1 WATER IN ARCHITECTURE, LANDSC APE + URBANISM Water is one of the most evocative and challenging elements in environmental design. This - one day workshop draws together SA+P colleagues working on various aspects of water to: t water projects 1. Exchange ideas on curren 2. Identify collaborative studio and research projects a water research and teaching agenda at MIT 3. Develop Concept Paper for Discussion: Water: The Scaling and Diffusion of Solutions scale and diffusion Attached is a concept paper on in water science, planning, and design to 1 It puts forward the following arguments: stimulate our workshop discussion. 1. Scaling: From Pool to Planet. Water problems must be addressed at a continuous range of scales from global modeling to site design. And site design must “scale up” to address regional and international water problems. At present, there is great potential but little evidence to support these claims. 2. Diffusion: Design in Mumbai matters for Mazdar and Massachusetts (and vice versa). SA+P launches new urban water studies and studios every semester in almost every region of the world. How can these projects build on one another? And how can our students develop expertise in water planning and design? We will address these cross - cutt ing theses through a series of conversations at the three scales outlined below (site, city, and region). 250 SCHEDULE: SATURDAY, APRIL 18, 2009, MIT 9 - Welcome and aims 10:00 (AKPIA) Jim Wescoat 10:05 Opening comments Adele Santos, De an, School of Architecture + Planning Yung Ho Chang , Head, Department of Architecture Philip Khoury , Associate Provost, International Programs Dara Entekhabi , CEE and Director, Parsons Lab Larry Susskind, DUSP and EPP - MUSIC 1 Entekhabi and Wescoat, Draft 10 April 2009.
2 Water in Archi tecture and Landscape Site Design 10:30 2 Discussion Convenors: - Joseph (DUSP; sustainable site design) Eran Ben Rahul Mehrotra (ARCH; architectural design in India) Susan Murcott (CEE; Household water systems in Africa) (ARCH; Digit al Water Pavilion in Spain) Carlo Ratti Programmatic Questions: Water in the undergraduate curricula Water in the MArch and MCP curricula Water in the SMArchS curriculum Working Lunch 11:30 Comparative Coastal and Urban Waterfront Design n Convenors: Discussio Julian Beinart (ARCH; coastal urbanism) Dennis Frenchman (DUSP; ports and waterfronts) Rahul Mehrotra (ARCH; Bombay waterfront) Nasser Rabbat (AKPIA; Qatar and Gulf) Alexander D’Hooghe ion]) (ARCH; northern Europe [virtual contribut Programmatic Questions: Water in the SMArchS curriculum Water in the DUSP MS curriculum Watershed, Wetland, and River Channel Design - 1:00 from Regional to Local Scales Discussion Convenors: Alan Berger (DUSP; wetlands and rec lamation) (CEE; water - land cover - climate interactions) Dara Entekhabi Anne Whiston Spirn (ARCH/DUSP; irrigation and drainage) Jim Wescoat ( AKPIA; water heritage conservation) Programmatic Questions: Water in the L+U program Water in the AKPIA program Summary 2:00 Architecture, Landscape + Urbanism Water Priorities on: • Scaling of solutions – focal scales and linkages • Diffusion of innovations – regional and comparative priorities • Program development – studios and curriculum Informal rec eption at the Wesc oats (33 Market St, Cambridge [w alk over]) 2 Convenors will briefly kick off the discussion with questions, ideas, and experience for group discussion.
3 LUTIONS : THE SCALING AND DIFFUSION OF SO WATER “Just as the thirsty seek the water, so too does water seek the thirsty” (Rumi) Water is one of the most fascinating substances in the universe from subatomic to cosmic scales, as well as at every scale of h uman interest and inquiry in between. New physical — while global research on the water molecule appears annually in leading scientific journals environmental change research focuses on water resources impacts and adaptations. Water related flood, drough t, and pollution hazards challenge communities, cities, and - regions on every continent. At the same time, water innovations are booming at each scale, from moisture sensing at policy conserving environmental design; water - precise points in space and time to water experiments; and modeling of complex water systems at industrial, urban, regional, and - conserving design ranges from green roofs to rain gardens, planetary scales. Water bioswales, xeriscape irrigation, constructed wetlands, and more. There are tw o key questions concerning these innovations: Do these innovations scale such that they affect the broader - context of water 1. problems facing societies? Do these innovations diffuse so that they became effective solutions in diverse 2. ion, adaptation, and social learning? settings through replicat / – 2009 / 16 DE and JW 4 1 Draft
4 What makes scaling so interesting at MIT is how it connects research and teaching in the: • Hydrologic sciences (e.g., precipitation - soil moisture - land cover interactions; hydrogeology - contaminant transport processes; etc.) • Engineering (e.g., water purification and treatment, conservation technologies) • Water economics and ecology (e.g., water valuation in eco - hydrologic systems modeling and experimentation) • Water planning, policy, and design (e.g., water - conserving d esign in buildings, sites, cities, regions, nation - states, and international river basins) • Water cultures (e.g., comparative social research in different regions of North America, the Middle East, South Asia, Europe, etc.) s the five Schools at MIT, and will entail far more extensive These fields currently cut acros diffuse , and down up, scale - scale collaboration to understand how water phenomena - across space and time to solve critical water problems. Scaling up create sustainable cities, regions, to - - Up. How can local water solutions scale and systems? More specifically: scale water innovations be orchestrated to address larger How can site • - - scale urban and regional water problems? - - le sca • scale innovations justify large At what point does adoption of site hydrologic infrastructure? (e.g., deltaic restoration, investment in eco - aquifer restoration, floodplain design, etc.) How do the water benefits of individual green roofs, stormwater best • ies, management practices, precision irrigation, water reuse technolog etc., aggregate across different natural and built environments? • How can we use design in nature for to understand water conservation in plants and animals in ways that contribute to the invention of devices and strategies for solving our water proble ms? In some cases, downscaling is simply the inverse of questions such as Down. - Scaling those posed above, e.g., how does a regional water problem drive local innovations that address it? In other cases, global and regional insights lead to profoundly di fferent understanding and implications at the local scale. For example: / – 2009 / 16 DE and JW 4 2 Draft
5 How can global climate model output be downscaled to generate credible • river basin, aquifer, and smaller watershed scenarios of hydrologic change? • How can greater knowledge of hydroc limatic teleconnections affect local water management impacts, decisions, and design? • How do eco hydrologic models at the landscape scale shape policy and - design concepts at the local scale? - Multi Scale Inquiry. Complex problems involve multiple scales, raising questions about: - scale sensing and observing systems can enhance hydrologic How multi • sustainability at multiple scales. • How water policy rules and procedures vary across scales, often in ductive conflict with one another, but in ways that can generate pro experiments. • Where should the system boundaries be drawn to understand the magnitude and reach of water use and associated resources (e.g., life - cycle water use of manufactured products, joint consideration of soil and nd regional systems). water conservation in urban a Implicit in the scaling of water solutions are their flows across Diffusion of Innovations. space and time. These include flows of water itself, and “virtual water” contained in products facturing, and trade). Diffusion research also and materials (e.g. water used in food, manu focuses on innovations prototyped in one setting and moved or adapted in others. New research on scaling calls for new research on the dynamics of diffusion. For example: How are information technologies a nd new media transforming the paths, • rates, mechanisms, and spatial distribution of water innovation? th century emphasis on exporting water • How can the U.S. shift from its 20 innovations to a balanced strategy of rigorous searches for and adaptation of inn ovations from around the world? How can robust water innovations be designed for application and • adaptation in diverse settings (e.g. different climates, terrains, livelihoods, and cultures). ion, and diffusion of water And ultimately, what role will MIT play in the creation, adaptat – resource solutions around the world? -- from campus to continents / – 2009 / 16 DE and JW 4 3 Draft