Index 5.16.07 FINAL.indd

Transcript

1 Index Note: * indicates the term also appears in the Glossary (Annex I). Page numbers in italics denote tables, fi gures and boxed material; page numbers for boxed material are followed by B. Page numbers in bold indicate page spans for entire chapters. modelling, 603 8.2 ka event*, 455, 456, 463-464 surface albedo, 30, 132, 180- fi See also c constituents speci 186, 203-205 , 201 Atmospheric modelling, 597-599 , 602- surface albedo feedback, 593, 638-639 A 646-647 603, 608-613, 623, Albrecht effect. See Cloud lifetime Abrupt climate change*, 57, 106-107, See Attribution of climate change. effect, under Clouds 435-436, 454-457, 463-464 Detection and attribution Altimetry*, 49, 361, 408, 410, 411-412, 431 , 818 ned, fi de 775B of climate change Ammonia (NH modelling, 640-643 544-546 ), 3 Australia. , 818-819 775-777B projections, Annular modes*, 38-40, 64, 112, 238-239, Climate projections See ACE index, 304, 305B , 312B 286-295, , 620-621, 780-782 287B Aviation. See Aircraft/aviation 355, Advection*, 356 , 528 Antarctic Circumpolar Current Aerosols, 29-30, 106, 131-132, 401-402, 765 (ACC), B 135-136, 153-180 Antarctic Circumpolar Wave 726, 744-745, 810 Bayesian methods*, aviation aerosols, 188, 561 294-295 (ACW), 108-110 Biogeochemistry, climatic factors, 557-558 777B Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), , 782 Climate couplings and feedbacks ( see couplings and feedbacks, 78- Antarctic region system couplings) 79, 504, 555-566 904 , 907-909 climate projections, modelling, 642-643 154 , 159-160, direct effect, 153, Ice sheets) see ice sheet ( oceanic, 48, 387, 389, 403-408 203-204 , 201 168-171, oceans, 401-402, 420 projections, 789-811 direct radiative effect, 157-158 sea ice, 342, 351, 352, 353, 355 29, 132, , 164 Biomass burning, glaciation effect, , 559, 560-561 558 Arctic Ocean, 398, 906 165-167, 204 , 501-502 indirect effects*, 30, 153-154, 504, Arctic Oscillation (AO), 777B , 780 30, 132, 163-165, Black carbon*, 558 , 559-563, 565-566 Arctic region 205 , 565, 566 184-185, modelling, 159-160, 562-563, climate projections, 902-907 aviation-associated, 561 564 , 565, 607 , 60, 317, 339, 342, 45 sea ice, 44, projections, 760, 796 natural, 555-558, 559 351-356, 716, , 851 776B Blocking, 282, 285, 623 precipitation effects, 254, 560, 563, 564 Asia. See Climate projections projections, 78-79, 755-757, Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation C 760, 796-797 245-246, 293-294 (AMO)*, Carbon radiative forcing, 29-30, 153- Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability, 623 dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), 180, 198-200, 559 394-399 Atlantic Ocean, 387, 403-405, 408, satellite and surface-based hurricanes, 306-312 514, 529-530, 532 observations, 154-159 past variability, 482 26 , 517- 516 global budget, , semi-direct effect, 154 , 555, salinity, 387, 393, 394-399, 420 525 , 522-523 526, 558 , 559, 565 sea level change, 413 446B isotopes, 139, 439, , 452, , 559 558 thermodynamic effect, , 387, temperature, 237, 247 392 , 460, 476, 519 29 total aerosol optical depth, 395, 398-399, 420 modelling, 618 total anthropogenic effect, Atmospheric climate change, oceanic, 387, 403-406, 420, 564-565 562-563, 235-336 35-43, 82, 529B 528-533, volcanic aerosols, 193-195, , 478 201 , 287B circulation, 38, 280-295, organic, fossil fuel, 29, 132, See also speci fi c aerosols 318, 709-712, 770 204-205 161-163, 528 Afforestation*, free atmosphere*, 265-280, organic, natural, 556-557 See Africa. Climate projections 730 317, 699-701, Black carbon See also , 566-567 540B 28, 79, 502, Air quality, teleconnections, 38-40, 238, 286-295 26-27, 501, 511-539 Carbon cycle*, 30, 186-188 Aircraft/aviation, temperature of upper air, 36, , 37 biological pumps, 528-530 aviation aerosols, 188, 561 237, 265-271, 699-701 couplings and feedbacks, 77-80, contrails/induced cloudiness, 30, 132, See also Surface climate change , 566 501, 511-539, 534 201 203-205 186-188, , 129-234 Atmospheric constituents, 525 interannual changes, 523-524, 30, 110, 180-186, 508 Albedo*, aerosols, 29-30, 131-132, 153-180 marine, 403-406, 408, 437, 528- cloud albedo effect, 30, 132, chemically and radiatively 533, 529B , , 793 534 , 153-154, 171-180, 201 important gases, 24-28, modelling, 481, 533-539, 591, , 559-563 558 , 203-205 131, 137-153, 539-555 604-605, 618 cryospheric-albedo feedback, 110 contrails and aircraft-induced overview, 511-517 ice-albedo feedback, 97 cloudiness, 30, 132, 186-187, palaeoclimate, 437, 442, , 443 205 snow, 30, 184-185, 186-188, 203-205 201 , 446B , 452, 460 , 343 couplings and feedbacks, 504, 539-555 777B , 789- projections, 750, snow-albedo feedback, 343, 793, 823-825 638-639, 640 989

2 Index commitment ( Climate change see uxes, 521-523 regional fl changes in performance, 618-619 commitment) 513 , 519-521, sources and sinks, climate sensitivity and feedbacks, concept, 667-670, 678 777B 527-531, 604-605, 592, 629-640 consistency across observations, terrestrial processes and climate variability, 591, 592, 620-627 51-54, 239, 317-318 dence in, 591, 600-601, fi con feedbacks, 526-528 Snow, ice and see cryospheric ( 639-640, 668 top-down/bottom-up views, 521-522 frozen ground) construction of, 596 Carbon dioxide (CO 24-27, 77-80, )* 2 , current, compared to palaeoclimate contemporary climate, 608-619 115, 135, 137-140, 511-515 changes, 436-437, 465 coupled models, 117-118, 481, air-sea fl uxes, 403, 404 de fi ned, 667 532-539, 607, 608-627 atmospheric concentration, 24-27, see detection and attribution ( , 601, 865, 74 downscaling*, 131, 137-140, 141 , 146 , Detection and attribution 919-921, 925 516 511, 515, , 517 of climate change) Earth System Models of Intermediate buffering (Revelle factor), 531 775-777B irreversible, Complexity (EMICs), 67, 77, in carbon cycle, 501, 511-517 last 1,000 years, 680-683 646-647 , 591-592, 643-645, 78 , couplings and feedbacks, 77- last 2,000 years, 436, 466- 797, 801-802, 823-827, 828 80, 501, 511-539 468-469B 483, evaluation, 87, 591, 594-596 dissolved in oceans, 387, 402-406, 408 long-term, 822-831 evolution, 98, 99 , 112-114 fertilization*, 185-186, 526-527, 605 mechanisms, 96, 449 extremes, 627-629 global warming potential, 211, 212 observations, summarized, 35-58 597- ux adjustments*, 117, 591, fl growth rate, 26, 523-526, 790 oceanic ( see Oceanic climate change) 646-647 , 607-608, 599 increase in industrial era, 97, relationship to weather, 104-105 General Circulation Models (GCMs), 100, 105-106, 512 fi robust ndings and key 114-116, 208, 629-633, 925 palaeoclimate, 54-57, 435-437, uncertainties, 81-91 hierarchies, 67 , 112-114, 797-800 , 452-453, 446B 440-450, surface ( see Surface climate change) initialisation, 607-608 455-456, 459-460, 465, 481 variability ( see intercomparison, 510 projections, 77-80, 789-811, 822-828 Climate variability) large-scale variability, 591-592, 620-627 radiative forcing, 25, 131, 136, 137-140, Climate change science See also multi-model data set (MMD), 597- , 185-186, 205 , 212 207 141 , , 68B Climate change commitment*, 68-69, , 753-754, 858-860B 599 207 205 Carbon monoxide (CO), , , 78 , 79-80, 749, 753, 761, 822-831 nested regional climate models, 919 214, 549, 793-794 commitment to year 2300, 822-827 resolution, 113-114, 591, 797-800 Carbon tetrachloride (CCl commitment to year 3000 and ), 4 shorter-term predictions, 626-627 beyond, 823-827 212 141 , 145, 146, 2- simple climate models, 643-647, constant composition commitment Carbonate (CO , 421 77, 387, 406, ), 3 797, 802-804, 844 scenarios, 753, 822-823 443 , 532 442, 446B , 460, 530, thresholds, 640-643 constant emission commitment , 530 529B buffer system, fi See also c topics and processes speci scenarios, 822 794 projections, 77, 793, 626-627, 643 Climate predictions*, overshoot scenarios, 753, 827-828 909-917 Caribbean region, Climate projections See also sea level, 68, 80, 752, 822, 828-831 Central and South America. See 66-80, Climate projections*, stabilisation scenarios, 753, 791-793 Climate projections 747-940 87-91, temperature, 79, 752, 822-828 fl uorocarbons (CFCs), Chloro 28, about, 753-754, 852-865 zero emission commitment 146 100, 105-106, , 145, 141 Africa, 850, 854 , 866-872 scenarios, 753, 822, 825 CFC-11, 28, 100, 145, 420 Asia, 850, , 879-887 855 Climate change science, 93-127 industrial era increase, 512, 513 Australia and New Zealand, 850, IPCC history and assessments, as oceanic tracers, 100, 404, 406, 420 , 896-902, 856 916B 95, 118-121 141 , 207 , 212 radiative forcing, 131, biogeochemical feedbacks, nature of earth science, 95-99 Circulation 77-79, 789-811 progress in climate modelling, 112-118 atmospheric, 38, 64, 238-239, Central and South America, progress in detection and 280-295, 318, 565-566, , 892-896 850, 856 attribution, 100-103 731 , 770 709-712, change in the 21st century, progress in understanding climate 287B , 294-295 indices, 69-76, 764-766 processes, 103-112 modelling, 615-616 emissions, concentrations and radiative Climate feedbacks*. See Feedbacks oceanic, 48, 111-112, 387, , 755-760 25 forcing, See Climate forcing. Radiative forcing 394-402, 417, 420 ensemble projections*, 754, 755-760, 589-662 , 669-670 Climate models*, projections, 770, 777B , 780-782 766-767, 805-811, 852-861 abrupt climate change, 640-643 Climate* Europe and the Mediterranean, 850, advances in, 112-118, 591-593, 596-608 ned, 104 de fi 854 , 872-879, 917B Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation factors determining, 96-97 extremes, 782-789, , 854-857 Models (AOGCMs), 59-60B , human and natural drivers, , 916-917B 862-864 66-67, 591-592, 596-608, summarized, 21-35, 81 global projections, 69-74, 89, 747-845 , 797-831, 852-861, 918 761 weather and, 104-105 , 755-760 25 greenhouse gases, Atmosphere-only GCMs Climate change*, 35-58, 663-746 hierarchy of models, 797-800 (AGCMs), 918-919 atmospheric ( see Atmospheric 4 857 , 909-915 islands, small, 850, C climate change) MIP, 533-539, 618, 789-790 990

3 Index 40-41, 97, 238, 275-277 Clouds, observations, summarized, 35-58 long term change and commitment, , 558 aerosol effects, 30, 153-154, pre-industrial, 673, 679-683 79-80, 749, 822-831 559-564, 565, 566, 676-677 progress in, 100-103 methods, 844-845, 917-925 aviation-induced cloudiness, 30, 132, radiative forcing and climate 855-856 North America, 850, , 887-892 186-188, response, 31, 131, 670-679 cation, 793, ocean acidi fi 794-795 201 , 203-205 ndings and key fi robust physical climate system, 760-789 cloud albedo effect, 30, 153-154, uncertainties, 81-91 , 902-909 polar regions, 850, 857 , 171-180, 201 203-205 , statistical methods, 744-745 probabilistic projections, 807-809, 558 , 559-563 variability, 667, 668-669, 702-703 810-811, 921-925 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)*, Palaeoclimate See also quantifying, 797-811, 921-925 , 171, 504, 555, 559 154 78, 557 Dimethyl sulphide (DMS), range of projections, 797-811 cloud lifetime effect, 153, , 171, 154 Dimethylether (CH 847-940 regional projections, 74-76, 91, , 559-560, 563 558 555, OCH 213 ), 3 3 sea level, 68, 70-71, 73, 90, 774, 812- couplings and feedbacks, 502, , 558 See ‘Global dimming’ Dimming. 823 , 828-831, 844-845, 822, 559-563, 635-638, 640 Diurnal temperature range (DTR). 909, 914-915, 916-917B modelling, 114-116, 593, 635-638, 640 Temperature See 858-860B summary, 749-752, 849-851, projections, 766-768 Downscaling*, , 601, 865, 919-921, 925 74 temperature, 69-72, 74-76, radiative forcing (CRF)*, 173-178, 180, 261B , 308, Droughts*, 254, 260-265, , 764-766 762, 763 502, 635, 637-638, 767-768 315 310-311B , 715-716 , uncertainty, 797-800, 805-811 Coastal zone climate change, 916-917B 314 fi ned, de Climate scenarios*, 753, 791-793, Cold Ocean-Warm Land (COWL) palaeoclimate, 435, 437, 482-483 802-804, 822-831 622-623 pattern, projections, 863 , 859B , 750, 783, 732 SRES scenarios See also See Commitment. Climate summary, 43, 54, 238, 317, 318, 435 64-66, 88, Climate sensitivity*, change commitment 29, 78, 159, 502, 555-556, 797 Dust, 114-116, 754, 825-827 120-121B , 81-91, 22-23B dence*, Con fi mineral dust aerosol, 29, 132, climate models, 593, 629-640, 632B 203-205 , 201 30, 132, 186-187, Contrails, 167-168, 204-205 cumulative distributions, 65 Cosmic rays, 31, 132, 202 , 476 ned, 629-630 de fi 117-118, 481, Coupled models, E equilibrium climate sensitivity 532-539, 607, 608-627 El Niño. See El Niño Southern Oscillation (ECS), 64-65, 88, 718-727, See Climate system couplings Couplings. El Niño Southern Oscillation , 825-827 754, 798-799B 337- 43-46, 110, Cryosphere*, (ENSO)*, 111-112, 245- estimation methods, 718-719 383 , 716-717, 732 246, 287-288, 295, 709 instrumental observations, 719-723 area, volume, and sea level equivalents, , 308 305B cyclones and, 305-306, key physical processes, 633-637 340, 374 , 361, 342 modelling, 592, 601, 623-625 observational constraints, components, 341-343 monsoons and, 296-297, 305B , 780 718-727, 807-808 feedbacks, 110, 593, 638-639 palaeoclimate, 437, 464, 481-482 palaeoclimate data, 481, 724-725 modelling, 111, 593, 606-607, 638-639 projections, 751, 779-780 probability density functions (PDFs), See also Snow, ice and frozen ground , 238 summary, 38, 39B 65, 719-721, 724-725, 798- Cyclones See SRES scenarios Emissions scenarios*. , 808-809, 923-924 799B extratropical, 312-313, 316, Energy balance* transient climate response (TCR), 66, 712, 788-789 changes, 392-393, 727-728 724 , 725, 88, 691, 718, 723, modelling, 591, 613, 628 mean, 96-97 754, , 800-801, 807 798B 864 projections, 74, 751, 786-788, , 915 modelling, 608 ‘Climate surprises’, 775-777B tropical, 41-43, 239, 304-307, radiation, 277-280 Climate system*, 96-97 305B , 314 , 316, 711-712, surface energy and water Climate system couplings, 77-80, 751, 786-788, 864 , 915 505B balance, 35, 499-587 , 789-811 surface energy budget, 180-186 aerosols, 78-79, 502, 555-566 Equilibrium climate sensitivity D atmosphere dynamics, 504, 555 64-65, 88, 718-727, (ECS), Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events*, carbon cycle, 77, 501, 511-539, 566 754, 798-799B , 825-827 106-107, 111, 455, 456-457 505B land climate system, 504-511, Europe and the Mediterranean. Deforestation*, 512, 517-518, land surface, 501 See Climate projections 520-521, 527-528 , 629-640, 597-599 modelling, Evapotranspiration*, 238, 260, Detection and attribution of climate , 754, 765 646-647 , 507, 769 , 261B 279B , 58-66, 81-86, change*, 52 projections, 77-80, 789-811 299-316, 696 Extreme events*, 135-136, 663-746 reactive gases, 501-502, 539-555, 540B extratropical storms, 312-313, carbon cycle perturbations, 512-515 scales, 505-507, 566 , 316 314-315 greenhouse gas increase, 60, Climate variability*, 667, 668- modelling, 300-303, 627-629 501-502, 512-513 669, 702-703, 864 314- precipitation, 41, 301-303, 308, industrial era, air temperature, modelling, 591-592, 620-627, 686 , 316, 714, 782-784, 315 785 729-730 683-705, 727, , 463, 287B modes of*, 286-295, projections, , 73, 750, 782- 52 industrial era, other variables, 667-668, 778-782, 867B , 854-857 789, 849-851, 705-718, 730-732 39B , 867B patterns of*, 38-40, 916-917B , 862-864 introduction/concepts, 667-670 recent events, 310-311B observational constraints, 718-727 991

4 Index What is radiative forcing?, 136 radiative forcing, 31-35, 131, 135-136, Climate projections) regional ( see What is the greenhouse effect?, 115-116 203-204 153, , 212-213 916-917B sea level, 51, 414, What is the relationship between climate See also fi c gases speci severe local weather, 316 change and weather?, 104-105 See Ice sheets Greenland ice sheet. , 237, 591 52 53B summary, 40, 41, 51, , 499-587 Feedbacks*, 77-80, 97, temperature, 40, 237, 300-301, 534 carbon cycle, 501, 511-539, , , , 308-309, 311-312B 302 H 566, 789-793, 823-825 314-315 , 316, 698-699, Hadley Circulation*, 295-296, 299, 318 climate-vegetation, 452, 789-793 750, 785-786, 787 145 , 141 28, 100, 135, , Halocarbons*, cryospheric, 110, 593, 638-639 tropical storms, 304-312, 305B , 205 , 214-215, 512, 513 modelling, 593, 605-606, , 316 314-315 207 100, 145, Halons, 632B 629-640, See Energy balance Heat balance. permafrost-climate, 110 Heat waves, 40, 73, 308, 311- F projections, 77-80, 789-811 , 783 312B , 314 Faculae*, 107, 108, 188, 189, 190 snow-albedo, 343, 593, 638-639, 640 Heinrich events, 455, 456 FAQs water vapour, 593, 630-633, 632B Holocene. See Palaeoclimate Are extreme events, like heat waves, water vapour-lapse rate, 633-635, 640 Detection fl uence on climate. Human in See oods, expected droughts or fl See also Climate system couplings and attribution of climate change to change as the Earth’s Fingerprints*, 100, 668 239, 304, , 306- Hurricanes, 305B climate changes?, 783 Fires, 501, 527 , 316 312, 312B , 314 Are the increases in atmospheric , 783, 784 Floods, 311B projections, 750, 864 carbon dioxide and other Fluorinated ethers (HFEs), 213 Cyclones See also greenhouse gases during Forcing. Radiative forcing See 28 uorocarbons (HCFCs), fl Hydrochloro the industrial era caused by Forests*, 517-518, 520-521, 527-528 513 industrial era increase, 512, human activities?, 512-513 Fossil fuel emissions*, 25-29, 138-140, 145, , 145, 141 radiative forcing, 131, Can individual extreme events be 160-165, 204-205 , 511-518, 546 146, , 205 , 212 207 explained by greenhouse Frequently Asked Questions. See FAQs Hydro fl uorocarbons (HFCs), 100, warming?, 696 341 43-44, 340, Frozen ground*, , 342- 141 146 , 205 , 144-145, Can the warming of the 20th century , 376, 772 343, 369-374, 375 industrial era increase, 512, 513 be explained by natural 212 summary, 28, 131, variability?, 702-703 Hydrogen (H Do projected changes in climate vary 548 215, 547, G 2), from region to region?, 865 Water Hydrology. See General Circulation Models (GCMs). Has there been a change in extreme 131, 147-149, Hydroxyl radical (OH), See Climate models events like heat waves, , 502, 550-553, 795, 796 205 Geopotential height, 280-281, 285 droughts, oods and fl See Glacial-interglacial cycles. hurricanes?, 308-309 Palaeoclimate I How are temperatures on Earth Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)*, Ice, 44-46, 339-343, 346-369, 374-377 changing?, 252-253 408, 411, 417, 457 fl ow, 44-45, 342, , 368 367B How do human activities contribute 341 , 342, 356-360, 368, 717 Glaciers*, land ice, 354, 418, 419 to climate change?, 135-136 mass balance*, 357-359, 814-816, 844 mass balance*, 357-359, 374-375 How is precipitation changing?, monitoring, 110 pack ice, 342, 353, 355, 356 262-263 461B palaeoclimate, 57, 436, river and lake ice, 44, 339, 341 , How likely are major or abrupt climate , 814-816, 844-845 776B projections, 342, 346-349, 375 changes, such as loss of ice 358 , 359, 375, sea level rise and, 44, sea ice ( Sea ice) see sheets or changes in global , 814-816, 829 419 418, See also Glaciers; Ice caps; Ice sheets; ocean circulation?, 818-819 summary, 44, 57, 339, 375, 376, 436 Ice shelves; Ice streams How reliable are the models used to 41, 238, ‘Global dimming’*, , 449-450, 453, 641, Ice ages*, 776B 56B make projections of future 278-280, 279B , 317 Ice-albedo feedback, 97 climate change?, 600-601 Global temperature potential Ice caps*, 44, , 814-816 776B , 356-360, 341 If emissions of greenhouse gases are (GTP), 215-216 projection methods, 844-845 reduced, how quickly do Global warming potentials (GWPs)*, sea level change and, 342, 374 , 829 their concentrations in the 31, , 137, 210-216 33-34 summary, 339, 375-376 atmosphere decrease?, 824-825 103-106, 115-116, 696 Greenhouse effect, , 54-57, 106, 439, 24 Ice cores*, Is sea level rising?, 409 Greenhouse gases (GHGs)*, 23-35, 100, , 476 446B 444, Is the amount of snow and ice on the 131, 135-153, 200-206, 512-513 171, 188, 502, 555, 559 Ice nuclei, Earth decreasing?, 376-377 couplings and feedbacks, 501- 341-342, 361-369, 717 Ice sheets*, Is the current climate change unusual 540B 502, 539-555, Antarctic, 46, 341, 342, 361, 364-366, compared to earlier changes , 824-825 212-213 lifetimes, 374 , 375, 376, , 776-777B in Earth’s history?, 465 long-lived (LLGHGs), 31-35, 133, , 830-831 821 816-820, What caused the ice ages and 203-204 201 137-153, 198, , 367B causes of changes, 366-369, pre-industrial climate palaeoclimate, 435, 436, 440-450, dynamics and stability, , 44B changes?, 449-450 446B , 455, 459-460, 481 46, , 845 367B What factors determine Earth’s , 755-760, 753 projections, climate?, 96-97 789-811, 822-828 992

5 Index Mt. Pinatubo, 98, 109, 142, 193-194, 723 Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)*, Greenland, 46, 70, 341, 342, 361, Multi-model data set (MMD), 597- 58, 435, 447-451, 673, , 375, 374 363-364, 365-366, , 753-754, 599 858-860B 798-799B 679-680, 725, 376, 418, 419 , 776-777B , 772, Latent heat, 97, 393 , 399 821 , 829-830 816-820, Uncertainties Likelihood*. See mass balance*, 80, 361-366, N fi c understanding)*, LOSU (level of scienti 772, 816-817, 845 Natural climate forcing. See , 201-202 22B 646-647 modelling, 592, 641-642, Radiative forcing lters, fi Low-pass 336 , 456-457, 459 367B palaeoclimate, New Zealand. See Climate projections , projections, 70-71, 80, 772, 776-777B 204-205 132, 167, Nitrate aerosol, 821 , 829-831, 845 816-820, Nitric oxides (NO ), 214, 215 , M x , 361, 342 sea level equivalents, 342, 374 544-546, 793-795 Madden-Julian Oscillation sea level rise and, 46, 339, 361, 366, 502, 544-546, Nitrogen compounds, 547 (MJO), 592, 601, 625 367B , 375, 418, 419, 457, 459 Nitrous oxide (N 468-469B 466, ‘Medieval Warm Period’*, 100, 105-106, O), 2 summary, 44-46, 339, 340, 374-375 Mediterranean Sea, 399 115, 135, 143-144, 513 , 361-362, 341-342 Ice shelves*, Meridional heat transport atmospheric concentration, 24-25 , 27, 366, 369, 717 (MHT), 394, 429-430 131, , 143-144, 146, 544 141 Larsen B Ice Shelf, 45, 317, Meridional Overturning Circulation 547 couplings and feedbacks, 544-546, , 819 366, 374, 776B (MOC)*, 48, 111, 395-397, global budget, 544-546 , 819-820 projections, 776-777B , 421, 514, 707 397B 448 444 palaeoclimate, , 455, 460 , 447, summary, 375 , 374, 341-342 modelling, 603-604, 615-616, 640-642 radiative forcing, , 27, 131, 25 Ice streams*, 361, 362, 366, 367B , 368, 374 projections, 72, 80, 752, 772-774, , , 212 , 214 205 141 Indian Ocean, 400-401 823 775-776B , 801-802, 818, Non-methane volatile organic compounds Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), 295 Methane (CH , 549 215 214, (NMVOCs), 27, 77-78, 100, ), 4 914 projections, 910, 911, 396-398 Nordic Seas, 135, 140-143, 513 salinity, 393, 394 North America. Climate projections See 24-25 , atmospheric concentration, temperature, 237, 246, 295, North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), 27, 131, 140-143, 146, 400-401, 420 395 421 , 437, 456, 642 , 396-398, 501-502, 511-514 , 453, Insolation*, 436, 445B North Atlantic Ocean, 394-399, atmospheric growth rate, 135, 460, 462, 464, 673 397B , 402, 413, 482 395 , 142-143, 502 Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)*, couplings and feedbacks, (ITCZ)*, 295, 566, 624 290-292, 395-399, 402, 408 77-78, 539-544 Iodine compounds, 557 changes, 238-239, 248, 290- modelling, 642 Islands, small. See Climate projections 292, 709-710 444 palaeoclimate, 435, , 447, modelling, 620 448 , 455, 459-460 past variability, 482 permafrost, 642 J 777B , 780-781, 806 projections, projections, 502, 793-795, 796 280-281, 285 Jet streams, 39B , 238-239 summary, 38, , 27, 131, 140- 25 radiative forcing, , 290-292, 295 286 teleconnections, 207 , 212 , 214 143, 205 , K c Index (NPI), , 289, fi North Paci 287B 290 Methane hydrate, 642 28, 131, Kyoto Protocol gases, Northern Annular Mode (NAM)*, Methyl chloroform (CH , 143-145, 512 141 141 , ), CCl 3 3 248, 287B , 389, 397, 709-710 212 145-146, 147-149, modelling, 620-621 Methylene chloride (CH L CH ), 2 2 projections, 780-782 213 141 , 145, See El Niño Southern Oscillation La Niña. , 238-239 39B summary, 38, Microwave Sounding Unit. MSU See 285, 393, 396, Labrador Sea, teleconnections, 290-292, 295 (Microwave Sounding Unit) 397B , 416-417, 776B 780-782 Mid-latitude circulation, 341 , 342, 346-349, 375 44, 339, Lake ice, Mid-latitude storms, 751 505B 504-511, Land climate system, O Cyclones, extratropical See also modelling, , 617-618, 597-599 646-647 Ocean-climate couplings, 501, 503, , 449 445B , 56B Milankovitch cycles, Land ice, 354, 418, 419 529B 519, 521-523, 528-533, Mineral dust aerosol, 29, 132, Land surface air temperature*. 259-260 Ocean precipitation, 204-205 167-168, See Temperature Ocean processes, modelling, 535- 753, 827-828 Mitigation, , 243-245, 205 180-184, Land use change*, , 603-604, 597-599 538, See Models. Climate models 513 512, 897-898B , 526-528, 613-616, 622-623, 646-647 Monsoons*, 295-299, 318, 711, 716 , 517-518, 527-528 516 carbon budget, 385- Oceanic climate change, modelling, 626 climate projections, 792-793 731 433 , 705-707, palaeoclimate, 435, 462-463, 464, 482 emissions from, 518 cation*, 77, 387, 403, fi acidi projections, 751, 778-779, 780 land cover, 30, 136-137, 180- 405-406, 408, , 531, 529B Montreal Protocol gases, 28, 131, 183 , 509, 682-683, 182, 750, 793, 794-795 , 145-146, 512 141 792-793, 897-898B uxes, 283-285, 393- air-sea fl Mountain regions, 886B land water storage, 126-127, 394, 403, 408 MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit)*, 317, , 418-419 413 biogeochemistry, 48, 387, 389, , 267-268 266 36, 237, urban effects, 30, 36, 243- 403-408, 503 245, 259, 506B 993

6 Index modelling, 611-612, 628 modelling, 622 biological activity (productivity), 408 Monsoons) monsoons ( see 39B summary, 38-40, carbon/carbon dioxide, 387, 403- projections, 74, 75-77, 750, 762-763, Paci fi c Ocean, 399-400 406, 408, 420, 793 , 806, 768-770, 782-784, 785 cyclones, 306, 307 circulation, 48, 111-112, 387, 394- 854-857 863 , 859B , 849-851, 915 projections, 399-400, 910-911, 402, 397B , 417, 420 Climate projections) see regional ( salinity, 387, 394-395, 399- coupled ocean-atmospheric dynamics, summary, 41-43, 53-54, 238, 317-318 400, 402, 420 111-112, 286-295, 318 Climate predictions Predictions. See sea level change, 413-414, 420 decadal variability, 389, 412-413 Sea level pressure Pressure. See temperature, 237, 247 , 399- density, 414-416, 812-814 Probability density functions (PDFs)*, 400, 402, 420 heat content, 47-48, 387, 389, 798- 65, 719-721, 724-725, Paci c-South American (PSA) fi 390-393, 420, 705-706 , 808-809, 923-924 799B 288-289, 295 pattern, heat transports, 393-394, 429-430 Projections. See Climate projections 54-58, 85, 106- Palaeoclimate*, nutrients, 406-407 Proxy methods*, 438-439, 466-475, 481 , 679-683 433-497 107, , 408, 430 oxygen, 48, 403, 406, 407 PRUDENCE project, , 925 873B , 460 446B attribution studies, 64, projections, 750-751, 765, 793, 794- current interglacial (Holocene), 795 , 801, 812-822, 822 57, 435-436, 453-454, salinity, 48, 49 , 318, 387, 389- Q 459-464, 461B , 679-680 390, 393, 394-402 Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), glacial-interglacial variability, salinity measurement, 390, 420, 429 266, 283, 625-626 435, 444-459 sea level, 48-50, , 387, 408- 51B ice sheets, , 456-457, 459 367B , 707-708, 432 421, 431, R last 2,000 years, 436, 466- 750-751, 812-822 Radiation, 277-280, 279B , 317 483, 468-469B summary, 47-51, 84, 387-388, 420-421 couplings and feedbacks, 502, 505B , Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)*, techniques, error estimation and 508, 563-564, 565 , 631 58, 435, 447-451, 673, measurement systems, 429-432 modelling, 610-611, 631 679-680, 725, 798-799B temperature, 61, 62 , 387, 389- 108-110, Radiative forcing (RF)*, 129-234 Last Interglaciation (LIG), 393, 394-402, 420 aerosols, 29-30, 131-132, 153-180, 559 , 458-459 453, 454 temperature measurement, calculation methodologies, ‘Medieval Warm Period’*, 430 389-390, 429, 134, 196-197, 199 468-469B 466, thermal expansion*, 387, 408, chemically and radiatively important methods, 438-440 412-413 , 414-417, 419- gases, 24-28, 131, 137-153 modelling, 435, 436-437, 420, 801, 812, 820-821 climate response, 64-66, 670-679 439-440, 476-481 water masses, 387, 394-402, , 826 136-137B concept, 133-137, , 453, 462-463 orbital forcing, 437, 445B 417-419, 706-707 contrails and aircraft-induced 441 pre-quaternary climates, 440-444, See also speci fi c oceans cloudiness, 132, 186-188 sea level, 58, 435, 457-459 See Hydroxyl radical (OH) OH. fi ned, 133 de uncertainties, 483 Optimal 744 ngerprinting, fi 212-213 cacies*, 197-199, fi ef 28, 100, 131, uorocarbons (PFCs), Per fl 445B , 437, 56B Orbital forcing, , external*, 96, 133-134, 152, 667 212-213 207 , 144, 145, 141 , 453, 462-463 future impact of current emissions, 341 , 342-343, Permafrost*, Oxygen (O 77, 206-207 ) 2 , 376 369-372, 373 global mean, 31-35, 132, 200-206 atmospheric, 139 permafrost-climate feedback, 110 global warming potentials and dissolved in oceans, 48, 403, projections, 772 emission metrics, 31, 406, , 408, 430 407 375 summary, 43-44, 317, 339, , 137, 210-216 33-34 540B Ozone*, , 547-550 115, 135, 149-152, 77, 387, 403, 405- pH* of oceans, modelling, 173-180, 594-596, 607-608, global budgets, 547-549 629-633, 643, 671-673 precursors, 547-550, 795 529B , 531 406, 408, natural forcings, 96, 137, 188- projections, 554, 759-760, 793-796 projections, 750, 793, 794-795 445B , 666 195, radiative forcing, 28, 132, 149- Photosynthesis*, 186, 514, 527 orbital forcing, , 56B 445B , 437, 152, , 759 203-204 529B Plankton*, , 567 439, 504, 514, 453, 462-463 stratospheric, 28, 73, 149-150, 198, Plant physiology, 185-186 palaeoclimate, 438-439, 444- 201 , 203-205 , 553-555 447, 457 Pleistocene*, , 476-481 445B 454, tropospheric, 28, 108-110, 150-152, PNA. See Paci fi c-North American projections, 752, 755-760, 795, 797 , , 513, 547-550 203-205 201 (PNA) pattern spatial and temporal patterns, 35, 132, See Polar regions. Climate projections P 196, 209-210, 674-678 Pollen analysis*, 439, 455, 471 Paci fi c Decadal Oscillation (PDO), 246, summary, 24-35, 131-132, 199-210 441 Pre-quaternary climates*, 440-444, 289-290, 295, 389, 408, 709 surface albedo and surface energy 731-732 Precipitation, 254-265, 712-716, index, 287B budget, 132, 180-186, aerosol effects, 254, 502, 560, 563, 564 modelling, 621 203-205 201 , couplings and feedbacks, 507, summary, 38, 39B , 238 surface forcing, 35, 133, 153, 508, 509-510 289-290, 621 c Decadal Variability*, fi Paci , 196, 208-210 170 extreme events, 41, 301-303, 308, Paci fi c-North American (PNA) pattern*, time evolution, 208-209 , 316, 714, 750, 314-315 , 288-289, 295 287B , 286 286, 782-784, 863 785 , 994

7 Index estimation/measurement techniques, 107-108, 188-193 Solar variability, 201-202 uncertainties, 199-200, 408, 410-412, 431, 432 Soot*, 30, 172-173, 184, 559 utility of, 195-199 extremes, 50, 414, 916-917B Black carbon See also vertical forcing, 196 interannual/decadal variability, South Atlantic Convergence c gases and components speci fi See also , 412-414, 707-708 410 Zone (SACZ), 295 36, 82, 265-267, 719 Radiosondes, long-term changes, 412-413 South Paci fi c Convergence Abrupt See Rapid climate change. methods of projections, 844-845 295 Zone (SPCZ), climate change palaeoclimate, 58, 409, 435, 457-459 287B Southern Annular Mode (SAM)*, , Regional changes projections, 68, 70-71, 73, 90, 409, 292-293, 295, 389, 710-711 ocean circulation and water , 823 750-751, 812-822, modelling, 620-621 masses, 394-402 projections, 782 projections ( Climate projections) see 916-917B 909, 914-915, , 238-239 summary, 38, 39B sea level, 413-414 relative (RSL)*, 413, 457-458 Southern Ocean, 387, 401-402, 420 Revelle factor, 531 sea level equivalents (SLEs)*, modelling, 591, 592, 616 River and lake ice, 44, 339, 341 , 340, 342 , 361, 374 See El Niño Southern Oscillation. 342, 346-349, 375 51B summary, 48-50, , 52-53, 84, 90, Southern Oscillation 261-264 ow), fl ow (stream fl River 374-375, 387, 420-421 Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), 287B River ice, 375 , 342, 346-349, 341 44, 339, 63, 280, 711 Sea level pressure (SLP), 24-31, 761, 802, 806, SRES scenarios*, projections, 73, 751, 770, 780-781 858-860B 822-827, 852-861, Sea salt, 556 S sea level rise, 68, 70-71, 409, 419, , Sea surface temperature (SST)*, 101 49 48, , 318, 387, Salinity (of oceans), 750-751, 820-822 312B 102, 245-247, , 391 393, 394-402, 420, 421 subset for projections, 753, 761 palaeoclimate, , 460 451 measurement, 390, 420, 429 79 surface warming, 68-73, 74-77, projections, 73, 786-788, 861 modelling, 613-615 305B 281-282, 285, Storm tracks*, , 318 rates of warming, 318 sea level/ocean mass and, Stratosphere*, 265-266, 283 summary, 51, 64, 237, 318 416-417, 417-418 aerosols, 132 tropical cyclones and, 239 Satellite methods 201 , ozone, 28, 73, 149-150, 198, See Severe weather. Extreme events altimetry, 49, 408, 410, 411- 203-205 , 553-555 Snow, ice and frozen ground, 412, , 431 411 stratosphere-troposphere exchange 337-383 , 716-717 Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU), (STE), 795-796 area, volume, and sea level 266 , 267-268 36, 237, stratospheric-tropospheric relations, equivalents, 374 342 , Climate scenarios; Scenarios. See 284B , 795-796 341 frozen ground, 340, , 342- SRES scenarios temperature, 36, 62, 237-238, 343, 369-374, 376 Science, climate. Climate See 265-271, 285 glaciers and ice caps, 339, 341 , 342, change science water vapour, 274-275 356-360, 374 , 375, 376, 717 95 c method, fi Scienti ow. fl Stream ow River See fl ice sheets and ice shelves, 339- LOSU fi Scienti c understanding. See Sulphate aerosols, 194 160-161, 193, 341, 342 , 367B , 361-369, (level of scienti fi c understanding) couplings and feedbacks, 78- 374-375, 376, 717 Sea ice*, , 342, 350-356, 376, 716 341 79, 502, 566-567 , 599-601 modelling, 592, 593, Antarctic, 342, 351, 352, 353, 355 480 palaeoclimate, 436, 478, 606-607, 616-617, 617 Arctic, 44, 45 , 60, 317, 339, 342, radiative forcing, 31, 108-110, projections, 70-71, 73, 80, 750, 770- 776B 351-356, 716, , 851 204-205 162 160-161, , 776B , 814-816, 859B , 861 772, feedbacks, 639 summary, 31, 132 Climate see regional projections ( , 606-607, 597-599 modelling, 592, uoride (SF Sulphur hexa fl projections) 646-647 616-617, 639, , ), 141 6 river and lake ice, 339, , 341 , 771 projections, 770, 776B 207 , 146 144, 145, 375 342, 346-349, summary, 317, 339, 374, 375 summary, 28, 131, 212 sea ice, 341 , 342, 350-356, , 408-421 51B 48-50, Sea level, 191 Sunspots*, 107, 108, 189, , 476 , 376, 716 375 374, attribution for changes, 60-61 235-336 Surface climate change, 82, snow albedo, 30, 132, 184-185, budget (global mean sea level change), extreme events, 237, 299-316 205 , 343, 638-639, 640 48-50, 419-420, 457 646-647 modelling, 604-606, snow cover, 317, , 342, 343-346, 341 change in 20th century (rise), precipitation, drought and surface 375 , 376-377, 593, 716-717 317, 389, 410-414, 415 , hydrology, 238, 254-265, snowfall, 258-259 , 707-708 420 418-419, 301-303, 308, 317, 318 summary, 43-46, 83, 339-340, 374-375 change in previous millenia, 58, fl surface uxes, 283-285, 393- , Soil moisture*, 260-265, 509, 510 409, 435, 457-459 394, 403, 408 605-606, , 770 769 changes projected ( see temperature, 237, 239, 241-253, 479 30-31, 476-478, Solar forcing, projections, below) 300-301, 308-309, 317, 318 commitment, 68, 80, 752, 822, 828-831 tropics, subtropics, and monsoons, 30-31, 681-682 Solar irradiance, contributions to, 44-46, 50 , 60-61, 295-299, 304-315 ‘global dimming’*, 238, 278-280, 317 374 , 375, 408, 366, 413 , See also Atmospheric climate change 479 palaeoclimate, 476-478, 414-420, 751, 812-822 Surface/surface air temperature*. total (TSI), 30, 107-108, 132, 188-189, Temperature See , 190 , 198, 201 203-205 995

8 Index long-term projections, 822-828 102, 185, Urban heat islands*, T regional projections, summarized, 237, 243-245 38-40, 238, Teleconnections*, 858-859B , 21-23, 854-857 Urban precipitation patterns, 259 287B 281, 286-295, summary, 66, 69-72, 74-75, 749-750 100-102, 241-253, 683-705 Temperature, See also Climate projections V attribution of changes, 58-63 504-505, Terrestrial biosphere*, , 507, 508-510, 566 Vegetation, 505B continental temperature change, 61 , 646-647 527-528, 606, modelling, 509-510 62-63, 74-76, 693-698, 852-862 Terrestrial ecosystems, 503, 520 , 789-793 projections, 777B diurnal temperature range (DTR)*, 604-606 Terrestrial processes, modelling, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 36, 237, 243-244, 251, Thermal expansion*, 387, 408, 412- 78, 150, 206, , 214, 207 766-768, 786 413 , 414-417, 419-420 547-549, 556-557, 796 extremes, 40, 237, 300-301, 302 , projections, 801, 812, 820-821, 31, 96-97, 137, Volcanic eruptions, 311-312B 308-309, 314- , , 828-829 823 201 , 681-682 193-195, 315 , 627-628, 698-699, Thermohaline Circulation modelling, 641, 723 750, 785-786, 787 , 862 246-247 (THC)*, Mt. Pinatubo, 98, 109, 142, free atmosphere, 699-701 See also Meridional Overturning 193-194, 723 global ground surface temperature Circulation projections, 797 (GST), 474 640-643 Thresholds, 477 , 478, volcanic forcing, 459, global mean surface temperature, 36, Tide gauges*, 48-49, 408, 410, 479 , 673, 678, 731 62 , 252- 37 , 249 , 237, 247-248, 432 411-412, 431, 253, 318, 683-693, 703 , 749 Tipping point, 775B W global temperature potential, 215-216 Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) 112, Walker Circulation*, global warming potentials, 31, radiation, 277-278, 317 295-296, 299, 318 33-34 , 137, 210-216 107-108, Total solar irradiance (TSI)*, Warming. Temperature See industrial era change, 683-705, 188-189, 202-205 190 , 198, 40-43 Water, 727, 729-730 summary, 30, 132 land water storage, 318, 418-419 last 2,000 years, 435-436, 466- Transient climate response (TCR), projections, 768-770, 860-861 468-469B 483, , 725, 691, 718, 723, 724 surface hydrology, 35, 64, 254, 260- measurement, 100-102, 102, 798B , 800-801, 807 754, 265, 261B , 618, 768-770, 886B 430 389-390, 429, summary, 66, 88 505B surface water balance, , 608-610, 600 modelling, 438, 439, 459, 471, Tree rings*, 115, 135, 152, Water vapour, 613-615, 627-628 472-473, 475, 476 185, 271-275, 712 nighttime marine air temperature 295-299 Tropics, 632B feedback, 593, 630-633, (NMAT), 243 climate projections, 751, 779, modelling, 593, 630-633 , 387, 389-393, 61 oceans, 60, , 915 786-788, 864 projections, 796, 860-861 394-402, 420 tropical cyclones, 41-43, 239, 304-307, radiative forcing, 28, 131, 152, palaeoclimate, 435-436, 440-457, , 305B 314 , 316, 711-712, 201-204 185, , 462 , 460-476, 449-450B 864 , 915 751, 786-788, stratospheric, 274-275 , 478-481 477 , 475 , 467-470 tropical storms, 239, 304-312, summary, 28, 40, 53-54, 131, projections, 69-72, 74-76, 762, 314-315 , 316 135, 238, 318 763 , 764-766 Tropopause*, 266 , 270, 699-700 surface, 238, 272-274, 318 relationship with precipitation, 264-265 266 , Troposphere*, 265-267, 730 tropospheric, 40, 238, 272-274, 318 , sea surface temperature (SST), 42 nitrous oxide (N water vapour-lapse rate feedback, 547 O), 545, 2 , 102, 237, 101 51, 64, 73, 633-635, 640 ozone, 28, 108-110, 150-152, 201 , 312B , 318, 391 245-247, 283-285, 799, 806 Waves, ocean, 203-205 , 513, 547-550 spatial distribution of changes, Winds, 38, 159, 280-281, 283-285, stratospheric-tropospheric relations, 37-40, 62-63, 250-251 , 877-878, 902 864 , 795-796 284B spatial trend patterns, 250-251 mid-latitude westerlies, 238- , 62, 237, , 253 temperature, 36, 37 summary, 36-40, 51-52, 60-61, 239, 280, 283, 290 265-271, 268-269 237, 239, 317-318 Cyclones See also water vapour, 40, 238, 272- , 62-63, 100-102, 237, 239, surface*, 61 632B 274, 318, 241-253, 317, 318, 683-693 Twomey effect. See Cloud albedo Y surface air temperature (SAT), 51- effect, under Clouds Younger Dryas*, 455, 456 52, 339, 474, 749, 845 Typhoons. See Cyclones, tropical upper air, 237, 265-271 See also Temperature projections U Temperature projections, 762, 763 , 764- , 81-91, 22-23B Uncertainties*, 766, 785-786, 787 , 806, 807-811 119-121, 669 commitment, climate change, fi quanti cation, 921-925 79, 752, 822-828 30, 36, Urban effects on climate, 862 extremes, 506B 243-245, 259, global temperature at year 2100, See also Land use change 858B 809-810, 996

Related documents

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

MANAGING THE RISKS OF EXTREME EVENTS AND DISASTERS TO ADVANCE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION SPECIAL REPORT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE

More info »
WG1AR5 Chapter09 FINAL

WG1AR5 Chapter09 FINAL

Evaluation of Climate Models Coordinating Lead Authors: 9 Gregory Flato (Canada), Jochem Marotzke (Germany) Lead Authors: Babatunde Abiodun (South Africa), Pascale Braconnot (France), Sin Chan Chou (B...

More info »
WG1AR5 Chapter13 FINAL

WG1AR5 Chapter13 FINAL

Sea Level Change 13 Coordinating Lead Authors: John A. Church (Australia), Peter U. Clark (USA) Lead Authors: Anny Cazenave (France), Jonathan M. Gregory (UK), Svetlana Jevrejeva (UK), Anders Leverman...

More info »
WG1AR5 Chapter06 FINAL

WG1AR5 Chapter06 FINAL

Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles Coordinating Lead Authors: Philippe Ciais (France), Christopher Sabine (USA) Lead Authors: Govindasamy Bala (India), Laurent Bopp (France), Victor Brovkin (Germa...

More info »
5 — Coastal Systems and Low Lying Areas

5 — Coastal Systems and Low Lying Areas

Coastal Systems and Low-Lying Areas 5 Coordinating Lead Authors: Poh Poh Wong (Singapore), Iñigo J. Losada (Spain) Lead Authors: Jean-Pierre Gattuso (France), Jochen Hinkel (Germany), Abdellatif Khatt...

More info »
WG1AR5 SPM FINAL

WG1AR5 SPM FINAL

Summary 1 SPM for Policymakers Drafting Authors: Lisa V. Alexander (Australia), Simon K. Allen (Switzerland/New Zealand), Nathaniel L. Bindoff (Australia), François-Marie Bréon (France), John A. Churc...

More info »
Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Safer Affordable Fuel Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule for Model Year 2021 2026 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Safer Affordable Fuel Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule for Model Year 2021 2026 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

The Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule for Model Year 2021–2026 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks Draft Environmental Impact Statement July 2018 Docket No. NHTSA-2017-0069

More info »
071105 ageofconsequences

071105 ageofconsequences

The Age of Consequences: NOVEMBER The Foreign Policy and National Security 2007 Implications of Global Climate Change By Kurt M. Campbell, Jay Gulledge, J.R. McNeill, John Podesta, ennon, Peter Ogden,...

More info »
NOAA SLR r4.indd

NOAA SLR r4.indd

Global Sea Lev el Rise Sc enarios for the United States National Climate Assessmen t December 6, 2012 Ph Ph Ph h Ph h P Ph h Ph Ph Ph Ph h Ph Ph Ph Ph Ph Ph Ph P Ph Ph h Ph Ph h Ph Ph Ph h Ph Ph Ph Ph...

More info »
Summary for Policymakers

Summary for Policymakers

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON climate change WG II WORKING GROUP II CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIFTH ASSESSMENT REPORT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE

More info »
Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis   Under Executive Order 12866, August 2016

Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866, August 2016

Technical Support Document: ­ Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis ­ Under Executive Order 12866 ­ Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases ...

More info »
untitled

untitled

Universal Ownership Why environmental externalities matter to institutional investors The PRI is an investor initiative in partnership with UNEP Finance Initiative and the UN Global Compact

More info »
Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space

Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space

TIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS THE NA This PDF is available at http://nap.edu/24938 SHARE     Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space DET AILS 700 pages | 8.5 ...

More info »
NCA3 Highlights LowRes small FINAL posting

NCA3 Highlights LowRes small FINAL posting

Climate Change Impacts in the United States HIGHLIGHTS U.S. National Climate Assessment U.S. Global Change Research Program

More info »
CREDguide low res

CREDguide low res

The Psychology of Climate Change Communication A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public

More info »
dercat.dvi

dercat.dvi

Lectures on Derived Categories Dragan Miliˇci ́c

More info »
ADAfaEPoV

ADAfaEPoV

Advanced Data Analysis from an Elementary Point of View Cosma Rohilla Shalizi

More info »
Agriculture, forestry and other land use emissions by sources and removals by sinks

Agriculture, forestry and other land use emissions by sources and removals by sinks

Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Emissions by Sources and Removals by Sinks

More info »