disbursements, Total Estimated Implementing Cost Project Title as of 9/30/2018 Start Date End Date Partner $778,367 AVC-Livestock 6/9/2018 6/8/2021 DAI $34,714,295 8/2/2018 AVC-Crops DAI 8/1/2021 33,482,672 0 $68,196,967 $778,367 Total Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. Afghanistan Value Chains–Crops USAID awarded the $33.5 million Afghanistan Value Chains-Crops (AVC-C) the range of goods and Value chain: contract to DAI Global LLC in August 2018. The program’s goals are to services necessary for an agricultural reverse market failures, strengthen linkages, spur growth and job creation product to move from the farm to the nal for men, women, and youth along value chains for fruit, nuts, high-value customer or consumer. It encompasses horticulture, spices, and medicinal crops. Activities are designed around the provision of inputs, actual on-farm production, post-harvest storage and “anchor rms” and important service providers such as nan- value-chain processing, marketing, transportation, and cial institutions, shipping and transport companies, and management 753 wholesale and retail sales. consultant rms. According to USAID, anchor rms have the willingness and potential to create systemic change in their value chain, with ben- ets that go beyond the individual rm. USAID has spent no funds as of 754 September 30, 2018. Source: USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/12/2015. Afghanistan Value Chains–Livestock DAI Global LLC is the implementer for Afghanistan Value Chains-Livestock (AVC-L). USAID awarded the three-year $34.7 million contract in June 2018. AVC-L will work with anchor rms in the poultry, small ruminants, 179 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

190 COUNTERNARCOTICS 755 dairy products, and other livestock value-chains. USAID denes anchor rms as those with a willingness and potential to create systemic change in their value chain, with benets that go beyond the individual rm. During the quarter, the implementer performed startup activities, such as recruitment and procurement. Project staff conducted meetings with Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock staff, other USAID-funded 756 Total disbursements as of project staff, stakeholders, and other donors. 757 September 30, 2018, are $778,367. Promoting Value Chains–Western Afghanistan The program is implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The Promoting Value Chains-Western (PVC-W) Afghanistan project aims to promote inclusive growth and create jobs in the agriculture sector by strengthening the capabilities of producers and private enterprises. To 758 achieve this goal, the project aims to: • increase wheat productivity • improve production and productivity of high-value crops • enhance technology utilization in the livestock industry • build institutional capacity at provincial and district levels The rst year of the project will focus on Herat Province with activi- ties to begin in Badghis, Farah, and Nimroz Provinces in year two. Fifteen project districts were identied based on the presence of production and 759 processing facilities for targeted crops, accessibility, and security. The rapid value-chain assessment conducted in the fall of 2017 identied con- straints and areas where interventions are needed. For example, packaging, quality control, and market linkages were identied as constraints to all value chains and contamination was identied for some high-value crops 760 such as saffron and pistachios. Private-sector beneciaries were also selected for a project innovation fund (PIF). The PIF is a source of co-nancing for selected agribusinesses and enter - prises. USAID hopes to stimulate investments in private agribusinesses that develop and promote new markets and sales for agricultural inputs, wheat, high-value crops, and dairy products. The PIF’s intent is to improve business performance by addressing some of the key barriers to produc- tion and marketing, as well as support farmer and producer groups in adopting and using new technologies and equipment. The rst group of PIF- 761 As of supported projects has not received nal approval, as of October 11. 762 September 30, 2018, USAID has disbursed $1.7 million. Afghanistan is experiencing a severe drought—the worst in decades— displacing over 250,000 people in the west, according to the UN Ofce for 763 USAID contributed $43.8 million to support food Humanitarian Affairs. 764 assistance to drought victims in September. According to USAID, PVC-W has not experienced any problems because of the drought. USAID reports 180 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

191 COUNTERNARCOTICS that its agricultural activities do not focus on farm-level production, but on 765 the higher levels of value-chains. More information on the drought is avail- able in the Economic and Social Development section on pages 147–148. Commercial Horticulture and Agricultural Marketing Program The Commercial Horticulture and Agricultural Marketing Program (CHAMP) works with leading Afghan processing and export rms to enhance the supply chain, marketing, and export promotion of Afghan fruits and nuts. CHAMP supports traders through its trade ofces in India, United 766 Arab Emirates, and Kazakhstan to boost Afghan agricultural exports. USAID increased the program’s contract from $56.3 million to $71.3 million 767 in May 2018. During the April to June months, CHAMP facilitated loans in col- laboration with the Agriculture Development Fund totaling $1.5 million to four Afghan exporters. CHAMP reported the export of 1,335 metric tons of saffron, dried fruits, nuts and seeds valued at $3.6 million to 768 international markets. In July, CHAMP facilitated a “Made in Afghanistan: Nature’s Best” event in New Delhi, India. According to USAID, Afghan traders signed $68 million worth of contracts for high-value agricultural products. Shabana Trading Company, one of ve women-owned agribusinesses, signed a $1.38 million 769 contract for raisins and gs. As of September 30, 2018, USAID has dis- 770 bursed $57.3 million. Kandahar Food Zone The Kandahar Food Zone (KFZ) concluded August 30, 2018. The ve-year, $45.4 million program addressed the drivers of poppy cultivation. In its early years, KFZ collaborated closely with the MCN and conducted capac- ity-building trainings for the ministry in its Kabul and Kandahar ofces. The program also conducted assessments, planned canal rehabilitations to increase access to affordable irrigation water, and implemented vocational trainings tied to alternative development. SIGAR will report on KFZ next 771 quarter after submission and approval of the program’s nal report. 772 As of September 30, 2018, USAID has disbursed $45.1 million. SIGAR AUDIT Regional Agricultural Development Program SIGAR announced a nancial audit USAID’s Regional Agricultural Development Program (RADP) is intended of USAID’s RADP-South program in to help Afghan farmers achieve more inclusive and sustainable economic October 2018. SIGAR will examine growth. RADP projects are ongoing in the eastern and northern regions of the $63.2 million contract with Afghanistan. The projects focus on strengthening the capacity of farmers to Chemonics International Inc. for costs improve the productivity of wheat, high-value crops, and livestock. Using a incurred during the January 1, 2016, to value-chain approach, these projects work with farmers and agribusinesses November 20, 2017. to overcome obstacles hindering production, processing, sales, and overall 773 development of agricultural value chains. 181 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

192 COUNTERNARCOTICS TABLE 3.35 USAID REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (RADP) Cumulative Disbursements, Project Title Start Date End Date Total Estimated Cost as of 9/30/2018 $108,468,215 RADP-South* 10/7/2013 10/6/2017 $111,414,339 5/21/2014 RADP-North 5/20/2019 78,429,714 56,906,996 26,394,196 RADP-West* 8/10/2014 10/25/2016 65,629,170 RADP-East 9,022,776 7/20/2021 28,126,111 7/21/2016 Total $283,599,334 $200,792,183 Note: * Denotes inactive programs. Afghanistan Value Chains-Crops and Afghanistan Value Chains-Livestock programs target the regions previously served by the inactive RADP programs. Source: USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. As shown in Table 3.35, USAID funding for all RADP programs, targeting various regions of the country amounts to approximately $283.6 million and USAID has spent $200.8 million as of September 30, 2018. RADP-East The ve-year, $28.1 million RADP-East program seeks to expand sustain- able economic growth through the agriculture sector in eight provinces: Ghazni, Kapisa, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Parwan, Wardak, and Kabul. Its goal is to increase the sale of agricultural goods by at least $57 million by 774 the end of the program. Between April and June 2018, RADP-E awarded ve new grants, facilitated the participation of Afghan agribusinesses to the July Afghanistan-India Trade show in New Delhi and the September “Passage to Prosperity” trade show in Mumbai. The program conducted technical training for 67 poultry farmers, as well as technical working groups and meetings for provincial stakeholders. Besides the security challenge, the program faced some difculties due to insufcient air-cargo space, a lack of domestic vendors, and a lack of agribusinesses in some of the targeted 775 provinces. A total of $178,500 worth of agricultural goods were exported to international markets by two Afghan rms. The program created 700 776 full-time employment opportunities during the same period. USAID uses documents from the Afghan Chamber of Commerce and Industry as the source for the sales results it reports. It notes that reported amounts are higher due to the common practice of underinvoicing, in which exporters report lower gures on their invoices to reduce taxes due to the Afghan government. As of September 30, 2018, USAID has disbursed $9 million 777 for RADP-East. 182 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

193 COUNTERNARCOTICS RADP-North RADP-North extends food and economic security for rural Afghans of six provinces: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh, Jowzjan, Kunduz, and Samangan. Activities strengthen farmers’ capacity through improved production in the 778 The $78.4 million ve- wheat, high-value crop, and livestock value chains. 779 year program is in its nal year. During the April to June 2018 period, laser-land-levelling unit operators (a jerib is 500 contracted with approximately 160 farmers to level 914 jeribs square meters) in Balkh and Jowzjan. One thousand women were trained in hygiene and nutrition in four provinces and agribusinesses that partici- pated in the international trade shows exported more than 339 tons of dried fruit and nuts to countries in Europe and Asia. The program established 20 a Paraveterinarian or paravet: new veterinary eld units staffed by one doctor of veterinary medicine and community-based animal health worker 780 The program supported female noodle pro- 19 paravets in all provinces. who provides initial diagnosis and basic ducers who participated in exhibitions held by the Ministry of Agriculture treatment of animals. Irrigation and Livestock in Mazar-e Sharif. Samangan women bakers contin- 781 ued production to meet demand for the Eid festival. To adapt to the drought conditions in the north, RADP-N has been Source: A. Catley, T. Leyland, et al., “Para-veterinary profes- conducting additional trainings on animal health and nutrition so that par - sionals and the development of quality, self-sustaining 782 community-based services,” Revue scientique et technique As ticipants in the livestock value-chain can better care for their animals. (International Ofce of Epizootics), 2004, pp. 225–226, 783 229–230. of September 30, 2018, USAID has disbursed $56.9 million. 183 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

194

195 OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT 4 185 185

196 OVERSIGHT OTHER AGENCY CONTENTS OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT CONTENTS 187 Completed Oversight Activities 191 Ongoing Oversight Activities Photo on previous page Marine Corps Capt. Kimberly Sonntag holds a U.S. ag as she rides a CH-47 Chinook helicopter to Operating Base Fenty, Dec. 24, 2017. (DOD photo by Petty Ofcer 1st Class Dominique A. Pineiro, U.S. Navy) 186 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

197 OVERSIGHT OTHER AGENCY OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT SIGAR’s enabling legislation requires it to keep the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense fully informed about problems relating to the administration of Afghanistan reconstruction programs, and to submit a report to Congress on SIGAR’s oversight work and on the status of the U.S. reconstruction effort no later than 30 days after the end of each scal quarter. The statute also instructs SIGAR to include, to the extent possible, relevant matters from the end of the quarter up to the submission date of its report. Each quarter, SIGAR requests updates from other agencies on completed and ongoing oversight activities. This section compiles these updates. Publicly available copies of completed reports are posted on the agencies’ respective websites. The descriptions appear as submitted, with minor changes to maintain consistency with other sections of this report: acronyms and abbreviations in place of full names; standardized capitalization, punctuation, and pre- ferred spellings; and third-person instead of rst-person construction. These agencies perform oversight activities in Afghanistan and provide results to SIGAR: • Department of Defense Ofce of Inspector General (DOD OIG) • Department of State Ofce of Inspector General (State OIG) • Government Accountability Ofce (GAO) • U.S. Army Audit Agency (USAAA) • U.S. Agency for International Development Ofce of Inspector General (USAID OIG) COMPLETED OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES Table 4.1 on the following page lists the six oversight reports related to Afghanistan reconstruction that participating agencies completed this quarter. U.S. Department of Defense Ofce of Inspector General During this quarter, DOD OIG released one report related to Afghanistan reconstruction. 187 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

198 OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT TABLE 4.1 RECENTLY COMPLETED OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES OF OTHER U.S. AGENCIES, AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Agency Report Number Date Issued Report Title DOD Management of the Enhanced Army Global Logistics Enterprise Maintenance Contract DODIG-2018-139 7/23/2018 DOD OIG in Afghanistan GAO Foreign Assistance: Better Guidance for Strategy Development Could Help Agencies Align Their Efforts 7/12/2018 GAO-18-499 Improvised Threats: Warghter Support Maintained, but Clearer Responsibilities and Improved 7/24/2018 GAO-18-509 GAO Information Sharing Needed GAO GAO-18-662SU 9/20/2018 Afghan Defense and Security Forces’ Equipment and Capability GAO-18-573C GAO U.S. Advising Efforts in Afghanistan 9/26/2018 USAAA A-2018-0075-IEX 7/30/2018 Overtime Pay and Entitlements for Deployed Civilians Source: DOD OIG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; State OIG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; GAO, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; USAID OIG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; USAAA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. DOD Management of the Enhanced Army Global Logistics Enterprise Maintenance Contract in Afghanistan DOD OIG determined that Army Contracting Command-Afghanistan did not monitor contractor performance of certain critical requirements or monitor contractor costs to ensure that vehicles and weapons were maintained in accordance with contract requirements. As a result, the Army does not have reasonable assurance that the Enhanced Army Global Logistics Enterprise– Afghanistan contractor complied with certain critical requirements of the contract. Without engaging with customers, the contracting ofcer representatives were unable to identify customer dissatisfaction with contractor mainte- nance turnaround time. In addition, without consistent contractor oversight, the administrative contracting ofcer could not provide the procuring contracting ofcer with sufcient evidence to accurately rate the contractor’s performance and potentially assess any reductions of the fee payable to the contractor for noncompliance with contract requirements. Furthermore, the Army does not have reasonable assurance that costs billed, valued at $77.8 million, were allowable in accordance with the terms of the contract. U.S. Department of State Ofce of Inspector General-Middle East Regional Operations State OIG completed no audits related to Afghanistan reconstruction this quarter. Government Accountability Ofce During this quarter, GAO released four reports related to Afghanistan reconstruction. 188 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

199 OVERSIGHT OTHER AGENCY Foreign Assistance: Better Guidance for Strategy Development Could Help Agencies Align Their Efforts Many foreign assistance strategies related to health, security, and democ- racy assistance that GAO reviewed at least partially addressed key elements GAO identied that help ensure the strategies are aligned. Prior work has found that consistently addressing these elements, related to interagency coordination, strategic integration, and assessment of progress, is important for, among other things, better managing fragmentation in strategic plan- ning. However, some strategies did not address these elements: • Interagency coordination: Twenty-three percent of the strategies (12 of 52) did not address agencies’ roles and responsibilities, and 38% (20 of 52) did not identify specic interagency coordination mechanisms. Twenty-one percent of the strategies (11 of 52) Strategic integration: • did not address linkages with other related strategies, and 25% (13 of 52) did not address linkages with higher- or lower-level strategies. • Twenty-one Assessment of progress toward strategic goals: percent of the strategies (11 of 52) did not include milestones and performance indicators, and 21% (11 of 52) did not outline plans for monitoring and evaluation. The six agencies implementing most U.S. foreign assistance do not have consistent guidance for strategy development that could help ensure their strategies address these key elements. Some agencies’ guidance addresses many of the elements but does not apply to all of their foreign assistance strategies, while other agencies have no such guidance. The Department of State (State) plays a signicant role in interagency coordination. By col- laborating with other agencies to establish guidance that addresses the key elements GAO identied, State could help the agencies improve their ability to align future strategies and identify and manage fragmentation in foreign assistance planning. GAO recommends that State lead an effort to establish, in collaboration with the ve other agencies, guidance for developing foreign assistance strategies that addresses the key elements GAO identied related to inter - agency coordination, strategic integration, and assessment of progress. State concurred with GAO’s recommendation. Improvised Threats: Warghter Support Maintained, but Clearer Responsibilities and Improved Information Sharing Needed The Department of Defense (DOD) established the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization in 2006 to lead and coordinate the department’s counter-improvised explosive device (IED) efforts. In response to a congressional mandate, DOD renamed this entity the Joint 189 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

200 OVERSIGHT OTHER AGENCY Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization (JIDO) and placed it under the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) in 2016. Since that point, JIDO has transferred personnel and pay systems, funding, and staff functions to DTRA, and identied additional, longer-term transition activities that will take several years to complete, such as workforce colocation. Plans for these transition activities reect all nine key practices GAO identied for implementing mergers and organizational transformations, such as setting goals and timelines. JIDO also identied efciencies achieved through the transition in areas such as research and training. JIDO maintained warghter support during its transition under DTRA. Ofcials from across DOD stated that they were satised with JIDO’s level of support during the transition and that JIDO continued to pro- vide a range of warghter support such as personnel and rapidly elded materiel. However, GAO identied two challenges to JIDO’s efciency and effectiveness: (1) Unclear responsibilities: DOD has not claried which categories of threats JIDO is responsible for countering and what authorities JIDO has for countering them. According to DTRA and JIDO ofcials, clarifying these issues would help JIDO plan, program, and coordinate its responsibilities. (2) Incomplete information sharing: JIDO lacks processes to ensure it routinely obtains permission to share research project information and submits it to DOD’s designated information sharing repository, as required. As a result, information on less than one-third of JIDO’s research projects is included, according to DOD. This limits the ability of other research organi- zations to leverage JIDO’s expertise and increases the risk of redundant or fragmented research. GAO is making four recommendations including that DOD clarify the categories of threats JIDO is responsible for countering and JIDO’s corresponding authorities, as well as establish processes for obtaining per - mission to share research project information and submitting it to DOD’s information sharing repository. DOD concurred with all of the recommen- dations and cited actions it plans to take to address them. Afghan Defense & Security Forces’ Equipment and Capability This report discusses what has been reported about Afghan forces’ capa- bilities and capability gaps, DOD information on Afghan forces’ ability to operate and maintain U.S.-purchased equipment, and the extent to which DOD considers Afghan forces’ input and meets their needs in identifying equipment requirements. Advise and Assist Lessons Learned This classied report addressed the following questions: (1) What are current U.S. advising requirements and strategy in Afghanistan, and to what extent, if any, has this changed under the Resolute Support Mission? 190 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

201 OVERSIGHT OTHER AGENCY (2) What actions are the services taking to meet the additional advi- sor requirement for Afghanistan, and what challenges, if any, are they experiencing? U.S. Army Audit Agency During this quarter, the USAAA released one report related to Afghanistan reconstruction. Overtime Pay and Entitlements for Deployed Civilians USAAA audited overtime and foreign entitlements paid to deployed U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) civilians to verify overtime was effec- tively managed and downrange entitlements were accurately paid. During FY 2016, AMC paid about $48.4 million in overtime and foreign entitlements. The report is protectively marked as For Ofcial Use Only. U.S. Agency for International Development Ofce of the Inspector General USAID OIG completed no audits related to Afghanistan reconstruction this quarter. ONGOING OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES As of September 30, 2018, the participating agencies reported 18 ongoing oversight activities related to reconstruction in Afghanistan. The activities reported are listed on the following page in Table 4.2 on the next page and described in the following sections by agency. U.S. Department of Defense Ofce of Inspector General DOD OIG has ve ongoing projects this quarter that relate to reconstruction or security operations in Afghanistan. Audit of Army Oversight of National Afghan Trucking Services 3.0 Contract The DOD OIG is determining whether the Army provided oversight of the National Afghan Trucking Services 3.0 contract. Audit of the National Maintenance Strategy Contract in Afghanistan The DOD OIG is determining if the Army developed the National Maintenance Strategy-Ground Vehicle Systems contract requirements to meet user needs to maintain and sustain the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces’ vehicles. 191 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

202 OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT TABLE 4.2 ONGOING OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES OF OTHER U.S. AGENCIES, AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Title Date Initiated Agency Project Number Audit of Army Oversight of National Afghan Trucking Services 3.0 Contract 7/30/2018 DOD OIG D2018-D000JB-0187.000 D2018-D000RG-0170.000 DOD OIG Audit of the National Maintenance Strategy Contract in Afghanistan 6/25/2018 D2018-DISPA2-0112.000 DOD OIG Evaluation of Theater Linguist Support for Operation Freedom's Sentinel 5/3/2018 DOD OIG 4/30/2018 Audit of the Afghan Personnel and Pay System D2018-D000RJ-0135.000 D2017-D000PT-0186.000 9/6/2017 DOD OIG Military Facilities Evaluation Follow-Up Kandahar Air Field Afghanistan Audit of the Invoice Review Process for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) Contracts–Bureau of State OIG 17AUD09 9/25/2017 International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs State OIG 17AUD065 6/15/2017 Audit of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) Aviation Program 18AUD038 Audit of Embassy Kabul Physical Security Features State OIG 3/15/2018 Evaluation of Camp Eggers Guard Housing Contract Termination State OIG 18SEP044 12/20/2017 State OIG 18ISP031 3/10/2018 Inspection of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL) Audit of the Ofce of Overseas Buildings Operations Construction and Commissioning of Staff 18AUD066 9/20/2018 State OIG Diplomatic Apartments in Kabul, Afghanistan Lessons Learned from Audits of Contracting Ofcer Representative Responsibility for Overseeing 18AUD076 7/15/2018 State OIG Invoices for Overseas Contingency Operations Contracts State OIG TBD 9/31/2018 Audit of DOS Selection and Management of Contracting Ofcer's Representatives in Afghanistan DOD Vendor Vetting 8/15/2017 102266 GAO GAO 102793 6/18/2018 Afghanistan Security Forces Fund Afghan Defense and Security Forces GAO 103012 9/6/2018 USAID OIG FF1C0216 5/11/2016 Audit of USAID/Afghanistan's New Development Partnership Follow-Up Audit of USAID's Multi-Tiered Monitoring Strategy in Afghanistan USAID OIG 8F1C0217 8/9/2017 Source: DOD OIG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; State OIG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; GAO, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; USAID OIG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; USAAA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. Evaluation of Theater Linguist Support for Operation Freedom’s Sentinel The DOD OIG is determining if U.S. Central Command and U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command have developed and implemented pro- cesses for satisfying Commander U.S. Forces Afghanistan and Operation Freedom’s Sentinel contract linguist requirements. Audit of the Afghan Personnel and Pay System The DOD OIG originally announced this audit on April 30, 2018 and then reannounced the audit on May 21, 2018 with a new objective. The DOD OIG is determining whether DOD’s planning and implementation of the Afghan Personnel and Pay System will accurately pay and track Afghan forces. Military Facilities Evaluation Follow-Up Kandahar Air Field Afghanistan The DOD OIG is determining whether U.S. military-occupied facili- ties supporting Operation Freedom’s Sentinel comply with DOD health 192 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

203 OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT and safety policies and standards regarding electrical-distribution and re-protection systems. U.S. Department of State Ofce of Inspector General-Middle East Regional Operations State OIG has eight ongoing projects this quarter related to Afghanistan reconstruction. Audit of Embassy Kabul Physical Security Features The audit will examine Embassy Kabul physical security features. Inspection of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor This is an inspection of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Evaluation of Camp Eggers Guard Housing Contract Termination This is an evaluation of the Camp Eggers guard-housing contract termination. Audit of Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Invoice Review Process This is an audit of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs’ invoice review process for overseas contingency operations. Audit of Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Aviation Program This is an audit to determine whether the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs is administering its aviation program, includ- ing key internal controls (including those for inventory management, aviation asset usage, aircraft maintenance, and asset disposal), in accor - dance with federal requirements and department guidelines. Audit of the Ofce of Overseas Buildings Construction and Commissioning of Staff Diplomatic Apartments The is an audit of the Ofce of Overseas Buildings Operations construc- tion and commissioning of the Staff Diplomatic Apartment-2 and Staff Diplomatic Apartment-3 in Kabul, Afghanistan. Lessons Learned from Audits of Contracting Ofcer Representative Responsibility for Overseeing Invoices for Overseas Contingency Operations Contracts This is a review of lessons learned from audits of the role of contracting ofcer representatives in overseeing invoices for Overseas Contingency Operations contracts. 193 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

204 OVERSIGHT OTHER AGENCY Audit of DOS Selection and Management of Contracting Ofcer’s Representatives in Afghanistan This is an audit of the State Department selection and management process for contracting ofcer’s representatives in Afghanistan. Government Accountability Ofce GAO has three ongoing projects this quarter related to Afghanistan reconstruction. DOD Vendor Vetting As DOD increasingly relies on contractors to provide support for the activi- ties it conducts across the world, vetting vendors to preemptively identify those who support criminal, terrorist, or other sanctioned organizations is a key component to ensuring the security of U.S. forces and weapon sys- tems. Prior GAO work on operational contract support has highlighted the need for DOD to improve its efforts to vet vendors, including the need for DOD to develop comprehensive guidance about the standard of contractor screening that combatant commands should employ. GAO will review the extent to which DOD and its geographic combatant commands developed guidance on vendor vetting; the extent to which DOD and its geographic combatant commands established and are implementing vendor vetting processes, including information systems involved in vendor vetting; the extent to which DOD have internal controls in place to ensure that the information used to make determinations of vendor risk is com- plete, accurate, and timely, including appeals processes, if any, available to vendors; and attempt to identify what challenges, if any, DOD faces regard- ing vendor vetting. Afghanistan Security Forces Fund The Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) was created for DOD to provide assistance to the security forces of Afghanistan to include the provision of equipment, supplies, services, training, facility and infra- structure repair, renovation and construction, and funding. The Senate Appropriations Committee has expressed concerns about the costs of train- ing contracts awarded under ASFF, citing recent reports from both SIGAR and other auditing agencies that found deciencies that resulted in tens of millions of dollars potentially lost to fraud, waste, and abuse. GAO will review DOD’s Afghanistan Security Force Fund (ASFF) training contracts to include researchable questions on the budgets, funding sources and transactions for all ASFF training contracts during FYs 2017–2019 and the extent to which DOD has processes and procedures to ensure that ASFF training contracts’ pricing and costs are reasonable. 194 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

205 OTHER AGENCY OVERSIGHT Afghan Defense And Security Forces Since 2002, the United States, with assistance from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and other coalition nations, has worked to train, equip, and develop the capability of the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF). In January 2015, ANDSF formally assumed security responsibilities for all of Afghanistan. The United States continues to train and equip ANDSF to develop a force that can protect the Afghan people and contribute to regional and international security. A House report associated with the FY 2017 National Defense Authorization Act cited concerns about the security situation in Afghanistan and included a provision for GAO to review U.S. assistance to ANDSF, including weapons and equipment and the ANDSF’s capacity to operate and maintain such items. GAO will review what is known about ANDSF’s capacity to oper - ate and maintain U.S.-purchased equipment, and identify any ANDSF capability gaps. U.S. Army Audit Agency This quarter the USAAA has no ongoing audits related to Afghanistan reconstruction. U.S. Agency for International Development Ofce of Inspector General This quarter USAID OIG has two ongoing audits related to reconstruction initiatives. Follow-Up Audit of USAID’s Multi-Tiered Monitoring Strategy in Afghanistan The objectives of this audit are to determine the extent to which USAID has used its multi-tiered monitoring strategy in Afghanistan to manage projects and to serve as the basis for informed decision making. The entrance con- ference was held August 9, 2017. Audit of USAID/Afghanistan’s New Development Partnership The objectives of this audit are to determine if USAID/Afghanistan has adopted internal policies and procedures to adequately verify the achieve- ment of New Development Partnership (NDP) indicators contained in the July 25, 2015, NDP results framework; and if USAID/Afghanistan has ade- quately veried the achievement of completed indicators under the NDP for any payments made to date. 195 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

206 APPENDICES AND ENDNOTES CONTENTS Appendix A 198 Appendix B 202 204 Appendix C Appendix D 209 Appendix E 215 Appendix F 219 Appendix G 230 Appendix H 231 238 Endnotes The Ofcial Seal of SIGAR The ofcial seal of SIGAR represents the coordination of efforts between the United States and Afghanistan to provide accountability and oversight of reconstruction activities. The phrases in Dari (top) and Pashto (bottom) on the seal are translations of SIGAR’s name.

207 APPENDICES AND ENDNOTES 197

208 APPENDICES APPENDIX A CROSS-REFERENCE OF REPORT TO STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS This appendix cross-references the pages of this report to the quarterly reporting and related requirements under SIGAR’s enabling legislation, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-181, § 1229 (Table A.1), and the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, Pub. L. No. 115-91, §1521. (Table A.2) TABLE A.1 CROSS-REFERENCE TO SIGAR QUARTERLY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS UNDER PUB. L. NO. 110-181, § 1229 Public Law Section SIGAR Enabling Language SIGAR Action Report Section Purpose Section 1229(a)(3) To provide for an independent and objective means of keeping Full report Ongoing; quarterly report the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense fully and currently informed about problems and deciencies relating to the administration of such programs and operations and the necessity for progress on corrective action. Supervision Section 1229(e)(1) The Inspector General shall report directly Full report Report to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense to, and be under the general supervision of, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense. Duties Section 1229(f)(1) Full report OVERSIGHT OF AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION — Review appropriated/ available funds It shall be the duty of the Inspector General to conduct, supervise, and coordinate audits and investigations of the treatment, handling, and expenditure of amounts appropriated or otherwise made avail- Review programs, operations, able for the reconstruction of Afghanistan, and of the programs, contracts using appropriated/ operations, and contracts carried out utilizing such funds, including available funds subsections (A) through (G) below. SIGAR Oversight Review obligations and The oversight and accounting of the obligation and expenditure of Section 1229(f)(1)(A) such funds expenditures of appropriated/ Funding available funds SIGAR Oversight Section 1229(f)(1)(B) The monitoring and review of reconstruction activities funded by Review reconstruction activities such funds funded by appropriations and donations Section 1229(f)(1)(C) The monitoring and review of contracts funded by such funds Review contracts using appro- Note 1 priated and available funds Review internal and external Appendix B Section 1229(f)(1)(D) The monitoring and review of the transfer of such funds and associ- transfers of appropriated/avail- ated information between and among departments, agencies, and able funds entities of the United States, and private and nongovernmental entities. Continued on the next page 198 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

209 APPENDICES TABLE A.1 (CONTINUED) CROSS-REFERENCE TO SIGAR QUARTERLY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS UNDER PUB. L. NO. 110-181, § 1229 Public Law Section SIGAR Enabling Language SIGAR Action Report Section The maintenance of records on the use of such funds to facilitate Section 1229(f)(1)(E) Maintain audit records SIGAR Oversight Appendix C future audits and investigations of the use of such fund[s] Appendix D Section 1229(f)(1)(F) The monitoring and review of the effectiveness of United States Audits Monitoring and review as described coordination with the Governments of Afghanistan and other donor countries in the implementation of the Afghanistan Compact and the Afghanistan National Development Strategy Section 1229(f)(1)(G) The investigation of overpayments such as duplicate payments Conduct and reporting of inves- Investigations or duplicate billing and any potential unethical or illegal actions tigations as described of Federal employees, contractors, or afliated entities, and the referral of such reports, as necessary, to the Department of Justice to ensure further investigations, prosecutions, recovery of further funds, or other remedies Establish, maintain, and OTHER DUTIES RELATED TO OVERSIGHT — Full report Section 1229(f)(2) oversee systems, procedures, The Inspector General shall establish, maintain, and oversee such and controls systems, procedures, and controls as the Inspector General consid- ers appropriate to discharge the duties under paragraph (1). Duties as specied in Inspector Full report DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES UNDER INSPECTOR GENERAL ACT Section 1229(f)(3) General Act OF 1978 — In addition, ... the Inspector General shall also have the duties and responsibilities of inspectors general under the Inspector General Act of 1978. Section 1229(f)(4) Coordination with the Other Agency COORDINATION OF EFFORTS — Oversight The Inspector General shall coordinate with, and receive the inspectors general of cooperation of, each of the following: (A) the Inspector General DOD, DOS, and USAID of the Department of Defense, (B) the Inspector General of the Department of State, and (C) the Inspector General of the United States Agency for International Development. Federal Support and Other Resources Section 1229(h)(5)(A) ASSISTANCE FROM FEDERAL AGENCIES — Full report Expect support as requested Upon request of the Inspector General for information or assis- tance from any department, agency, or other entity of the Federal Government, the head of such entity shall, insofar as is practi- cable and not in contravention of any existing law, furnish such information or assistance to the Inspector General, or an authorized designee. None reported N/A Section 1229(h)(5)(B) REPORTING OF REFUSED ASSISTANCE — Whenever information or assistance requested by the Inspector General is, in the judgment of the Inspector General, unreasonably refused or not provided, the Inspector General shall report the cir- cumstances to the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Defense, as appropriate, and to the appropriate congressional committees without delay. Continued on the next page 199 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

210 APPENDICES TABLE A.1 (CONTINUED) CROSS-REFERENCE TO SIGAR QUARTERLY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS UNDER PUB. L. NO. 110-181, § 1229 SIGAR Enabling Language Report Section Public Law Section SIGAR Action Reports QUARTERLY REPORTS — Report – 30 days after the Section 1229(i)(1) Full report end of each calendar quarter Not later than 30 days after the end of each scal-year quarter, Appendix B the Inspector General shall submit to the appropriate commit- Summarize activities of the tees of Congress a report summarizing, for the period of that Inspector General quarter and, to the extent possible, the period from the end of such quarter to the time of the submission of the report, the Detailed statement of all activities during such period of the Inspector General and the obligations, expenditures, and activities under programs and operations funded with amounts revenues appropriated or otherwise made available for the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Each report shall include, for the period covered by such report, a detailed statement of all obligations, expenditures, and revenues associated with reconstruction and rehabilitation activities in Afghanistan, including the following – Section 1229(i)(1)(A) Obligations and expenditures of appropriated/donated funds Obligations and expenditures Appendix B of appropriated/donated funds A project-by-project and program-by-program accounting of the Funding Project-by-project and Section 1229(i)(1)(B) costs incurred to date for the reconstruction of Afghanistan, program-by-program account- Note 1 together with the estimate of the Department of Defense, ing of costs. List unexpended the Department of State, and the United States Agency for funds for each project or program International Development, as applicable, of the costs to com- plete each project and each program Funding Revenues, obligations, and Section 1229(i)(1)(C) Revenues attributable to or consisting of funds provided by expenditures of donor funds foreign nations or international organizations to programs and projects funded by any department or agency of the United States Government, and any obligations or expenditures of such revenues Revenues attributable to or consisting of foreign assets seized or Revenues, obligations, and Funding Section 1229(i)(1)(D) frozen that contribute to programs and projects funded by any expenditures of funds from seized or frozen assets U.S. government department or agency, and any obligations or expenditures of such revenues Funding Section 1229(i)(1)(E) Operating expenses of agencies or entities receiving amounts Operating expenses of agencies or any organization appropriated or otherwise made available for the reconstruction Appendix B of Afghanistan receiving appropriated funds In the case of any contract, grant, agreement, or other funding Section 1229(i)(1)(F) Describe contract details Note 1 mechanism described in paragraph (2)*— (i) The amount of the contract or other funding mechanism; (ii) A brief discussion of the scope of the contract or other funding mechanism; (iii) A discussion of how the department or agency of the United States Government involved in the contract, grant, agreement, or other funding mechanism identied and solicited offers from potential contractors to perform the contract, grant, agreement, or other funding mechanism, together with a list of the potential indi- viduals or entities that were issued solicitations for the offers; and (iv) The justication and approval documents on which was based the determination to use procedures other than procedures that provide for full and open competition Continued on the next page 200 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

211 APPENDICES TABLE A.1 (CONTINUED) CROSS-REFERENCE TO SIGAR QUARTERLY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS UNDER PUB. L. NO. 110-181, § 1229 Public Law Section SIGAR Enabling Language SIGAR Action Report Section Section 1229(i)(3) PUBLIC AVAILABILITY — Full report Publish report as directed at www.sigar.mil The Inspector General shall publish on a publicly available Internet website each report under paragraph (1) of this subsec- Dari and Pashto translation tion in English and other languages that the Inspector General in process determines are widely used and understood in Afghanistan. FORM — Section 1229(i)(4) Full report Publish report as directed Each report required under this subsection shall be submitted in unclassied form, but may include a classied annex if the Inspector General considers it necessary. Section 1229(j)(1) Inspector General shall also submit each report required under Full report Submit quarterly report subsection (i) to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense. Note 1: Although this data is normally made available on SIGAR’s website (www.sigar.mil), the data SIGAR has received is in relatively raw form and is currently being reviewed, ana- lyzed, and organized for future SIGAR use and publication. * Covered “contracts, grants, agreements, and funding mechanisms” are dened in paragraph (2) of Section 1229(i) of Pub. L. No. 110-181 as being— “any major contract, grant, agreement, or other funding mechanism that is entered into by any department or agency of the United States Government that involves the use of amounts appropriated or otherwise made available for the reconstruction of Afghanistan with any public or private sector entity for any of the following purposes: To build or rebuild physical infrastructure of Afghanistan. To establish or reestablish a political or societal institution of Afghanistan. To provide products or services to the people of Afghanistan.” TABLE A.2 CROSS-REFERENCE TO SIGAR QUARTERLY REPORTING REQUIREMENTS UNDER PUB. L. NO. 115-91, §1521 SIGAR Action Report Section NDAA Language Public Law Section Section 1 Section 1521(e)(1) (1) QUALITY STANDARDS FOR IG PRODUCTS.—Except as Prepare quarterly report in accor- dance with the Quality Standards for Reconstruction Update provided in paragraph (3), each product published or issued by an Inspector General relating to the oversight of programs Funding Inspection and Evaluation, issued by the Council of the Inspectors General and activities funded under the Afghanistan Security Forces on Integrity and Efciency (CIGIE), Fund shall be prepared— (A) in accordance with the Generally Accepted Government commonly referred to as the “CIGIE Blue Book,” for activities funded under Auditing Standards/Government Auditing Standards the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund. (GAGAS/GAS), as issued and updated by the Government Accountability Ofce; or (B) if not prepared in accordance with the standards referred to in subparagraph (A), in accordance with the Quality Standards for Inspection and Evaluation issued by the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efciency (commonly referred to as the ‘‘CIGIE Blue Book’’). Inside front cover Cite within the quarterly report the (2) SPECIFICATION OF QUALITY STANDARDS FOLLOWED.— Section 1521(e)(2) quality standards followed in conduct- Each product published or issued by an Inspector General Appendix A relating to the oversight of programs and activities funded ing and reporting the work concerned. under the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund shall cite within The required quality standards are such product the quality standards followed in conducting quality control, planning, data collec- and reporting the work concerned. tion and analysis, evidence, records maintenance, reporting, and follow-up. 201 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

212 APPENDICES APPENDIX B U.S. FUNDS FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION Table B.1 lists funds appropriated for Afghanistan reconstruction by agency and fund per year, and Table B.2 lists funds appropriated for counternarcotics initiatives, as of September 30, 2018. TABLE B.2 TABLE B.1 ($ MILLIONS) COUNTERNARCOTICS ($ MILLIONS) APPROPRIATIONS BY AGENCY AND FUND Cumulative Cumulative a FY 2009 FY 2013 FY 2012 FY 2011 FY 2010 FY 2016 FY 2008 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2019 FY 2015 FY 2014 FY 2002–07 Fund Since FY 2002 Agency Since FY 2002 Fund Security $1,311.92 ASFF 4,666.82 4,920.00 10,619.28 9,166.77 4,946.20 3,939.33 3,962.34 3,502.26 4,162.72 Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) DOD $77,752.18 $10,309.53 2,750.00 5,606.94 9,200.00 DOD CN 3,254.00 440.00 440.00 DOD Train & Equip (DOD) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ESF 1,444.84 0.00 1,059.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 State 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Foreign Military Financing (FMF) 1,059.14 0.00 DA 77.72 1.40 1.66 4.35 18.33 State International Military Education and Training (IMET) 0.80 0.80 0.86 1.05 1.50 1.42 1.18 1.56 1.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Voluntary Peacekeeping (PKO) State 69.33 69.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 INCLE 2,325.87 a 0.00 0.00 0.00 Afghanistan Freedom Support Act (AFSA) DOD 550.00 550.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 463.65 DEA 3,254.00 472.99 379.83 230.06 192.81 695.36 DOD Drug Interdiction & Counter-Drug Activities (DOD CN) 392.27 121.54 135.61 138.76 0.00 238.96 255.81 Total $8,878.00 4,920.00 4,789.16 4,299.12 3,641.88 3,940.38 4,202.80 5,203.44 9,674.16 11,000.67 9,560.80 5,838.40 2,944.47 Total - Security 83,142.98 13,127.71 Table B.2 Note: Numbers have been rounded. Governance & Development Counternarcotics funds cross-cut both the Security and Governance & Development spending categories; these 488.33 1,000.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 10.00 30.00 550.67 400.00 400.00 200.00 10.00 600.00 3,704.00 DOD Commander's Emergency Response Program (CERP) funds are also captured in those categories in Table B.1. 0.00 0.00 0.00 144.00 145.50 0.00 0.00 299.00 Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) DOD 988.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 400.00 Figures represent cumulative amounts committed to counternarcotics initiatives in Afghanistan since 2002. 822.85 DOD Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) 0.00 3.72 122.24 0.00 138.20 245.76 239.24 59.26 14.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 Intitatives include eradication, interdiction, support to Afghanistan’s Special Mission Wing (SMW), counternarcotics- 2,168.51 650.00 633.27 831.90 907.00 1,802.65 1,836.76 500.00 3,346.00 2,077.48 1,399.51 4,229.19 20,382.27 USAID Economic Support Fund (ESF) related capacity building, and alternative agricultural 0.00 0.00 0.30 0.40 149.43 735.07 886.50 USAID Development Assistance (DA) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.95 0.00 0.35 development efforts. ESF, DA, and INCLE gures show the cumulative amounts committed for counternarcotics 0.25 270.82 63.04 58.73 92.30 69.91 0.00 USAID 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 Child Survival & Health (CSH + GHAI) 555.13 intiatives from those funds. SIGAR excluded ASFF funding 34.95 4.22 USAID Commodity Credit Corp (CCC) 1.52 1.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.38 3.09 4.22 10.77 8.80 for the SMW after FY 2013 from this analysis due to the decreasing number of counterternarcotics missions 21.96 2.91 0.80 0.29 USAID (other) USAID 53.73 5.50 0.82 2.81 3.45 6.25 7.10 1.84 0.00 conducted by the SMW. a DEA receives funding from State’s Diplomatic & Consular 29.72 37.00 Non-Proliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining & Related (NADR) State 804.54 258.69 59.92 70.74 69.30 65.32 52.60 43.20 43.50 37.96 36.60 Programs account in addition to DEA’s direct line appropria- 0.00 0.00 Provincial Reconstruction Team Advisors USDA 5.70 0.00 0.00 5.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 tion listed in Appendix B. Treasury 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.65 0.00 0.00 Treasury Technical Assistance 0.20 3.23 0.75 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 Table B.2 Source: SIGAR analysis of counternarcotics 400.00 International Narcotics Control & Law Enforcement (INCLE) State 5,220.86 1,473.67 307.56 493.90 589.00 160.00 357.92 593.81 225.00 250.00 210.00 160.00 funding, 10/21/2018; State, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018; DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 11.11 11.03 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) DOJ 254.23 67.97 40.59 18.88 19.20 18.70 18.70 17.00 18.70 9.05 3.31 10/8/2018 and 3/8/2016; USAID, response to SIGAR 3,673.99 Total - Governance & Development 33,717.91 7,652.95 2,511.66 3,287.62 5,184.47 10.00 3,331.93 2,952.39 1,490.96 1,149.99 892.44 865.28 714.23 data call, 10/16/2018; DEA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. Humanitarian 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 5.00 USDA Pub. L. No. 480 Title I Program Table B.1 Note: Numbers have been rounded. DOD reprogrammed $1 billion from FY 2011 ASFF, $1 billion from 53.73 154.73 436.65 1,095.68 USAID Pub. L. No. 480 Title II Programs 26.65 4.22 4.69 65.97 46.15 59.20 112.55 58.13 73.01 FY 2012 ASFF, and $178 million from FY 2013 ASFF to fund 119.64 93.84 Disaster Assistance (IDA) USAID 821.48 298.30 16.84 27.13 39.78 66.23 56.00 21.50 28.13 24.50 29.61 other DOD OCO requirements. DOD reprogrammed $230 million into FY 2015 ASFF. ASFF data reects the following 0.00 0.04 0.49 0.83 0.00 Transition Initiatives (TI) USAID 37.54 32.58 0.00 0.75 0.84 1.08 0.62 0.32 rescissions: $1 billion from FY 2012 in Pub. L. No. 113-6, $764.38 million from FY 2014 in Pub. L. No. 113-235, $400 76.79 84.27 Migration & Refugee Assistance (MRA) State 1,260.33 408.80 44.25 81.15 80.93 65.00 99.56 76.07 107.89 129.27 6.35 million from FY 2015 in Pub. L. No. 114-113, and $150 0.00 0.00 Emergency Refugee & Migration Assistance (ERMA) State 25.20 25.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 million from FY 2016 in Pub. L. No. 115-31. DOD transferred $101 million from FY 2011 AIF, $179.5 million from FY 2013 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.09 20.55 76.85 Food for Progress USDA 109.49 AIF, and $55 million from FY 2014 AIF to the ESF to fund 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 416(b) Food Aid USDA 95.18 95.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 infrastructure projects implemented by USAID. a FY 2018 gure reects amount made available for obligation 0.00 0.00 Food for Education USDA 50.49 50.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 under continuing resolutions. USDA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Emerson Trust 0.00 22.40 0.00 22.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Table B.1 Source: DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 169.51 0.00 130.21 179.68 Total - Humanitarian 3,522.79 1,428.85 258.77 189.97 150.74 244.85 215.38 144.04 202.82 207.99 10/18/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/8/2018, 10/12/2017, 10/22/2012, 10/14/2009, and 10/1/2009; State, response Civilian Operations to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/5/2018, 1/10/2018, 55.74 55.65 62.37 68.60 62.65 14.30 25.20 34.40 37.20 59.00 58.70 2.50 536.30 Oversight 10/11/2017, 5/4/2016, 10/20/2015, 4/15/2015, 4/15/2014, 6/27/2013, 10/5/2012 and 6/27/2012; 905.10 64.83 11,148.54 879.33 435.51 1,065.86 1,761.70 Other 1,424.75 1,272.24 852.45 909.50 795.20 782.07 Treasury, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018; OMB, 837.80 978.10 120.47 942.30 1,796.10 915.10 857.57 1,330.94 Total - Civilian Operations 11,684.84 881.83 449.81 1,091.06 1,483.75 response to SIGAR data call, 1/31/2018, 4/16/2015, 7/14/2014, 7/19/2013 and 1/4/2013; USAID, response to 6,164.70 5,754.07 6,181.88 5,542.63 6,276.46 $23,091.35 $132,068.52 Total Funding 4,930.00 6,811.67 9,630.81 14,705.22 15,861.81 16,710.87 10,407.05 SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018, 10/15/2018, 10/15/2010, 1/15/2010, and 10/9/2009; DEA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018 and 7/7/2009; USDA, response to SIGAR data call, 4/2009; DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018; OSD Comptroller, 16-22 PA: Omnibus 2016 Prior Approval Request, 6/30/2016; Pub. L. Nos. 115-141, 115-31, 114-113, 202 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I 113-235, 113-76, 113-6, 112-74, 112-10, 111-212, 111-118.

213 APPENDICES APPROPRIATIONS BY AGENCY AND FUND ($ MILLIONS) Cumulative a FY 2014 FY 2008 FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2019 FY 2009 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2013 FY 2002–07 Agency Fund Since FY 2002 Security DOD $10,309.53 2,750.00 5,606.94 9,166.77 10,619.28 Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) 4,946.20 3,962.34 3,939.33 3,502.26 4,162.72 4,666.82 4,920.00 9,200.00 $77,752.18 0.00 440.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 440.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Train & Equip (DOD) DOD State 1,059.14 1,059.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Foreign Military Financing (FMF) 0.00 0.00 International Military Education and Training (IMET) 18.33 4.35 1.66 1.40 1.76 1.56 1.18 1.42 1.50 1.05 0.86 0.80 0.80 State 0.00 State 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 69.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Voluntary Peacekeeping (PKO) 69.33 DOD 550.00 550.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Afghanistan Freedom Support Act (AFSA) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Drug Interdiction & Counter-Drug Activities (DOD CN) 3,254.00 695.36 192.81 230.06 392.27 379.83 DOD 255.81 238.96 0.00 138.76 135.61 121.54 472.99 Total - Security 83,142.98 13,127.71 2,944.47 5,838.40 9,560.80 11,000.67 9,674.16 5,203.44 4,202.80 3,940.38 3,641.88 4,299.12 4,789.16 4,920.00 Governance & Development 10.00 550.67 1,000.00 400.00 400.00 488.33 30.00 10.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 200.00 Commander's Emergency Response Program (CERP) 3,704.00 600.00 DOD 145.50 DOD 0.00 0.00 0.00 299.00 400.00 0.00 144.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) 988.50 DOD 822.85 0.00 0.00 14.44 59.26 239.24 Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) 138.20 122.24 3.72 0.00 0.00 0.00 245.76 Economic Support Fund (ESF) 20,382.27 4,229.19 1,399.51 2,077.48 3,346.00 2,168.51 USAID 1,802.65 907.00 831.90 633.27 650.00 500.00 1,836.76 Development Assistance (DA) USAID 886.50 735.07 149.43 0.40 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 Child Survival & Health (CSH + GHAI) USAID 270.82 63.04 58.73 92.30 69.91 0.00 0.25 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 555.13 0.38 Commodity Credit Corp (CCC) 8.80 10.77 4.22 4.22 3.09 34.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.95 1.52 USAID USAID (other) USAID 53.73 5.50 21.96 2.81 3.45 6.25 7.10 1.84 0.80 0.82 2.91 0.29 0.00 65.32 Non-Proliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining & Related (NADR) State 258.69 29.72 59.92 70.74 69.30 804.54 52.60 43.20 43.50 37.96 37.00 36.60 USDA Provincial Reconstruction Team Advisors 0.00 5.70 0.00 0.00 5.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Treasury Technical Assistance Treasury 3.23 0.75 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.65 State 5,220.86 307.56 493.90 589.00 400.00 357.92 593.81 225.00 250.00 210.00 160.00 160.00 International Narcotics Control & Law Enforcement (INCLE) 1,473.67 254.23 18.70 40.59 18.88 19.20 18.70 18.70 17.00 DOJ 9.05 3.31 11.03 11.11 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) 67.97 1,149.99 33,717.91 3,287.62 5,184.47 3,673.99 3,331.93 2,952.39 1,490.96 2,511.66 892.44 865.28 714.23 10.00 Total - Governance & Development 7,652.95 Humanitarian 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 Pub. L. No. 480 Title I Program USDA 5.00 46.15 USAID 154.73 73.01 58.13 112.55 59.20 436.65 65.97 53.73 26.65 4.69 4.22 Pub. L. No. 480 Title II Programs 1,095.68 USAID 821.48 298.30 16.84 27.13 29.61 66.23 Disaster Assistance (IDA) 21.50 28.13 24.50 39.78 93.84 119.64 56.00 Transition Initiatives (TI) 37.54 32.58 0.00 0.75 0.84 1.08 USAID 0.32 0.83 0.49 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.62 Migration & Refugee Assistance (MRA) State 1,260.33 408.80 44.25 76.79 80.93 65.00 99.56 76.07 107.89 129.27 84.27 81.15 6.35 Emergency Refugee & Migration Assistance (ERMA) State 25.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 25.20 0.00 USDA 20.55 12.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 76.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Food for Progress 109.49 USDA 95.18 95.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 416(b) Food Aid 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Food for Education 50.49 50.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 USDA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Emerson Trust USDA 22.40 0.00 22.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 202.82 Total - Humanitarian 258.77 189.97 169.51 244.85 215.38 144.04 1,428.85 207.99 150.74 179.68 130.21 0.00 3,522.79 Civilian Operations 55.65 55.74 62.37 14.30 25.20 34.40 37.20 59.00 58.70 62.65 68.60 2.50 Oversight 536.30 Other 11,148.54 879.33 435.51 1,065.86 1,761.70 905.10 1,424.75 1,272.24 852.45 909.50 795.20 782.07 64.83 1,483.75 Total - Civilian Operations 881.83 449.81 1,091.06 1,796.10 942.30 11,684.84 1,330.94 915.10 978.10 857.57 837.80 120.47 5,754.07 6,181.88 5,542.63 4,930.00 6,276.46 6,811.67 Total Funding $132,068.52 $23,091.35 6,164.70 10,407.05 16,710.87 15,861.81 14,705.22 9,630.81 203 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

214 APPENDICES APPENDIX C SIGAR WRITTEN PRODUCTS* SIGAR Audits Completed Performance Audits SIGAR completed two performance audits during this reporting period. COMPLETED SIGAR PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Report Identier Report Title Date Issued Afghanistan National Defense and Security Forces: DOD Lacks Performance Data to Assess, Monitor, and Evaluate Advisors Assigned to 10/2018 SIGAR 19-03-AR the Ministries of Defense and Interior Promoting Gender Equity in National Priority Programs (Promote): USAID 9/2018 SIGAR 18-69-AR Needs to Assess This $216 Million Program’s Achievements and the Afghan Government’s Ability to Sustain Them New Performance Audits SIGAR initiated two performance audits during this reporting period. NEW SIGAR PERFORMANCE AUDITS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Identier Project Title Date Initiated 9/2018 SIGAR 131A U.S. Support for the American University of Afghanistan Anti-Corruption Strategy Update SIGAR 130A 8/2018 Ongoing Performance Audits SIGAR had 10 ongoing performance audits during this reporting period. ONGOING SIGAR PERFORMANCE AUDITS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Date Initiated Project Title Project Identier 7/2018 DABS Evaluation SIGAR 129NS U.S. Agency for International Development’s Power Transmission 7/2018 SIGAR 128A Expansion and Connectivity Project Department of Defense’s Efforts to Train and Equip the Afghan National 7/2018 SIGAR 127A Army with ScanEagle Unmanned Aerial Vehicles MOD/MOI Anti-Corruption Efforts SIGAR 126A 7/2018 7/2018 SIGAR 125A USAID Food Assistance 4/2018 Afghan Business Taxes Assessed on U.S. Government Contractors SIGAR 124A Department of State’s Efforts to Support and Transition Drug Treatment SIGAR 123A 11/2017 Programs in Afghanistan 3/2017 Afghan Air Force’s Ability to Operate and Maintain U.S.-Provided Aircraft SIGAR 120A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Local National Quality Assurance SIGAR 119A 3/2017 Program U.S. Government Efforts to Increase the Supply, Quantity, and 4/2016 SIGAR 115A Distribution of Electric Power from the Kajaki Dam * As provided in its authorizing statute, SIGAR may also report on products and events occurring after September 30, 2018, up to the publication date of this report. 204 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I

215 APPENDICES Completed Financial Audits SIGAR completed eight nancial audit reports during this reporting period. COMPLETED SIGAR FINANCIAL AUDIT REPORTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Report Title Report Identier Date Issued Department of the Air Force’s Construction of the Afghan Ministry of Defense SIGAR 19-01-FA 10/2018 Headquarters Support and Security Brigade Expansion: Audit of Costs Incurred by Gilbane Federal USAID’s Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations Project: Audit of 9/2018 SIGAR 18-75-FA Costs Incurred by ARD Inc. USAID’s Eastern Provinces Monitoring Under the Monitoring Support SIGAR 18-74-FA 9/2018 Project: Audit of Costs Incurred by the QED Group LLC Department of the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range SIGAR 18-73-FA Clearance Operation – Phase II, Effort 2: Audit of Costs Incurred by Janus 9/2018 Global Operations LLC Department of the Army’s Afghanistan-Wide Mine, Battle Area, and Range 9/2018 SIGAR 18-72-FA Clearance Operation – Phase II, Effort 1: Audit of Costs Incurred by Janus Global Operations LLC Department of the Air Force’s Construction of the Afghan Ministry of 9/2018 SIGAR 18-71-FA Defense Headquarters Facility: Audit of Costs Incurred by Gilbane Federal USAID’s Strengthening Political Entities and Civil Society Program: Audit of 9/2018 SIGAR 18-68-FA Costs Incurred by the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs USAID’s Afghanistan Engineering Support Program: Audit of Costs Incurred SIGAR 18-66-FA 8/2018 by Tetra Tech EM Inc. New Financial Audits SIGAR initiated ve new nancial audits during this reporting period. NEW SIGAR FINANCIAL AUDITS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Identier Project Title Date Initiated SIGAR-F-163 John Snow Inc. - Contraceptive Procurement 10/3/18 New York University - Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Social SIGAR-F-162 10/3/18 Effects in Community-Based Education SIGAR-F-161 KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation - Challenge Tuberculosis 10/3/18 Chemonics International Inc. - Regional Agriculture Development Program 10/3/18 SIGAR-F-160 - South (RADP-South) Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) - Power Transmission Expansion 10/3/18 SIGAR-F-159 and Connectivity (PTEC) Ongoing Financial Audits SIGAR had 34 nancial audits in progress during this reporting period. ONGOING SIGAR FINANCIAL AUDITS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Identier Project Title Date Initiated 6/2018 ITF Enhancing Human Security - Various Demining Projects SIGAR-F-158 SIGAR-F-157 6/2018 Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA) - Various Demining Projects International Rescue Committee - Supporting Livelihoods and Protection for Afghan Returnees, Internally Displaced People (IDPS) and Vulnerable SIGAR-F-156 6/2018 Host Communities Continued on the next page 205 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

216 APPENDICES (CONTINUED) ONGOING SIGAR FINANCIAL AUDITS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Title Date Initiated Project Identier Stanford Law School - Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) program operations and support services in SIGAR-F-155 6/2018 Kabul, Afghanistan. Science and Engineering Services LLC - Utility Helicopter Program Ofce SIGAR-F-154 6/2018 (UHPO) UH-60A Enhanced Phase Maintenance Inspection (PMI) Program Afghanistan Leidos Innovations Corporation (previously Lockheed Martin) - Non- Standard Rotary Wing Aircraft (NSRWA) Contractor Logistics Sustainment 6/2018 SIGAR-F-153 (CLS), Afghanistan Management Sciences for Health - Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems SIGAR-F-152 5/2018 (SPS) 5/2018 Michigan State University - Grain Research and Innovation (GRAIN) SIGAR-F-151 5/2018 SIGAR-F-150 Tetra Tech Inc. - Engineering Support Program AECOM International Development (AECOM) - Strengthening Watershed SIGAR-F-149 5/2018 and Irrigation Management (SWIM) Development Alternatives Inc. - Women in the Economy (WIE) SIGAR-F-148 5/2018 Aga Khan Foundation U.S.A. - Multi-Input Area Development Global 5/2018 SIGAR-F-147 Development Alliance (MIAD-GDA) Creative Associates International Inc. - Afghanistan Workforce Development 5/2018 SIGAR-F-146 Program (AWDP) 5/2018 FHI 360 - Initiative for Hygiene, Sanitation, and Nutrition (IHSAN) SIGAR-F-145 Development Alternatives Inc. - Assistance to Legislative Bodies of 5/2018 SIGAR-F-144 Afghanistan (ALBA) The Asia Foundation - Ministry of Women's Affairs Organizational SIGAR-F-143 5/2018 Restructuring and Empowerment (MORE) Bridge Contract to Provide and Coordinate Operational Support for INL’s SIGAR-F-142 1/2018 Afghan Civilian Advisor Support (ACAS), Camp Gibson and Camp Falcon on the INL Strip Mall in Afghanistan International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Program’s Operations and SIGAR-F-141 1/2018 Support Services in Kabul, Afghanistan, Non-Chief of Mission Afghanistan Ministry of Interior and Afghan National Police Mentoring, SIGAR-F-140 3/2018 Training, and Logistics Support Requirement SIGAR-F-139 Law Enforcement Professionals Program 3/2018 1/2018 SIGAR-F-138 Afghanistan University Support and Workforce Development Program Strong Hubs for Afghan Hope and Resilience (SHAHAR) 1/2018 SIGAR-F-137 SIGAR-F-136 1/2018 Regional Agriculture Development Program (RADP North) SIGAR-F-135 Strengthening Education in Afghanistan (SEA II) 1/2018 SIGAR-F-134 Women’s Leadership Development (WLD) 1/2018 SIGAR-F-133 Technical Assistance to Ministry of Public Works 1/2018 SIGAR-F-132 1/2018 Capacity Building and Change Management Program II (CBCMP-II) SIGAR-F-131 1/2018 Helping Mothers and Children Thrive (HEMAYAT) SIGAR-F-130 Implement INL CSSP and Modernize Justice 8/2017 SIGAR-F-129 Support to Mobile Security Teams 8/2017 SIGAR-F-126 Afghanistan Trade and Revenue Project (ATAR) 8/2017 8/2017 Sheberghan Gas Development Project SIGAR-F-123 Continued on the next page 206 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I

217 APPENDICES (CONTINUED) ONGOING SIGAR FINANCIAL AUDITS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Identier Project Title Date Initiated SIGAR-F-122 Afghanistan Agriculture Extension Project I (AAEP-II) 8/2017 Sheberghan Gas Generation (SGG) 8/2017 SIGAR-F-120 SIGAR Inspections Completed Inspections SIGAR completed two inspection reports during this reporting period. COMPLETED SIGAR INSPECTION REPORTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Product Identier Report Title Date Issued Afghan National Police Women’s Compound at the Ministry of Interior SIGAR 19-04-IP 10/2018 Headquarters: Construction Generally Met Requirements, but Use and Maintenance Remain Concerns Marshal Fahim National Defense University: Phase I Construction SIGAR 18-76-IP Generally Met Contract Requirements, but Non-Compliant Fire Doors and 9/2018 Inadequate Maintenance Place Building Occupants at Risk Ongoing Inspections SIGAR had 16 ongoing inspections during this reporting period. ONGOING SIGAR INSPECTIONS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Identier Project Title Date Initiated SIGAR-I-058 Inspection of the ANA NEI in Pul-e Khumri 10/2018 10/2018 SIGAR-I-057 Inspection of the ANA TAAC Air JAF I Demo/New Structure 10/2018 Inspection of the Women’s Compound at ANP RTC Herat SIGAR-I-056 10/2018 Inspection of the AIF Kajaki Dam Tunnel SIGAR-I-055 Inspection of the Women’s Compound at the Afghan National Police Regional SIGAR-I-054 4/2018 Training Center–Jalalabad SIGAR-I-053 Inspection of the Ghulam Khan Road 4/2018 Inspection of the North East Power System Project Phase 1: Transmission SIGAR-I-052 10/2017 Lines Between Arghandi and Pul-e Alam and Substation at Pul-e Alam Inspection of the Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity Project SIGAR-I-051 10/2017 Power Substations at Ghazni and Sayadabad Inspection of Construction and Utility Upgrades for the ANA Garrison at 9/2017 SIGAR-I-050 South Kabul International Airport Inspection of the Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity Project SIGAR-I-048 9/2017 Transmission Line Between Arghandi and Ghazni 2/2017 SIGAR-I-045b Inspection of the Marshal Fahim National Defense University – Phase 3 2/2017 Inspection of the Zarang Border Crossing Point SIGAR-I-044 SIGAR-I-043 Inspection of the Kang Border Patrol Company Headquarters 2/2017 SIGAR-I-042 Inspection of the Wardak Prison 2/2017 Inspection of Construction for the Afghan National Army’s Ground Forces SIGAR-I-034 8/2015 Command, Garrison Support Unit, and Army Support Command 7/2015 SIGAR-I-033a Inspection of Afghan National Army Camp Commando – Phase III 207 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

218 APPENDICES SIGAR Special Projects Completed Special Projects Reports SIGAR completed three special projects reports during this reporting period. COMPLETED SIGAR SPECIAL PROJECTS REPORTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Date Issued Project Title Project Identier State Department’s Good Performers Initiative: Status of Six Completed 10/2018 SIGAR 19-02-SP Projects in Takhar Province Bridges in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan: Six of Eight Bridges Constructed 9/2018 or Rehabilitated by DOD Remain in Generally Good, Usable Condition; SIGAR 18-70-SP Two Appeared to Have Structural Issues Needing Attention Schools in Parwan Province, Afghanistan: Observations from Site Visits at 8/2018 SIGAR 18-67-SP 14 Schools SIGAR Lessons Learned Program Ongoing Lessons Learned Projects SIGAR has four ongoing lessons-learned projects this reporting period. ONGOING SIGAR LESSONS LEARNED PROJECTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Project Title Date Initiated Project Identier Reintegration 8/2018 SIGAR LL-12 9/2018 U.S. Support for Elections SIGAR LL-11 Contracting SIGAR LL-10 8/2018 3/2018 U.S. and Coalition Responsibilities for Security Sector Assistance SIGAR LL-09 208 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I

219 APPENDICES APPENDIX D SIGAR INVESTIGATIONS AND HOTLINE SIGAR Investigations This quarter, SIGAR opened 11 new investigations and closed 14, bringing the total number of ongoing investigations to 177. Of the closed investiga- tions, most were closed due to lack of investigative merit or unfounded allegations, as shown in Figure D.1. Of the new investigations, most were related to theft, or procurement or contract fraud, as shown in Figure D.2. FIGURE D.1 FIGURE D.2 SIGAR'S CLOSED INVESTIGATIONS, JULY 1–SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 SIGAR NEW INVESTIGATIONS,  JULY 1 SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Lack of Investigative Merit 11 Total: Administrative Unfounded Allegations Theft Procurement/ 4 Contract Fraud 0 3 Civil/Criminal Declination Criminal Conviction – Money Administrative Laundering 5 8 7 6 2 3 0 1 4 2 1 Corruption/Bribery 14 Total: 1 Source: SIGAR Investigations Directorate, 10/5/2018. Source: SIGAR Investigations Directorate, 10/5/2018. 209 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

220 APPENDICES SIGAR Hotline The SIGAR Hotline received 73 complaints this quarter, as shown in Figure D.3. In addition to working on new complaints, the Investigations Directorate continued its work this quarter on complaints received prior to July 1, 2018. This quarter, the directorate processed 171 complaints, most of which are under review or were closed, as shown in Figure D.4. FIGURE D.4 FIGURE D.3 STATUS OF SIGAR HOTLINE COMPLAINTS: JULY 1–SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 SOURCE OF SIGAR HOTLINE COMPLAINTS, JULY 1–SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 73 Complaints Received 47 Total: 73 19 Complaints (Open) 75 Gen Info File (Closed) 1 Investigation (Open) 1 Investigation (Closed) Electronic 71 0 Referral (Open) 2 Referral (Closed) Suspension & Debarment (Closed) 0 60 40 30 20 10 80 70 50 0 171 Total: Walk-in Phone 1 1 Source: SIGAR Investigations Directorate, 10/4/2018. Source: SIGAR Investigations Directorate, 10/4/18. SIGAR SUSPENSIONS AND DEBARMENTS Table D.1 is a comprehensive list of nalized suspensions, debarments, and special entity designations relating to SIGAR’s work in Afghanistan as of September 30, 2018. SIGAR lists its suspensions, debarments and special . For the current status of entity designations for historical purposes only any individual or entity listed herein as previously suspended, debarred or listed as a special entity designation, please consult the System for Award Management, www.sam.gov. Entries with an asterisk indicate that the individual or entity was subject to two nal agency actions by an agency suspension and debarment ofcial, resulting in a suspension followed by nal debarment following the reso- lution of a criminal indictment or determination of non-responsibility by agency suspension and debarment ofcial. Final debarment was imposed following criminal conviction in U.S. Federal District Court and/or nal determination by agency suspension and debarment ofcial regarding term of debarment. 210 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I

221 APPENDICES TABLE D.1 SPECIAL ENTITY DESIGNATIONS, SUSPENSIONS, AND DEBARMENTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Special Entity Designations Arvin Kam Construction Company Noh-E Sa Mining Company Saadat, Vakil Noor Rahman Company Triangle Technologies Arvin Kam Group LLC d.b.a. “Arvin Kam Group Security,” Wasim, Abdul Wakil Noor Rahman Construction Company d.b.a. “Arvin Kam Group Foundation,” d.b.a. “Arvin Global Zaland, Yousef Nur Rahman Group, d.b.a. “NUCCL Construction Logistics Services Company” Company,” d.b.a. “RUCCL Rahman Umar Construction Zurmat Construction Company Ayub, Mohammad Company,” d.b.a. “Rahman Trading and General Logistics Zurmat Foundation Fruzi, Haji Khalil Company LLC” Zurmat General Trading Muhammad, Haji Amir Rahman, Nur, a.k.a. “Noor Rahman, a.k.a. “Noor Zurmat Group of Companies, d.b.a. “Zurmat LLC” Haji Dhost Mohammad Zurmat Construction Company Rahman Safa” Jan, Nurullah Zurmat Material Testing Laboratory Rhaman, Mohammad Khan, Haji Mohammad Almas Suspensions Elham, Yaser, a.k.a. “Najibullah Saadullah” Al-Watan Construction Company Autry, Cleo Brian Everest Faizy Logistics Services Chamberlain, William Todd Basirat Construction Firm Cook, Jeffrey Arthur Faizy Elham Brothers Ltd. Naqibullah, Nadeem Faizy, Rohullah Harper, Deric Tyron Rahman, Obaidur Walls, Barry Lee, Jr. Hekmat Shadman General Trading LLC Robinson, Franz Martin Hekmat Shadman Ltd., d.b.a. “Hikmat Shadman, Ltd.” International Contracting and Development Aaria Middle East Sobh, Adeeb Nagib, a.k.a. “Ali Sobh” Hikmat Shadman Construction and Supply Company Aaria Middle East Company LLC Stallion Construction and Engineering Group Hikmat Shadman Logistics Services Company, d.b.a. Aftech International Wazne Group Inc., d.b.a. “Wazne Wholesale” “Hikmat Shadman Commerce Construction and Aftech International Pvt. Ltd. Wazne, Ayman, a.k.a. “Ayman Ibrahim Wazne” Supply Company,” d.b.a. “Hikmat Shadman Commerce Albahar Logistics Green, George E. Construction Services” American Aaria Company LLC Tran, Anthony Don Saif Hikmat Construction Logistic Services and American Aaria LLC Vergez, Norbert Eugene Supply Co. Sharpway Logistics Bunch, Donald P. Shadman, Hikmatullah, a.k.a. “Hikmat Shadman,” United States California Logistics Company Kline, David A. a.k.a. “Haji Hikmatullah Shadman,” a.k.a. “Hikmatullah Brothers, Richard S. Saadulah” Rivera-Medina, Franklin Delano Debarments Farooqi, Hashmatullah McCabe, Elton Maurice Atal, Waheed Mihalczo, John Hamid Lais Construction Company Daud, Abdulilah Qasimi, Mohammed Indress Dehati, Abdul Majid Hamid Lais Group Fazli, Qais Radhi, Mohammad Khalid Lodin, Rohullah Farooqi Sa, Fazal Ahmed Hamdard, Mohammad Yousuf Bennett & Fouch Associates LLC Brandon, Gary Kunari, Haji Pir Mohammad Shin Gul Shaheen, a.k.a. “Sheen Gul Shaheen” Mushq, Muhammad Jaffar Espinoza-Loor, Pedro Alfredo K5 Global Mutallib, Abdul Ahmad, Noor Campbell, Neil Patrick* Nasrat, Sami Noor Ahmad Yousufzai Construction Company Navarro, Wesley Ayeni, Sheryl Adenike National General Construction Company Hazrati, Arash Cannon, Justin Passerly, Ahmaad Saleem Mideld International Rabi, Fazal Moore, Robert G. Constantino, April Anne Rahman, Atta Noori, Noor Alam, a.k.a. “Noor Alam" Constantino, Dee Northern Reconstruction Organization Rahman, Fazal Constantino, Ramil Palmes Crilly, Braam Roshandil, Mohammad Ajmal Shamal Pamir Building and Road Construction Company Wade, Desi D. Drotleff, Christopher Saber, Mohammed Fil-Tech Engineering and Construction Company Sa, Azizur Rahman Blue Planet Logistics Services Mahmodi, Padres Handa, Sdiharth Sa, Matiullah Sahak, Sher Khan Mahmodi, Shikab Jabak, Imad Saber, Mohammed Jamally, Rohullah Shaheed, Murad Khalid, Mohammad Watson, Brian Erik Shirzad, Daulet Khan Khan, Daro Abbasi, Shahpoor Uddin, Mehrab Mariano, April Anne Perez Watson, Brian Erik Amiri, Waheedullah * Indicate that the individual or entity was subject to two nal agency actions by an agency suspension and debarment ofcial, resulting in a suspension followed by nal debarment following the resolution of a criminal indictment or determination of non-responsibility by agency suspension and debarment ofcial. 211 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

222 APPENDICES TABLE D.1 (CONTINUED) (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTITY DESIGNATIONS, SUSPENSIONS, AND DEBARMENTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 Debarments (continued) Wooten, Philip Steven* Wazir, Khan Hightower, Jonathan Akbar, Ali Khan, Noor Zali, a.k.a. “Wali Kahn Noor” Espinoza, Mauricio* Crystal Construction Company, d.b.a. “Samitullah Road Saheed, a.k.a. “Mr. Saheed;” a.k.a. “Sahill;” a.k.a. Alam, Ahmed Farzad* Greenlight General Trading* Construction Company” “Ghazi-Rahman” Aaria Middle East Company LLC* Weaver, Christopher Samitullah (Individual uses only one name) Aaria Middle East Company Ltd. – Herat* Ashna, Mohammad Ibrahim, a.k.a. “Ibrahim” Al Kaheel Oasis Services Aaria M.E. General Trading LLC* Al Kaheel Technical Service Gurvinder, Singh Aaria Middle East* CLC Construction Company Jahan, Shah Barakzai, Nangialai* Shahim, Zakirullah a.k.a. “Zakrullah Shahim”, a.k.a. CLC Consulting LLC Formid Supply and Services* Complete Manpower Solutions “Zikrullah Shahim” Aaria Supply Services and Consultancy* Mohammed, Masiuddin, a.k.a. “Masi Mohammed” Alyas, Maiwand Ansunullah a.k.a. “Engineer Maiwand Alyas” Kabul Hackle Logistics Company* Rhoden, Bradley L., a.k.a. “Brad L. Rhoden” BMCSC Yousef, Najeebullah* Rhoden, Lorraine Serena Maiwand Haqmal Construction and Supply Company Aaria Group* Royal Super Jet General Trading LLC New Riders Construction Company, d.b.a. “Riders Aaria Group Construction Company* Super Jet Construction Company Construction Company,” d.b.a. “New Riders Construction and Aaria Supplies Company Ltd.* Super Jet Fuel Services Services Company” Rahimi, Mohammad Edris* Super Jet Group Riders Constructions, Services, Logistics and Transportation All Points International Distributors Inc.* Super Jet Tours LLC, d.b.a. “Super Jet Travel and Holidays LLC” Company Hercules Global Logistics* Super Solutions LLC Riders Group of Companies Schroeder, Robert* Abdullah, Bilal Domineck, Lavette Kaye* Helmand Twinkle Construction Company Farmer, Robert Scott Markwith, James* Waziri, Heward Omar Mudiyanselage, Oliver Martinez, Rene Zadran, Mohammad Kelly, Albert, III Maroof, Abdul Afghan Mercury Construction Company, d.b.a. “Afghan Ethridge, James Qara, Yousef Fernridge Strategic Partners Mercury Construction & Logistics Company” Royal Palace Construction Company AISC LLC* Mirzali Naseeb Construction Company Bradshaw, Christopher Chase American International Security Corporation* Montes, Diyana Zuhra Productions David A. Young Construction & Renovation Inc.* Naseeb, Mirzali Zuhra, Niazai Force Direct Solutions LLC* Robinson, Franz Martin Boulware, Candice a.k.a. “Candice Joy Dawkins” Harris, Christopher* Smith, Nancy Dawkins, John Hernando County Holdings LLC* Sultani, Abdul Anas a.k.a. “Abdul Anas” Mesopotamia Group LLC Hide-A-Wreck LLC* Faqiri, Shir Nordloh, Geoffrey Panthers LLC* Hosmat, Haji Kieffer, Jerry Paper Mill Village Inc.* Jim Black Construction Company Johnson, Angela Shroud Line LLC* Arya Ariana Aryayee Logistics, d.b.a. “AAA Logistics,” d.b.a. CNH Development Company LLC Spada, Carol* “Somo Logistics” Johnson, Keith Welventure LLC* Garst, Donald Military Logistic Support LLC World Wide Trainers LLC* Mukhtar, Abdul a.k.a. “Abdul Kubar” Eisner, John Young, David Andrew* Noori Mahgir Construction Company Taurus Holdings LLC Woodruff and Company Noori, Sherin Agha Brophy, Kenneth Michael* Borcata, Raul A.* Long, Tonya* Abdul Haq Foundation Close, Jarred Lee* Isranuddin, Burhanuddin Adajar, Adonis Logistical Operations Worldwide* Matun, Navidullah, a.k.a. “Javid Ahmad” Calhoun, Josh W. Taylor, Zachery Dustin* Matun, Wahidullah Clark Logistic Services Company, d.b.a. “Clark Construction Travis, James Edward* Navid Basir Construction Company Company” Khairfullah, Gul Agha Navid Basir JV Gagar Baba Construction Company Farkas, Janos Khalil Rahimi Construction Company NBCC & GBCC JV Flordeliz, Alex F. Momand, Jahanzeb, a.k.a. “Engineer Jahanzeb Momand” Noori, Navid Knight, Michael T., II Yar-Mohammad, Hazrat Nabi Asmatullah, Mahmood, a.k.a. “Mahmood” Lozado, Gary Walizada, Abdul Masoud, a.k.a. “Masood Walizada” Khan, Gul Mijares, Armando N., Jr. Alizai, Zarghona Khan, Solomon Sherdad, a.k.a. “Solomon” Mullakhiel, Wadir Abdullahmatin Aman, Abdul Mursalin, Ikramullah, a.k.a. “Ikramullah” Rainbow Construction Company Anwari, Laila Musafer, Naseem, a.k.a. “Naseem” Sardar, Hassan, a.k.a. “Hassan Sardar Inqilab” Anwari, Mezhgan Ali, Esrar Shah, Mohammad Nadir, a.k.a. “Nader Shah” Anwari, Ra Gul, Ghanzi Tito, Regor Arghandiwal, Zahra, a.k.a. “Sarah Arghandiwal” Luqman Engineering Construction Company, d.b.a. “Luqman Brown, Charles Phillip Azizi, Farwad, a.k.a. “Farwad Mohammad Azizi” Engineering” Sheren, Fasela, a.k.a. “Sheren Fasela” Bashizada, Razia Saullah, a.k.a. “Mr. Saullah” Anderson, Jesse Montel Coates, Kenneth Sarfarez, a.k.a. “Mr. Sarfarez” Charboneau, Stephanie, a.k.a. “Stephanie Shankel” 212 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I

223 APPENDICES TABLE D.1 (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTITY DESIGNATIONS, SUSPENSIONS, AND DEBARMENTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 (CONTINUED) Debarments (continued) Dubai Armored Cars Hampton, Seneca Darnell* Gibani, Marika Haidari, Mahboob Enayatullah, son of Hazullah Dennis, Jimmy W. Lati, Abdul Farhas, Ahmad Timor, Karim Inland Holdings Inc. McCammon, Christina Wardak, Khalid Intermaax, FZE Mohibzada, Ahmadullah, a.k.a. “Ahmadullah Mohebzada” Intermaax Inc. Neghat, Mustafa Rahmat Siddiqi Transportation Company Karkar, Shah Wali Qurashi, Abdul Siddiqi, Rahmat Sandman Security Services Raouf, Ashmatullah Siddiqi, Sayed Attaullah Shah, David Siddiqi, Atta Umbrella Insurance Limited Company Touba, Kajim Specialty Bunkering Zahir, Khalid Spidle, Chris Calvin Taylor, Michael Vulcan Amps Inc. Aryubi, Mohammad Raza Samim Gardazi, Syed Worldwide Cargomasters Atlas Sahil Construction Company Smarasinghage, Sagara Aziz, Haji Abdul, a.k.a. “Abdul Aziz Shah Jan,” a.k.a. “Aziz” Bab Al Jazeera LLC Emar-E-Sarey Construction Company Castillo, Alfredo, Jr. Security Assistance Group LLC Muhammad, Pianda Abbasi, Asim Edmondson, Jeffrey B.* Muturi, Samuel Sambros International, d.b.a. “Sambros International Ltd.” Montague, Geoffrey K.* Mwakio, Shannel d.b.a. “Sambros-UK JV” Ciampa, Christopher* Ahmad, Jaweed Sambros JV Emar-E-Sarey Construction Company, d.b.a. Ahmad, Masood “Sambros JV ESCC” Lugo, Emanuel* A & J Total Landscapes Antes, Bradley A. Bailly, Louis Matthew* Aryana Green Light Support Services Lakeshore Engineering & Construction Afghanistan Inc., Kumar, Krishan d.b.a. “Lakeshore General Contractors Inc.” Mohammad, Sardar, a.k.a. “Sardar Mohammad Barakzai” Lakeshore Engineering Services Inc. Marshal Afghan American Construction Company Pittman, James C., a.k.a. “Carl Pittman” Lakeshore Engineering Services/Toltest JV LLC Marshal, Sayed Abbas Shah Poaipuni, Clayton Lakeshore Toltest – Rentenbach JV LLC Masraq Engineering and Construction Company Lakeshore Toltest Corporation, d.b.a. “Lakeshore Group,” Wiley, Patrick Miakhil, Azizullah d.b.a. “LTC Newco d.b.a. “LTC CORP Michigan,” d.b.a. Crystal Island Construction Company “Lakeshore Toltest KK” Raj, Janak Bertolini, Robert L.* Lakeshore Toltest Guam LLC Singh, Roop Kahn, Haroon Shams, a.k.a. “Haroon Shams”* Lakeshore Toltest JV LLC Stratton, William G Lakeshore Toltest RRCC JV LLC Shams Constructions Limited* Umeer Star Construction Company Lakeshore/Walsh JV LLC Shams General Services and Logistics Unlimited* LakeshoreToltest METAG JV LLC Zahir, Mohammad Ayub Shams Group International, d.b.a. “Shams Group LTC & Metawater JV LLC Peace Thru Business* International FZE”* LTC Holdings Inc. Shams London Academy* Pudenz, Adam Jeff Julias* LTC Italia SRL LTC Tower General Contractors LLC Shams Production* Green, Robert Warren* LTCCORP Commercial LLC Shams Welfare Foundation* Mayberry, Teresa* LTCCORP E&C Inc. Swim, Alexander* Addas, James* LTCCORP Government Services - OH Inc. Norris, James Edward Advanced Ability for U-PVC* LTCCORP Government Services Inc. LTCCORP Government Services-MI Inc. Afghan Columbia Constructon Company Al Bait Al Amer* LTCCORP O&G LLC Ahmadi, Mohammad Omid Al Iraq Al Waed* LTCCORP Renewables LLC Dashti, Jamsheed Al Quraishi Bureau* LTCCORP Inc. LTCCORP/Kaya Dijbouti LLC Hamdard, Eraj Al Zakoura Company* LTCCORP/Kaya East Africa LLC Hamidi, Mahrokh Al-Amir Group LLC* LTCCORP/Kaya Romania LLC Raising Wall Construction Company Al-Noor Contracting Company* LTCCORP/Kaya Rwanda LLC Artemis Global Inc., d.b.a. “Artemis Global Logistics and LTCORP Technology LLC Al-Noor Industrial Technologies Company* Solutions,” d.b.a. “Artemis Global Trucking LLC” Toltest Inc., d.b.a. “Wolverine Testing and Engineering,” d.b.a. California for Project Company* O’Brien, James Michael, a.k.a. “James Michael Wienert” "Toledo Testing Laboratory,” d.b.a. “LTC,” d.b.a. “LTC Corp,” Civilian Technologies Limited Company* d.b.a. “LTC Corp Ohio,” d.b.a. “LTC Ohio” Tamerlane Global Services Inc., d.b.a. “Tamerlane Global Industrial Techniques Engineering Electromechanically Toltest/Desbuild Germany JV LLC LLC,” d.b.a. “Tamerlane LLC,” d.b.a. “Tamerlane Technologies Company* Veterans Construction/Lakeshore JV LLC LLC” Pena, Ramiro* Afghan Royal First Logistics, d.b.a. “Afghan Royal” Sherzai, Akbar Ahmed* American Barriers Pulsars Company* Jean-Noel, Dimitry Arakozia Afghan Advertising 213 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

224 APPENDICES TABLE D.1 (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTITY DESIGNATIONS, SUSPENSIONS, AND DEBARMENTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 (CONTINUED) Debarments (continued) Haq, Fazal Kakar, Rohani; a.k.a. “Daro Khan Rohani” San Francisco for Housing Company Mohammad, Abdullah Nazar Jahangir, Son of Abdul Qadir Sura Al Mustakbal* Top Techno Concrete Batch* Kaka, Son of Ismail Nasir, Mohammad Khalil, Son of Mohammad Ajan Albright, Timothy H.* Wali Eshaq Zada Logistics Company; d.b.a. “Wali Ashqa Zada Logistics Company”; d.b.a. “Nasert Nawazi Khan, Mirullah Insurance Group of Afghanistan Transportation Company” Ratib, Ahmad, a.k.a. “Nazari” Khan, Mukamal Ware, Marvin* Khoshal, Son of Sayed Hasan Jamil, Omar K. Belgin, Andrew Rawat, Ashita Malang, Son of Qand Afghan Bamdad Construction Company, d.b.a. “Afghan Masom, Son of Asad Gul Qadery, Abdul Khalil Bamdad Development Construction Company” Areeb of East Company for Trade & Farzam Construction Mateen, Abdul Casellas, Luis Ramon* Company JV Saber, Mohammad a.k.a. “Saber,” a.k.a. “Sabir” Mohammad, Asghar Areeb of East for Engineering and General Trading Zahir, Shaullah Mohammad a.k.a. “Shaullah,” a.k.a. Mohammad, Baqi Company, Limited, d.b.a. “Areeb of East LLC” “Shae” Mohammad, Khial Areeb-BDCC JV Achiever’s International Ministries Inc., d.b.a. “Center for Mohammad, Sayed Areebel Engineering and Logisitcs - Farzam Achievement and Development LLC” Mujahid, Son of Abdul Qadir Areebel Engineering and Logistics Bickersteth, Diana Nangiali, Son of Alem Jan Areeb-Rixon Construction Company LLC, d.b.a. “Areeb- Bonview Consulting Group Inc. REC JV” Nawid, Son of Mashoq Fagbenro, Oyetayo Ayoola, a.k.a. “Tayo Ayoola Fagbenro” Carver, Elizabeth N. Noorullah, Son of Noor Mohammad Global Vision Consulting LLC Carver, Paul W. Qayoum, Abdul HUDA Development Organization RAB JV Roz, Gul Strategic Impact Consulting, d.b.a. “Strategic Impact KarKon Ullah, Izat; a.k.a. “Ezatullah”; a.k.a. “Izatullah, son of Afghanistan Material Testing Laboratory” Shaq, Mohammad Shamsudeen” Davies, Simon Shah, Ahmad Saboor, Baryalai Abdul; a.k.a. “Barry Gafuri” Gannon, Robert, W. Shah, Mohammad Stratex Logistic and Support, d.b.a. “Stratex Logistics” Gillam, Robert Shah, Rahim Jahanzeb, Mohammad Nasir Mondial Defence Systems Ltd. Sharif, Mohammad Nasrat, Zaulhaq, a.k.a. “Zia Nasrat” Mondial Defense Systems USA LLC Waheedullah, Son of Sardar Mohammad Blevins, Kenneth Preston* Mondial Logistics Wahid, Abdul Banks, Michael* Khan, Adam Wais, Gul Afghan Armor Vehicle Rental Company Khan, Amir, a.k.a. “Amir Khan Sahel” Wali, Khair Hamdard, Javid Sharq Afghan Logistics Company, d.b.a. “East Afghan Wali, Sayed McAlpine, Nebraska Logistics Company” Wali, Taj Meli Afghanistan Group Hazullah, Sayed; a.k.a. “Sadat Sayed Hazullah”; a.k.a. Yaseen, Mohammad “Sayed Hazullah Delsooz” Badgett, Michael J.* Sadat Zohori Construction and Road Building Company; Yaseen, Son of Mohammad Aajan Miller, Mark E. d.b.a. “Sadat Zohori Cons Co.” Zakir, Mohammad Anderson, William Paul Abdullah, Son of Lal Gul Zamir, Son of Kabir Kazemi, Sayed Mustafa, a.k.a. “Said Mustafa Kazemi” Ahmad, Aziz Rogers, Sean Al Mostahan Construction Company Ahmad, Zubir Slade, Justin Nazary, Nasir Ahmad Aimal, Son of Masom Morgan, Sheldon J.* Nazanin, a.k.a. "Ms. Nazanin" Ajmal, Son of Mohammad Anwar Dixon, Regionald Ahmadzai, Sajid Fareed, Son of Shir Emmons, Larry Sajid, Amin Gul Fayaz Afghan Logistics Services Epps, Willis* Fayaz, Afghan, a.k.a. “Fayaz Alimi,” a.k.a. “Fayaz, Son of Etihad Hamidi Group; d.b.a. “Etihad Hamidi Trading, Mohammad” Transportation, Logistics and Construction Company” Gul, Khuja Etihad Hamidi Logistics Company; d.b.a. “Etihad Hamidi Habibullah, Son of Ainuddin Transportation, Logistic Company Corporation” Hamidullah, Son of Abdul Rashid Hamidi, Abdul Basit; a.k.a. Basit Hamidi 214 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I

225 APPENDICES APPENDIX E SIGAR DATA CALL QUESTIONS THAT RECEIVED CLASSIFIED OR UNCLASSIFIED BUT NOT PUBLICLY RELEASABLE RESPONSES Every quarter, SIGAR sends U.S. implementing agencies in Afghanistan a list of questions about their programs. This quarter, United States Forces- Afghanistan (USFOR-A) classied, or designated unclassied, but not bolded publicly releasable, its responses to the portions of 13 questions (the same as last quarter) from SIGAR’s data call (below). As authorized by its enabling statute, SIGAR will publish a classied annex containing the classied and publicly unreleasable data. SECURITY Question Question ID Oct-Sec-01 1. Please provide the following information on ANA strength as of the latest available date: a. the most recent three ANA APPS month-end reports with “as of” dates on each. (e.g. authorized strength broken out b. please complete the attached ANA Strength spreadsheets. There are two. One for unclassied strength data separately from assigned strength if authorized is unclassied by itself) and one for classied. (Attachment Sec-01.xls, Sec-01a.xls) c. total number of ofcers, NCOs, and enlisted personnel within the ANA. d. monthly attrition rates for the last three months for the ANA by Corps, Division, SOF, and AAF with “as of” dates provided. 2. Please provide an unclassied description of general ANA attrition trends over the last quarter. 3. Please provide rounded strength gures for the ANA, AAF, and ANA and AAF civilians only if you are unable to provide any data in the unclassied Sec-01 spreadsheet. 4. Please detail any changes to the Afghan Program of Record that have been approved during the quarter, along with the estimated costs associated with acquisition, training, and sustainment. Oct-Sec-04 On the ANDSF's performance: a. Now that the SFABs have been pushed below the Corps and Zone level, what has changed about the extent to which U.S. forces have visibility into the ANDSF units/pillars tactical and operational readiness and tactical effectiveness? b. Please provide a recent unclassied assessment of the ANDSF elements at the Corps and Zone level as well as below if possible. The assessment can be general or anecdotal, but please cover key performance areas such as reporting, training, planning, operational readiness, and leadership. c. Please provide a recent, classied comprehensive assessment of the ANDSF Corps and Zones via SIPR. We will provide examples of these assessments via NIPR/SIPR. d. Please provide the latest “ANDSF Operational Overview” PowerPoint slides (given to us via SIPR last quarter in response to Jul-Sec-04c) Please provide the following information on women in the ANDSF: Oct-Sec-07 a. How many women serve in each of the following ANDSF pillars: ANA, AAF, ANP, and ASSF (please break down ANA vs. ANP ASSF), as of the latest available date? Of that total, how many women are soldiers, NCOs, and ofcers? b. How many females are cadets at the Afghan National Military Academy? How many females are in training at the Afghan Army Medical School and what skills are they being trained in? c. If any changes since last quarter, what is the current target/goal for recruiting women into the ANA and ANP overall and by category of ofcer, NCO, and enlisted? d. Please provide rounded gures for the total number of women serving in the ANDSF, as well as for each force element (ANA, ANP, AAF, ASSF) only if the exact amount cannot be provided in an unclassied format. e. Please provide information about how the funds specically allocated by Congress in the 2018 NDAA (minimum $10,000,000 and goal $41,000,000) to recruit, train, and protect ANDSF women are being used. Continued on the next page 215 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

226 APPENDICES SECURITY Question ID Question Oct-Sec-08 1. Please provide the following information on ANP strength as of the latest available date: a. the most recent three ANP PERSTAT month-end reports with “as of” dates on each. e.g. authorized strength broken out b. please complete the attached ANP Strength spreadsheets. There are two. One for unclassied strength data ( separately from assigned strength if authorized is unclassied by itself) and one for classied. (Attachment Sec-08.xls, Sec-08a.xls) c. total number of ofcers, NCOs, and enlisted personnel within the ANP. d. monthly attrition rates for the last three months for the entire ANP and by ANP component with “as of dates” included. (see example attached for how we would like the data presented) 2. Please provide an unclassied description of general ANP attrition trends over the last quarter. 3. Please provide rounded strength gures for the ANP, including each pillar only if you are unable to provide any data in the unclassied Sec-08 spreadsheet. Please provide an update on the Afghan Local Police program, including: Oct-Sec-14 a. the current number of ALP members and current number of ALP members that are fully trained (include “as of” date) b. estimate of likely Fiscal Year 2018 costs to support and sustain the ALP at target strength (30,000) and capability c. retention and attrition for ALP members. d. ALP casualty gures from the last quarter. e. an update to the ALP reform status and district assessment ndings f. What percentage of the ALP force is registered in: AHRIMS, APPS, EFT, and Mobile Money. What is currently being done to ensure ALP enrollment in these programs increases? Oct-Sec-18 Please provide the following information on the Ministry assessment system and processes: a. Please provide a recent, unclassied assessment of the MOD and MOI as well as the date of the assessments. Please generally characterize how the MOD and MOI are progressing toward their benchmarks for the new PMR. b. Please provide a copy of the most recent classied, comprehensive MOD/MOI assessments via SIPR with an 'as of' date. If there is more detailed classied information about how each ministry is progressing toward its PMR benchmarks, please provide it. Oct-Sec-23 Please provide information on insider attacks against Coalition Forces and ANDSF casualties, including: a. the number of insider attacks against U.S. military personnel from February 10, 2018 to the latest possible date. b. the number of U.S. military personnel wounded or killed from insider attacks from February 10, 2018 to the latest possible date. c. the number of insider attacks against ANDSF from February 10, 2018 to the latest possible date. d. the number of ANDSF personnel wounded or killed as a result of insider attacks from February 10, 2018 to the latest possible date. the number of ANDSF personnel killed and wounded from February 10, 2018 to the latest possible date. e. f. What is RS/USFOR-A doing to mitigate green-on-green attacks (against ANDSF personnel)? What type of training are the ANA and ANP undergoing in this regard? Is the Coalition providing TAA to NDS and other Afghan intel entities to vet ANA and ANP personnel the way they are vetted for interaction with Coalition personnel to prevent green-on-blue attacks (against Coalition personnel)? Regarding USG support to the Special Mission Wing (SMW): Oct-Sec-26 a. Please provide a recent comprehensive unclassied update of the SMW as of the latest possible date. b. Please identify each type of aircraft in the SMW inventory and the number of each. c. Please provide the number of aircraft purchased but not yet elded. d. Please complete the attached ANDSF spreadsheet/SMW tab, or provide the applicable data. (Sec-26 tab in “ANDSF Personnel, Equip, Funding Spreadsheet”) e. What percentage of the SMW sorties are in support of counternarcotics? of counterterrorism? or, counternexus (CN & CT)? f. How many aircrew members does the SMW currently have, by crew position and airframe? Please break out their level of mission qualication (e.g. Certied Mission Ready (night-vision qualied), the daytime equivalent, etc.): 1) Mi-17 Pilots and Pilot Trainers 2) Mi-17 Flight Engineers 3) Mi-17 Crew Chiefs 4) PC-12 Pilots 5) PC-12 Mission System Operators g. Please provide the operational readiness rate of the SMW and what the achievement benchmarks are in this area. h. How many and what type of aircraft maintainers are needed for the SMW? How many of them are currently assigned / authorized? How long will it take to train these personnel to become fully mission capable? i. Provide the cost of aircraft maintenance being paid with ASFF or money from other countries. Continued on the next page 216 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

227 APPENDICES SECURITY Question ID Question Oct-Sec-40 a. Please provide the ANA Corps' equipment operational readiness (OR) rates. b Please provide the goal OR rate for each ANA corps, and the reasoning for that OR benchmark. c. If the OR rate is below the benchmark for some corps, please explain why for each corps and what actions are being taken to support the ANDSF to increase the OR rate. d. Please provide the OR rate or similar metric for the ANP by zone, including the benchmark OR rates by zone. If the rates are below benchmark, please explain why by zone. e. Please provide a general, unclassied assessment of equipment readiness for both the ANA and the ANP. Oct-Sec-55 Please provide a copy of the most recent NATO RS Periodic Mission Review (PMR) and / or the Commander's Assessment prepared for the PMR. Regarding the security benchmarks matrix for the Afghanistan Compact: Oct-Sec-56 1. Please provide: a. an unclassied description of those milestones expected to be completed over the quarter by both MOD and MOI b. which of those milestones were completed or not c. a number of total completed milestones versus the number expected to be completed over the quarter. 1. Provide a spreadsheet documenting all concluded ANDSF offensive operations conducted during the quarter (each concluded operation should Oct-Sec-61 be its own row). For our purposes, an operation involves (1) at least one ANA kandak or (2) a combination of units from at least two Afghan security entities (MOI, MOD, and/or NDS). For each operation, we request the following information: a. the district in which the operation primarily occurred (District name) b. the province in which the operation primarily occurred (Province name) c. any additional districts in which the operation occurred (District name(s)) d. the start date of the operation (YYYY-MM-DD) e. the end date of the operation (YYYY-MM-DD) f. whether AAF A-29s or AC-208 provided direct support during the operation (Yes/No) g. whether AAF MD-530s, UH-60, or Mi-17 provided direct support during the operation (Yes/No) h. whether ANASOC MSFVs provided direct support during the operation (Yes/No) i. whether the operation involved ANA units (Yes/No) j. whether the operation involved MOI units (Yes/No) h. whether the operation involved NDS units (Yes/No) k. whether the operation involved ANASOC units (Yes/No) l. whether the operation involved elements from an outside MOD geographically dened command (i.e. 201, 203, 205, 207, 209, or 215 Corps or 111 Division). For example, in 2015, 215th Corps received support from the neighboring 205th and 207th Corps for their operations in northern Helmand Province. Since 205th and 207th Corps did not normally have responsibilities in Helmand Province, this instance would be coded “Yes.” (Yes/No) m. whether the operation involved elements from an outside MOI geographically dened command (i.e. 101, 202, 303, 404, 505, 606, 707, or 808 Zones) (Yes/No) n. whether the operation was enabled by U.S. or Coalition air support (Yes/No) o. whether the operation was enabled by U.S. or Coalition ground support (Yes/No) p. whether any U.S. or Coalition military aircraft provided medical evacuation support (Yes/No) Continued on the next page 217 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

228 APPENDICES GOVERNANCE Question Question ID 1. Please describe the methods and data CSTC-A uses to asses the current state of ANDSF corruption and patronage networks. Jul-AC-05 a. What is CSTC-A's assessment of the current state of ANDSF corruption and patronage networks? b. Please provide the number, rank, unit, and a summary of sentencing for MOD and MOI personnel that have been tried by court martial during the reporting period for crimes related to misappropriation or corruption. 2. Please describe how CSTC-A assess the effectiveness of MOI IG and MOD IG efforts: a. (For MOI-MAG and MOD-MAG) Describe actions taken during the quarter by senior MOD and MOI ofcials in response to MOD IG- and MOI IG-identied issues. Do senior MOD and MOI ofcials appear to b. (TAO) Describe the quality of MOD IG and MOI IG inspections reports, including the statements of assurance. 3. Please provide any minutes, handouts, slides, or additional materials provided to participants of the MOD and MOI Anti-Corruption Planning Group as well as any other anti-corruption forums/meetings in which CSTC-A EF2 participates. The MOD and MOI Anti-Corruption Planning Groups were dened in the 1395 MOD and MOI commitment letters as being included in the MOD and MOI Anti-Corruption Plans. If these forums do not exist, but another forum exists that carries out a similar function, please provide the requested materials that relate to the alternative forums. 4. Please provide copies of any MOI IG and MOD IG inspection or audit reports (or summaries if the reports are not available) involving U.S.-funded efforts that have been made available to CSTC-A (EF 2) this quarter. (Since these documents are Afghan government in origin, provide an Afghan government point of contact--preferably email--with whom we can consult for the public releasability of information contained in these items). 5. Provide copies of the following items (if generated or updated during the quarter) (Since many of these documents are Afghan government in origin, provide an Afghan government point of contact--preferably email--with whom we can consult for the public releasability of information contained in these items): MOI IG and MOD IG monthly status of investigations reports a. b. MOI Transparency, Accountability, and Law Enforcement (TALE) and MOD CAC meeting agendas and outcome reports MOD and MOI Counter Corruption Policies c. d. Any monitoring and evaluation data (including indicator denition, baselines, collection methodology, and progress to date) related to Objective 2.2 (Strengthen transparency and accountability to combat corruption in the MoIA and ANP) dened in the December 2017 MoIA Strategic Policy 218 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

229 APPENDICES APPENDIX F RESOLUTE SUPPORT-DEFINED STABILITY DATA FOR AFGHANISTAN’S 407 DISTRICTS AS OF JULY 31, 2018 For more information on how Resolute Support denes district stability, see the February 2018 Addendum of the January 30, 2018 quarterly report at www.sigar.mil. UNCLASSIFIED Area [km2] Population May 2018 Province Assessment (Landscan 2016) District (Landscan) GIROA Inuence 20,492 Arghanj Khwah 730.9 Badakhshan Badakhshan Argo GIROA Inuence 1,054.1 110,991 Contested 323.5 Badakhshan Baharak 36,413 Darayim 560.6 75,718 Badakhshan GIROA Inuence GIROA Inuence 1,335.2 27,926 Badakhshan Darwaz-e Bala Darwaz-e Pa'in GIROA Inuence 1,223.8 33,696 Badakhshan Badakhshan Faizabad 493.8 73,334 GIROA Inuence Ishkashim Contested 16,925 Badakhshan 1,133.5 Insurgent Activity 1,227.0 Jurm Badakhshan 47,141 Badakhshan Khash Contested 255.2 46,438 Khwahan GIROA Inuence Badakhshan 21,415 735.3 Badakhshan Contested 5,218.8 12,245 Kiran wa Munjan Kishim Contested Badakhshan 102,022 769.8 Badakhshan Kohistan GIROA Inuence 492.2 20,597 Badakhshan Kuf Ab GIROA Inuence 1,418.3 28,214 Badakhshan Raghistan 1,297.3 49,750 Contested Shahr-e Buzurg GIROA Inuence 65,393 Badakhshan 977.1 GIROA Inuence 3,529.4 Shighnan Badakhshan 35,084 Badakhshan Shiki Contested 620.0 31,670 Shuhada Contested Badakhshan 43,300 1,557.6 Badakhshan Contested 1,399.9 35,260 Tagab Tashkan GIROA Inuence Badakhshan 36,945 843.0 Badakhshan Wakhan GIROA Inuence 10,946.0 19,402 High Insurgent Warduj Badakhshan 886.8 27,332 Activity Badakhshan GIROA Inuence 602.9 66,118 Yaftal-e Sua High Insurgent Badakhshan Yamgan 1,761.0 31,831 Activity Badakhshan Yawan GIROA Inuence 441.5 40,294 Badakhshan Zaybak Contested 1,620.5 10,014 Badghis GIROA Inuence 1,804.5 91,537 Ab-e Kamari Badghis Ghormach Insurgent Activity 1,952.2 67,762 Continued on the next page 219 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

230 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED Area [km2] Population May 2018 Province District (Landscan 2016) Assessment (Landscan) Badghis 99,794 GIROA Inuence Jawand 7,130.5 1,258.5 33,260 Contested Badghis Muqur Contested 4,455.9 120,964 Badghis Murghab Contested Qadis 116,589 Badghis 3,451.0 GIROA Control 77,919 Qal'ah-ye Now 656.8 Badghis GIROA Inuence 1,019.9 Baghlan Andarab 33,013 Baghlan-e Jadid Contested 2,596.4 217,377 Baghlan Burkah Contested 835.7 65,778 Baghlan High Insurgent Dahanah-ye Ghori Baghlan 73,690 1,453.4 Activity Baghlan Contested 453.2 38,395 Deh-e Salah Doshi Contested Baghlan 88,384 1,942.5 Baghlan Firing wa Gharu Contested 240.5 20,731 Baghlan Gozargah-e Nur Contested 417.2 12,664 Baghlan Contested 1,016.6 33,771 Khinjan Baghlan Khost wa Firing Contested 1,890.1 79,035 Baghlan Khwajah Hijran Contested 653.2 30,106 Baghlan Nahrin Contested 983.8 87,001 35,112 Baghlan Pul-e Hisar Contested 888.6 Contested 266,998 532.6 Pul-e Khumri Baghlan Baghlan Talah wa Barfak 2,879.5 38,456 Contested Balkh 540.6 152,743 Balkh GIROA Control Chahar Bolak Contested 515.7 101,866 Balkh Balkh GIROA Control 1,076.4 54,531 Chahar Kent Balkh Chimtal Contested 1,809.5 116,238 Balkh Dehdadi GIROA Control 258.7 83,940 Balkh GIROA Control 1,643.0 130,488 Dowlatabad Balkh Kaldar GIROA Control 831.1 14,088 Balkh Khulm GIROA Control 3,009.4 89,532 Balkh Kishindeh GIROA Control 1,181.7 60,419 Balkh Marmul GIROA Control 560.9 14,086 Balkh Mazar-e Sharif 28.1 458,987 GIROA Control Nahr-e Shahi 1,144.6 97,873 Balkh GIROA Control Shahrak-e Hairatan GIROA Control Balkh 10,646 82.1 Balkh Sholgarah GIROA Control 1,790.8 144,102 Balkh Shor Tepah GIROA Control 1,457.9 49,394 Balkh GIROA Control 833.5 54,115 Zari Bamyan Bamyan GIROA Control 1,797.3 101,519 Bamyan Kahmard GIROA Control 1,407.3 45,291 Bamyan Panjab GIROA Control 1,888.7 85,939 Bamyan GIROA Control Sayghan 30,258 1,732.1 Shaybar 1,298.4 GIROA Control 36,712 Bamyan Continued on the next page 220 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

231 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Population Area [km2] Province District (Landscan 2016) Assessment (Landscan) Bamyan GIROA Control 2,975.8 136,654 Waras 6,778.6 Bamyan Yakawlang GIROA Control 112,870 GIROA Control 1,461.6 43,803 Gayti Daykundi GIROA Control Daykundi 83,470 Gizab 3,672.2 Ishtarlay 1,349.8 60,117 Daykundi GIROA Control GIROA Control 43,004 Kajran 1,840.2 Daykundi GIROA Control 1,551.0 Daykundi Khedir 56,032 Mir Amor GIROA Control 2,382.8 77,982 Daykundi GIROA Control Daykundi 549.2 51,027 Nili Daykundi GIROA Control 1,923.1 63,336 Sang-e Takht Shahristan GIROA Control 82,880 Daykundi 1,954.1 GIROA Inuence 10,618.7 Anar Darah Farah 34,876 Farah Bakwah Contested 2,435.7 44,327 Bala Boluk Contested 5,531.6 89,478 Farah Farah Farah 3,443.8 142,134 GIROA Inuence Gulistan 7,051.6 54,002 Farah Contested Khak-e Safed Contested Farah 37,477 1,842.0 Farah Lash-e Juwayn GIROA Control 5,422.2 35,022 Farah Pur Chaman Contested 6,441.2 65,649 Pusht-e Rod Farah 51,271 433.3 Contested Farah 3,549.7 38,539 GIROA Inuence Qal'ah-ye Kah Farah Shayb Koh GIROA Control 2,794.1 27,777 Almar Insurgent Activity 1,589.2 91,080 Faryab Andkhoy GIROA Inuence 376.8 Faryab 49,754 Faryab Bal Chiragh Contested 1,126.4 62,592 Faryab Contested 2,728.7 61,554 Dowlatabad Faryab Gurziwan Insurgent Activity 1,868.3 94,558 Faryab Khan-e Chahar Bagh GIROA Inuence 942.3 28,408 68,113 Faryab Khwajah Sabz Posh Contested 556.5 Kohistan 2,308.8 Faryab 68,924 Insurgent Activity Faryab 147.5 105,495 GIROA Inuence Maimanah Faryab Pashtun Kot Contested 2,689.4 229,639 Qaisar Insurgent Activity 2,545.0 179,682 Faryab Qaram Qol GIROA Inuence 1,068.9 21,522 Faryab Faryab Qurghan GIROA Inuence 811.3 63,624 Faryab Contested 1,961.4 101,530 Shirin Tagab Ghazni Ab Band GIROA Inuence 1,005.4 34,496 Ghazni Ajristan Contested 1,602.1 37,127 156,449 Ghazni Andar Contested 708.7 Bahram-e Shahid GIROA Inuence Ghazni 45,049 653.8 (Jaghatu) Ghazni 723.6 GIROA Inuence Deh Yak 61,282 Continued on the next page 221 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

232 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Area [km2] Population District Province (Landscan) (Landscan 2016) Assessment Contested Ghazni 72,312 Gelan 1,110.8 Ghazni GIROA Inuence 359.6 203,282 Ghazni Giro GIROA Inuence 885.1 45,977 Ghazni Jaghuri 2,092.7 213,819 GIROA Inuence Ghazni Ghazni Khwajah 'Omari Contested 209.1 23,865 Malistan GIROA Inuence 1,780.2 102,279 Ghazni Muqer GIROA Inuence 866.4 62,853 Ghazni Ghazni Nawah Insurgent Activity 1,665.6 37,200 Ghazni 5,219.1 118,818 GIROA Inuence Nawur Ghazni Qarah Bagh Contested 1,646.4 185,049 Rashidan GIROA Inuence 387.9 22,441 Ghazni Waghaz Contested 391.7 46,844 Ghazni Wali Muhammad Ghazni 22,296 GIROA Inuence 140.8 Shahid Khugyani Zanakhan Contested 301.7 15,824 Ghazni Ghor Chaghcharan GIROA Inuence 7,715.7 169,835 Ghor Chahar Sadah Contested 1,296.8 32,450 45,123 Ghor Do Lainah GIROA Inuence 4,597.1 GIROA Inuence Dowlatyar 43,073 1,701.1 Ghor Ghor 3,878.0 139,412 GIROA Control La'l wa Sar Jangal Ghor Pasaband GIROA Inuence 4,550.1 118,507 Saghar GIROA Control 2,657.6 43,264 Ghor Shahrak GIROA Inuence Ghor 74,517 4,340.7 Ghor Taywarah GIROA Inuence 3,667.4 114,694 Ghor GIROA Inuence 2,708.1 64,143 Tulak High Insurgent Baghran Helmand 80,844 3,156.3 Activity High Insurgent Helmand Dishu 23,989 9,118.5 Activity Garm Ser 16,654.6 Helmand 111,611 Insurgent Activity Helmand 1,957.0 90,479 Insurgent Activity Kajaki Helmand Lashkar Gah GIROA Inuence 2,000.0 136,760 Marjah Insurgent Activity 2,718.2 75,272 Helmand High Insurgent Musa Qal'ah Helmand 1,719.6 74,458 Activity Helmand Contested 3,168.0 71,271 Nad 'Ali Helmand Nahr-e Saraj Contested 1,535.8 143,591 Helmand Nawah-ye Barakzai GIROA Inuence 625.2 121,479 High Insurgent Helmand Now Zad 63,368 4,072.6 Activity High Insurgent Helmand 7,361.0 25,447 Reg-e Khan Neshin Activity Helmand 516.8 Insurgent Activity Sangin 73,926 Continued on the next page 222 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

233 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Population Area [km2] Province District (Landscan 2016) Assessment (Landscan) Helmand Contested 4,617.2 19,657 Washer 9,979.0 Herat Adraskan GIROA Inuence 67,627 GIROA Inuence 2,506.4 29,463 Chisht-e Sharif Herat GIROA Inuence Herat 38,391 Farsi 2,040.2 Ghorian 7,328.1 111,316 Herat GIROA Inuence GIROA Inuence 118,089 Gulran 6,099.6 Herat GIROA Control 2,656.9 Herat Guzarah 181,985 Herat GIROA Control 83.3 507,284 Herat GIROA Control Herat 1,392.6 389,267 Injil Herat GIROA Control 1,994.5 82,446 Karukh Kohsan GIROA Control 67,707 Herat 2,234.7 GIROA Inuence 2,885.3 Kushk Herat 155,666 Herat Kushk-e Kuhnah GIROA Inuence 1,660.8 56,876 Obeh GIROA Inuence 2,623.4 94,805 Herat Herat Pashtun Zarghun 1,898.0 125,058 GIROA Inuence Shindand 6,995.8 225,454 Herat Insurgent Activity Zindah Jan GIROA Control Herat 74,827 2,524.7 Jowzjan Aqchah GIROA Inuence 155.7 96,004 Jowzjan Darzab Insurgent Activity 478.4 61,471 Faizabad Jowzjan 51,171 1,180.6 Contested Jowzjan Khamyab 869.8 17,002 GIROA Inuence Khanaqa 488.0 30,117 Jowzjan GIROA Inuence Khwajah Do Koh GIROA Inuence Jowzjan 32,809 2,076.9 Jowzjan Mardian GIROA Inuence 707.3 47,475 Jowzjan Mingajik GIROA Inuence 882.1 53,406 Jowzjan GIROA Inuence 1,234.6 31,213 Qarqin Jowzjan Qush Tepah Insurgent Activity 881.4 30,444 Jowzjan Shibirghan GIROA Inuence 2,165.2 205,075 Kabul Bagrami GIROA Control 279.5 77,652 Chahar Asyab Kabul GIROA Inuence 257.4 47,078 Kabul Deh-e Sabz 461.5 63,317 GIROA Inuence Farzah 89.6 30,074 Kabul GIROA Control Gul Darah GIROA Control Kabul 26,670 75.7 Kabul Istalif GIROA Control 109.4 38,810 Kabul Kabul GIROA Control 349.9 4,592,173 Kabul GIROA Control 74.9 43,220 Kalakan Kabul Khak-e Jabar GIROA Inuence 584.7 18,139 Kabul Mir Bachah Kot GIROA Control 65.8 62,461 Kabul Musahi GIROA Inuence 110.4 29,089 361.2 GIROA Inuence Kabul Paghman 156,639 Kabul 208.6 GIROA Inuence Qarah Bagh 91,409 Continued on the next page 223 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

234 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Area [km2] Population District Province (Landscan) (Landscan 2016) Assessment GIROA Inuence Kabul 70,235 Sarobi 1,309.1 Shakar Darah GIROA Control 317.6 105,686 Kabul Arghandab GIROA Control 547.2 60,187 Kandahar Arghistan 3,899.4 43,493 GIROA Inuence Kandahar Kandahar Daman GIROA Control 4,109.4 40,979 Dand GIROA Control 289.0 241,354 Kandahar Ghorak Insurgent Activity 1,485.7 12,174 Kandahar GIROA Control Kandahar 492,757 482.0 Kandahar Kandahar Khakrez 1,647.5 28,520 Insurgent Activity Maiwand 2,852.1 73,291 Kandahar Insurgent Activity Ma'ruf Insurgent Activity Kandahar 40,952 3,184.6 Kandahar Mya Neshin Insurgent Activity 894.6 18,651 Kandahar Nesh Contested 1,281.0 17,702 Kandahar GIROA Control 5,962.1 109,824 Panjwa'i Kandahar Registan GIROA Inuence 13,562.3 8,547 Kandahar Shah Wali Kot Contested 3,279.4 55,032 Kandahar Shorabak GIROA Inuence 4,173.7 17,105 142,728 Kandahar Spin Boldak GIROA Control 5,688.1 Zharey Kandahar 108,997 673.9 GIROA Inuence Kapisa Alah Say 302.5 48,021 Contested Hisah-e Awal-e GIROA Inuence 88.0 84,120 Kapisa Kohistan Hisah-e Dowum-e Kapisa 53.0 56,842 GIROA Inuence Kohistan Kapisa Koh Band GIROA Control 150.1 28,839 Kapisa Mahmud-e Raqi GIROA Inuence 184.4 92,443 Kapisa GIROA Inuence 581.3 130,625 Nejrab Kapisa Tagab Contested 522.2 99,161 Khost Bak GIROA Inuence 170.5 27,925 Khost Gurbuz Contested 358.5 35,033 Khost Jaji Maidan GIROA Inuence 328.2 29,902 Khost Khost 491.2 175,829 GIROA Inuence Manduzai 114.4 68,017 Khost GIROA Inuence Musa Khel Contested Khost 50,003 426.7 Khost Nadir Shah Kot Contested 333.6 41,578 Khost Qalandar GIROA Inuence 157.0 12,285 Khost Contested 413.5 88,747 Sabari Khost Shamul GIROA Inuence 171.6 18,452 Khost Sperah Contested 491.7 29,056 Khost Tanai GIROA Inuence 428.7 71,664 Terayzai Khost 55,658 397.4 Contested 42,155 84.7 GIROA Control Asadabad Kunar Continued on the next page 224 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

235 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Population Area [km2] Province District (Landscan 2016) Assessment (Landscan) Kunar GIROA Inuence 168.8 25,262 Bar Kunar 600.4 Kunar Chapah Darah Contested 39,792 Contested 203.2 22,584 Dangam Kunar Contested Kunar 67,116 Darah-ye Pech 549.3 Ghaziabad 561.1 23,773 Kunar GIROA Inuence GIROA Inuence 44,139 Khas Kunar 365.2 Kunar Contested 147.2 Kunar Marawarah 25,251 Narang GIROA Inuence 189.3 36,668 Kunar GIROA Inuence Kunar 537.1 34,076 Nari Kunar GIROA Inuence 307.9 38,956 Nurgal Sar Kani GIROA Inuence 34,213 Kunar 198.3 Contested 439.1 Shigal wa Sheltan Kunar 37,218 Kunar Tsowkey Contested 245.2 45,679 Watahpur Contested 252.4 34,587 Kunar Kunduz Aliabad 416.2 61,133 Contested Chahar Darah 1,213.8 91,207 Kunduz Insurgent Activity Dasht-e Archi Insurgent Activity Kunduz 103,049 861.3 Kunduz Imam Sahib Insurgent Activity 1,598.9 293,481 Kunduz Khanabad Insurgent Activity 1,074.9 194,035 Kunduz Kunduz 406,014 616.3 Contested Kunduz Qal'ah-ye Zal 2,120.3 88,082 Insurgent Activity Alingar 818.0 129,639 Laghman GIROA Inuence Alisheng GIROA Inuence Laghman 89,307 670.1 Laghman Bad Pash Contested 288.9 8,738 Laghman Dowlat Shah Contested 741.9 41,568 Laghman GIROA Control 430.0 164,073 Mehtar Lam Laghman Qarghah'i GIROA Inuence 886.6 119,369 Logar Azrah GIROA Inuence 760.7 25,367 Logar Baraki Barak Contested 272.9 109,638 Charkh Logar Contested 286.3 55,409 Logar Kharwar 467.3 32,796 Contested Khoshi 436.3 30,289 Logar GIROA Inuence Muhammad Aghah Contested Logar 95,555 1,050.3 Logar Pul-e 'Alam Contested 1,121.2 132,217 Nangarhar Achin GIROA Inuence 466.6 128,557 Nangarhar GIROA Inuence 152.6 96,936 Bati Kot Nangarhar Behsud GIROA Inuence 311.0 123,831 Nangarhar Chaparhar Contested 231.2 77,068 Nangarhar Darah-ye Nur GIROA Inuence 258.5 49,816 384.8 Contested Nangarhar Deh Bala 50,366 Nangarhar 279.2 GIROA Inuence Dur Baba 29,125 Continued on the next page 225 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

236 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Population Area [km2] Province District (Landscan 2016) Assessment (Landscan) Nangarhar GIROA Inuence 521.3 34,054 Goshtah 669.2 Nangarhar Hisarak Insurgent Activity 38,772 GIROA Control 23.6 274,929 Jalalabad Nangarhar GIROA Control Nangarhar 96,101 Kamah 229.5 Khugyani 675.8 164,212 Nangarhar Contested GIROA Inuence 61,498 Kot 173.1 Nangarhar GIROA Inuence 290.2 Nangarhar Kuz Kunar 70,180 La'lpur Contested 463.0 23,912 Nangarhar GIROA Inuence Nangarhar 259.1 61,243 Mohmand Darah Nangarhar Contested 215.4 21,818 Naziyan Pachir wa Agam Contested 53,125 Nangarhar 466.9 Contested 356.4 Rodat Nangarhar 84,921 Nangarhar Sherzad Insurgent Activity 466.0 82,113 Shinwar GIROA Inuence 87.6 67,817 Nangarhar Nangarhar Surkh Rod 384.6 174,188 GIROA Inuence Chahar Burjak 20,879.6 32,223 Nimroz GIROA Inuence Chakhansur GIROA Inuence Nimroz 29,648 9,877.8 Nimroz Delaram Contested 2,064.1 8,310 Nimroz Kang GIROA Inuence 1,160.0 25,478 Khash Rod Nimroz 31,852 5,782.5 Contested Nimroz Zaranj 1,191.4 74,977 GIROA Control Barg-e Matal 1,717.3 19,327 Nuristan GIROA Inuence Do Ab Contested Nuristan 9,471 564.2 Nuristan Kamdesh GIROA Inuence 1,222.8 31,580 Nuristan Mandol Contested 2,040.6 24,876 Nuristan GIROA Inuence 978.3 32,887 Nurgaram Nuristan Parun GIROA Inuence 1,426.8 16,916 Nuristan Wama Contested 281.5 13,859 Nuristan Waygal Insurgent Activity 755.8 24,306 Bermal Paktika Contested 1,297.3 44,818 Paktika Dilah 1,531.3 31,725 Contested Giyan 224.5 42,287 Paktika Contested Gomal Contested Paktika 9,809 4,069.1 Paktika Jani Khel Contested 988.6 30,217 Paktika Mota Khan GIROA Inuence 422.9 31,296 Paktika Contested 122.0 15,574 Nikeh Paktika Omnah Contested 461.6 15,079 Paktika Sar Rowzah GIROA Inuence 671.7 28,634 Paktika Sarobi GIROA Inuence 301.7 15,439 536.9 GIROA Control Paktika Sharan 62,800 Paktika 1,423.0 Contested Terwo 2,678 Continued on the next page 226 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

237 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Area [km2] Population District Province (Landscan) (Landscan 2016) Assessment GIROA Inuence Paktika 69,437 Urgun 511.2 Wazah Khwah Contested 1,759.0 28,701 Paktika Wur Mamay Contested 3,183.4 4,414 Paktika Yahya Khel 348.1 21,673 Contested Paktika Paktika Yosuf Khel GIROA Inuence 522.5 17,432 Zarghun Shahr GIROA Inuence 473.6 37,218 Paktika Ziruk Contested 213.8 23,722 Paktika GIROA Inuence Ahmadabad 34,283 416.3 Paktiya Paktiya Dand Patan 205.6 32,458 Contested Dzadran 503.1 44,786 Paktiya GIROA Inuence Gardez GIROA Inuence Paktiya 105,981 707.9 Paktiya Jaji Contested 602.5 78,903 Paktiya Jani Khel Contested 145.0 43,632 Paktiya GIROA Inuence 197.5 37,049 Lajah Ahmad Khel Paktiya Lajah Mangal GIROA Inuence 225.3 15,026 Paktiya Mirzakah GIROA Inuence 201.6 22,020 Paktiya Sayyid Karam Contested 249.8 58,468 6,915 Paktiya Shwak GIROA Inuence 107.0 GIROA Inuence Paktiya 63,520 301.2 Tsamkani Paktiya Zurmat 134,424 Contested 1,413.8 GIROA Control 16,394 Abshar 516.4 Panjshayr GIROA Control 344.6 Panjshayr Bazarak 22,285 Darah GIROA Control 195.7 15,398 Panjshayr Khinj GIROA Control 684.3 49,100 Panjshayr Parian 1,420.8 18,519 GIROA Control Panjshayr Panjshayr Rukhah GIROA Control 163.5 28,876 Shutul GIROA Control 226.1 13,704 Panjshayr Unabah GIROA Control 178.4 23,580 Panjshayr GIROA Control Bagram 130,678 360.3 Parwan Parwan Charikar 267.4 227,236 GIROA Inuence Jabal us Saraj 116.5 78,784 Parwan GIROA Inuence Koh-e Sa Contested Parwan 38,407 579.8 Parwan Salang GIROA Control 520.0 31,761 Parwan Sayyid Khayl Contested 45.9 56,652 Parwan GIROA Inuence 920.2 31,342 Shaykh 'Ali Parwan Shinwari GIROA Inuence 721.3 51,960 Parwan Siahgird Ghorband GIROA Inuence 894.6 120,519 Parwan Surkh-e Parsa Contested 1,163.8 50,616 1,489.2 Samangan Aibak GIROA Inuence 128,943 Samangan 79,077 GIROA Inuence Darah-ye Suf-e Bala 2,890.3 Samangan 1,341.4 Darah-ye Suf-e Pa'in Contested 71,742 Continued on the next page 227 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

238 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Area [km2] Population District Province (Landscan) (Landscan 2016) Assessment GIROA Control 1,185.3 16,617 Samangan Fayroz Nakhchir GIROA Inuence 1,486.0 72,670 Hazrat-e Sultan Samangan Samangan Khuram wa Sar Bagh GIROA Control 2,135.0 49,538 Ruy Do Ab GIROA Inuence 2,385.4 57,068 Samangan Balkhab 2,977.7 63,437 GIROA Inuence Sar-e Pul Gosfandi Contested 1,092.3 70,542 Sar-e Pul High Insurgent Kohistanat 6,164.6 101,170 Sar-e Pul Activity Contested Sangcharak 126,005 1,060.7 Sar-e Pul Sar-e Pul Sar-e Pul 2,053.2 196,543 GIROA Inuence Sayad 1,335.2 68,628 Sar-e Pul Contested Sozmah Qal'ah Contested Sar-e Pul 64,241 583.9 Takhar Baharak Contested 243.3 47,249 Takhar Bangi Contested 603.0 45,833 Takhar Contested 759.2 98,569 Chah Ab Takhar Chal GIROA Inuence 326.1 32,622 Takhar Darqad Insurgent Activity 366.5 33,461 Takhar Dasht-e Qal'ah Contested 328.8 41,659 58,899 Takhar Farkhar GIROA Inuence 1,255.4 Takhar Hazar Sumuch 25,019 345.7 GIROA Inuence Takhar Ishkamish 798.8 75,778 Insurgent Activity Kalafgan 473.7 43,567 Takhar GIROA Inuence Khwajah Bahawuddin Contested 212.7 Takhar 29,338 Takhar Khwajah Ghar Insurgent Activity 387.2 83,599 Takhar Namak Ab GIROA Inuence 547.4 14,862 Takhar GIROA Inuence 1,862.4 198,752 Rustaq Takhar Taloqan GIROA Inuence 847.8 275,579 Takhar Warsaj GIROA Inuence 2,697.9 47,444 Takhar Yangi Qal'ah Insurgent Activity 261.5 56,515 Insurgent Activity Uruzgan Chinartu 1,013.7 32,993 Uruzgan Chorah 2,020.2 47,551 Insurgent Activity Deh Rawud 1,642.6 76,291 Uruzgan Contested Khas Uruzgan Insurgent Activity Uruzgan 70,781 2,599.3 Uruzgan Shahid-e Hasas Insurgent Activity 1,858.4 74,174 Uruzgan Tarin Kot Contested 1,762.1 127,625 Wardak 1,110.5 105,641 Contested Chak-e Wardak Daymirdad Contested 956.4 38,655 Wardak Hisah-e Awal-e Wardak 46,777 GIROA Inuence 1,573.4 Behsud Wardak Jaghatu Contested 599.1 57,041 1,092.5 Contested Wardak Jalrayz 66,474 Wardak 246.4 GIROA Inuence Maidan Shahr 49,827 Continued on the next page 228 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

239 APPENDICES UNCLASSIFIED May 2018 Area [km2] Population District Province Assessment (Landscan 2016) (Landscan) Markaz-e Behsud GIROA Inuence 3,344.9 148,585 Wardak Wardak Nerkh Contested 561.9 73,717 Wardak Sayyidabad Contested 1,094.8 143,266 Zabul Arghandab Insurgent Activity 1,507.0 41,240 10,986 Zabul Atghar Contested 502.2 Daychopan Insurgent Activity Zabul 49,159 1,640.4 High Insurgent Zabul 1,081.7 30,837 Kakar Activity Zabul Mizan Contested 1,118.4 17,234 Zabul Now Bahar Insurgent Activity 1,264.1 23,674 Qalat 44,477 Zabul GIROA Control 1,836.2 Shah Joy Insurgent Activity 1,718.6 73,158 Zabul Shamulzai Zabul Contested 2,889.3 32,256 29,227 Zabul Shinkai Contested 2,289.2 22,192 Tarnek wa Jaldak Contested 1,502.7 Zabul Note: GIROA = Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 229 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

240 APPENDICES APPENDIX G ENEMY-INITIATED ATTACKS BY PROVINCE This quarter, RS provided SIGAR data on enemy-initiated attacks at the pro- vincial level. See pages 74–75 for the data in map form and a corresponding analysis. The data below covers the period of January 1–August 15, 2018. Province Enemy Initiated Attacks Province Enemy Initiated Attacks Kunar 371 Badakhshan 118 392 Kunduz Baghdis 1,011 Laghman 244 302 Baghlan 275 Logar Balkh 265 Nangarhar 510 3 Bamiyan Nimroz 83 Daykundi 53 Nuristan 38 Farah 1,145 243 Paktika 1,176 Faryab 332 Paktiya 956 Ghazni Panjshir 0 227 Ghor 139 Parwan 1,086 Helmand 31 Samangan 779 Herat Sar-e Pul 125 Jowzjan 183 115 Takhar Kabul 411 Uruzgan 1,096 Kandahar 1,004 Wardak 379 162 Kapisa 610 Zabul Khost 76 13,940 Total Continued in the next column Source: RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/22/2018. 230 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I I

241 APPENDICES APPENDIX H ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ACRONYM OR ABBREVIATION DEFINITION AABIS Afghan Automated Biometric Identication System AAEP Afghanistan Agriculture Extension Project AAF Afghan Air Force AAM ANDSF Aviation Modernization Program ABADE Assistance in Building Afghanistan by Developing Enterprises ABP Afghan Border Police ACAP Afghan Civilian Assistance Program ACAS Afghanistan Court Administration System ACE Agricultural Credit Enhancement ACEP Afghan Civic Engagement Program ACEP Afghan Civic Engagement Program Anti-Corruption Justice Center ACJC ACLED Armed Conict Location & Event Data Project alternative-development AD Assistance for Development of Afghan Legal Access and Transparency ADALAT ADF Agricultural Development Fund AETF-A Air and Space Expeditionary Task Force-Afghanistan Air Force Civil Engineer Center AFCEC AFMIS Afghan Financial Management Information System AFN afghani (currency) Attorney General’s Ofce AGO Afghan Human Resource Information Management System AHRIMS Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund AIF AITF Afghanistan Infrastructure Trust Fund ALBA Assistance to Legislative Bodies of Afghanistan ALCS Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey ALP Afghan Local Police Afghanistan's Measure for Accountability and Transparency AMANAT ANA Afghan National Army ANA Special Operations Command ANASOC ANATF ANA Territorial Force Afghan National Civil Order Forces ANCOF Afghan National Civil Order Police ANCOP Afghan National Defense and Security Forces ANDSF Continued on the next page 231 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

242 APPENDICES ACRONYM OR ABBREVIATION DEFINITION ANMA Afghan National Military Academy ANP Afghan National Police AO abandoned ordnance APAPPS Afghanistan-Pakistan Action Plan for Peace and Solidarity APPS Afghan Personnel Pay System APRP Afghan Peace and Reintegration Program AROC Afghan Resources Oversight Council ARP Afghan Red Program ARTF Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund ASFF Afghanistan Security Forces Fund ASSF Afghan Special Security Forces ATAR Afghanistan Trade and Revenue Project AUAF American University of Afghanistan AUP Afghan Uniformed Police Asian University for Women AUW AWDP Afghanistan Workforce Development Program BADILL Boost Alternative Development Intervention through Licit Livelihoods Budget Activity Groups BAGs Combat Advisor Team CAT CBARD Community-Based Agricultre and Rural Development Project Capacity Building and Change Management Program CBCMP CDCS Country Development Cooperation Strategy CERP Commander’s Emergency Response Program CHAMP Commercial Horticulture and Agricultural Marketing Program CHX chlorhexidine CIGIE Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efciency CMR certied mission ready CMS Case Management System CN Counternarcotics Counter Narcotics Community Engagement CNCE CNJC Counter Narcotics Justice Center CNPA Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan COIN counterinsurgency COMAC Conict Mitigation Assistance for Civilians CoreIMS Core Information Management System CPD Central Prisons Directorate Continuing Professional Development Support CPDS Corruption Perceptions Index CPI CRIP Community Recovery Intensication and Prioritization CSO civil-society organization Continued on the next page 232 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

243 APPENDICES ACRONYM OR ABBREVIATION DEFINITION CSO Central Statistics Organization CSSP Corrections System Support Program CSTC-A Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan CTA Counter-narcotics Central Transfer Account CTF Counterthreat-Finance DABS Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat DCA Development Credit Authority DCAR Delegated Cooperation Agreement DCIS Defense Criminal Investigative Service DEA Drug Enforcement Administration (U.S.) DEWS Plus Disease Early Warning System Plus DFID Department for International Development DIG Deputy Inspector General DLA-E Defense Logistics Agency-Energy Department of Defense (U.S.) DOD DOD CN Department of Defense Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities fund (U.S.) DOD OIG Department of Defense Ofce of Inspector General Department of Justice (U.S.) DOJ Electoral Complaint Commission ECC ECC-A Expeditionary Contracting Command-Afghanistan Extended Credit Facility ECF EF essential function EFT electronic funds-transfer EIA Enemy-Initiated Attacks EPZ export-processing zone ERW explosive remnants of war ESF Economic Support Fund EU European Union EVAW elimination of violence against women Financial Activity Plan FAP FAUAF Friends of the American Univeristy of Afghanistan FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FEWS NET Famine Early Warning Systems Network FL-PTWG Family Law-Parliamentary Technical Working Group FY scal year GAO Government Accountability Ofce (U.S.) General Command of Police Special Units GCPSU gross domestic product GDP GDPDC General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Centers GEC Girls' Education Challenge Program Continued on the next page 233 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

244 APPENDICES ACRONYM OR ABBREVIATION DEFINITION GIROA Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan GIS Geographic Information Systems GLE Governor-Led Eradication GPI Good Performer's Initiative GRAIN Grain Research and Innovation GVHR gross violations of human rights HEMAYAT Helping Mothers and Children Thrive HIG Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin HOB High Oversight Board HPC High Peace Council HQ headquarters HRW Human Rights Watch HSR Health Sector Resiliency ICHA International Corruption Hunters Alliance International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC IDP Internally Displaced Persons IEC Independent Election Commission (Afghan) improvised explosive device IED inspector general IG IHSAN Initiative for Hygiene, Sanitation, and Nutrition International Monetary Fund IMF IMSMA Information Management System for Mine Action INCLE International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (U.S) INL Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (U.S.) IOM International Organization for Migration IR Intermediate Result IS-K Islamic State-Khorasan ISLA Initiative to Strengthen Local Administrations Program IWA Integrity Watch Afghanistan Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action JCPOA JES Joint Explanatory Statement JRD Juvenile Rehabilitation Directorate JSCC Joint Security Compact Committee JSSP Justice Sector Support Program (State) JTTP Justice Training Transition Program (State) KAF Kandahar Air Field Kabul Bank Recievership KBR Kandahar Food Zone KFZ kg kilograms KIA Killed in Action Continued on the next page 234 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

245 APPENDICES ACRONYM OR ABBREVIATION DEFINITION kWh kilowatt-hours LLP Lessons Learned Program LOTFA Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan LTC Lakeshore Toltest Corporation M&E Monitoring and Evaluation MAIL Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (Afghan) MCN Ministry of Counter-Narcotics (Afghan) MCTF Major Crimes Task Force MEC Monitoring and Evaluation Committee (Afghan) MEDEVAC medical evacuation MFNDU Marshal Fahim National Defense University MOCI Ministry of Commerce and Industry MOD Ministry of Defense (Afghan) MOE Minister of Education (Afghan) Ministry of Economy (Afghan) MOEc MOF Ministry of Finance (Afghan) MOHE Ministry of Higher Education (Afghan) Ministry of Interior (Afghan) MOI Ministry of Justice (Afghan) MOJ MOMP Ministry of Mines and Petroleum (Afghan) Ministry of Public Health (Afghan) MOPH MOU memorandum of understanding MOWA Ministry of Women's Affairs MPD MOI and Police Development project MRRD Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (Afghan) MSP Monitoring Support Project NATF NATO ANA Trust Fund NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDAA National Defense Authorization Act National Drug Action Plan NDAP NDP New Development Partnership NDS National Directorate of Security (Afghan) NEF National Elections forum NEI Northern Electrical Interconnect NEPS Northeast Power System NGO nongovernmental organization National Information Management System NIMS National Interdiction Unit (Afghan) NIU NSA National Security Advisor NSIA National Statistics and Informarion Authority Continued on the next page 235 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

246 APPENDICES ACRONYM OR ABBREVIATION DEFINITION NSOCC-A NATO Special Operations Component Command-Afghanistan NSP National Solidarity Program NSPA NATO Support and Procurement Agency O&M operations and maintenance OCHA Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OCO Overseas Contingency Operations OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OFS Operation Freedom's Sentinel OIG Ofce of the Inspector General OPIC Overseas Private Investment Corporation OR operational readiness OTA Ofce of Technical Assistance (U.S. Treasury) PA I Personnel Asset Inventory PCASS Preliminary Credibility Assessment Screening System Provincial Development Plans PDP PIAT Police Institutional Advisory Team Bureau of Political-Military Affairs' Ofce of Weapons Removal and Abatement PM/WRA (State) POR proof of registration Promoting Gender Equity in National Priority Programs Promote PTEC Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity Regional Agriculture Development Program RADP RC Recurrent Cost REA Request for Equitable Adjustment RM Resource Management RMTC Regional Military Training Center Rule of Law ROL Resolute Support RS SCEEA Strengthening Civil Engagement in Elections in Afghanistan Activity SEPS Southeast Power System Security Force Assistance Brigade SFAB SGDP Sheberghan Gas Development Project SGGA Sheberghan Gas Generation Activity SHAHAR Strong Hubs for Afghan Hope and Resilience Stability in Key Areas SIKA SIU Sensitive Investigative Unit (Afghan) SMAF Self-Reliance through Mutual Accountability Framework SME subject-matter expert Special Mission Wing (Afghan) SMW SOF Special Operations Forces Continued on the next page 236 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

247 APPENDICES ACRONYM OR DEFINITION ABBREVIATION Support to Payroll Management SPM SPRA Support for Peace and Reconciliation in Afghanistan project State OIG Department of State Ofce of the Inspector General SWIM Strengthening Watershed and Irrigation Management TAA train, advise, and assist TAAC train, advise, and assist command TEFA Transparent Election Foundation of Afghanistan TFBSO Task Force for Business and Stability Operations TIU Technical Investigative Unit UAE United Arab Emirates UN United Nations UNAMA UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan UNCAC United Nations Convention Against Corruption UNDP UN Development Programme UN Mine Action Service UNMAS UNODC UN Ofce on Drugs and Crime USAAA U.S. Army Audit Agency USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USAID U.S. Agency for International Development USAID OIG USAID Ofce of the Inspector General USCID U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command U.S. Forces-Afghanistan USFOR-A USGS United States Geological Survey USIP United States Institute of Peace USTRANSCOM U.S. Transportation Command University Support and Workforce Development Program USWDP UXO unexploded ordnance VFU Veterinary Field Unit Village Stability Operations VSO Wounded in Action WIA WIE Women in the Economy Project Women's Leadership Development WLD Women's Participation Projects WPP WTO World Trade Organization 237 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

248 ENDNOTES SIGAR calculation on data for 16 federal scal years. The vast 1. counternarcotics mission,” and that operations and support for Afghan forces attacking drug labs are “targeting insurgent majority of these funds was spent on projects with a counter - nancial networks and revenue sources under the expanded narcotics focus; a portion was appropriated for programs that included a signicant counternarcotics component, but were authorities of the U.S. administration’s South Asia strategy.” not exclusively devoted counternarcotics. The full report and an interactive version are online at www. 18. sigar.mil. See funding data in Appendix B of this SIGAR quarterly report. 2. Some of the appropriated funds have not yet been disbursed. Prepared Remarks of John F. Sopko, Special Inspector General 19. U.S. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, 3. for Afghanistan Reconstruction, “Counternarcotics: Lessons Future , report, 113th U.S. Counternarcotics Efforts in Afghanistan from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan, 2002–2017,” at New America, Washington, DC, 6/14/2018. Congress, Second Session, 12/2014, p. 3. 20. LLP CN, i. Challenges to sus- UNODC, Afghanistan opium survey 2017: 4. LLP CN, p. 24. 21. tainable development, peace and security , 5/2018, p. 4. , 10/2003, p. 6. 22. Descriptions of panelists’ remarks in this section are based 5. UNODC, Afghanistan Opium Survey 2003 on SIGAR review of the New America video of its 6/14/2018 UNODC, 6. Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Challenges to , 5/2018, p. 5. The debut event for SIGAR’s LLP CN report. A link to the video is sustainable development, peace and security UNODC estimates the farm-gate (as distinct from retail) value at https://www.newamerica.org/international-security/events/ counternarcotics-lessons-usexperience-afghanistan/. Accessed of the 2017 Afghan opium crop at $1.4 billion, or the equivalent to 7% of the Afghan Central Statistics Organization estimate of 7/31/2018. , national GDP. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress SIGAR, 23. 7. UNODC, 7/30/2018, p. 200. Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Challenges to sus- tainable development, peace and security , 5/2018, p. 5. LLP CN, p. 3, Table 1. 24. 25. 8. William A. Byrd, PhD, “Disease or Symptom? Afghanistan’s LLP CN, pp. 163-171. 26. Burgeoning Opium Economy in 2017,” Afghanistan Research LLP CN, p. 5. 27. and Evaluation Unit paper 1733E, 11/2017, p. 1. The estimate is LLP CN, p. 53. 28. “based on 2017 cultivation data, an estimate of 360 days of labor LLP CN, p. 121. 29. LLP CN, p. 164. inputs per hectare of poppy, and the assumption that one FTE LLP CN, p. 161. [full-time equivalent] is 200 days per year.” 30. 9. Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy In Brief , 31. See LLP CN, pp. 171–178, for the full discussion. CRS, 22 U.S. Code § 3927 provides that “the chief of mission to a 9/17/2018, p. 10, note 68. 32. 10. SIGAR, Counternarcotics: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in foreign country . . . shall have full responsibility for the direc- tion, coordination, and supervision of all Government executive Afghanistan , Lessons Learned Program report, SIGAR 18-52-LL, branch employees in that country (except for Voice of America 6/2018, p. 35. Hereafter cited as “LLP CN.” correspondents on ofcial assignment and employees under the 11. Prepared Remarks of John F. Sopko, Special Inspector General command of a United States area military commander).” The for Afghanistan Reconstruction, “Counternarcotics: Lessons State Department’s from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan, 2002–2017,” at New Foreign Affairs Manual adds an exception America, Washington, DC, 6/14/2018. for “Executive branch employees on ofcial detail to an interna- 12. tional organization” (2 FAH-2 H-112.1, b(2).) Afghanistan opium survey 2017: Challenges to sus- UNODC, 33. SIGAR’s authorizing legislation, Pub. L. No. 110-181, directs , 5/2018, p. 7. tainable development, peace and security the agency to recommend improvements for reconstruction 13. Statement of John F. Sopko, “Future U.S. Counternarcotics Efforts in Afghanistan,” before the Senate Caucus on programs. International Narcotics Control, Washington, DC, SIGAR 14-21- National Public Radio, “Timeline: America’s War on Drugs,” 34. transcript, npr.org/templates/story/story.php, 4/2/2007, accessed TY, 1/15/2014, p. 2. 9/2/2018. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, constitution, “Chapter 1: 14. New York Times See, for example, the The State,” article 7, ratied 1/26/2004, English translation 35. op-ed by former Secretary of State George P. Shultz and former Mexican nance posted at http://www.afghanembassy.com.pl/afg/images/pliki/ TheConstitution.pdf. secretary Pedro Aspe, “The Failed War on Drugs,” 12/31/2017. The authors wrote, “The war on drugs in the United States has 15. U.S. Embassy Kabul, Integrated Country Strategy: been a failure that has ruined lives, lled prisons and cost a Afghanistan , 9/27/2018, p. 2. The lead section of the integrated strategy, “Chief of Mission Priorities,” lists “operations and fortune.” policy priorities” as consolidating and sustaining the effects of 36. CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, “Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts,” Vital Statistics Rapid Release, U.S. counterterrorism efforts, ending the conict between the 9/12/2018, accessed 10/3/2018. Taliban and wider Afghan society, and “shifting responsibility to Washington Post 37. the Afghan government and people to secure their borders and , “Senate passes sweeping opioids package,” their institutions, and meet the basic needs of Afghan citizens.” 9/17/2018. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress Narrative treatments of these issues appear in the security, gov- 16. , SIGAR, 38. ernance, economics, and counternarcotics sections of SIGAR’s 4/30/2018, p. 180. 17. DOD vetting comments received by SIGAR on 7/13/2018 quarterly reports to the U.S. Congress and in other products say “USFOR-A [U.S. Forces-Afghanistan] does not have a posted at https://www.sigar.mil. 238 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

249 ENDNOTES 59. See Appendix B of this report. 39. The Drug Enforcement Administration says opioid abuse in the 60. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and United States is at “epidemic levels,” but notes that despite ris- ing Afghan production, “comparatively little” Southwest Asian Subaccounts June 2016,” 7/15/2016; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 7/11/2016. heroin reaches the USA: Mexico is the main supplier of heroin TFBSO, “About TFBSO,” accessed 10/20/2011; DOD, responses to the U.S. market, followed by South America; the Afghan 61. to SIGAR data call, 1/13/2015 and 7/22/2011. product mostly serves markets in Asia, Africa, and Europe. 62. DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 7/12/2016. DEA, 2017 National Drug Threat Assessment , DEA-DCT- DIR-040-17, 10/2017, v, vii, p. 47. DOD, “Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities, 63. Defense FY 2009 Supplemental Request Drug Interdiction and 40. Website of Senator Charles Grassley, “Grassley, Feinstein Press Counterdrug Activities,” accessed 4/13/2010. SIGAR for Answers on Failing Counternarcotics Efforts in Afghanistan” news release with text and PDF of 9/17/2018 letter 64. DOD OIG, Independent Auditor’s Report on the DOD FY 2011 Detailed Accounting Report of the Funds Obligated for National to SIGAR, https://www.grassley.senate.gov/news/news-releases/ Drug Control Program Activities, Report No. DODIG-2012-04, grassley-feinstein-press-sigar-answers-failing-counternarcotics- 1/30/2012. efforts, 9/26/2018. 41. Pub. L. No. 111-32, 6/24/2009. DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 6/21/2016. 65. USAID, U.S. Foreign Assistance Reference Guide, 1/2005, p. 6. 66. 42. DOD, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/20/2009. 67. Pub. L. No. 112-74, Section 9009, 12/23/2011; Deputy Secretary USAID, response to SIGAR data call 7/11/2016; State, response 43. of Defense, “Afghanistan Resources Oversight Council (AROC) to SIGAR data call, 5/4/2016, 4/15/2015, and 4/15/2014; DOD, memorandum,” 8/3/2011. response to SIGAR data call, 10/6/2014. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and 44. 68. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 7/11/2016 and 4/9/2016. Subaccounts June 2016,” 7/15/2016. State, response to SIGAR data call, 10/13/2009. 69. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program 45. 70. State, response to SIGAR data call, 7/15/2016 and 4/7/2016. and Subaccounts June 2016,” 7/15/2016; DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 71. SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the U.S. Congress, 7/30/2010, p. 51. 72. ARTF: Administrator’s Report on Financial Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts March World Bank, Status as of June 20, 2016 (end of 6th month of FY 1395), 2016,” 4/15/2016. p. 6. 46. DOD OIG, Distribution of Funds and the Validity of Obligations ARTF: Administrator’s Report on Financial World Bank, for the Management of the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund - 73. Status as of June 20, 2016 (end of 6th month of FY 1395), Phase I, Report No. D-2008-012, 11/5/2007, p. 2. p. 1. Pub. L. No. 112-74, Section 9009 and Deputy Secretary of 47. 74. Defense, Afghanistan Resources Oversight Council (AROC) ARTF: Administrator’s Report on Financial World Bank, Status as of June 20, 2016 (end of 6th month of FY 1395), memorandum, 8/3/2011. 48. p. 6. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and 75. Subaccounts June 2016,” 7/15/2016. World Bank, “Quarterly Country Update: Afghanistan,” 4/2011, DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and p. 16. 49. 76. Subaccounts June 2016,” 7/15/2016. ARTF: Administrator’s Report on Financial World Bank, Ofce of the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense 50. Status as of June 20, 2016 (end of 6th month of FY 1395), p. 8. Budget, Justication for FY 2019 Overseas Contingency 77. Operations (OCO), Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF), World Bank, “Quarterly Country Update: Afghanistan,” 4/2011, p. 16. February 2018. 51. ARTF: Administrator’s Report on Financial World Bank, 78. NATO, “Afghan National Army (ANA) Trust Fund, Media Status as of June 20, 2016 (end of 6th month of FY 1395) Backgrounds,” 7/2018. , DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 10/12/2018. 52. p. 8. EC, “Afghanistan: State of Play, January 2011,” 3/31/2011, p. 7. DOD, “Commanders’ Emergency Response Program (CERP),” 53. 79. DOD Financial Management Regulation Vol. 12, Ch. 27, 1/2009, 80. UNDP, response to SIGAR data call, 10/19/2018. p. 27-3. UNDP, Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan [LOTFA] 81. 54. 1 July 2015–December 2016 (Phase VIII Project Document), Pub. L. No. 113-235, 12/16/2014. 6/29/2015, vii, x, p. 1. See Appendix B of this report. 55. 82. SIGAR analysis of UNDP LOTFA quarterly and annual SPM and 56. DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 7/19/2016. Pub. L. No. 112-74, Section 9009, 12/23/2011; Deputy Secretary 57. MPD progress reports through March 31, 2018, 7/19/2018. 83. of Defense, “Afghanistan Resources Oversight Council (AROC) UNDP, response to SIGAR data call, 7/17/2018; UNDP, Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan [LOTFA] 1 July 2015– memorandum,” 8/3/2011; U.S. Senate Committee on Armed December 2016 (Phase VIII Project Document), 6/29/2015, vii, x, Services, Press Release, “Senate Passes Ike Skelton National p. 1. Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011,” 12/22/2010. 58. UNDP, Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan (LOTFA) 84. Pub. L. No. 112-74, Section 9009, 12/23/2011; Deputy Secretary of Defense, “Afghanistan Resources Oversight Council (AROC) Support to Payroll Management (SPM) 2017 Annual Progress Report, 4/15/2018, p. 1. memorandum,” 8/3/2011; U.S. Senate Committee on Armed 85. SIGAR analysis of UNDP LOTFA quarterly and annual SPM and Services, Press Release, “Senate Passes Ike Skelton National MPD progress reports through March 31, 2018, 7/19/2018. Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011,” 12/22/2010. 239 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

250 ENDNOTES 105. See Appendix B of this quarterly report and DFAS, “AR(M) 86. DOD, “Department Of Defense Press Brieng by Secretary 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts Mattis and General Dunford in the Pentagon Brieng Room,” 8/28/2018; , “Taliban Kill More Than 200 Afghan New York Times September 2018,” 10/18/2018. 106. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 8/27/2016; OSD-P, Defenders on 4 Fronts: ‘A Catastrophe,’” 8/12/2018 response to SIGAR vetting, 1/15/2018; SIGAR, Quarterly Report DOD, “Secretary Mattis Media Availability at the Pentagon,” 87. , 4/30/2018, p. 75. to the United States Congress 9/11/2018. 107. , “Trump signs $717B annual defense policy bill into The Hill DOD, “Department of Defense Press Brieng by General 88. law,” 8/13/2018. Nicholson via Teleconference from Kabul, Afghanistan,” 108. 8/22/2018. United States Congress, National Defense Authorization Act 89. for Fiscal Year 2018 Reuters, “Taliban Reject Afghan Ceasere, Kidnap Nearly 200 , 12/12/2017, Pub. L. No. 115-91, Sec. 4302 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal (010-080) and Bus Passengers,” 8/20/2018. , 8/13/2018, Pub. L. No. 115-232, Sec. 4302 (080-240); Year 2019 s, “Top Afghan Leaders Killed in Attack That 90. New York Time Washington Post Misses U.S. Commander,” 10/18/2018; , “U.S. SIGAR, analysis of FY2018 and FY 2019 NDAA, 10/2018. National Defense Authorization Act United States Congress, 109. Commander in Afghanistan Survives Deadly Attack at Governor’s for Fiscal Year 2018 , 12/12/2017, Pub. L. No. 115-91, Sec. 4302 Compound that Kills Top Afghan Police General,” 10/18/2018. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal , “After Ghazni Attack, Taliban Still in New York Times 91. (010-080) and Afghanistan City,” 8/11/2018 and “Taliban Kill More Than 200 , 8/13/2018, Pub. L. No. 115-232, Sec. 4302 (080-240); Year 2019 SIGAR, analysis of FY2018 and FY 2019 NDAA, 10/2018. Long Afghan Defenders on 4 Fronts: ‘A Catastrophe,’” 8/12/2018; 110. Military Times , “Trump signs defense spending plan, with one , “Taliban Overruns Another Base in the North as it War Journal more swipe at Democrats,” 9/28/2018. Withdraws from Ghazni City,” 8/18/2018. 111. United States Congress, Department of Defense and Labor, 92. , “MOI Conrms At Least 70 Police Soldiers Killed In TOLOnews Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Ghazni Attack,” 8/13/2018; RS, “Afghan Security Forces Defeat , Act, 2019 and Continuing Appropriations Act, 2019 Taliban Offensive in Ghazni,” 8/17/2018. National Defense 9/28/2018, Pub. L. No. 115-245, pg. 56 and DOD, “Department of Defense Press Brieng by General Nicholson 93. , 8/13/2018, Pub. L. No. Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 via Teleconference from Kabul, Afghanistan,” 8/22/2018. 115-232, Sec. 4302 (080-240); SIGAR, analysis of FY 2018 and FY 94. Long War Journal , “Taliban Overruns Another Base in the 2019 legislation, 10/2018. New York North as it Withdraws from Ghazni City,” 8/18/2018; OSD-P, email to SIGAR, 1/13/2017. 112. , “Taliban Attack Another Afghan Army Base, Killing Times CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 8/27/2016; OSD-P, 113. Dozens,” 8/18/2018. Quarterly Report response to SIGAR vetting, 1/15/2018; SIGAR, 95. DOD, “Secretary Mattis Media Availability at the Pentagon,” , 4/30/2018, p. 75. to the United States Congress 9/24/2018; DOD, “Department Of Defense Press Brieng By RS, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/20/2018; 114. General Joseph Votel via teleconference from Tampa, Florida, SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 9/2018. on Operations in the Central Command Area of Responsibility,” 115. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; 10/4/2018. SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 9/2018. RS, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 96. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress SIGAR, 116. , RS, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/20/2018; 97. 4/30/2016, pp. 95–96. SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 9/2018; RS, response to 117. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 8/24/2017, 6/22/2018, and SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 9/19/2018; SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 9/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018 and response 98. 118. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018 and to vetting, 10/11/2018; OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; SIGAR, analysis of 10/17/2018; SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 10/2018. RS-provided data, 9/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2017, 6/22/2018, and 99. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018, 6/22/2018, 3/22/2018, 119. 9/20/2018; SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 9/2018. 10/15/2018, 8/24/2017, 5/15/2017, 2/20/2017, 11/26/2016, USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and response 100. 8/28/2016, 5/28/2016, 2/27/2016, and 11/27/2015; SIGAR analysis to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. of RS-A provided data, 9/2018. 101. DOD, “Department of Defense Press Brieng by General 120. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 3/22/2018, 6/22/2018, and Nicholson via Teleconference from Kabul, Afghanistan,” 9/19/2018. 8/22/2018. USFOR-A, correspondence with SIGAR, 4/2/2018; USFOR-A, 121. RS, “U.S. Forces in Afghanistan Strike Islamic State Leader; 102. response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; USFOR-A, response to Maintain Pressure on Terror Network,” 9/2/2018. SIGAR vetting, 4/12/2018. DOD, “DOD Identies Army Casualty,” 8/13/2018, 9/4/2018, 103. 122. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018, 6/22/2018, 3/22/2018, 9/5/2018, and 10/5/2018; Reuters, “U.S. Soldier Killed in 10/15/2018, 8/24/2017, 5/15/2017, 2/20/2017, 11/26/2016, Afghanistan Identied,” 9/4/2018. 8/28/2016, 5/28/2016, 2/27/2016, and 11/27/2015 and response to 104. See Appendix B of this quarterly report and DFAS, “AR(M) SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; SIGAR, analysis of RS-A provided 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts data, 9/2018. September 2018,” 10/18/2018. DOD, “Department of Defense Press Brieng by General Nicholson 123. via Teleconference from Kabul, Afghanistan,” 11/28/2017. 240 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

251 ENDNOTES 142. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018, 6/22/2018, 3/22/2018, USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 124. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; SIGAR, 143. 10/15/2018, 8/24/2017, 5/15/2017, 2/20/2017, 11/26/2016, 8/28/2016, 5/28/2016, 2/27/2016, and 11/27/2015; SIGAR, analysis analysis of USFOR-A-provided data, 10/2018. of RS-A provided data, 9/2018. 144. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; RS, “Afghan 125. Security Forces Defeat Taliban Offensive in Ghazni,” 8/17/2018; USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; SIGAR, SIGAR, analysis of USFOR-A-provided data, 10/2018. analysis of USFOR-A-provided data, 7/2018. 126. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; ACLED, South Asia 145. UNAMA, Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in 2016-Present dataset, 5/16/2018–7/31/2018, accessed online on Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 , 10/10/2018, 10/14/2018, available at https://www.acleddata.com/; SIGAR, p. 7. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/22/2018 and 6/22/2018; 146. analysis of ACLED and RS-provided data, 10/2018. OUSD-P, response to SIGAR data call, 6/21/2018. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; ACLED, South Asia 127. 147. 2016-Present dataset, 5/16/2018–7/31/2018, accessed online on NATO, “Resolute Support Mission (RSM): Key Facts and Figures,” 9/2018. 10/14/2018, available at https://www.acleddata.com/; SIGAR, analysis of ACLED and RS-provided data, 10/2018. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/22/2018. 148. 149. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to 128. NATO, “Resolute Support Mission (RSM): Key Facts and Figures,” 9/2018. SIGAR vetting, 10/22/2018. 129. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to DOD, “DOD Identies Army Casualty,” 8/13/2018, 9/4/2018, 150. SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 9/5/2018, and 10/5/2018; Reuters, “U.S. Soldier Killed in RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to Afghanistan Identied,” 9/4/2018. 130. Any inconsistencies in DOD casualty reporting compared to last SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 151. The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for UN, 131. quarter are due to a source change for casualty gures. DOD, international peace and security “U.S. Military Casualties - Operation Freedom’s Sentinel (OFS), , report of the Secretary- General, 9/10/2018, p. 5. Casualty Summary by Casualty Category,” and “U.S. Military 132. Casualties - Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Casualty The UN’s reporting periods are not always precise. The “same Summary by Casualty Category,” accessed 10/15/2018; DOD, period” covered by the September 2017 report was from June “U.S. Casualty Status,” accessed 7/18/2018. 15–August 31, 2017. UN, The situation in Afghanistan and its 152. implications for international peace and security , report of USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/7/2017 and 9/19/2018. 153. the Secretary-General, 9/1/2015, p. 4; 12/10/2015, p. 5; 3/7/2016, USFOR-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/13/2018 and 10/11/2018; p. 6; 6/10/2016, p. 4; 9/7/2016, p. 5; 12/13/2016, p. 4; 3/3/2017, p. 4; OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/18/2018; SIGAR, Quarterly , 1/30/2018 pp. 91–92. Report to the United States Congress 6/15/2017, p. 4; 9/15/2017, p. 4; 12/15/2017, p. 5, 2/27/2018, p. 5; 6/6/2018, p. 5; 9/10/2018, p. 5; SIGAR, analysis of UN data, 9/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; RS, response 154. UN, 133. to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for 155. , report of the Secretary- CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. international peace and security General, 6/6/2018, p. 5 and 9/10/2018, p. 5. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 156. 134. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. UNAMA, 157. Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in , 10/10/2018, 158. Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. p. 1. 159. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 160. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to 135. UNAMA, Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. , 10/10/2018, Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. pp. 1–2. 161. UNAMA, Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 136. 162. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; DOD, 163. Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 , 10/10/2018, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan , 6/2018, pp. 1–2. 137. UNAMA, p. 40. Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in 164. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to , 10/10/2018, Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 pp. 1–3, 6. SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; USFOR-A, response to SIGAR vet- ting, 7/13/2018. 138. UNAMA, Quarterly Report on the Protection of Civilians in 165. Armed Conict: 1 January to 30 September 2018 , 10/10/2018, RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. pp. 1–2 and Special Report: Increasing Harm to Afghan Civilians State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; 9 AETF, from the Deliberate and Indiscriminate Use of Improvised 166. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. Explosive Devices, p. 3. ACLED, South Asia dataset, 7/16/2018-10/1/2018; SIGAR, analy- 167. 9 AETF, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; Wall Street 139. sis of ACLED data, 10/2018. Journal, Dion Nissenbaum, “Months of U.S. Strikes have Failed to Curtail Taliban Opium Trade,” 8/8/2018; RS NATO website, 140. RS, “U.S. Forces in Afghanistan Strike Islamic State Leader; “Transcript of DoD Press Brieng with General John Nicholson, Maintain Pressure on Terror Network,” 9/2/2018; DOD, “Department of Defense Press Brieng by General Nicholson commander, U.S. Forces Afghanistan,” 11/20/2017. via Teleconference from Kabul, Afghanistan,” 8/22/2018. 9 AETF, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 168. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 169. 141. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 241 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

252 ENDNOTES 195. 170. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and 6/22/2018; 171. Wall Street Journal CSTC-A, teleconference with SIGAR, 7/6/2018; SIGAR, analysis , Dion Nissenbaum, “Months of U.S. Strikes have Failed to Curtail Taliban Opium Trade,” 8/8/2018; of USFOR-A-provided data, 9/2018. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and 196. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 172. Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. 9 AETF, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 173. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 8/27/2017 and 9/19/2018 197. 9 AETF, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/22/2018; AREU, David 174. and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 8/27/2017 and 9/19/2018. 198. Understanding Control and Inuence: What Opium Manseld, 199. Poppy and Tax Reveal about the Writ of the Afghan State CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018 , 8/2017, p. 35; Reuters, “U.S., Afghan forces expand air strikes on and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/22/2018. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and 200. Taliban drug labs,” 4/8/2018. 175. 9 AETF, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; USFOR-A, Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 10/5/2018. 201. response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 202. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and 176. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 203. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018 and response to CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018. 177. vetting, 10/11/2018; SIGAR, analysis of RS-provided data, 10/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 204. , 178. DOD, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 205. 6/2018, p. 40. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and 206. 179. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; CSTC-A, Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. Enhancing 207. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018, DOD, DOD, correspondence with SIGAR, 10/4/2018. 208. , 6/2018, p. 40; SIGAR, Security and Stability in Afghanistan There was a typographical error in last quarter’s report on AAF analysis of USFOR-A-provided data, 6/2018. - funding data (as of May 22, 2018) This quarter’s gures are the cor SIGAR, record of meeting with RS, 3/4/2018; RS, letter from Mr. rect gures for this quarter and last quarter. CSTC-A, response to 180. SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; SIGAR, analysis of CSTC-A provided Atmar to General Nicholson, 12/5/2017; RS, letter from General Nicholson to Mr. Atmar, 3/5/2018. Department of Defense Budget, Fiscal Year data, 9/2018; DOD, (FY) 2018, Justication for FY 2018 Overseas Contingency 181. BBC, “What lies behind Afghanistan’s Insider Attacks?” Operations (OCO) Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) , 3/11/2013. 5/2017, p. 3; OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/15/2018; USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/2/2017, 6/22/2018, and 182. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/16/2018 and 10/11/2018. 9/19/2018. 209. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; SIGAR, analysis 183. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/1/2017, 6/22/2018, and of CSTC-A provided data, 6/2018; DOD, Department of Defense 9/19/2018. Budget, Fiscal Year (FY) 2018, Justication for FY 2018 184. GAO, “GAO Highlights: Highlights of GAO-19-116 ( Afghanistan Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) Afghanistan Security Security: Some Improvements Reported in Afghan Forces’ Capabilities, but Actions Needed to Enhance DOD Oversight Forces Fund (ASFF) , 5/2017, p. 3; OSD-P, response to SIGAR vet- ), a report to the Committee on of U.S.-Purchased Equipment ting, 1/15/2018; USFOR-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/16/2018. 210. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; Armed Services, House of Representatives,” 10/15/2018. 185. OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/14/2017 and 1/15/2018. SIGAR, analysis of CSTC-A provided data, 9/2018. 186. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018. 211. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/4/2016; USFOR-A, TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 212. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2016. 187. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 11/28/2017. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 213. 188. OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 214. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 11/26/2016; USFOR-A, TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/15/2016; OSD-P, response to 215. SIGAR vetting, 4/14/2018. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to 216. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response 189. to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 190. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 217. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/22/2018. 218. 191. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018. 219. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. 220. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; 192. , DOD, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan 6/2018, pp. 50 –51. SIGAR, analysis of TAAC-Air provided data, 9/2018. 193. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and 6/22/2018; 221. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/16/2018. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; CSTC-A, teleconference with SIGAR, 7/6/2018; SIGAR, analysis 222. SIGAR, analysis of TAAC-Air provided data, 9/2018; TAAC-Air, of USFOR-A-provided data, 9/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018 194. response to SIGAR vetting, 7/13/2018. and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; CSTC-A, tele- TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; 223. SIGAR, analysis of TAAC-Air provided data, 9/2018; TAAC-Air, conference with SIGAR, 7/6/2018; SIGAR, analysis of USFOR-A-provided data, 10/2018. response to SIGAR vetting, 7/13/2018. 242 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

253 ENDNOTES RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 253. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; 224. SIGAR, analysis of TAAC-Air provided data, 9/2018. 254. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 225. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to 255. SIGAR, analysis of TAAC-Air provided data, 9/2018. SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. , CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/29/2018 256. 226. SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress 4/30/2017, pp. 111–113. and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; SIGAR, analysis of TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response 227. CSTC-A-provided data, 9/2018. 257. to SIGAR vetting, 10/5/2018 and 10/11/2018; SIGAR, analysis of CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 258. TAAC-Air provided data, 10/2018. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. “Afghans to Vote in Parliamentary Elections,” 259. TOLOnews, 228. TAAC-Air, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 10/19/2018; Washington Post, “Afghan elections delayed in 229. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Kandahar province after top ofcials assassinated,” 10/19/2018; Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. , “Afghanistan Votes for Parliament on a Day of New York Times Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan , “Barmak TOLOnews Violence and Complications,” 10/20/2018; 230. DOD, , 6/2018, pp. 87–88. Conrms 192 Security Incidents On Election Day,” 10/20/2018; , “Afghanistan Election CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018 231. Afghanistan Analysts Network Conundrum (16): Basic facts about the parliamentary elec- and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; CSTC-A, tele- tions,” 10/9/2018; USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2019; conference with SIGAR, 7/6/2018; SIGAR, analysis of Associated Press, “Afghans vote for 2nd day amid violence, USFOR-A-provided data, 10/2018. technical issues,” 10/21/2018. 232. USFOR-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; DOD, , 6/2018, Ambassador Alice Wells, testimony before House Foreign 260. Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan Affairs, hearing on “U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan,” p. 51; SIGAR, analysis of USFOR-A-provided data, 6/2018. 233. 6/20/2018; UNDP, Project Document: UN Electoral Support DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Project, 2017–2019, 7/25/2018, p. 4. Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. UNDP, 261. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and 6/22/2018 234. UN Electoral Support Project, 2017–2019 Project Document , 7/25/2018, p. 3. and response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 262. The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for 235. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; CSTC-A, UN, international peace and security, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/13/3018 and 10/11/2018. report of the Secretary- 236. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and General, 9/10/2018, pp. 11, 16; Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. Self-Reliance through Mutual Accountability Framework , 6/2017, CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 10/5/2018. 237. (SMAF) SMART Deliverables 2017–18 Status Report DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and p. 2; SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress, 238. Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. 10/30/2017, p. 151. 263. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. New , “President Ghani Casts His Vote,” 10/20/2018; 239. TOLOnews , “Afghanistan Votes for Parliament on a Day of CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 240. York Times 241. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. Violence and Complications,” 10/20/2018; USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; Associated Press, “Afghans vote for 242. DFAS, “AR(M) 1002 Appropriation Status by FY Program and Subaccounts September 2018,” 10/18/2018. 2nd day amid violence, technical issues,” 10/21/2018. 243. DOD, correspondence with SIGAR, 10/4/2018. The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 264. CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 8/27/2016; OSD-P, UNDP, Project Document: UN Electoral Afghanistan , 1/26/2004; 244. Support Project, 2017–2019 response to SIGAR vetting, 1/15/2018; USIP, Special Report 322, , 7/25/2018, p. 4. 265. Police Transition in Afghanistan USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. , 2/2013. State, 266. , 9/27/2018, Integrated Country Strategy: Afghanistan 245. DOD, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan , 6/2017, p. 33. p. 2; Ambassador Alice Wells, testimony before House Foreign Affairs, hearing on “U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan,” 246. NSOCC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; SIGAR, analysis of NSOCC-A provided data, 9/2018; NSOCC-A, 6/20/2018. USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. response to SIGAR vetting, 7/13/2018 and 10/11/2018. 267. NSOCC-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 247. Ambassador Alice Wells, testimony before House Foreign 268. 248. NSOCC-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/13/2018 and 10/11/2018, Affairs, hearing on “U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan,” and response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; SIGAR, analysis of 6/20/2018. NSOCC-A provided data, 9/2018. 269. State, Integrated Country Strategy: Afghanistan , 9/27/2018, p. 2. 249. NSOCC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/19/2018; NSOCC-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/16/2018, 7/13/2018, and The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for 270. UN, international peace and security, 10/11/2018. report of the Secretary- RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018 and response to General, 9/10/2018, p. 15. 250. USAID, 271. AID-306-I0-15-00006: Modication 08 SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. , 4/29/2018; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. RS, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 251. RS, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. AID-306-I0-15-00006: Modication 08 USAID, 272. , 4/29/2018. 252. 243 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

254 ENDNOTES 296. State, “Department Press Brieng,” 8/24/2017; Ofce of the 273. SIGAR analysis of USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. President, “Joint Afghan – U.S. Press Release on the Bilateral USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. Compact Executive Committee Meeting,” 8/23/2017; State, SCA, 274. Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan , 275. DOD, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2017; State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 12/29/2017. 12/2016, p. 7; Ambassador Alice Wells, testimony before House 297. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 12/29/2017; DOD, Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Middle East and North Africa and Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacic, joint hearing on CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/23/2018. “The President’s Plan for Afghanistan and Pakistan: Objectives 298. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; UN, “Geneva and Resources,” 11/8/2017. Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan,” n.d. DOJ, 299. Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney , 9/27/2018, Integrated Country Strategy: Afghanistan State, 276. General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, p. 2. 277. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, United States Institute of Peace, “Remarks by Lisa Curtis Deputy Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report , 6/2018, p. 10; South and Central Asia, National Security Council,” delivered The Long Search for Peace in Afghanistan: Top-Down and at DOJ, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/13/2018. 300. DOJ, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/13/2018. , 6/7/2018. Bottom-Up Efforts DOJ, 301. Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018. 278. 279. General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 2016) NATO Resolute Support, “NATO-led and U.S. forces to Honor Afghan Government’s Cease-re Extension,” 6/16/2018; State, Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, and BBC SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; National Security Investigation and Prosecution Program , “Taliban rules out extension of Afghanistan Eid festival ceasere,” Quarterly Progress Report First Quarter, FY 2018 (October 6/17/2018. 1, 2017 – December 31, 2017) , 12/2017, p. 6; DOJ, response to The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for SIGAR vetting, 10/13/2018. UN, 280. report of the Secretary- Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney 302. international peace and security, DOJ, General, 9/10/2018, p. 5. General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 2016) State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 281. Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and Prosecution Program NPR, “Zalmay Khalilzad Appointed As U.S. Special Adviser 282. Quarterly Progress Report First Quarter, FY 2018 (October 1, To Afghanistan,” 9/5/2018; State, “Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation Zalmay Khalilzad Travel to 2017 – December 31, 2017) , 12/2017, p. 6. Afghanistan, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and DOJ, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/13/2018. 303. 304. Saudi Arabia,” 10/3/2018; Radio Free Europe, “U.S. To Appoint Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, “Decree No. 187: Of the Special Envoy On Afghanistan To Promote Peace: Reports,” President of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan On Endorsement 8/23/2018. of the Anti-Corruption Law,” 9/5/2018, pp. 3–4, 7–8, 10. 283. 305. Council of the EU, “Brussels Conference on Afghanistan: main State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. GIROA, 284. Afghanistan National Peace and Reconciliation results,” 10/5/2016, p. 1. Strategy: Second Draft John Kerry, “Remarks at the Brussels Conference on , 8/1/2016, pp. 4–5. 306. Afghanistan,” 10/5/2016; USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR Seamus Cleary, Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh, Abdul Aziz Naderi, and 285. Said Sartaj Shahidzai, vetting, 1/12/2017; State, SRAP, response to SIGAR vetting, Afghanistan Peace and Reintegration Programme (APRP) Final Evaluation Report 1/12/2017. , 7/2016, pp. 57, 85. 307. State, SRAP, response to SIGAR data call, 9/27/2016. USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR vetting 10/13/2014; USAID, 286. OPPD, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/12/2017; Islamic Republic 287. Washington Post , “An Afghan warlord comes out of the shad- ows to make peace. But few trust him,” 9/29/2016. of Afghanistan, “Communiqué: Conference Outcomes, 288. Contributions and Participants,” 1/28/2010, p. 5; “The Tokyo State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 289. UN, The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for Declaration: Partnership for Self-Reliance in Afghanistan report of the Secretary- international peace and security, from Transition to Transformation,” 7/8/2012; USAID, OPPD, General, 9/10/2018, p. 5. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/13/2014; Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 290. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 1/9/2018, 3/27/2018, Self-Reliance through Mutual Accountability and 9/21/2018. Framework (SMAF) , 9/5/2015, p. 6; USAID, OPPD, response to State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. SIGAR vetting, 7/10/2018. 291. USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR data call, 3/20/2018; USAID, 308. 292. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; Islamic 293. OPPD, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/9/2018. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 309. Republic of Afghanistan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Joint NATO, “Brussels Summit Declaration,” 7/11/2018. 310. Press Release on the 4th Afghanistan Pakistan Action Plan for USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR data call, 12/30/2013. 311. Peace and Solidarity (APAPPS) Meeting,” 5/14/2018. 312. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 294. USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR data call, 6/30/2014. USAID, “Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF),” TOLOnews 313. , “HPC Preparing For Afghanistan-Pakistan Clerics 295. Conference,” 9/29/2018. 8/26/2013. 244 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

255 ENDNOTES Counterpart International, Afghan Civic Engagement Program: 341. USAID, “U.S. government contributed $105 million to Asian 314. Reporting Period (July 31 – August 13, 2018) , 8/16/2018, Development Bank Infrastructure Fund for Afghanistan,” 3/18/2014. pp. 3–4. 342. USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR data call, 12/30/2013. 315. USAID, ODG, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/10/2018; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 316. World Bank, “Administrator’s Report on Financial Status,” 343. “Rasana Program Highlights: August 15 - August 29, 2018,” 7/22/2018, p. 4. World Bank, “Administrator’s Report on Financial Status,” pp. 3–4. 317. 344. 7/22/2018, p. 2. USAID, OAPA, response to SIGAR data call, 12/21/2018, and 3/20/2018; USAID, OAPA, response to SIGAR data call, 318. World Bank, “ARTF Brieng Note: Anti-Corruption and Results Monitoring Action Plan,” 7/2018, pp. 2–3. 9/19/2018.. USAID, OAPA, response to SIGAR data call, 12/21/2018, and USAID, “Implementation Letter SOAG 4-IL # 54 on the 319. 345. Cancellation of USAID/ Afghanistan and Government of 3/20/2018. 346. USAID, OAPA, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. Afghanistan Memorandum of Understanding for the New 347. Development Partnership (NDP),” 7/11/2018; Checchi and Initiative to Strengthen Local Tetra Tech ARD, Company Consulting Inc., Administrations in Afghanistan (ISLA) Project) Monthly Mid-Term Performance Evaluation Report, February 2015 , of USAID/Afghanistan’s New Development Partnership (NDP) , 3/15/2015, ii; USAID, ODG, response to SIGAR data call, 12/22/2016; USAID, ODG, response to 12/31/2017, iii. 320. USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. SIGAR vetting, 1/12/2017; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, The Government of the United States of America, Memorandum 10/15/2018. 321. of Understanding for the “New Development Partnership” USAID, ODG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2017. 348. Tetra Tech, 349. between the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Occasional Paper No. 2: Understanding the Link Between the National Budget and 1397 Provincial and the Government of the United States of America, 8/3/2015, Development Plans in the 16 ISLA Provinces pp. 3–5; USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2015. , 3/11/2018, pp. 6, 10–11; USAID, ODG, response to SIGAR data call, 6/21/218. 322. USAID, “Implementation Letter SOAG 4-IL #54 on the SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported Cancellation of USAID/ Afghanistan and Government of 350. 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided “PDP projects Afghanistan Memorandum of Understanding for the New Budgeted in NBP,” n.d. Development Partnership (NDP),” 7/11/2018; USAID, response trong Hubs for Afghan Hope 351. to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. Development Alternatives Inc., S 323. and Resilience (SHAHAR): Monthly Report February 2015 , Quarterly Report to the United States Congress SIGAR, , 3/15/2015, p. 4; USAID, ODG, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/30/2018, p. 65. 324. 1/12/2017; USAID, “Modication 07/REQM-306-1 7-000434,” DOD, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/12/2017; DOD, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 11/28/2017, p. 1; DAI, Strong Hubs for Afghan Hope and , 2/15/2018, p. 6. 325. DOD, CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 7/1/2014. Resilience (SHAHAR) Monthly Report # 38 326. 352. DAI, DOD, CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 4/4/2014. Strong Hubs for Afghan Hope and Resilience (SHAHAR) 327. Monthly Report # 38 , 2/15/2018, p. 5. DOD, CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 3/23/2015. CSTC-A, “CSTC-A Funding Authorization Letter for the Ministry USAID, ODG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; USAID, 353. 328. of Defense (MoD),” 1/10/2018, p. 1; DOD, “CSTC-A Funding response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 354. USAID, ODG, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2015; USAID, Authorization Letter for the Ministry of Interior (MoI),” ODG, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/12/2015. 1/10/2018, p. 1. Pacic Architects and Engineers Inc., DOD, CSTC-A, RM, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 355. 329. Quarterly Progress Report March - May 2017, 5/2017, p. 1; State, INL, response to DOD, CSTC-A, RM, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 330. 331. DOD, CSTC-A, CJ3/5/7, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018. 332. DOD, CSTC-A, CJ3/5/7, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018. Afghanistan Justice Sector Support Program Tetra Tech, 356. DOD, CSTC-A, CJ3/5/7, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. , 333. (JSSP): Task Order #: SAQMMAF171220 Work Plan Year One 2/27/2018, p. 5. 334. DOD, CSTC-A, CJ3/5/7, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 357. Afghanistan Justice Sector Support Program 335. RSM Tajikistan, Compliance Assessment Report – Combined Tetra Tech, (JSSP): Quarterly Report (Q3-2018) , 7/5/2018, p. 6. Security Transition Command – Afghanistan , 5/15/2018, p. 3. 358. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 3/23/2018 and 6/25/2018. 336. DOD, CSTC-A, RM, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018 and 9/20/2018. , Contract AID-OAA-I-13-0034/AID-306-TO-16-00007 USAID, 359. 337. USAID, OPPD, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/12/2015; USAID, 4/16/2016, pp. 1, 8; USAID, Contract AID-OAA-I-13-0034/AID- ODG, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/9/2018. 306-TO-16-00007: Modication 01 , 7/31/2016, p. 3. Checchi and Company Consulting Inc., 360. 338. Afghan Civic Engagement Program (ACEP): Agreement No. Assistance for the , 2/3/2016, p. 5. AID-306-A-14-00001 Development of Afghan Legal Access and Transparency: AID-306-A-14-00001, Modication 13 , 7/2/2018, pp. 1–2; 339. , 7/31/2018, p. 4. Quarterly Report April-June 2018 361. Justice Sector Support Program, “Ministry of Justice,” 2016. Activity Description for ACEP Extension, 7/2/2018, p. 5. Checchi and Company Consulting Inc., Assistance for the Afghan Civic Engagement Program Counterpart International, 340. 362. Development of Afghan Legal Access and Transparency: (ACEP) Agreement No. AID-306-A-14-00001 Quarterly Report Quarterly Report April-June 2018 , 7/31/2018, p. 6. – FY 18 Q3 | April – June 2018 , 7/31/2018, p. 7. 245 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

256 ENDNOTES 377. 363. Management Systems International, Afghanistan’s Measure DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, for Accountability and Transparency (AMANAT): Quarterly Performance Report: FY 2018, Quarter 3 , 7/31/2018, pp. 1–2. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, 364. Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report , 6/2018, 365. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 366. pp. 10–11; Pacic Architects and Engineers Inc. “System State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 367. Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney DOJ, Linkage-CMS,” 2017. General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for UN, 378. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, international peace and security , report of the Secretary- General, 6/10/2016, p. 11. Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and , 6/2018, p. 14. Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report CSTC-A, “Brieng for Mr. John Sopko,” 6/10/2016. 379. DOJ, 368. Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for UN, 380. international peace and security, report of the Secretary- General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, General, 9/7/2016, p. 10. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, DOJ, 381. Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, , 6/2018, p. 13. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 369. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney DOJ, 370. General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report , 6/2018, p. 16. 382. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, DOD, CSTC-A, ROL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and 383. DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney , 6/2018, p. 9. Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney 371. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, , 6/2018, p. 18. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney DOJ, 384. , 6/2018, p. 9. Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 372. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 2016) Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, , 6/2018, p. 11. Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for UN, 385. , 6/2018, p. 12. international peace and security, Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report report of the Secretary- Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney 373. DOJ, General, 9/10/2018, p. 10. DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 386. General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and , 6/2018, p. 9. Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report , 6/2018, p. 22. Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney 374. UN, The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 387. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, report of the Secretary- international peace and security, Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and General, 9/10/2018, p. 10. , 6/2018, p. 9. Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report DOD, CSTC-A, ROL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 388. Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring and Evaluation DOD, CSTC-A, ROL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 389. 375. DOD, Enhancing Security and Sustainability in Afghanistan, Committee, “Attorney General Ofce Special Report: Second 390. Quarterly Monitoring Report (Executive Summary), 8/7/2018. 6/2018, p. 38. DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney DOD, CSTC-A, ROL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 391. 376. 392. DOD, CSTC-A, TAO, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 393. DOD, CSTC-A, TAO, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, 394. DOD, CSTC-A, TAO, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and 395. , 6/2018, p. 10; DOD, CSTC-A, MAG-D, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report DOD, CSTC-A, MAG-I, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney CSTC-A EF 2, discussion with SIGAR Research and Analysis General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, 2016) Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, and staff, Kabul, 3/2018. National Security Investigation and Prosecution Program 396. DOD, CSTC-A, MAG-D, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018; DOD, CSTC-A, MAG-I, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. Quarterly Progress Report First Quarter, FY 2018 (October 1, 2017 – December 31, 2017) DOD, CSTC-A, EF3, response to SIGAR data call, 12/1/2017 and , p. 7; DOJ, response to SIGAR vet- 397. 3/22/2018. ting, 10/13/2018. 398. DOD, CSTC-A, ROL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 246 AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL I

257 ENDNOTES USAID, OAG, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/10/2018; UN, OCHA, 423. 399. DOJ, Department of Justice/Ofce of the Deputy Attorney “Afghanistan: Funding urgently needed as prolonged drought General – INL Inter-Agency Agreement (December 30, threatens 1M food insecure people,” https://reliefweb.int/report/ 2016) Amendment One Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, and National Security Investigation and afghanistan/afghanistan-funding-urgently-needed-prolonged- Prosecution Program Quarterly Progress Report , 6/2018, drought-threatens-1m-food-insecure, accessed 10/16/2018. pp. 19–20. USAID, “USAID Provides $43.8 Million to WFP to Boost Food 424. 400. DOD, CSTC-A, response to SIGAR data call, 11/20/2016. Assistance for Drought Affected Afghans,” 9/23/2018. 425. 401. State, PRM, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. , 8/2018, i, Afghanistan Development Update World Bank, State, PRM, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. pp. 3, 15. 402. IMF, “IMF Staff Completes Fourth ECF Review Mission for 426. SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Number of Afghan refugees return- 403. Afghanistan,” Press Release No. 18/382, 10/5/2018; World Bank, ing to Afghanistan (1 Jan to 26 Sep 2018),” 9/26/2018. “Population growth (annual %),” no date, https://data.world- 404. SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary Repatriation bank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW?locations=AF, accessed 2015,” 1/1/2018; SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary 10/16/2018. Repatriation 2016,” 11/8/2017; SIGAR analysis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary Repatriation 2017,” 9/12/2018; SIGAR analy- 427. TOLOnews , “Former Head Of Kabul Bank Dies In Prison,” Responding to Corruption and the Kabul 8/24/2018; USIP, sis of UNHCR, “Afghan Voluntary Repatriation 2018,” 10/3/2018. Bank Collapse , 12/2016, p. 5. 405. IOM, “Return of Undocumented Afghans Weekly Situation Responding to Corruption and the Kabul Bank Collapse USIP, 428. , Report,” 9/22/2018, p. 2. 12/2016, p. 2; SIGAR has consistently reported that asset recov- State, PRM, response to SIGAR data call, 9/20/2018. 406. SIGAR analysis of UN, OCHA, “Afghanistan - Conict Induced 407. Quarterly Report to eries have stalled. For example, see SIGAR, the United States Congress Displacements in 2018,” 9/16/2018; SIGAR analysis of UN, , 7/30/2018, p. 156. Responding 429. DOJ, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/14/2018; USIP, OCHA, “Summary of conict induced displacements (1 Jan to , 12/2016, p. 2; DOJ, to Corruption and the Kabul Bank Collapse 19 Dec 2017),” 12/24/2017. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/16/2018. 408. UN, OCHA, “Afghanistan Weekly Field Report,” 10/8/2018, p. 1. SIGAR analysis of UN, OCHA, “Afghanistan - Conict Induced DOJ, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/16/2018. 430. 409. 431. Displacements in 2018,” 9/16/2018 and RS, DCOS-OPS, AAG, SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported “July_2018_DistStab,” 7/2018. 9/17/2019; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data SIGAR analysis of EUROSTAT, “First time asylum applicants in 410. exported 1/8/2018. 432. SIGAR, communications with MOF ofcials, 8/21/2017; SIGAR, the EU-28 by citizenship,” 9/18/2018. communications with IMF ofcials, 9/7/2017. Afghanistan Analysts Network , “Afghan refugees and Europe 411. 433. in 2017,” 12/30/2017. SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data 412. USAID, “Remarks by Administrator Rajiv Shah at the U.S. exported 1/8/2018. Institute of Peace Regarding Afghanistan Promote,” 7/18/2013. 434. USAID, OG, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/10/2018. 413. SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 414. 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data USAID, OG, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2016. Afghanistan Development USAID, OG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 415. exported 1/8/2018; World Bank, , 8/2018, p. 9. USAID, OG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. Update 416. USAID, OG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; USAID, SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 435. 417. OAPA, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data 418. exported 1/8/2018. UN, UNHCR, “In Afghanistan, UN refugee and relief chiefs call for urgent increase in international support,” 9/6/2018. See Appendix B for a breakdown of U.S. reconstruction funding 436. since 2002. UN, OCHA, 419. Afghanistan Weekly Field Report 3 to 9 September Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 2018 , 9/9/2018, p. 1. USAID, OAPA, 437. , 9/6/2018, pp. 1–2; USAID, OEG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; USAID, 420. UN, OCHA, “Worst #drought in decades grips two-thirds of “Country Strategies (CDCS),” 2/22/2018. #Afghanistan,” Twitter post, https://twitter.com/OCHAAfg/ , 9/6/2018, pp. 3, 5. Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 USAID, OAPA, 438. status/1032528868203286528, accessed 9/20/2018; UN, OCHA, USAID, OAPA, Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 439. Afghanistan: Drought Response Situation Report No. 2 (as of , 9/6/2018, p. 4. Afghanistan Integrated Country Strategy – Afghanistan State, 440. 16 September 2018) , 9/27/2018, , 9/20/2018, p. 1; UN, OCHA, pp. 2–4. , 10/14/2018, p. 1. Weekly Field Report 8–14 October 2018 421. Private Sector Development and Economic SIGAR, 441. FEWS NET, “Areas of dryness persist as main season harvest , Growth: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan and second season planting near June 6, 2018,” 8/2018; UN, Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodities and Trade What Can Be Done to SIGAR-18-38-LL, 4/2018, p. 7; USIP, Trade Revive Afghanistan’s Economy? Division, Commodity Policy and Projections Service, , 2/2016, p. 2; World Bank, Afghanistan Development Update , 8/2018, p. 7. Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkage , What Can Be Done to Revive Afghanistan’s Economy? 2003, http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e05. 442. , USIP, htm#bm05, accessed 10/2/2018. , Afghanistan Development Update 2/2016, p. 2; World Bank, 8/2018, i. 422. USAID, OAG, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/10/2018. 247 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

258 ENDNOTES 443. 473. IMF, Islamic Republic Of Afghanistan: Selected Issues , 12/2017, IMF, “IMF Staff Completes Fourth ECF Review Mission for Afghanistan,” Press Release No. 18/382, 10/5/2018. pp. 12–13. 444. World Bank, Afghanistan Development Update 474. IMF, Islamic Republic Of Afghanistan: Selected Issues , 12/2017, , 8/2018, i. pp. 13–14. IMF, “IMF Staff Completes Fourth ECF Review Mission for 445. SIGAR analysis of NSIA quarterly export data, accessed 9/25/2018. Afghanistan,” Press Release No. 18/382, 10/5/2018. 475. SIGAR analysis of NSIA quarterly export data, accessed 9/25/2018. 446. SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress , 476. Asian Development Outlook 2018: How 477. 7/30/2018, p. 153; ADB, SIGAR analysis of NSIA quarterly export data, accessed 9/25/2018. , 4/2018, p. 202. Technology Affects Jobs 478. SIGAR analysis of NSIA quarterly import and export data, World Bank, , 8/2018, i. Afghanistan Development Update accessed 9/25/2018 and 9/26/2018; World Bank, Afghanistan 447. Development Update , 8/2018, p. 7. 448. SIGAR, , Quarterly Report to the United States Congress 479. SIGAR analysis of NSIA quarterly import data, accessed 9/26/2018. 7/30/2018, p. 153. 480. 449. World Bank, SIGAR analysis of NSIA quarterly import data, accessed 9/26/2018. Afghanistan Development Update , 8/2018, i. 481. State, “After the Deal: A New Iran Strategy,” 5/21/2018. , Quarterly Report to the United States Congress SIGAR, 450. 482. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; , TOLOnews 7/30/2018, p. 150. World Bank, Afghanistan Development Update , 8/2018, p. 9; 451. “Govt Hoping for a Sanctions Waiver for Chabahar Port,” 8/8/2018. 483. TOLOnews IMF, Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility , “Govt Hoping for a Sanctions Waiver for Chabahar Arrangement And Request For Modication Of Performance Port,” 8/8/2018; State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; hindustantimes , “India seeks leniency in US sanctions on Iran, Criteria , 5/9/2018, p. 6. Afghanistan Development Update cities oil imports, Chabahar port venture,” 7/18/2018. World Bank, 452. , 8/2018, p. 9. 484. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 453. World Bank, Afghanistan Development Update , 8/2018, p. 9. , 8/2018, p. 10. Afghanistan Development Update World Bank, 485. State, SCA, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/15/2018. 454. World Bank, 455. Afghanistan Development Update 486. IMF, First Review Under the Extended Credit Facility , 8/2018, p. 10. Arrangement and Request for Modication of Performance 456. World Bank, Afghanistan Development Update , 8/2018, p. 10. , 5/8/2017, p. 14. 457. IMF, Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility Criteria Arrangement And Request For Modication Of Performance IMF, First Review Under the Extended Credit Facility 487. Arrangement and Request for Modication of Performance , 5/9/2018, pp. 4, 8. Criteria Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility IMF, 458. Criteria Third Review Under The , 5/8/2017, pp. 24, 42; IMF, Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Arrangement And Request For Modication Of Performance Modication Of Performance Criteria Criteria , 5/9/2018, p. 8. , 5/9/2018, p. 22. SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 459. 488. IMF, Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Modication Of Performance 9/17/2019; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data Criteria exported 1/8/2018. , 5/9/2018, p. 22. World Bank, , 8/2018, p. 13. 489. 460. Afghanistan Development Update SIGAR, communications with MOF ofcials, 8/21/2017; SIGAR, 490. State, “Strengthening the Strategic Partnership of the United communications with IMF ofcials, 9/7/2017. 461. States and Afghanistan,” 3/24/2015; Treasury, response to SIGAR SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported data call, 3/23/2018. 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data 491. Treasury, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018. exported 1/8/2018. 492. Treasury, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; World Bank, SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 462. 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data “Ministry of Finance and the World Bank Sign Project to exported 1/8/2018; World Bank, Improve Management of Public Finances,” Press Release No. Afghanistan Development Update SAR/2018, 1/28/2018. , 8/2018, p. 9. Treasury, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; Treasury, 463. World Bank, Afghanistan Development Update , 8/2018, p. 10. 493. SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 464. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/15/2018. Responding to Corruption and the Kabul Bank Collapse 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data 494. USIP, , 12/2016, p. 2. exported 1/8/2018. 465. SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 9/17/2018. Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring And Evaluation 495. Committee, 466. Report of the Public Inquiry into the Kabul Bank SIGAR, communications with MOF ofcials, 8/21/2017. Crisis SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 467. Responding to Corruption and , 11/15/2012, p. 2; USIP, , 12/2016, p. 2. the Kabul Bank Collapse 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data 496. Responding to Corruption and the Kabul Bank Collapse , exported 1/8/2018. USIP, 468. SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data exported 12/2016, p. 2; Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring 9/17/2018; SIGAR analysis of USAID-provided AFMIS data And Evaluation Committee, Report of the Public Inquiry into , “Former TOLOnews exported 1/8/2018. , 11/15/2012, p. 9; the Kabul Bank Crisis Head Of Kabul Bank Dies In Prison,” 8/24/2018. , 8/2018, p. 14. 469. World Bank, Afghanistan Development Update Counter-Corruption, Major Crimes, Counternarcotics, 470. World Bank, DOJ, , 8/2018, p. 7. 497. Afghanistan Development Update , 9/6/2018, p. 3; Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 USAID, OAPA, 471. and National Security Investigation and Prosecution , 8/2018, p. 15. Afghanistan Development Update World Bank, Program Quarterly Progress Report, First Quarter, FY 2018 USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; SIGAR analysis. 472. , 12/31/2017. (October 1, 2017 – December 31, 2017) 248 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

259 ENDNOTES 523. , State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; SIGAR, 498. USIP, Responding to Corruption and the Kabul Bank Collapse 12/2016, p. 2. Status of U.S. Efforts to Develop Extractive Tenders: $125 Million Spent Resulting in No Active Contracts , 7/2018, p. 6. 499. DOJ, response to SIGAR data call, 9/28/2018; State, SCA, 524. CANACCORD Genuity and SRK Consulting, “Afghanistan response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018 and 6/21/2018; KBR, Mineral Tender Process: Potential Project Valuations and “Kabul Bank Recovery and Loan Portfolio Dated 10 June 2018,” 6/20/2018; KBR, “Kabul Bank Recovery and Loan Portfolio Government Revenues,” 11/2012, pp. 9, 22. State, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/15/2018; DOD, OSD-P, 525. Dated 23 SEP 2018,” 9/23/2018. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. KBR, “List of Debtors to U.S. Embassy,” no date. 500. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; State, 501. 526. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. New York Times , “Afghanistan Signs Major Mining Deals 527. U.S. Embassy in Afghanistan, “U.S.-Afghan Statement on the Despite Legal Concerns,” 10/6/2018; State, response to SIGAR Bilateral Compact Executive Committee Meeting,” 8/23/2017. 502. vetting, 10/15/2018. DOJ, response to SIGAR data call, 9/28/2018. State, SCA, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/15/2018. DOJ, response to SIGAR data call, 9/28/2018. 503. 528. State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 529. USAID, OAPA, 504. , 9/6/2018, pp. 4–5, 9. Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 530. 505. , 9/6/2018, p. 9. Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 USAID, OAPA, Global Witness, “New Afghan mining contracts ‘appear to USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 12/21/2017; USAID, breach law’, say CSOs,” Press Release, 10/4/2018; Global 506. Witness, “About Us,” https://www.globalwitness.org/en/about- response to SIGAR vetting, 1/16/2018. 507. , “26 Percent of Voter TOLOnews us/, accessed 10/6/2018; USAID, OEG, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 508. Registration Centers Not Yet Open: IEC,” 5/26/2018; State, SCA, , p. 110. Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2017–2018 NSIA, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/15/2018. Final Performance Checchi and Company Consulting Inc., 509. Evaluation of Mining Investment and Development for New York Times 531. , “Afghanistan Signs Major Mining Deals Despite Legal Concerns,” 10/6/2018. , 8/2017, p. 5. Afghan Sustainability, 2012–2017 Financial Times , “Ian Hannam’s mining group garners approval 532. Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook SIGAR analysis of NSIA, 510. for Afghanistan projects,” 10/5/2018. , p. 110. 2017–2018 511. IMF, Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility State, SCA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 533. 534. Arrangement And Request For Modication Of Performance World Bank, Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan , 2/2018, ix. 535. , 2/2018, ix, , 5/9/2018, p. 47. Criteria World Bank, Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan , 512. p. 8. USIP, Illegal Mining in Afghanistan: A Driver of Conict , 8/2018, p. 4. Afghanistan Development Update 7/2017, p. 1. World Bank, 536. , 8/2018, p. 4; 537. Afghanistan Development Update World Bank, , Quarterly Report to the United States Congress SIGAR, 513. , p. 110. Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2017–2018 NSIA, 10/30/2017, p. 197. SIGAR, 514. 538. Counternarcotics: Lessons from the U.S. Experience White House, press release, “Readout of President Donald J. in Afghanistan , 6/14/2018, vii. Trump’s Meeting with President Ashraf Ghani of Afghanistan,” UN, UNHCR, “In Afghanistan, UN refugee and relief chiefs call 539. 9/22/2017. 515. for urgent increase in international support,” 9/6/2018; UN, , “Trump Finds Reason for New York Times For example, see the U.S. to Remain in Afghanistan: Minerals,” 7/25/2017; Reuters, OCHA, Afghanistan Weekly Field Report 3 to 9 September , 9/9/2018, p. 1. “Trump, Ghani agree U.S. can help develop Afghanistan’s rare 2018 540. earth minerals,” 9/21/2017; Foreign Policy, “Despite Risks, UN, OCHA, Afghanistan Weekly Field Report 3 to 9 September , 9/9/2018, p. 1. 2018 Trump Administration Moves Forward With Afghanistan Mining Plan,” 8/29/2017. UN, OCHA, 541. Afghanistan Weekly Field Report 8–14 October , “Ghani cancels NY trip after Trump 516. 2018 , 10/14/2018, p. 1. Pajhwok Afghan News declines meeting,” 9/23/2018. Afghanistan: Drought Response Situation Report UN, OCHA, 542. , 9/20/2018, p. 1; UN, OCHA, USAID, OEG, response to SIGAR data call, 6/21/2018, 3/20/2018, 517. No. 2 (as of 16 September 2018) and 12/21/2017; DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 6/23/2018. Afghanistan Weekly Field Report 1–7 October 2018 , 10/7/2018, 518. DOD, response to SIGAR data call, 9/27/2018; DOD, OSD-P, p. 1. 543. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. UN, OCHA, “Worst drought in decades grips two-thirds of Afghanistan,” Twitter post, https://twitter.com/OCHAAfg/sta- 519. SIGAR, DOD Task Force for Business and Stability Operations: $675 Million in Spending Led to Mixed Results, tus/1032528868203286528, accessed 9/20/2018. 544. FEWS NET, “Areas of dryness persist as main season harvest Waste, and Unsustained Projects , SIGAR 18-19-AR, 1/2018, i. and second season planting near June 6, 2018,” 8/2018; UN, 520. DOD, OASD, APC, Correspondence with Senator Claire McCaskill, 9/25/2018, pp. 1–2. Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodities and Trade 521. SIGAR, Trade Division, Commodity Policy and Projections Service, DOD Task Force for Business and Stability Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkage Operations: $675 Million in Spending Led to Mixed Results, , 2003, http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e05. , SIGAR 18-19-AR, 1/2018, Waste, and Unsustained Projects p. 16. htm#bm05, accessed 10/2/2018. DOD, OASD, APC, Correspondence with Senator Claire USAID, OAG, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/10/2018. 545. 522. USAID, “USAID Provides $43.8 Million to WFP to Boost Food 546. McCaskill, 9/25/2018, p. 2; State, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. Assistance for Drought Affected Afghans,” 9/23/2018. 249 OCTOBER 30, 2018 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS I

260 ENDNOTES 568. See SIGAR, 547. USAID, OAPA, Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 , 9/6/2018, p. 10. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress , Quarterly Report to the United 4/30/2018, p. 169 and SIGAR, SIGAR analysis of USAID, response to SIGAR data 548. , 4/30/2016, p. 186; Consolidated and Further call, 10/15/2018; SIGAR analysis of World Bank, ARTF, States Congress , as of July 22, 2018. Administrator’s Report on Financial Status Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Division C–Department 549. USAID, “Agricultural Credit Enhancement – United States of Defense Appropriations Act, 2015, Pub. L. No. 113-235; Agency for International Development,” 10/1/2013. Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016, Pub. L. No. 114-113; 550. Pub. L. No. 115-31, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, USAID, “Agricultural Credit Enhancement – United States Agency for International Development,” 10/1/2013; USAID, Fact Sheet, pp. 146–147; Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, Pub. L. No. 115-141, pp. 150–151. “Agricultural Credit Enhancement Phase-II (ACE-II),” 7/2017. DOD, OSD-P, response to SIGAR data call, 6/22/2018; DOD, 551. USAID, Fact Sheet, “Agricultural Credit Enhancement Phase-II 569. OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/16/2018; Consolidated (ACE-II),” 7/2017. Quarterly Report to the United States For example, see SIGAR, 552. Appropriations Act, 2016, Pub. L. No. 114-113, p. 97; Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, Pub. L. No. 115-31, Congress , 7/30/2018. 553. Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) USAID, pp. 146–147; Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, Pub. L. No. Program Annual Report No. 2: June 23, 2016–June 22, 2017 115-141, pp. 150–151. , 7/31/2017, p. 11. FY 2011-2014 570. SIGAR analysis of DOD, USFOR-A, JENG, Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) Program Status 554. USAID, Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) , 9/13/2018; DOD, USFOR-A, JENG, response to SIGAR Report , Program Annual Report No. 2: June 23, 2016–June 22, 2017 vetting, 10/11/2018. 7/31/2017, p. 20; USAID, Agricultural Credit Enhancement Quarterly Report to the United States Congress , II (ACE-II) Program Q2-FY 2017: January–March, 2017 571. , See SIGAR, 4/30/2017, p. 30; USAID, Agricultural Credit Enhancement 4/30/2018, pp. 149, 163–164, 167; USAID, OI, response to SIGAR , 2/15/2015, pp. 1, 45. (ACE) Program Final Report vetting, 10/11/2018. USAID, Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) 572. USAID, OI, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 555. USAID, “Afghanistan Utility Breaks Ground on Landmark , 8/13/2018, p. 10. Program Monthly Report No. 37, July 2018 573. Infrastructure Project,” 9/24/2018, https://www.usaid.gov/ Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) Program USAID, 556. , 8/13/2018, pp. 3, 10. Monthly Report No. 37, July 2018 afghanistan/news-information/press-releases/Sept-24-2017- Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) Solar-power-plant-to-be-built-in-Kandahar, accessed 9/24/2018; USAID, 557. , 8/13/2018, p. 4. USAID, Factsheet, “10 MW Kandahar Solar Power Plant,” Program Monthly Report No. 37, July 2018 USAID, Agricultural Credit Enhancement II (ACE-II) 12/2017; USAID, OI, response to SIGAR data call, 3/20/2018. 558. 574. Program Monthly Report No. 37, July 2018 , 8/13/2018, p. 4. USAID, Factsheet, “10 MW Kandahar Solar Power Plant,” 12/2017; USAID, OI, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. USAID, Afghanistan Energy Sector Technical Assessment 559. , 2/28/2018, p. 1; USAID, “Afghanistan: Our Work,” 575. USAID, OI, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; USAID, Final Report “Status of USAID-funded Power Projects,” 7/24/2018. n.d., https://www.usaid.gov/afghanistan/our-work, accessed 576. USAID, OI, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2019. 7/8/2018. 560. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 577. USAID, Factsheet, “Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity Project,” 8/14/2017; USAID, OI, response to SIGAR Asia Foundation, 578. A Survey of the Afghan People: Afghanistan vetting, 10/11/2018. , 11/2017, pp. 9, 18–19, 28–29. in 2017 USAID, 561. World Bank, “Access to Electricity is at the Heart of Afghanistan Energy Sector Technical Assessment 579. Final Report Development,” 4/18/2018. , 2/28/2018, p. 10; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018; DOD, OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 562. USAID, Afghanistan Energy Sector Technical Assessment: 10/11/2018. Final Report , 2/28/2018, p. 10. 580. DOD, U.S. Central Command, Ofce of the Commander, 563. USAID, Afghanistan Energy Sector Technical Assessment: Final Report Afghanistan Commander’s Emergency Response Program , 2/28/2018, p. 10. Afghanistan Energy Sector Technical Assessment: USAID, 564. (CERP) Kandahar City 30 MW Diesel Power Generation , 2/28/2018, pp. 10–11. Project Final Report , 6/5/2010, p. 1; DOD, USFOR-A, JENG, FY 2011-2014 USAID, Factsheet, “Power Transmission Expansion and Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) Program Status 565. Report , 9/13/2018; DOD, OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, Connectivity Project,” 8/14/2017; USFOR-A, JENG, FY 2011- 10/11/2018. 2014 Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) Program Status Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund: Agencies Have Report 581. SIGAR, , 9/13/2018. Not Assessed Whether Six Projects That Began in Fiscal Year 566. USAID, Factsheet, “Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity Project,” 8/14/2017; USFOR-A, JENG, FY 2011- 2011, Worth about $400 Million, Achieved Counterinsurgency , 10/2017, ii; DOD, OSD-P, 2014 Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF) Program Status Objectives and Can Be Sustained response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. , 9/13/2018. Report USFOR-A, JENG, 567. 582. FY 2011-2014 Afghanistan Infrastructure USAID, Factsheet, “Power Transmission Expansion and Connectivity Project,” 8/14/2017, p. 1. Fund (AIF) Program Status Report , 9/13/2018; USAID, 583. DOD, USFOR-A, JENG, FY 2011-2014 Afghanistan Afghanistan Energy Sector Technical Assessment: Final , 2/28/2018, p. 8. Report , 9/13/2018. Infrastructure Fund (AIF) Program Status Report 250 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

261 ENDNOTES All Children In School And Learning: Global UNICEF, 607. DOD, USFOR-A, JENG, response to SIGAR data call, 584. Initiative on Out-Of-School Children – Afghanistan Country 9/27/2018; DOD, USFOR-A, JENG, FY 2011-2014 Afghanistan , 6/2018, pp. 1–2, 35. Infrastructure Fund (AIF) Program Status Report , 12/8/2015; Study 608. Afghanistan Living Conditions Government of Afghanistan, CSO, DOD, USFOR-A, JENG, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. , 3/2018, p. 8; CIA, Survey 2016–2017: Highlights Report 585. Afghanistan’s North East Power System Phase III: SIGAR, The World , “Afghanistan,” n.d., https://www.cia.gov/library/publica- USACE’s Mismanagement Resulted in a System that Is Not FactBook Permanently Connected to a Power Source, Has Not Been tions/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html, accessed 7/15/2018. 609. Afghanistan Living , 3/2018, i, p. 11. Fully Tested, and May Not Be Safe to Operate Government of Afghanistan, CSO, Conditions Survey 2016–2017: Highlights Report , 3/2018, p. 8. 586. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/16/2018; USAID, Status Afghanistan Living Government of Afghanistan, CSO, 610. , 7/24/2018. of USAID-funded Power Projects , 3/2018, p. 9. ADB, “ADB Helps Inaugurate New Power Distribution Network 587. Conditions Survey 2016–2017: Highlights Report Data Quality Assessment of the Ministry of USAID, in Southwest Kabul,” 5/14/2018. 611. Education’s Education Management Information System , 588. Afghanistan Analysts Network, “Power to the People (2),” The situation in Afghanistan and its 7/2016, p. 7; UN, 5/16/2016; USAID, OI, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. , report Implications for International Peace and Security State, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 589. “I Won’t Be , 4/2018, of the Secretary-General, 2/28/2018, p. 8; HRW, 590. World Bank, Afghanistan Country Update a Doctor, and One Day You’ll Be Sick”: Girls’ Access to pp. 15–16, 44. Education in Afghanistan , 10/2017, pp. 21–22, 76; GIROA, 591. Afghanistan Analysts Network, “Power to the People (2),” MEC, Ministry-wide Vulnerability to Corruption Assessment 5/16/2016. DOD, OSD-P, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; , 10/2017, p. 3. 592. of the Ministry of Education Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 USAID, OAPA, 612. SIGAR analysis. , 9/6/2018, pp. 3, 5. , 593. Doing Business 2018: Reforming to Create Jobs World Bank, 613. USAID, OAPA, Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 , 9/6/2018, p. 12. SIGAR analysis of USAID, response to SIGAR data 10/31/2017, p. 142; World Bank, 614. Doing Business 2017: Equal call, 10/15/2018; SIGAR analysis of World Bank, ARTF, Opportunity for All , 10/25/2017, p. 188. Doing Business 2018: Reforming to Create Jobs , as of July 22, 2018. Administrator’s Report on Financial Status , World Bank, 594. 615. USAID, Factsheet, “Afghanistan University Support and 10/31/2017, pp. 126, 142; World Bank, Doing Business 2017: Equal Opportunity for All Workforce Development Program,” 8/2017; USAID, OED, , 10/25/2017, p. 188. 595. World Bank, Doing Business 2018: Reforming to Create Jobs , response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 616. University Support and Workforce Development 10/31/2017 p. 142. USAID, OED, 596. , 7/31/2018, p. 25. Program, April–June 2018 SIGAR analysis of USAID, response to SIGAR data University Support and Workforce Development USAID, OED, 617. call, 10/15/2018; SIGAR analysis of World Bank, ARTF, , 7/31/2018, p. 25. Administrator’s Report on Financial Status , as of July 22, 2018. Program, April–June 2018 University Support and Workforce Development USAID, OED, 618. 597. USAID, “Request for Concept Papers - Afghanistan Jobs , 7/31/2018, p. 25. Program, April–June 2018 Creation Program,” 6/22/2018. USAID, “Request for Concept Papers - Afghanistan Jobs 598. Progress in the Face of Insecurity Improving World Bank, 619. Creation Program,” 6/22/2018. Health Outcomes in Afghanistan , 2/2018, p. 7; SIGAR analysis. 620. Progress in the Face of Insecurity Improving World Bank, 599. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 600. Cooperative Agreement No.: 720306 l , 2/2018, p. 7. Health Outcomes in Afghanistan USAID, OAPA, UNICEF, 8CA00007, Livelihood Advancement for Marginalized Every Child Alive: The urgent need to end newborn 621. Populations (LAMP), under Annual Program Statement deaths , 2/2018, pp. 13, 31; CIA, World Factbook , “Country (APS) # APS- 306-306-17-000003 Comparison: Population,” n.d., https://www.cia.gov/library/ , 5/26/2018, pp. 1, 20, 35. publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html, Cooperative Agreement No.: 720306 I 601. USAID, OAPA, accessed 3/25/2018; SIGAR analysis. 8CA00006, The Goldozi Project, under Annual Program WHO, “Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births),” http:// 622. Statement (APS) # APS-306-306-1 7-000003 , 4/5/2018, pp. 1, www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/indmaternalmortality/en, no 12, 17. Fixed Amount Award No. 72030618FA00006, USAID, OAPA, date, accessed 9/28/2018. 602. 623. under Annual Program Statement (APS) Number APS 306- USAID, “Afghanistan: Our Work – Health,” 10/16/2018, https:// 17-000003 and RFA-306-17-0000012 (Establishing Kabul www.usaid.gov/afghanistan/health, accessed 10/18/2018. , 6/6/2018, pp. 1, 28, 37. Carpet Export Center (KCEC)) Progress in the Face of Insecurity Improving World Bank, 624. FHI360, 603. , 2/2018, p. 7. Quarterly Report: The Goldozi Project Q3, FY 2018 Health Outcomes in Afghanistan , 7/2018, p. 6. 625. Afghanistan’s Health Care Sector: USAID’s Use of SIGAR, (April to June 30) Unreliable Data Presents Challenges in Assessing Program USAID, “Education: Afghanistan,” no date, accessed 3/24/2018; 604. , SIGAR 17-22-AR, Performance and the Extent of Progress USAID, OED, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/10/2018. Total Enrollment for General 605. 1/2017, i, p. 7. EMIS Generated Report, Afghanistan’s Health Care Sector: USAID’s Use of SIGAR, , accessed 1/4/2017. Education Year 1396 626. 606. USAID, “Response to the Inquiry Letter on Afghanistan Unreliable Data Presents Challenges in Assessing Program , SIGAR 17-22-AR, Education Data Reliability, (SIGAR Inquiry Letter-15-62-SP),” Performance and the Extent of Progress 6/30/2015. 1/2017, p. 7. 251 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

262 ENDNOTES 646. , “Where giving birth is a forecast of death: maternal Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 627. The Lancet Pentavalent Vaccine: Guide for Health Workers with Answers mortality in four districts of Afghanistan, 1999–2002,” 3/5/2005, , 2012, pp. 2, 8; World Bank, p. 864. to Frequently Asked Questions 628. Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health Action in WHO, “Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births),” http:// , www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/indmaternalmortality/en, no Transition Project Implementation Status & Results Report 6/30/2018, p. 2. date, accessed 9/28/2018. World Bank, Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health Afghanistan Demographic 629. NSIA, MOPH, The DHS Program, 647. and Health Survey 2015 , 1/2017, p. 248. Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results Afghanistan Demographic , 6/30/2018, p. 3. 630. NSIA, MOPH, The DHS Program, Report Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health , 1/2017, pp. 247–248. 648. World Bank, and Health Survey 2015 , “How the U.S. Government Misleads the Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results New York Times 631. , 6/30/2018, p. 4; SIGAR analysis. Public on Afghanistan,” 9/8/2018. Report 632. Afghanistan’s Health Care Sector: USAID’s Use of 649. World Bank, Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health SIGAR, Unreliable Data Presents Challenges in Assessing Program Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results , 6/30/2018, p. 3; SIGAR analysis. Report Performance and the Extent of Progress , SIGAR 17-22-AR, World Bank, 650. 1/2017, p. 7. Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health 633. Afghanistan’s Health Care Sector: USAID’s Use of SIGAR, Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results , 6/30/2018, p. 3; SIGAR analysis. Unreliable Data Presents Challenges in Assessing Program Report Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health World Bank, 651. Performance and the Extent of Progress , SIGAR 17-22-AR, 1/2017, i. Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results Report 634. Afghanistan Reconstruction Afghanistan in Review: Oversight of U.S. Spending in , 6/30/2018, p. 4; World Bank, Afghanistan Trust Fund Grant Agreement – System Enhancement for , Before the Committee on Homeland Security , 8/27/2013, p. 5. Health Action in Transition Project and Government Affairs Subcommittee on Federal Spending 652. World Bank, Oversight and Emergency Management, 115th Cong., p. 3 (May Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results 9, 2018) (statement of Laurel E. Miller, The RAND Corporation); USAID, “Afghanistan: Our Work – Health,” 10/16/2018, https:// , 6/30/2018, p. 3; World Bank, Report Afghanistan System Enhancement for Health Action in Transition Project 2018 www.usaid.gov/afghanistan/health, accessed 10/18/2018; SIGAR, , 6/1/2018, p. 1. Afghanistan’s Health Care Sector: USAID’s Use of Unreliable Aide Memoire 653. Data Presents Challenges in Assessing Program Performance World Bank, Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results and the Extent of Progress , SIGAR 17-22-AR, 1/2017, i. , 6/30/2018, p. 2; World Bank, Guidance Note Systematic The Situation in Afghanistan and its Implications for Report 635. UN, Operations Risk-Rating Tool (SORT), 6/25/2014, pp. 1, 7. International Peace and Security , report of the Secretary- 654. World Bank, “Afghanistan Sehatmandi Project,” no date, http:// General, 9/10/2018, pp. 8–9. projects.worldbank.org/P160615?lang=en, accessed 10/8/2018; 636. , 9/6/2018, pp. 3, 5. Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 USAID, OAPA, Grant Agreement 306-AA-18 , 9/6/2018, p. 11. World Bank, “Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health USAID, OAPA, 637. Action in Transition Project,” no date, http://www.projects. 638. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 6/21/2018, 3/20/2018 and worldbank.org/P129663/afghanistan-system-enhancement- 12/21/2017; USAID, “Ofce of Health and Nutrition Portfolio Review,” 11/2017, pp. 3–4, 6; USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, health-action-transition-project?lang=en, accessed 9/28/2018. , 1/9/2018. 655. WHO, Poliomyelitis, Report by the Secretariat A70/14 639. CIA, “Afghanistan: People and Society,” World Factbook, https:// The Guardian 4/24/2017, p. 1; , “Pakistan and Afghanistan Join www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ Forces to Wipe Out Polio,” 4/5/2016; USAID, OHN, response to af.html, accessed 7/15/2018. SIGAR vetting, 10/10/2017; CDC, Principles of Epidemiology 640. SIGAR analysis of USAID, response to SIGAR data in Public Health Practice, Third Edition An Introduction call, 10/15/2018; SIGAR analysis of World Bank, ARTF, , “Lesson 1: to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics Introduction to Epidemiology,” https://www.cdc.gov/ophss/ , as of July 22, 2018. Administrator’s Report on Financial Status World Bank, “Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health 641. csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section11.html, accessed 10/16/2018. USAID, OHN, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/10/2017 and 4/11/2017. 656. Action in Transition Project,” no date, http://www.projects. 657. worldbank.org/P129663/afghanistan-system-enhancement- National Geographic , “Taliban’s Assassins target Pakistan’s health-action-transition-project?lang=en, accessed 9/28/2018; Polio Vaccinators,” 3/3/2015. World Bank, ARTF, , “He Led the CIA to bin Laden—and Administrator’s Report on Financial 658. National Geographic Unwittingly Fueled a Vaccine Backlash,” 2/27/2015. Status , as of July 22, 2018. Global Polio Eradication Initiative, “Where We Work– 642. USAID, “Sector Accomplishments: 2015–2016,” 12/29/2016, p. 2. 659. Afghanistan,” n.d., http://polioeradication.org/where-we-work/ USAID, “Sector Accomplishments: 2015–2016,” 12/29/2016, p. 2. 643. 644. Administrator’s Report on Financial afghanistan/, accessed 9/29/2018; USAID, OHN, response to World Bank, ARTF, SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. Status , as of July 22, 2018. Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 660. Afghanistan: System Enhancement for Health Global Wild Poliovirus 645. World Bank, Action in Transition Project Implementation Status & Results , 9/25/2018; USAID, OHN, response to SIGAR vetting, 2013–2018 , 6/30/2018, p. 2. 10/11/2018. Report 252 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

263 ENDNOTES GIROA, The Constitution of Afghanistan, Article VII (1/3/2004). 679. 661. SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress , Afghan National Drug Action Plan 2015–2019 GIROA, 680. , 7/30/2018. 662. UNICEF and WHO, Afghanistan Polio Update – October– 10/14/2015, pp. 4–5, 10. State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018; State, SCA, 681. December 2017, 1/2018, p. 1. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/18/2018. 663. UN, The Situation in Afghanistan and its Implications for CSTC-A, response to DOD IG data call, 7/10/2018; DOD, , report of the Secretary- 682. International Peace and Security , 6/2018, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan General, 2/28/2018, p. 11. p. 103. 664. USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/10/2018. 683. , 7/30/2018. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; NSOCC-A, 665. SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress USAID, OHN, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 666. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 667. , Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan DOD, 684. USAID, OHN, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 6/2015, p. 91; UNODC, Mid-term independent project evalua- 668. Department of Defense and Labor, Health and Human tion of a special segment of RER/V07, Improving the Capacity Services, and Education Appropriations Act, 2019 and of National Police of Afghanistan and of the Central Asian Continuing Appropriations Act, 2019 , Pub. L. No. 115- United States Senate Committee on , 12/2016, p. 2. Countries to Tackle Drug Trafcking 245, (2018), p. 62; Appropriations Senate Passes Final Defense, Labor-HHS- , 685. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. DOD, , Education Appropriations Minibus Conference Report Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan 686. , 6/2018, pp. 102–103. 9/18/2018, https://www.appropriations.senate.gov/news/ majority/senate-passes-nal-defense-labor-hhs-education- CSTC-A, response to DOD IG data call, 7/10/2018. 687. 688. DOD, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan , appropriations-minibus-conference-report, accessed 9/20/2018; 6/2018, pp. 38, 103. SIGAR, Legislative Summary FY 2019 Department of Defense 689. DOD, , Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan Appropriations Act, H. Rept. 115–952 , 2018. 6/2018, p. 104. White House, Signing Statement from President Donald J. 669. 690. DOD, Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan , Trump on H.R. 6157, 9/28/2018, https://www.whitehouse.gov/ 6/2018, p. 103; State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, briengs-statements/signing-statement-president-donald-j- 6/25/2017. trump-h-r-6157/, accessed 10/2/2018. The Situation in Afghanistan and its Implications for UN, DOJ, DEA, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/11/2018. 691. 670. 692. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018 and 9/21/2018. International Peace and Security , report of the Secretary- 693. General, 9/10/2018, p. 13; State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2017 and 7/12/2018. 694. DEA, response to SIGAR data call, 12/27/2017. 10/12/2015. 695. 671. SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress , State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018. 4/30/2015, p. 111; SIGAR, Quarterly Report to the United States 696. , 7/30/2017, p. 190; State, INL, response to SIGAR OSD-P (CN), response to SIGAR data call, 9/24/2018. Congress 697. data call, 9/21/2018; State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, NSOCC-A, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, State, INL, 10/12/2018; P. Michael McKinley, “Statement as Nominee for 698. Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control , 3/2018, p. 74; State, INL, Ambassador to Afghanistan before the Senate Foreign Relations response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018. Committee,” 12/2/2014. Wall Street Journal 672. 699. Report 2017 UN, International Narcotics Control Board, , Dion Nissenbaum, “Months of U.S. Strikes , Have Failed to Curtail Taliban Opium Trade,” 8/8/2018. 3/1/2018, p. 100. 673. 700. DOD(CN), response to SIGAR data call, 6/27/2018 and 9/24/2018; State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. NIST, Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and UNODC, 701. The United States and the Metric System: A Capsule in , 1997, p. 8, https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/les/docu- History , 11/2017, p. 5. Production State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/16/2018; State, INL, 702. ments/pml/wmd/metric/1136a.pdf, accessed 10/6/2018. response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 674. CNJC, Monthly Report , 8/26/2018. 703. 675. Monthly Report , 8/26/2018, 2018, http://cnjc.gov. DEA, Press Release, “Two Afghan heroin trafckers sen- CJTF, CNJC, tenced in Manhattan federal court for conspiring to import af/english/783/Monthly+Report, accessed 9/21/2018; CNJC, , 9/25/2018, http://cnjc.gov.af/english/790/ heroin into the United States,” 9/18/2018, https://www.dea.gov/ Monthly Report Monthly+Report, accessed 10/03/2018. press-releases/2018/09/18/two-afghan-heroin-trafckers-sen- DOJ, DEA, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018; TAAC-Air, 704. tenced-manhattan-federal-court, accessed 9/20/2018. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018. 676. USAID, Press Release, “Contracts and Deals signed as Curtain Governor Led Eradication Amended Implementing State, INL, 705. Closes at India-Afghanistan International Trade and Investment ,” 9/25/2018, https://www.usaid.gov/afghanistan/ Show Instructions for the Letter of Agreement on Police, Criminal Justice, and Counternarcotics Support Programs of March 9, news-information/press-releases/Sept-12-2018-US-Supports- 2006 between the Government of the United States of America Passage2Prosperity-Opening-in-Mumbai accessed 10/8/2018; , 4/23/2014. and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan USAID, 9/12/2018; USAID India, Tweet on Passage to Prosperity, 9/12/2018. 706. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 707. 677. Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and See Appendix B of this report. UNODC, , 11/2017, p. 5. DOD, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/16/2016. 678. Production 253 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

264 ENDNOTES 740. INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. UNODC, Quarterly Report, INL Funded Alternative 708. 709. Development Project Boost Alternative Development SIGAR, Counternarcotics: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan , 6/2018, iii, pp. 31–34, 45. Intervention through Licit Livelihoods (BADILL), Period UNODC, Covered: April to June 2018 , 2018, p. 3. World Drug Report 2016 , 5/2016, Annex, xi; 710. Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and UNODC, 741. UNODC, Quarterly Report, INL Funded Alternative Production Development Project Boost Alternative Development , 11/2017, p. 5. 711. GIROA, National Statistics and Information Authority, Intervention through Licit Livelihoods (BADILL), Period Covered: April to June 2018 , 2018, p. 4. , pp. 123–124; Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2017–18 742. UNODC, Quarterly Report, INL Funded Alternative UNODC, Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and Development Project Boost Alternative Development , 11/2017, p. 4. Production , 8/2009, 712. USIP, Gretchen Peters, How Opium Prots the Taliban Intervention through Licit Livelihoods (BADILL), Period Covered: April to June 2018 pp. 1, 3. , 2018, p. 5. State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 7/14/2017. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018; State, 743. 713. INL, Press Release, “U.S. and Afghanistan Announce $25.7 744. SIGAR, Counternarcotics: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Million in Good Performers Initiative Awards for Provincial Afghanistan, 6/2018, pp. 43, 110, 116–117. 745. Counternarcotics Achievements,” 11/10/2010, https://2009-2017. Quarterly Reporting Template for US/INL Funded UNDP, Projects, Period covered by the report: Third Quarter (Apr− state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/11/150762.htm, accessed 6/30/2018. Jun 2018) State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 4/1/2016 and 6/22/2017. 714. , p. 1. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 4/1/2016; State, INL, UNDP, 746. Quarterly Reporting Template for US/INL Funded 715. Projects, Period covered by the report: Third Quarter (Apr− response to SIGAR vetting, 10/14/2016. , p. 1. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 4/1/2016 and 6/22/2017. Jun 2018) 716. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018. 717. 747. UNDP, Quarterly Reporting Template for US/INL Funded Afghanistan Opium Survey 2017: Cultivation and UNODC, Projects, Period covered by the report: Third Quarter (Apr− 718. , 11/2017, p. 5. Production Jun 2018) , p. 1. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. Quarterly Reporting Template for US/INL Funded UNDP, 748. 719. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Projects, Period covered by the report: Third Quarter (Apr− 720. State, INL, , n.d, pp. 1–2. , 3/2018, pp. 18, 74. Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control Jun 2018) Quarterly Reporting Template for US/INL Funded UNDP, 749. 721. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. Projects, Period covered by the report: Third Quarter (Apr− State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 722. State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018; State, INL, 723. Jun 2018) , p. 2. response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 750. UNDP, Quarterly Reporting Template for US/INL Funded Projects, Period covered by the report: Third Quarter (Apr− USAID, 724. Kandahar Food Zone Mid-term Performance , p. 2. Jun 2018) , 3/2015, p. 2. Evaluation International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, State, INL, 725. State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018 and 751. , 3/2018, p. 18. 10/16/2018. Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/9/2018. 752. State, INL, 726. 753. USAID, , 3/2018, p. 92. Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control Contract 72030618C00013 between USAID/ Afghanistan and DAI Global, LLC 727. State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018. , 8/2/2018, pp. 5, 12, 15, 18. The Colombo Plan, 754. USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; USAID, Drug Advisory Programme, Project No.: 728. , 4/12/2017, p. 4; Quarterly Pipeline Analysis Report, Report as of 9/30/2018 2016-AF003, Quarterly Report FY2017 Q1 , 10/15/2018. State, INL, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control Contract 72030618C00011 between USAID/ 755. USAID, , 3/2018, p. 19. , 6/9/2018, pp. 5, 11. Afghanistan and DAI Global, LLC State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 3/24/2017 and 9/21/2018; 729. State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 1/12/2018 and 4/12/2018. 756. USAID, Afghanistan Value Chains-Livestock Monthly State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 4/12/2018. Performance Report, July 2018 , 8/19/2018, pp. 5–6; USAID, 730. response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. 731. State, INL, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/12/2018. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 4/1/2016. 732. 757. USAID, Quarterly Pipeline Analysis Report, Report as of The Colombo Plan, Drug Advisory Programme, Project No.: , 10/15/2018. 9/30/2018 733. 758. Promoting Value Chains-Western Afghanistan, Semi- 2016-AF003, Quarterly Report FY2017 Q1 , 4/12/2017, pp. 4, USAID, annual Progress Report, September 20, 2017 to March 31, 14, 21. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018. 734. , 5/29/2018, i, p. 1. 2018 735. State, INL, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 759. USAID, Promoting Value Chains-Western Afghanistan, Semi- Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control , 3/2018, pp. 94–95. annual Progress Report, September 20, 2017 to March 31, 736. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018. , 5/29/2018, p. 3. 2018 State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 9/21/2018. 737. Promoting Value Chains-Western Afghanistan, Semi- USAID, 760. State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 3/24/2017 and 9/21/2018. 738. annual Progress Report, September 20, 2017 to March 31, State, INL, response to SIGAR data call, 6/25/2018. 739. , 5/29/2018, p. 4. 2018 254 SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION I

265 ENDNOTES USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 770. Promoting Value Chains–Western Afghanistan, Semi- USAID, 761. Kandahar Food Zone (KFZ) Program, Year 4, KFZ Annual Progress Report, September 20, 2017 to March 31, 771. USAID, 2018 Quarterly Progress Report, Q4 FY2017, July 1–September 30, , 5/29/2018, pp. 4–5, 19–20; USAID, response to SIGAR vet- ting, 10/11/2018. 2017 , 10/31/2017, p. 6; USAID, Kandahar Food Zone Mid-term 762. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. Performance Evaluation , 3/2015, pp. 1, 3; USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018. Afghanistan: Drought Response Situation Report No. OCHA, 763. 2 (as of 16 September 2018) 772. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. , “Lanzer TOLOnews , 9/20/2018; USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2016. Warns of Serious Shortfall in Funds For Emergency Aid,” 773. USAID, Regional Agricultural Development Program- 9/22/2018, https://www.tolonews.com/afghanistan/lanzer-warns- 774. East (RADP-E), Activity Monitoring and Evaluation serious-shortfall-funds-emergency-aid, accessed 9/28/2018; USAID, Press Release, “USAID Provides $43.8 million to WFP Plan, FY 2018, 1/20/2018; USAID, Regional Agricultural to Boost Food Assistance for Drought Affected Afghans,” Development Program-East (RADP-E), Quarterly Report FY 2018, Quarter 3 (April–June, 2018) , 7/30/2018, p. 2. 9/23/2018, https://www.usaid.gov/afghanistan/news-information/ 775. USAID, Regional Agricultural Development Program-East press-releases/Sept-23-2018-USAID-Provides-43.8-million-to- (RADP-E), Quarterly Report FY 2018, Quarter 3 (April-June, WFP, accessed 9/28/2018. 2018) , 7/30/2018, p. 1. 764. USAID, Press Release, “USAID Provides $43.8 million to WFP 776. Regional Agricultural Development Program-East USAID, to Boost Food Assistance for Drought Affected Afghans,” 9/23/2018, https://www.usaid.gov/afghanistan/news-information/ (RADP-E), Quarterly Report FY 2018, Quarter 3 (April–June, press-releases/Sept-23-2018-USAID-Provides-43.8-million-to- 2018) , 7/30/2018, pp. 5, 6. WFP, accessed 9/28/2018. USAID, response to SIGAR vetting, 10/11/2018; USAID, 777. response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 765. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 778. Regional Agricultural Development Program (RADP)- 766. USAID, Factsheet, “Commercial Horticulture and Agricultural USAID, North, Contract No. AID-306-C-14-00002, FY2018, Quarter 3 Marketing Program (CHAMP),” 7/2017, https://www.usaid.gov/ (April–June 2018) , 7/31/2018, p. 8. sites/default/les/documents/1871/Commercial_Horticulture_ 779. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress , SIGAR, and_Agricultural_Marketing_Project_CHAMP_-_July_2017. Commercial Horticulture and pdf, accessed 9/28/2018; USAID, 7/30/2018, p. 194. Agricultural Marketing Program (CHAMP) Quarterly Report, USAID, 780. Regional Agricultural Development Program (RADP)- January-March 2018 , p. 5. North, Contract No. AID-306-C-14-00002, FY2018, Quarter 3 Modication No. 25 to Cooperative Agreement 306-A- (April–June 2018) , 7/31/2018, pp. 9, 26. 767. USAID, 781. USAID, Regional Agricultural Development Program (RADP)- 00-10-00512-00 with Roots of Peace , 5/30/2018. Commercial Horticulture and Agricultural Marketing North, Contract No. AID-306-C-14-00002, FY2018, Quarter 3 768. USAID, Program (CHAMP), Quarterly Report, April-June 2018 , 7/31/2018, p. 10. (April–June 2018) , 2018, 782. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. pp. 5–6. USAID, Press Release, “Afghan Traders Sign US$68 Million 783. USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 10/15/2018. 769. Worth of Deals during Trade Mission,” 7/23/2018, https://www. usaid.gov/afghanistan/news-information/press-releases/July- 23-2018-Afghan-Traders-Signed-Millions-of-Dollars-in-Deals, accessed 7/26/2018; USAID, response to SIGAR data call, 9/19/2018. 255 REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS OCTOBER 30, 2018 I

266 against her mother at the Azakhel Voluntary Repatriation Center in the Nowshera District of An Afghan girl nestles Pakistan. (AFP photo by Abdul Majeed) Quarterly Report Staff Senior Visual Information Specialist Olivia Paek, Deputy Director of Research and Analysis Directorate Michael Bindell, Funding Subject Matter Expert Security Subject Matter Expert Theodore Burns, Heather Robinson, Daniel Fisher, Economic and Social Development Subject Matter Expert Director of Research and Analysis Directorate Deborah Scroggins, Project Coordinator Robert Hill, Student Trainee Omar Sharif, Counternarcotics Subject Matter Expert Solange Toura Gaba, Lead Writer/Editor Clark Irwin, Vong Lim, Visual Information Specialist Daniel Weggeland, Governance Subject Matter Expert James Misencik, Security Subject Matter Expert

267 SIGAR SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION 2530 Crystal Drive Arlington, VA 22202 www.sigar.mil FRAUD, WASTE, OR ABUSE MAY BE REPORTED TO SIGAR’S HOTLINE By phone: Afghanistan Cell: 0700107300 DSN: 318-237-3912 ext. 7303 All voicemail is in Dari, Pashto, and English. By phone: United States Toll-free: 866-329-8893 DSN: 312-664-0378 All voicemail is in English and answered during business hours. By fax: 703-601-4065 By e-mail: [email protected] By Web submission: www.sigar.mil/investigations/hotline/report-fraud.aspx SIGAR Report Fraud, Waste or Abuse

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