WEF GGGR 2017

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1 Insight Report The Global Gender Gap Report 2 017

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3 Insight Report The Global Gender Gap Report 2 017

4 TERMS OF USE AND DISCLAIMER The Gender Gap Report Global is an insight tool published (herein: “ Report ”) presents Global Gender Gap Report 2017 The annually by the World Economic Forum. The 2017 edition information and data that were compiled and/or collected by features a range of unique contextual data of the Report the World Economic Forum (all information and data referred through a research collaboration with LinkedIn. is subject to change Report herein as “Data”). Data in this without notice. AT THE WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM Pr ofessor K laus Sc hwab nation and as used in this report do not in The terms country Founder and Executive Chairman all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The term covers well-defined, a Richard S mans geographically self-contained economic areas that may not Head of the Centre for the Global Agenda; be states but for which statistical data are maintained on a Member of the Managing Board separate and independent basis. ahidi Saadia Z Although the World Economic Forum takes every reasonable of Education, Gender and Work; Head step to ensure that the Data thus compiled and/or collected Member of the Executive Committee the World Economic Report, is accurately reflected in this Till Alexander Leopold Forum, its agents, officers, and employees: (i) provide the Data Project Lead, Education, Gender and Work “as is, as available” and without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties Vesselina Ratcheva of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non- Data Lead, Education, Gender and Work infringement; (ii) make no representations, express or implied, or its Report as to the accuracy of the Data contained in this AT HA RVARD U NIVERSITY suitability for any particular purpose; (iii) accept no liability for icardo H ausmann Professor R any use of the said Data or reliance placed on it, in particular, Director of the Center for International Development (CID) for any interpretation, decisions, or actions based on the Data and Professor of the Practice of Economic Development Report. in this at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government Other parties may have ownership interests in some of the AT CALIFORNIA, B ERKELEY OF UNIVERSITY THE Data contained in this The World Economic Forum in Report. 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5 Contents Preface v vii Key Findings 1 PART 1: MEASURING THE GLOBAL GENDER GAP 3 The Global Gender Gap Index 2017 3 Measuring the Global Gender Gap Results and Analysis 7 25 Progress Over Time 27 Gender Gaps and Income 3 The Case for Gender Parity 27 Closing Occupational Gender Gaps 36 Conclusion 41 Appendices 41 Appendix A: Regional and Income Group Classifications, 2017 43 PART 2: COUNTRY PROFILES 45 User’s Guide: Exploring the Global Gender Gap Index Data 57 List of Countries 58 Country Profiles 347 Contributors 349 System Initiative Partners The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 iii

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7 Preface KLAUS SCHWAB Founder and Executive Chairman, World Economic Forum The Forum’s work System Initiative on Shaping in the Talent is one of the most essential factors for growth and Work provides Education, Gender and Future of the competitiveness. To build future economies that are both a platform for leaders from all stakeholder groups to dynamic and inclusive, we must ensure that everyone collaborate, devise solutions and share best practices to has equal opportunity. When women and girls are not close gender gaps. In particular, because progress on integrated—as both beneficiary and shaper—the global women in equivalent gains for not resulted in education has community loses out on skills, ideas and perspectives that nd earning opportu independence a nity, economic are critical for addressing global challenges and harnessing leadership, the Forum’s Closing the Gender Gap project new opportunities. accelerate the pace of change on gender parity to aims This report finds that, globally, gender parity is shifting t onal public-private hrough global dialogue and a nati into reverse this year for the first time since the World cooperation model currently practiced in several future- Economic Forum started measuring it. Yet there are also ready countries. many countries that have made considerable progress, On behalf of the Forum, I would like to express my understanding that talent is a critical factor for growth. o appreciation t Till A esselina Ra eopold, V lexander L tcheva, These countries are poised for further success. This year’s Samans Richard Saadia Zahidi for their leadership of and analysis also reveals gender gaps at the industry level and, this project. We greatly appreciate, too, the innovative data in particular, highlights that even though qualified women collaboration with LinkedIn and the ongoing support of are coming out of the education system, many industries Ricardo Hausmann and Laura D. Tyson. I would also like are failing to hire, retain and promote them, losing out on a to thank the whole team engaged in the System Initiative wealth of capacity. on Shaping the Future of Education, Gender and Work As the world moves from capitalism into the era their support in project. Finally, we are for shaping this of talentism, competitiveness on a national and on a inspired by the leadership of the Stewards and Partners of business level will be decided more than ever before by the Initiative on System of Education, the Future Shaping the innovative capacity of a country or a company. In this Gender and Work. new context, the integration of women into the talent pool It is our hope of the report will edition this latest that becomes a must. serve to governments to to action a call as accelerate While no single measure can capture the complete equality through bolder policy-making, to gender situation, the Global Gender Gap Index presented in this businesses to prioritize gender equality as a critical report seeks to measure one important aspect of gender economic and moral imperative and to all of us to become equality: the relative gaps between women and men that deeply conscious of the choices we make every day across four key areas: health, education, economy and call upon We globally. equality every reader impact gender politics. report to join these efforts. of this The Index was developed in part to address the need for a consistent and comprehensive measure for gender equality that can track a country’s progress over time. The Index does not seek to set priorities for countries but, rather, to provide a comprehensive set of data and a clear method for tracking gaps on critical indicators so that countries may set priorities within their own economic, political and cultural contexts. The Index also points to potential role models by revealing those countries that—within their region or income group—are leaders in distributing resources more equitably between women and men, regardless of the overall level of available resources. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 v

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9 Key Findings The Global Gender Gap Index was first introduced by • Despite this overall mixed picture and continued stalling the World Economic Forum in 2006 as a framework for of progress at the global level, the situation is more capturing the magnitude of gender-based disparities and nuanced at the regional and country level. Out of the tracking their progress over time. This year’s edition of 142 countries covered by the Index both this year and benchmarks 144 countries on their progress the Report last year, 82 countries have increased their overall towards gender parity on a scale from 0 (imparity) to gender gap score compared to last year, while 60 1 (parity) across four thematic dimensions—Economic have seen it decrease. By contrast, last year’s Report Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, f ound negative outcomes in more than half of countries Health and Survival, and Political Empowerment— Report surveyed. Moreover, as detailed in the , a and provides country rankings that allow for effective number of countries and regions have crossed symbolic comparisons across regions and income groups. The milestones on the path to gender parity for the first time rankings are designed to create global awareness of the this ye a r. challenges posed by gender gaps and the opportunities • Although this year’s edition of the Global Gender Gap created by reducing them. The methodology and Index sees no new entrants to its top 10 list, there have quantitative analysis behind the rankings are intended been notable rank changes. The top spots continue to serve as a basis for designing effective measures for to be held by smaller Western European countries, reducing gender gaps. The methodology of the Index particularly the Nordics that occupy the top three has remained stable since its original conception in 2006, positions, with two countries from the East Asia and providing a basis for robust cross-country and time-series the Pacific region, one country from the Sub-Saharan analysis. Africa region, one country from the Latin America and The 2017 Report ’s key findings are: the Caribbean region, and one country from the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region also represented. All but Weighted by population, in 2017, the average progress • three countries in the Index top 10 have now crossed on closing the global gender gap stands at 68.0%— the threshold of closing more than 80% of their overall meaning an average gap of 32.0% remains to be closed gender gap—up from five both last year and in 2015. worldwide across the four Index dimensions in order to achieve universal gender parity, compared to an • At a global level, in 2017 four regions have a remaining average gap of 31.7% last year. gender gap of less than 30%—two of which are crossing this threshold for the first time this year. On average, the 144 countries covered in the Report • Western Europe records a remaining gender gap of have closed 96% of the gap in health outcomes 25%, placing it ahead of North America, with a gap of between women and men, unchanged since last 28%, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with a gap of year, and more than 95% of the gap in educational 29%, and Latin America and the Caribbean, with a gap attainment, a slight decrease compared to last year. of 29.8%. The East Asia and the Pacific region ranks However, the gaps between women and men on ahead of Sub-Saharan Africa, with a remaining gender economic participation and political empowerment gap of 31.7% and 32.4%, respectively, and South Asia, remain wide: only 58% of the economic participation with a gap of 34%. The Middle East and North Africa gap has been closed—a second consecutive year of region, for the first time this year, crosses the threshold reversed progress and the lowest value measured by of having a remaining gender gap of slightly less than the Index since 2008—and about 23% of the political 40%. gap, unchanged since last year against a long-term trend of slow but steady improvement. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 vii

10 • On current trends, the overall global gender gap can be closed in exactly 100 years across the 106 countries covered since the inception of the Report , compared to 83 years last year. The most challenging gender gaps remain in the economic and health spheres. Given the continued widening of the economic gender gap, it will now not be closed for another 217 years. However, the education–specific gender gap could be reduced to parity within the next 13 years. The political dimension currently holds the widest gender gap and is also the one exhibiting the most progress, despite a slowdown in progress this year. It could be closed within 99 years. The health gender gap is larger than it stood in 2006. While all world regions record a narrower gender gap • than they did 11 years ago, more efforts will continue to be needed to accelerate progress. At the current rate of progress, the overall global gender gap can be closed in 61 years in Western Europe, 62 years in South Asia, 79 years in Latin America and the Caribbean, 102 years in Sub-Saharan Africa, 128 years in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 157 years in the Middle East and North Africa, 161 years in East Asia and the Pacific, and 168 years in North America. • A variety of models and empirical studies have suggested that improving gender parity may result in significant economic dividends, which vary depending on the situation of different economies and the specific challenges they are facing. Notable recent estimates suggest that economic gender parity could add an additional US$250 billion to the GDP of the United Kingdom, US$1,750 billion to that of the United States, US$550 billion to Japan’s, US$320 billion to France’s and US$310 billion to the GDP of Germany. Other recent estimates suggest that China could see a US$2.5 trillion GDP increase from gender parity and that the world as a whole could increase global GDP by US$5.3 trillion by 2025 by closing the gender gap in economic participation by 25% over the same period. • A key avenue for further progress is the closing of occupational gender gaps. These gaps often reflect a myriad set of factors that require adjustments within the education sector, within companies and by policymakers. In a research collaboration with LinkedIn, the Report finds that men are distinctively under- represented in Education and Health and Welfare, while women are strongly under-represented in Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction and Information, Communication and Technology. Fair returns to skills and the availability of deeper talent pools are disrupted by existing gender biases—and the fields most affected, such as the care economy and the emerging technology sector, are losing out on the benefits of diversity. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 viii

11 Part 1 Measuring the Global Gender Gap

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13 The Global Gender Gap I n d ex 2 017 gaps and the future economic prospects and resilience The Global Gender Gap Index was first introduced by of industries and countries. Finally, the fourth part of this the World Economic Forum in 2006 as a framework for chapter takes a deeper look at gender parity trends across capturing the magnitude of gender-based disparities and industries, presenting a range of innovative data about tracking their progress over time. The Index benchmarks evolving hiring trends and gender gaps in skills and fields national gender gaps on economic, education, health of study, based on a research collaboration with LinkedIn. and political criteria, and provides country rankings Report The Country Profiles contained in Part 2 of this that allow for effective comparisons across regions and give a more detailed picture of the relative strengths and income groups. The rankings are designed to create global awareness of the challenges posed by gender weaknesses of each country’s performance compared with that of other nations and relative to its own past gaps and the opportunities created by reducing them. The performance. The first page of each profile contains key methodology and quantitative analysis behind the rankings demographic and economic indicators as well as detailed are intended to serve as a basis for designing effective information on the country’s performance in both 2017 measures for reducing gender gaps. and in the year in which it was first featured in the Last year’s 11th edition introduced a number of . Report The second page of the Country Profiles highlights more updated elements—namely, a higher threshold for than 70 gender-related indicators that provide a fuller calculating gender gaps in estimated earned income, a revised regional classification, and a refreshed visualization context for the country’s performance. These indicators include information on workforce participation, economic of results—to evolve the Global Gender Gap Index for leadership, access to assets and technology, political its second decade. This year’s 12th edition continues leadership, family, the care economy, education and to build on the well-established strengths of the Report by introducing an innovative online Data Explorer tool, skills, and health-related factors. Interactive versions of website (http://reports.weforum. available on the website, Report the Country Profiles are available on the Report as part of the Report ’s online Data Explorer tool (http:// org/global-gender-gap-report-2017/dataexplorer), which reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2017/ enables readers to directly compare patterns of gender- dataexplorer). based inequities between countries as well as explore comprehensive rankings by indicator, region and subindex. The first part of this chapter reviews the underlying Measuring the Global concepts employed in creating the Global Gender Gap Index and outlines the methods used to calculate it. The Gender Gap second part presents the 2017 rankings, overall trends, The methodology of the Index has remained stable since regional performance and notable country cases. It its original conception in 2006, providing a basis for robust also provides information on progress over time and cross-country and time-series analysis. Last year’s edition progress within income groups. Next, the Report lays introduced an updated threshold for estimating gender out the economic case for gender parity, with a focus on parity in earned income, adjusting the income level cap to the growing evidence of inter-linkages between gender The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 3

14 Table 1: Structure of the Global Gender Gap Index Variable Source Subindex Economic Participation database, Ratio: female labour force participation over male value International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT and Opportunity 2016 or latest available data Wage equality between women and men for similar work World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey (EOS), 2016-17 (survey data, normalized on a 0-to-1 scale) World Economic Forum calculations based on the United Ratio: female estimated earned income over male value Nations Development Programme methodology (refer to Human Development Report 2007/2008 ) Ratio: female legislators, senior officials and managers database, International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT over male value 2016 or latest available data Ratio: female professional and technical workers over International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database, male value 2016 or latest available data United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Ratio: female literacy rate over male value Educational Attainment Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, Education database, 2016 or latest available data indicators, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Education indicators Ratio: female net primary enrolment rate over male value database, 2016 or latest available data Ratio: female net secondary enrolment rate over male UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Education indicators database, 2016 or latest available data value UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Education indicators Ratio: female gross tertiary enrolment ratio over male value database, 2016 or latest available data Sex ratio at birth (converted to female-over-male ratio) United Nations Population Division, World Population Health and Survival 2016 or latest available data Prospects, Ratio: female healthy life expectancy over male value World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory database 2015 or latest available data , Political Empowerment Ratio: females with seats in parliament over male value Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in Politics: 2017, reflecting elections/appointments up to 1 June 2017 Ratio: females at ministerial level over male value Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in Politics: 2017, reflecting appointments up to 1 January 2017 World Economic Forum calculations, reflecting situation Ratio: number of years with a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value as of 30 June 2017 better reflect contemporary costs of living and bringing the Gaps vs. levels Index in line with the latest thinking and methodology of The Index is designed to measure gender-based gaps statistical reports by the United Nations and others. This in access to resources and opportunities in countries year’s edition removes this income level cap completely rather than the actual levels of the available resources and and also updates its primary reference source for the sex opportunities in those countries. We do this to disassociate ratio at birth indicator. Sensitivity analysis of both changes the Global Gender Gap Index from countries’ levels of finds their impact on overall country scores and ranks to be development. In other words, the Index is constructed 1 minimal. to rank countries on their gender gaps not on their development level. For example, rich countries, generally speaking, are able to offer more education and health Three underlying concepts opportunities to all members of society, although this is There are three basic concepts underlying the Global quite independent of the gender-related gaps that may Gender Gap Index, forming the basis of how indicators exist within those higher levels of health or education. The were chosen, how the data is treated and the scale Global Gender Gap Index rewards countries for smaller used. First, the Index focuses on measuring gaps gaps in access to these resources, regardless of the overall rather than levels. Second, it captures gaps in outcome level of resources. Thus, in the case of education, the Index variables rather than gaps in input variables. Third, it penalizes or rewards countries based on the size of the ranks countries according to gender equality rather than gap between male and female enrolment rates, but not for women’s empowerment. These three concepts are briefly the overall levels of education in the country. outlined below. For a description of how these concepts Outcomes vs. inputs are captured by the construction techniques used in the The second basic concept underlying the Global Gender creation of the Index, please see the Construction of the Gap Index is that it evaluates countries based on outcomes section below. Index The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 4

15 senior officials and managers, and the ratio of women to rather than inputs or means. Our aim is to provide a men among technical and professional workers). snapshot of where men and women stand with regard to some fundamental outcome indicators related to basic Educational Attainment rights such as health, education, economic participation This subindex captures the gap between women’s and and political empowerment. Indicators related to country- men’s current access to education through ratios of specific policies, rights, culture or customs—factors that we women to men in primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level consider “input” or “means” indicators—are not included education. A longer-term view of the country’s ability to in the Index, but they are discussed further in the analytic educate women and men in equal numbers is captured sections of this chapter, as well as being featured in the through the ratio of the female literacy rate to the male ’s Country Profiles. For example, the Index includes Report literacy rate. an indicator comparing the gap between men and women Health and Survival in high-skilled jobs such as legislators, senior officials and This subindex provides an overview of the differences managers (an outcome indicator) but does not include between women’s and men’s health through the use of data on the length of maternity leave (a policy indicator). two indicators. The first is the sex ratio at birth, which This approach has contributed significantly to the Index’s aims specifically to capture the phenomenon of “missing distinctiveness over the years and, we believe, continues to women”, prevalent in many countries with a strong son provide the most objective basis for discussing underlying 4 2 preference. Second, we use the gap between women’s contextual factors. and men’s healthy life expectancy. This measure provides Gender equality vs. women’s empowerment an estimate of the number of years that women and men The third distinguishing feature of the Global Gender Gap can expect to live in good health by taking into account Index is that it ranks countries according to their proximity the years lost to violence, disease, malnutrition and other to gender equality rather than to women’s empowerment. relevant factors. Our aim is to focus on whether the gap between women Political Empowerment and men in the chosen indicators has declined, rather than This subindex measures the gap between men and women whether women are winning the so-called “battle of the at the highest level of political decision-making through the sexes”. Hence, the Index rewards countries that reach the ratio of women to men in ministerial positions and the ratio point where outcomes for women equal those for men, of women to men in parliamentary positions. In addition, but it neither rewards nor penalizes cases in which women we’ve included the ratio of women to men in terms of are outperforming men in particular indicators in some years in executive office (prime minister or president) countries. Thus, a country that has higher enrolment for for the last 50 years. A clear drawback in this category girls rather than boys in secondary school will score equal is the absence of any indicators capturing differences to a country where boys’ and girls’ enrolment is the same. between the participation of women and men at local levels of government. Should such data become available The four subindexes at a globally comparative level in future years, it will be The Global Gender Gap Index examines the gap considered for inclusion in the Index. between men and women in four fundamental categories Economic Participation and Opportunity, (subindexes): Construction of the Index Educational Attainment, Health and Survival and The overall Global Gender Gap Index is constructed Table 1 (page 5) displays all four Political Empowerment. using a four-step process, outlined below. Some of the of these subindexes and the 14 different indicators that indicators listed in Table 1 require specific standardization compose them, along with the sources of data used for or modification in order to be used in the Index. For further each. information on the indicator-specific calculations, please Economic Participation and Opportunity refer to the User’s Guide: Exploring the Global Gender Gap This subindex contains three concepts: the participation Report . Index Data section in Part 2 of this gap, the remuneration gap and the advancement gap. The 1. Convert to ratios participation gap is captured using the difference between Initially, all data is converted to female-to-male ratios. women and men in labour force participation rates. The For example, a country with 20% of women in ministerial remuneration gap is captured through a hard data indicator 3 positions is assigned a ratio of 20 women to 80 men, thus and a (ratio of estimated female-to-male earned income) a value of 0.25. This is to ensure that the Index is capturing qualitative indicator gathered through the World Economic gaps between women and men’s attainment levels, rather Forum’s annual Executive Opinion Survey (wage equality than the levels themselves. for similar work). Finally, the gap between the advancement of women and men is captured through two hard data statistics (the ratio of women to men among legislators, The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 5

16 Table 2: Calculation of weights within each subindex Economic Participation and Opportunity Subindex Standard deviation Ratio Standard deviation per 1% point change Weight Female labour force participation over male value 0.160 0.063 0.199 0.097 0.310 0.103 Wage equality between women and men for similar work Female estimated earned income over male value 0.144 0.069 0.221 0.214 0.047 0.149 Female legislators, senior officials and managers over male value 0.121 Female professional and technical workers over male value 0.262 0.038 TOTAL 1 ... Educational Attainment Subindex Standard deviation Weight Standard deviation Ratio per 1% point change 0.069 0.191 Female literacy rate over male value 0.145 0.459 0.167 0.060 Female net primary enrolment rate over male value 0.120 0.230 Female net secondary enrolment rate over male value 0.083 Female gross tertiary enrolement ratio over male value 0.228 0.044 0.121 TOTAL 1 ... Health and Survival Subindex Standard deviation Weight Ratio Standard deviation per 1% point change 0.010 0.693 0.998 Sex ratio at birth (converted to female-over-male ratio) 0.023 0.307 0.441 Female healthy life expectancy over male value TOTAL ... 1 Political Empowerment Subindex Standard deviation Weight Ratio per 1% point change Standard deviation Females with seats in parliament over male value 0.166 0.060 0.310 Females at ministerial level over male value 0.048 0.247 0.208 0.116 0.443 0.086 Number of years with a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value 1 TOTAL ... Global Gender Gap Report 2006. Calculations are based on the Note: scale penalizes either men’s advantage over women or 2. Truncate data at equality benchmark women’s advantage over men, and gives the highest points As a second step, these ratios are truncated at the to absolute equality. The second choice was a one-sided “equality benchmark”. For all indicators, except the two that measures how close women are to reaching scale health indicators, this equality benchmark is considered to parity with men, but does not reward or penalize countries be 1, meaning equal numbers of women and men. In the for having a gender gap in the other direction. We find the case of sex ratio at birth, the equality benchmark is set 5 one-sided scale more appropriate for our purposes, as it , and in the case of healthy life expectancy the at 0.944 6 does not reward countries for having exceeded the parity equality benchmark is set at 1.06. Truncating the data at benchmark. However, disparities in either direction are the equality benchmarks for each assigns the same score recorded in the Country Profiles. to a country that has reached parity between women and men and one where women have surpassed men. 3. Calculate subindex scores The type of rating scale chosen determines whether The third step in the process involves calculating the the Index is rewarding women’s empowerment or gender weighted average of the indicators within each subindex 7 equalit y. To capture gender equality, two possible scales to create the subindex scores. Averaging the different negative-positive scale were considered. One was a indicators would implicitly give more weight to the measure capturing the size and direction of the gender gap. This The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 6

17 Figure 1: Global performance, 2017 Global Gender Gap Index 68% Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex 58% Educational Attainment subindex 95% Health and Survival subindex 96% Political Empowerment subindex 23% Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Note: Covers all 144 countries featured in the 2017 index. value that reveals how a country has reduced its gender that exhibits the largest variability or standard deviation. We gap should help make the Index more intuitively appealing therefore first normalize the indicators by equalizing their 11 to readers. standard deviations. For example, within the Educational Attainment subindex, standard deviations for each of the four indicators are calculated. Then we determine what a Results and analysis 1% point change would translate to in terms of standard deviations by dividing 0.01 by the standard deviation for Country Coverage, 2017 each indicator. These four values are then used as weights We aim to include a maximum number of countries in the to calculate the weighted average of the four indicators. every year, within the constraints posed by data Report This way of weighting indicators allows us to make availability. To be included in the , a country must Report sure that each indicator has the same relative impact have data available for a minimum of 12 indicators out of on the subindex. For example, an indicator with a small the 14 that make up the Index. In 2017, we have been able variability or standard deviation, such as primary enrolment to include 144 countries in the . Of these, 106 have Report rate, gets a larger weight within the Educational Attainment consistently been included in the every year since Report subindex than an indicator with a larger variability, such as the first edition published in 2006. tertiary enrolment rate. Therefore, a country with a large Nearly 200 countries were considered for inclusion gender gap in primary education (an indicator where most in the Index this year. Out of the 144 ultimately covered in countries have achieved near-parity between women and this Report , 23 countries had one data point missing and, men) will be more heavily penalized. Similarly, in the case in addition, seven further countries had two data points of the sex ratio at birth indicator (within the Health and missing. Missing data is clearly marked on each relevant Survival subindex), where most countries have a very high Country Profile. This year’s features one new Report sex ratio and the spread of the data is small, the larger country never previously covered by the Index, Myanmar, weight will penalize more heavily those countries that and one country not covered in last year’s edition, Fiji. deviate from this value. Table 2 displays the values of the The Global Gender Gap Report groups countries into 8 weights used. eight broader geographical groupings: East Asia and the Pacific; Eastern Europe and Central Asia; Latin America 4. Calculate final scores and the Caribbean; Middle East and North Africa; North For of all subindexes, the highest possible score is 1 America; South Asia; Sub-Saharan Africa; and Western (parity) and the lowest possible score is 0 (imparity), Europe. The classification of countries according to these thus binding the scores between inequality and equality 9 categories is detailed in Appendix A. An unweighted average of each subindex benchmarks. score is used to calculate the overall Global Gender Gap Index score. Similar to subindex scores, this final value Global Results ranges between 1 (parity) and 0 (imparity), thus allowing Figure 1 provides a global snapshot of the gender gap for comparisons relative to ideal standards of equality in the four subindexes. It shows that, on average, the 10 in addition to relative country rankings. The parity and have closed 96% of Report 144 countries covered in the imparity benchmarks remain fixed across time, allowing the gap in health outcomes between women and men, the reader to track individual country progress in relation unchanged since last year, and more than 95% of the gap to an ideal standard of equality. Furthermore, the option of in educational attainment, a slight decrease compared to roughly interpreting the final Index scores as a percentage 7 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

18 last year, which marked the highest value ever measured Figure 2: Gender gap by country, 2017 for this subindex. However, the gaps between women and Iceland Norway men on economic participation and political empowerment Finland Rwanda Sweden remain wide: only 58% of the economic participation gap Nicaragua Slovenia Ireland has been closed—a second consecutive year of reversed New Zealand Philippines France progress and the lowest value measured by the Index since Germany Namibia Denmark 2008—and about 23% of the political gap, unchanged United Kingdom Canada Bolivia since last year against a long-term trend of slow but steady Bulgaria South Africa Latvia improvement. Weighted by population, in 2017, the average Switzerland Burundi Barbados progress on closing the global gender gap stands at a Spain Cuba Belarus score of 0.680—which means that an average gap of 32% Bahamas Lithuania Mozambique remains to be closed worldwide across the four Index Moldova Belgium Netherlands dimensions in order to achieve universal gender parity. Last Portugal Argentina Australia year that average gap was 31.7%. Colombia Estonia Despite this overall mixed picture and continued Albania Poland Serbia stalling of progress at the global level, the situation is more Costa Rica Ecuador Panama nuanced at the regional and country level. Out of the 142 Israel Uganda Botswana countries covered by the Index both this year and last year, Bangladesh Peru United States 82 countries have increased their overall gender gap score Zimbabwe Jamaica Kazakhstan compared to last year, while 60 have seen it decrease. By Mongolia Croatia Honduras Report had found negative outcomes contrast, last year’s Uruguay Austria Romania in more than half of countries surveyed. Moreover, as Luxembourg Venezuela Ukraine Report detailed in the following sections of the , while a El Salvador Chile Lao PDR number of countries and regions have crossed symbolic Singapore Bosnia and Herzegovina Macedonia, FYR milestones on the path to gender parity for the first Tanzania Vietnam Dominican Republic time this year, a number of major economies and high- Russian Federation Ghana Lesotho population countries have experienced reversals on their Slovak Republic Thailand Kenya past progress this year. Montenegro Greece Belize Table 3 (page 10) displays the 2017 Index and Madagascar Mexico Italy subindex rankings, organized from highest to lowest by Myanmar Indonesia rank on the overall Index. Figure 2 visualizes the 2017 Kyrgyz Republic Suriname Cameroon overall Index results, organized by size of countries’ overall Czech Republic Cape Verde Brazil gender gaps left to be closed. No country in the world has Senegal Cyprus Malta fully closed its gender gap, but four out of the five Nordic Global Weighted Average Georgia Tajikistan countries and, for the first time this year, one country Paraguay Armenia Azerbaijan each from the Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Cambodia China Malawi Caribbean and Eastern Europe and Central Asia regions— Brunei Darussalam Hungary Malaysia Rwanda, Nicaragua and Slovenia—have closed more than Swaziland Maldives Liberia 80% of theirs. Yemen, the lowest-ranking country, has India Sri Lanka Guatemala closed slightly less than 52% of its gender gap. For further Nepal Mauritius Guinea analysis, refer to the Performance by Subindex, Top 10, Japan Ethiopia Benin and Performance by Region and Country sections. Tunisia Korea, Rep. Gambia, The United Arab Emirates Burkina Faso Nigeria Angola Performance by Subindex Bhutan Fiji Bahrain Table 4 (page 12) displays the rankings by subindex, Algeria Timor-Leste Kuwait organized highest to lowest by rank per subindex. On the Qatar Turkey Mauritania Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex, Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Jordan 13 countries (two more than last year), including six from Morocco Lebanon Saudi Arabia Sub-Saharan Africa—Burundi, Benin, Botswana, Rwanda, Mali Iran, Islamic Rep. Chad Namibia and Guinea—and two Nordic countries—Norway Syria Pakistan Yemen and Sweden—have closed more than 80% of their gap. However, 18 countries (13 from the Middle East and North 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 Africa region) have closed less than 50% of the gap for Score (0.0–1.0 scale) this subindex, with Pakistan and Syria holding the last two spots. Thirty-one countries have scores below the Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. world average (0.585, weighted by population) on this The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 8

19 Figure 3: Range of scores, Global Gender Gap Index and subindexes, 2017 Iceland India Rwanda Yemen Pakistan Global Gender Gap Index United States Saudi Arabia United States India Mexico United Kingdom Economic Opportunity and Participation subindex Norway Nigeria China Chad Nepal Nigeria Educational Attainment subindex Cambodia India China Health and Survival subindex Norway Iceland France Senegal Canada Nigeria Political Empowerment subindex United Arab Emirates Finland United States 0.6 0.4 0.0 0.2 1.0 0.8 Score (0.0–1.0 scale) Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Note: Blue diamonds correspond to subindex averages. disease, accidental and intentional injuries and self- Report ’s Country Profiles include a wide subindex. The range of additional contextual data, including on workforce harm. Additionally, the Country Profiles contain detailed participation, economic leadership, access to assets and information on maternal health and domestic violence. technology, and the care economy. subindex, only Political Empowerment On the Iceland has closed more than 70% of its gender gap. While In 2017, 27 countries have fully closed the gap on the subindex, three countries more Educational Attainment no other country has currently closed more than 60% than last year. Benin, Guinea and Chad hold the last three of its gender gap, four countries—Nicaragua, Rwanda, Norway and Finland—have crossed the 50% threshold, spots on this subindex, with Chad having closed less than while 34 countries, from across all world regions, have 60% of its education gender gap. In total, there are 18 closed less than 10% of their gap (five less than last year). countries where women still have less than 90% of the Lebanon, Qatar and Yemen have the lowest rankings education outcomes that men have—one less than last on this subindex, having closed less than 2% of their year but a continued improvement over 2015, when this political gender gap. Weighted by population, 95 countries was still the case for 22 countries. Thirty-three countries rank below the subindex world average (0.227) this year. have scores below the world average (0.953, weighted by population) on this subindex. While the Index takes into In addition to the indicators included in the Index, the account four key indicators to measure the gender gap on Country Profiles present detailed information on women’s ’s Country Profiles provide Report education outcomes, the political participation, such as the number of years since information on additional gaps between women and men— the establishment of women’s suffrage, female heads of on out-of-school children of primary and secondary school government to date, and the existence of voluntary political party quotas. age, education attainment rates, advanced and vocational degrees, and gender gaps across various fields of study. This year, the only countries to have fully closed their Thirty-four countries (four less than last year) have gaps on both the Health and Survival and Educational fully closed their gender gap on the Health and Survival Attainment subindexes are five nations from the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region—Czech Republic, Latvia, subindex. Azerbaijan, Armenia and China are the lowest- ranked countries, and no country currently has a gap Lithuania, Slovak Republic and Slovenia—as well as Brazil. No country has yet fully closed either its Economic bigger than 90% on this subindex. Only six countries Participation and Opportunity or Political Empowerment have scores below the world average (0.956, weighted by subindex gaps. population) on this subindex. While the Index takes into account two key measures of gender gaps, this year’s Figure 3 illustrates the range of country scores for the Country Profiles present additional contextual data that four subindexes. The population-weighted average for each reveals differences between female and male health subindex is highlighted by blue diamonds. The Educational outcomes from infectious disease, non-communicable Attainment subindex is closing in on the Health and The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 9

20 Table 3: Global rankings, 2017 ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT HEALTH AND SURVIVAL POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT GLOBAL INDEX AND OPPORTUNITY Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Score Country Rank 14 1 0.995 114 0.969 1 0.750 Iceland 0.798 0.878 57 0.816 4 0.999 80 0.973 8 0.530 Norway 2 0.830 38 5 16 1.000 46 0.978 1 0.519 0.823 3 Finland 0.793 7 0.820 113 0.951 1 Rwanda 3 0.539 4 0.822 0.980 0.816 0.809 37 0.999 112 0.969 8 0.486 Sweden 5 12 54 0.980 34 1.000 1 0.814 2 0.576 Nicaragua 6 0.702 0.980 0.805 1 1.000 1 0.801 11 0.440 7 Slovenia 13 0.794 50 0.710 1 1.000 Ireland 0.971 6 0.493 8 96 9 23 0.768 43 0.998 115 0.969 12 0.430 New Zealand 0.791 0.790 Philippines 1 1.000 36 0.979 13 0.416 25 10 0.764 64 0.977 1 1.000 54 0.778 9 0.453 France 11 0.683 0.975 0.778 98 0.970 70 0.720 10 0.447 12 Germany 43 0.777 9 0.813 41 0.999 Namibia 0.980 26 0.318 13 1 14 36 0.728 1 1.000 95 0.971 16 0.406 Denmark 0.776 0.770 100 0.705 36 0.999 15 0.971 17 0.404 United Kingdom 53 105 16 0.744 1 1.000 29 0.970 20 0.361 Canada 0.769 17 0.758 69 0.692 108 0.956 Bolivia 0.976 14 0.408 60 Bulgaria 0.756 51 0.710 80 0.990 36 0.979 23 0.346 18 19 0.756 0.652 64 0.993 1 0.980 18 0.399 South Africa 89 0.756 15 1 1.000 1 0.980 41 0.246 Latvia 20 0.798 0.972 0.755 63 0.993 90 0.743 28 0.314 21 Switzerland 31 0.755 1 0.911 128 0.876 1 0.980 40 0.255 Burundi 22 23 0.750 0.877 1 1.000 83 0.973 82 0.150 Barbados 2 0.746 81 0.657 45 0.998 24 0.973 22 0.354 Spain 81 103 25 0.629 1 1.000 99 0.970 19 0.382 Cuba 0.745 26 0.744 5 0.827 35 0.999 45 0.979 73 0.173 Belarus Bahamas 27 3 0.871 1 1.000 50 0.978 98 0.122 0.743 28 0.742 0.749 1 1.000 1 0.980 42 0.241 Lithuania 28 0.741 56 0.789 130 0.857 29 0.977 24 0.340 Mozambique 17 1 30 0.811 66 0.992 11 0.980 72 0.176 Moldova 0.740 31 0.739 46 0.716 1 Belgium 63 0.976 37 0.264 1.000 Netherlands 0.737 82 0.657 1 1.000 108 0.970 25 0.323 32 33 0.992 35 0.730 70 Portugal 55 0.977 43 0.240 0.734 0.998 Argentina 111 0.596 44 0.732 1 0.980 21 0.356 34 Australia 35 0.731 42 0.724 1 1.000 104 0.970 48 0.232 36 Colombia 0.731 32 0.740 30 1.000 1 0.980 59 0.206 Estonia 37 38 0.726 1 1.000 36 0.979 52 0.218 0.731 38 0.728 0.673 87 0.986 120 0.968 31 0.284 Albania 70 0.728 55 31 1.000 1 0.980 49 0.230 Poland 39 0.702 0.980 0.727 47 0.997 1 0.670 38 0.262 40 Serbia 72 0.727 104 0.620 40 0.999 79 0.974 27 0.314 Costa Rica 41 42 0.724 0.642 54 0.996 57 0.977 32 0.283 Ecuador 93 0.722 1 0.691 55 0.995 43 0.980 51 0.222 Panama 62 98 44 0.681 1 1.000 65 0.971 47 0.232 Israel 0.721 45 0.721 59 0.693 124 0.913 88 0.973 30 0.305 Uganda Botswana 46 6 0.822 1 1.000 48 0.978 122 0.079 0.720 47 0.719 0.465 111 0.954 125 0.966 7 0.493 Bangladesh 129 0.719 49 0.632 82 0.988 48 0.978 33 0.277 Peru 98 82 49 0.776 1 1.000 19 0.973 96 0.124 United States 0.718 50 0.717 49 0.710 89 Zimbabwe 68 0.976 62 0.197 0.986 Jamaica 0.717 39 0.725 1 1.000 93 0.972 74 0.171 51 52 0.997 30 0.744 48 Kazakhstan 36 0.979 93 0.130 0.713 0.993 Mongolia 20 0.776 65 0.713 1 0.980 107 0.102 53 Croatia 54 0.711 63 0.689 58 0.995 1 0.980 68 0.180 Honduras 55 74 0.669 29 1.000 78 0.974 61 0.200 0.711 56 0.710 0.645 32 1.000 1 0.980 53 0.216 Uruguay 91 0.709 72 0.660 84 0.988 57 0.975 54 0.216 Austria 80 1 58 0.698 56 0.995 57 0.980 78 0.159 Romania 0.708 59 0.706 76 0.667 1 Luxembourg 86 0.973 66 0.184 1.000 Venezuela 0.706 67 0.678 49 0.997 1 0.980 75 0.167 60 61 1.000 34 0.736 28 Ukraine 51 0.978 103 0.107 0.705 0.992 El Salvador 97 0.634 67 0.705 1 0.980 56 0.214 62 Chile 63 0.704 117 0.573 39 0.999 47 0.978 36 0.266 Lao PDR 64 22 0.769 118 0.933 74 0.974 87 0.137 0.703 101 65 0.752 94 0.977 27 0.971 101 0.110 Singapore 0.702 66 0.702 116 0.575 92 Bosnia and Herzegovina 42 0.979 35 0.275 0.981 Macedonia, FYR 0.702 96 0.636 90 67 65 0.976 58 0.209 0.985 Tanzania 68 0.700 69 0.674 125 0.910 62 0.976 44 0.239 0.972 Vietnam 33 0.738 97 0.698 138 0.957 97 0.124 69 Dominican Republic 70 0.697 95 0.638 72 0.991 1 0.980 69 0.179 50 Russian Federation 0.696 41 0.724 71 0.997 1 0.980 121 0.085 0.097 112 Ghana 72 0.695 18 0.784 119 0.931 118 0.968 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 10

21 Table 3: Global rankings, 2017 (cont’d.) ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION HEALTH AND SURVIVAL POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT GLOBAL INDEX EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND OPPORTUNITY Score Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Country Rank Score 84 0.979 1 1.000 35 0.695 84 0.147 Lesotho 73 0.655 0.980 0.694 1 1.000 1 0.662 89 0.135 74 Slovak Republic 79 0.694 24 0.767 106 0.958 51 0.978 127 0.072 Thailand 75 76 0.694 0.720 120 0.929 1 0.980 83 0.147 Kenya 44 0.974 0.693 83 0.988 75 0.653 79 0.157 77 88 Montenegro 0.692 73 0.670 76 0.991 Greece 0.973 88 0.136 78 89 79 21 0.772 85 0.988 0.692 0.976 139 0.032 Belize 61 80 0.692 Madagascar 0.716 114 0.950 76 0.974 94 0.127 48 Mexico 0.692 124 0.518 53 0.996 58 0.977 34 0.276 81 82 0.692 0.571 60 0.995 123 0.967 46 0.234 Italy 118 0.691 66 0.754 95 0.975 83 0.976 132 0.059 Myanmar* 26 60 84 0.610 88 0.986 108 0.976 63 0.193 Indonesia 0.691 85 0.691 78 0.664 79 Kyrgyz Republic 1 0.980 92 0.130 0.990 Suriname 0.689 105 0.618 73 0.991 91 0.972 71 0.177 86 87 0.868 40 0.725 129 Cameroon 92 0.972 64 0.191 0.689 1.000 Czech Republic 92 0.643 1 0.688 1 0.980 91 0.130 88 Cape Verde 89 0.686 106 0.615 93 0.980 110 0.969 70 0.178 Brazil 90 83 0.655 1 1.000 1 0.980 110 0.101 0.684 91 0.684 0.624 132 0.831 87 0.973 29 0.308 Senegal 102 0.684 126 0.679 46 0.998 92 0.966 115 0.092 Cyprus 66 102 93 0.610 1 1.000 107 0.971 85 0.146 Malta 0.682 94 0.679 75 0.669 81 0.989 124 0.967 114 0.093 Georgia Tajikistan 95 52 0.708 115 0.941 67 0.976 117 0.088 0.678 97 96 0.652 61 0.994 90 0.971 113 0.094 Paraguay 0.678 97 0.677 71 0.671 42 Armenia 143 0.939 111 0.099 0.999 Azerbaijan 0.676 45 0.717 91 98 142 0.941 131 0.063 0.984 Cambodia 99 0.676 56 0.698 121 0.921 1 0.980 106 0.104 China 100 86 0.654 102 0.963 144 0.918 77 0.160 0.674 77 101 0.654 126 0.908 85 0.974 81 0.152 Malawi 0.672 102 0.671 61 0.692 78 Brunei Darussalam 111 0.969 140 0.031 0.990 Hungary 0.670 68 0.675 68 103 36 0.979 138 0.035 0.992 Malaysia 104 0.670 87 0.654 77 0.991 53 0.977 133 0.058 0.995 Swaziland 112 0.595 59 0.670 1 0.980 102 0.109 105 Maldives 106 0.669 94 0.641 1 1.000 133 0.963 128 0.072 0.772 Liberia 0.669 58 0.695 138 107 85 0.973 45 0.236 India 108 0.407 0.669 139 0.376 112 0.952 141 0.942 15 Sri Lanka 109 0.521 86 0.986 1 0.980 65 0.188 0.669 123 0.667 Guatemala 103 0.962 1 0.980 109 0.102 101 110 0.626 110 0.969 116 0.936 116 0.664 80 0.155 Nepal 111 0.599 0.980 0.664 69 0.992 1 0.595 116 0.090 112 Mauritius 113 0.659 10 0.813 143 0.699 Guinea 0.964 76 0.162 113 132 114 114 0.580 74 0.991 1 0.980 123 0.078 Japan 0.657 0.656 44 0.604 134 0.819 115 0.979 50 0.223 Ethiopia 109 131 116 0.864 142 0.714 4 0.964 129 0.065 Benin 0.652 117 0.651 131 0.446 99 0.966 71 0.975 55 0.216 Tunisia 118 Korea, Rep. 0.533 105 0.960 84 0.973 90 0.134 0.650 121 0.968 0.649 127 0.896 122 0.627 104 0.106 119 100 Gambia, The 0.649 130 0.459 62 0.994 United Arab Emirates 0.965 67 0.180 120 129 121 47 0.716 133 0.829 0.646 0.963 125 0.075 Burkina Faso 134 122 0.641 37 0.728 135 0.813 94 0.972 135 0.052 Nigeria 64 123 0.560 139 0.763 119 0.976 39 0.262 0.640 Angola 124 0.638 103 0.622 123 0.916 137 0.959 134 0.056 Bhutan 36 125 127 0.479 71 0.991 0.638 0.979 105 0.104 Fiji* 75 126 0.632 120 0.537 0.037 0.991 136 0.961 137 Bahrain Algeria 127 132 0.442 107 0.957 106 0.970 86 0.145 0.629 128 0.628 0.393 117 0.934 43 0.979 60 0.205 Timor-Leste 136 0.628 117 0.518 52 0.996 129 0.969 141 0.027 Kuwait 125 127 130 0.523 33 1.000 122 0.965 143 0.016 Qatar 0.626 131 0.625 128 0.471 101 Turkey 59 0.977 118 0.088 0.965 Mauritania 0.614 134 0.417 131 0.853 107 0.970 57 0.214 132 133 0.800 115 0.575 137 Côte d'Ivoire 121 0.968 108 0.102 0.611 0.960 Egypt 135 0.413 104 0.608 99 0.971 119 0.087 134 Jordan 135 0.604 138 0.377 51 0.996 113 0.969 126 0.075 Morocco 136 137 0.391 122 0.920 128 0.965 100 0.117 0.598 109 137 0.440 109 0.956 133 0.970 142 0.019 Lebanon 0.596 138 0.584 142 0.320 96 Saudi Arabia 130 0.965 124 0.077 0.975 Mali 0.583 126 0.518 140 139 139 0.956 99 0.118 0.741 Iran, Islamic Rep. 140 0.583 140 0.357 100 0.965 135 0.963 136 0.046 0.572 Chad 77 0.667 144 0.575 73 0.974 120 0.087 141 Syria 142 0.568 144 0.274 110 0.956 1 0.980 130 0.063 136 Pakistan 0.546 143 0.309 143 0.802 140 0.948 95 0.127 0.014 Yemen 144 0.516 141 0.345 141 0.737 119 0.968 144 * New countries in 2017 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 11

22 Table 4: Rankings by subindex, 2017 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION AND OPPORTUNITY Country Score Rank Country Score Rank Country Score Rank Score Rank Country 73 73 0.670 0.991 Greece Suriname 1 1.000 0.911 Australia 1 Burundi 74 0.669 0.991 74 Japan Honduras 1 1.000 Barbados 2 Bahamas 0.877 Georgia 0.991 75 0.669 75 Bahrain 1.000 Bahamas 3 1 Barbados 0.871 Luxembourg 76 Greece 76 0.991 0.667 4 1.000 1 0.864 Belgium Benin Malaysia 77 0.991 Chad 0.667 77 5 1 Botswana 0.827 Belarus 1.000 Kyrgyz Republic 78 0.990 78 Brunei Darussalam 0.664 0.822 Botswana 1.000 1 Brazil 6 Kyrgyz Republic Slovak Republic 0.662 79 0.990 79 1 0.820 7 1.000 Canada Rwanda Austria 80 0.660 80 Bulgaria 0.990 Cuba 1 Norway 8 0.816 1.000 0.657 Georgia 81 Spain 0.989 81 9 0.813 Namibia Czech Republic 1 1.000 0.657 0.988 82 82 Netherlands Peru 1 0.813 Guinea 10 Denmark 1.000 Brazil 83 0.655 0.988 83 Montenegro Estonia 0.811 Moldova 11 1.000 1 Lesotho 0.655 84 0.988 84 Austria Sweden 1.000 1 Finland 0.809 12 85 Malawi Belize 85 0.988 0.654 1.000 1 France 0.801 13 Slovenia 86 86 0.986 0.654 Sri Lanka China 1.000 1 Iceland 14 0.798 Ireland Albania 87 0.986 Malaysia 87 0.654 0.798 Latvia Israel 1 1.000 15 Indonesia 88 Montenegro 0.653 88 0.986 0.793 16 Finland 1.000 1 Jamaica Zimbabwe 89 0.986 0.652 89 South Africa 1 1.000 Latvia Mozambique 17 0.789 90 Paraguay 90 0.652 0.985 Macedonia, FYR Ghana 0.784 Lesotho 18 1 1.000 Uruguay 0.984 91 91 0.645 Azerbaijan 19 Lithuania United States 1.000 0.776 1 Czech Republic 92 0.643 Bosnia and Herzegovina 92 0.981 1 0.776 Mongolia Luxembourg 20 1.000 Cape Verde Ecuador 93 0.642 0.980 93 1.000 0.772 Belize Maldives 1 21 0.641 94 Maldives Singapore 94 0.977 1.000 Malta 1 22 Lao PDR 0.769 Myanmar* 0.975 95 Dominican Republic 95 0.638 1 Netherlands 23 1.000 New Zealand 0.768 Macedonia, FYR 96 Saudi Arabia 0.975 0.636 96 1 Thailand 1.000 0.767 Philippines 24 0.634 0.972 97 97 Vietnam El Salvador Philippines 1 25 0.764 1.000 Slovak Republic 0.970 98 Peru Germany 98 0.632 Myanmar* 1 Slovenia 1.000 0.754 26 0.966 0.629 99 Tunisia 99 Cuba United States Singapore 0.752 1.000 1 27 0.627 100 Gambia, The Iran, Islamic Rep. 100 0.965 Ukraine 28 0.749 28 Lithuania 1.000 0.965 101 Guatemala 101 Turkey 0.626 0.744 29 Canada 1.000 29 Honduras Senegal China 0.963 102 0.624 102 Colombia Kazakhstan 0.744 30 1.000 30 103 0.622 103 Bhutan Guatemala 0.962 0.743 1.000 31 Poland 31 Switzerland 104 0.960 Egypt Costa Rica 0.620 104 1.000 0.740 Uruguay 32 Colombia 32 0.618 Korea, Rep. 105 0.960 Suriname 105 Vietnam 33 Qatar 0.738 33 1.000 0.958 Thailand 0.615 Cape Verde 106 106 1.000 34 Nicaragua 34 Ukraine 0.736 0.957 Malta 107 Algeria 107 0.610 0.730 35 Portugal Belarus 35 0.999 108 0.956 Bolivia 0.610 Indonesia 108 Denmark 36 0.728 United Kingdom 36 0.999 0.956 Lebanon Ethiopia 109 0.604 109 0.999 37 Sweden Nigeria 37 0.728 Syria 110 0.599 110 0.956 Nepal Estonia 0.999 38 38 Norway 0.726 0.954 Bangladesh Argentina 111 0.596 111 39 39 Chile Jamaica 0.725 0.999 0.952 112 0.595 112 Swaziland India 40 Costa Rica Cameroon 40 0.725 0.999 Mauritius 113 Rwanda 113 0.951 0.595 41 0.724 41 Russian Federation Namibia 0.999 0.950 Madagascar Japan 114 0.580 114 0.999 Australia 0.724 42 42 Armenia 0.941 115 Tajikistan Côte d'Ivoire 115 0.575 Germany 0.720 43 0.998 43 New Zealand Bosnia and Herzegovina 116 0.936 116 0.575 Nepal Argentina 0.998 44 0.720 44 Kenya 117 Chile Timor-Leste 0.573 117 0.934 Azerbaijan 0.998 0.717 45 Spain 45 0.933 118 0.571 118 Lao PDR Italy Belgium 0.716 46 Cyprus 46 0.998 Ghana Angola 0.931 0.560 119 119 Serbia 47 0.997 Burkina Faso 0.716 47 120 Bahrain 0.537 Kenya 120 0.929 Kazakhstan Madagascar 0.997 48 48 0.716 Cambodia 0.921 0.533 121 Korea, Rep. 121 Venezuela Zimbabwe 49 0.710 49 0.997 0.523 Qatar Morocco 122 0.920 122 Russian Federation Ireland 50 0.710 0.997 50 123 0.521 Sri Lanka Bhutan 123 0.916 Bulgaria 0.710 0.996 51 51 Jordan 124 Mexico Uganda 124 0.518 0.913 0.708 Tajikistan Kuwait 52 0.996 52 Tanzania 125 Kuwait 125 0.518 0.910 United Kingdom 53 53 0.996 0.705 Mexico 0.518 0.908 126 Malawi 126 Mali 54 Nicaragua 0.702 Ecuador 54 0.996 0.479 127 Fiji* Gambia, The 127 0.896 55 0.995 0.702 Panama Poland 55 0.471 Burundi 128 0.876 Turkey 128 56 0.995 56 0.698 Romania Cambodia 129 Cameroon 129 0.868 0.465 Bangladesh 0.995 57 Iceland 0.698 57 Romania 0.459 130 0.857 130 Mozambique United Arab Emirates Liberia 0.695 0.995 58 Croatia 58 0.446 Tunisia 0.853 131 Mauritania 131 Swaziland 59 0.995 0.693 59 Uganda 0.442 132 Algeria Senegal 132 0.831 60 0.692 60 Bolivia 0.995 Italy Lebanon 0.440 133 133 Burkina Faso 0.829 0.994 0.692 61 Brunei Darussalam Paraguay 61 0.819 0.417 134 Ethiopia 134 Mauritania 0.691 0.994 United Arab Emirates Panama 62 62 135 Nigeria 135 Egypt 0.413 0.813 63 63 Switzerland Croatia 0.993 0.689 Timor-Leste 0.393 Pakistan 136 0.802 136 France 64 0.683 South Africa 64 0.993 137 0.800 137 Côte d'Ivoire Morocco 0.391 0.681 65 0.993 Israel 65 Mongolia 0.772 0.377 138 Liberia 138 Jordan Cyprus 0.992 66 0.679 Moldova 66 139 0.376 Angola 139 0.763 India 67 0.678 El Salvador Venezuela 0.992 67 140 0.741 140 Mali Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.357 68 0.675 68 Hungary 0.992 Hungary Yemen 141 Yemen 0.737 141 0.345 0.674 Mauritius 69 0.992 69 Tanzania 0.320 142 142 Benin Saudi Arabia 0.714 0.673 0.992 Portugal 70 Albania 70 Pakistan 0.699 143 Guinea 0.309 143 0.671 Armenia 0.991 Fiji* 71 71 Syria 144 0.274 Chad 144 0.572 72 0.991 0.670 Serbia 72 Dominican Republic Countries highlighted in blue have reached parity on that subindex. Note: * New countries in 2017 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 12

23 (cont’d.) Table 4: Rankings by subindex, 2017 POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT HEALTH AND SURVIVAL Score Score Score Rank Country Rank Rank Country Score Rank Country Country Belarus 73 0.173 Chad 73 0.974 0.980 1 0.750 Iceland Argentina 1 74 0.171 0.974 Lao PDR Jamaica 74 2 Brazil 0.980 Nicaragua 1 0.576 Venezuela 75 0.167 0.974 75 Montenegro Rwanda 3 0.539 Burundi 0.980 1 Madagascar Guinea 76 0.162 76 0.974 Norway 0.530 0.980 4 1 Cambodia 0.160 0.974 77 Malawi 77 China Colombia 1 5 Finland 0.980 0.519 0.974 Romania 78 0.159 Honduras 78 6 Ireland 0.493 Croatia 0.980 1 Montenegro 0.157 Costa Rica 79 0.974 79 7 1 0.980 0.493 Bangladesh Czech Republic Norway 0.155 Nepal 0.973 80 80 1 0.486 Dominican Republic 0.980 8 Sweden 0.152 81 0.973 81 Malawi Spain France 9 0.453 0.980 El Salvador 1 Barbados 0.973 82 United States 82 0.150 1 Germany 10 0.447 Guatemala 0.980 0.973 0.147 83 Barbados 83 Kenya 0.980 Japan Slovenia 11 0.440 1 84 84 Korea, Rep. 0.973 0.147 Lesotho 0.430 Kenya New Zealand 12 1 0.980 0.973 Liberia 0.146 85 85 Malta 0.980 13 Philippines Kyrgyz Republic 1 0.416 0.973 86 Luxembourg 0.145 86 Algeria 1 Latvia 0.980 Bolivia 14 0.408 0.137 87 0.973 Senegal Lao PDR 87 0.407 15 1 Lithuania India 0.980 0.136 Uganda Greece 0.973 88 88 1 Mauritius 0.980 0.406 16 Denmark 0.135 89 0.973 89 Greece Slovak Republic 0.980 0.404 United Kingdom 17 Moldova 1 Switzerland 0.972 Korea, Rep. 90 0.134 90 0.399 South Africa Mongolia 1 0.980 18 0.130 Czech Republic 0.972 91 91 Suriname 0.980 Namibia 1 0.382 19 Cuba Cameroon 0.972 92 0.130 Kyrgyz Republic 92 Nicaragua 1 0.361 20 Canada 0.980 0.130 93 0.972 93 Kazakhstan Jamaica 21 0.356 1 Argentina 0.980 Panama 0.127 94 Madagascar 0.972 94 Nigeria 22 0.980 Spain Poland 0.354 1 Denmark 95 0.971 Pakistan 95 0.127 1 0.980 Bulgaria 23 0.346 Romania 0.124 96 Ireland 0.971 United States 96 24 Russian Federation 1 Mozambique 0.340 0.980 97 0.124 97 Vietnam Paraguay 0.971 Netherlands 0.323 25 1 0.980 Rwanda Israel Bahamas 98 0.122 0.971 98 1 0.318 26 Namibia 0.980 Serbia Mali 99 0.118 99 Egypt 0.971 Costa Rica 27 0.980 1 Slovak Republic 0.314 0.117 United Kingdom Morocco 100 100 0.971 Switzerland Slovenia 1 0.980 28 0.314 101 Singapore Singapore 101 0.110 0.971 Senegal 29 0.980 1 South Africa 0.308 0.109 Swaziland 102 Malta 102 0.971 0.305 30 Uganda Sri Lanka 1 0.980 103 0.107 0.970 Ukraine Cuba 103 1 Swaziland Albania 31 0.980 0.284 104 0.106 0.970 104 Australia Gambia, The Syria 0.980 1 Ecuador 32 0.283 105 Canada 105 0.104 Fiji* 0.970 0.980 0.277 Uruguay 33 1 Peru Algeria 106 Cambodia 106 0.104 0.970 34 Venezuela 1 0.980 0.276 Mexico 107 0.970 Mauritania 0.102 107 Mongolia 35 0.979 35 Lesotho 0.275 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.970 108 Netherlands 0.102 Côte d'Ivoire 108 Chile 36 0.266 0.979 Philippines 36 0.102 Lebanon Guatemala 109 109 0.970 0.979 36 0.264 37 Bulgaria Belgium Cape Verde 0.101 0.969 110 Brazil 110 Serbia 38 36 0.979 Estonia 0.262 0.099 Armenia Brunei Darussalam 111 0.969 111 36 0.979 Kazakhstan 0.262 39 Angola Sweden 0.097 Ghana 112 0.969 112 0.255 36 Hungary 0.979 Burundi 40 Paraguay 113 0.094 0.969 113 Jordan 0.246 0.979 36 Fiji* 41 Latvia 0.093 114 Georgia Iceland 114 0.969 42 Lithuania 0.241 42 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.979 New Zealand 0.092 115 Cyprus 0.969 115 Timor-Leste 0.979 43 Portugal 43 0.240 0.969 Nepal 0.090 116 Mauritius 116 Ethiopia 44 Tanzania 44 0.239 0.979 117 117 0.088 0.969 Tajikistan Kuwait 0.236 0.979 Belarus 45 Liberia 45 Ghana Turkey 0.088 118 0.968 118 0.234 Italy 46 Finland 46 0.978 Yemen 0.968 0.087 119 Egypt 119 Israel 47 0.978 Chile 47 0.232 0.968 Chad 120 Albania 120 0.087 48 Australia 0.978 48 0.232 Botswana 121 Russian Federation 0.968 Côte d'Ivoire 121 0.085 49 Poland Peru 49 0.978 0.230 Gambia, The 122 0.968 122 Botswana 0.079 Bahamas 50 0.223 Ethiopia 0.978 50 Italy 123 0.078 123 Japan 0.967 51 Ukraine Panama 0.222 51 0.978 0.967 124 Georgia 0.077 124 Saudi Arabia Thailand 51 0.978 52 Estonia 0.218 125 0.075 Burkina Faso Bangladesh 125 0.966 0.216 0.977 53 Malaysia Uruguay 53 Cyprus 126 0.075 Jordan 126 0.966 0.216 France Austria 54 54 0.977 127 0.072 127 Qatar Thailand 0.965 0.977 55 Portugal Tunisia 55 0.216 128 0.072 128 Maldives Morocco 0.965 El Salvador Mozambique 56 0.977 56 0.214 0.065 Benin 0.965 129 United Arab Emirates 129 57 Ecuador 0.214 0.977 Mauritania 57 0.965 130 Saudi Arabia Syria 130 0.063 Macedonia, FYR 0.209 58 Mexico 58 0.977 Benin 0.964 131 0.063 131 Azerbaijan 0.977 0.206 59 Turkey Colombia 59 Myanmar* 0.964 132 Guinea 132 0.059 0.976 Indonesia Timor-Leste 60 0.205 60 Malaysia Maldives 0.058 133 0.963 133 Honduras 61 0.200 0.976 61 Belize 0.963 Bhutan 134 134 Burkina Faso 0.056 0.976 Zimbabwe 62 0.197 62 Tanzania 135 Nigeria 0.052 0.963 135 Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.193 Indonesia Belgium 63 0.976 63 136 Bahrain 0.961 Iran, Islamic Rep. 136 0.046 0.976 Angola 64 Cameroon 64 0.191 Bhutan 0.037 137 0.959 Bahrain 137 0.976 Macedonia, FYR 65 0.188 65 Sri Lanka Hungary Vietnam 0.957 0.035 138 138 0.976 66 Luxembourg 0.184 Myanmar* 66 Belize 0.956 139 139 0.032 Mali United Arab Emirates Tajikistan 0.976 67 0.180 67 140 Pakistan Brunei Darussalam 0.948 140 0.031 68 Zimbabwe 0.976 68 0.180 Croatia Kuwait 141 0.027 0.942 India 141 0.179 0.976 69 Dominican Republic Bolivia 69 0.019 142 142 Azerbaijan Lebanon 0.941 Cape Verde 70 0.178 Germany 70 0.975 Armenia 0.939 0.016 143 Qatar 143 0.975 0.177 71 Suriname Tunisia 71 0.918 144 144 Yemen 0.014 China Austria 0.975 0.176 72 Moldova 72 Note: Countries highlighted in blue have reached parity on that subindex. * New countries in 2017 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 13

24 Survival subindex, which has been stagnating for a number women in ministerial positions, moving down one spot on of years, to become the subindex closest to reaching the Political Empowerment subindex to fourth, globally. universal gender parity. In fact, it has already done so for (3) returns to its previous third-place position, Finland closing more than 82% of its overall gender gap. It drops the 106 countries that have been consistently featured three spots on Political Empowerment, re-opening its Report since the first edition of the . However, Health and Survival is also the subindex with the lowest spread of previously fully-closed gender gap in the number of women scores, with most countries clustering around a fairly high in ministerial positions while narrowing its gender gap in achievement point near parity, while issues remain primarily the number of women in parliament. It has fully closed its gender gap on Educational Attainment. in a number of large-population countries with distorted birth ratios due to “missing women” and gender-specific Rwanda (4) continues its steady climb since first entering the Index and has now closed 82% of its overall gaps in access to healthcare. By contrast, despite much gender gap, scoring narrowly behind Finland. This is mostly recent progress in a large number of countries, global outcomes on the Educational Attainment subindex remain due to continued progress on its Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex score, on the back of improved more uneven, with a wider spread of scores. The widest parity in estimated earned income and, particularly, a range in scores is found on the Political Empowerment significant narrowing of its gender gap in the number of subindex, followed by Economic Participation and Opportunity. women in ministerial positions. Combined with being the country with the highest share of female parliamentarians in the world (61%), it advances five spots on the Political To p Te n Empowerment subindex, where it now ranks third globally. Although this year’s edition of the Global Gender Gap Rwanda has also fully closed its Health and Survival Index sees no new entrants to its top 10 list, it records gender gap for the first time, although its Educational some notable rank changes. The top spots continue to be Attainment gender gap remains open. held by smaller Western European countries, particularly Sweden (5), after continuously maintaining its the Nordics who occupy the top three positions, with two overall Index ranking for eight years in a row, cedes its countries from the East Asia and the Pacific region, one fourth place to Rwanda and now ranks fifth. The country country from the Sub-Saharan Africa region, one country has closed more than 81% of its overall gender gap. It from the Latin America and the Caribbean region, and maintains a strong position on the Economic Participation one country from the Eastern Europe and Central Asia and Opportunity subindex, due to, among other factors, region also represented. Compared to the world average, progress on the wage equality for similar work indicator. It the leaders of the Index perform particularly strongly on does less well on the Health and Survival subindex, where Political Empowerment, with all ranking in the top 15 on it sees its small but persistent gender gap in healthy life this subindex. All but three countries in the overall Index expectancy widening. top 10 have now crossed the threshold of closing more (6) sees a big increase in its overall Index Nicaragua than 80% of their overall gender gap—up from five both score and rises four places, to sixth. With more than last year and in 2015. 81% of its overall gender gap closed, it remains the best Iceland (1) takes the top spot for the ninth year in performer in the Latin America and the Caribbean region a row, closing more than 87% of its overall gender gap. for the sixth year running. The latest rise is due, primarily, It remains the top performer on Political Empowerment. to a large improvement in gender parity on the estimated However, Iceland this year drops out of the global top earned income indicator, for which the country enters 10 on Economic Participation and Opportunity due to a the top 10 for the first time. It also rises two spots to small increase of its gender gap in the number of women take second place overall on the Political Empowerment among legislators, senior officials and managers. It also subindex, reaching gender parity in ministerial positions has a marginal increase in its gender gap on Educational for the first time since 2014, and also increasing its share Attainment. However, Iceland also re-renters the global top of female parliamentarians to 46%, the fifth highest in the 10 on the wage equality for similar work indicator, ranking world. However, the country re-opens its gender gap in in fifth place. Since the first edition of the Index in 2006, Educational Attainment, with a decline in its literacy rate. Iceland has closed approximately 10% of its total gender Slovenia (7) moves up a spot due to improvements gap, making it one of the fastest-improving countries in the on the Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex world. and increased parity in the number of legislators, senior (2) overtakes Finland and regains the second Norway officials and managers. It also achieves gender parity in place, closing more than 83% of its overall gender gap. It ministerial positions and fully closes its Health and Survival continues a multi-year steady improvement on its gender gender gap for the first time. With 80% of its overall gender gap in the number of women among legislators, senior gap closed, it remains the strongest performing country officials and managers, but this year sees slowing progress in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Since 2006, Slovenia on its previous improvements in wage equality for similar work. Norway also records a slight decrease in the share of The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 14

25 of 31.7% and 32.4%, respectively, and South Asia, with a has closed approximately 13% of its overall gender gap, making it one of the fastest-improving countries globally. gap of 34%. For the first time, the Middle East and North Africa region crosses the threshold of having a remaining (8) slides two spots, a continued reversal Ireland gender gap of slightly less than 40%. The reader should from last year, and has closed 79% of its overall gender note that population-weighted group averages are used gap. It has widened its Health and Survival gender gap throughout the and also sees a decrease in gender parity in the number . Report Figure 5 (page 19) shows the range of country scores of women in ministerial positions. More positively, the country maintains a fully closed gender gap on Educational on the overall Index for each region. It reveals, for example, that despite its high regional average, there is a broad Attainment from last year and also sees an increase in range of outcomes among the 20 countries covered in the gender parity in the number of legislators, senior officials Western Europe region. A similarly wide spread of country and managers, continuing a steady trend since 2013. performance also exists among the 30 countries covered New Zealand (9) maintains its position from last year—the only top 10 country besides Iceland with an in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. Here, this diversity of outcomes is frequently driven by different performance on unchanged ranking this year. It has closed 79% of its overall gender gap. The country rises four spots on the the Educational Attainment subindex. In other regions, the largest diversity of outcomes exists across the Economic Political Empowerment subindex, placing twelfth, with increased gender parity in ministerial positions and Participation and Opportunity and Political Empowerment subindexes, while performance differences across the parliamentarians. However, New Zealand is yet to fully Educational Attainment and Health and Survival subindexes re-close its Educational Attainment gender gap, re-opened tend to be comparatively minor. A detailed discussion of last year for the first time since 2008. (10) completes this year’s top 10, regional and country-level results follows below. The Philippines slipping thee spots since last year. With 79% of its overall East Asia and the Pacific gender gap closed, it cedes its position as the highest With an average remaining gender gap of just under 32%, performer in the East Asia and the Pacific region to New the East Asia and the Pacific region scores in the middle Zealand. A worsening performance on the wage equality of the range of the Global Gender Gap Index. With New for similar work indicator, dropping from 7th to 21st, partly Zealand and the Philippines, the region is home to two of accounts for this fall. The country also re-opens a Health the overall Index’s top 10 performers, both having closed and Survival gender gap for the first time since 2006, over 79% of their total gender gap—far ahead of the although the Educational Attainment gender gap remains region’s next best-placed country—while the lower half of fully closed. the region’s economies are yet to cross the 70% threshold. The region is also home to three of the five most-improved Performance by Region and Country countries over the past decade on the Health and Survival subindex. However, out of the 18 countries in the region The Global Gender Gap Index reveals that all countries only three—Mongolia, Cambodia and Japan—have fully can do more to close their gender gap. Across the Index, closed that gap. In fact, with a regional average of just there are only seven countries that have closed 80% of under 94%, East Asia and the Pacific is the lowest-ranked the gap or more. In addition, there are 61 countries that region globally on this subindex. Only two countries in have closed between 70% and 80% of their gender gap. the region have currently fully closed their Education A further 67 countries have closed between 60% and Attainment gender gap, the Philippines being one of the 70%, while nine countries have closed between 50% and two. However, half of the countries in the region have 60%. In 2017, no country had closed less than 50% of closed the gender gap for professional and technical their overall gender gap. However, there is wide variety in workers, indicating a relatively successful integration of progress on closing the gender gap in every world region, tertiary educated, higher-skilled women into the labour with both success stories and underperforming countries force. in each. Table 5 (page 16) displays this year’s rankings Among the 18 countries covered by the Index in the by regional classification, organized by rank within each region this year, nine countries have increased their overall regional group. score compared to last year, while seven have decreased Figure 4 (page 18) shows the average gap that their score. Two countries in the region joined the Index this remains to be closed in each world region. At a global level, year: Fiji and Myanmar. in 2017, four regions have a remaining gender gap of less (10) maintain The Philippines (9) and New Zealand than 30%—and two regions are crossing this threshold for their overall Index top 10 rankings on the back of strong the first time this year. Western Europe records a remaining scores on closing the Political Empowerment gender gap, gender gap of 25%, placing it ahead of North America, and despite the Philippines’ drop on the wage equality for with a gap of 28%, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with similar work indicator on the Economic Participation and a gap of 29%, and Latin America and the Caribbean, with (35) rises several ranks Australia Opportunity subindex. a gap of 29.8%. The East Asia and the Pacific region ranks to become the third-ranked country in the region. This is ahead of Sub-Saharan Africa, with a remaining gender gap The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 15

26 Table 5: Rankings by region, 2017 MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall Country rank Country Country rank score score rank rank score Country score 0.791 Nicaragua 9 44 Israel 0.814 Slovenia New Zealand 0.721 0.805 7 6 0.756 0.790 10 Philippines 18 0.651 117 Bolivia 17 Bulgaria 0.758 Tunisia 0.731 23 120 0.649 Australia 35 United Arab Emirates Barbados Latvia 20 0.756 0.750 0.632 0.745 Bahrain 126 Belarus 26 0.744 0.713 Mongolia Cuba 25 53 0.629 127 Lithuania Algeria 0.742 0.703 64 Lao PDR 28 Bahamas 27 0.743 0.702 Moldova 30 0.740 Singapore 0.732 34 65 0.628 129 Kuwait Argentina Colombia Estonia 69 Vietnam 0.731 37 0.698 36 0.731 Qatar 130 0.626 0.694 Thailand 0.728 38 Costa Rica 41 0.727 Albania 0.625 75 Turkey 131 0.728 39 Poland 0.691 83 Myanmar* Mauritania 132 0.724 42 Ecuador 0.614 Panama Serbia 0.691 84 Indonesia 40 Egypt 134 0.608 0.727 0.722 43 0.719 99 0.604 135 Peru 48 Cambodia 0.713 52 Kazakhstan Jordan 0.676 136 51 0.717 0.711 54 Croatia 0.598 China 100 0.674 Morocco Jamaica Lebanon 0.671 102 0.711 55 Brunei Darussalam Honduras 0.596 137 Romania 58 0.708 Uruguay Ukraine 61 0.705 Saudi Arabia 138 56 0.584 Malaysia 104 0.670 0.710 Iran, Islamic Rep. 114 Venezuela 60 Bosnia and Herzegovina 66 0.702 Japan 0.706 0.657 140 0.583 67 Syria 0.705 62 El Salvador 0.568 0.702 142 Macedonia, FYR Korea, Rep. 118 0.650 0.516 144 Yemen 0.638 Chile 63 0.704 0.696 Fiji* 125 71 Russian Federation Timor-Leste 128 0.628 70 0.694 Dominican Republic 0.697 74 Slovak Republic Montenegro 77 0.693 0.692 79 Belize 81 Mexico 0.692 Kyrgyz Republic 85 0.691 Czech Republic 88 0.688 86 0.689 Suriname 0.679 Georgia 0.684 90 Brazil 94 0.678 0.678 95 Tajikistan 96 Paraguay 110 0.667 Guatemala 97 Armenia 0.677 Azerbaijan 0.676 98 Hungary 103 0.670 (Continued on next page) towards near-parity in technical and professional workers. due to progress towards gender parity in the country’s share of legislators, senior officials and managers, It also improves its ranking on the Health and Survival as well as to notable improvements on the Political subindex due to increased parity in healthy life expectancy. Empowerment subindex, with an increased share of female Vietnam (69) experiences a decrease in gender parity for women in ministerial positions while parliamentarians as well as women in ministerial positions. Thailand (75) sees Australia’s Educational Attainment gender gap remains a notable increase. Both countries have fully closed their gender gaps on the technical and professional workers fully closed but it experiences some widening of its Health Mongolia Myanmar and enrolment in tertiary education indicators. and Survival gender gap. It is followed by (53) (83) enters the Global Gender Gap Index for the first time. which also increases its overall score and ranking, largely due to similar factors. The next-ranked country is It has closed its gender gap in secondary and tertiary Lao PDR (64), which this year experiences a noticeable widening enrolment, as well as women’s share of technical and professional roles, and achieves near-parity in overall of its gender gap after two years of solid progress. labour force participation. However, Myanmar’s gender Decreases in parity in basic literacy and wage equality for gap in legislators, senior officials and managers remains similar work are largely the cause, although they are partly wide, and it is yet to achieve gender parity in basic literacy counter-balanced by improvements in tertiary enrolment— as well as on the Health and Survival subindex. Indonesia continuing a multi-year trend towards parity—and women’s share of estimated earned income. For the second year (84) and Cambodia (99) continue to close their overall gender gaps, with each rising several spots on the overall running, Lao PDR fully closes the gender gap in labour force participation—one of only five countries (and the only Index. Indonesia sees progress in wage equality for non-African one) to do so. similar work and Political Empowerment but declines on The next-ranked country is Singapore (65), which its previously fully closed gender gap in professional and continues to widen its gender gap in estimated earned technical workers for the second year running. Cambodia, income on the meanwhile, records notable increases in women’s share ’s revised scale for this indicator, Report although the country records small improvements of legislator, senior official and management roles as well elsewhere on the Economic Participation and Opportunity as enrolment in tertiary education. Its Health and Survival gender gap remains fully closed. subindex: most notably, on women’s labour force participation and progression, including a multi-year trend The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 16

27 (cont’d.) Table 5: Rankings by region, 2017 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA NORTH AMERICA SOUTH ASIA WESTERN EUROPE Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall Overall rank Country score rank Country score score Country Country rank rank score Canada Rwanda 0.822 0.878 Bangladesh 0.769 16 Iceland 1 0.719 47 4 United States 49 0.718 0.830 0.669 Norway 0.777 13 Namibia Maldives 2 106 India 19 South Africa 3 0.823 0.756 Finland 0.669 108 5 Sweden 0.816 0.669 Burundi 22 0.755 109 Sri Lanka 0.794 0.664 111 Mozambique 29 0.741 Ireland 8 Nepal 0.721 Uganda 45 0.778 11 France Bhutan 124 0.638 Pakistan 0.546 143 46 12 0.720 0.778 Germany Botswana 14 Denmark Zimbabwe 50 0.717 0.776 0.770 15 United Kingdom 68 0.700 Tanzania 0.695 Switzerland 21 Ghana 72 0.755 24 0.695 Lesotho Spain 73 0.746 0.694 76 Kenya 0.739 31 Belgium 80 Madagascar 0.692 0.737 32 Netherlands Portugal 0.734 0.689 87 33 Cameroon 0.709 57 Austria Cape Verde 89 0.686 91 0.706 59 Luxembourg Senegal 0.684 101 Greece 0.672 Malawi 78 0.692 0.692 Italy 82 Swaziland 105 0.670 Cyprus 92 Liberia 0.684 0.669 107 Malta 93 0.682 0.664 Mauritius 112 0.659 113 Guinea 115 0.656 Ethiopia Benin 116 0.652 0.649 Gambia, The 119 Burkina Faso 0.646 121 Nigeria 122 0.641 Angola 123 0.6402 0.6114 Côte d'Ivoire 133 Mali 139 0.5831 Chad 141 0.5750 * New countries in 2017 has also fully closed its Health and Survival gender gap China ’s (100) progress towards gender parity has slowed. It has fully closed its gender gap in professional (118), meanwhile, Korea, Rep. for the first time since 2011. records progress on the Political Empowerment subindex and technical roles and women’s tertiary enrolment, while and on parity in tertiary enrolment, but also a small recording a small decrease in wage equality for similar decrease in women’s share of estimated earned income work this year. However, it remains the world’s lowest- and in perceptions of wage equality by the country’s ranked country with regard to the gender gap in its sex business community. (102) continues to Brunei Darussalam ratio at birth. (125) re-enters the Global Gender Gap Index, Fiji make small but noticeable progress on closing its Political Empowerment subindex gender gap, although the Index after insufficient data coverage for inclusion in the Report also highlights the continued existence of large income last year. Updated data for the country reveals a larger- than-before gender gap in the country’s share of female gender gaps in the country. Similarly, Malaysia (104) legislators, senior officials and managers as well as continues to record small but steady progress on closing its Political Empowerment gender gap and women’s professional and technical workers. Timor-Leste (128) takes the bottom spot in the East Asia and the Pacific share of estimated earned income. Newly available data region. The country has closed its gender gap in primary highlights the fact that the country has fully closed its and secondary education and performs comparatively gender gaps in primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment. well on its share of female members of parliament, despite Japan (114) sees reversals of progress on the Political Empowerment subindex counter-balance notable progress a decrease in the latter this year. However, a significant gender gap remains on its Economic Participation and on the Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex. Opportunity subindex. This is due, in part, to increases in gender parity for wage equality for similar work, women’s estimated earned Eastern Europe and Central Asia income and the country’s share of female legislators, With an average remaining gender gap of 29.4%, the senior officials and managers as well as professional and Eastern Europe and Central Asia region scores in the technical workers. Japan has also experienced a multi- upper middle of the range of the Global Gender Gap year trend towards near-parity in enrolment in tertiary Index, overtaking the Latin America and Caribbean region education, which would result in the country fully closing this year. Slovenia, Bulgaria and Latvia, the top-ranked its Educational Attainment gender gap for the first time. It 17 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

28 Figure 4: Distance from gender parity 2017, by region 75% Western Europe 72% North America 71% Eastern Europe and Central Asia 70% Latin America and the Caribbean 68% East Asia and the Pacific 68% Global Weighted Average 68% Sub-Saharan Africa 66% South Asia 60% Middle East and North Africa Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Covers all 144 countries featured in the 2017 index. Note: in particular with regard to gender parity in ministerial countries in the region, score in the top 20 of the overall Index and have closed 80%, 76% and 76% of their overall and parliamentary positions. The Baltic states— Latvia Estonia Lithuania (28) and, in particular, (20), (37)—have gender gap, respectively, while the three lowest-ranked countries—Armenia, Azerbaijan and Hungary—have closed experienced a reversal on their significant progress on between 68% to 67% of their overall gender gap. Five of closing their gender gaps from last year. This is attributable the 26 countries in the region—Czech Republic, Latvia, to widening gender gaps on the Political Empowerment Lithuania, Slovak Republic and Slovenia—have fully closed subindex for all three countries. However, the Baltic countries maintain their strong performance on fully closing both their Health and Survival and Educational Attainment both their Educational Attainment and Health and Survival gender gaps, the only countries except Brazil to do so in gender gaps. By contrast to the former, Belarus the entire Index this year. In addition, one other country (26) Moldova has fully closed its Educational Attainment gender gap maintains last year’s progress. (30) continues and another four are on the verge of doing so. Seven other its strong multi-year progress on the number of female legislators, senior officials and managers, and also fully countries from the region have fully closed their Health and Survival gender gaps. However, four others—Albania, closes its Health and Survival gender gap. Albania (38) Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia—are among the lowest- climbs up the ranks significantly on the back of notable performing countries in the entire Index on this subindex. progress on the Political Empowerment subindex, making Out of the 26 countries from the region covered by the up for some of its slow progress on this dimension in past years. Index this year, 18 countries have increased their overall (39) remains stable in its overall Global Gender Poland score compared to last year, while eight have decreased their overall scores. Gap Index performance, recording progress across several dimensions on the Economic Participation and Opportunity Slovenia (7) is the region’s top performer and manages to defend its ranking in the global top 10 for the subindex, and fully closing its Health and Survival gender gap for the first time. (40) makes progress on Serbia third year running, having been one of the fastest-improving countries over the past decade. Bulgaria (18) rises more closing its gender gap in ministerial representation and than twenty spots on the overall Index this year to become (52) sees Kazakhstan estimated earned income whereas the second-ranked country in the region. This is due to a decrease in the former but an increase in the latter. It nearly closes its Educational Attainment gender gap but notable progress on the Political Empowerment subindex, The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 18

29 Figure 5: Global Gender Gap Index 2017, by region, income and political grouping World China France Argentina G20 India Canada United States Indonesia New Zealand Australia Japan East Asia and the Pacific Vietnam Korea, Rep. Philippines Poland Slovenia Czech Republic Eastern Europe and Central Asia Russian Federation Bulgaria Chile Argentina Brazil Latin America and the Caribbean Mexico Panama United Arab Emirates Egypt Middle East and North Africa Bahrain Canada North America Pakistan Bangladesh South Asia Rwanda Kenya Mauritius Sub-Saharan Africa Nigeria South Africa Iceland Ireland Italy Western Europe United Kingdom High income Upper-middle income Lower-middle income Low income 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Score (0.0–1.0 scale) Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Coloured diamonds correspond to regional and income classification averages. Note: The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 19

30 (6) defends its place in the global top Nicaragua (54) Croatia re-opens its Health and Survival gender gap. 10 and remains the best-performing country in the reverses last year’s slide in rank, with notable increases in (17) enters the region for the sixth year in a row. Bolivia the country’s share of female legislators, senior officials and Romania managers as well as women in parliament, while global Index top 20, with notable improvements on the estimated earned income indicator. However, it is the (58) makes notable progress on closing its gender gap in worst-performing country in the region on the Educational Political Empowerment, despite a small decrease in wage (23) remains among the Barbados (61), by contrast, sees Attainment subindex. Ukraine equality for similar work. its biggest improvement this year on the wage equality for best-performing countries in the region and the world on closing the Economic Participation and Opportunity similar work dimension. gender gap, achieving parity at the level of female Bosnia and Herzegovina (66) and Macedonia, FYR legislators, senior officials and managers. It continues to (67) are nearly tied this year, with both countries making progress in closing their gender gaps on Political take the top rank among the Caribbean nations, followed (27), which shares a similar profile, and Bahamas by the Empowerment; in particular, the number of women in ministerial posts. Both countries, however, also see small Jamaica (51), which this year sees progress reversing on Political Empowerment, healthy life expectancy and wage decreases on gender parity in healthy life expectancy equality for similar work. Cuba and basic literacy. The (25) continues to rank Russian Federation (71) climbs among the lowest countries in the region on the Economic several ranks due to improvements in women’s share of parliamentary and ministerial positions; however, it remains Participation and Opportunity subindex, with insufficient among the lowest-ranked countries in the region—and the data available this year to calculate its performance on the world as a whole—on the Political Empowerment subindex. estimated earned income indicator. It also slips several spots on parity in ministerial positions. However, it fully In addition, it fully closes the Health and Survival gender gap for the first time since 2006. closes its gender gap in Educational Attainment for the The (74) and second year running. (77) Montenegro Slovak Republic Colombia both record notable improvements in their gender parity (34) and Argentina (36) remain the most gender-equal countries among the Latin America and the performance this year—the former with regard to ministerial roles, the latter with regard to parliamentarians—while Caribbean region’s large economies. Argentina sees an (88) slips several ranks. The the Czech Republic increase in gender parity in parliamentarians and in the Kyrgyz (95). They share of female legislators, senior officials and managers, Tajikistan (85) ranks ahead of Republic are joined in the bottom ranks of the regional table by but a decrease in women in ministerial positions. Its gender (94), Georgia gap on Health and Survival remains fully closed. Colombia, (97) Armenia other Caucasus states— and Azerbaijan (98)—which remain among the worst- meanwhile, sees a notable increase in women in ministerial posts, but a fall in perceptions of wage equality for similar performing countries globally on the Health and Survival work. It fully closes its gender gap on the Health and subindex, recording some of the lowest female-to-male Costa Rica sex ratios at birth in the world, just above China’s. Survival subindex for the first time since 2009. (41) slips several ranks this year, with gains in gender parity (103) takes the bottom spot in the region. Despite Hungary improvements regarding women’s share of estimated for legislators, senior officials and managers as well as women in parliament offset by a declining share of women earned income, it continues to be the region’s, and one (42) continues to in ministerial posts. Similarly, of the world’s, lowest-performing countries with regard to Ecuador experience a reversal and widening gender gap on women closing the Political Empowerment gender gap. in parliament and wage equality for similar work, despite Latin America and the Caribbean progress on women’s share of legislator, senior official and With an average remaining gender gap of 29.8%, the Latin manager roles as well as ministerial posts. It also re-opens America and Caribbean region scores in the middle of the ’s Panama its Health and Survival gender gap. By contrast, range of the Global Gender Gap Index, behind the Eastern (43) gender parity perfomance remains stable, with a small Europe and Central Asia region. The region is home to two increase on the Political Empowerment subindex that of the top 10 fastest-improving countries in the world since balances out a modest decrease in perceptions of wage 2006: Nicaragua and Bolivia—which continue to lead the equality for similar work. regional rankings—while the lowest-performing countries Uruguay (56) are the Latin America (48) and Peru in the region are Paraguay and Guatemala. Five of the 24 and the Caribbean region’s two most-improved countries countries in the region have fully closed their Educational this year, with each recording a 3% advancement Attainment gender gap (and only four countries in the towards closing their overall gender gap. Uruguay region have a remaining gender gap of more than 1% on records good progress on Political Empowerment, this subindex). Ten countries have fully closed their Health with notable gender parity improvements in ministerial and Survival gender gaps. positions and parliamentarians. Peru, likewise, records Of the 24 countries in the region that are covered by progress on Political Empowerment but also marks the Index this year, 18 have improved their overall score notable improvements on the Economic Participation and compared to last year, while six have regressed. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 20

31 Opportunity subindex for women’s share of estimated that in the region’s high-income countries, as elsewhere, earned income and gender parity in legislators, senior additional efforts will continue to be required to fully close officials and managers. However, Peru nevertheless retains the gender gap in income. In addition, the Middle East and one of the wider Health and Survival gender gaps in the North Africa continues to lag on the Political Empowerment Honduras region. (55) shows progress on gender parity subindex, with less than 9% of the gender gap closed and four out of the world’s five lowest-ranking countries on this in legislators, senior officials and managers this year, (62), while Venezuela (60) records subindex belonging to this region. El Salvador overtaking improvements on the share of female parliamentarians from Of the 17 countries covered by the Index in the region this year, 11 countries have improved their overall score a low base. However, it continues to exhibit a gender gap in enrolment in primary education. compared to last year, while six have regressed. Chile (63) climbs seven ranks, recording its highest ever score measured by the (44) remains the top performer in the region, Israel recording modest improvements on the Political Global Gender Gap Index, and closes more than 70% of its overall gender gap for the first time since 2011. It has made Tunisia Empowerment subindex this year. It is followed by (117), which climbs several spots on the back of greater modest but consistent progress across the Economic gender parity in ministerial positions and basic literacy. It Participation and Opportunity dimension, although it continues to rank among the region’s lower performers also has shown the region’s strongest improvement on the Health and Survival subindex over the past decade. The on this subindex. Continued improvement in the political United Arab Emirates participation of women is also reflected in one more year of (120) sees notable improvements having a female head of state. on gender parity in ministerial positions and wage equality The (79), and for similar work, and comes close to fully closing its gender (70), Belize Dominican Republic gap on the Educational Attainment subindex. Bahrain (126) (86) see notable progress on closing their Suriname records a sizeable increase in gender parity in estimated overall gender gaps due to improvements on, respectively, their Health and Survival, Economic Participation and earned income, which is notable also for demonstrating Opportunity, and Political Empowerment subindexes. the pertinence of the Index’s updated income scale for (90) see reversals Brazil (81) and Mexico However, both fully capturing progress made on this dimension by high- in their progress towards gender parity this year, with (127) moves down several ranks Algeria income countries. their overall gender gaps standing at their widest point due to a widening Political Empowerment gender gap. since 2013 and 2011, respectively. Mexico re-opens On the positive side, the country records improvements its Health and Survival gender gap and experiences a on wage equality for similar work and gender parity in (129) sees notable Kuwait decrease in wage equality for similar work. Meanwhile, a healthy life expectancy this year. improvements in gender parity in professional and technical widening of Brazil’s Political Empowerment gender gap is too large to be counter-balanced by a range of modest workers as well as healthy life expectancy. However, it also records a decline in wage equality for similar work and improvements across the country’s Economic Participation women’s share of estimated earned income. It is followed and Opportunity subindex. However, it manages to fully Qatar Paraguay re-close its Educational Attainment gender gap. by (130), which records notable progress on the number of women in legislator, senior official and manager (96) and Guatemala (110) make up the bottom ranks in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. as well as professional and technical roles. It also narrows its gender gap on the Educational Attainment subindex Middle East and North Africa and for healthy life expectancy. However, these positive The Middle East and North Africa region continues its achievements are outweighed this year by a decline in progress from last year—closing more than 60% of its wage equality for similar work and on the estimated earned overall gender gap for the second year running. However, income indicator, highlighting the full extent of the nation’s the region continues to rank last globally on the overall remaining income gender gap. Index, behind South Asia. On Educational Attainment, it Meanwhile, (131) marks progress on closing Tur key ranks ahead of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and its gender gap in legislator, senior official and manager on Health and Survival it surpasses East Asia and the positions, in addition to professional and technical roles Pacific and South Asia. Still, across the region only one as well as in enrolment in tertiary, secondary and primary country has fully closed its gender gap on, respectively, education. However, it also experiences a widening of the Educational Attainment and Health and Survival. Political Empowerment gender gap and re-opens its Health In addition to Israel, which maintains a remaining and Survival gender gap for the first time since 2013. overall gender gap of 28%, the region’s best-performing Sitting on the geographic edge of the Middle East and countries this year are Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates North Africa region, (132) experiences a decline Mauritania and Bahrain, having closed between 65% and 63% of in wage equality for similar work as well as a decrease in their overall gender gaps. The lower end of the regional gender parity when it comes to basic literacy. Similarly, table is made up of Syria and Yemen, having closed 57% Egypt (134) records a notable decline in wage equality for and 52% of their gender gap, respectively. The Index’s similar work but also an increase in gender parity in tertiary estimated earned income scale, revised last year, highlights The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 21

32 (135), Jordan enrolment. Next in the regional rankings are the country’s next-generation female workforce. The United States has closed nearly 72% of its overall gender gap, a (137)—all of which have Lebanon (136) and Morocco decrease of 2% since 2015. made progress on closing their gender gap in labour force participation, but also see a widening gender gap on the South Asia Political Empowerment subindex. With an average remaining gender gap of 34%, South Asia Saudi Arabia (138) re-closes its gender gap in is the second-lowest scoring region on this year’s Global enrolment in primary education and sees some progress Gender Gap Index, ahead of the Middle East and North in gender parity for professional and technical workers. Africa and behind Sub-Saharan Africa. Bangladesh and However, it also experiences a modest decline in wage the Maldives are the top-ranked countries in the region, equality for similar work and women’s share of estimated having closed just under 72% and 67% of their overall earned income. It has recorded the region’s largest gender gap, respectively, while the lowest-ranked countries improvement on the overall Index over the past decade, as are Bhutan and Pakistan, having closed just under 64% well as the second-largest relative improvement globally and 55% of their overall gender gap, respectively. Only on the Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex. one country in the region, Maldives, has fully closed its On Educational Attainment, it is the fifth-most improved Educational Attainment gender gap; and only one country, country in the world. Iran, Islamic Rep. (140) reverses Sri Lanka, has fully closed its Health and Survival gender some of its recent progress on the Educational Attainment gap. However, the region is also home to Nepal, one of the and Health and Survival gender gaps but maintains stable, top five climbers over the past decade on the overall Index modest progress on the Economic Participation and and on the Educational Attainment subindex. From a low Opportunity and Political Empowerment subindexes—albeit base, South Asia has made the fastest progress on closing from a low base. The Middle East and North Africa regional its gender gap of any world region. ranking is completed by (142) and (144). Both Syria Yemen Of the seven countries from the region included in the score in the global bottom three—which is unchanged Index this year, three countries have increased their overall from previous years—and have low-performing ranks on score compared to last year, while four have seen their the Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex, in scores decrease. particular. Bangladesh (47) further consolidates its position as the region’s top performer and climbs several spots North America With a remaining gender gap of 28%, on average, North this year, recording progress across all dimensions of the Economic Opportunity and Participation subindex. America is one of the regions that has made the most Specifically, the country has improved gender parity progress towards gender parity overall. However, while for legislator, senior official and manager as well as both countries in the region have closed more than 70% professional and technical roles, in addition to estimated of their overall gender gap, their paths have diverged earned income and wage equality for similar work—despite markedly since 2015, when the two countries were a slight widening of its healthy life expectancy gender gap. practically tied in their performance on closing the gender Maldives gap. (106) also records a narrowing of its gender The gap, with progress evident, in particular, on estimated (16) climbs 19 ranks this year, taking the top Canada earned income and across the Political Empowerment spot in the region and breaking into the global top 20 on subindex. It has also fully closed its Educational Attainment the overall Index as well as on the Political Empowerment gender gap for the first time since 2013. subindex. It records improvements on gender parity in India (108) experiences a decline in its overall Global ministerial positions, in particular, but also progress on the Gender Gap Index ranking, largely attributable to a wage equality for similar work indicator. Its gender gap in widening of its gender gaps in Political Empowerment Educational Attainment remains fully closed since 2013, as well as in healthy life expectancy and basic literacy. although its Health and Survival gender gap remains open. It has closed nearly 77% of its overall gender gap, an In addition, newly available data reveals the scale of India’s gender gap in women’s share among legislators, increase of 3% since 2015. senior officials and managers, as well as professional The United States (49) moves down four spots and technical workers for the first time in recent years, compared to last year. It records some improvement on highlighting that continued efforts will be needed to achieve the Economic Opportunity and Participation subindex— parity in Economic Opportunity and Participation. More in particular due to a smaller gender gap on the wage positively, India succeeds in fully closing its primary and equality for similar work indicator—but experiences a decline on the Political Empowerment subindex, which secondary education enrolment gender gaps for the stands at its lowest level since 2007, due, in particular, second year running, and, for the first time has nearly to a significant decrease in gender parity in ministerial closed its tertiary education gender gap. However, it level positions. More positively, the United States has fully continues to rank fourth-lowest in the world on Health and closed its gender gap in Educational Attainment for a Survival, remaining the world’s least-improved country on this subindex over the past decade. Finally, with more number of years, highlighting the substantial potential of The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 22

33 than 50 years having passed since the inauguration of the the region has improved more than any other over the nation’s first female prime minister in 1966, maintaining past decade. The region is characterized by high female its global top 20 ranking on the Political Empowerment labour force participation—with nine countries from Sub- subindex will require India to make progress on this Saharan Africa in the global top 20 on this indicator, and dimension with a new generation of female political Mozambique, Burundi, Malawi and Rwanda demonstrating leadership. a higher representation of women in the labour force than The next-ranked countries are Sri Lanka men—which translates into a high regional average on the (109)—which has widened its gender gap in wage equality for similar Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex. Of the 30 countries from the region covered by the work despite a modest increase in parity in estimated Index this year, 13 have increased their overall score (111), which closes its gender earned income—and Nepal gap on enrolment in tertiary education for the first time compared to last year, while 17 have seen decreasing and marks notable improvements in women’s share of scores. (4) consolidates its position as the region’s Rwanda estimated earned income, counter-balancing a widening of top performer, and the only country from the region ranked Bhutan its gender gap for women in ministerial positions. Burundi (13) overtakes Namibia in the global top 10. (124) sees a widening gender gap across professional and technical workers, estimated earned income, healthy life (22) to place second in the region, due to its progress on women’s share of estimated earned income and Political expectancy and basic literacy, partly offset by a notable increase in parity for legislators, senior officials and Empowerment, as well as the latter’s significant widening managers. Its Political Empowerment scores remain the of the gender gap on Educational Attainment and women (143) remains the region’s Pakistan same as last year. in ministerial positions. The region’s representation in lowest-ranked country and second-to-last ranked overall. It South Africa the global Index top 20 is completed by (19), which records an increase in the share of female records some progress on closing the basic literacy gender gap, and on women’s labour force participation, but this legislators, senior officials and managers, but also is largely outweighed by reversals on estimated earned experiences a widening gender gap for wage equality for similar work as well as estimated earned income. income and a significant re-opening of the country’s Mozambique enrolment in tertiary education gender gap according to (29) moves down several ranks, with a the latest data. widening gender gaps in basic literacy and women’s representation in ministerial roles. More positively, it makes Sub-Saharan Africa progress towards fully closing its Health and Survival With an average remaining gender gap of 32%, the Sub- gender gap. The next-ranked country in the region is Saharan Africa region scores in the lower middle range of (45), which climbs several ranks to its highest- Uganda the Global Gender Gap Index, ahead of South Asia and ever score on the back of notable increases in women’s behind Eastern Europe and Central Asia and Latin America share of estimated earned income and on the Political and the Caribbean. It displays a wider range of gender Empowerment subindex. However, the country sees gap outcomes than practically any other region. Rwanda progress slip on enrolment in secondary education and ranks in the top 10 globally. Two countries, Namibia and basic literacy. South Africa, score in the top 20 and have closed 78% to (50) see progress on (46) and Botswana Zimbabwe 76% of their gender gaps; and the region features many women in ministerial positions and enrolment in tertiary of the lowest-ranked countries in the Index, such as Mali education. Both have regressed slightly, however, on and Chad, which have not yet closed 60% of their overall women’s share of estimated earned income. They are gender gap. This high variance can be explained by high then followed by a cluster of countries that score in the diversity on the Educational Attainment subindex—much middle range of the region—and of the Index overall—but higher than for any other region—as well as uneven Health which have seen their gender gaps somewhat widen this and Survival outcomes. No country from the region has (72), Ghana Kenya (68), Lesotho year: Tanzania (73), fully closed both its Educational Attainment and Health (89) and Cape Verde (80), Madagascar (76), Malawi and Survival gender gaps. Botswana and Lesotho have (101). These widening gender gaps are concentrated in a fully closed their Educational Attainment gender gaps and few specific areas: women’s share of ministerial positions, seven others—Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Mauritius, which has decreased in all countries in the group except Rwanda, Kenya and Burundi—have fully closed their Health Malawi; basic literacy, regressing in all except Lesotho; and and Survival gender gaps. women’s share in estimated earned income, which has Globally, Sub-Saharan Africa continues to rank last declined in all except Cape Verde. Despite these negative on the Educational Attainment subindex. Whereas 15 trends, some localized progress is also evident, notably on countries from the region have fully closed their gender wage equality and gender parity in healthy life expectancy, gap for primary education, 14 have closed it for secondary both of which see increases in Cape Verde, Kenya and education and only seven for tertiary education. Four Madagascar in particular. Most countries in this group have of the 10 lowest-ranked countries on the literacy rate indicator are from the region. On Health and Survival, The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 23

34 Europe is home to four of the top five countries in the G20 Index—Iceland, Norway, Finland and Sweden—highlighting the continued progress of the Nordic countries in closing Currently, among the G20 group of countries, France (11) is their overall gender gaps. At the bottom ranks of the the nation with the highest progress towards gender parity, region, four countries have a remaining gender gap of more United Kingdom followed by Germany (12), the (15), Canada than 30%: Greece, Italy, Cyprus and Malta. No country in (16), South Africa (19) and Argentina (34). Saudi Arabia the region has managed to fully close both its Educational (118) make up the lower (131) and Tur key (138), Korea, Rep. Attainment and its Health and Survival gender gaps this ranks of the group. With an (unweighted) group average score of 0.702 for the G20 as a whole, eight of the G20 countries ye a r. have closed between 80% and 70% of their overall gender Out of the 20 countries in the region covered by the gap, 10 score in the 70% to 60% range and one country has Index this year, nine have improved their overall score over yet to close more than 60% of its gap. The G20 continues to last year, while 11 have seen it decrease. place efforts to promote gender parity high on its agendas, (5) Iceland (3) and (2), Sweden Finland Norway (1), including, most recently, a commitment to reduce the labour 12 force participation gender gap by 25% by 2025 (“25 by 25”). defend their top five positions in the Index on the back of their world-leading positions on the Political Empowerment subindex and continued strong performance on the Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex. However, the Index’s estimated earned income scale, revised last year, reveals that in the Nordic countries, as elsewhere, additional efforts will continue to be required to also recorded steady improvements on the Educational fully close the gender gap in income. Ireland (8) likewise Attainment subindex over recent years. maintains its global top 10 position, despite some reversal The next regional cluster of countries features a of progress in political representation. France (11) records number of West African nations, including Cameroon notable improvements this year—particularly with regard Guinea (87), Liberia Senegal (107), Benin (113) and (91), to Political Empowerment and increased gender parity (116), all of which have recorded some progress on closing in the composition of the nation’s parliamentarians—and their gender gap this year. Improvements in this group rises six spots, placing the country just outside the overall are concentrated in women’s estimated earned income, Index top 10. It also narrows its gender gap in the share healthy life expectancy and across the Educational of female legislators, senior officials and managers, as Attainment subindex. They are followed by Swaziland well as in women’s estimated earned income and—at just Mauritius (105), (112)—whose progress towards gender under 78% of its overall gender gap closed—achieves its parity continues to be reflected by a female head of state highest-ever score measured by the Index. France’s score and improvements on the Economic Participation and is practically tied with next-placed Germany (12), which Opportunity subindex—and Ethiopia (115), which this year sees a noteworthy improvement in wage equality for similar sees a widening of its gender gap in basic literacy and work and some progress towards re-closing its gender gap primary enrolment, despite continued progress towards in tertiary education enrolment. However, its gender gap fully closing its secondary enrolment gender gap. Next in in Educational Attainment remains open and the country The Gambia (119 ), Burkina Faso the rankings are (121) ranks last in the Western Europe region in this category. Angola (123). and Denmark (14) and the United Kingdom (15) both Nigeria (122) makes notable progress towards climb several ranks and complete this year’s representation closing its gender gaps in women’s estimated earned of the region in the global Index top 20, with notable income, enrolment in secondary education, healthy life progress on Political Empowerment and women in expectancy and wage equality for similar work. However, (21) sees Switzerland ministerial positions, in particular. these achievements are outweighed by a decline in women some reversal of its previous progress and moves down in ministerial positions and reversals on the Educational several ranks. Although the immediate reason for this is Attainment subindex. The Sub-Saharan Africa regional a widening gender gap on the Political Empowerment Côte d’Ivoire table is completed by bottom-ranked subindex—due to a smaller share of women in ministerial (139) and Mali (133), (141), which this year moves Chad positions as well as a falling share of women in professional down one rank due to falling progress on the Educational and technical roles—as a longer-term trend, the country’s Attainment subindex. progress has recently not fully kept pace with that of the region’s other top performers on the Economic Western Europe Participation and Opportunity subindex. More positively, With an average gender gap of 25%, Western Europe Switzerland does record a modest positive increase on the remains the highest performing region in the Index in wage equality for similar work indicator. 2017. However, it is also one of the regions with the widest Spain Netherlands (32) and (24), Belgium (31), The performance variation, seeing progress stall or even Portugal (33) rank in the middle of the Western Europe reverse across a number of countries this year. Western The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 24

35 region. The two countries on the Iberian peninsula record Figure 6: Global Gender Gap Index and subindexes progress on the Economic Participation and Opportunity evolution, 2006–2017 subindex despite regressing slightly on the gender gap in 1.0 Health and Survival subindex healthy life expectancy, while the two Benelux countries move down several spots due to widening gender gaps in Political Empowerment and wage equality for similar Educational Attainment subindex Austria (59) experience (57) and Luxembourg work. 0.8 a widening gender gap in women’s estimated earned income, women’s share of professional and technical roles Global Gender Gap Index and women’s representation in ministerial roles this year. (78) moves up several spots due to improvements Greece in wage equality for similar work and women’s share of 0.6 estimated earned income, while Italy (82) sees a drop in Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex wage equality for similar work and women in ministerial roles, and widens its gender gap to more than 30% for the first time since 2014. The Western Europe regional 0.4 Score (0.0–1.0 scale) (93), the table is completed by Cyprus Malta (92) and latter of which this year sees solid improvements across the Educational Attainment subindex and fully closes this Political Empowerment subindex gender gap. 0.2 Progress over time With the economic and business case for gender parity 0.0 becoming ever clearer, there is an urgent need for reliable 2012 2010 2008 2016 2007 2006 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2017 metrics to capture the progress achieved over time. Since Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. has served as just Global Gender Gap Report 2006, the Note: Covers the 106 countries which have consistently been featured in the such a global benchmark for tracking progress in closing Index since 2006. gender gaps. Each year, the rate of change helps predict the projected time to closing the divide between women and men’s parity in employment, education, health and politics. to specific issues in selected large countries, in particular Figure 6 charts the evolution of the Global Gender China and India. Gap Index and its subindexes since the ’s first Report Figure 7 (page 26) tracks the evolution of the overall edition in 2006. All things held equal, with current trends, Index since 2006 by geographic region. It highlights the the overall global gender gap can be closed in exactly 100 local progress towards gender parity made over the past years across the 106 countries covered since the inception decade in regions such as Western Europe, South Asia, of the Report , compared to 83 years last year, which— Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. while similarly unsatisfactory—would, at a minimum, have While all regions have recorded a narrower gender gap been just within the statistical lifetime of baby girls born than they did 11 years ago, Figure 7 nevertheless also today. Some of the most challenging gender gaps remain reveals that more efforts will continue to be needed in in the economic sphere. At the current rate of change, all world regions to accelerate progress. All things held and given the continued widening of the economic gender equal, with current rates of progress, the overall global gap already observed last year, it will now not be closed gender gap can be closed in 61 years in Western Europe, for another 217 years. This year, the economic gender 62 years in South Asia, 79 years in Latin America and the gap has reverted back to where it stood in 2008, after Caribbean, 102 years in Sub-Saharan Africa, 128 years in a peak in 2013. On the other hand, on current trends, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 157 years in the Middle the education–specific gender gap could be reduced to East and North Africa, 161 years in East Asia and the parity within the next 13 years. The widest gender gap, Pacific, and 168 years in North America. None of these in the political dimension, is also the one exhibiting the forecasts are foregone conclusions. Instead they reflect the most progress, narrowing by 9% since 2006, despite a current state of progress and serve as a call to action to slowdown in progress this year. On current trends, it could be closed within 99 years. The time to close the health gender gap remains undefined. Formally the smallest gap, it has oscillated in size with a general downward trend. Today, the gap is larger than it stood in 2006, in part due The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 25

36 income group, 21 have closed between 80% and 70% of Figure 7: Global Gender Gap Index and subindexes their gender gap, 17 have closed between 70% and 60%, evolution, 2006–2017, by region with two countries having closed less than 60%. In the 1.0 lower-middle income group, out of 40 countries, one has closed more than 80% of its gender gap, nine have closed between 80% and 70%, 26 have closed between 70% and 60%, and four countries have not yet reached 60%. Finally, 0.8 among the low-income group, out of 18 countries, one has crossed the 80% threshold, five have closed between 80% and 70% of their gender gap, ten have closed between 70% and 60%, and two countries are yet to close 60% or 0.6 more of their gender gap. Importantly, while the above does suggest a relationship between gender parity and gross national income—with a growing body of research and evidence strongly suggesting that gender parity can become a key 0.4 Score (0.0–1.0 scale) driver of prosperity and national income growth (see next section and Figure 9 on page 28)—the Index finds little evidence that a high GNI is in any way a prerequisite to making progress on gender parity. 0.2 Figure 8 (page 27) deconstructs the economic gender gap into two of its core aspects, wage parity and labour market participation. Within those dimensions it is evident that there are countries that exhibit more or less parity 0.0 in every income bracket, yet there are varying trends by 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2017 2016 2014 2015 income group. First, low-income countries are distinctly more likely to exhibit high labour market participation Global Weighted Average n North America n East Asia and the Pacific n among women. On average, low-income countries have n n Eastern Europe and Central Asia South Asia closed 92% of their labour market participation gender n Latin America and the Caribbean n Sub-Saharan Africa n n Western Europe Middle East and North Africa gaps. By contrast, lower-middle income countries such as Egypt, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Indonesia have, on average, closed only 67% of their Covers the 106 countries which have consistently been featured in the Note: Index since 2006. labour market participation gender gaps. That figure rises to 75% for upper-middle income countries and onto 78% for high-income countries. Second, wage parity varies policymakers and other stakeholders to accelerate gender within a smaller range by income group, with wage gaps equalit y. that are on average wider for low-income countries and high-income countries—with respective average wage gaps of 21% and 19%—than for middle income countries, Gender gaps and income with wage gaps of, on average, 16%. Finally, there are The lower part of Figure 5 (page 19) shows the range of countries that have achieved high wage parity and high scores for the overall Global Gender Gap Index by income labour market participation parity simultaneously among all group (Table A2 in Appendix A details the income group income groups, such as Lithuania, Botswana, Vietnam and categories used). Population-weighted group averages are Liberia. indicated by a blue diamond. High-income countries have the highest average score (72%), followed by low-income The case for gender parity countries (68%), upper-middle income countries (68%) and, finally, lower-middle income countries (67%). However, as There is a clear values-based case for promoting gender revealed in Figure 5, there is a wide variety of gender gap parity: women are one-half of the world’s population and outcomes within each income group. deserve equal access to health, education, economic In 2017, out of the 46 countries in the high-income participation and earning potential, and political decision- group covered by the Index, five have closed more than making power. However, it is pertinent to note that gender 80% of their overall gender gap, 26 have closed between parity is also fundamental to whether and how economies 80% and 70% of their gender gap, 14 have closed between and societies thrive. Ensuring the healthy development and 70% and 60%, and one country is yet to cross the 60% appropriate use of half of the world’s total talent pool has threshold. Among the 40 countries in the upper-middle The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 26

37 Figure 8: Relationship between wage parity and women's labour market participation, by income group 1.6 High wage parity for women, High wage parity for women, low labour market participation high labour market participation Bahrain 1.4 1.2 United States Venezuela Liberia 1.0 Botswana Saudi Arabia Bangladesh Vietnam Sri Lanka 0.8 MEAN 0.6 Wage parity 0.4 United Kingdom 0.2 Low wage parity for women, Low wage parity for women, low labour market participation high labour market participation MEAN 0.0 0.6 1.2 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.8 Labour market participation Upper-middle income l High income l Low income l Lower-middle income l Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Source: Note: Female-over-male ratios. Conversely, limiting women’s access to labour markets a vast bearing on the growth, competitiveness and future- is costly, as poor female labour force participation hampers readiness of economies and businesses worldwide. 18 A variety of models and empirical studies have economic growth. As a region, East Asia and the Pacific suggested that improving gender parity may result in reportedly loses between US$42 billion and US$47 billion significant economic dividends, which vary depending annually due to women’s limited access to employment 19 opportunities. on the situation of different economies and the specific Research by the World Bank demonstrates that similar restrictions have also imposed sizable costs challenges they are facing. Notable recent estimates 20 suggest that economic gender parity could add an throughout the Middle East and North Africa as well as 21 Sub-Saharan Africa. additional US$250 billion to the GDP of the United This evident relationship between economic outcomes Kingdom, US$1,750 billion to that of the United States, and gender parity and, in particular, the growing evidence US$550 billion to Japan’s, US$320 billion to France’s and 13 Other recent of the positive effect of increasing gender parity on national US$310 billion to the GDP of Germany. estimates suggest that China could see a US$2.5 trillion income, is illustrated in Figure 9 (page 28) on the basis of 14 GDP increase from gender parity and that the world as the Global Gender Gap Index. The method of calculating a whole could increase global GDP by US$5.3 trillion by the Global Gender Gap Index is unique in eliminating the 2025 if it closed its gender gap in economic participation direct impact of absolute levels of any of its constituent 15 variables so that, as a result, any relationship to relative by “just” 25% over the same period. Given associated government revenue shares in GDP, wealth of any of the economies covered by the Index is endogenous to the dynamics of closing the global gender the latter achievement would also unlock an additional gap. US$1.4 trillion in global tax revenue, most of it (US$940 billion) in emerging economies, suggesting the potential As detailed in the previous section of the Report , self-financing effects of additional public investment into the Global Gender Gap Index takes into account four 16 Indeed, compared to general critical dimensions when measuring the gaps between closing global gender gaps. public investment into labour market and education women and men’s access to resources and opportunities: programmes, targeted gender equality promotion has been economic participation, education, health and politics. found to create a particularly strong impact on GDP. For Across these four different dimensions we see a number example, targeted efforts to improve gender parity in the of positive interdependencies as well as knock-on and European Union could lead to an EU-wide GDP increase multiplier effects that highlight the multi-faceted nature of the benefits of increased gender parity. of between 6.1 to 9.6%, compared to an estimated 2.2% For example, increased gender parity in education increase in EU-wide GDP from an equivalent untargeted lowers infant and child mortality rates, lowers maternal public investment in improvements in general educational 17 attainment across member states. mortality rates, increases labour force participation rates and earnings, and fosters further educational investment The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 27

38 Figure 9: Relationship between GNI per capita and the Global Gender Gap Index 2017 High gender parity, High gender parity, 1.0 high GNI low GNI Rwanda Nicaragua 0.9 Iceland Philippines South Africa Norway Bulgaria Slovenia Argentina France 0.8 Lithuania Germany United Kingdom Australia Poland United States Bangladesh Chile 0.7 China India Japan Korea, Rep. Ethiopia Turkey Qatar 0.6 Saudi Arabia Pakistan 0.5 0.4 Score (0.0–1.0 scale) 0.3 0.2 0.1 Low gender parity, Low gender parity, low GNI high GNI 0.0 40,000 10,000 60,000 110,000 50,000 90,000 30,000 80,000 70,000 20,000 100,0000 US$12 GNI per capita (US$), Atlas method U S $3,95 ,2 3 US$12,236 < 5 5 US$1,0 05 > > > up l o w p e e r-m r-m h i i dd dd lo w i gh l l e e i i i i nc nc nc nc o o o o m m m m e e e e Income group category Global Gender Gap Index 2017 and World Bank. Source: in children. The World Bank finds, based on a sample of a maternal, newborn and child health—has a significant 24 wide range of developing countries, that investing in girls multiplier effect. so that they would complete education at the same rate as In the political sphere, women’s engagement in public boys would lead to lifetime earnings increases of today’s life has a positive impact on inequality across society at cohort of girls of between 54% to 68% of countries’ GDP, large. The issues that women advocate, prioritize and invest in have broad societal implications, touching on equivalent to an increase in annual GDP growth rates of 22 family life, education and health. Women’s engagement Conversely, girls’ exclusion from education about 1.5%. in public life fosters greater credibility in institutions, and considerably hinders the productive potential of an 25 In addition, there is economy and its overall development. In the East Asia and heightened democratic outcomes. the Pacific region, specifically, it has been estimated that a range of evidence—including findings by our Index (see between US$16 billion to US$30 billion is lost annually as a Figure 10 on page 29)—to suggest that women’s political 23 result of gender gaps in education. Similar to investments leadership and wider economic participation are correlated. in education, investing in health—and specifically in The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 28

39 Figure 10: Relationship between Political Empowerment subindex and Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex, 2017 1.0 0.8 Iceland 0.6 Rwanda Nicaragua Finland Norway Ireland Bangladesh Germany France Slovenia India 0.4 South Africa New Zealand Bolivia Canada United Kingdom Switzerland Mexico Political Empowerment Australia Poland Ethiopia 0.2 United Arab Emirates China subindex score (0.0–1.0 scale) United States Pakistan Egypt Russian Federation Ghana Japan Saudi Arabia Thailand Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.0 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex score (0.0–1.0 scale) Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Source: either squandered through lack of progression or untapped Across all countries, making full use of women’s capabilities paves the way to optimizing a nation’s human from the onset. Business leaders and governments capital potential. This is evidenced in the strong relationship increasingly note that tackling barriers to equality can unlock new opportunities for growth. In the World between the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Economic Forum’s Future of Jobs Survey Gap Index and Global Human Capital Index, presented , 42% of business in Figure 11. In other words, top performers in the Global leaders perceived addressing gender parity in their Human Capital Index have succeeded in maximizing the company as a matter of fairness and equality; yet more than a fifth of those surveyed also highlighted rationales development and deployment of their nation’s talent by closer to their core business: reflecting the changing also narrowing their gender gaps. Women’s participation in the formal economy, or gender composition of their customer base as well as enhancing corporate decision-making and innovation. lack thereof, is also a business issue—costing women, The combined impact of growing gender parity, a companies and, ultimately, entire economies. Female talent new middle class in emerging markets and women’s remains one of the most under-utilized business resources, Figure 11: Global Gender Gap Index 2017 vs. Global Human Capital Index 2017 1.0 Small gender gap, high human capital Small gender gap, low human capital Iceland Rwanda Finland 0.8 Philippines South Africa Switzerland Senegal MEAN Japan 0.6 Iran, Islamic Rep. Saudi Arabia Pakistan 0.4 score (0.0–1.0 scale) Global Gender Gap Index 0.2 Large gender gap, high human capital Large gender gap, low human capital MEAN 0.0 80 60 40 0 100 20 Global Human Capital Index score (0–100 scale) Global Gender Gap Index 2017 and Global Human Capital Index 2017. Source: The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 29

40 Figure 12: Global Gender Gap Index evolution, selected indicators, 2006–2017 Legislators, Economically active Estimated earned income men and women (%) senior officials and managers (%) (US$, thousands) 25 100 100 80 80 20 60 60 15 40 40 10 5 20 20 0 0 0 2017 2009 2011 2013 2013 2011 2009 2017 2017 2015 2009 2011 2013 2015 2015 Female — Male — Parity — Source: Global Gender Gap Index, 2006–17 editions. Note: Dashed lines indicate gender gap. in particular, put into context the current stagnation of spending priorities is expected to lead to rising household savings rates and shifting spending patterns, affecting progress towards closing the economic gender gap. sectors such as food, healthcare, education, childcare, First, global labour force participation has been in decline 26 globally for both men and women—but this decline has With apparel, consumer durables and financial services. women controlling 65% of global household spending and been particularly accentuated for women. Second, in absolute terms, earned incomes of both men and women estimated global consumer spending of currently US$40 27 have been increasing, but this upward trend has been trillion there are large potential benefits for companies with employees who can understand diverse customer steeper for men than for women, suggesting that the bases. growth in prosperity is not equitably distributed along gender lines. Third, women’s share among senior positions Additionally, the global economy is currently in 28 In such both in the public sector and in business is not trending transition to a Fourth Industrial Revolution. towards equal representation, standing at less than half a highly interconnected and rapidly changing world, way towards parity. Currently, only 22% of individuals diversity is critical to informed corporate decision-making 29 holding senior managerial positions are women (see When it comes to leadership and business innovation. positions, companies with top quartile representation of Figure 12). women in executive committees have been shown to These trends observed by the Global Gender Gap Index over the past years point to a continued perform better than companies with no women at the top—by some estimates as much as a 47% premium on under-use of the ever-increasing numbers of educated 30 average return on equity. Links also exist between having women (see Figure 13 on page 31). While much of this more women directors and corporate sustainability, as well imbalance is explained by the discrepancy in caregiving and unpaid work, institutional and policy inertia, outdated as with economic growth, since more diverse leadership organizational structures and discrimination, one additional teams can cater to a broader array of stakeholder needs 31 Unlocking these benefits requires focused and concerns. explanatory factor is the skills differentials in the types of degrees women and men seek out in their education. Do action to address the underlying causes of persistent gender gaps in a systemic way. these choices prepare women adequately for prospering in the labour market to the same extent as their male counterparts? In exploring this question, a number of Closing occupational recent studies—and controversies—have focused on the question of potential behavioural and cognitive differences gender gaps between men and women. However, rigorous research has The Global Gender Gap Index holds more than a decade cast doubt on interpreting such differences as ‘natural’ or of time series data on the evolution of the global gender ‘hard-wired’. For example, analysis points to wide variation gap. At an indicator level, three of the Index’s data points, in mathematical skills outcomes across both individuals The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 30

41 Figure 13: Relationship between Educational Attainment subindex and Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex, 2017 Chile Sweden United Arab Emirates United States Brazil Small economic gender gap, Large economic gender gap, 1.0 Iran, Islamic Rep. South Africa Egypt small education gender gap small education gender gap Saudi Arabia Botswana Turkey China Rwanda Korea, Rep. MEAN India Kenya Bangladesh Ghana 0.9 Nigeria Pakistan 0.8 Yemen 0.7 Educational Attainment 0.6 Chad subindex score (0.0–1.0 scale) Small economic gender gap, Large economic gender gap, MEAN large education gender gap large education gender gap 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.4 1.0 0.8 Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex score (0.0–1.0 scale) Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2017. Note: The y-axis has been truncated to enhance readability. well as Health and Welfare fields, whereas women, on and economies and to the strong influence of socio-cultural 32 factors in producing gender-based skills differentials. average, tend to be underrepresented in the Engineering, In particular, in a wide range of economies, a variety of Manufacturing and Construction as well as Information, social circumstances limit girls’ and women’s access to Communication and Technology fields (see Figure 14 on technology and therefore their ability to gain proficiency in page 32). However, such field of study imbalances are its use. These range from lower participation in the labour nevertheless insufficient in size to fully account for the market—and therefore less opportunities to learn on the gender gaps observed in particular industries that strongly 33 job—to lower access to technology in the home. rely on hiring talent from certain specific fields of study. Finally, To further explore this issue, the World Economic there is evidence that, when women do have the relevant Forum’s analysis, conducted as one part of a broader mathematical and technology skills, unconscious biases 34 can influence their peers’ recognition of their capabilities. research partnership with LinkedIn, illustrates the Given these contributing factors, instances of discrepancy between the overall gender distributions of particular fields of study among all LinkedIn members occupational gender imbalances reflect, on the one hand, the societal expectations and role models that contribute compared to the typical gender distributions of LinkedIn to educational and field of study choices young girls and members with those fields of study actually employed in a boys make when they embark upon acquiring foundational variety of industries (see Figure 15 on page 33). If we take the example of computer science graduates, industries competencies and, on the other hand, women and men’s career planning trajectories as well as the dynamics of which already exhibit stronger gender parity, such as Corporate Services, draw a larger-than-average proportion hiring imbalances across industries. As students transition of the female talent pool, while industries which exhibit from education to work—and into occupations with weaker gender parity, such as Manufacturing, draw a distinctive cultures, skill sets, languages, practices and values—the availability or otherwise of opportunities for smaller-than-average proportion of the female talent pool. learning on the job enhances or inhibits women and men’s While, on average, women make up 23% of all LinkedIn members with computer science degrees, among LinkedIn opportunities to further develop the relevant skills for 35 success in their industry. members working in Corporate Services they make up As shown in Figure 14 (on page 32, globally, women 32% of computer science degree holders in the industry. that are employed are more likely to be educated to an By contrast, in Manufacturing they make up only 16%. intermediate (secondary) or advanced (tertiary) level. These trends suggest a two-pronged approach for Although gender does not statistically affect the overall advancing progress towards closing economic gender diversity of educational fields studied, there are notable gaps. First, at the level of foundational education, there is a need to re-balance degree specialization choices. imbalances in the specific fields of study in which men Second, within the workplace, there is a need to avoid and women tend to specialize. In particular, on average, men tend to be underrepresented in the Education as further exacerbating occupational imbalances through The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 31

42 Figure 14: Employee educational attainment by level, field of study and gender (%) Level of education held by employees 25.1 31.2 Basic 31.8 Intermediate 35.0 25.6 Advanced 19.4 Field of study, recent graduates 27.8 26.3 Business, Administration and Law 6.1 19.4 Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction 17.3 10.4 Education 10.1 7.9 Social Sciences, Journalism and Information 10.4 7.7 Humanities and Arts 3.2 6.5 Information, Communication and Technology 12.6 6.4 Health and Welfare 4.8 5.3 Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics 2.3 3.7 Services 1.8 2.8 Agricultural Sciences, Forestry Male Female n n Source: World Economic Forum calculation; data from ILOSTAT, UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Global average, unweighted by population. Note: gender-biased hiring and workplace practices that lead and above)—and the hiring biases that may be implied by 41 to a low rate of female applicants and a high rate of exit examining gender gaps represented in the data. Based on an analysis of LinkedIn membership from among female talent in certain industries. For example, 42 more than 100 countries and 12 selected industries, across European Union countries, only 20% of women over the past decade, the proportion of female hiring aged 30 and over who hold ICT-related degrees decide 36 to stay in the technology industry, with research on has increased across all selected industries—as has the tendency to hire women into senior leadership positions. women’s motives for leaving STEM jobs pointing to the 37 effects of workplace culture. Nevertheless, female leadership representation remains Existing research on national-level gender-based below 50% in all industries, often significantly so, and every industry exhibits a leadership gender gap. Over the past 10 wage distributions has also pointed to a tendency years all industries have seen increases in the female share towards lower pay for occupations that have historically developed as predominantly female. For example, in US- of their potential talent pool. However, across industries specific longitudinal research on wage effects, gender- such as Manufacturing as well as Energy and Mining, based differences in occupational wage gaps persisted modest gains in hiring do not match current untapped opportunities. The largest gaps are found in the STEM throughout increases in women’s educational participation 38 and labour market exposure. Put another way, these fields: Software and IT Services, Manufacturing and Energy and Mining. While industries such as Energy and Mining studies have found that when women enter a profession in have seen comparatively little progress, others—such as large numbers, the pay-related benefits of participating in 39 the profession depreciate. Accordingly, in such situations, Software and IT Services—have made significant progress from a low base. fair returns to skills and the availability of deeper talent pools are undermined by existing cultural biases. Further, In Healthcare, Education, Non-profits, Legal, Public at either end of the pay spectrum, the industries historically Administration and Media and Communications the most affected by occupational gender imbalances—the proportion of women in the industry stands at or exceeds 50%. Of these sectors, Healthcare, Education and Non- education, care, non-profit and the emerging technology profits employ more women than men, exhibiting a sectors—are losing out. In fact, there is ample evidence that recognizing and better remunerating work in the care reverse gender gap. However, that reverse gender gap does not equate to parity when it comes to hiring women economy could produce significant benefits to economies, 40 Similarly, the technology sector societies and individuals. into leadership positions. Among these sectors, the only one currently trending towards full parity is Non-profits. is already experiencing significant talent bottlenecks. Whereas over the past 10 years, Public Administration The World Economic Forum’s research partnership has seen strong growth in the hiring of women (+4.1%), with LinkedIn provides innovative data and a unique view the Education sector has stagnated at the 40% leadership of progress towards gender parity achieved in various industries to date. Our analysis reveals the growth of hiring mark. female industry talent pools over the past decade as well We illustrate the talent profiles by gender for a range of as industries’ propensity to hire women—at both entry key industries in Figure 16, on page 34, and Figure 17, on page 35, to highlight opportunities for further developing and senior leadership levels (positions at director level The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 32

43 Figure 15: Industry under-representation of women relative to overall talent pool, by field of study Field of study (industry) Science (Software & IT Services) Business Management and Administration (Manufacturing) Business Management and Administration (Software & IT Services) Business Management and Administration (Energy & Mining) Mathematics (Software & IT Services) Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Energy & Mining) Economics (Real Estate) Computer Science (Manufacturing) Business Management and Administration (Finance) Chemical Engineering (Energy & Mining) Economics (Finance) Industrial Engineering and Management Science (Manufacturing) Law (Finance) Computer Science (Energy & Mining) Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Manufacturing) Civil Engineering (Real Estate) Language and Literature (Legal) Computer Science (Software & IT Services) Mechanical Engineering (Energy & Mining) Health Science (Healthcare) Mathematics (Finance) Law (Real Estate) Mechanical Engineering (Manufacturing) Business Management and Administration (Real Estate) Law (Corporate Services) Law (Legal) Life Science (Healthcare) Political Science (Legal) Psychology (Corporate Services) Computer Science (Finance) Public Affairs (Public Administration) Law (Public Administration) Psychology (Education) Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Software & IT Services) Political Science (Public Administration) Education (Real Estate) Business Management and Administration (Legal) Life Science (Education) Economics (Public Administration) Economics (Corporate Services) Psychology (Healthcare) Education (Non-profit) Language and Literature (Media & Communications) Computer Science (Media & Communications) Business Management and Administration (Corporate Services) Psychology (Non-profit) Education (Education) Business Management and Administration (Public Administration) Sociology (Legal) Business Management and Administration (Healthcare) Computer Science (Education) Computer Science (Corporate Services) Business Management and Administration (Media & Communications) Economics (Media & Communications) Journalism, Media and Communication (Media & Communications) Computer Science (Non-profit) Business Management and Administration (Education) Business Management and Administration (Non-profit) Sociology (Non-profit) Science (Healthcare) 5 15 10 –15 0 –5 –10 20 –20 Percentage difference LinkedIn. Source: Note: Percentage point difference between share of all female LinkedIn members holding degrees in each field of study and those employed in stated industry. Top 5 degrees for each industry. variation, overall, the divergence in fields of study between the talent pipeline across industries. For example, more men and women is more limited than the dispersion that men embarking on education-related fields of study could help re-balance occupational gender gaps in the is evident in industries that exhibit low gender parity. Education sector. Similarly, across most industries, gender Furthermore, the World Economic Forum’s research parity could be advanced by including more women with collaboration with LinkedIn has shown a strong correlation Business, Administration and Law degrees. While a lack of between industries with strong female representation in parity in Engineering and ICT-related degrees contributes leadership and hiring for women, furthering the hypothesis that talent shortages are far from the only factor holding to the gender gap across all industries (even in Non-profits, back progress in low-parity industries. men with ICT-specializations outnumber women), these Despite a large and growing number of businesses gaps appear in somewhat different quantities, suggesting a need for a more nuanced discussion on gender gaps in taking proactive company-level action to address STEM. occupational gender imbalances, progression and Comparing hiring trends to the presence of preferred leadership gaps, unconscious biases and systemic efforts talent for that industry highlights that talent shortages are focused on driving change at the industry or country level through public-private collaboration remain scarce. unlikely to be the only factor holding back progress in low- Analyses of local barriers to female economic participation parity industries. Although some divergences in graduates’ field of study specializations account for a portion of this across industries, constructive dialogue, shared objectives The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 33

44 Figure 16: Share and evolution of female hires, various industries Evolution of female share of core talent pool (graduates of Female share of employment, by industry top 5 preferred degrees), by industry, 2007–17 70 61% Health Care 59% Education 60 57% Non-profit Health Care (+5.5) 50% Legal Legal (+4.7) 50 Public Administration (+4.9) Real Estate (+4.9) 50% Public Administration Media & Communications (+4.6) Education (+3.8) Corporate Services (+4.9) Non-profit (+4.5) 50% Media & Communications Finance (+4.9) Energy & Mining (+4.2) 40 Manufacturing (+3.9) 46% Corporate Services Software & IT Services (+5.0) 45% Real Estate 30 41% Finance 27% Software & IT Services 20 25% Energy & Mining 23% Manufacturing 10 2007 2017 2015 2011 2009 2013 Evolution of hiring of female talent, leadership roles, Evolution of hiring of female talent, all roles, by industry, by industry, 2007–17 2007–17 70 70 Non-profit (+3.3) 60 60 Legal (+2.5) Health Care (+5.0) Media & Communications (+4.7) Public Administration (+3.8) Education (+1.8) 50 50 Non-profit (+2.7) Corporate Services (+2.7) Real Estate (+2.2) Education (+0.2) Public Administration (+4.1) 40 40 Media & Communications (+3.1) Legal (+2.5) Finance (+0.6) Health Care (+2.2) Corporate Services (+2.4) Software & IT Services (+6.4) 30 30 Manufacturing (+4.5) Energy & Mining (+1.8) Real Estate (+2.1) Finance (+2.0) 20 20 Software & IT Services (+3.7) Manufacturing (+2.6) Energy & Mining (+0.5) 10 10 2015 2007 2009 2017 2013 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2011 LinkedIn. Source: The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 34

45 Figure 17: Distribution of tertiary-educated female and male talent (top 5 preferred degrees and all others), by industry Corporate Services Manufacturing Female Female Male Male Business management and administration n Computer science Computer science n Business management and administration n n Law n Economics n Electrical and electronic engineering n Other n Psychology n n Industrial engineering and management science Other n Mechanical engineering n Education Media & Communications Female Female Male Male Computer science n n Computer science n Business management and administration Business management and administration n n Education Psychology Journalism, media and communication n n Economics Other n n Life science n n n Language and literature Other Non-profit Energy & Mining Female Female Male Male Business management and administration n Computer science Chemical engineering n Business management and administration n n n n Sociology n Psychology n Education Other Computer science n Electrical and electronic engineering n n Mechanical engineering n Other Finance Public Administration Female Female Male Male n Business management and administration n Computer science Economics n n Business management and administration Law Mathematics n Other n Economics n n Law n n Political science Other n Public affairs n Health Care Real Estate Female Female Male Male Civil engineering n Business management and administration n n Business management and administration n Health science n Other Law n Education n Economics n Other n Science n Psychology n Life science n Legal Software & IT Services Female Female Male Male n Language and literature Business management and administration n n Computer science Business management and administration n n n Sociology n Political science n Electrical and electronic engineering Other Mathematics n Science n Other n Law n LinkedIn. Source: The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 35

46 The and unified action are rare in many countries, and a continues to highlight the strong Report scarcity of cross-industry collaboration denies companies correlation between a country’s gender gap and its the benefits of shared learning and opportunities to pursue economic performance, and summarizes some of the latest research on the case for gender equality. This common goals and initiatives. To help bridge this gap, the World Economic Forum year, we also introduced a deeper analysis of gender and its constituents launched a public-private collaboration gaps across industries and the role of gender-based model that has been successful in accelerating progress occupational and skills imbalances. The Report highlights on a number of these dimensions in seven countries to the message to policy-makers that countries that want to date. From 2012–2014, pilot task forces in Mexico, Japan, remain competitive and inclusive will need to make gender equality a critical part of their nation’s human capital Turkey and South Korea convened public and private development. In particular, learning between countries and sector leaders with the capacity to bring more women into public-private cooperation within countries will be critical the economy, catalysing new collaboration and action at the national level. Current task forces in Chile, Argentina elements of closing the gender gap. and Panama have also proven successful in building Global We hope that the information contained in the Gender Gap Report series will serve as a basis for knowledge on the practices that advance female economic participation, providing a platform for public-private continued benchmarking by countries on their progress dialogue and sparking engagement and collaboration on towards gender equality, help support the case for closing gender issues. The World Economic Forum is exploring gender gaps and encourage further research on policies options to scale this model in collaboration with multilateral and practices that are effective at promoting change. development agencies, national governments, businesses and civil society organizations wishing to use the model Notes to accelerate country-level change on gender parity, 43 1 Countries nominally affected by the complete removal of the particularly in light of the broader flux in labour markets. cap on the ’s estimated earned income indicator include Report Brunei Darussalam, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates. Countries with a noticeable discrepancy in sex ratio at birth estimates between the Report ’s Conclusion previous primary reference source for this indicator—the U.S. Central provides a The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook —and its updated primary World reference source—the United Nations Population Division’s comprehensive overview of the current state of the —include Haiti, Kazakhstan and Pakistan. Both Population Prospects global gender gap and of efforts and insights to close changes are discussed in detail below. it. The Index points to potential role models by revealing 2 For some further discussion of this point see Hausmann, R., , 2016. those countries that—within their region or their income “Learning Without Theory”, Project Syndicate group—are leaders in having divided resources more 3 Following a methodology originally developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Global Gender Gap Index equitably between women and men than other countries estimates the average income earned by women, relative to income have, regardless of the overall level of resources available. earned by men, in a calculation that takes into account a country’s GDP per capita (US$), the share of women and men in the labour The Report ’s detailed Country Profiles and online Data force, and their mean nominal wages. To account for globally rising website (http:// Report Explorer tool—available on the income levels, beginning with last year’s edition, the Report no reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2017/ longer caps the maximum income per capita value considered in the calculation. This follows UNDP’s own adjustment of the methodology dataexplorer)—not only allow users to understand how and the fact that the US$40,000 cap formerly used in previous close each country has come to the equality benchmark editions of the Global Gender Gap Index had increasingly lost some of its ability to discern the level of gender-based income disparities in each of the four dimensions examined by the Index, but among high-income nations such as the Nordics, the United States also provide a snapshot of the legal and social framework and the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. For a full overview of last year’s methodology change, please refer to that within which these outcomes are produced. edition’s Appendix D. The magnitude of gender gaps in countries around Beginning with this year’s edition, the 4 utilizes the United Report the world is the combined result of various socioeconomic, as its sole World Population Prospects Nations Population Division’s policy and cultural variables. The Global Gender Gap Index reference source for the sex ratio at birth indicator. Previous editions Report of the had utilized data from the U.S. Central Intelligence was developed in 2006 partially to address the need for a World Factbook as an alternative data source. With the Agency’s consistent and comprehensive measure for gender equality exception of Haiti, Kazakhstan and Pakistan, discrepancies in reported values between the two data repositories are no more than that can track a country’s progress over time. The Index 2% for all countries covered by the Index, resulting in minimal score does not seek to set priorities for countries but rather to differences in all cases. provide a comprehensive set of data and a clear method This ratio is based on what is considered to be a “normal” sex ratio at 5 for tracking gaps on critical indicators so that countries birth: 1.06 males for every female born. See Klasen, S. and C. Wink, vol. 9, “Missing Women: Revisiting the Debate”, Feminist Economics, may set priorities within their own economic, political and no. 2–3, 2003, pp. 263–299. cultural contexts. This ratio is based on the standards used in the UNDP’s Gender- 6 Related Development Index, which uses 87.5 years as the maximum age for women and 82.5 years as the maximum age for men. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 36

47 A first attempt to calculate the gender gap was made by the World 7 28 See Schwab, K., The Fourth Industrial Revolution , World Economic Women’s Economic Forum in 2005; see Lopez-Claros and Zahidi, Forum, 2016. Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap . The 2005 Index, New Study: Diversity Drives Serial Innovation, See Leader-Chivee, L., 29 which was attempting to capture women’s empowerment, used Waiter, is That Inclusion in My Soup? A Inc.com, 2013, and Deloitte, a “feminist” scale that rewarded women’s supremacy over men New Recipe to Improve Business Performance , 2012. (highest score is assigned to the country with the biggest gap in favour of women). , 2013, and Credit Suisse 30 See McKinsey & Company, Women Matter , Gender diversity and corporate performance Research Institute, As in previous editions of the Index, weights derived for the 2006 8 2012. Index were used again this year to allow for comparisons over time. They may be revised in future editions to reflect the evolution of the See Galbreath, J., “Are there Gender-Related Influences on 31 gender gap over the past decade. Journal of Corporate Sustainability? A study of women on Boards”, , vol. 17, no. 1, 2011, pp. 17-38. Management & Organization This is not strictly accurate in the case of the Health and Survival 9 subindex, where the highest possible value a country can achieve is 32 The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, See Blau, F., and L. Kahn, 0.9796. However, for purposes of simplicity, we will refer to this value 2016, and Explanations, National Bureau of Economic Research, as 1 throughout the chapter and in all tables, figures and Country http://www.nber.org/papers/w21913, and Schieder, Jessica and Profiles. ”Women’s work” and the Gender Pay Gap: How Elise Gould, Discrimination, Societal Norms, and Other Forces Affect Women’s 10 Because of the special equality benchmark value of 0.9796 for Occupational Choices—and Their Pay ,,Economic Policy Institute, the Health and Survival subindex, it is not strictly accurate that the 2016. equality benchmark for the overall Index score is 1. This value is in fact (1 + 1 + 1 + 0.9796) / 4 = 0.9949. However, for purposes Doubling Digital 33 See Briggs, Philippa and Raul Zambrano, of simplicity, we will refer to the overall equality benchmark as 1 Opportunities: Enhancing Inclusion of Women & Girls in the throughout the chapter and in all tables, figures and Country Profiles. , International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Information Society 2013. 11 Since the indicators in the subindexes are weighted by the standard deviations, the final scores for the subindexes and the overall Index 34 See Terrell, Josh, Andrew Kofink, Justin Middleton, Clarissa Rainear, are not a pure measure of the gap vis-à-vis the equality benchmark, Gender Emerson Murphy-Hill, Chris Parnin and Jon Stallings, and therefore cannot be strictly interpreted as percentage values Differences and Bias in Open Source: Pull Request Acceptance of measuring the closure of the gender gap. However, for ease of Women versus Men , PeerJ Preprints, July 26, 2016. doi:10.7287/ interpretation and intuitive appeal, we will be using the percentage peerj.preprints.1733v2. concept as a rough interpretation of the final scores. 35 See The Global Human Capital Report , 2 0 17. 12 Women20 (W20) Dialogue Process, Germany, 2017, http://www.w20- 36 See European Commission, Women Active in the ICT Sector , 2013. germany.org/the-w20/. , https://www.pwc.co.uk/ See PwC, See Seron, Carroll, Susan S. Silbey, Erin Cech, Brian Rubineau, 13 Women in Work Index 2017 37 services/economics-policy/insights/women-in-work-index.html, “Persistence Is Cultural: Professional Socialization and the accessed October 2017. , vol. 43, Work and Occupations Reproduction of Sex Segregation”, no. 2, 2015, pp. 178–214; Fouad, Nadya A., Romila Singh, Mary E. 14 See McKinsey & Company, The Power of Parity: How Advancing Fitzpatrick and Jane P. Liu, Stemming the Tide: Why Women Leave Women’s Equality Can Add $12 Trillion To Global Growth, 2015. , University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2011; and Scott, A., Engineering F. K. Klein and U. Onovakpuri, Tech Leavers Survey: A First-of-its- Economic Impacts of See International Labour Organization (ILO), 15 Kind Analysis of Why People Voluntarily Left Jobs in Tech , 2 0 17. (What Works Research Brief No. 10), 2017. Reducing the Gender Gap See Blau and Kahn, 2016, and Schieder and Gould, 2016. 38 Ibid. 16 39 See Levanon, Asaf, Paula England and Paul Allison, “Occupational 17 Economic Benefits See European Institute for Gender Equality, Feminization and Pay: Assessing Causal Dynamics Using 1950–2000 of Gender Equality in the European Union , http://eige.europa.eu/ Social Forces , vol. 88, no. 2, 2009, pp. 865–91, U.S. Census Data”, gender-mainstreaming/policy-areas/economic-and-financial-affairs/ doi:10.1353/sof.0.0264. economic-benefits-gender-equality, accessed October 2017. See International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), 40 Investing in the 18 See Teignier, M. and D. Cuberes, Aggregate Costs of Gender Gaps in Care Economy: A Gender Analysis of Employment Stimulus in Seven the Labour Market: A Quantitative Estimate (UB Economics Working 2016. OECD Countries, Papers 2014/308), University of Barcelona, 2014. 41 Seen through the prism of LinkedIn data, ‘hiring’ refers to individuals 19 See ILO and Asian Development Bank (ADB), Women and labour who indicated that they moved companies in a given reference year markets in Asia–Rebalancing for Gender Equality, 2 011. by featuring a new role on their LinkedIn profile. Gender and Development in the Middle East 20 See World Bank Group, 42 LinkedIn’s analysis is based on data from more than 100 countries for and North Africa: Women in the Public Sphere , 2004. which membership information was available by gender for at least 67% of registered members. The top 20 countries (by total number See, for example, the World Bank Group, 21 Gender and Economic of member profiles) meeting these coverage criteria are: Argentina, , 2 0 0 7. Growth Assessments for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Germany, India, 22 See Chaaban, J. and W. Cunningham, Measuring the Economic Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Peru, Russian Federation, Spain, (World Bank Policy Gain of Investing in Girls: The Girl Effect Dividend, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and United States. Research Working Paper), World Bank, 2011. Industry affiliation is based on the primary role featured by members on their LinkedIn profile during the reference year. Selected industries 23 See ILO and ADB, 2011. are: Corporate Services, Education, Energy and Mining, Finance, Impact on Economic See Wilhelmson, K. and U. 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49 Harvard Business Silverstein, M. and K. Sayre, “The Female Economy”, Mandel, H. and M. Semyonov, “Family Policies, Wage Structures, and September 2009. Review, Gender Gaps: Sources of Earnings Inequality in 20 Countries”, vol. 70, no. 6, 2005, pp. 949–967. American Sociological Review, The Future of the Professions: Susskind, Richard and Daniel Susskind, How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts, Seven Steps to Conscious Inclusion: A Practical Guide to Oxford ManpowerGroup, University Press, 2016. Accelerating More Women Into Leadership, 2015. Aggregate Costs of Gender Gaps in the Teignier, M. and D. Cuberes. Women and the Future of Work–Taking Care of the Caregivers Maybud, S., Labour Market: A Quantitative Estimate (ILO Work in Progress Series), International Labour Organization, (UB Economics Working Papers 2014/308), University of Barcelona, 2014. March 2015. 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51 Appendix A: Regional and Income Group Classifications, 2017 Table A1: Global Gender Gap Index 2017, regional classifications The following regional classifications were used for creating the performance tables and figures in Part 1. EAST ASIA EASTERN EUROPE LATIN AMERICA MIDDLE EAST WESTERN AND AND SUB-SAHARAN AND AND NORTH SOUTH AMERICA NORTH AFRICA THE CARIBBEAN AFRICA CENTRAL ASIA THE PACIFIC EUROPE ASIA Australia Argentina Algeria Canada Bangladesh Angola Austria Albania Brunei Darussalam Armenia Bahamas Bahrain United States Bhutan Benin Belgium Cambodia Azerbaijan Egypt India Botswana Cyprus Barbados China Belize Iran, Islamic Rep. Maldives Burkina Faso Denmark Belarus Fiji* Bosnia and Herzegovina Bolivia Israel Nepal Burundi Finland Indonesia Brazil Jordan Pakistan Cameroon France Bulgaria Japan Croatia Chile Kuwait Sri Lanka Cape Verde Germany Colombia Korea, Rep. Czech Republic Lebanon Greece Chad Lao PDR Estonia Mauritania Côte d'Ivoire Iceland Costa Rica Georgia Cuba Ethiopia Ireland Malaysia Morocco Hungary Qatar Gambia, The Italy Mongolia Dominican Republic Kazakhstan Ecuador Saudi Arabia Ghana Luxembourg Myanmar* New Zealand Kyrgyz Republic Syria Guinea Malta El Salvador Latvia Kenya Tunisia Philippines Netherlands Guatemala Singapore Honduras Turkey Lesotho Norway Lithuania Thailand Macedonia, FYR Jamaica United Arab Emirates Liberia Portugal Timor-Leste Moldova Yemen Madagascar Spain Mexico Montenegro Vietnam Malawi Sweden Nicaragua Poland Panama Mali Switzerland Romania Paraguay Mauritius United Kingdom Russian Federation Mozambique Peru Serbia Suriname Namibia Slovak Republic Uruguay Nigeria Slovenia Venezuela Rwanda Tajikistan Senegal Ukraine South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zimbabwe * New countries in 2017 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 41

52 (cont’d.) Appendix A: Regional and Income Group Classification, 2017 Table A2: Global Gender Gap Index 2017, income classifications The following income group classifications were used for creating the performance tables and figures in Part 1. LOWER-MIDDLE INCOME UPPER-MIDDLE INCOME HIGH INCOME LOW INCOME (US$ 1,005 OR LESS) (US$ 1,006–3,955) (US$ 3,956–12,235) (US$ 12,236 OR MORE) Angola Albania Australia Benin Armenia Algeria Austria Burkina Faso Bangladesh Burundi Bahamas Argentina Bhutan Bahrain Chad Azerbaijan Bolivia Belarus Ethiopia Barbados Gambia, The Cambodia Belize Belgium Guinea Cameroon Bosnia and Herzegovina Brunei Darussalam Liberia Cape Verde Canada Botswana Côte d'Ivoire Chile Madagascar Brazil Egypt Bulgaria Malawi Cyprus Mali El Salvador China Czech Republic Mozambique Georgia Colombia Denmark Nepal Costa Rica Estonia Ghana Rwanda Guatemala Croatia Finland Senegal Honduras Cuba France Tanzania India Dominican Republic Germany Ecuador Uganda Indonesia Greece Zimbabwe Jordan Fiji* Hungary Iceland Iran, Islamic Rep. Kenya Jamaica Ireland Kyrgyz Republic Israel Lao PDR Kazakhstan Italy Lebanon Lesotho Mauritania Macedonia, FYR Japan Malaysia Korea, Rep. Moldova Maldives Kuwait Mongolia Morocco Mauritius Latvia Myanmar* Mexico Lithuania Montenegro Luxembourg Nicaragua Namibia Malta Nigeria Panama Netherlands Pakistan Philippines Paraguay New Zealand Peru Sri Lanka Norway Swaziland Romania Poland Russian Federation Syria Portugal Tajikistan Serbia Qatar Timor-Leste South Africa Saudi Arabia Tunisia Suriname Singapore Ukraine Slovak Republic Thailand Vietnam Turkey Slovenia Yemen Venezuela Spain Sweden Switzerland United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Note: Income group categories are taken from the World Bank, which classifies economies into four income categories based on GNI per capita (current US$): high income, upper-middle income, lower-middle income and low income. Classifications as of July 2017 update. * New countries in 2017 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 42

53 Part 2 Country Profiles

54

55 User’s Guide: Exploring the Global Gender Gap Index Data This year’s edition of the is Global Gender Gap Report rank out of 144 countrie s complemented by a digital portal, which provides detailed 1 scor e Iceland 0.00 = imparity 0.878 1.00 = parity Country Profiles of all 144 countries featured in the Index G ISL AV as well as a Data Explorer tool enabling the reader to e1 0.40 .00 distribution of countries by scor explore detailed Index results, rankings and comparisons GLANCE SCORE AT ORS KEY INDICAT by country, region, indicator and subindex. GDP (US$ billions) 20.05 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 45,276.45 Total populations (1,000s) 332.47 Education owth rate (%) Population gr 0.72 The Global Gender Gap Data Explorer can be found at 1.01 Population sex ratio (female/male) Human Capital Index scor e 71.44 Politics http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2017/ 0 7 1 0 2 2 0 6 r o r a n e r a n k k e sc r sc o Global Gender Gap score 0.878 0.781 1 4 Health dataexplorer. Economic participation and opportunity pillar 0.711 17 14 0.798 Educational attainment pillar 57 50 0.991 0.995 o c I e l a e r n sc d Health and survival pillar 92 114 0.969 0.968 sc e r o g a r e e a v Political empowerment pillar 0.456 1 0.750 4 In addition, static PDF versions of all Country Profiles rank out of 115 144 are available on the Report website and featured in Part 2 SCORE CARD COUNTRY t n a t s i i y a p o t e c r f f m 0 . 00 1 . 00 2.00 r a n k sc o r e a v g f e m a l e m a l e f / . Finally, an Excel spreadsheet containing this Report of the Economic participation and opportunity pillar 14 0.798 0.586 87.50 Labour for .95 ce participation 83.2 0.665 0.950 11 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 5 0.617 0.81 0.807 year’s Index results in machine-readable format may also Estimated ear .73 0.498 59,4950 43,250 0.727 21 , US$) ned income (PPP 0.519 Legislators, senior officials and managers 34.2 65.80 .52 50 0.265 55.2 Professional and technical workers1 1.000 0.862 44.81 .23 be requested from the Report website. Educational attainment pillar 57 0.995 0.955 Literacy rate 99.01 1 1.000 0.897 99.0 .00 While these various ways and formats of accessing .99 Enr olment in primary education 98 0.989 0.980 98.5 99.60 Enr .03 olment in secondary education 1 0.970 89.2 86.31 1.000 60.21 1 1.000 0.930 103.1 olment in tertiary education .71 Enr Report the ’s data contain exactly the same information, it is 114 0.969 0.957 Health and survival pillar 1 0.944 0.918 0.95 Sex ratio at birth .02 125 Healthy life expectancy 1.043 73.6 71.81 1.025 our intention to make this information useful to the widest Political empowerment pillar 1 0.233 0.750 4 Women in parliament 0.270 52.40 .91 47.6 0.909 possible audience by meeting the needs of different groups .67 60.00 0.667 0.247 40.0 Women in ministerial positions 10 20.3 29.70 .68 0.685 Years with female head of state (last 50)4 0.301 00 2. 1 . 00 . 00 0 of readers and stakeholders. This User’s Guide aims 167 Global Gap Gender 2017 The Report to provide an intuitive overview of the various means of exploring and interpreting the Global Gender Gap Report 2017 data, for the specialist and generalist reader alike. each country’s position on the Global Gender Gap Index relative to the spread of all countries and the global population weighted average. Note that the bar has been Country Profiles truncated at 0.40 to enhance legibility. Country Profiles are available on the online Data Explorer (available at http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender- Key Indicators gap-report-2017/dataexplorer) and in Part 2 of the . Report They’re formatted identically in both locations. The second section ( ) provides economic and demographic headline indicators for each country. The “—” symbol indicates where data was unavailable. For a full Country Rank, Score and Performance overview of the Key Indicators featured in the Country Profile, at a Glance section below. please refer to the Overview of Indicators ) presents each country’s overall Global The first section ( In addition, the section summarizes the country’s Gender Gap Index 2017 rank out of the 144 reviewed performance on the Index this year compared to the countries and its progress towards closing the gender gap first year in which the country was featured in the Global and achieving full gender parity, represented on a 0-to-1 Gender Gap Index, providing a measure of the country’s 1 The radar chart on the top left-hand side of each scale. overall progress over time. Note that since the exact Country Profile gives an overview of the country’s scores number and list of countries included in the Report for each of the four subindexes relative to the equality changes every year, rank changes, or lack thereof, alone benchmark and the global average score of all countries in are an imperfect measure of a country’s performance over the Index weighted by population across all 144 countries. time. A country’s score change is a more exact measure of In addition, the bar chart at the top of the page shows its progress towards closing the gender gap. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 45

56 ratio at birth (0.944) and healthy life expectancy (1.06). Therefore, the parity benchmark of 1 in the bar charts for these two indicators is not strictly accurate. In the few cases where the ratio exceeds the scale of the bar chart (which ends at 2), the reader should refer to the number under the “female-to-male ratio” column for the actual value. Finally, the online version of the Country Profile reader (available at http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap- report-2017/dataexplorer) provides mouse-over definitions and explanations of all indicators by clicking on the Go to Explorer corresponding “score” field. From the blue button in the pop-up dialogue field, detailed rankings for the selected indicator may also be directly accessed in the Data Explorer tool. For a full, non-technical explanation and overview of each indicator composing the Global Gender Gap Index, below. please refer to the section Overview of Indicators Data Explorer Online Features A number of additional features may be accessed in the online Data Explorer (available at http://reports.weforum. Country Score Card org/global-gender-gap-report-2017/dataexplorer). The ) of each Country Profile provides The third section ( reader has the possibility to switch between Country an overview of each country’s ranks and scores on the Profiles and interactive Index rankings in a tile, bar chart four subindexes of the Global Gender Gap Report 2017 , or world map format by clicking on the menu option as well as on the individual indicators that compose ). There is also at the top-left corner of the page ( each subindex. For each of the indicators that enter into the possibility to directly compare two countries side- the Global Gender Gap Index, column one displays the by-side by clicking on the menu option in the top-right country’s rank; column two displays the country’s score; ). Finally, the reader may directly corner of the page ( column three displays the population-weighted sample access a shortcut to the rankings for a specific indicator average (out of 144 countries); column four displays the button in the by clicking on the blue Go to Explorer female value; column five displays the male value; and, ). dialogue field in the Country Score Card section ( finally, column six displays the female-to-male ratio. The female and male values are displayed rounded to one Interactive Ranking Tables decimal in order to facilitate reading. However, exact values By clicking on the menu button at the top-right corner of have been used for calculating ratios and scores. The “—” the Data Explorer ( ), the interactive rankings may be symbol indicates where data was not available. Country switched between a tile view, which visualizes countries’ scores are highlighted by a colour scale—ranging in 20% overall performance on each subindex for context; a bar intervals from light blue (0.0–0.2; worst) to dark blue (0.8– chart view, which depicts a country’s performance for the 1.0; best)—to help the reader visually interpret the Index selected indicator relative to other countries; and a world results. To calculate the Index, all ratios were truncated map view, which allows the reader to explore geographical at the parity benchmark of 1 and thus the highest score trends and patterns. In the map view, countries are possible is 1—except for the sex ratio at birth (0.944) and highlighted by an extended colour scale to enhance the healthy life expectancy (1.06) indicators. For further contrast and readability—ranging in 20% intervals from details on the Index methodology, please refer to the dark grey (0.0–0.2; worst) to dark blue (0.8–1.0; best). Construction of the Index section in Part 1. In addition, the reader has the possibility to: switch The bar charts visually display the magnitude of between selected indicators, narrow selection to a specific female-to-male ratio imbalances for each of the 14 region or go directly to the results for a specific country indicators, allowing the reader to see clearly when the of interest through the menu strip at the top of the Data female-to-male ratio is above or below the gender parity ). Explorer ( benchmark. Values above 1 (the parity benchmark) favour women and values below 1 favour men. Please note that the parity benchmark is 1 for all indicators except sex The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 46

57 Country Comparison Overview of Indicators ) can be accessed Country Comparison Tool The ( This section provides a non-technical explanation and through the menu option at the top-right corner of the overview of the meaning and definition of each indicator Country Profile view. It enables a side-by-side view of featured in the Global Gender Gap Index. For a more indicators for the selected comparison country relative to technical exposition, including full methodological details the original country selected in the Country Profile view of regarding Index construction, please refer to the separate the Data Explorer. The reader may return to the original section Report in Part 1 of the . Construction of the Index menu option at Back to Country view by clicking on the the top-left corner of the page or may continue exploring Key Indicators the data by clicking through to the other views of the Data The indicators in this section present a range of important Explorer. data points and factors that can be read in parallel with the Global Gender Gap Index indicators to contextualize gender gap outcomes in the country. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 47

58 Dollar figures for GDP GDP (current US$ billions). • Country Score Card are converted from domestic currencies using current This section provides details on every indicator official exchange rates. For a few countries where the benchmarked to determine the country’s Global Gender official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively Gap Index 2017 performance. Each indicator is placed in applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an one of the Index’s four thematic subindexes: Economic alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Participation and Opportunity; Educational Attainment; World Development Indicators Bank, database, 2016 or Health and Survival; and Political Empowerment. Data latest available data (accessed September 2017). updates are not necessarily made annually by all countries for all major international databases. Data older than 10 GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2011 international • years was considered to be of insufficient relevance for dollars). GDP per capita PPP is gross domestic the Index. However, our aim is to monitor the condition product converted to international dollars using of women across the widest possible range of countries. purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar Therefore, to enable certain countries to meet our data has the same purchasing power over GDP as the US availability threshold (12 out of 14 indicators), we have, dollar has in the United States. Data are in constant in exceptional circumstances, used secondary sources 2011 international dollars. Source: World Bank, World of data or re-used individual data points from previous Development Indicators database, 2016 or latest . editions of the Report available data (accessed September 2017). Economic Participation and Opportunity Subindex Total population (thousands of inhabitants). • • Female, male labour force participation rate, age People of all ages living in the country as of July 2017, 15 - 64 (%). Measures the proportion of a country’s regardless of residency status or citizenship (except working-age population that engages actively in the for refugees not permanently settled in the country labour market, either by working or looking for work. of asylum who are generally considered part of the Labour force data doesn’t take into account workers population of their country of origin). Source: United employed abroad. The dataset includes data as Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, reported and ILO estimates for missing data. Source: Population Division, World Population Prospects: The ILOSTAT, Modelled Estimates, Labour force participation 2017 Revision (accessed September 2017). , 2016 or latest available data rate by sex and age Population growth rate (annual percentage). Annual • (accessed September 2017). population growth rate is the increase in a country’s Wage equality between women and men for similar • population during a period of time, usually one year, Response to the survey question, “In your work. expressed as a percentage of the population at the country, for similar work, to what extent are wages start of that period. It reflects the number of births for women equal to those of men?” (1 = not at all, and deaths during a period and the number of people significantly below those of men; 7 = fully, equal to migrating to and from a country. Source: United those of men). The data is converted to a normalized Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 0-to-1 scale. Source: World Economic Forum, Executive World Population Prospects: The Population Division, . Opinion Survey, 2016-17 (accessed September 2017). 2017 Revision • Female, male estimated earned income (US$, PPP). Population sex ratio (female/male). • The female-to- Measures the amount of income that women and men male population sex ratio is the number of females per in a country receive in the aggregate. Estimated using 1,000 males in the population of a society. Source: the proportion of working women and men, their relative United Nations, Department of Economic and Social wages, and overall GDP of the country in question. World Population Prospects: Affairs, Population Division, Source: World Economic Forum calculation based on The 2017 Revision (accessed September 2017). the methodology of the United Nations Development Source is the Global Human Capital Index score (%). • Programme (UNDP)’s Human Development Report Global Human Capital Report World Economic Forum’s 2007/2008 . . A country’s overall score on the World Economic 2017 Forum’s Global Human Capital Index can roughly be interpreted as a percentage measure of the degree to which a country is successful in developing and deploying the full range of its people’s human capital potential. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 48

59 • Female, male legislators, senior officials and • Female, male tertiary gross enrolment ratio (%). The ratio of women to men employed managers (%). Total enrolment in tertiary education, regardless of age, in senior roles, defined by the International Labour expressed as a percentage of the most recent five-year age cohort that has left secondary school. Tertiary Organization as those who plan, direct, coordinate and evaluate the overall activities of enterprises, gross enrolment data should be examined within the context of a country structure regarding military service governments and other organizations, or of as well as propensity of students to seek education organizational units within them, and formulate and abroad. Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, review their policies, laws, rules and regulations. , 2016 or latest available data Corresponds to Major Group 1 of the International Education Indicators 2 (accessed September 2017). Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08). ILOSTAT, Annual Indicators, Employment by Source: Health and Survival Subindex occupation , 2016 or latest available data (accessed Refers to the number of boys Sex ratio at birth (%). • September 2017). born alive per 100 girls born alive. Data is converted to • Female, male professional and technical a female-over-male value. Biologically, this ratio should workers (%). The ratio of women to men employed vary little and female births should be about 94.4% of in professional and technical roles, defined by the male births. Source: United Nations, Department of International Labour Organization as those who World Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, increase the existing stock of knowledge, apply (accessed Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision scientific or artistic concepts and theories or those September 2017). who perform technical and related tasks that require • Female, male healthy life expectancy (years). advanced knowledge and skill. Corresponds to the sum Average number of years that a person can expect of Major Groups 2 and 3 of the International Standard to live in full health, calculated by taking into account Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08). Source: years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or , ILOSTAT, Annual Indicators, Employment by occupation Global Health injury. Source: World Health Organization, 2016 or latest available data (accessed September database, 2016 or latest available data Observatory 2017 ). (accessed September 2017). Educational Attainment Subindex Political Empowerment Subindex Percentage of the Female, male literacy rate (%). • Women in parliament (%). Percentage of women • population aged 15 and over with the ability to both holding parliamentary seats. In instances where a read and write and make simple arithmetic calculations. parliamentary system is bicameral, the figure used is Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Education the one for the lower house. Source: Inter-Parliamentary , 2016 or latest available data (accessed Indicators Women in National Parliaments database. Data Union, September 2017). When not available, data is sourced reflects information provided by National Parliaments by from United Nations Development Programme, Human 1 September 2017. , most recent year available Development Reports 2009 between 1997 and 2007. Percentage of Women in ministerial positions (%). • women holding ministerial portfolios. Some overlap Female, male net primary education enrolment rate • between ministers and heads of government that also Percentage of girls and boys in the official primary (%). hold a ministerial portfolio may occur. Source: Inter- school age range who are enrolled in either primary or Women in Politics 2017 Parliamentary Union, , reflecting secondary education. Source: UNESCO, Institute for appointments as of 1 January 2017. Data is updated Statistics, Education Indicators , 2016 or latest available every two years. data (accessed September 2017). The • Years with female head of state (last 50 years). • Female, male net secondary education enrolment number of years in the past fifty-year period for which a Percentage of girls and boys in the official rate (%). woman has held a post equivalent to an elected head age range for secondary education who are enrolled of state or head of government in the country. Source: in secondary education. Source: UNESCO, Institute for World Economic Forum calculations, reflecting situation , 2016 or latest available Education Indicators Statistics, as of 30 June 2017. data (accessed September 2017). The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 49

60 Female, male discouraged job seekers (as % • Selected Contextual Data of total female, male economically inactive The final section compiles a selection of contextual data Discouraged job-seekers refer to those population). that provides a more comprehensive overview of the persons of working age who, during a specified country’s gender gap and includes social and policy reference period, were without work and available indicators, highlighting a wide range of factors of relevance for work but did not look for work in the recent past to closing global gender gaps. The data presented was for specific reasons (for example, believing that there not used to calculate the Global Gender Gap Index. The were no jobs available, believing there were none for indicators in this section are displayed in nine broad which they would qualify, or having given up hope of categories: workforce participation; economic leadership; finding employment). Source: International Labour access to assets; political leadership; family; care; Organization, ILOSTAT, Annual Indicators, Discouraged education and skills; graduates by degree type; and health. job-seekers by sex and age , 2016 or latest available When both data points are available and relevant, data (accessed September 2017). female data is displayed first, and male data is displayed second, followed by the female-to-male ratio. A number of Workers in informal employment (as % of total • indicators not following this structure is clearly highlighted female, male employment). Informal employment and, where relevant, explained further by superscripted refers to workers holding informal jobs, whether notes at the bottom of each country profile. The “—” employed by formal sector enterprises, informal symbol indicates where data was not available. Column sector enterprises, or as paid domestic workers by fields for indicators not following the standard data households. Employees are considered to have informal structure are blank. jobs if their employment relationship is, in law or in practice, not subject to national labour legislation, Workforce Participation income taxation, social protection or entitlement to • Non-discrimination laws, hiring women. certain employment benefits (such as paid annual or Consolidated survey response—representing the expert sick leave). Source: International Labour Organization, view of local practitioners in family, labour and criminal I LO STAT, Informal employment and informal sector as a law—answering the question: “Does the law mandate percent of employment by sex , 2016 or latest available non-discrimination based on gender in hiring?”. Source: data (accessed September 2017). World Bank, Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Equal dataset (accessed September 2017). Measures the • High-skilled share of labour force (%). proportion of a country’s working-age population with • Female, male youth not in employment or 3 that engages actively in a tertiary degree (ISCED 5-8) education (%). Proportion of people aged 15–24 not in the labour market, either by working or looking for work. employment and not in education or training. Source: I LO STAT, Source: International Labour Organization, International Labour Organization, I LO STAT, A n n u a l Annual Indicators, Labour force participation rate by sex Indicators, Share of youth not in employment and not and education , 2016 or latest available data (accessed in education , 2016 or latest available data (accessed September 2017). September 2017). • Part-time employment (as % of total female, male Adult unemployment (as % of female, male • Part-time employment refers to regular employment). labour force). Adult unemployment refers to the employment in which working time is substantially less share of the labour force aged 15-64 that is without than normal. Definitions of part-time employment differ work but available for and seeking employment. by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Definitions of labour force and unemployment ILOSTAT, Annual Indicators, Incidence of part-time differ by country. Source: International Labour employment by sex , 2016 or latest available data ILOSTAT, Annual Indicators, Organization, (accessed September 2017). , 2016 or latest Unemployment rate by sex and age available data (accessed September 2017). The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 50

61 • • Share of women on boards of listed companies (%). Contributing family workers (as % of female, male labour force). The share of women on company boards is derived Contributing family worker refers to a by calculating country averages of the percentages of person who holds a self-employment job in a market- oriented establishment operated by a related person women among the members of the board of directors of each company in the OECD living in the same household, and who cannot be ORBIS dataset. The calculation is restricted to companies with at least regarded as a partner because of the degree of his or two board members. The share is also derived for the her commitment to the operation of the establishment, subset of listed companies. Source: OECD, iLibrary in terms of the working time or other factors to be determined by national circumstances, is not at a level online database, 2016 (accessed September 2017). comparable with that of the head of the establishment. • Firms with female participation in ownership (% of Source: International Labour Organization, I LO STAT, Refers to the percentage of firms in the private firms). Annual Indicators, Employment by sex and status in sector with a woman among the principal owners. , 2016 or latest available data (accessed employment database, 2016 Enterprise Surveys Source: World Bank, September 2017). or latest available data (accessed September 2017). Own-account workers (as % of female, male • Refers • Firms with female top managers (% of firms). Own-account workers refers to those labour force). to the percentage of firms in the private sector who self-employed who do not hire paid employees on report having females as top managers. Top manager a continuous basis but may have assistance from refers to the highest-ranking manager or CEO of the contributing family workers (unpaid employed who establishment. This person may be the owner if he/she usually live in same household and are related to works as the manager of the firm. Source: World Bank, family members). Source: International Labour database, 2016 or latest available Enterprise Surveys Organization, ILOSTAT, Employment by sex and status data (accessed September 2017). in employment , 2016 or latest available data (accessed September 2017). Employers (as % of female, male labour force). • Employers refers to those who are “self-employed”, in Average minutes spent on work per day (female, • the sense that their remuneration is directly dependent and Proportion of work spent on unpaid work male) upon the profits derived from the goods and services per day (female, male). Measures the average minutes produced, and who, in this capacity, have engaged, spent per day on unpaid work, including routine on a continuous basis, one or more persons to work housework, shopping, care for household members, for them as employees. Source: International Labour care for non-household members volunteering, travel Organization, ILOSTAT, Employment by sex and status related to household activities and other unpaid , 2016 or latest available data (accessed in employment activities for men and women aged 15–64 years. September 2017). Database on Gender Equality , 2016 or Source: OECD, latest available data (accessed September 2017). • R&D personnel (female, male). Measures the percentage of male and female workers employed Economic Leadership directly on Research and Development (R&D), as well as • Law mandates equal pay. Consolidated survey those providing direct services such as R&D managers, response—representing the expert view of local administrators and clerical staff. People providing practitioners in family, labour and criminal law— indirect services such as canteen and security staff answering the question: “Does the law mandate equal are excluded. Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, remuneration for work of equal value?”. Source: World , 2016 or Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Bank, latest available data (accessed September 2017). dataset (accessed September 2017). Equal Access to Assets Ability of women to rise to positions of leadership. • • Percentage of women/men with an account at a Response to the survey question: “In your country, to financial institution (%). Measures the percentage of what extent do companies provide women the same women and men who report having an account (self opportunities as men to rise to positions of leadership? or jointly with someone else) at a bank or another type (1 = not at all, women have no opportunities to rise to of financial institution. Source: World Bank, Global positions of leadership; 7 = extensive, women have , 2016 or latest available Financial Inclusion Database equal opportunities of leadership)”. Source: World data (accessed September 2017). . Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey 2016-17 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 51

62 Quota for women on candidate lists in national Women’s access to financial services. • • Refers to whether women and men have equal access to elections and Quota for women on candidate lists financial service. Data originally recorded on a 0-to-1 in local elections. Consolidated survey response— scale, which has been converted to a qualitative representing the expert view of local practitioners statement (“yes”, “no”, “part”) to avoid confusion with in family, labour and criminal law—answering . Source: the data structure elsewhere in the Report the questions: “What are the quotas for women Gender, Institutions and Development Database OECD, representatives on candidate lists in national elections?” and “What are the quotas for women representatives 2015 (GID-DB) (accessed September 2017). on candidate lists in local elections?”. Source: World • Inheritance rights for daughters. Refers to whether Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Bank, daughters and sons have equal inheritance rights. Data dataset (accessed September 2017). Equal originally recorded on a 0-to-1 scale, which has been Voluntary political party quotas. Source: International • converted to a qualitative statement (“yes”, “no”, “part”) to avoid confusion with the data structure elsewhere Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, . Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions Stockholm University and Inter-Parliamentarian Union, in the Report Quota Project, Global Database of Quotas for women (accessed and Development Database 2015 (GID-DB) (accessed September 2017); www.quotaproject.org. September 2017). Percentage of women • Seats held in upper house (%). • Women’s secure access to land use, control and in the upper house or first chamber of parliament, and ownership Women’s secure access to non- where applicable. Source: Inter-Parliamentary Refers land assets use, control and ownership. to whether women and men have equal and secure . Data reflects Women in National Parliaments Union, information provided by National Parliaments by 1 access to land use, control and ownership and whether September 2017. women and men have equal and secure access to non-land assets use, control and ownership. Data Family originally recorded on a 0-to-1 scale, which has been • Average length of single life (years) (female, male). converted to a qualitative statement (“yes”, “no”, “part”) The singulate mean age at marriage is an estimate of to avoid confusion with the data structure elsewhere the average number of years lived in the single state . Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions in the Report among those who marry before age 50. Source: United (accessed and Development Database 2015 (GID-DB) Statistics and Indicators on Nations Statistics Division, September 2017). Women and Men in Families , 2013 or latest available Mean monthly earnings (local currency unit, • data (accessed September 2017). thousands). Mean earnings of employees, in local Proportion of individuals married by age 25 • currency units, in nominal terms—meaning not Source: United Nations, Department of (female, male). adjusted for inflation. The figure excludes employer’s Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World contribution to social security and pension schemes. (accessed September 2017). Marriage Data 2015 Source: International Labour Organization, I LO STAT, Mean nominal monthly earnings of employees by sex Mean age of women at the birth of the first child • and economic activity (Local currency) , 2016 or latest (years). The mean age of mothers at first child’s birth available data (accessed September 2017). is defined as the average completed year of age of women when their first child is born. Source: United Political Leadership Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, • and Years since Year women received right to vote World Population Prospects: The Population Division, Refers to the any women received voting rights. 2017 Revision (accessed September 2017). year in which the right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where Average number of children per woman. • Measures two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial the average number of children a hypothetical cohort recognition of the right to vote or stand for election. of women would have at the end of their reproductive Source: United Nations Development Programme, period if they were subject during their whole lives . Human Development Report 2009 to the fertility rates of a given period and if they were not subject to mortality. Source: United Nations, • Source: Number of female heads of state to date. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population World Economic Forum calculations, situation as of 30 Division, World Population Prospects: The 2017 June 2017. (accessed September 2017). Revision The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 52

63 • • Women with unmet demand for family planning Government supports or provides childcare. (%). Consolidated survey response—representing the expert Percentage of married women aged 15-49 with view of local practitioners in family, labour and criminal an unmet need for family planning, i.e. who do not want any more children for the next two years and who law—answering the question: “Does the government support or provide childcare services?”. Source: World Gender, are not using contraception. Source: OECD, Institutions and Development Database 2015 (GID-DB) Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Bank, Equal dataset (accessed September 2017). (accessed September 2017). Potential support ratio (%). • The ratio of people living • Government provides child allowance to parents. in the country aged 15–64 as a percentage of the Consolidated survey response—representing the expert population aged 65 and above, as of July 2016. Source: view of local practitioners in family, labour and criminal law—answering the question: “Does the government United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: provide a child allowance to parents?”. Source: World Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Bank, (accessed September 2017). The 2017 Revision Equal dataset (accessed September 2017). Total dependency ratio (%). • The ratio of people living in the country aged under 15 and 65 and above as a Education and Skills percentage of the population between age 15 and 64, • Percentage of out-of-school children of primary as of July 2016. Source: United Nations, Department of Measures the male and school age (female, male). Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World female share of the total number of out-of-school (accessed Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision children of primary school age. Source: UNESCO, September 2017). Institute for Statistics, Education Indicators , 2016 or latest available data (accessed September 2017). and Parity • Parity of parental rights in marriage Refers to legal of parental rights after divorce. • Female, male primary education attainment rate guardianship of a child during marriage and to custody (% aged 25 and over). Percentage of the population rights over a child after divorce. Data originally recorded aged 25 and over with at least a primary education on a 0-to-1 scale, which has been converted to a (ISCED 1). Data is cumulative, which means that those qualitative statement (“yes”, “no”, “part”) to avoid with secondary education and above are counted in confusion with the data structure elsewhere in the the figures. Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, . Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and Report , 2016 or latest available data Education Indicators Development Database 2015 (GID-DB) (accessed (accessed September 2017). September 2017). • Female, male primary education attainment rate (% aged 25–54). Care Percentage of the population aged 25–54 with at least a primary education (ISCED 1). Data • Length of parental leave (days) and Provider Consolidated survey of parental leave benefits. is cumulative, which means that those with secondary responses—representing the expert view of local education and above are counted in the figures. IIASA/VID Educational Attainment Source: Lutz et al., practitioners in family, labour and criminal law— , 2015, Wittgenstein Centre for answering the questions: “What is the length of paid Model, GET Projection Demography and Global Human Capital (accessed parental leave?”, “Who pays parental leave benefits?” September 2017); Barro and Lee, “A New Data Set and “What percentage of wages is paid during parental of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010”, Women, Business and leave?”. Source: World Bank, , 2010 (accessed the Law 2016: Getting to Equal Journal of Development Economics dataset (accessed September 2017). September 2017). • Female, male primary education attainment rate Length of maternity / paternity leave (days), Wages • (% aged 65 and over). Percentage of the population Provider and paid during maternity / paternity leave Consolidated aged 65 and over with at least a primary education of maternity / paternity leave benefits. (ISCED 1). Data is cumulative, which means that those survey responses—representing the expert view of with secondary education and above are counted in the local practitioners in family, labour and criminal law— figures. Source: Lutz et al., 2015, and Barro and Lee, answering the questions: “What is the length of paid maternity / paternity leave?”, “Who pays maternity / 2010, op. cit. (accessed September 2017). paternity leave benefits?” and “What percentage of wages is paid during maternity / paternity leave?”. Women, Business and the Law Source: World Bank, dataset (accessed September 2016: Getting to Equal 2017 ). The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 53

64 Out-of-school youth of upper secondary school • PhD graduates (female, male). Measures the • age (female, male) (%). percentage of graduates from tertiary (ISCED 8) Measures the male and doctoral or equivalent level programmes, expressed as female share of the total number of out-of-school youth of upper secondary school age. Source: UNESCO, a percentage of total graduates from tertiary education , 2016 or programmes (ISCED 5-8). A graduate is a person who, Institute for Statistics, Education Indicators latest available data (accessed September 2017). during the reference academic year, has successfully completed an education programme. Source: • Female, male secondary education attainment rate Education Indicators UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, , (% aged 25 and over). Percentage of the population 2016 or latest available data (accessed September aged 25 and over with at least a secondary education 2017 ). (ISCED 2–4). This data is cumulative, which means that Percentage of individuals using the internet (female, • those with tertiary education are counted in the figures. Education Refers to the proportion of individuals who used male). Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, , 2016 or latest available data (accessed the internet from any location in the last three months. Indicators September 2017). Source: World International Telecommunications Union, database, 2016 or latest available data ICT Indicators Female, male secondary education attainment rate • (accessed September 2017). (% aged 25–54). Percentage of the population aged 25–54 with at least a secondary education (ISCED 2–4). Graduates by Degree Type This data is cumulative, which means that those with • Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in tertiary education are counted in the figures. Source: Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Veterinary Lutz et al., 2015, and Barro and Lee, 2010, op. cit. Measures the percentage of female (female, male). (accessed September 2017). and male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Veterinary (% of total Female, male secondary education attainment rate • number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Institute for (% aged 65 and over). Percentage of the population , 2016 or latest available Education Indicators Statistics, aged 65 and over with at least a secondary education data (accessed September 2017). (ISCED 2–4). This data is cumulative, which means that those with tertiary education are counted in the figures. Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Arts • Source: Lutz et al., 2015, and Barro and Lee, 2010, op. and Humanities (female, male). Measures the cit. (accessed September 2017). percentage of female and male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in Arts and Humanities (% of total number Female, male tertiary education attainment rate • of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, Percentage of the population (% aged 25 and over). Education Indicators , 2016 or latest available data aged 25 and over with a tertiary education (ISCED 5-8). (accessed September 2017). Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, Education , 2016 or latest available data (accessed Indicators • Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Business, September 2017). Administration and Law (female, male). Measures the percentage of female and male graduates in ISCED 5-8 Female, male tertiary education attainment rate • programmes in Business, Administration and Law (% of (% aged 25–54). Percentage of the population aged total number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Institute 25–54 with a tertiary education (ISCED 5-8). Source: , 2016 or latest Education Indicators for Statistics, Lutz et al., 2015, and Barro and Lee, 2010, op. cit. available data (accessed September 2017). (accessed September 2017). • Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Education • Female, male tertiary education attainment rate (female, male). Measures the percentage of female and (% aged 65 and over). Percentage of the population male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in Education aged 65 and over with a tertiary education (ISCED 5-8). (% of total number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Source: Lutz et al., 2015, and Barro and Lee, 2010, op. Institute for Statistics, Education Indicators , 2016 or cit. (accessed September 2017). latest available data (accessed September 2017). • Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction (female, male). Measures the percentage of female and male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction (% of total number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Institute for Education Indicators Statistics, , 2016 or latest available data (accessed September 2017). The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 54

65 Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Health and Mortality due to non-communicable diseases, • • age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, Measures the percentage of Welfare (female, male). male). female and male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes Measures the age-standardized death rates per in Health and Welfare (% of total number of graduates). 100,000 population for non-communicable diseases, Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, including malignant neoplasms (all forms of cancer), Education , 2016 or latest available data (accessed diabetes, neurological conditions, cardiovascular Indicators September 2017). diseases, respiratory diseases, digestive diseases, genitourinary diseases and others. Source: World • Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Health Organization, Department of Information, Information and Communication Technologies Evidence and Research, Estimated Deaths by Cause, (female, male). Measures the percentage of female , 2015 database Age, Sex and WHO Member State and male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in (accessed September 2017). Information and Communication Technologies (% of total number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Institute Mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases, • age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, for Statistics, Education Indicators , 2016 or latest Measures the age-standardized death rates available data (accessed September 2017). male). per 100,000 population for infectious and parasitic Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Natural • diseases, including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics (female, other sexually transmitted diseases, diarrhoeal Measures the percentage of female and male male). diseases, childhood-cluster diseases (whooping graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in Natural cough, diphtheria, measles and tetanus), meningitis, Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics (% of total encephalitis, hepatitis and parasitic and vector diseases number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Institute for (malaria, schistosomiasis, dengue, yellow fever, rabies Education Indicators Statistics, , 2016 or latest available and others). Source: World Health Organization, data (accessed September 2017). Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Estimated Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex and WHO • Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Services , 2015 database (accessed September Member State (female, male). Measures the percentage of female and 2017 ). male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in Services (% of total number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, • Mortality due to accidental injuries, age- , 2016 or Education Indicators Institute for Statistics, standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male). latest available data (accessed September 2017). Measures the age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population for accidental injuries, including • Percentage of tertiary-level graduates in Social road injury, poisonings, falls, fire, heat and hot Sciences, Journalism and Information (female, substances, drowning, exposure to mechanical Measures the percentage of female and male). forces and natural disasters. Source: World Health male graduates in ISCED 5-8 programmes in Social Organization, Department of Information, Evidence Sciences, Journalism and Information (% of total Estimated Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex and Research, number of graduates). Source: UNESCO, Institute for and WHO Member State , 2015 database (accessed Education Indicators Statistics, , 2016 or latest available September 2017). data (accessed September 2017). • Mortality due to intentional injuries and self-harm, Health age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, Mortality of children under age 5, all causes, age- • male). Measures the age-standardized death rates per standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male). 100,000 population for intentional injuries, including Measures the age-standardized death rates per self-harm, interpersonal violence, collective violence and 100,000 population for all causes for children under conflict. Source: World Health Organization, Department the age of 5 years. Source: World Health Organization, of Information, Evidence and Research, Estimated Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex and WHO Member State , Estimated Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex and WHO 2015 database (accessed September 2017). , 2015 database (accessed September Member State 2017 ). The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 55

66 • Maternal mortality in childbirth (per 100,000 live Notes The maternal mortality ratio is the annual births). 1 Please note that the parity benchmark is 1 for all indicators, except number of female deaths from any cause related to or sex ratio at birth (0.944) and healthy life expectancy (1.06). Therefore, aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding the parity benchmark of 1 for the Health and Survival subindex is not strictly accurate. accidental or incidental causes) during pregnancy and 2 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), www.ilo. childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/. irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, 3 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), www.uis. per 100,000 live births, for a specified year. Source: unesco.org/Education/Documents/isced-2011-en.pdf. World Health Organization, Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Estimated Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex and WHO Member State , 2015 database (accessed September 2017). • Existence of legislation on domestic violence. Consolidated survey response—representing the expert view of local practitioners in family, labour and criminal law—answering the question: “Is there domestic Women, violence legislation?”. Source: World Bank, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Equal dataset (accessed September 2017). Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime. • Percentage of women who have experienced physical and/or sexual violence from an intimate partner at some Gender, Institutions time in their lives. Source: OECD, (accessed and Development Database 2015 (GID-DB) September 2017). • Law permits abortion to preserve a woman’s Source: United Nations, Department physical health. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, database, 2015 or latest World Population Policies available data (accessed September 2017). • Births attended by skilled health personnel (%). Measures the percentage of live births attended by skilled health personnel in a given period of time. Source: World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory, Maternal Health , 2015 or latest available data (accessed September 2017). • Antenatal care coverage, at least four visits (%). Measures the percentage of women aged 15–49 with a live birth in a given time period that received antenatal care provided by skilled health personnel (doctors, nurses or midwives) at least four times during pregnancy. Source: World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory, Maternal Health , 2015 or latest available data (accessed September 2017). The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 56

67 List of Countries Country Page Country Page Country Page Page Country ... 202 Cuba ... 274 ... Poland Albania ... 130 58 Kyrgyz Republic ... 276 ... Algeria ... 132 Lao PDR Cyprus 204 Portugal ... 60 ... 134 ... Czech Republic 278 ... 62 Qatar 206 ... Latvia Angola ... Denmark 208 ... 136 64 ... Argentina Lebanon 280 ... Romania 138 ... Dominican Republic ... 210 282 Lesotho ... Russian Federation 66 ... Armenia Australia Rwanda 284 Ecuador 140 212 ... ... 68 ... Liberia ... Egypt 70 214 Lithuania ... 142 286 Austria ... ... Saudi Arabia ... El Salvador Azerbaijan ... 288 216 ... Senegal ... 144 72 ... Luxembourg 74 218 ... Macedonia, FYR Serbia Estonia ... 146 Bahamas ... 290 ... 292 ... Ethiopia 76 ... 148 Bahrain ... 220 ... Madagascar Singapore Fiji ... Bangladesh 294 222 ... Malawi ... Slovak Republic 78 ... 150 Malaysia 224 152 ... Finland ... ... 80 Slovenia ... 296 Barbados 226 82 ... Maldives ... France ... 154 South Africa ... 298 Belarus 228 ... 156 84 Gambia, The 300 Spain ... Mali Belgium ... ... 86 ... Malta Georgia ... 158 ... 302 ... Sri Lanka Belize 230 88 232 ... Suriname Benin ... 304 160 ... Germany Mauritania ... ... Ghana 306 Bhutan ... ... 90 162 Swaziland Mauritius ... 234 Bolivia 236 164 Sweden Greece ... 308 92 ... Mexico ... ... 238 ... Guatemala 94 ... Bosnia and Herzegovina Moldova Switzerland ... 310 166 ... Mongolia 96 240 Guinea ... 168 ... Botswana ... 312 ... Syria 242 98 Montenegro 314 ... Tajikistan ... Honduras ... Brazil ... 170 Brunei Darussalam ... Tanzania 316 172 Morocco ... 244 ... Hungary 100 ... ... Thailand ... Mozambique ... Iceland 246 174 318 Bulgaria ... 102 Timor-Leste Myanmar ... 248 320 176 ... India ... Burkina Faso ... 104 106 322 Burundi Tunisia 178 ... Indonesia ... Namibia ... 250 ... 108 252 ... Nepal ... Turkey 324 ... Iran, Islamic Rep. ... 180 Cambodia ... Cameroon Uganda 326 254 ... Netherlands Ireland ... 182 110 ... ... 256 184 112 ... Canada ... 328 ... Ukraine Israel New Zealand Nicaragua Cape Verde 114 ... Italy 330 ... United Arab Emirates ... ... 258 186 Nigeria ... 260 Jamaica 116 ... Chad United Kingdom ... 332 188 ... United States 262 118 Japan ... 190 334 ... Chile ... Norway ... 120 336 ... Pakistan China ... 264 192 ... Jordan Uruguay ... 194 ... Kazakhstan 266 Panama Colombia ... 122 ... Venezuela ... 338 ... 196 Costa Rica ... 124 340 Paraguay ... 268 Kenya Vietnam ... 198 ... Peru ... 270 126 Korea, Rep. ... 342 Côte d'Ivoire Yemen ... ... Philippines ... 272 Croatia ... Kuwait ... 200 128 344 Zimbabwe The Global Gender Gap Report 2017 57

68 rank out of 144 countries 38 scor e A lbania 0.00 = imparity 0.728 1.00 = parity AVG ALB 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 11.93 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 11,424.63 Total population (1,000s) 2,926.35 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.12 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e 58.22 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 61 38 0.661 0.728 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.673 0.661 70 38 Educational attainment 87 0.986 58 0.989 ZJsY i ESIerPe Health and survival 120 0.968 110 0.955 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 105 0.038 31 0.284 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.673 70 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 70.4 0.68 ce participation 100 0.675 0.667 47.5 0.83 0.634 0.831 3 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.528 0.509 8,215 15,569 0.53 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 98 22.5 0.320 0.290 94 Legislators, senior officials and managers 77.5 0.29 43.6 0.758 1.000 1 1.29 Pr ofessional and technical workers 56.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.986 87 76 0.883 Literacy rate 0.977 98.4 0.98 96.1 96.2 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 102 0.986 0.979 94.8 86.4 105 Enr olment in secondary education 0.988 0.971 85.4 0.99 48.7 68.1 1.40 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.968 Health and survival 120 0.956 0.93 Sex ratio at birth 137 0.928 0.920 71.0 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 66.8 1.06 0.227 0.284 31 Political empowerment 0.39 0.386 48 Women in parliament 27.9 72.1 0.279 40.0 60.0 0.67 Women in ministerial positions 10 0.667 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 58 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

69 0.728 / 38 ALB TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 31.8 1.09 Youth not in employment or education 29.3 – 365.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 65.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 17.1 17.1 1.00 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 48.0 52.0 Discouraged job seekers 1.08 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.12 8.8 9.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 17.9 nment pr Gover 27.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.52 yes 39.8 Contributing family workers 1.79 22.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 16.7 34.4 0.48 1.37 3.5 4.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 96.9 94.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 98.5 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 98.5 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 78.6 95.3 0.82 Economic Leadershi p Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 1.07 19.1 20.6 2 0.81 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.96 46.2 44.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 46.8 52.3 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.90 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.14 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 35.3 12.9 0.37 0.13 Firms with female top managers 13.5 Tertiary education attainment, adults 12.4 0.92 1.6 1.2 1.33 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 1.0 22.3 0.04 Tertiary ed 0.20 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.1 0.4 R&D personnel 49.0 51.0 0.96 0.1 1.59 0.1 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 42.5 Hold an account at a financial institution 33.6 0.79 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.45 6.8 3.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.32 Arts and Humanities 12.8 9.7 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 26.9 0.80 33.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.23 Education 15.0 6.7 part ownership 0.40 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.0 12.7 – .) – – nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 17.4 elfar e Health and W 9.8 1.78 female male value Political Leadership 7.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 3.8 0.54 Year women r eceived right to vote 1920 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.52 6.0 4.0 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 97 Services 1.8 0.43 4.1 Number of female heads of state to date 0 8.6 5.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.51 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.75 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 8.7 11.4 0.77 Seats held in upper house 7.0 0.08 93.0 1 0.1 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.60 1 0.34 0.2 Mortality 0.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.2 0.31 25.1 29.2 0.86 Average length of single life 1 29 , childbirth Mortality 9.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 37.5 3.83 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 31.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.71 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 13.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 99.30 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 44 Antenatal car 66.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 59 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

70 rank out of 144 countries 127 scor e A lgeria 0.00 = imparity 0.629 1.00 = parity AVG DZA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 156.08 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 13,974.67 Total population (1,000s) 40,606.05 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.78 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e 51.51 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 97 127 0.602 0.629 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.442 0.443 132 103 Educational attainment 107 0.957 84 0.944 ZgsY i ESkiYPe Health and survival 106 0.970 78 0.971 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 98 0.049 86 0.145 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.442 132 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.2 0.24 ce participation 141 0.243 0.667 18.5 0.78 0.634 0.779 13 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.183 0.509 4,624 25,319 0.18 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 140 9.9 0.320 0.110 119 Legislators, senior officials and managers 90.1 0.11 55.8 0.758 0.792 92 0.79 Pr ofessional and technical workers 44.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.957 107 112 0.883 Literacy rate 0.818 82.6 0.82 67.5 97.4 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 110 0.981 0.979 95.5 50.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 50.0 1.00 28.9 45.1 1.56 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.970 Health and survival 106 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.2 1.037 1.028 114 Healthy life expectancy 65.4 1.03 0.227 0.145 86 Political empowerment 0.35 0.347 58 Women in parliament 25.8 74.2 0.279 13.3 86.7 0.15 Women in ministerial positions 98 0.154 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 60 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

71 0.629 / 127 DZA TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 32.1 2.97 Youth not in employment or education 10.8 3.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 17.1 9.2 1.87 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.25 18.1 4.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 9.8 nment pr Gover 28.7 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.93 yes 1.6 Contributing family workers 1.01 1.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 19.6 24.0 0.82 2.00 1.8 3.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.75 73.5 55.2 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 56.8 1.00 56.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 4.4 15.3 0.29 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.68 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.81 28.1 22.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 28.3 0.94 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 30.1 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 6.0 1.2 0.20 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 7.2 ge 25-54 1.12 8.0 1.6 1.3 Employers 0.83 Tertiary education attainment, a 0.13 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.3 2.7 R&D personnel 33.4 66.6 0.50 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 40.1 60.9 0.66 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.15 1.5 1.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 2.04 Arts and Humanities 28.5 14.0 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 19.6 0.88 22.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.00 Education 2.3 1.2 ownership part 0.39 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 10.9 27.8 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 3.6 elfar e Health and W 3.6 0.99 female male value Political Leadership 3.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.4 0.64 Year women r eceived right to vote 1962 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.81 13.4 7.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 55 Services 0.7 0.26 2.7 Number of female heads of state to date 0 15.9 10.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.49 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 35 Health 1 , childr 13.0 11.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.87 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 68.6 75.5 0.91 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 4.8 3.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.63 1 0.39 4.7 Mortality 12.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.6 2.5 0.23 29.1 32.9 0.88 Average length of single life 1 140 , childbirth Mortality 2.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 22.1 11.18 Legislation on domestic violence no 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.78 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 10.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 11 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 96.60 Births attended Total dependency ratio 54 Antenatal car 67.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 61 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

72 rank out of 144 countries 123 scor e A ngola 0.00 = imparity 0.640 1.00 = parity AVG AGO 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 89.63 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 6,024.73 Total population (1,000s) 28,813.46 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 3.34 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 96 123 0.604 0.640 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.560 0.587 119 69 Educational attainment 139 0.763 107 0.779 ZgsY L ErksSe Health and survival 64 0.976 1 0.980 L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment 81 0.070 39 0.262 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZgsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.560 119 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 78.0 0.78 ce participation 78 0.782 0.667 61.0 0.40 0.634 0.404 131 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.579 0.509 4,789 8,277 0.58 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 89 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.763 139 125 0.883 Literacy rate 0.668 80.0 0.67 53.4 94.9 0.77 Enr olment in primary education 130 0.769 0.979 73.0 13.7 131 Enr olment in secondary education 0.812 0.971 11.1 0.81 10.4 8.2 0.79 0.938 0.793 109 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 64 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 47.0 1.037 1.049 74 Healthy life expectancy 44.8 1.05 0.227 0.262 39 Political empowerment 0.62 0.618 18 Women in parliament 38.2 61.8 0.279 22.2 77.8 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 56 0.286 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 62 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

73 0.640 / 123 AGO TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 0.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave – – – – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 33.2 66.8 Discouraged job seekers 2.02 59.3 1.34 – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 79.5 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.70 2.0 1.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 12.1 Contributing family workers 1.28 9.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 68.7 44.8 1.53 5.31 5.1 27.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 83.7 Out-of-school youth 1.09 77.1 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 1.30 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.16 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 9.5 Employers 2.5 0.26 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – age 65+ – – R&D personnel 27.9 72.1 0.39 Tertiary education attainment, – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 22.3 36.1 0.62 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.51 0.8 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.90 Arts and Humanities 1.4 1.6 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 32.3 1.17 27.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.80 Education 21.6 26.9 ownership part 0.27 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.7 13.9 Mean monthly ear 0.75 44.8 59.8 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 17.1 elfar e Health and W 5.5 3.11 female male value Political Leadership 7.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.5 0.32 Year women r eceived right to vote 1975 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.72 1.5 2.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 42 Services 0.7 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 18.7 13.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.40 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 90.1 79.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.88 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 47.0 46.1 1.02 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 49.7 44.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.90 1 0.60 10.9 Mortality 18.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 2.1 5.4 0.38 20.4 24.1 0.85 Average length of single life 1 477 , childbirth Mortality 39.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 68.1 1.72 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 78.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 5.69 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 27.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 22 Potential support ratio ended by skilled health personnel 47.30 Births att Total dependency ratio 97 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 63 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

74 rank out of 144 countries 34 scor e A rgentina 0.00 = imparity 0.732 1.00 = parity AVG ARG 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 545.87 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 18,479.44 Total population (1,000s) 43,847.43 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.97 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e 64.34 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 41 34 0.683 0.732 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.596 0.551 111 82 Educational attainment 44 0.998 29 0.997 ZgsY i EY kir[Pre Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 23 0.204 21 0.356 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.596 111 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 81.7 0.69 ce participation 94 0.692 0.667 56.5 0.53 0.634 0.528 118 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.485 0.509 13,122 27,043 0.49 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 112 30.6 0.320 0.441 71 Legislators, senior officials and managers 69.4 0.44 45.7 0.758 1.000 1 1.19 Pr ofessional and technical workers 54.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.998 44 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 98.0 1.00 98.1 99.5 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 80 0.996 0.979 99.1 85.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 90.9 1.06 63.5 102.9 1.62 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 70.2 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 65.0 1.08 0.227 0.356 21 Political empowerment 0.64 0.637 16 Women in parliament 38.9 61.1 0.279 17.4 82.6 0.21 Women in ministerial positions 81 0.211 0.209 0.200 9.7 0.24 Years with female head of state (last 50) 15 0.242 40.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 64 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

75 0.32 / 34 A5G TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 23.7 1.72 Youth not in employment or education 13.8 2.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 8.2 6.2 1.33 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 53.7 46.3 Discouraged job seekers 0.86 50.8 1.00 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 50.7 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.40 8.1 11.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 16.8 nment pr Gover 41.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.48 yes 1.3 Contributing family workers 2.56 0.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 16.5 23.2 0.71 4.12 0.1 0.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 90.6 89.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 98.8 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 98.5 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 94.1 95.0 0.99 Economic Lea dership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.41 16.4 6.7 2 0.55 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.09 40.3 43.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 69.9 62.7 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.11 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.61 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 37.8 35.4 0.94 0.10 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 23.1 11.8 1.96 tainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.3 0.5 4.66 Tertiary education at 0.99 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 9.3 9.4 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 49.5 Hold an account at a financial institution 50.9 1.03 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.50 4.0 2.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.33 Arts and Humanities 10.6 7.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 21.3 0.75 28.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.32 Education 21.6 9.3 yes ownership 0.29 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.6 12.2 0.73 .) 5.6 7.7 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 19.8 elfar e Health and W 13.4 1.48 female male value Political Leadership 6.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.8 0.27 Year women r eceived right to vote 1947 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.27 3.7 2.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 70 Services 2.5 0.39 6.4 Number of female heads of state to date 2 11.2 8.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.29 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 5.3 4.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 132.0 134.6 0.98 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 3.7 1.9 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.51 1 0.49 5.0 Mortality 10.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.4 6.8 0.21 24.6 26.6 0.92 Average length of single life 1 52 , childbirth Mortality 27.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 39.6 1.45 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.29 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 6.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 6 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 57 Antenatal car 89.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 65 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

76 rank out of 144 countries 97 scor e A rmenia 0.00 = imparity 0.677 1.00 = parity AVG ARM 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 10.55 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 8,174.37 Total population (1,000s) 2,924.82 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.23 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.89 e 64.46 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 97 – 0.677 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.671 – 71 – Educational attainment 42 0.999 – – ZJsY i EYTirme Health and survival 143 0.939 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 111 0.099 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.671 71 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 77.7 0.77 ce participation 84 0.768 0.667 59.6 0.70 0.634 0.695 41 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.546 0.509 6,340 11,610 0.55 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 97 29.1 0.320 0.410 76 Legislators, senior officials and managers 70.9 0.41 38.3 0.758 1.000 1 1.61 Pr ofessional and technical workers 61.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.999 42 46 0.883 Literacy rate 0.999 99.8 1.00 99.7 96.2 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 73 0.997 0.979 95.9 82.5 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 97.4 1.18 41.6 46.9 1.13 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.939 Health and survival 143 0.956 0.89 Sex ratio at birth 143 0.886 0.920 68.9 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 64.6 1.07 0.227 0.099 111 Political empowerment 0.22 0.221 93 Women in parliament 18.1 81.9 0.279 11.1 88.9 0.13 Women in ministerial positions 106 0.125 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 66 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

77 0.677 / 97 ARM TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 34.8 0.96 Youth not in employment or education 36.4 0.0 140.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 19.2 17.4 1.11 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 18.0 82.0 Discouraged job seekers 4.56 32.4 0.59 – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 19.1 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.07 13.9 15.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 22.2 nment pr Gover 41.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.84 yes 10.5 Contributing family workers 2.38 4.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 32.0 36.9 0.87 1.08 3.5 3.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.6 99.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 99.9 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.8 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.2 99.7 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.43 26.4 11.3 2 0.68 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.00 91.6 92.0 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 98.9 97.8 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.01 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.34 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 88.1 85.9 0.97 0.24 Firms with female top managers 27.7 Tertiary education attainment, adults 27.0 0.97 28.6 24.2 1.18 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 0.3 4.4 0.08 Tertiary ed 0.82 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 18.7 22.8 R&D personnel – – – 0.5 0.49 0.2 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 53.0 56.6 net 0.94 20.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 14.3 0.69 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.41 5.7 2.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.23 Arts and Humanities 28.0 22.8 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 16.7 0.80 21.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.07 Education 21.8 7.1 yes ownership 0.26 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.1 16.2 0.67 .) 79.5 119.2 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 16.6 elfar e Health and W 8.1 2.06 female male value Political Leadership 2.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.8 0.35 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.66 5.1 7.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 0.5 0.11 4.1 Number of female heads of state to date 0 1.0 0.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.87 Election list quotas for women, national 20 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.3 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.70 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 14.2 13.1 1.08 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.41 1 0.41 0.3 Mortality 0.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.2 0.30 24.6 28.3 0.87 Average length of single life 1 25 , childbirth Mortality 13.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 41.3 3.06 Legislation on domestic violence no 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 10.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.61 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 14.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 6 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 45 Antenatal car 92.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 67 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

78 rank out of 144 countries 35 scor e A ustralia 0.00 = imparity 0.731 1.00 = parity AVG AUS 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,204.62 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 44,414.03 Total population (1,000s) 24,125.85 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.35 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 71.56 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 15 35 0.716 0.731 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.724 0.726 42 12 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY i E\Z[YeSPe Health and survival 104 0.970 57 0.976 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 32 0.163 48 0.232 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.724 42 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.5 0.86 ce participation 56 0.859 0.667 70.8 0.66 0.634 0.659 62 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.624 0.509 35,979 57,677 0.62 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 63 37.6 0.320 0.602 34 Legislators, senior officials and managers 62.4 0.60 46.0 0.758 1.000 1 1.18 Pr ofessional and technical workers 54.0 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 96.7 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 97.3 86.4 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 88.8 1.03 75.4 106.3 1.41 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.970 Health and survival 104 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 72.9 1.037 1.029 112 Healthy life expectancy 70.8 1.03 0.227 0.232 48 Political empowerment 0.40 0.402 45 Women in parliament 28.7 71.3 0.279 24.1 75.9 0.32 Women in ministerial positions 43 0.318 0.209 0.200 3.0 0.06 Years with female head of state (last 50) 35 0.064 47.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 68 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

79 0.731 / 35 AUS TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 126 10.3 1.09 Youth not in employment or education 9.4 – – nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater – Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.8 5.7 1.02 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 43.5 54.0 Discouraged job seekers 1.24 – – – – nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.12 18.0 20.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 24.4 nment pr Gover 46.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.92 yes 0.3 Contributing family workers 1.40 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 8.1 12.8 0.64 0.80 3.1 2.5 en Out-of-school childr 1.02 475.7 Work, minutes per day 483.0 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 100.0 100.0 1.78 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 64.4 36.1 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.1 99.4 1.00 Ec onomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.59 9.0 5.3 2 0.72 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.94 77.8 73.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 23.1 76.9 0.30 99.9 99.8 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 80.2 76.5 0.95 – Firms with female top managers 27.7 Tertiary education attainment, adults 31.8 1.15 36.2 28.7 1.26 education attainment, age 25-54 Employers 4.2 0.2 22.99 Tertiary 0.83 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 17.6 21.3 R&D personnel – – – 1.7 0.59 1.0 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 98.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 99.0 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.76 1.0 0.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.20 Arts and Humanities 10.8 9.0 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 34.2 0.87 39.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.20 Education 10.0 4.5 yes ownership 0.25 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.1 16.5 – .) – – nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 24.9 elfar e Health and W 9.9 2.52 female male value Political Leadership 7.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.2 0.17 Year women r eceived right to vote 1902 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.77 4.1 5.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 115 Services 2.6 1.11 2.3 Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.1 4.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.48 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.6 0.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 67.4 68.1 0.99 Seats held in upper house 29.4 0.42 70.6 1 1.1 1.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.00 1 0.80 2.6 Mortality 3.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.9 2.2 0.39 29.9 31.4 0.95 Average length of single life 1 6 , childbirth Mortality 4.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 9.8 2.19 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 25.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.85 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 99.30 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car 85.00 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 69 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

80 rank out of 144 countries 57 scor e A ustria 0.00 = imparity 0.709 1.00 = parity AVG AUT 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 386.43 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 44,143.70 Total population (1,000s) 8,712.14 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.33 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e 73.29 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 27 57 0.699 0.709 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.660 0.553 80 81 Educational attainment 84 0.988 68 0.980 ZJsY i E\Z[YPe Health and survival 72 0.975 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 14 0.282 54 0.216 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.660 80 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.0 0.89 ce participation 40 0.887 0.667 71.0 0.60 0.634 0.595 90 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.524 0.509 34,645 66,144 0.52 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 101 31.8 0.320 0.466 64 Legislators, senior officials and managers 68.2 0.47 51.7 0.758 0.934 74 0.93 Pr ofessional and technical workers 48.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.988 84 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 52.2 114 Enr olment in secondary education 0.972 0.971 47.8 0.92 74.3 89.2 1.20 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.975 Health and survival 72 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.5 1.037 1.044 82 Healthy life expectancy 70.4 1.04 0.227 0.216 54 Political empowerment 0.44 0.441 42 Women in parliament 30.6 69.4 0.279 23.1 76.9 0.30 Women in ministerial positions 49 0.300 0.209 0.200 0.6 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 57 0.011 49.4 2.00 1.00 0.00 70 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

81 0.709 / 57 AUT TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 7.3 0.95 Youth not in employment or education 7.7 – 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.5 6.4 0.86 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 62.4 37.6 Discouraged job seekers 0.60 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.92 17.2 15.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 22.0 nment pr Gover 48.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.22 yes 1.6 Contributing family workers 1.18 1.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.9 7.4 0.80 – – – en Out-of-school childr 1.04 500.1 Work, minutes per day 517.7 Primary education attainment, adults – – – 1.92 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 51.9 27.1 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Econ omic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth – – – 2 0.66 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.84 86.0 72.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 20.0 80.0 0.25 94.2 95.3 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 97.6 96.9 0.99 – Firms with female top managers 13.7 Tertiary education attainment, adults 12.5 0.91 16.8 18.2 0.92 ge 25-54 Employers 2.5 1.4 1.83 Tertiary education attainment, a 0.34 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 5.6 16.4 R&D personnel 22.9 77.1 0.30 1.2 0.44 0.5 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 79.7 88.2 net 0.90 96.1 Hold an account at a financial institution 97.4 1.01 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.75 1.9 1.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.71 Arts and Humanities 11.1 6.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 22.4 1.08 20.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.69 Education 18.8 5.1 yes ownership 0.22 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.5 34.8 0.63 .) 1.9 3.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 8.3 elfar e Health and W 4.6 1.83 female male value Political Leadership 7.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.0 0.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.76 4.9 6.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 6.0 1.46 4.1 Number of female heads of state to date 2 11.8 8.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.46 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 38.4 33.8 1.14 Seats held in upper house 41.7 0.71 58.3 1 0.2 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.99 1 0.80 1.3 Mortality 1.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 1.1 0.34 27.1 29.8 0.91 Average length of single life 1 4 , childbirth Mortality 13.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 25.6 1.98 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 13.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.49 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 98.50 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 50 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 71 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

82 rank out of 144 countries 98 scor e A zerbaijan 0.00 = imparity 0.676 1.00 = parity AVG AZE 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 37.85 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 15,994.01 Total population (1,000s) 9,725.38 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.08 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 98 – 0.676 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.717 – 45 – Educational attainment 91 0.984 – – ZJsY L EaLYIePner Health and survival 142 0.941 – – L ezLYekL ZJsY Political empowerment – – 131 0.063 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL ezk ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.717 45 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 72.8 0.93 ce participation 19 0.926 0.667 67.4 0.73 0.634 0.727 29 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.475 0.509 11,134 23,424 0.48 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 117 35.1 0.320 0.540 46 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.9 0.54 41.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.43 Pr ofessional and technical workers 58.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.984 91 48 0.883 Literacy rate 0.999 99.9 1.00 99.7 95.3 0.97 Enr olment in primary education 115 0.975 0.979 92.9 – – Enr olment in secondary education – – – – 23.6 27.5 1.16 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.941 Health and survival 142 0.956 0.89 Sex ratio at birth 142 0.889 0.920 66.7 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 62.8 1.06 0.227 0.063 131 Political empowerment 0.20 0.202 98 Women in parliament 16.8 83.2 0.279 0.0 100.0 0.00 Women in ministerial positions 139 0.000 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 72 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

83 0.676 / 98 AZE TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 1039 12.4 1.78 Youth not in employment or education 7.0 0.0 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.9 4.1 1.44 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.97 13.6 13.2 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 14.3 nment pr Gover 23.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.64 yes 41.3 Contributing family workers 1.59 26.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 20.7 22.6 0.92 1.53 4.6 7.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 99.2 97.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.69 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.93 92.3 85.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.05 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.02 Firms with female top managers 0.66 Tertiary education attainment, adults 12.6 19.1 26.0 Employers 10.7 0.41 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – tion attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Tertiary educa 0.0 – PhD graduates 0.0 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 25.9 32.6 0.79 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.57 1.8 1.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.87 Arts and Humanities 11.5 6.2 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 16.5 0.57 29.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 4.35 Education 39.6 9.1 ownership yes 0.26 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.8 26.2 Mean monthly ear 0.50 0.3 0.6 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 7.8 elfar e Health and W 3.9 2.01 female male value Political Leadership 6.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.8 0.45 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.60 5.1 3.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 1.7 0.22 7.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 6.7 6.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.97 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 4.2 3.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.72 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 25.8 31.9 0.81 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.7 0.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.65 1 0.39 0.7 Mortality 1.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.4 0.22 24.3 28.2 0.86 Average length of single life 1 25 , childbirth Mortality 15.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 46.0 2.98 Legislation on domestic violence yes 26 Mean age of women at birth of first child 14.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.08 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 15.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 12 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 41 Antenatal car 66.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 73 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

84 rank out of 144 countries 27 scor e B ahamas 0.00 = imparity 0.743 1.00 = parity BHS AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 9.05 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 21,481.73 391.23 Total population (1,000s) Education 1.09 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 27 – 0.743 Health Economic participation and opportunity 3 – – 0.871 Educational attainment 1 – – 1.000 ZJsY L )eOeTeZ Health and survival 50 0.978 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 98 0.122 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR hmZ[erJL [s WeYm[` M3T ZJsY L e]k MLTeSL TeSL Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.871 3 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 77.5 84.7 0.91 Labour for ce participation 25 0.915 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.673 0.509 18,728 27,807 0.67 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 39 51.6 0.320 1.000 1 Legislators, senior officials and managers 48.4 1.07 39.7 0.758 1.000 1 1.52 Pr ofessional and technical workers 60.3 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 95.0 1.02 96.7 93.2 1.06 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.6 79.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 85.7 1.07 – – – – – – Enr olment in tertiary education 0.978 Health and survival 50 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 68.4 1.037 1.055 61 Healthy life expectancy 64.8 1.06 0.227 0.122 98 Political empowerment 0.15 0.147 111 Women in parliament 12.8 87.2 0.279 23.5 76.5 0.31 Women in ministerial positions 47 0.308 0.209 0.200 0.1 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 63 0.002 49.9 2.00 1.00 0.00 74 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

85 0.743 / 27 BHS TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 0.0 91.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 16.3 16.1 1.01 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.90 7.0 13.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 0.2 Contributing family workers 0.93 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 17.9 12.5 1.43 0.16 6.5 1.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 94.9 95.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 99.4 1.00 99.2 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 97.9 97.2 1.01 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 6.4 Out-of-school youth 0.64 10.0 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.02 81.2 82.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 95.8 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 95.6 Firms with female (co-)owners 1.40 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 78.6 78.7 1.00 0.50 Firms with female top managers 1.38 Tertiary education attainment, adults 17.5 12.7 19.4 cation attainment, age 25-54 1.54 30.0 0.2 – Employers – Tertiary edu 0.87 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 16.0 18.4 R&D personnel – – – 0.5 0.74 PhD graduates 0.4 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership – – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1961 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 56 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.82 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 0.9 1.0 0.90 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.56 1 0.35 0.0 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.19 27.9 30.6 0.91 Average length of single life 1 80 , childbirth Mortality 8.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 17.9 2.04 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.77 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 8 Potential support ratio ed health personnel 98.00 Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 41 Antenatal car 85.00 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 75 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

86 rank out of 144 countries 126 scor e B ahrain 0.00 = imparity 0.632 1.00 = parity AVG BHR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 31.86 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 44,456.22 Total population (1,000s) 1,425.17 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 4.22 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.64 e 64.98 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 102 126 0.589 0.632 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.537 0.383 120 111 Educational attainment 75 0.991 54 0.989 ZJsY i )eOYePr Health and survival 136 0.961 104 0.962 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 110 0.024 137 0.037 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.537 120 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 86.6 0.47 ce participation 128 0.467 0.667 40.5 0.79 0.634 0.787 9 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.589 0.509 33,017 56,061 0.59 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 84 22.4 0.320 0.289 95 Legislators, senior officials and managers 77.6 0.29 81.8 0.758 0.223 124 0.22 Pr ofessional and technical workers 18.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.991 75 90 0.883 Literacy rate 0.953 96.1 0.95 91.6 96.0 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 96.8 90.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 91.4 1.01 30.9 59.4 1.92 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.961 Health and survival 136 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.0 1.037 1.001 142 Healthy life expectancy 66.9 1.00 0.227 0.037 137 Political empowerment 0.08 0.081 133 Women in parliament 7.5 92.5 0.279 4.5 95.5 0.05 Women in ministerial positions 131 0.048 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 76 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

87 0.632 / 126 BHR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 1.0 60.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.9 0.5 8.26 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.45 6.9 3.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 0.6 Contributing family workers 1.52 0.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 0.3 0.6 0.52 0.62 2.5 1.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.91 70.5 63.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 97.3 0.98 99.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 39.6 79.4 0.50 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 7.0 Out-of-school youth 0.67 10.5 2 0.75 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.11 40.6 45.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 84.9 1.04 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 81.9 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 51.4 15.7 0.31 – Firms with female top managers 1.23 Tertiary education attainment, adults 10.8 8.8 14.7 ation attainment, age 25-54 1.33 19.6 0.4 2.2 Employers 5.27 Tertiary educ 0.23 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 3.6 15.3 R&D personnel 42.2 57.8 0.73 0.2 0.59 PhD graduates 0.1 value male female Access to Assets 94.6 1.04 Individuals using the inter net 98.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 66.7 90.2 0.74 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 3.91 Arts and Humanities 6.0 1.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 57.7 1.08 53.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.59 Education 5.8 3.7 ownership yes 0.30 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.7 18.8 Mean monthly ear 1.45 0.3 0.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.2 elfar e Health and W 5.4 1.51 female male value Political Leadership 8.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 5.1 0.62 Year women r eceived right to vote 1973 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 3.01 2.4 0.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 44 Services 2.9 1.94 1.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 5.2 5.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.01 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.88 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 1.1 1.6 0.73 Seats held in upper house 40.8 0.69 59.2 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.40 1 0.23 0.0 Mortality 0.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.17 26.3 30.0 0.88 Average length of single life 1 15 , childbirth Mortality 13.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 34.9 2.59 Legislation on domestic violence no 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.03 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 33 Potential support ratio ed health personnel – Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 29 Antenatal car 100.00 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 77 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

88 rank out of 144 countries 47 scor e B angladesh 0.00 = imparity 0.719 1.00 = parity AVG BGD 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 221.42 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 3,319.35 Total population (1,000s) 162,951.56 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.07 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e 51.75 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 91 47 0.627 0.719 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.465 0.423 129 107 Educational attainment 111 0.954 95 0.868 ZgsY L )erkSehLZl Health and survival 125 0.966 113 0.950 L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment 17 0.267 7 0.493 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[ergL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZgsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.465 129 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.3 0.54 ce participation 124 0.542 0.667 45.1 0.57 0.634 0.566 104 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.495 0.509 2,364 4,776 0.50 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 108 13.2 0.320 0.152 113 Legislators, senior officials and managers 86.8 0.15 70.9 0.758 0.411 116 0.41 Pr ofessional and technical workers 29.1 Educational attainment 0.953 0.954 111 97 0.883 Literacy rate 0.924 75.6 0.92 69.9 86.1 1.11 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 95.1 53.6 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 61.1 1.14 15.4 11.4 0.74 0.938 0.738 114 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.966 Health and survival 125 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 62.9 1.037 1.016 132 Healthy life expectancy 61.9 1.02 0.227 0.493 7 Political empowerment 0.25 0.254 78 Women in parliament 20.3 79.7 0.279 6.3 93.8 0.07 Women in ministerial positions 122 0.067 0.209 0.200 23.6 0.90 Years with female head of state (last 50) 1 0.896 26.4 2.00 1.00 0.00 78 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

89 0.1 / 4 %GD TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 30.7 3.47 Youth not in employment or education 8.8 – 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.4 3.2 2.35 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 35.8 64.2 Discouraged job seekers 1.79 80.7 1.09 – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 87.7 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.27 4.4 1.2 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 6.1 nment pr Gover 29.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 4.85 no 37.6 Contributing family workers 8.12 4.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 33.1 47.6 0.70 0.00 9.9 0.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.79 52.9 41.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 67.7 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.90 75.5 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 23.7 59.3 0.40 Economic Leade rship Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.96 55.5 53.3 2 0.57 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.64 20.8 13.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 39.2 51.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.75 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.15 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 35.9 6.3 0.18 0.05 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 10.7 20.6 0.52 tainment, age 25-54 Employers 0.4 4.6 0.08 Tertiary education at 0.07 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.9 12.7 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 5.1 8.2 net 0.62 32.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 25.2 0.77 value male female s access to financial services Women’ part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.35 1.2 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.24 Arts and Humanities 37.1 29.8 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 12.9 0.45 28.9 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 4.78 Education 8.1 1.7 part ownership 0.05 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 0.2 4.5 0.92 .) 12.1 13.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 1.6 elfar e Health and W 2.3 0.69 female male value Political Leadership 2.0 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.2 0.08 Year women r eceived right to vote 1935 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.67 9.4 13.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 82 Services 0.0 – – Number of female heads of state to date 2 28.2 15.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.81 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 64.1 52.9 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 270.9 306.5 0.88 Seats held in upper house 31.1 0.45 68.9 1 72.5 45.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.63 1 0.51 18.4 Mortality 36.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 6.8 6.7 1.02 18.6 25.2 0.74 Average length of single life 1 176 , childbirth Mortality 30.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 84.0 2.74 Legislation on domestic violence yes 25 Mean age of women at birth of first child 53.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.10 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 14.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 13 Potential support ratio ttended by skilled health personnel 42.10 Births a Total dependency ratio 51 Antenatal car 31.20 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 79 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

90 rank out of 144 countries 23 scor e B arbados 0.00 = imparity 0.750 1.00 = parity BRB AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 4.59 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 15,588.27 285.00 Total population (1,000s) Education 0.26 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.92 e Human Capital Index scor 59.21 Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 23 – 0.750 Health Economic participation and opportunity 2 – – 0.877 Educational attainment 1 – – 1.000 ZJsY L )eYIeKsZ Health and survival 83 0.973 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 82 0.150 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` M3T ZJsY L e]k MLTeSL TeSL Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.877 2 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 75.3 81.3 0.93 Labour for ce participation 20 0.926 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.682 0.509 13,750 20,151 0.68 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 34 50.0 0.320 1.000 1 Legislators, senior officials and managers 50.0 1.00 43.3 0.758 1.000 1 Pr ofessional and technical workers 1.31 56.7 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 98.9 1.00 99.0 90.1 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 92.0 98.9 Enr olment in secondary education 1 1.000 0.971 100.0 1.01 2.25 90.6 2.25 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 40.3 Health and survival 83 0.973 0.956 0.97 0.920 0.944 1 Sex ratio at birth 92 65.5 1.037 68.0 Healthy life expectancy 1.04 1.039 Political empowerment 0.227 0.150 82 83.3 0.20 99 0.200 Women in parliament 16.7 0.279 11.8 88.2 0.13 Women in ministerial positions 104 0.133 0.209 0.200 5.5 0.12 Years with female head of state (last 50) 24 0.125 44.5 2.00 1.00 0.00 80 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

91 0.750 / 23 BRB TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 10.3 12.4 0.84 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 0.2 Contributing family workers – 0.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 11.1 20.3 0.55 0.80 9.4 7.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 86.4 86.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 97.0 1.00 97.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 85.1 84.9 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 1.7 Out-of-school youth 0.42 4.1 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.11 22.9 25.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 30.9 1.36 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 22.6 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.77 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 23.0 23.5 1.02 0.34 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 0.8 ainment, age 25-54 3.30 2.7 0.0 0.6 Employers – Tertiary education att 1.01 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.6 0.6 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership – – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1950 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 67 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 1.3 1.3 1.02 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.1 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.54 1 0.86 0.0 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.0 0.43 31.8 34.3 0.93 Average length of single life 1 27 , childbirth Mortality – Pr oportion married by age 25 – – Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.80 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio ed health personnel – Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 51 Antenatal car 87.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 81 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

92 rank out of 144 countries 2 scor e % eOarXs 0.00 = imparity 0.744 1.00 = parity %LR AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 47.43 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 16,742.26 9,480.04 Total population (1,000s) Education -0.09 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.87 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 26 – 0.744 Health Economic participation and opportunity 5 – – 0.827 Educational attainment 35 – – 0.999 ZgsY i )iSeY\Z Health and survival 45 0.979 – – i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 73 0.173 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T ZgsY i e]k MiTeSi TeSi Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.827 5 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 68.2 76.6 0.89 Labour for ce participation 39 0.890 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.652 0.509 14,471 22,184 0.65 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 52 46.3 0.320 0.861 10 Legislators, senior officials and managers 53.7 0.86 2.66 27.3 1.000 1 Pr ofessional and technical workers 2.66 72.7 0.758 0.953 0.999 35 Educational attainment Literacy rate 53 0.997 99.5 99.8 1.00 0.883 94.6 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 96.1 1.02 100.0 1.01 Enr olment in secondary education 1 1.000 0.971 98.5 75.9 1.33 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 100.7 Health and survival 45 0.979 0.956 0.94 0.920 0.943 124 Sex ratio at birth 1 60.7 1.037 69.6 Healthy life expectancy 1.15 1.060 Political empowerment 0.227 0.173 73 65.5 0.53 29 0.528 Women in parliament 34.5 0.279 3.6 96.4 0.04 Women in ministerial positions 137 0.037 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 82 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

93 0.744 / 26 BLR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 1095 13.8 1.31 Youth not in employment or education 10.5 – 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 0.7 1.2 0.58 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 62.0 38.0 Discouraged job seekers 0.61 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.25 10.8 13.5 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 0.1 Contributing family workers 0.97 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 1.6 2.4 0.68 0.70 5.1 3.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 99.6 98.6 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 1.0 Out-of-school youth 0.29 3.4 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.94 87.8 82.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.77 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.49 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 0.1 Employers 0.7 7.77 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – on attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Tertiary educati – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 72.0 72.0 1.00 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.81 4.9 4.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 2.48 Arts and Humanities 7.1 2.9 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 43.9 2.19 20.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.12 Education 12.4 5.9 ownership yes 0.22 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 10.6 47.8 Mean monthly ear 0.78 0.7 0.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 9.0 elfar e Health and W 2.2 4.12 female male value Political Leadership 7.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.8 0.24 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.11 2.9 2.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 3.8 0.83 4.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 4.8 1.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 3.23 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.3 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.73 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 58.9 53.6 1.10 Seats held in upper house 43.8 0.78 56.3 1 1.6 0.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.42 1 0.29 1.8 Mortality 6.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.5 2.2 0.24 22.5 24.8 0.91 Average length of single life 1 4 , childbirth Mortality 36.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 57.9 1.57 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 25.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.70 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 27.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 100.00 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 45 Antenatal car 99.70 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 83 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

94 rank out of 144 countries 31 scor e B elgium 0.00 = imparity 0.739 1.00 = parity AVG BEL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 466.37 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 41,945.69 Total population (1,000s) 11,358.38 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.62 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 72.46 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 20 31 0.708 0.739 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.716 0.620 46 54 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZgsY i )iSkm\T Health and survival 63 0.976 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 19 0.232 37 0.264 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[ergi [s WeYm[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.716 46 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 72.8 0.87 ce participation 48 0.871 0.667 63.4 0.66 0.634 0.665 57 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.648 0.509 36,604 56,472 0.65 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 55 32.7 0.320 0.485 62 Legislators, senior officials and managers 67.3 0.48 48.2 0.758 1.000 1 1.07 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.8 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 98.9 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 99.0 94.9 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 95.7 1.01 65.0 85.4 1.31 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 63 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 72.8 1.037 1.049 73 Healthy life expectancy 69.4 1.05 0.227 0.264 37 Political empowerment 0.61 0.613 19 Women in parliament 38.0 62.0 0.279 23.1 76.9 0.30 Women in ministerial positions 49 0.300 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 84 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

95 0.739 / 31 BEL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 120 11.8 0.94 Youth not in employment or education 12.5 10.0 105.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 77.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.6 8.1 0.94 80.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 66.8 33.2 Discouraged job seekers 0.50 – – dual gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.14 19.7 22.5 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 18.4 nment pr Gover 40.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.23 yes 1.2 Contributing family workers 2.61 0.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 7.1 12.3 0.58 0.85 0.8 0.7 en Out-of-school childr 1.04 416.4 Work, minutes per day 434.0 Primary education attainment, adults 0.98 95.9 94.3 1.56 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 56.5 36.2 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 E conomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.30 0.5 0.1 2 0.69 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.95 67.8 64.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 27.0 73.0 0.37 91.1 91.8 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 70.3 61.5 0.87 – Firms with female top managers 30.9 Tertiary education attainment, adults 32.5 1.05 43.8 34.8 1.26 education attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.3 0.5 5.12 Tertiary 0.70 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 15.8 22.5 R&D personnel 27.4 72.6 0.38 0.8 0.48 0.4 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 84.3 85.8 net 0.98 96.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 99.5 1.03 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.90 2.5 2.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.17 Arts and Humanities 11.4 9.8 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 16.2 0.76 21.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.58 Education 12.0 4.6 yes ownership 0.21 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.0 23.7 0.78 .) 2.6 3.3 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 32.3 elfar e Health and W 14.8 2.18 female male value Political Leadership 4.0 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.2 0.05 Year women r eceived right to vote 1919 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.52 2.7 5.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 98 Services 1.3 0.71 1.8 Number of female heads of state to date 0 13.5 8.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.52 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 0.3 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 48.0 45.6 1.05 Seats held in upper house 22.5 0.29 77.5 1 0.7 0.8 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.13 1 0.92 2.2 Mortality 2.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.8 1.7 0.46 26.3 28.6 0.92 Average length of single life 1 7 , childbirth Mortality 13.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 27.1 2.01 Legislation on domestic violence no 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 24.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.79 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 3.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 55 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 85 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

96 rank out of 144 countries 79 scor e B elize 0.00 = imparity 0.692 1.00 = parity BLZ AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1.77 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 7,831.45 366.95 Total population (1,000s) Education 2.10 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 79 – 0.692 Health Economic participation and opportunity 21 – – 0.772 Educational attainment 85 – – 0.988 ZJsY i )iSPai Health and survival 61 0.976 – – i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 139 0.032 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT ZJsY i ezk MiTeSi TeSi Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.772 21 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 58.9 86.2 0.68 Labour for ce participation 97 0.683 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.678 0.509 6,831 10,076 0.68 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 37 45.8 0.320 0.847 11 Legislators, senior officials and managers 54.2 0.85 48.3 0.758 1.000 1 1.07 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.988 85 – – Literacy rate – – – – 97.2 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 112 0.978 0.979 95.1 68.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 71.1 1.05 17.9 28.7 1.61 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 61 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 63.8 1.037 1.049 70 Healthy life expectancy 60.8 1.05 0.227 0.032 139 Political empowerment 0.10 0.103 128 Women in parliament 9.4 90.6 0.279 0.0 100.0 0.00 Women in ministerial positions 139 0.000 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 86 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

97 0.692 / 79 BLZ TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 10.1 1.53 Youth not in employment or education 6.6 – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 80.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 15.1 6.8 2.22 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 25.2 74.6 Discouraged job seekers 2.96 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.22 2.5 3.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 11.2 nment pr Gover 19.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.71 yes 4.8 Contributing family workers 1.36 3.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 25.4 20.3 1.25 4.06 0.3 1.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.8 99.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 97.1 1.00 96.9 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 85.9 86.0 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 37.0 Out-of-school youth 0.94 39.5 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.02 36.4 37.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 36.6 1.13 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 32.4 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.44 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 17.5 14.1 0.81 0.34 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 14.8 ttainment, age 25-54 1.12 16.6 3.5 3.8 Employers 1.06 Tertiary education a 0.81 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 7.4 9.1 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 52.3 44.1 1.19 value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.30 3.6 1.1 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters 1.39 Arts and Humanities 3.2 2.3 Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 41.7 1.22 34.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.77 Education 21.0 7.6 ownership – 0.06 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 0.2 3.3 Mean monthly ear 0.99 1.2 1.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 4.7 elfar e Health and W 3.6 1.29 female male value Political Leadership 9.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.3 0.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1954 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.62 10.3 16.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 63 Services 6.3 0.55 11.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 3.4 2.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.29 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 0.6 0.8 0.83 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.1 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.69 1 0.27 0.0 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.22 28.6 30.1 0.95 Average length of single life 1 28 , childbirth Mortality 10.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 19.5 1.83 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.51 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 17 Potential support ratio ed health personnel – Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 56 Antenatal car 83.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 87 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

98 rank out of 144 countries 116 scor e B enin 0.00 = imparity 0.652 1.00 = parity AVG BEN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 8.58 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 2,009.96 Total population (1,000s) 10,872.30 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.76 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 54.58 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 110 116 0.578 0.652 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.864 0.618 4 55 Educational attainment 142 0.714 113 0.643 ZJsY i )irPr Health and survival 131 0.964 86 0.969 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 76 0.082 129 0.065 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.864 4 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 73.5 0.97 ce participation 7 0.971 0.667 71.4 0.74 0.634 0.737 26 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.946 0.509 2,108 2,228 0.95 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 3 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.714 142 135 0.883 Literacy rate 0.491 45.0 0.49 22.1 99.9 0.88 Enr olment in primary education 125 0.883 0.979 88.2 51.8 137 Enr olment in secondary education 0.735 0.971 38.1 0.74 22.4 8.4 0.37 0.938 0.374 134 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.964 Health and survival 131 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 52.8 1.037 1.011 138 Healthy life expectancy 52.3 1.01 0.227 0.065 129 Political empowerment 0.08 0.078 134 Women in parliament 7.2 92.8 0.279 14.3 85.7 0.17 Women in ministerial positions 94 0.167 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 88 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

99 0.652 / 116 BEN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 25.7 1.71 Youth not in employment or education 15.0 3.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 1.1 0.9 1.23 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – 90.2 1.08 empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 97.7 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.29 2.7 0.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 13.3 nment pr Gover 21.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.60 yes 21.0 Contributing family workers 1.67 12.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 73.6 70.0 1.05 85.93 0.1 11.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 42.8 0.62 69.3 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 11.9 34.9 0.34 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 68.1 Out-of-school youth 1.42 48.0 2 0.55 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 16.5 0.46 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 36.1 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.58 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 12.3 3.6 0.29 0.35 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 6.0 -54 0.32 1.9 12.5 0.7 Employers 0.05 Tertiary education attainment, age 25 0.14 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.4 2.9 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 12.9 19.2 0.67 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.43 0.7 0.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.29 Arts and Humanities 5.9 20.3 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 62.0 1.35 45.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.45 Education 2.0 4.4 ownership part 0.52 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.6 10.9 Mean monthly ear 0.98 0.1 0.1 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 1.4 elfar e Health and W 1.6 0.85 female male value Political Leadership 2.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.6 0.70 Year women r eceived right to vote 1956 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.87 1.6 1.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 61 Services 2.1 0.94 2.2 Number of female heads of state to date 0 3.9 3.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.15 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 19.7 17.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.87 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 19.4 16.9 1.15 Seats held in upper house 23.8 0.31 76.2 1 11.5 11.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.96 1 0.55 3.1 Mortality 5.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 1.3 0.33 21.3 26.2 0.81 Average length of single life 1 405 , childbirth Mortality 19.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 64.6 3.38 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.98 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 33.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 17 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 77.20 Births attended Total dependency ratio 86 Antenatal car 58.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 89 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

100 rank out of 144 countries 124 scor e B hutan 0.00 = imparity 0.638 1.00 = parity AVG BTN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 2.24 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 8,105.80 Total population (1,000s) 797.77 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.27 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.13 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 124 – 0.638 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.622 – 103 – Educational attainment 123 0.916 – – ZJsY L )O\[er Health and survival 137 0.959 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment – – 134 0.056 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJL [s teYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.622 103 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.1 0.80 ce participation 72 0.805 0.667 61.2 0.79 0.634 0.785 10 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.568 0.509 6,226 10,967 0.57 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 93 18.5 0.320 0.227 102 Legislators, senior officials and managers 81.5 0.23 67.3 0.758 0.487 113 0.49 Pr ofessional and technical workers 32.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.916 123 121 0.883 Literacy rate 0.727 66.0 0.73 48.0 84.7 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 86.5 58.9 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 66.9 1.14 12.6 9.2 0.74 0.938 0.736 115 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.959 Health and survival 137 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 61.0 1.037 0.994 143 Healthy life expectancy 61.4 0.99 0.227 0.056 134 Political empowerment 0.09 0.093 132 Women in parliament 8.5 91.5 0.279 10.0 90.0 0.11 Women in ministerial positions 109 0.111 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 90 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

101 0.638 / 124 BTN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 5.0 56.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.2 1.9 1.70 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 43.8 56.2 Discouraged job seekers 1.28 – – empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.48 3.4 1.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 2.9 nment pr Gover 7.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.43 no 48.2 Contributing family workers 1.96 24.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 35.9 38.6 0.93 0.79 12.3 9.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.56 26.3 14.7 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 30.6 Out-of-school youth 0.83 37.0 2 0.79 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.36 8.2 2.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.76 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.36 Firms with female top managers 0.39 Tertiary education attainment, adults 2.6 6.6 24.6 Employers 0.0 0.00 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – y education attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Tertiar 0.1 0.22 PhD graduates 0.0 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 27.7 39.0 0.71 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership yes – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1953 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 64 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 1.5 1.7 0.87 Seats held in upper house 30.4 0.44 69.6 1 0.4 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.63 1 0.54 0.1 Mortality 0.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.54 21.8 25.4 0.86 Average length of single life 1 148 , childbirth Mortality 27.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 59.6 2.15 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.05 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 14 Potential support ratio led health personnel 74.60 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 46 Antenatal car 81.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 91 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

102 rank out of 144 countries 17 scor e B olivia 0.00 = imparity 0.758 1.00 = parity BOL AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 33.81 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 6,707.96 10,887.88 Total population (1,000s) Education 1.50 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e Human Capital Index scor 64.06 Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 0.634 17 87 0.758 Health Economic participation and opportunity 60 77 0.559 0.692 Educational attainment 108 89 0.917 0.956 ZJsv i )sSP]Pe Health and survival 69 0.976 0.970 79 i e]iveki ZJsv Political empowerment 14 0.408 71 0.087 rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s WevP[` MT ZJsv i e]k MiTeSi TeSi vero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.692 60 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 66.5 84.6 0.79 Labour for ce participation 77 0.786 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.636 0.509 5,622 8,846 0.64 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 59 35.1 0.320 0.540 47 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.9 0.54 54.7 0.758 0.828 87 0.83 Pr ofessional and technical workers 45.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.956 108 98 0.883 Literacy rate 0.918 96.5 0.92 88.6 89.3 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 107 0.982 0.979 87.7 77.4 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 77.8 1.01 41.8 34.9 0.84 0.938 0.836 107 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 69 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 64.0 1.037 1.048 78 Healthy life expectancy 61.1 1.05 0.227 0.408 14 Political empowerment 1.13 1.000 1 Women in parliament 53.1 46.9 0.279 27.3 72.7 0.38 Women in ministerial positions 31 0.375 0.209 0.200 0.7 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 55 0.014 49.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 92 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

103 0.758 / 17 BOL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 3.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.9 2.5 1.96 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 37.0 63.0 Discouraged job seekers 1.70 76.9 1.04 empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 80.2 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.79 6.8 5.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 19.5 nment pr Gover 33.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.72 no 25.0 Contributing family workers 3.63 6.9 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 38.9 44.5 0.87 1.14 9.4 10.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.82 64.5 52.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 95.1 0.97 98.1 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 58.0 84.9 0.68 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 17.5 Out-of-school youth 1.09 16.0 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.84 46.9 39.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 66.6 0.86 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 77.8 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 39.3 24.5 0.62 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 25.7 attainment, age 25-54 0.97 24.9 6.9 2.5 Employers 0.37 Tertiary education 0.64 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 9.5 14.9 R&D personnel – – – 0.4 0.56 PhD graduates 0.2 value male female Access to Assets 37.1 0.87 Individuals using the inter net 32.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 37.6 44.0 0.86 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership yes – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 0.81 2.5 3.1 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1938 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 79 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 5.3 4.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 21.1 23.0 0.92 Seats held in upper house 50.0 1.00 50.0 1 2.2 1.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.71 1 0.57 2.7 Mortality 4.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.0 2.4 0.42 24.1 26.6 0.91 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 27.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 41.5 1.49 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 64.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.88 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 20.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 9 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 63 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 93 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

104 rank out of 144 countries 66 Bosnia and scor e 0.00 = imparity 0.702 Herzegovina 1.00 = parity AVG BIH distribution of countries by scor 1.00 0.40 e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS 16.56 GDP (US$ billions) Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 11,179.35 Total population (1,000s) 3,516.82 Education -0.41 owth rate (%) Population gr 0.96 Population sex ratio (female/male) Human Capital Index scor e – Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e Global Gender Gap scor e 66 – 0.702 – Health Economic participation and opportunity – 0.575 116 – Educational attainment – – 0.981 92 Zgsv i )sZrPe erK LivaikszPre Health and survival 42 0.979 – – i eziveki Zgsv Political empowerment – – 35 0.275 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s WevP[` MT MiTeSi ezk Zgsv i vero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.575 116 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 67.6 0.63 ce participation 114 0.632 0.667 42.7 0.61 0.634 0.609 83 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.439 0.509 7,422 16,902 0.44 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 123 22.0 0.320 0.282 98 Legislators, senior officials and managers 78.0 0.28 47.9 0.758 1.000 1 1.09 Pr ofessional and technical workers 52.1 Educational attainment 0.953 0.981 92 87 0.883 Literacy rate 0.957 99.2 0.96 94.9 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 50.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 49.3 0.97 – – – – – – Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 42 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 70.6 1.037 1.058 53 Healthy life expectancy 66.7 1.06 0.227 0.275 35 Political empowerment 0.27 0.273 72 Women in parliament 21.4 78.6 0.279 22.2 77.8 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 56 0.286 0.209 0.200 10.7 0.27 Years with female head of state (last 50) 13 0.271 39.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 94 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

105 0.702 / 66 BIH TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 26.0 0.89 Youth not in employment or education 29.2 7.0 365.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 60.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 30.7 25.2 1.22 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – 61.2 Discouraged job seekers – – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.06 8.1 8.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 4.0 nment pr Gover 10.7 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.69 yes 8.3 Contributing family workers 4.95 1.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 13.3 18.6 0.71 – – – en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.81 88.7 71.7 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.53 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.68 72.9 49.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.37 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.32 Firms with female top managers 0.87 Tertiary education attainment, adults 7.0 8.1 1.7 Employers 3.5 2.11 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – inment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 46.7 53.3 0.88 Tertiary education atta 0.1 0.36 PhD graduates 0.1 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 47.1 58.8 0.80 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.80 4.6 3.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.48 Arts and Humanities 9.1 6.2 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 27.2 1.01 26.9 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.62 Education 14.1 8.7 ownership yes 0.42 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.5 15.6 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 16.7 elfar e Health and W 8.2 2.03 female male value Political Leadership 5.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.4 0.26 Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.36 4.2 3.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services 3.4 0.48 7.1 Number of female heads of state to date 3 13.1 12.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.08 Election list quotas for women, national 40 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 40 Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 18.6 18.2 1.02 Seats held in upper house 15.4 0.18 84.6 1 0.1 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.55 1 0.37 0.4 Mortality 1.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.3 0.23 25.7 29.4 0.87 Average length of single life 1 11 , childbirth Mortality 6.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 24.3 3.98 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.36 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 9.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio lled health personnel 99.90 Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 44 Antenatal car 84.20 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 95 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

106 rank out of 144 countries 46 scor e B otswana 0.00 = imparity 0.720 1.00 = parity AVG BW A 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 15.27 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 15,513.44 Total population (1,000s) 2,250.26 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.83 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 57.56 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 34 46 0.690 0.720 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.822 0.693 6 23 Educational attainment 1 1.000 67 0.981 wJsY L )s[w^ere Health and survival 48 0.978 109 0.956 L e]LYekL wJsY Political empowerment 47 0.129 122 0.079 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPw[erJL [s teYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k wJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.822 6 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.8 0.93 ce participation 21 0.925 0.667 76.6 0.75 0.634 0.746 23 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.867 0.509 15,558 17,940 0.87 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 5 38.6 0.320 0.629 30 Legislators, senior officials and managers 61.4 0.63 49.8 0.758 1.000 1 1.01 Pr ofessional and technical workers 50.2 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 80.4 1.02 81.8 90.4 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 91.6 48.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 51.9 1.08 19.2 27.7 1.44 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.978 Health and survival 48 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 58.5 1.037 1.056 59 Healthy life expectancy 55.4 1.06 0.227 0.079 122 Political empowerment 0.11 0.105 127 Women in parliament 9.5 90.5 0.279 15.8 84.2 0.19 Women in ministerial positions 88 0.188 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 96 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

107 0.720 / 46 BW A TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 42.1 1.48 Youth not in employment or education 28.5 – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 50.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 21.4 14.6 1.47 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.88 8.4 7.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 10.3 nment pr Gover 12.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.26 no 3.9 Contributing family workers 1.09 3.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 9.2 9.3 0.98 0.86 9.3 8.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 91.7 1.00 91.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 30.8 34.5 0.89 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 22.3 Out-of-school youth 0.98 22.8 2 0.68 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 38.4 0.92 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 41.6 Firms with female (co-)owners 1.24 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 14.0 5.8 0.41 0.20 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 3.0 4 0.79 2.4 3.6 1.2 Employers 0.34 Tertiary education attainment, age 25-5 0.27 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.0 3.9 R&D personnel 37.5 62.5 0.60 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 45.9 52.7 0.87 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 0.97 4.7 4.8 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1965 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 52 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.4 1.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.82 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 3.5 3.2 1.10 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 3.1 2.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.71 1 0.46 0.3 Mortality 0.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.3 0.34 26.4 30.9 0.85 Average length of single life 1 129 , childbirth Mortality 10.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 28.8 2.69 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.73 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 21.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 17 Potential support ratio led health personnel 99.90 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 55 Antenatal car 73.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 97 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

108 rank out of 144 countries 90 scor e B razil 0.00 = imparity 0.684 1.00 = parity AVG BRA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,796.19 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 14,023.69 Total population (1,000s) 207,652.87 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.80 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 59.73 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 67 90 0.654 0.684 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.655 0.604 83 63 Educational attainment 1 1.000 74 0.972 ZJsY i )YeaPS Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 86 0.061 110 0.101 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.655 83 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.3 0.75 ce participation 88 0.745 0.667 62.1 0.52 0.634 0.517 119 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.578 0.509 11,132 19,260 0.58 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 91 39.6 0.320 0.657 23 Legislators, senior officials and managers 60.4 0.66 46.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.17 Pr ofessional and technical workers 53.9 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 91.4 1.01 92.1 92.3 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 93.1 79.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 83.1 1.04 42.4 59.3 1.40 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.8 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 63.1 1.07 0.227 0.101 110 Political empowerment 0.12 0.120 121 Women in parliament 10.7 89.3 0.279 4.0 96.0 0.04 Women in ministerial positions 134 0.042 0.209 0.200 5.4 0.12 Years with female head of state (last 50) 25 0.120 44.6 2.00 1.00 0.00 98 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

109 0.64 / 0 %5A TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 28.5 1.56 Youth not in employment or education 18.2 5.0 120.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 13.4 10.1 1.32 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 43.6 56.4 Discouraged job seekers 1.29 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.21 8.3 10.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 11.5 nment pr Gover 22.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.95 no 3.5 Contributing family workers 2.53 1.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 19.0 29.7 0.64 0.77 5.9 4.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.02 76.2 77.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 96.1 1.02 94.2 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 74.2 77.1 0.96 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 15.9 Out-of-school youth 1.01 15.6 2 0.52 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.11 40.3 44.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 66.9 1.11 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 60.2 Firms with female (co-)owners 1.01 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 29.3 26.5 0.90 0.24 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 7.9 ttainment, age 25-54 1.56 12.4 1.4 3.0 Employers 2.16 Tertiary education a 0.82 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 7.5 9.1 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 55.0 0.99 Individuals using the inter net 54.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 64.8 71.7 0.90 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.54 3.4 1.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.86 Arts and Humanities 3.1 3.6 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 35.7 0.88 40.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.10 Education 25.5 12.1 ownership yes 0.35 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.8 16.7 Mean monthly ear 0.79 1.8 2.3 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 16.9 elfar e Health and W 8.0 2.11 female male value Political Leadership 7.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.12 Year women r eceived right to vote 1932 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.96 2.6 2.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 85 Services 0.6 0.30 1.9 Number of female heads of state to date 1 5.0 3.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.36 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 29.0 23.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 436.1 480.9 0.91 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 30.9 22.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.73 1 0.35 22.0 Mortality 63.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 8.8 67.9 0.13 29.7 31.9 0.93 Average length of single life 1 44 , childbirth Mortality 9.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 19.0 1.92 Legislation on domestic violence yes 26 Mean age of women at birth of first child 31.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.73 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 6.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 8 Potential support ratio ttended by skilled health personnel 99.10 Births a Total dependency ratio 44 Antenatal car 88.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 99 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

110 rank out of 144 countries 102 scor e B runei Darussalam 0.00 = imparity 0.671 1.00 = parity AVG BRN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 11.40 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 71,788.78 Total population (1,000s) 423.20 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.32 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.06 e 62.82 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 102 – 0.671 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.692 – 61 – Educational attainment 78 0.990 – – ZJsY i )Y\rim +eY\ZZeSeT Health and survival 111 0.969 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 140 0.031 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.692 61 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 78.8 0.69 ce participation 96 0.686 0.667 54.1 0.78 0.634 0.782 11 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.623 0.509 59,022 94,795 0.62 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 65 33.6 0.320 0.507 58 Legislators, senior officials and managers 66.4 0.51 54.8 0.758 0.825 89 0.82 Pr ofessional and technical workers 45.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.990 78 78 0.883 Literacy rate 0.972 97.4 0.97 94.7 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 83.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 85.9 1.03 23.5 38.6 1.65 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 111 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 71.2 1.037 1.026 123 Healthy life expectancy 69.4 1.03 0.227 0.031 140 Political empowerment 0.10 0.100 130 Women in parliament 9.1 90.9 0.279 0.0 100.0 0.00 Women in ministerial positions 139 0.000 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 100 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

111 0.671 / 102 BRN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 19.3 1.25 Youth not in employment or education 15.4 – 91.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.9 6.3 1.26 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 57.9 42.2 Discouraged job seekers 0.73 35.0 0.86 – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 30.3 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.02 10.5 10.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 8.3 nment pr Gover 12.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.47 no 0.8 Contributing family workers 2.27 0.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 4.1 4.1 1.00 – – – en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 79.1 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 79.1 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 25.4 64.2 0.40 Economic Leade rship Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.83 21.4 17.8 2 0.71 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 44.3 45.4 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.98 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 27.5 11.0 0.40 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 6 1.06 2.4 Employers 0.3 7.13 7.0 Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 6. 0.33 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 3.2 9.9 R&D personnel – – – PhD graduates – – – female male value Access to Assets – Individuals using the inter – – net Hold an account at a financial institution – – – female male value – s access to financial services Women’ Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters 18.8 Arts and Humanities 1.37 13.7 – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr Women’ 30.3 1.07 28.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.87 Education 17.8 9.5 ownership – 0.53 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.0 11.4 0.92 .) 2.0 2.2 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 5.4 elfar e Health and W 2.5 2.17 female male value Political Leadership 24.5 Information and Comm. T echnologies 11.1 0.45 Year women r eceived right to vote – Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.00 6.5 6.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights – Services 1.3 1.15 1.1 Number of female heads of state to date 0 0.4 0.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.50 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 0.5 0.6 0.86 Seats held in upper house 8.0 0.09 92.0 1 0.1 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.54 1 0.51 0.0 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.0 0.36 25.1 27.3 0.92 Average length of single life 1 23 , childbirth Mortality – Pr oportion married by age 25 – – Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.87 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 17 Potential support ratio ed health personnel – Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 38 Antenatal car 93.20 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 101 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

112 rank out of 144 countries 18 scor e B ulgaria 0.00 = imparity 0.756 1.00 = parity AVG BGR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 52.40 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 17,709.08 Total population (1,000s) 7,131.49 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.65 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e 68.49 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 37 18 0.687 0.756 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.710 0.613 51 58 Educational attainment 80 0.990 56 0.989 ZgsY i )\SkeYPe Health and survival 36 0.979 36 0.979 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 30 0.167 23 0.346 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.710 51 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 73.5 0.89 ce participation 35 0.893 0.667 65.7 0.57 0.634 0.568 103 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.650 0.509 15,216 23,408 0.65 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 54 37.9 0.320 0.610 33 Legislators, senior officials and managers 62.1 0.61 39.9 0.758 1.000 1 1.51 Pr ofessional and technical workers 60.1 Educational attainment 0.953 0.990 80 59 0.883 Literacy rate 0.992 98.7 0.99 98.0 93.6 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 86 0.994 0.979 93.0 89.5 112 Enr olment in secondary education 0.973 0.971 87.1 0.97 65.4 82.9 1.27 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 36 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 69.2 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 63.8 1.08 0.227 0.346 23 Political empowerment 0.31 0.311 63 Women in parliament 23.8 76.3 0.279 52.9 47.1 1.13 Women in ministerial positions 1 1.000 0.209 0.200 0.3 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 61 0.006 49.7 2.00 1.00 0.00 102 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

113 0.756 / 18 BGR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 365 20.0 1.07 Youth not in employment or education 18.6 15.0 410.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 90.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.0 8.1 0.86 90.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 58.0 42.0 Discouraged job seekers 0.72 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.45 12.7 18.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 5.2 nment pr Gover 9.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.80 yes 0.8 Contributing family workers 1.93 0.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 6.0 8.9 0.67 1.04 5.0 5.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.98 97.9 96.1 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 98.6 1.00 98.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 97.8 99.0 0.99 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 18.2 Out-of-school youth 1.27 14.3 2 0.60 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.97 76.3 73.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 94.6 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 95.0 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.64 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 91.7 85.8 0.94 0.31 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 19.9 ttainment, age 25-54 1.68 33.5 0.4 2.1 Employers 4.98 Tertiary education a 0.97 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 16.7 17.2 R&D personnel 43.7 56.3 0.78 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 57.5 0.97 Individuals using the inter net 55.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 63.2 62.8 1.01 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.66 2.1 1.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.53 Arts and Humanities 7.7 5.1 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 38.1 1.37 27.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.61 Education 10.6 4.1 ownership yes 0.27 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.8 24.9 Mean monthly ear 0.79 0.8 1.0 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 7.4 elfar e Health and W 5.4 1.38 female male value Political Leadership 4.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.0 0.42 Year women r eceived right to vote 1937 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.38 4.1 3.0 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 80 Services 4.7 0.51 9.2 Number of female heads of state to date 1 17.2 13.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.24 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 50.2 51.2 0.98 Seats held in upper house 47.2 0.89 52.8 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.56 1 0.40 0.6 Mortality 1.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.3 0.9 0.32 31.7 34.9 0.91 Average length of single life 1 11 , childbirth Mortality 2.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 10.2 3.48 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 23.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.56 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 30.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 99.70 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 53 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 103 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

114 rank out of 144 countries 121 scor e B urkina Faso 0.00 = imparity 0.646 1.00 = parity AVG BF A 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 12.12 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,594.58 Total population (1,000s) 18,646.43 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.90 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 104 121 0.585 0.646 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.716 0.639 47 49 Educational attainment 133 0.829 112 0.646 ZJsY i F\YoPre -eZs Health and survival 134 0.963 68 0.973 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 74 0.084 125 0.075 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.716 47 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 91.3 0.86 ce participation 53 0.865 0.667 78.9 0.66 0.634 0.662 59 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.657 0.509 1,365 2,077 0.66 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 49 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.829 133 130 0.883 Literacy rate 0.591 44.4 0.59 26.2 70.9 0.95 Enr olment in primary education 117 0.949 0.979 67.3 27.1 119 Enr olment in secondary education 0.953 0.971 25.8 0.95 7.3 3.8 0.51 0.938 0.512 127 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.963 Health and survival 134 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 52.7 1.037 1.005 140 Healthy life expectancy 52.4 1.01 0.227 0.075 125 Political empowerment 0.12 0.124 120 Women in parliament 11.0 89.0 0.279 13.0 87.0 0.15 Women in ministerial positions 100 0.150 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 104 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

115 0.646 / 121 %) A TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 3.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.9 2.8 1.39 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 49.8 50.2 Discouraged job seekers 1.01 – – empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.36 1.2 0.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 52.7 Contributing family workers 1.69 31.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 37.4 53.2 0.70 1.12 28.6 32.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.32 8.0 2.6 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 26.8 0.67 39.9 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 3.4 12.0 0.28 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 74.4 Out-of-school youth 1.04 71.5 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.37 4.3 1.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 12.7 0.57 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 22.2 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.24 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 4.7 1.1 0.23 0.13 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults 0.0 0.0 6.0 tainment, age 25-54 0.28 1.7 31.3 0.3 Employers 0.01 Tertiary education at 0.06 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.1 1.1 R&D personnel 26.3 73.7 0.36 0.0 – PhD graduates 0.0 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 11.8 15.1 0.78 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.33 0.7 0.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.81 Arts and Humanities 10.9 6.0 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 41.9 1.61 26.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.40 Education 5.1 12.6 ownership part 0.46 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.1 8.8 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 1.4 elfar e Health and W 0.8 1.78 female male value Political Leadership 1.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.5 0.24 Year women r eceived right to vote 1958 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.60 7.9 13.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 59 Services 1.1 1.23 0.9 Number of female heads of state to date 0 17.0 17.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.98 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 32.0 27.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.85 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 28.5 22.5 1.27 Seats held in upper house 13.3 0.15 86.7 1 21.5 22.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.05 1 0.70 6.1 Mortality 8.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.1 2.4 0.44 19.9 25.3 0.79 Average length of single life 1 371 , childbirth Mortality 31.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 82.8 2.67 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 15.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 5.35 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 25.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 22 Potential support ratio ded by skilled health personnel 65.90 Births atten Total dependency ratio 92 Antenatal car 33.70 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 105 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

116 rank out of 144 countries 22 scor e % XrXnGi 0.00 = imparity 0.7 1.00 = parity AVG %DI 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 3.01 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 721.18 Total population (1,000s) 10,524.12 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 3.16 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 55.45 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 22 – 0.755 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.911 – 1 – Educational attainment 128 0.876 – – ZgsY i )\Y\rKP Health and survival 1 0.980 – – i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment – – 40 0.255 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.911 1 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.6 1.02 ce participation 1 1.000 0.667 85.7 0.79 0.634 0.789 8 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 1.000 0.509 882 670 1.32 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 1 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.876 128 116 0.883 Literacy rate 0.784 69.7 0.78 54.7 93.3 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 95.0 27.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 28.4 1.05 7.7 2.4 0.31 0.938 0.314 135 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 53.9 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 50.6 1.06 0.227 0.255 40 Political empowerment 0.57 0.571 25 Women in parliament 36.4 63.6 0.279 22.7 77.3 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 53 0.294 0.209 0.200 0.6 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 56 0.012 49.4 2.00 1.00 0.00 106 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

117 0.7 / 22 %D, TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 4.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave – – – 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 65.9 Contributing family workers 6.10 10.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 27.9 66.5 0.42 0.71 6.3 4.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.55 14.4 7.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 30.4 1.00 30.4 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 8.6 10.4 0.83 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 65.2 Out-of-school youth 1.05 62.1 2 0.57 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.50 4.5 2.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 3.9 0.67 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 5.9 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.79 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 1.2 0.9 0.76 0.19 Firms with female top managers 0.30 Tertiary education attainment, adults 0.4 1.3 0.8 tainment, age 25-54 0.48 0.4 10.8 0.3 Employers 0.03 Tertiary education at 0.70 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.2 0.2 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 1.7 0.53 Individuals using the inter net 0.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 6.5 7.3 0.89 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.25 6.1 1.5 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.79 Arts and Humanities 3.4 1.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 29.4 1.38 21.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.49 Education 16.1 32.8 ownership part 0.02 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 0.0 2.1 Mean monthly ear 1.27 127.6 100.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 28.1 elfar e Health and W 9.8 2.86 female male value Political Leadership 5.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 5.7 1.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1961 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.81 4.9 2.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 56 Services 0.7 0.18 3.8 Number of female heads of state to date 1 9.9 14.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.69 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 20.1 16.9 en under age 5 Mortality 0.84 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 15.8 16.5 0.96 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 15.0 12.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.84 1 0.50 3.7 Mortality 7.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 1.2 0.31 22.5 25.4 0.89 Average length of single life 1 712 , childbirth Mortality 29.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 65.0 2.23 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 5.70 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 32.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 21 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 60.30 Births attended Total dependency ratio 90 Antenatal car 33.40 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 107 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

118 rank out of 144 countries 99 scor e C ambodia 0.00 = imparity 0.676 1.00 = parity AVG KHM 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 20.02 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 3,462.84 Total population (1,000s) 15,762.37 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.55 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e 57.28 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 89 99 0.629 0.676 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.698 0.675 56 29 Educational attainment 121 0.921 105 0.809 ZJsY i GeTIsKme Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 94 0.053 106 0.104 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.698 56 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 88.7 0.88 ce participation 46 0.878 0.667 77.9 0.73 0.634 0.730 28 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.730 0.509 3,165 4,335 0.73 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 19 30.9 0.320 0.447 70 Legislators, senior officials and managers 69.1 0.45 63.6 0.758 0.573 107 0.57 Pr ofessional and technical workers 36.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.921 121 114 0.883 Literacy rate 0.797 82.8 0.80 65.9 93.7 1.03 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 96.2 39.8 126 Enr olment in secondary education 0.918 0.971 36.5 0.92 14.3 11.8 0.82 0.938 0.821 108 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 60.0 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 55.9 1.07 0.227 0.104 106 Political empowerment 0.26 0.255 77 Women in parliament 20.3 79.7 0.279 9.1 90.9 0.10 Women in ministerial positions 115 0.100 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 108 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

119 0.676 / 99 KHM TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 15.2 1.48 Youth not in employment or education 10.3 – 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 50.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 0.2 0.2 1.25 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 51.6 48.4 Discouraged job seekers 0.94 86.9 1.08 – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 93.8 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.39 2.0 0.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 16.2 nment pr Gover 22.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.41 no 6.1 Contributing family workers 1.17 5.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 54.2 45.4 1.19 0.60 6.3 3.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.53 47.9 25.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 77.3 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.88 87.9 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 32.3 79.9 0.40 Economic Lead ership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 1.17 51.9 60.9 2 0.66 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.34 9.8 3.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 23.4 43.4 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.54 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.86 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 22.1 4.6 0.21 1.34 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 1.1 3.2 0.33 inment, age 25-54 Employers 0.1 5.2 0.02 Tertiary education atta 0.19 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.2 1.2 R&D personnel 35.5 64.5 0.55 – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 14.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 10.7 0.71 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.61 4.4 2.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.81 Arts and Humanities 1.0 1.2 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 63.7 1.31 48.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.03 Education 14.5 14.1 part ownership 0.24 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 1.5 6.2 0.81 .) 426.1 527.6 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 9.4 elfar e Health and W 5.5 1.71 female male value Political Leadership 11.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.5 0.12 Year women r eceived right to vote 1955 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.69 3.1 4.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 62 Services 2.5 2.06 1.2 Number of female heads of state to date 0 0.6 1.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.40 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 5.9 4.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.74 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 31.2 25.9 1.21 Seats held in upper house 14.8 0.17 85.2 1 9.1 6.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.66 1 0.39 2.2 Mortality 5.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.7 1.5 0.47 22.4 24.9 0.90 Average length of single life 1 161 , childbirth Mortality 33.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 56.9 1.71 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 14.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.56 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 17.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 15 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 89.00 Births attended Total dependency ratio 55 Antenatal car 75.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 109 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

120 rank out of 144 countries 7 scor e C aPer oon 0.00 = imparity 0.9 1.00 = parity C0R AVG distribution of countries by scor 1.00 e 0.40 T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS 24.20 GDP (US$ billions) Economy 3,045.92 GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) Total population (1,000s) 23,439.19 Education owth rate (%) 2.60 Population gr 1.00 Population sex ratio (female/male) Human Capital Index scor e 60.76 Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 87 103 0.587 0.689 Health Economic participation and opportunity 40 94 0.495 0.725 Educational attainment 0.824 0.868 101 129 ZJsY i ssr GeTiY Health and survival 92 0.966 0.972 97 e]iYeki ZJsY i Political empowerment 85 64 0.061 0.191 rank out of 144 115 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` TeSi MiTeSi Yero ZJsY i e]k MT 0.00 1.00 2.00 40 0.725 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 72.1 0.667 0.88 Labour for ce participation 45 82.0 0.879 0.67 0.669 54 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.634 0.664 0.509 2,622 3,949 0.66 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 45 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.868 129 111 0.883 Literacy rate 0.827 78.3 0.83 64.8 96.6 0.90 Enr olment in primary education 122 0.904 0.979 87.3 47.2 130 Enr olment in secondary education 0.878 0.971 41.4 0.88 19.7 15.2 0.77 0.938 0.774 111 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.972 Health and survival 92 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 51.2 1.037 1.035 100 Healthy life expectancy 49.5 1.03 0.227 0.191 64 Political empowerment 0.45 0.452 40 Women in parliament 31.1 68.9 0.279 17.1 82.9 0.21 Women in ministerial positions 83 0.206 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 110 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

121 0.689 / 87 CMR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 16.1 3.43 Youth not in employment or education 4.7 3.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.5 3.1 1.42 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 36.7 63.3 Discouraged job seekers 1.73 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 26.0 nment pr Gover 33.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.30 yes 2.3 Contributing family workers 2.09 1.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 77.3 60.5 1.28 21.50 0.4 9.4 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.56 47.0 26.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 82.2 0.90 91.4 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 32.6 62.4 0.52 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 59.3 Out-of-school youth 1.17 50.8 2 0.58 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.45 25.4 11.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 46.5 0.82 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 56.9 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.66 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 23.0 6.6 0.29 0.30 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 10.2 ttainment, age 25-54 0.56 5.7 1.1 3.0 Employers 2.76 Tertiary education a 0.15 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.5 3.8 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 8.9 13.8 0.64 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.35 0.6 0.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 2.07 Arts and Humanities 8.9 4.3 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 47.0 1.40 33.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.93 Education 9.9 10.6 ownership no 0.23 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 1.5 6.6 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 3.0 elfar e Health and W 1.8 1.63 female male value Political Leadership 4.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.6 0.37 Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.52 9.2 17.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services 0.1 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 18.7 20.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.92 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 39.0 32.9 en under age 5 Mortality 0.85 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 42.4 40.2 1.05 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 40.6 38.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.94 1 0.54 6.9 Mortality 12.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.4 4.3 0.32 22.7 27.2 0.83 Average length of single life 1 596 , childbirth Mortality 20.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 67.4 3.29 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 51.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.71 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 24.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 17 Potential support ratio nded by skilled health personnel 64.70 Births atte Total dependency ratio 85 Antenatal car 58.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 111 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

122 rank out of 144 countries 16 scor e C anada 0.00 = imparity 0.769 1.00 = parity AVG CAN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,529.76 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 43,087.76 Total population (1,000s) 36,289.82 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.93 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 73.06 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 14 16 0.716 0.769 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.744 0.730 29 10 Educational attainment 1 1.000 21 0.999 ZJsY L GereKe Health and survival 105 0.970 51 0.978 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 33 0.159 20 0.361 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.744 29 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 81.5 0.91 ce participation 26 0.913 0.667 74.4 0.68 0.634 0.682 46 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.670 0.509 35,391 52,796 0.67 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 41 35.5 0.320 0.551 44 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.5 0.55 42.4 0.758 1.000 1 1.36 Pr ofessional and technical workers 57.6 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 51.3 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 48.7 0.95 – – – – – – Enr olment in tertiary education 0.970 Health and survival 105 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.3 1.037 1.029 113 Healthy life expectancy 71.3 1.03 0.227 0.361 20 Political empowerment 0.36 0.356 56 Women in parliament 26.3 73.7 0.279 51.7 48.3 1.07 Women in ministerial positions 1 1.000 0.209 0.200 0.4 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 59 0.007 49.6 2.00 1.00 0.00 112 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

123 0.769 / 16 CAN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 245 9.6 0.87 Youth not in employment or education 11.0 – 105.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 34.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.2 7.7 0.81 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 56.0 44.3 Discouraged job seekers 0.79 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.99 32.5 32.2 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 22.7 nment pr Gover 39.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.72 yes 0.2 Contributing family workers 1.49 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 9.0 12.1 0.74 0.52 0.3 0.1 en Out-of-school childr 1.04 501.0 Work, minutes per day 520.6 Primary education attainment, adults – – – 1.53 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 48.7 31.9 99.9 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.9 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 98.9 99.3 1.00 Ec onomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth – – – 2 0.76 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.00 82.8 82.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 19.4 80.6 0.24 94.7 93.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.01 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 81.7 77.6 0.95 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 51.0 41.8 1.22 54 Employers 2.6 0.1 24.48 Tertiary education attainment, age 25- 0.93 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 28.5 30.6 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 99.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 99.2 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.74 2.3 1.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.25 Arts and Humanities 13.4 10.8 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 20.5 0.90 22.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.26 Education 14.6 6.5 yes ownership 0.22 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.7 21.2 0.76 .) 0.8 1.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 16.5 elfar e Health and W 5.4 3.03 female male value Political Leadership 8.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.2 0.26 Year women r eceived right to vote 1917 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.84 5.4 6.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 100 Services 4.2 1.00 4.2 Number of female heads of state to date 1 13.3 9.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.35 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.0 0.8 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 109.4 107.4 1.02 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 2.8 3.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.19 1 0.89 5.0 Mortality 5.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.3 3.7 0.36 26.9 28.6 0.94 Average length of single life 1 7 , childbirth Mortality 12.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 22.2 1.82 Legislation on domestic violence no 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 6.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.58 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 98.40 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 48 Antenatal car 98.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 113 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

124 rank out of 144 countries 89 scor e C ape V er de 0.00 = imparity 0.686 1.00 = parity CPV AVG distribution of countries by scor 1.00 e 0.40 T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS 1.62 GDP (US$ billions) Economy 6,074.75 GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) Total population (1,000s) 539.56 Education owth rate (%) 1.25 Population gr 0.99 Population sex ratio (female/male) Human Capital Index scor e – Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 89 – – 0.686 Health Economic participation and opportunity 106 – – 0.615 Educational attainment – 0.980 – 93 ZJsY L LY KL GeWL = Health and survival 110 – 0.969 – e]LYekL ZJsY L Political empowerment – 70 – 0.178 rank out of 144 115 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` TepL MLTepL Yero ZJsY L e]k MT 0.00 1.00 2.00 106 0.615 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 56.9 0.667 0.66 Labour for ce participation 102 86.9 0.655 0.67 0.675 51 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.634 0.494 0.509 4,340 8,782 0.49 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 110 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.980 93 101 0.883 Literacy rate 0.895 91.7 0.89 82.0 97.0 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 97.2 66.3 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 74.6 1.13 18.1 25.2 1.39 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 110 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 65.0 1.037 1.027 122 Healthy life expectancy 63.3 1.03 0.227 0.178 70 Political empowerment 0.31 0.309 64 Women in parliament 23.6 76.4 0.279 25.0 75.0 0.33 Women in ministerial positions 39 0.333 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 114 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

125 0.686 / 89 CPV TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 60.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave – – – – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 14.8 Contributing family workers 2.28 6.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 29.2 29.4 1.00 0.94 2.8 2.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.91 54.6 49.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 26.5 Out-of-school youth 0.79 33.4 2 0.63 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.98 20.3 19.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.49 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.20 Firms with female top managers 1.03 Tertiary education attainment, adults 7.0 6.8 6.5 Employers 1.6 0.25 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – ry education attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 43.2 56.8 0.76 Tertia 0.0 – PhD graduates 0.1 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.85 0.8 0.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters 1.06 Arts and Humanities 2.6 2.4 Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 33.3 1.16 28.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.27 Education 11.6 9.1 ownership – 0.26 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.5 20.8 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 14.3 elfar e Health and W 4.7 3.03 female male value Political Leadership 15.0 Information and Comm. T echnologies 4.2 0.28 Year women r eceived right to vote 1975 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.06 4.6 4.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 42 Services 0.1 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 23.2 13.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.68 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 1.0 0.8 1.27 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.1 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.38 1 0.70 0.1 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.41 22.8 27.9 0.82 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 23.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 41.3 1.77 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.33 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 15 Potential support ratio d health personnel – Births attended by skille Total dependency ratio 54 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 115 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

126 rank out of 144 countries 141 scor e C had 0.00 = imparity 0.575 1.00 = parity AVG TCD 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 9.60 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,845.91 Total population (1,000s) 14,452.54 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 3.08 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 47.53 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 113 141 0.525 0.575 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.667 0.601 77 65 Educational attainment 144 0.572 115 0.468 ZJsY L GOeh Health and survival 73 0.974 56 0.976 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 91 0.054 120 0.087 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.667 77 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 79.3 0.82 ce participation 67 0.815 0.667 64.6 0.61 0.634 0.610 82 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.613 0.509 1,514 2,468 0.61 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 71 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.572 144 136 0.883 Literacy rate 0.445 31.3 0.45 14.0 89.3 0.77 Enr olment in primary education 131 0.769 0.979 68.7 68.9 140 Enr olment in secondary education 0.479 0.971 31.1 0.45 5.7 1.1 0.20 0.938 0.197 136 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.974 Health and survival 73 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 47.1 1.037 1.043 84 Healthy life expectancy 45.2 1.04 0.227 0.087 120 Political empowerment 0.15 0.146 112 Women in parliament 12.8 87.2 0.279 14.3 85.7 0.17 Women in ministerial positions 94 0.167 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 116 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

127 0.575 / 141 TCD TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 1.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 50.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave – – – 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes – Contributing family workers – – value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers – – – 2.95 10.6 31.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.24 14.3 3.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 35.4 0.56 63.3 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 3.2 26.3 0.12 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 93.8 Out-of-school youth 1.16 80.8 2 0.49 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.17 9.9 1.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 9.9 0.31 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 32.2 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.67 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 6.1 0.6 0.10 0.07 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 3.2 ment, age 25-54 0.29 0.9 – – Employers – Tertiary education attain 0.30 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.2 0.8 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 4.0 11.7 0.34 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 0.91 Arts and Humanities 37.4 41.0 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 29.7 3.19 9.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.71 Education 12.1 17.0 ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1958 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.29 4.4 15.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 59 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 16.5 17.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.94 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 44.1 38.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.87 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 22.1 22.3 0.99 Seats held in upper house 41.9 0.72 58.1 1 30.0 27.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.92 1 0.51 5.0 Mortality 9.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.7 1.9 0.34 18.4 24.5 0.75 Average length of single life 1 856 , childbirth Mortality 38.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 90.2 2.37 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 57.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 5.95 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 28.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 20 Potential support ratio ded by skilled health personnel 20.20 Births atten Total dependency ratio 99 Antenatal car 31.00 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 117 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

128 rank out of 144 countries 6 scor e C Kile 0.00 = imparity 0.04 1.00 = parity AVG C+L 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 247.03 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 22,706.72 Total population (1,000s) 17,909.75 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.82 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 64.22 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 78 63 0.645 0.704 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.573 0.514 117 90 Educational attainment 39 0.999 69 0.980 ZJsY i GlPSi Health and survival 47 0.978 1 0.980 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 56 0.109 36 0.266 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.573 117 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.1 0.72 ce participation 92 0.724 0.667 57.9 0.48 0.634 0.485 127 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.521 0.509 16,462 31,601 0.52 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 102 27.4 0.320 0.377 82 Legislators, senior officials and managers 72.6 0.38 53.1 0.758 0.884 83 0.88 Pr ofessional and technical workers 46.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.999 39 51 0.883 Literacy rate 0.998 96.4 1.00 96.2 94.4 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 71 0.998 0.979 94.2 86.4 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 89.6 1.04 83.0 94.4 1.14 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.978 Health and survival 47 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 72.3 1.037 1.056 58 Healthy life expectancy 68.5 1.06 0.227 0.266 36 Political empowerment 0.19 0.188 104 Women in parliament 15.8 84.2 0.279 34.8 65.2 0.53 Women in ministerial positions 21 0.533 0.209 0.200 7.3 0.17 Years with female head of state (last 50) 18 0.171 42.7 2.00 1.00 0.00 118 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

129 0.704 / 63 CHL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 84 16.6 1.97 Youth not in employment or education 8.4 5.0 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.3 6.4 1.14 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 42.3 57.7 Discouraged job seekers 1.36 36.5 1.11 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 40.6 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.81 8.9 7.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 19.8 nment pr Gover 34.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.72 yes 4.4 Contributing family workers 1.68 2.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 20.7 20.2 1.03 1.03 5.6 5.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.98 86.8 84.7 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 98.7 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 98.5 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 91.5 93.0 0.98 Economic Leade rship Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.84 6.5 5.4 2 0.51 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.96 55.2 53.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 80.2 78.7 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.02 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.42 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 53.3 48.4 0.91 0.05 Firms with female top managers 13.2 Tertiary education attainment, adults 11.5 0.86 34.0 32.3 1.05 ation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.3 2.6 0.90 Tertiary educ 0.68 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 12.1 17.9 R&D personnel 37.9 62.1 0.61 – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 67.8 Hold an account at a financial institution 59.1 0.87 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.70 2.7 1.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.98 Arts and Humanities 4.0 4.0 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 21.9 0.96 22.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.62 Education 20.6 7.9 yes ownership 0.17 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.9 28.4 – .) – – nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 29.8 elfar e Health and W 11.1 2.69 female male value Political Leadership 6.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.7 0.10 Year women r eceived right to vote 1949 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.72 1.1 1.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 68 Services 8.7 0.81 10.8 Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.2 3.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.87 Election list quotas for women, national 40 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.0 0.9 en under age 5 Mortality 0.82 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 43.2 44.1 0.98 Seats held in upper house 14.8 0.17 85.2 1 1.6 1.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.73 1 0.43 1.5 Mortality 3.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 2.2 0.19 27.4 29.3 0.94 Average length of single life 1 22 , childbirth Mortality 16.6 Pr oportion married by age 25 24.2 1.46 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 36.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.77 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 6 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 46 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 119 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

130 rank out of 144 countries 100 scor e C hina 0.00 = imparity 0.674 1.00 = parity AVG CHN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 11,199.15 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 14,400.89 Total population (1,000s) 1,403,500.37 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.45 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.06 e 67.72 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 63 100 0.656 0.674 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.654 0.621 86 53 Educational attainment 102 0.963 78 0.957 ZJsY i GOPre Health and survival 144 0.918 114 0.936 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 52 0.111 77 0.160 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.654 86 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 84.3 0.83 ce participation 60 0.834 0.667 70.3 0.64 0.634 0.643 70 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.621 0.509 11,821 19,028 0.62 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 67 16.8 0.320 0.201 105 Legislators, senior officials and managers 83.2 0.20 48.3 0.758 1.000 1 1.07 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.963 102 91 0.883 Literacy rate 0.951 97.5 0.95 92.7 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 52.7 120 Enr olment in secondary education 0.952 0.971 47.3 0.90 39.9 47.3 1.19 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.918 Health and survival 144 0.956 0.87 Sex ratio at birth 144 0.870 0.920 69.5 1.037 1.027 120 Healthy life expectancy 67.7 1.03 0.227 0.160 77 Political empowerment 0.32 0.320 61 Women in parliament 24.2 75.8 0.279 10.0 90.0 0.11 Women in ministerial positions 109 0.111 0.209 0.200 3.5 0.08 Years with female head of state (last 50) 33 0.076 46.5 2.00 1.00 0.00 120 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

131 0.67 / 100 C+N TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 3.0 128.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave – – – 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes – Contributing family workers – – value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers – – – – – – en Out-of-school childr 1.09 481.0 Work, minutes per day 525.0 Primary education attainment, adults – – – 2.36 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 44.6 18.9 Primary education attainment, 25-54 96.8 0.98 98.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 61.7 87.5 0.71 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.65 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.76 25.4 19.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 9.4 90.6 0.10 72.4 0.88 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 81.9 Firms with female (co-)owners 1.79 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 39.6 18.9 0.48 0.21 Firms with female top managers 0.72 Tertiary education attainment, adults 3.0 4.1 9.2 54 0.81 7.5 – – Employers – Tertiary education attainment, age 25- 0.35 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.6 4.7 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 76.4 81.4 0.94 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1949 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 68 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 103.1 78.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 4,050.5 4,691.8 0.86 Seats held in upper house 20.0 0.25 80.0 1 72.3 46.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.64 1 0.53 188.1 Mortality 355.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 80.9 72.0 1.12 24.4 26.2 0.93 Average length of single life 1 27 , childbirth Mortality 20.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 35.6 1.75 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 15.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.62 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 2.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning s physical health ye 7 Potential support ratio 99.90 Births attended by skilled health personnel Total dependency ratio 39 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 121 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

132 rank out of 144 countries 6 scor e C oloPEia 0.00 = imparity 0. 1.00 = parity AVG COL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 282.46 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 13,124.32 Total population (1,000s) 48,653.42 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.86 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 61.80 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 22 36 0.705 0.731 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.740 0.661 32 39 Educational attainment 30 1.000 14 1.000 ZJsY i GsSsTIPe Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 27 0.180 59 0.206 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.740 32 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.2 0.75 ce participation 87 0.753 0.667 62.6 0.55 0.634 0.549 113 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.678 0.509 11,477 16,924 0.68 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 36 53.1 0.320 1.000 1 Legislators, senior officials and managers 46.9 1.13 46.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.17 Pr ofessional and technical workers 53.9 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 30 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 94.1 1.00 94.4 90.6 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 68 0.999 0.979 90.6 75.4 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 81.3 1.08 51.5 59.9 1.16 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.6 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 62.8 1.08 0.227 0.206 59 Political empowerment 0.23 0.230 89 Women in parliament 18.7 81.3 0.279 35.3 64.7 0.55 Women in ministerial positions 20 0.545 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 122 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

133 0.731 / 36 COL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 30.3 2.47 Youth not in employment or education 12.3 10.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 11.1 6.8 1.64 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 27.4 72.6 Discouraged job seekers 2.65 55.0 1.07 gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 59.0 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.11 13.3 14.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 14.2 nment pr Gover 31.7 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.23 yes 5.7 Contributing family workers 2.79 2.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 41.0 45.2 0.91 0.92 7.1 6.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.01 75.6 76.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 97.7 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 97.2 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 82.4 85.3 0.97 Economic L eadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.86 17.4 14.9 2 0.56 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.03 44.6 46.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 71.9 67.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.06 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.55 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 31.1 27.4 0.88 0.14 Firms with female top managers 10.0 Tertiary education attainment, adults 10.6 1.05 21.9 18.7 1.17 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.5 2.0 1.24 Tertiary ed 0.54 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 5.2 9.6 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 43.5 Hold an account at a financial institution 33.6 0.77 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.58 2.2 1.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.85 Arts and Humanities 3.8 4.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 50.9 1.32 38.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.64 Education 10.3 6.3 yes ownership 0.40 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 9.6 23.9 0.91 .) 1,089.4 1,193.4 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 9.0 elfar e Health and W 4.3 2.09 female male value Political Leadership 8.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.7 0.31 Year women r eceived right to vote 1954 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.94 1.3 1.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 63 Services 2.4 0.42 5.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 8.2 4.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.71 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 6.8 5.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 87.6 90.7 0.97 Seats held in upper house 43.0 0.75 57.0 1 6.2 3.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.52 1 0.29 3.4 Mortality 11.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 2.9 23.7 0.12 22.9 26.8 0.85 Average length of single life 1 64 , childbirth Mortality 26.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 51.9 2.00 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 39.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.85 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 8.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 9 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel – Births attended Total dependency ratio 45 Antenatal car 88.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 123 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

134 rank out of 144 countries 41 scor e C osta Rica 0.00 = imparity 0.727 1.00 = parity AVG CRI 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 57.44 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 15,401.49 Total population (1,000s) 4,857.27 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.01 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 62.38 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 30 41 0.694 0.727 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.620 0.522 104 89 Educational attainment 40 0.999 32 0.995 ZJsY i GsZ[e VPJe Health and survival 79 0.974 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 15 0.277 27 0.314 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.620 104 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.7 0.64 ce participation 111 0.639 0.667 52.8 0.55 0.634 0.553 109 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.552 0.509 11,821 21,403 0.55 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 96 41.3 0.320 0.704 17 Legislators, senior officials and managers 58.7 0.70 56.2 0.758 0.779 93 0.78 Pr ofessional and technical workers 43.8 Educational attainment 0.953 0.999 40 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 97.3 1.00 97.5 96.6 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 74 0.997 0.979 96.3 77.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 80.8 1.04 46.6 60.9 1.31 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.974 Health and survival 79 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 71.2 1.037 1.041 89 Healthy life expectancy 68.4 1.04 0.227 0.314 27 Political empowerment 0.54 0.541 27 Women in parliament 35.1 64.9 0.279 30.4 69.6 0.44 Women in ministerial positions 25 0.438 0.209 0.200 4.0 0.09 Years with female head of state (last 50) 30 0.087 46.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 124 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

135 0.727 / 41 CRI TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 26.2 1.63 Youth not in employment or education 16.1 – 120.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 11.5 7.5 1.53 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 44.0 56.0 Discouraged job seekers 1.27 38.2 1.14 – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 43.5 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.03 10.1 10.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 12.6 nment pr Gover 29.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.31 no 0.2 Contributing family workers 1.35 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 12.0 14.5 0.82 1.08 3.2 3.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 81.2 81.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 97.5 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.01 96.8 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 88.2 88.6 1.00 Economic L eadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.81 15.3 12.4 2 0.62 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.05 37.0 38.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 59.1 55.3 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.07 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.77 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 30.3 27.0 0.89 0.18 Firms with female top managers 20.7 Tertiary education attainment, adults 21.9 1.06 23.6 20.5 1.15 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 3.6 0.1 27.91 Tertiary ed 0.84 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 12.0 14.3 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 59.5 60.0 net 0.99 69.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 60.2 0.87 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.46 1.6 0.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.83 Arts and Humanities 2.3 2.7 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 34.0 0.91 37.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.68 Education 27.2 16.2 part ownership 0.30 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.8 12.7 0.89 .) 545.4 612.3 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 19.3 elfar e Health and W 9.8 1.98 female male value Political Leadership 10.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.9 0.19 Year women r eceived right to vote 1949 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.65 0.7 1.0 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 68 Services 2.1 0.59 3.5 Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.4 4.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.51 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 8.8 10.1 0.87 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.3 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.59 1 0.42 0.5 Mortality 1.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.7 0.15 25.7 28.8 0.89 Average length of single life 1 25 , childbirth Mortality 17.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 31.4 1.76 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 36.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.78 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 6.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 7 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 99.20 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 45 Antenatal car 90.20 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 125 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

136 rank out of 144 countries 133 scor e e C ôte d'Ivoir 0.00 = imparity 0.611 1.00 = parity AVG CIV distribution of countries by scor e 0.40 1.00 SCORE A T GLANCE KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 36.16 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 3,448.14 Total population (1,000s) 23,695.92 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.50 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.03 e 51.12 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 133 0.611 – Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.575 – – 115 Educational attainment 0.800 – – 137 G[i K0]sPv ZJsv i i Health and survival – 121 – 0.968 e]iveki ZJsv i Political empowerment 0.102 – – 108 rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s tevP[` M3T TeSi MiTeSi e]k ZJsv i vero 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.585 0.575 115 Economic participation and opportunity Labour for 0.65 ce participation 103 0.653 0.667 53.2 81.4 0.59 0.634 0.595 92 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.509 2,392 5,010 0.48 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 116 0.477 – – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers 137 Educational attainment 0.953 0.800 122 36.8 Literacy rate 0.883 0.73 0.726 50.7 0.89 Enr olment in primary education 123 0.892 0.979 74.7 83.7 0.71 0.749 Enr olment in secondary education 136 0.971 41.4 58.6 11.0 0.66 Enr olment in tertiary education 123 0.662 0.938 7.3 Health and survival 0.956 0.968 121 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 0.97 46.5 47.6 1.037 1.023 130 Healthy life expectancy 1.02 Political empowerment 0.227 0.102 108 122 0.279 Women in parliament 0.118 89.4 0.12 10.6 79.1 0.26 Women in ministerial positions 66 0.265 0.209 20.9 0.200 50.0 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 0.0 0.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 126 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

137 0.611 / 1 C,9 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 2.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 12.0 7.4 1.61 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – 82.4 1.14 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 93.8 High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 30.0 Contributing family workers 2.04 14.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 59.2 56.5 1.05 1.56 16.3 25.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 51.0 0.80 64.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 6.1 26.6 0.23 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes – Out-of-school youth – – 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.46 15.3 6.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 22.0 0.60 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 36.5 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.32 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 13.2 2.4 0.18 0.17 Firms with female top managers 0.36 Tertiary education attainment, adults 1.5 4.0 8.6 ge 25-54 0.57 4.9 14.7 0.5 Employers 0.03 Tertiary education attainment, a 0.34 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.9 2.7 R&D personnel – – – 0.4 0.27 PhD graduates 0.1 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 12.0 18.1 0.66 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.51 1.6 0.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.81 Arts and Humanities 7.6 9.4 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 55.4 1.74 31.9 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.06 Education 3.6 3.4 ownership part 0.36 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.6 12.8 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 6.5 elfar e Health and W 5.6 1.16 female male value Political Leadership 11.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 5.6 0.48 Year women r eceived right to vote 1952 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.33 2.9 8.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 65 Services 3.1 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 9.6 12.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.80 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 41.8 33.6 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 47.8 53.0 0.90 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 41.4 36.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.88 1 0.55 8.7 Mortality 15.9 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.7 5.1 0.32 23.0 28.0 0.82 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 16.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 59.7 3.57 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 26.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.91 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 27.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 19 Potential support ratio ed by skilled health personnel – Births attend Total dependency ratio 83 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 127 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

138 rank out of 144 countries 54 scor e C roatia 0.00 = imparity 0.711 1.00 = parity AVG HR V 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 50.43 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 21,408.55 Total population (1,000s) 4,213.27 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.55 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.93 e 66.81 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 16 54 0.714 0.711 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.689 0.651 63 42 Educational attainment 58 0.995 51 0.990 ZJsY i GY se[Pe Health and survival 1 0.980 36 0.979 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 18 0.238 68 0.180 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.689 63 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 71.1 0.87 ce participation 50 0.867 0.667 61.7 0.55 0.634 0.553 110 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.727 0.509 19,978 27,486 0.73 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 22 29.9 0.320 0.427 72 Legislators, senior officials and managers 70.1 0.43 44.9 0.758 1.000 1 1.23 Pr ofessional and technical workers 55.1 Educational attainment 0.953 0.995 58 61 0.883 Literacy rate 0.990 99.6 0.99 98.7 89.1 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 89 0.993 0.979 88.5 90.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 93.7 1.04 58.8 79.8 1.36 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 71.8 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 67.0 1.07 0.227 0.180 68 Political empowerment 0.23 0.228 90 Women in parliament 18.5 81.5 0.279 20.0 80.0 0.25 Women in ministerial positions 68 0.250 0.209 0.200 4.8 0.11 Years with female head of state (last 50) 27 0.107 45.2 2.00 1.00 0.00 128 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

139 0.711 / 54 HR V TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 120 15.8 0.75 Youth not in employment or education 21.0 – 208.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 13.8 12.5 1.10 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 48.6 51.4 Discouraged job seekers 1.06 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.27 11.6 14.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 12.6 nment pr Gover 20.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.60 yes 2.0 Contributing family workers 2.27 0.9 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.1 9.1 0.56 0.12 2.9 0.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 98.7 95.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 99.6 1.00 99.6 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 94.1 98.7 0.95 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 8.5 Out-of-school youth 0.61 13.8 2 0.54 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.80 79.1 63.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 84.4 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 84.6 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.47 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 65.9 37.2 0.56 0.23 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 11.4 tainment, age 25-54 1.51 17.3 0.9 3.4 Employers 3.77 Tertiary education at 0.55 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.2 11.4 R&D personnel 47.9 52.1 0.92 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 74.4 0.88 Individuals using the inter net 65.4 Hold an account at a financial institution 87.7 84.2 1.04 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.81 5.0 4.1 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.81 Arts and Humanities 12.0 6.6 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 36.2 1.48 24.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 11.99 Education 6.2 0.5 ownership yes 0.30 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.5 25.5 Mean monthly ear 0.90 7.3 8.1 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 13.9 elfar e Health and W 4.8 2.91 female male value Political Leadership 8.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.2 0.15 Year women r eceived right to vote 1945 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.19 5.3 4.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 72 Services 7.0 0.51 13.8 Number of female heads of state to date 2 9.3 6.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.40 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 25.9 23.9 1.09 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.93 1 0.95 1.0 Mortality 1.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.6 0.40 27.4 30.2 0.91 Average length of single life 1 8 , childbirth Mortality 7.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 20.0 2.87 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 13.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.46 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 99.90 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car 93.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 129 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

140 rank out of 144 countries 25 scor e C uba 0.00 = imparity 0.745 1.00 = parity CUB AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 87.13 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) – 11,475.98 Total population (1,000s) Education 0.10 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 25 – 0.745 Health Economic participation and opportunity 99 – – 0.629 Educational attainment 1 – – 1.000 ZJsY L G\Ie Health and survival 103 0.970 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 19 0.382 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT ZJsY L e]k MLTeSL TeSL Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.629 99 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 51.1 79.1 0.65 Labour for ce participation 108 0.646 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – – – – – – Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) – 38.1 0.320 0.616 31 Legislators, senior officials and managers 61.9 0.62 61.9 0.758 0.616 105 0.62 Pr ofessional and technical workers 38.1 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.7 1.00 99.8 92.0 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 92.3 82.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 88.8 1.07 30.1 43.0 1.43 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.970 Health and survival 103 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 70.3 1.037 1.030 111 Healthy life expectancy 68.2 1.03 0.227 0.382 19 Political empowerment 0.96 0.955 3 Women in parliament 48.9 51.1 0.279 25.9 74.1 0.35 Women in ministerial positions 37 0.350 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 130 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

141 0.7 / 2 CU% TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) – Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – – nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater – Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.1 2.4 1.29 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – – nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.12 7.5 8.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e – 1.1 nment pr Gover 3.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.86 – 0.0 Contributing family workers 0.22 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 7.7 10.9 0.71 0.97 7.9 7.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.98 92.1 90.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 100.0 1.00 100.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.4 99.6 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay – 16.7 Out-of-school youth 0.70 23.9 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.99 57.7 57.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 87.3 1.01 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 86.6 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 60.6 47.2 0.78 – Firms with female top managers 1.30 Tertiary education attainment, adults 16.0 12.3 10.6 education attainment, age 25-54 1.36 14.4 0.1 12.6 Employers 108.80 Tertiary 0.68 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.5 9.5 R&D personnel – – – 0.3 1.16 PhD graduates 0.4 value male female Access to Assets 25.1 1.19 Individuals using the inter net 29.8 Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.28 2.8 0.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.30 Arts and Humanities 1.0 3.3 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 15.5 1.07 14.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.36 Education 27.5 20.2 ownership yes 0.20 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 0.6 3.2 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 28.9 elfar e Health and W 17.4 1.66 female male value Political Leadership 2.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.4 0.50 Year women r eceived right to vote 1934 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.58 0.3 0.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 83 Services 4.7 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 19.0 19.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.98 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 36.7 41.6 0.88 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.7 0.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.62 1 0.93 2.6 Mortality 2.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.5 1.7 0.26 21.3 25.4 0.84 Average length of single life 1 39 , childbirth Mortality 31.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 55.7 1.77 Legislation on domestic violence – 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.72 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 9.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio led health personnel 99.40 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 44 Antenatal car 97.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 131 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

142 rank out of 144 countries 9 scor e C \Srus 0.00 = imparity 0. 1.00 = parity AVG CY3 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 19.80 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 31,195.51 Total population (1,000s) 1,170.13 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.79 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 66.43 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 83 92 0.643 0.684 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.679 0.562 66 75 Educational attainment 46 0.998 55 0.989 ZgsY i G`WY\Z Health and survival 126 0.966 84 0.969 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 95 0.052 115 0.092 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[ergi [s WeYm[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.679 66 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 79.7 0.86 ce participation 55 0.864 0.667 68.8 0.60 0.634 0.602 87 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.664 0.509 25,991 39,148 0.66 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 46 25.9 0.320 0.350 84 Legislators, senior officials and managers 74.1 0.35 48.3 0.758 1.000 1 1.07 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.998 46 65 0.883 Literacy rate 0.988 99.3 0.99 98.1 97.1 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 97.7 94.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 95.1 1.01 51.1 69.4 1.36 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.966 Health and survival 126 0.956 0.93 Sex ratio at birth 132 0.935 0.920 72.6 1.037 1.037 95 Healthy life expectancy 70.0 1.04 0.227 0.092 115 Political empowerment 0.22 0.217 94 Women in parliament 17.9 82.1 0.279 9.1 90.9 0.10 Women in ministerial positions 115 0.100 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 132 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

143 0.684 / 92 CYP TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 14.7 0.92 Youth not in employment or education 15.9 – 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 72.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 13.5 12.6 1.07 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 37.5 62.5 Discouraged job seekers 1.67 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.32 19.2 25.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 17.9 nment pr Gover 23.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.33 yes 1.3 Contributing family workers 1.10 1.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 8.3 13.7 0.60 0.74 2.5 1.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.96 96.1 91.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 99.8 1.00 99.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 96.2 99.2 0.97 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 5.1 Out-of-school youth 0.86 5.9 2 0.60 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.95 70.9 67.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 88.7 0.98 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 90.1 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 57.2 37.1 0.65 – Firms with female top managers 1.03 Tertiary education attainment, adults 26.0 25.1 23.9 ation attainment, age 25-54 0.93 22.3 1.2 0.7 Employers 0.61 Tertiary educ 0.34 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 5.4 15.8 R&D personnel 42.6 57.4 0.74 1.0 0.41 PhD graduates 0.4 value male female Access to Assets 73.3 0.96 Individuals using the inter net 70.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 90.3 90.0 1.00 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.03 0.7 0.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 2.01 Arts and Humanities 11.2 5.6 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 32.0 0.77 41.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.42 Education 23.7 6.9 ownership yes 0.27 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.8 21.1 Mean monthly ear 0.84 1.7 2.1 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.6 elfar e Health and W 7.1 1.20 female male value Political Leadership 5.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.7 0.31 Year women r eceived right to vote 1960 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 2.16 3.7 1.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 57 Services 4.5 0.91 5.0 Number of female heads of state to date 0 7.3 5.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.43 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 3.4 3.9 0.88 Seats held in upper house 15.8 0.19 84.2 1 0.1 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.99 1 0.62 0.1 Mortality 0.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.28 26.4 29.3 0.90 Average length of single life 1 7 , childbirth Mortality 11.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 25.1 2.28 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 15.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.34 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio lled health personnel – Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 43 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 133 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

144 rank out of 144 countries 88 scor e C zech Republic 0.00 = imparity 0.688 1.00 = parity AVG CZE 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 192.92 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 31,071.75 Total population (1,000s) 10,610.95 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.07 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 71.41 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 53 88 0.671 0.688 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.643 0.627 92 52 Educational attainment 1 1.000 47 0.991 ZJsY i GaiJl ViW\IpPJ Health and survival 1 0.980 36 0.979 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 70 0.088 91 0.130 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTepi ezk ZJsY i Yero Tepi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.643 92 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 81.9 0.82 ce participation 65 0.816 0.667 66.9 0.59 0.634 0.586 97 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.597 0.509 26,076 43,648 0.60 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 79 25.4 0.320 0.340 88 Legislators, senior officials and managers 74.6 0.34 51.1 0.758 0.957 72 0.96 Pr ofessional and technical workers 48.9 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 51.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 48.9 0.96 54.2 76.3 1.41 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 71.7 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 67.1 1.07 0.227 0.130 91 Political empowerment 0.25 0.250 80 Women in parliament 20.0 80.0 0.279 17.6 82.4 0.21 Women in ministerial positions 79 0.214 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 134 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

145 0.688 / 88 CZE TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 1095 9.5 1.72 Youth not in employment or education 5.5 – 196.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 70.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.7 3.4 1.38 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 45.9 54.1 Discouraged job seekers 1.18 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.90 12.4 11.2 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 12.4 nment pr Gover 21.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.72 yes 0.9 Contributing family workers 4.50 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 10.7 15.7 0.68 – – – en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.8 99.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 99.7 1.00 99.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.5 99.7 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.68 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.91 94.2 85.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 9.0 91.0 0.10 91.7 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 91.6 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.45 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 88.2 67.0 0.76 0.13 Firms with female top managers 0.97 Tertiary education attainment, adults 19.1 19.6 15.1 nt, age 25-54 1.00 15.1 0.2 1.6 Employers 7.84 Tertiary education attainme 0.51 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.7 13.3 R&D personnel 28.5 71.5 0.40 0.8 0.58 PhD graduates 0.4 value male female Access to Assets 82.5 0.97 Individuals using the inter net 80.1 Hold an account at a financial institution 79.4 85.2 0.93 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.08 2.9 3.1 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.49 Arts and Humanities 8.8 5.9 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 22.5 1.25 17.9 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.18 Education 13.8 4.3 ownership yes 0.31 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.7 25.0 Mean monthly ear 0.78 24.1 30.8 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 13.7 elfar e Health and W 4.2 3.29 female male value Political Leadership 8.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.10 Year women r eceived right to vote 1920 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.96 4.7 4.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 97 Services 5.5 0.64 8.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 11.9 8.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.46 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.75 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 50.3 49.1 1.03 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.9 1.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.12 1 0.64 1.5 Mortality 2.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.3 1.2 0.24 31.3 33.7 0.93 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 1.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 5.4 3.05 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 21.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.54 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 4.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 51 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 135 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

146 rank out of 144 countries 14 scor e D enmark 0.00 = imparity 0.776 1.00 = parity AVG DNK 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 306.14 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 45,686.48 Total population (1,000s) 5,711.87 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.39 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 74.40 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 8 14 0.746 0.776 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.728 0.708 36 19 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY L +LrTeYo Health and survival 95 0.971 76 0.972 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 13 0.305 16 0.406 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJL [s WeYm[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.728 36 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 81.2 0.93 ce participation 18 0.928 0.667 75.3 0.70 0.634 0.698 39 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.670 0.509 39,913 59,583 0.67 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 42 28.0 0.320 0.388 80 Legislators, senior officials and managers 72.0 0.39 49.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.04 Pr ofessional and technical workers 50.9 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 98.3 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.4 88.3 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 91.3 1.03 69.7 96.3 1.38 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.971 Health and survival 95 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 72.3 1.037 1.033 104 Healthy life expectancy 70.0 1.03 0.227 0.406 16 Political empowerment 0.60 0.598 21 Women in parliament 37.4 62.6 0.279 42.9 57.1 0.75 Women in ministerial positions 8 0.750 0.209 0.200 3.7 0.08 Years with female head of state (last 50) 32 0.081 46.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 136 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

147 0.776 / 1 DN. TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 224 6.1 0.98 Youth not in employment or education 6.3 14.0 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 50.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.6 5.8 1.15 50.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 53.8 46.2 Discouraged job seekers 0.86 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.17 15.6 18.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 30.1 nment pr Gover 43.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.43 yes 0.9 Contributing family workers 1.24 0.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 3.3 6.3 0.53 0.78 1.5 1.2 en Out-of-school childr 0.98 446.2 Work, minutes per day 437.4 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 100.0 100.0 1.33 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 55.5 41.7 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Econ omic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.91 12.6 11.5 2 0.79 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.00 77.7 77.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 27.0 73.0 0.37 99.5 99.8 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 99.7 99.7 1.00 – Firms with female top managers 25.9 Tertiary education attainment, adults 34.9 1.35 33.9 26.3 1.29 iary education attainment, age 25-54 Employers 1.8 0.7 2.56 Tert 0.84 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 18.7 22.3 R&D personnel 36.1 63.9 0.56 0.8 0.53 0.5 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 96.4 96.2 net 1.00 100.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 100.0 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 2.06 1.3 2.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.34 Arts and Humanities 14.4 10.8 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 18.5 0.80 23.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.37 Education 9.9 7.3 yes ownership 0.31 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.5 17.6 – .) – – nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 29.1 elfar e Health and W 11.4 2.55 female male value Political Leadership 8.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.5 0.18 Year women r eceived right to vote 1915 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.71 3.9 5.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 102 Services 1.9 0.35 5.3 Number of female heads of state to date 1 11.1 9.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.17 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 22.3 21.7 1.03 Seats held in upper house 21.6 0.28 78.4 1 0.3 0.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.27 1 0.92 0.6 Mortality 0.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.5 0.42 31.5 33.3 0.95 Average length of single life 1 6 , childbirth Mortality 1.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 3.6 2.69 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 32.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.74 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 98.20 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 56 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 137 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

148 rank out of 144 countries 70 scor e D ominican Republic 0.00 = imparity 0.697 1.00 = parity AVG DOM 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 71.58 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 14,098.88 Total population (1,000s) 10,648.79 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.12 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 57.12 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 59 70 0.664 0.697 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.638 0.559 95 78 Educational attainment 72 0.991 1 1.000 ZJsY i +sTmrmJer ViW\IpmJ Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 49 0.117 69 0.179 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` MT MiTepi e]k ZJsY i Yero Tepi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.638 95 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.9 0.69 ce participation 95 0.691 0.667 57.3 0.55 0.634 0.551 112 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.584 0.509 11,229 19,219 0.58 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 87 34.9 0.320 0.536 49 Legislators, senior officials and managers 65.1 0.54 45.8 0.758 1.000 1 1.19 Pr ofessional and technical workers 54.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.991 72 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 91.7 1.01 92.3 87.7 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 109 0.981 0.979 86.0 61.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 70.4 1.14 35.4 65.0 1.84 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.0 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 63.2 1.06 0.227 0.179 69 Political empowerment 0.37 0.367 53 Women in parliament 26.8 73.2 0.279 20.8 79.2 0.26 Women in ministerial positions 67 0.263 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 138 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

149 0.697 / 70 DOM TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 27.8 1.87 Youth not in employment or education 14.8 2.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 8.4 3.7 2.31 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 29.8 70.2 Discouraged job seekers 2.35 49.9 1.04 empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 51.7 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.30 9.7 12.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 11.6 nment pr Gover 19.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.68 yes 2.0 Contributing family workers 2.01 1.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 25.7 48.1 0.53 1.08 10.8 11.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.03 65.7 67.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 99.4 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.2 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 97.3 97.8 1.00 Economic Lea dership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.90 26.3 23.6 2 0.54 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.22 31.3 38.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 68.0 60.2 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.13 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.47 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 28.2 24.6 0.87 0.27 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 31.1 21.2 1.47 attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.1 1.0 2.15 Tertiary education 0.78 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 9.6 12.4 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 52.1 Hold an account at a financial institution 55.8 1.07 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.19 1.9 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.17 Arts and Humanities 10.3 8.8 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 38.3 0.91 42.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.17 Education 21.0 9.7 yes ownership 0.41 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 2.9 7.1 0.86 .) 16.4 19.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 15.4 elfar e Health and W 8.1 1.89 female male value Political Leadership 14.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 5.3 0.37 Year women r eceived right to vote 1942 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.00 1.2 1.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 75 Services 2.6 0.57 4.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 2.0 1.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.10 Election list quotas for women, national 33 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 33 Health 1 , childr 3.8 3.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 20.0 22.7 0.88 Seats held in upper house 19.4 0.24 80.6 1 2.7 1.9 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.69 1 0.31 1.1 Mortality 3.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.6 3.3 0.19 20.9 24.8 0.84 Average length of single life 1 92 , childbirth Mortality 38.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 66.5 1.71 Legislation on domestic violence yes 26 Mean age of women at birth of first child 17.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.42 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 11.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 9 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 97.70 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 57 Antenatal car 92.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 139 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

150 rank out of 144 countries 42 scor e Ec uador 0.00 = imparity 0.724 1.00 = parity AVG ECU 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 97.80 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 10,462.44 Total population (1,000s) 16,385.07 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.47 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 59.87 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 82 42 0.643 0.724 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.642 0.499 93 92 Educational attainment 54 0.996 39 0.994 ZJsY L IJ\eKsY Health and survival 57 0.977 1 0.980 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 64 0.100 32 0.283 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.642 93 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.8 0.63 ce participation 116 0.628 0.667 52.0 0.58 0.634 0.577 100 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.611 0.509 8,559 14,015 0.61 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 72 35.4 0.320 0.547 45 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.6 0.55 48.0 0.758 1.000 1 1.08 Pr ofessional and technical workers 52.0 Educational attainment 0.953 0.996 54 75 0.883 Literacy rate 0.978 95.4 0.98 93.3 91.3 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 92.5 86.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 88.2 1.02 34.6 45.3 1.31 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.977 Health and survival 57 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 68.7 1.037 1.051 66 Healthy life expectancy 65.3 1.05 0.227 0.283 32 Political empowerment 0.61 0.612 20 Women in parliament 38.0 62.0 0.279 27.5 72.5 0.38 Women in ministerial positions 30 0.379 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 66 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 140 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

151 0.724 / 42 ECU TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 26.7 2.61 Youth not in employment or education 10.2 12.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.0 3.8 1.57 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 40.0 60.0 Discouraged job seekers 1.50 48.8 1.10 empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 53.9 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.12 7.7 8.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 17.9 nment pr Gover 36.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.05 yes 19.4 Contributing family workers 2.98 6.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 35.2 31.4 1.12 0.30 2.7 0.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.96 84.2 81.1 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 96.4 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 96.8 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 77.6 84.8 0.92 Economic Lea dership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 1.05 19.5 20.5 2 0.54 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.98 42.6 41.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 62.0 59.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.04 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.32 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 26.7 24.2 0.91 0.20 Firms with female top managers 11.4 Tertiary education attainment, adults 12.7 1.12 26.7 22.8 1.17 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.0 6.5 0.31 Tertiary ed 0.56 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.6 11.9 R&D personnel 44.6 55.4 0.81 – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 51.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 40.8 0.79 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.32 4.3 1.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.77 Arts and Humanities 3.0 3.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 37.0 1.10 33.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.95 Education 26.0 13.3 yes ownership 0.19 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.5 18.3 0.98 .) 0.4 0.4 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 14.7 elfar e Health and W 8.9 1.65 female male value Political Leadership 6.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.5 0.38 Year women r eceived right to vote 1929 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.68 1.7 2.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 88 Services 3.4 1.15 3.0 Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.9 5.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.44 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 4.0 3.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 27.7 30.7 0.90 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 2.4 1.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.55 1 0.31 1.8 Mortality 5.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.5 2.3 0.22 21.8 25.0 0.87 Average length of single life 1 64 , childbirth Mortality 37.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 55.1 1.49 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 46.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.49 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 23.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 9 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 96.30 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 55 Antenatal car 79.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 141 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

152 rank out of 144 countries 134 scor e Eg ypt 0.00 = imparity 0.608 1.00 = parity AVG EGY 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 336.30 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 10,319.26 Total population (1,000s) 95,688.68 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.97 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e 55.99 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 109 134 0.579 0.608 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.413 0.416 135 108 Educational attainment 104 0.960 90 0.903 ZgsY L Ik`t[ Health and survival 99 0.971 66 0.974 L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment 111 0.022 119 0.087 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergL [s teYP[` M3T MLTepL e]k ZgsY L Yero TepL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.413 135 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.4 0.31 ce participation 138 0.310 0.667 24.9 0.66 0.634 0.664 58 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.285 0.509 4,911 17,215 0.29 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 131 6.4 0.320 0.069 122 Legislators, senior officials and managers 93.6 0.07 62.5 0.758 0.601 106 0.60 Pr ofessional and technical workers 37.5 Educational attainment 0.953 0.960 104 113 0.883 Literacy rate 0.813 82.6 0.81 67.2 97.7 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.4 81.3 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 82.5 1.01 36.9 35.6 0.96 0.938 0.964 96 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.971 Health and survival 99 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 63.2 1.037 1.033 105 Healthy life expectancy 61.2 1.03 0.227 0.087 119 Political empowerment 0.18 0.176 107 Women in parliament 14.9 85.1 0.279 11.8 88.2 0.13 Women in ministerial positions 104 0.133 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 142 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

153 0.608 / 4 E*Y TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 35.2 1.87 Youth not in employment or education 18.9 – 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 24.2 9.4 2.58 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 15.2 85.3 Discouraged job seekers 5.61 53.8 0.66 – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 35.3 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.57 12.1 7.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 3.4 nment pr Gover 7.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.06 no 40.1 Contributing family workers 7.09 5.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 6.4 14.5 0.44 0.44 1.5 0.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.69 58.2 40.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 73.9 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.82 90.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 31.7 56.9 0.56 Economic Lead ership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 1.12 21.4 23.9 2 0.63 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.70 47.4 33.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 61.4 75.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.81 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.22 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 34.7 14.4 0.41 0.05 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 17.8 22.9 0.78 ttainment, age 25-54 Employers 1.9 5.7 0.34 Tertiary education a 0.32 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 4.7 14.9 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 31.1 36.6 net 0.85 18.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 9.2 0.51 value male female s access to financial services Women’ part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.95 3.5 3.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.79 Arts and Humanities 24.9 13.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 8.7 0.50 17.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.40 Education 19.7 8.2 part ownership 0.33 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.1 12.5 0.93 .) 2.9 3.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 14.2 elfar e Health and W 10.4 1.36 female male value Political Leadership 2.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.0 0.45 Year women r eceived right to vote 1956 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.50 4.0 2.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 61 Services 1.3 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 18.8 27.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.69 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 36.0 30.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 227.3 245.9 0.92 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 6.4 5.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.84 1 0.36 6.4 Mortality 18.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.7 5.5 0.31 22.1 27.5 0.80 Average length of single life 1 33 , childbirth Mortality 13.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 61.0 4.69 Legislation on domestic violence no 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 34.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.27 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 12 Potential support ratio ded by skilled health personnel 91.50 Births atten Total dependency ratio 63 Antenatal car 82.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 143 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

154 rank out of 144 countries 2 scor e EO SaOYaGor 0.00 = imparity 0.70 1.00 = parity AVG SL V 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 26.80 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 7,990.00 Total population (1,000s) 6,344.72 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.52 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.89 e 56.36 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 39 62 0.684 0.705 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.634 0.570 97 73 Educational attainment 67 0.992 59 0.988 ZgsY i IS :eS]eKsY Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 24 0.197 56 0.214 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.634 97 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.9 0.64 ce participation 109 0.644 0.667 53.4 0.50 0.634 0.503 123 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.588 0.509 6,482 11,029 0.59 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 85 43.5 0.320 0.771 14 Legislators, senior officials and managers 56.5 0.77 53.6 0.758 0.865 84 0.87 Pr ofessional and technical workers 46.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.992 67 85 0.883 Literacy rate 0.958 90.0 0.96 86.2 91.0 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 91.5 67.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 69.7 1.03 27.7 30.5 1.10 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.3 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 60.6 1.11 0.227 0.214 56 Political empowerment 0.47 0.474 37 Women in parliament 32.1 67.9 0.279 21.4 78.6 0.27 Women in ministerial positions 63 0.273 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 144 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

155 0.70 / 62 SL 9 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 42.8 2.57 Youth not in employment or education 16.6 3.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.7 6.9 0.68 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 77.2 22.8 Discouraged job seekers 0.30 54.6 1.32 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 71.9 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.96 3.1 2.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 15.4 nment pr Gover 23.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.53 yes 8.9 Contributing family workers 1.53 5.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 35.8 23.9 1.50 0.90 8.3 7.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.87 60.8 52.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 92.2 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 92.8 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 62.0 73.2 0.85 Economic Lead ership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 1.10 27.1 29.8 2 0.47 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.88 28.9 25.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 63.6 65.6 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.97 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.62 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 26.2 17.1 0.65 0.39 Firms with female top managers 6.7 Tertiary education attainment, adults 5.5 0.83 19.0 17.7 1.07 ation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.9 5.8 0.50 Tertiary educ 0.40 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 3.4 8.5 R&D personnel – – – 0.0 0.93 0.0 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 23.2 26.6 net 0.87 40.3 Hold an account at a financial institution 29.4 0.73 value male female s access to financial services Women’ part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.35 2.3 0.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.94 Arts and Humanities 5.2 5.6 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 29.1 1.16 25.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.63 Education 19.5 12.0 yes ownership 0.18 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.3 18.5 0.89 .) 0.2 0.3 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 23.6 elfar e Health and W 9.6 2.46 female male value Political Leadership 18.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 6.1 0.34 Year women r eceived right to vote 1939 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.89 0.8 0.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 78 Services 2.7 1.10 2.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 8.0 5.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.50 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 1.0 0.8 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 14.0 13.8 1.01 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.7 0.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.49 1 0.33 0.6 Mortality 1.9 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.6 3.9 0.16 22.5 25.5 0.88 Average length of single life 1 54 , childbirth Mortality 32.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 46.0 1.41 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 26.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.08 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 17.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 8 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 98.00 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 56 Antenatal car 90.00 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 145 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

156 rank out of 144 countries 37 scor e Es tonia 0.00 = imparity 0.731 1.00 = parity AVG EST 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 23.14 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 27,735.14 Total population (1,000s) 1,312.44 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.22 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.88 e 73.13 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 29 37 0.694 0.731 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.726 0.682 38 27 Educational attainment 1 1.000 16 0.999 ZJsY i IZ[srPe Health and survival 36 0.979 36 0.979 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 51 0.117 52 0.218 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.726 38 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.1 0.90 ce participation 30 0.900 0.667 72.0 0.66 0.634 0.658 63 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.618 0.509 22,783 36,842 0.62 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 69 36.2 0.320 0.568 36 Legislators, senior officials and managers 63.8 0.57 38.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.63 Pr ofessional and technical workers 61.9 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.9 1.00 99.9 94.0 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 95.4 96.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 97.9 1.01 55.4 84.8 1.53 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 36 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 72.0 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 65.6 1.10 0.227 0.218 52 Political empowerment 0.36 0.365 54 Women in parliament 26.7 73.3 0.279 28.6 71.4 0.40 Women in ministerial positions 27 0.400 0.209 0.200 0.7 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 53 0.015 49.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 146 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

157 0.731 / 37 EST TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 435 12.8 1.43 Youth not in employment or education 9.0 10.0 140.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.1 7.4 0.82 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 60.5 39.5 Discouraged job seekers 0.65 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.54 15.3 23.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 16.9 nment pr Gover 25.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.48 yes 0.1 Contributing family workers 0.44 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 4.3 6.6 0.66 0.74 5.8 4.3 en Out-of-school childr 1.16 424.2 Work, minutes per day 494.1 Primary education attainment, adults – – – 1.34 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 50.4 37.8 99.7 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.3 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.3 99.5 1.00 Eco nomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.59 4.0 2.4 2 0.75 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.04 87.7 91.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 8.0 92.0 0.09 99.3 97.8 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.01 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.56 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 88.4 88.1 1.00 0.34 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 25.4 16.5 1.54 age 25-54 Employers 2.2 0.1 16.19 Tertiary education attainment, 0.92 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 16.9 18.4 R&D personnel 49.9 50.1 0.99 – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 87.4 89.5 net 0.98 97.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 97.5 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.64 2.5 1.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.31 Arts and Humanities 13.3 10.2 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 27.2 1.38 19.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 5.56 Education 11.1 2.0 yes ownership 0.25 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.2 28.6 – .) – – nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 16.2 elfar e Health and W 3.9 4.14 female male value Political Leadership 10.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.2 0.22 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.92 6.9 7.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 4.3 0.46 9.3 Number of female heads of state to date 1 9.7 6.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.57 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.75 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 7.5 6.1 1.22 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.1 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.54 1 0.38 0.1 Mortality 0.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.2 0.27 32.8 35.2 0.93 Average length of single life 1 9 , childbirth Mortality 2.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 7.9 2.74 Legislation on domestic violence no 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 20.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.63 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio lled health personnel 99.40 Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 55 Antenatal car 96.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 147 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

158 rank out of 144 countries 115 scor e Et hiopia 0.00 = imparity 0.656 1.00 = parity AVG ETH 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 72.37 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,608.29 Total population (1,000s) 102,403.20 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.48 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 44.44 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 100 115 0.595 0.656 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.604 0.568 109 74 Educational attainment 134 0.819 108 0.739 ZJsY i I[OPstPe Health and survival 44 0.979 87 0.969 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 61 0.102 50 0.223 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTepi e]k ZJsY i Yero Tepi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.604 109 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 90.3 0.88 ce participation 43 0.885 0.667 79.9 0.59 0.634 0.588 95 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.604 0.509 1,308 2,163 0.60 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 74 26.5 0.320 0.361 83 Legislators, senior officials and managers 73.5 0.36 67.4 0.758 0.484 114 0.48 Pr ofessional and technical workers 32.6 Educational attainment 0.953 0.819 134 131 0.883 Literacy rate 0.589 49.1 0.59 28.9 88.7 0.93 Enr olment in primary education 121 0.929 0.979 82.4 31.6 116 Enr olment in secondary education 0.965 0.971 30.5 0.97 10.9 5.3 0.48 0.938 0.481 130 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 44 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 57.7 1.037 1.057 55 Healthy life expectancy 54.6 1.06 0.227 0.223 50 Political empowerment 0.63 0.633 17 Women in parliament 38.8 61.2 0.279 10.0 90.0 0.11 Women in ministerial positions 109 0.111 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 148 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

159 0.656 / 115 ETH TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 1.6 3.73 Youth not in employment or education 0.4 – 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 24.1 11.3 2.14 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 25.3 74.7 Discouraged job seekers 2.95 – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.59 10.3 6.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 39.3 nment pr Gover 63.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.61 no 13.4 Contributing family workers 2.14 6.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 38.9 40.0 0.97 1.59 10.7 17.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.38 37.3 14.2 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 22.7 0.63 36.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 1.4 9.8 0.14 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 75.1 Out-of-school youth 1.04 72.5 2 0.53 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.45 12.7 5.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 13.7 0.63 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 21.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.57 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 3.2 0.3 0.10 0.05 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 3.4 inment, age 25-54 0.50 1.7 6.2 0.6 Employers 0.09 Tertiary education atta 0.07 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.1 0.7 R&D personnel 22.9 77.1 0.30 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 21.0 22.6 0.93 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.82 5.2 4.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.26 Arts and Humanities 2.6 2.1 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 26.0 0.63 41.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.85 Education 48.9 26.4 ownership part 0.41 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.3 8.0 Mean monthly ear 0.69 1.0 1.5 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 6.7 elfar e Health and W 6.1 1.09 female male value Political Leadership 4.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.2 0.51 Year women r eceived right to vote 1955 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.72 2.4 3.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 62 Services 0.1 2.25 0.1 Number of female heads of state to date 0 2.4 3.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.76 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 110.4 89.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 136.6 146.4 0.93 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 98.1 84.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.86 1 0.50 22.4 Mortality 45.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 3.4 12.6 0.27 21.2 25.7 0.82 Average length of single life 1 353 , childbirth Mortality 27.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 68.1 2.48 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 71.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.20 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 26.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 16 Potential support ratio s attended by skilled health personnel – Birth Total dependency ratio 81 Antenatal car 32.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 149 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

160 rank out of 144 countries 125 scor e F iji 0.00 = imparity 0.638 1.00 = parity FJI AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 4.63 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 8,862.74 898.76 Total population (1,000s) Education 0.74 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.03 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 125 – 0.638 Health Economic participation and opportunity 127 – – 0.479 Educational attainment 71 – – 0.991 ZJsY i JPnP Health and survival 36 0.979 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 105 0.104 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` M3T ZJsY i e]k MiTeSi TeSi Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.479 127 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 39.0 73.8 0.53 Labour for ce participation 125 0.529 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.394 0.509 5,371 13,618 0.39 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 126 23.8 0.320 0.312 92 Legislators, senior officials and managers 76.2 0.31 57.0 0.758 0.755 94 0.76 Pr ofessional and technical workers 43.0 Educational attainment 0.953 0.991 71 83 0.883 Literacy rate 0.960 95.9 0.96 92.1 97.3 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.0 79.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 87.9 1.11 – – – – – – Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 36 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 65.1 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 60.8 1.07 0.227 0.104 105 Political empowerment 0.19 0.190 101 Women in parliament 16.0 84.0 0.279 15.4 84.6 0.18 Women in ministerial positions 92 0.182 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 150 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

161 0.638 / 125 FJI TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 12.9 6.4 2.02 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 0.3 Contributing family workers 0.93 0.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 47.0 44.9 1.05 0.70 2.3 1.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 82.8 82.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 89.4 1.00 89.4 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 45.7 61.1 0.75 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 22.6 Out-of-school youth 0.76 29.8 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.01 39.1 39.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 52.8 1.06 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 49.6 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.96 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 17.2 10.1 0.59 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 10.1 ttainment, age 25-54 0.93 9.4 0.3 0.8 Employers 2.73 Tertiary education a 0.49 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.7 5.6 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1963 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 54 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 2.2 3.1 0.73 Seats held in upper house 18.8 0.23 81.3 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.46 1 0.46 0.1 Mortality 0.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.32 24.1 27.7 0.87 Average length of single life 1 30 , childbirth Mortality 16.6 Pr oportion married by age 25 43.2 2.61 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.52 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 11 Potential support ratio ed health personnel 98.80 Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 53 Antenatal car 93.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 151 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

162 rank out of 144 countries 3 scor e ) inOanG 0.00 = imparity 0.23 1.00 = parity AVG )IN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 236.79 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 39,422.65 Total population (1,000s) 5,503.13 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.38 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 77.07 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 3 3 0.796 0.823 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.793 0.734 16 8 Educational attainment 1 1.000 18 0.999 ZgsY i -PrSerK Health and survival 46 0.978 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 3 0.470 5 0.519 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.793 16 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 77.0 0.96 ce participation 8 0.964 0.667 74.3 0.79 0.634 0.793 7 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.710 0.509 35,846 50,481 0.71 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 26 34.1 0.320 0.518 51 Legislators, senior officials and managers 65.9 0.52 48.2 0.758 1.000 1 1.08 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.8 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 99.3 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 99.8 94.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 95.0 1.00 79.3 95.6 1.21 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.978 Health and survival 46 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 72.9 1.037 1.056 57 Healthy life expectancy 69.1 1.06 0.227 0.519 5 Political empowerment 0.72 0.724 8 Women in parliament 42.0 58.0 0.279 38.5 61.5 0.63 Women in ministerial positions 13 0.625 0.209 0.200 12.0 0.32 Years with female head of state (last 50) 11 0.316 38.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 152 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

163 0.823 / 3 FIN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 215 9.6 0.83 Youth not in employment or education 11.5 24.0 147.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 58.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 8.6 9.0 0.95 58.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 58.9 41.1 Discouraged job seekers 0.70 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.28 18.3 23.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 26.3 nment pr Gover 36.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.40 yes 0.5 Contributing family workers 0.81 0.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 6.9 11.8 0.58 0.19 0.6 0.1 en Out-of-school childr 1.08 408.0 Work, minutes per day 442.0 Primary education attainment, adults – – – 1.35 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 52.5 39.0 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Ec onomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 1.08 6.2 6.7 2 0.87 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.02 73.0 74.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 30.0 70.0 0.43 99.6 99.7 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 91.7 91.5 1.00 – Firms with female top managers 21.0 Tertiary education attainment, adults 23.9 1.13 53.5 34.4 1.55 attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.0 0.6 3.48 Tertiary education 0.88 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 24.2 27.4 R&D personnel – – – 1.2 0.71 0.9 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 93.2 92.1 net 1.01 100.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 100.0 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.06 2.2 2.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.74 Arts and Humanities 15.5 8.9 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 18.5 1.07 17.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.62 Education 9.2 2.5 yes ownership 0.19 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.3 32.9 0.79 .) 2.7 3.5 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 27.6 elfar e Health and W 7.3 3.75 female male value Political Leadership 13.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.1 0.16 Year women r eceived right to vote 1906 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.89 4.6 5.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 111 Services 4.7 0.95 4.9 Number of female heads of state to date 3 8.6 5.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.62 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 25.0 22.9 1.09 Seats held in upper house 4.6 0.05 95.4 1 0.2 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.06 1 0.62 0.8 Mortality 1.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.7 0.33 30.1 31.9 0.94 Average length of single life 1 3 , childbirth Mortality 3.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 8.1 2.12 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 30.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.77 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 59 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 153 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

164 rank out of 144 countries 11 scor e F rance 0.00 = imparity 0.778 1.00 = parity AVG FRA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 2,465.45 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 38,058.87 Total population (1,000s) 64,720.69 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.40 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 69.94 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 70 11 0.652 0.778 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.683 0.525 64 88 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY L -YerJL Health and survival 54 0.977 1 0.980 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 60 0.104 9 0.453 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.683 64 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 75.1 0.90 ce participation 33 0.895 0.667 67.2 0.47 0.634 0.474 129 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.739 0.509 35,324 47,820 0.74 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 18 32.9 0.320 0.491 61 Legislators, senior officials and managers 67.1 0.49 49.5 0.758 1.000 1 1.02 Pr ofessional and technical workers 50.5 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 98.6 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 99.1 98.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 99.8 1.01 57.9 71.0 1.23 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.977 Health and survival 54 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 74.4 1.037 1.053 64 Healthy life expectancy 70.7 1.05 0.227 0.453 9 Political empowerment 0.64 0.639 15 Women in parliament 39.0 61.0 0.279 52.9 47.1 1.13 Women in ministerial positions 1 1.000 0.209 0.200 0.9 0.02 Years with female head of state (last 50) 52 0.018 49.1 2.00 1.00 0.00 154 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

165 0.77 / 11 )5A TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 11.5 0.93 Youth not in employment or education 12.3 11.0 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 73.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 9.9 10.2 0.96 73.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 51.0 49.0 Discouraged job seekers 0.96 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.12 17.8 20.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 24.0 nment pr Gover 40.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.68 yes 0.7 Contributing family workers 3.97 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.5 8.7 0.63 0.46 0.8 0.3 en Out-of-school childr 1.08 376.0 Work, minutes per day 405.0 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 97.8 97.3 1.51 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 57.4 38.0 99.5 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.6 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 98.5 98.2 1.00 E conomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.83 0.4 0.3 2 0.54 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.92 72.4 66.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 37.0 63.0 0.59 94.6 95.3 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 69.6 59.1 0.85 – Firms with female top managers 18.2 Tertiary education attainment, adults 17.1 0.94 41.7 33.2 1.26 ation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.3 0.2 13.95 Tertiary educ 0.74 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 12.3 16.5 R&D personnel 31.5 68.5 0.46 1.0 0.56 0.6 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 83.7 85.7 net 0.98 97.8 Hold an account at a financial institution 95.5 0.98 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.62 2.1 1.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.77 Arts and Humanities 11.4 6.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 35.7 1.13 31.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.48 Education 4.6 1.8 yes ownership 0.28 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.9 24.9 0.84 .) 2.6 3.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 20.8 elfar e Health and W 9.4 2.21 female male value Political Leadership 5.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.16 Year women r eceived right to vote 1944 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.71 6.2 8.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 73 Services 2.5 0.77 3.3 Number of female heads of state to date 1 8.9 5.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.50 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 1.9 1.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 241.4 240.0 1.01 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 4.2 4.8 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.14 1 0.94 11.7 Mortality 12.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 3.3 8.2 0.41 25.6 27.7 0.92 Average length of single life 1 8 , childbirth Mortality 17.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 31.4 1.83 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 26.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.98 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 2.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio d by skilled health personnel 98.30 Births attende Total dependency ratio 60 Antenatal car 98.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 155 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

166 rank out of 144 countries 119 scor e G ambia, The 0.00 = imparity 0.649 1.00 = parity AVG GMB 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 0.96 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,565.80 Total population (1,000s) 2,038.50 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 3.02 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 79 119 0.645 0.649 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.627 0.688 100 25 Educational attainment 127 0.896 106 0.809 ZJsY i KeTIme0 ;Oi Health and survival 122 0.968 64 0.974 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 55 0.109 104 0.106 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.627 100 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.6 0.88 ce participation 44 0.882 0.667 72.8 0.77 0.634 0.771 16 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.417 0.509 998 2,394 0.42 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 125 33.8 0.320 0.511 57 Legislators, senior officials and managers 66.2 0.51 73.2 0.758 0.366 117 0.37 Pr ofessional and technical workers 26.8 Educational attainment 0.953 0.896 127 126 0.883 Literacy rate 0.653 51.4 0.65 33.6 71.3 1.10 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 78.3 51.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 48.8 0.95 3.7 2.5 0.68 0.938 0.681 122 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.968 Health and survival 122 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 54.5 1.037 1.023 131 Healthy life expectancy 53.3 1.02 0.227 0.106 104 Political empowerment 0.12 0.115 124 Women in parliament 10.3 89.7 0.279 22.2 77.8 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 56 0.286 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 156 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

167 0.649 / 119 GMB TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 42.6 1.79 Youth not in employment or education 23.8 10.0 180.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 12.6 6.7 1.88 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 37.9 62.1 Discouraged job seekers 1.64 62.0 1.25 empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 77.6 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.14 0.6 0.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 18.7 nment pr Gover 34.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.83 no 13.5 Contributing family workers 1.23 11.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 67.4 49.8 1.35 0.74 27.6 20.4 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 23.3 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 23.3 value male female Primary education attainment, 65+ 6.1 15.2 0.40 eadership Economic L no Law mandates equal pay – – – Out-of-school youth 2 0.75 Advancement of women to leadership r oles – Secondary education attainment, adults – – Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 8.5 0.38 3.2 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.27 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 2.4 5.4 0.44 Firms with female top managers – – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 1.2 Employers 11.0 0.11 0.8 Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 1.8 0.42 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.6 2.0 0.31 R&D personnel 4.3 95.7 0.04 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.27 2.2 0.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 5.07 Arts and Humanities 0.8 0.2 Women’ no ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 39.5 1.06 37.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.46 Education 13.1 28.4 ownership no 0.04 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 0.4 9.8 Mean monthly ear 0.46 2.8 .) 6.1 nings (1,000s, local curr 3.7 elfar e Health and W 3.1 1.20 female male value Political Leadership 45.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 29.5 0.65 Year women r eceived right to vote 1960 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.74 2.2 1.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 57 Services 2.6 1.05 2.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 7.6 4.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.57 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 3.0 2.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.84 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 2.6 2.8 0.91 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 2.1 1.9 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.90 1 0.61 0.6 Mortality 1.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.2 0.38 21.8 29.7 0.73 Average length of single life 1 706 , childbirth Mortality 7.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 61.2 8.74 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 5.43 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 22.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 22 Potential support ratio led health personnel 57.20 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 92 Antenatal car 77.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 157 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

168 rank out of 144 countries 9 scor e G eorJia 0.00 = imparity 0.79 1.00 = parity AVG GEO 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 14.33 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 9,267.30 Total population (1,000s) 3,925.41 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.50 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.91 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 54 94 0.670 0.679 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.669 0.656 75 41 Educational attainment 81 0.989 28 0.997 ZJsY i KisY kPe Health and survival 124 0.967 115 0.923 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 59 0.104 114 0.093 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.669 75 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.3 0.76 ce participation 86 0.760 0.667 63.3 0.69 0.634 0.688 45 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.481 0.509 6,595 13,721 0.48 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 114 33.9 0.320 0.514 54 Legislators, senior officials and managers 66.1 0.51 38.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.62 Pr ofessional and technical workers 61.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.989 81 49 0.883 Literacy rate 0.998 99.7 1.00 99.5 95.4 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 113 0.977 0.979 93.2 95.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 95.6 1.01 39.2 47.8 1.22 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.967 Health and survival 124 0.956 0.93 Sex ratio at birth 138 0.926 0.920 69.3 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 63.4 1.09 0.227 0.093 114 Political empowerment 0.19 0.190 101 Women in parliament 16.0 84.0 0.279 11.1 88.9 0.13 Women in ministerial positions 106 0.125 0.209 0.200 0.3 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 60 0.007 49.7 2.00 1.00 0.00 158 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

169 0.679 / 94 GEO TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 183.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 10.2 13.5 0.76 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 72.3 27.4 Discouraged job seekers 0.38 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.96 16.1 15.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 33.3 Contributing family workers 2.27 14.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 21.8 42.4 0.51 1.62 3.7 6.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.2 98.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 11.1 Out-of-school youth 0.91 12.2 2 0.64 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.99 92.3 91.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.51 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.47 Firms with female top managers 0.98 Tertiary education attainment, adults 29.8 30.6 14.7 Employers 0.8 0.06 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – iary education attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 52.0 48.0 1.08 Tert 0.6 0.96 PhD graduates 0.6 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 39.8 39.6 1.01 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.35 7.4 2.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 2.79 Arts and Humanities 16.4 5.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 38.8 1.06 36.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 22.75 Education 1.6 0.1 ownership part 0.27 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.7 13.8 Mean monthly ear 0.63 0.6 1.0 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 12.8 elfar e Health and W 6.8 1.88 female male value Political Leadership 7.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 3.2 0.41 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.00 8.2 8.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 2.3 0.35 6.5 Number of female heads of state to date 1 10.4 6.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.52 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.73 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 23.4 22.7 1.03 Seats held in upper house 9.4 0.10 90.6 1 0.3 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.45 1 0.39 0.4 Mortality 1.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.4 0.19 23.7 28.0 0.85 Average length of single life 1 36 , childbirth Mortality 21.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 47.9 2.20 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 50.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.00 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 99.90 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 51 Antenatal car 86.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 159 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

170 rank out of 144 countries 12 scor e G ermany 0.00 = imparity 0.778 1.00 = parity AVG DEU 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 3,466.76 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 44,072.39 Total population (1,000s) 81,914.67 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.25 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 74.30 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 5 12 0.752 0.778 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.720 0.669 43 32 Educational attainment 98 0.970 31 0.995 ZJsY L KLYTer` Health and survival 70 0.975 36 0.979 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 6 0.366 10 0.447 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJL [s WeYm[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.720 43 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.6 0.89 ce participation 41 0.885 0.667 73.1 0.68 0.634 0.678 49 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.682 0.509 39,621 58,129 0.68 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 35 29.3 0.320 0.414 74 Legislators, senior officials and managers 70.7 0.41 48.6 0.758 1.000 1 1.06 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.970 98 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 52.7 121 Enr olment in secondary education 0.950 0.971 47.3 0.90 69.7 66.8 0.96 0.938 0.958 98 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.975 Health and survival 70 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 72.8 1.037 1.045 80 Healthy life expectancy 69.7 1.05 0.227 0.447 10 Political empowerment 0.59 0.587 22 Women in parliament 37.0 63.0 0.279 33.3 66.7 0.50 Women in ministerial positions 22 0.500 0.209 0.200 12.1 0.32 Years with female head of state (last 50) 10 0.319 37.9 2.00 1.00 0.00 160 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

171 0.778 / 12 DEU TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 360 7.0 1.29 Youth not in employment or education 5.4 – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.7 4.4 0.84 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 46.9 53.1 Discouraged job seekers 1.13 – – – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.72 16.4 11.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 20.5 nment pr Gover 46.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.27 yes 0.6 Contributing family workers 2.38 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 4.7 6.4 0.73 – – – en Out-of-school childr 1.01 445.4 Work, minutes per day 449.7 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 100.0 100.0 1.63 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 59.8 36.8 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Econ omic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth – – – 2 0.72 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.89 88.2 78.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 27.0 73.0 0.37 96.0 97.3 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 98.8 98.4 1.00 – Firms with female top managers 30.0 Tertiary education attainment, adults 19.8 0.66 24.0 28.7 0.83 tainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.4 0.2 10.46 Tertiary education at 0.39 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 11.7 29.8 R&D personnel 26.5 73.5 0.36 1.8 0.47 0.8 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 85.5 89.7 net 0.95 98.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 99.4 1.01 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.46 3.4 1.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.82 Arts and Humanities 13.2 7.2 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 14.5 0.69 21.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.19 Education 12.3 3.9 yes ownership 0.19 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.8 29.9 0.82 .) 3.5 4.3 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 38.3 elfar e Health and W 14.5 2.64 female male value Political Leadership 4.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.5 0.12 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.65 5.5 8.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 2.2 0.61 3.6 Number of female heads of state to date 2 4.3 3.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.24 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.4 1.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 412.9 380.8 1.08 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 6.3 7.8 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.23 1 0.92 11.2 Mortality 12.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 3.2 8.2 0.39 32.0 34.2 0.94 Average length of single life 1 6 , childbirth Mortality 2.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 6.5 2.84 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 22.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.46 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio d by skilled health personnel 98.50 Births attende Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car 99.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 161 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

172 rank out of 144 countries 72 scor e G hana 0.00 = imparity 0.695 1.00 = parity AVG GHA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 42.69 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 3,980.20 Total population (1,000s) 28,206.73 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.22 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 61.01 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 58 72 0.665 0.695 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.784 0.753 18 5 Educational attainment 119 0.931 94 0.868 ZJsY L KOere Health and survival 118 0.968 89 0.969 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 80 0.071 112 0.097 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.784 18 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 79.4 0.97 ce participation 6 0.972 0.667 77.2 0.69 0.634 0.692 44 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.730 0.509 3,626 4,966 0.73 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 20 50.1 0.320 1.000 1 Legislators, senior officials and managers 49.9 1.00 64.7 0.758 0.546 110 0.55 Pr ofessional and technical workers 35.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.931 119 109 0.883 Literacy rate 0.833 78.3 0.83 65.3 86.7 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 88.2 54.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 54.2 1.00 19.1 13.2 0.69 0.938 0.692 121 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.968 Health and survival 118 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 56.0 1.037 1.024 128 Healthy life expectancy 54.7 1.02 0.227 0.097 112 Political empowerment 0.15 0.146 113 Women in parliament 12.7 87.3 0.279 17.4 82.6 0.21 Women in ministerial positions 81 0.211 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 162 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

173 0.69 / 2 *+A TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.5 4.8 1.15 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 42.8 57.2 Discouraged job seekers 1.34 78.7 1.17 – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 91.9 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.53 3.8 2.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 20.4 nment pr Gover 25.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.25 no 27.8 Contributing family workers 1.70 16.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 50.4 41.8 1.21 0.88 12.8 11.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.78 73.4 57.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 77.4 0.89 86.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 30.3 64.0 0.47 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 43.1 Out-of-school youth 1.00 43.3 2 0.63 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.54 27.2 14.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 59.3 0.81 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 73.3 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.46 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 53.6 20.9 0.39 0.18 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 10.8 attainment, age 25-54 0.42 4.5 16.3 5.5 Employers 0.34 Tertiary education 0.22 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.2 9.9 R&D personnel 21.2 78.8 0.27 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 34.0 35.3 0.96 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.40 5.8 2.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.17 Arts and Humanities 17.6 15.1 Women’ no ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 33.1 1.14 29.1 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.56 Education 24.3 15.6 ownership part 0.35 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 2.8 8.0 Mean monthly ear 0.73 0.5 0.7 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 3.1 elfar e Health and W 2.3 1.34 female male value Political Leadership 2.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.1 0.04 Year women r eceived right to vote 1954 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.54 4.4 8.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 63 Services 2.3 61.34 0.0 Number of female heads of state to date 0 10.0 8.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.21 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 30.0 24.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 56.0 44.4 1.26 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 28.3 23.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.84 1 0.65 7.5 Mortality 11.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.1 3.5 0.32 24.7 28.7 0.86 Average length of single life 1 319 , childbirth Mortality 12.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 40.1 3.26 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 23.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.98 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 36.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 17 Potential support ratio nded by skilled health personnel 70.80 Births atte Total dependency ratio 73 Antenatal car 87.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 163 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

174 rank out of 144 countries 78 scor e G reece 0.00 = imparity 0.692 1.00 = parity AVG GRC 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 194.56 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 24,263.88 Total population (1,000s) 11,183.72 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.26 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 64.68 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 69 78 0.654 0.692 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.670 0.585 73 70 Educational attainment 76 0.991 46 0.992 ZJsY L KY LLJL Health and survival 89 0.973 53 0.978 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 87 0.061 88 0.136 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.670 73 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.5 0.78 ce participation 80 0.779 0.667 59.6 0.64 0.634 0.636 72 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.657 0.509 21,315 32,422 0.66 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 48 25.5 0.320 0.342 86 Legislators, senior officials and managers 74.5 0.34 49.2 0.758 1.000 1 1.03 Pr ofessional and technical workers 50.8 Educational attainment 0.953 0.991 76 70 0.883 Literacy rate 0.981 98.1 0.98 96.2 96.6 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 88 0.994 0.979 96.0 95.6 104 Enr olment in secondary education 0.989 0.971 94.5 0.99 114.0 113.7 1.00 0.938 0.997 94 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.973 Health and survival 89 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 129 0.939 0.920 73.6 1.037 1.048 79 Healthy life expectancy 70.2 1.05 0.227 0.136 88 Political empowerment 0.22 0.224 91 Women in parliament 18.3 81.7 0.279 21.1 78.9 0.27 Women in ministerial positions 65 0.267 0.209 0.200 0.1 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 64 0.001 49.9 2.00 1.00 0.00 164 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

175 0.692 / 78 GRC TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 17.2 1.00 Youth not in employment or education 17.1 2.0 119.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 28.1 19.9 1.41 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 29.0 71.0 Discouraged job seekers 2.44 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.09 15.6 17.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 13.7 nment pr Gover 24.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.79 yes 5.8 Contributing family workers 2.25 2.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 18.7 25.7 0.73 1.17 3.4 4.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 96.9 93.7 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 98.4 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 98.5 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 92.1 97.4 0.95 Economic Leadershi p Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 1.09 4.0 4.3 2 0.60 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.96 59.0 56.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 9.0 91.0 0.10 85.4 83.3 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.02 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 43.0 28.7 0.67 – Firms with female top managers 23.8 Tertiary education attainment, adults 22.1 0.93 29.2 23.7 1.23 ation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 5.0 2.6 1.94 Tertiary educ 0.47 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 7.0 15.0 R&D personnel 33.8 66.2 0.51 0.7 0.51 0.3 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 64.5 69.3 net 0.93 88.5 Hold an account at a financial institution 86.6 0.98 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.77 4.6 3.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 2.01 Arts and Humanities 14.4 7.2 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 19.9 1.03 19.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.37 Education 13.0 5.5 yes ownership 0.35 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 10.1 29.2 0.87 .) 0.8 0.9 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 13.6 elfar e Health and W 7.2 1.90 female male value Political Leadership 6.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.7 0.40 Year women r eceived right to vote 1952 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.81 6.7 8.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 65 Services 1.0 0.57 1.8 Number of female heads of state to date 1 14.6 10.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.45 Election list quotas for women, national 33 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 33 Health 1 , childr 0.3 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 55.1 58.0 0.95 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.4 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.54 1 0.46 0.8 Mortality 1.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.5 0.27 29.2 32.8 0.89 Average length of single life 1 3 , childbirth Mortality 4.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 14.5 3.00 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 19.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.31 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 53 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 165 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

176 rank out of 144 countries 0 scor e G XaWePala 0.00 = imparity 0.66 1.00 = parity AVG GT0 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 68.76 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 7,366.77 Total population (1,000s) 16,582.47 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.99 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 55.83 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 95 110 0.607 0.667 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.626 0.443 101 104 Educational attainment 103 0.962 91 0.895 ZJsY i K\e[iTeSe Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 54 0.110 109 0.102 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.626 101 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 85.7 0.51 ce participation 126 0.511 0.667 43.8 0.57 0.634 0.566 105 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.508 0.509 5,385 10,592 0.51 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 104 44.6 0.320 0.806 12 Legislators, senior officials and managers 55.4 0.81 51.0 0.758 0.962 71 0.96 Pr ofessional and technical workers 49.0 Educational attainment 0.953 0.962 103 105 0.883 Literacy rate 0.880 86.8 0.88 76.4 85.7 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 92 0.993 0.979 85.1 49.4 122 Enr olment in secondary education 0.949 0.971 46.9 0.95 20.2 23.5 1.17 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 64.9 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 59.4 1.09 0.227 0.102 109 Political empowerment 0.14 0.145 114 Women in parliament 12.7 87.3 0.279 18.8 81.3 0.23 Women in ministerial positions 74 0.231 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 166 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

177 0.667 / 110 *T0 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 45.8 5.59 Youth not in employment or education 8.2 2.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.5 2.2 1.59 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 29.8 70.2 Discouraged job seekers 2.35 69.1 1.14 empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 79.1 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.73 2.4 1.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 15.7 nment pr Gover 36.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.29 no 11.4 Contributing family workers 1.68 6.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 33.6 22.5 1.50 1.02 11.8 12.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.98 62.3 61.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 76.1 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.89 85.5 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 41.7 57.4 0.73 Economic Lead ership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 1.12 49.2 55.3 2 0.57 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.06 25.9 27.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 33.6 38.5 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.87 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.79 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 15.8 11.9 0.75 0.19 Firms with female top managers 8.4 Tertiary education attainment, adults 5.3 0.63 8.6 10.0 0.86 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.2 6.8 0.32 Tertiary ed 0.46 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.6 5.7 R&D personnel 43.6 56.4 0.77 0.1 0.00 0.0 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 47.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 34.6 0.72 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.27 1.3 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.77 Arts and Humanities 0.8 1.0 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 18.3 0.73 25.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.51 Education 49.4 32.8 yes ownership 0.32 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.7 11.5 0.97 .) 2.5 2.6 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 11.8 elfar e Health and W 8.2 1.44 female male value Political Leadership 3.0 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.5 0.16 Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.50 1.2 2.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services 1.7 0.64 2.7 Number of female heads of state to date 0 10.3 9.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.09 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 7.2 5.6 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 24.0 24.1 1.00 Seats held in upper house 16.4 0.20 83.6 1 3.3 2.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.79 1 0.28 2.0 Mortality 7.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.2 5.1 0.24 21.3 23.6 0.90 Average length of single life 1 88 , childbirth Mortality – Pr oportion married by age 25 – – Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 28.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.97 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 27.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 13 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 65.50 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 67 Antenatal car 86.20 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 167 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

178 rank out of 144 countries 113 scor e G uinea 0.00 = imparity 0.659 1.00 = parity AVG GIN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 6.30 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,215.03 Total population (1,000s) 12,395.92 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.52 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e 48.01 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 113 – 0.659 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.813 – 10 – Educational attainment 143 0.699 – – ZJsY i K\Prie Health and survival 132 0.964 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 76 0.162 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.813 10 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 86.1 0.96 ce participation 9 0.956 0.667 82.3 0.80 0.634 0.798 6 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.704 0.509 1,083 1,537 0.70 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 27 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.699 143 133 0.883 Literacy rate 0.503 43.6 0.50 22.0 81.1 0.86 Enr olment in primary education 126 0.864 0.979 70.1 38.2 139 Enr olment in secondary education 0.662 0.971 25.3 0.66 14.9 6.7 0.45 0.938 0.447 131 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.964 Health and survival 132 0.956 0.98 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 51.9 1.037 1.008 139 Healthy life expectancy 51.5 1.01 0.227 0.162 76 Political empowerment 0.28 0.281 71 Women in parliament 21.9 78.1 0.279 23.3 76.7 0.30 Women in ministerial positions 48 0.304 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 168 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

179 0.69 /  *,N TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave – – – – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 41.0 Contributing family workers 1.63 25.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 55.9 61.8 0.90 1.70 16.3 27.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 26.8 0.53 50.3 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 2.6 15.1 0.17 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 76.3 Out-of-school youth 1.27 60.3 2 0.53 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 13.5 0.42 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 32.0 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.10 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 8.9 1.1 0.12 0.06 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 7.8 4 0.49 3.8 25.2 – Employers – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-5 0.07 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.4 6.5 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 3.8 8.5 0.44 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.76 5.5 4.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.56 Arts and Humanities 5.3 9.5 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 36.4 1.43 25.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.61 Education 4.0 6.6 ownership yes 0.68 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 12.0 17.5 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 17.7 elfar e Health and W 9.5 1.87 female male value Political Leadership 3.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.8 0.91 Year women r eceived right to vote 1958 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.85 11.2 13.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 59 Services 0.7 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 5.8 9.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.60 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 24.1 20.9 en under age 5 Mortality 0.87 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 20.0 18.3 1.09 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 20.4 19.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.94 1 0.57 3.5 Mortality 6.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.6 1.5 0.39 20.7 27.9 0.74 Average length of single life 1 679 , childbirth Mortality 11.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 70.9 6.06 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.86 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 24.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 18 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 45.30 Births attended Total dependency ratio 84 Antenatal car 56.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 169 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

180 rank out of 144 countries 55 scor e + onGuras 0.00 = imparity 0.7 1.00 = parity AVG +ND 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 21.52 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 4,392.27 Total population (1,000s) 9,112.87 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.67 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 55.77 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 74 55 0.648 0.711 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.669 0.478 74 99 Educational attainment 29 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY i LsrK\YeZ Health and survival 78 0.974 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 42 0.136 61 0.200 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.669 74 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 86.5 0.57 ce participation 123 0.567 0.667 49.1 0.60 0.634 0.599 88 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.527 0.509 3,275 6,210 0.53 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 99 49.1 0.320 0.966 6 Legislators, senior officials and managers 50.9 0.97 52.4 0.758 0.908 78 0.91 Pr ofessional and technical workers 47.6 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 29 47 0.883 Literacy rate 0.999 89.0 1.00 88.9 92.3 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 93.8 45.5 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 53.5 1.17 18.8 25.4 1.35 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.974 Health and survival 78 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 66.3 1.037 1.041 88 Healthy life expectancy 63.7 1.04 0.227 0.200 61 Political empowerment 0.35 0.347 57 Women in parliament 25.8 74.2 0.279 27.3 72.7 0.38 Women in ministerial positions 31 0.375 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 170 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

181 0.711 / 55 HND TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 71.7 6.19 Youth not in employment or education 11.6 – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 12.1 4.6 2.62 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 21.0 79.0 Discouraged job seekers 3.77 71.1 1.09 – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 77.3 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.17 2.5 2.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 1.9 Contributing family workers 0.98 2.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 15.1 17.4 0.87 0.77 7.2 5.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.01 58.2 58.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 88.8 1.04 85.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 55.7 61.6 0.90 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 40.8 Out-of-school youth 0.84 48.5 2 0.60 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.14 21.4 24.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 35.4 1.23 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 28.7 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.76 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 14.2 12.0 0.84 0.46 Firms with female top managers 1.03 Tertiary education attainment, adults 6.4 6.2 8.5 ation attainment, age 25-54 1.10 9.4 2.0 0.3 Employers 0.16 Tertiary educ 0.53 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.7 5.1 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 24.9 35.4 0.70 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.17 3.8 0.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.77 Arts and Humanities 1.6 2.1 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 28.7 0.98 29.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.70 Education 39.0 22.9 ownership yes 0.32 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.9 18.5 Mean monthly ear 0.93 5.5 5.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 12.5 elfar e Health and W 8.0 1.55 female male value Political Leadership 6.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.6 0.24 Year women r eceived right to vote 1955 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.28 1.1 0.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 62 Services 0.8 0.24 3.4 Number of female heads of state to date 0 8.0 4.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.82 Election list quotas for women, national 40 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 40 Health 1 , childr 1.9 1.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 11.5 9.9 1.16 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 1.3 1.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.80 1 0.47 0.6 Mortality 1.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 2.0 5.2 0.37 21.2 24.1 0.88 Average length of single life 1 129 , childbirth Mortality 46.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 63.2 1.36 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.46 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 11.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 14 Potential support ratio lled health personnel 82.80 Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 58 Antenatal car 88.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 171 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

182 rank out of 144 countries 103 scor e H ungary 0.00 = imparity 0.670 1.00 = parity AVG HUN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 124.34 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 25,381.29 Total population (1,000s) 9,753.28 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.32 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.91 e 66.40 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 55 103 0.670 0.670 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.675 0.640 68 48 Educational attainment 68 0.992 49 0.991 ZgsY L LyrkeY` Health and survival 36 0.979 36 0.979 L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment 82 0.069 138 0.035 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZgsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.675 68 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 74.4 0.83 ce participation 63 0.828 0.667 61.6 0.49 0.634 0.494 124 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.631 0.509 20,883 33,076 0.63 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 61 39.4 0.320 0.649 26 Legislators, senior officials and managers 60.6 0.65 41.7 0.758 1.000 1 1.40 Pr ofessional and technical workers 58.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.992 68 – – Literacy rate – – – – 91.3 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 104 0.985 0.979 89.9 91.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 91.0 1.00 45.3 56.7 1.25 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 36 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 69.9 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 64.8 1.08 0.227 0.035 138 Political empowerment 0.11 0.112 126 Women in parliament 10.1 89.9 0.279 0.0 100.0 0.00 Women in ministerial positions 139 0.000 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 172 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

183 0.670 / 103 HUN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 590 12.8 1.23 Youth not in employment or education 10.4 5.0 168.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 70.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.1 5.1 1.00 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 55.4 44.6 Discouraged job seekers 0.80 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.20 11.5 13.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 8.6 nment pr Gover 13.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.60 yes 0.4 Contributing family workers 1.68 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 4.6 6.2 0.75 0.97 4.4 4.2 en Out-of-school childr 1.10 454.3 Work, minutes per day 500.0 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.6 99.5 1.92 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 53.6 28.0 99.3 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.3 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 98.2 98.7 1.00 Eco nomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 1.00 9.6 9.6 2 0.49 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.89 79.8 71.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 11.0 89.0 0.12 97.6 97.7 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.89 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 92.0 84.9 0.92 0.26 Firms with female top managers 19.6 Tertiary education attainment, adults 21.6 1.10 21.1 14.9 1.41 ation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 3.1 0.2 13.70 Tertiary educ 0.58 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 9.6 16.4 R&D personnel 34.5 65.5 0.53 0.8 0.84 0.7 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 71.2 74.6 net 0.95 72.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 72.5 1.01 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.55 3.6 1.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters 1.35 Arts and Humanities 10.6 7.8 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 26.7 1.21 22.1 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.99 Education 21.9 7.3 yes ownership 0.24 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.9 29.0 0.83 .) 234.7 283.2 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 9.8 elfar e Health and W 5.0 1.95 female male value Political Leadership 4.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.19 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.73 3.6 5.0 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 6.6 1.13 5.9 Number of female heads of state to date 0 11.7 8.0 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.47 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.3 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 60.7 54.8 1.11 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.3 0.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.26 1 0.69 1.4 Mortality 2.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.6 1.7 0.36 31.8 34.0 0.94 Average length of single life 1 17 , childbirth Mortality 2.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 5.4 2.72 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 21.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.37 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 7.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 48 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 173 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

184 rank out of 144 countries 1 scor e I celand 0.00 = imparity 0.878 1.00 = parity AVG ISL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 20.05 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 45,276.45 Total population (1,000s) 332.47 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.72 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e 71.44 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 4 1 0.781 0.878 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.798 0.711 14 17 Educational attainment 57 0.995 50 0.991 ZJsY L 0JLSerK Health and survival 114 0.969 92 0.968 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 4 0.456 1 0.750 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.798 14 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 87.5 0.95 ce participation 11 0.950 0.667 83.2 0.81 0.634 0.807 5 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.727 0.509 43,250 59,495 0.73 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 21 34.2 0.320 0.519 50 Legislators, senior officials and managers 65.8 0.52 44.8 0.758 1.000 1 1.23 Pr ofessional and technical workers 55.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.995 57 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 99.6 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 98 0.989 0.979 98.5 86.3 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 89.2 1.03 60.2 103.1 1.71 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 114 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.6 1.037 1.025 125 Healthy life expectancy 71.8 1.02 0.227 0.750 1 Political empowerment 0.91 0.909 4 Women in parliament 47.6 52.4 0.279 40.0 60.0 0.67 Women in ministerial positions 10 0.667 0.209 0.200 20.3 0.68 Years with female head of state (last 50) 4 0.685 29.7 2.00 1.00 0.00 174 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

185 0.7 / 1 ,SL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 90 3.2 0.54 Youth not in employment or education 5.9 90.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 49.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.1 2.9 1.05 49.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 33.6 67.2 Discouraged job seekers 2.00 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.31 15.2 19.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 22.8 nment pr Gover 37.7 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.65 yes 0.0 Contributing family workers 0.00 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.3 10.2 0.52 3.48 0.4 1.4 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 93.7 1.00 93.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 80.6 79.5 1.01 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 15.6 Out-of-school youth 0.79 19.8 2 0.85 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.82 66.6 54.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 44.0 56.0 0.79 66.1 1.09 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 60.5 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 24.9 22.8 0.91 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 22.4 , age 25-54 1.17 26.3 0.1 2.1 Employers 27.72 Tertiary education attainment 0.35 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.9 8.3 R&D personnel 42.5 57.5 0.74 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 98.3 1.00 Individuals using the inter net 98.0 Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.85 0.5 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.12 Arts and Humanities 10.7 9.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 21.9 0.63 34.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.38 Education 25.2 10.6 ownership yes 0.34 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.6 16.3 Mean monthly ear 0.79 536.0 679.0 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 19.8 elfar e Health and W 5.6 3.52 female male value Political Leadership 4.5 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.6 0.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1915 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.70 4.1 5.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 102 Services 2.7 2.18 1.2 Number of female heads of state to date 2 10.7 11.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.96 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 0.9 0.9 1.02 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.17 1 0.76 0.0 Mortality 0.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.0 0.37 28.1 30.0 0.94 Average length of single life 1 3 , childbirth Mortality 6.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 14.0 2.28 Legislation on domestic violence no 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 22.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.93 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio lled health personnel – Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 175 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

186 rank out of 144 countries 108 scor e I nGLa 0.00 = imparity 0. 1.00 = parity AVG IND 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 2,263.52 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 6,092.65 Total population (1,000s) 1,324,171.35 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.14 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.08 e 55.29 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 98 108 0.601 0.669 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.376 0.397 139 110 Educational attainment 112 0.952 102 0.819 ZJsY L 0rKme Health and survival 141 0.942 103 0.962 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 20 0.227 15 0.407 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJL [s WeYm[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.376 139 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.0 0.35 ce participation 136 0.347 0.667 28.5 0.62 0.634 0.620 80 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.232 0.509 2,424 10,428 0.23 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 137 12.9 0.320 0.148 114 Legislators, senior officials and managers 87.1 0.15 74.7 0.758 0.338 118 0.34 Pr ofessional and technical workers 25.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.952 112 118 0.883 Literacy rate 0.752 78.9 0.75 59.3 91.7 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 92.9 61.4 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 62.2 1.01 27.0 26.7 0.99 0.938 0.990 95 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.942 Health and survival 141 0.956 0.90 Sex ratio at birth 141 0.904 0.920 60.4 1.037 1.028 117 Healthy life expectancy 58.8 1.03 0.227 0.407 15 Political empowerment 0.13 0.134 118 Women in parliament 11.8 88.2 0.279 18.5 81.5 0.23 Women in ministerial positions 76 0.227 0.209 0.200 20.5 0.70 Years with female head of state (last 50) 3 0.697 29.5 2.00 1.00 0.00 176 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

187 0.669 / 10 ,ND TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 49.3 6.19 Youth not in employment or education 8.0 – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.7 4.1 1.88 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – 75.7 0.93 – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 70.3 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.23 8.1 1.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 31.5 Contributing family workers 3.05 10.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 51.2 67.8 0.75 0.53 2.9 1.5 en Out-of-school childr 1.21 442.3 Work, minutes per day 536.6 Primary education attainment, adults 0.65 62.2 40.3 5.60 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 65.6 11.7 60.4 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.76 79.1 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 26.0 59.3 0.44 Economic L eadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 1.03 47.0 48.6 2 0.64 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.57 34.2 19.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 11.4 88.6 0.13 38.2 57.1 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.67 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.12 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 31.6 10.0 0.32 0.10 Firms with female top managers 11.5 Tertiary education attainment, adults 6.7 0.59 8.4 12.9 0.66 cation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 0.5 10.3 0.05 Tertiary edu 0.26 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.9 7.5 R&D personnel 14.7 85.3 0.17 – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 62.5 Hold an account at a financial institution 42.6 0.68 value male female s access to financial services Women’ part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.34 0.9 0.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.23 Arts and Humanities 6.2 5.1 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 15.4 0.80 19.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.67 Education 11.3 6.8 part ownership 0.44 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.7 15.3 0.67 .) 5.4 8.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 3.8 elfar e Health and W 2.4 1.56 female male value Political Leadership 7.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 6.1 0.79 Year women r eceived right to vote 1935 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.98 13.0 13.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 82 Services 0.4 4.44 0.1 Number of female heads of state to date 2 36.7 29.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.26 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 620.1 595.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.96 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 2,616.3 3,172.8 0.82 Seats held in upper house 27.3 0.38 72.7 1 728.6 586.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.81 1 0.60 299.3 Mortality 498.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 101.8 157.7 0.65 20.7 24.9 0.83 Average length of single life 1 174 , childbirth Mortality 34.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 73.9 2.13 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 37.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.33 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 21.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning ealth yes physical h 11 Potential support ratio 81.10 Births attended by skilled health personnel Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car 49.70 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 177 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

188 rank out of 144 countries 84 scor e I ndonesia 0.00 = imparity 0.691 1.00 = parity AVG IDN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 932.26 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 10,764.55 Total population (1,000s) 261,115.46 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.12 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e 62.19 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 68 84 0.654 0.691 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.610 0.598 108 67 Educational attainment 88 0.986 81 0.949 ZJsY i 0rKsriZPe Health and survival 60 0.976 88 0.969 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 63 0.101 63 0.193 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.610 108 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 85.8 0.62 ce participation 118 0.616 0.667 52.9 0.71 0.634 0.706 35 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.491 0.509 7,632 15,536 0.49 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 111 22.0 0.320 0.283 97 Legislators, senior officials and managers 78.0 0.28 50.8 0.758 0.968 70 0.97 Pr ofessional and technical workers 49.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.986 88 82 0.883 Literacy rate 0.963 97.2 0.96 93.6 90.4 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 103 0.985 0.979 89.1 75.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 76.0 1.01 22.9 25.7 1.12 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 60 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 63.7 1.037 1.049 69 Healthy life expectancy 60.7 1.05 0.227 0.193 63 Political empowerment 0.25 0.247 83 Women in parliament 19.8 80.2 0.279 25.7 74.3 0.35 Women in ministerial positions 38 0.346 0.209 0.200 3.2 0.07 Years with female head of state (last 50) 34 0.069 46.8 2.00 1.00 0.00 178 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

189 0.691 / 84 IDN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 31.4 1.69 Youth not in employment or education 18.5 2.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.4 5.7 0.94 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 52.4 47.6 Discouraged job seekers 0.91 77.3 1.04 empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 80.2 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.86 5.6 4.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 15.8 nment pr Gover 28.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.78 no 26.2 Contributing family workers 4.37 6.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 17.1 16.8 1.02 1.11 8.9 9.9 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.90 81.7 73.6 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 97.1 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 98.4 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 59.6 84.9 0.70 Economic Lea dership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 1.19 24.6 29.3 2 0.70 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.79 36.1 28.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 58.0 64.1 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.90 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.28 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 28.4 14.3 0.50 0.28 Firms with female top managers 8.9 Tertiary education attainment, adults 8.1 0.91 11.6 10.7 1.08 ation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 14.3 6.0 2.39 Tertiary educ 0.25 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.4 5.7 R&D personnel – – – 0.0 0.46 0.0 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 20.3 23.7 net 0.86 34.6 Hold an account at a financial institution 37.2 1.08 value male female s access to financial services Women’ part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.57 4.4 2.5 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.19 Arts and Humanities 2.0 1.7 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 24.0 0.80 29.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.53 Education 33.4 21.9 yes ownership 0.51 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.4 12.5 0.80 .) 2,192.7 2,755.4 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 16.7 elfar e Health and W 7.2 2.32 female male value Political Leadership 13.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 6.7 0.52 Year women r eceived right to vote 1945 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.22 1.7 1.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 72 Services 1.4 0.46 3.0 Number of female heads of state to date 1 5.4 5.0 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.08 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 84.0 62.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.74 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 632.3 705.1 0.90 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 148.8 101.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.68 1 0.47 28.9 Mortality 61.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 4.0 14.6 0.27 22.3 25.7 0.87 Average length of single life 1 126 , childbirth Mortality 30.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 58.8 1.90 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.36 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 11.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 13 Potential support ratio ttended by skilled health personnel 87.40 Births a Total dependency ratio 49 Antenatal car 83.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 179 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

190 rank out of 144 countries 140 scor e I ran, Islamic Rep. 0.00 = imparity 0.583 1.00 = parity AVG IRN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 393.44 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 16,010.11 Total population (1,000s) 80,277.43 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.12 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 108 140 0.580 0.583 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.357 0.359 140 113 Educational attainment 100 0.965 80 0.954 ZJsY i 0Yer0 0ZpeTmJ ViW Health and survival 135 0.963 52 0.978 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 109 0.031 136 0.046 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` M3T MiTepi e]k ZJsY i Yero Tepi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.357 140 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.4 0.22 ce participation 143 0.225 0.667 17.2 0.58 0.634 0.581 99 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.168 0.509 4,885 29,060 0.17 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 141 18.2 0.320 0.223 103 Legislators, senior officials and managers 81.8 0.22 66.0 0.758 0.514 112 0.51 Pr ofessional and technical workers 34.0 Educational attainment 0.953 0.965 100 103 0.883 Literacy rate 0.891 89.6 0.89 79.8 99.1 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 99.7 72.8 99 Enr olment in secondary education 0.996 0.971 72.5 1.00 75.9 67.7 0.89 0.938 0.891 104 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.963 Health and survival 135 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 66.7 1.037 1.004 141 Healthy life expectancy 66.4 1.00 0.227 0.046 136 Political empowerment 0.06 0.063 136 Women in parliament 5.9 94.1 0.279 9.7 90.3 0.11 Women in ministerial positions 113 0.107 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 180 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

191 0.583 / 140 IRN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 47.6 2.17 Youth not in employment or education 22.0 14.0 270.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 67.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 19.4 9.3 2.09 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.56 16.8 9.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 15.6 nment pr Gover 42.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.69 yes 19.7 Contributing family workers 8.44 2.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 23.6 38.7 0.61 0.22 0.8 0.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 35.6 Out-of-school youth 1.05 34.0 2 0.52 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.01 46.8 47.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – – Firms with female top managers 1.00 Tertiary education attainment, adults 16.9 16.8 2.3 Employers 1.3 0.54 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – tion attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 29.9 70.1 0.43 Tertiary educa 0.4 0.52 PhD graduates 0.2 value male female Access to Assets 33.8 0.76 Individuals using the inter net 25.8 Hold an account at a financial institution 87.1 97.1 0.90 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.18 3.2 3.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 2.73 Arts and Humanities 11.9 4.4 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 25.1 1.14 22.1 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.46 Education 7.6 3.1 ownership part 0.36 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 16.4 45.0 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 7.1 elfar e Health and W 3.1 2.26 female male value Political Leadership 8.5 Information and Comm. T echnologies 8.8 1.04 Year women r eceived right to vote 1963 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 2.70 9.5 3.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 54 Services 3.0 0.82 3.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 6.7 3.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.91 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 11.2 9.9 en under age 5 Mortality 0.88 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 134.8 154.4 0.87 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 5.4 3.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.66 1 0.32 7.9 Mortality 24.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.8 5.7 0.32 23.5 26.8 0.88 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 22.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 52.9 2.37 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.66 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 14 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 41 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 181 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

192 rank out of 144 countries 8 scor e I reland 0.00 = imparity 0.794 1.00 = parity AVG IRL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 294.05 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 62,828.34 Total population (1,000s) 4,726.08 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.65 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 71.67 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 10 8 0.733 0.794 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.710 0.640 50 47 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY L 0YLSerK Health and survival 96 0.971 81 0.970 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 9 0.323 6 0.493 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.710 50 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 77.4 0.81 ce participation 70 0.808 0.667 62.6 0.70 0.634 0.696 40 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.583 0.509 50,834 87,231 0.58 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 88 35.8 0.320 0.558 40 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.2 0.56 48.4 0.758 1.000 1 1.07 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.6 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 94.5 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 95.0 98.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 100.0 1.02 80.1 87.6 1.09 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.971 Health and survival 96 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 72.7 1.037 1.035 102 Healthy life expectancy 70.3 1.03 0.227 0.493 6 Political empowerment 0.28 0.285 70 Women in parliament 22.2 77.8 0.279 26.7 73.3 0.36 Women in ministerial positions 33 0.364 0.209 0.200 20.8 0.71 Years with female head of state (last 50) 2 0.712 29.2 2.00 1.00 0.00 182 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

193 0.4 /  ,5L TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 13.7 0.92 Youth not in employment or education 14.9 – 182.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 35.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.5 9.0 0.72 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 73.1 26.9 Discouraged job seekers 0.37 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.12 20.7 23.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 19.3 nment pr Gover 44.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.31 yes 0.8 Contributing family workers 1.28 0.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.0 16.9 0.30 0.22 1.7 0.4 en Out-of-school childr 1.04 473.1 Work, minutes per day 493.2 Primary education attainment, adults – – – 2.20 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 60.0 27.3 99.8 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.7 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.3 99.1 1.00 E conomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.70 1.4 1.0 2 0.71 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.08 63.9 68.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 16.0 84.0 0.19 89.2 89.5 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 57.7 62.3 1.08 – Firms with female top managers 24.5 Tertiary education attainment, adults 29.1 1.19 44.9 36.7 1.22 ainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.4 0.7 3.68 Tertiary education att 0.86 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 15.5 18.1 R&D personnel 23.4 76.6 0.31 1.0 0.66 0.6 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 81.2 79.0 net 1.03 94.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 94.8 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.27 1.9 0.5 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.38 Arts and Humanities 13.3 9.6 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 22.8 1.00 22.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.27 Education 9.0 4.0 yes ownership 0.17 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.0 18.3 – .) – – nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 21.9 elfar e Health and W 7.6 2.88 female male value Political Leadership 9.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.0 0.22 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.00 5.8 5.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 4.2 0.60 6.9 Number of female heads of state to date 2 6.9 5.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.26 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 13.5 13.3 1.02 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.1 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.01 1 0.64 0.3 Mortality 0.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.5 0.23 28.5 29.7 0.96 Average length of single life 1 8 , childbirth Mortality 8.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 15.3 1.86 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 15.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.99 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 5 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 55 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 183 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

194 rank out of 144 countries 44 scor e I srael 0.00 = imparity 0.721 1.00 = parity AVG ISR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 318.74 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 32,612.69 Total population (1,000s) 8,191.83 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.57 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 71.75 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 35 44 0.689 0.721 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.681 0.641 65 46 Educational attainment 1 1.000 36 0.995 ZJsY L 0ZYeLS Health and survival 98 0.971 83 0.969 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 36 0.150 47 0.232 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.681 65 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.3 0.90 ce participation 31 0.898 0.667 68.5 0.58 0.634 0.576 101 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.595 0.509 28,335 47,609 0.60 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 81 32.2 0.320 0.476 63 Legislators, senior officials and managers 67.8 0.48 43.4 0.758 1.000 1 1.30 Pr ofessional and technical workers 56.6 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 – – Literacy rate – – – – 96.7 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 97.8 97.9 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 99.8 1.02 54.6 75.5 1.38 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.971 Health and survival 98 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.9 1.037 1.032 107 Healthy life expectancy 71.6 1.03 0.227 0.232 47 Political empowerment 0.38 0.379 51 Women in parliament 27.5 72.5 0.279 19.0 81.0 0.24 Women in ministerial positions 73 0.235 0.209 0.200 5.7 0.13 Years with female head of state (last 50) 22 0.128 44.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 184 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

195 0.721 / 44 ISR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 16.7 1.17 Youth not in employment or education 14.3 – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.9 4.7 1.06 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 58.6 37.9 Discouraged job seekers 0.65 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.13 21.6 24.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 17.0 nment pr Gover 33.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.98 yes 0.1 Contributing family workers 1.79 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 6.7 8.9 0.76 0.76 2.8 2.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 97.0 94.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 96.9 1.00 96.9 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 80.0 88.7 0.90 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 0.2 Out-of-school youth 0.04 4.5 2 0.67 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.00 81.6 81.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 85.7 1.05 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 82.0 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.38 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 59.9 53.8 0.90 0.11 Firms with female top managers 1.15 Tertiary education attainment, adults 35.4 30.8 27.7 ation attainment, age 25-54 1.20 33.3 0.1 1.5 Employers 20.91 Tertiary educ 0.65 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 17.3 26.6 R&D personnel 20.8 79.2 0.26 1.8 0.66 PhD graduates 1.1 value male female Access to Assets 76.9 0.95 Individuals using the inter net 73.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 90.0 89.9 1.00 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.66 0.6 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.27 Arts and Humanities 9.8 7.7 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 14.1 0.87 16.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.62 Education 25.5 7.1 ownership yes 0.29 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 9.3 32.0 Mean monthly ear 0.68 7.7 11.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 10.7 elfar e Health and W 4.0 2.67 female male value Political Leadership 8.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.3 0.26 Year women r eceived right to vote 1948 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.70 5.2 7.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 69 Services 0.6 – – Number of female heads of state to date 2 22.5 8.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.56 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.82 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 18.7 17.8 1.05 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.6 0.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.07 1 0.72 0.5 Mortality 0.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.5 0.31 26.2 29.2 0.90 Average length of single life 1 5 , childbirth Mortality 11.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 28.3 2.48 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.97 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio led health personnel – Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 65 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 185 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

196 rank out of 144 countries 2 scor e I taO\ 0.00 = imparity 0.2 1.00 = parity AVG ITA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,849.97 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 34,620.13 Total population (1,000s) 59,429.94 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.12 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e 67.23 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 77 82 0.646 0.692 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.571 0.527 118 87 Educational attainment 60 0.995 27 0.997 ZgsY i 0[eS` Health and survival 123 0.967 77 0.972 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 72 0.087 46 0.234 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.571 118 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 73.7 0.74 ce participation 89 0.737 0.667 54.3 0.49 0.634 0.489 126 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.518 0.509 26,273 50,682 0.52 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 103 27.7 0.320 0.383 81 Legislators, senior officials and managers 72.3 0.38 54.6 0.758 0.832 86 0.83 Pr ofessional and technical workers 45.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.995 60 57 0.883 Literacy rate 0.994 99.1 0.99 98.6 97.6 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 93 0.992 0.979 96.8 96.3 98 Enr olment in secondary education 0.996 0.971 96.0 1.00 53.2 72.2 1.36 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.967 Health and survival 123 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 127 0.941 0.920 73.7 1.037 1.027 119 Healthy life expectancy 71.8 1.03 0.227 0.234 46 Political empowerment 0.45 0.448 41 Women in parliament 31.0 69.0 0.279 27.8 72.2 0.38 Women in ministerial positions 29 0.385 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 186 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

197 0.692 / 2 ,TA TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 300 20.8 0.95 Youth not in employment or education 21.8 1.0 150.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 80.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 12.8 10.9 1.17 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 39.5 60.5 Discouraged job seekers 1.53 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – Gover High-skilled shar 1.18 9.2 10.9 ce e of labour for nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes ovides child allowance nment pr Gover 2.49 yes 16.2 40.3 Workers employed part-time 1.8 1.66 1.1 Contributing family workers female value male Education and Skills 12.3 Own-account workers 18.8 0.65 1.38 0.9 1.3 en Out-of-school childr 1.13 453.1 Work, minutes per day 512.7 93.7 Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 97.0 8 2.6 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 61.5 22.9 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 98.8 98.7 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 87.6 94.0 0.93 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 5.3 Out-of-school youth 1.11 4.8 2 0.47 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.96 50.2 48.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 30.0 70.0 0.43 92.3 0.99 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 92.9 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 56.1 40.0 0.71 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 12.7 ainment, age 25-54 1.37 17.4 1.1 4.0 Employers 3.77 Tertiary education att 0.68 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.4 9.3 R&D personnel 34.6 65.4 0.53 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 69.6 0.89 Individuals using the inter net 61.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 83.2 91.9 0.91 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.65 2.6 1.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.75 Arts and Humanities 19.2 10.9 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 17.2 0.80 21.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 6.02 Education 10.3 1.7 ownership yes 0.36 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 9.5 26.5 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 18.5 elfar e Health and W 12.8 1.45 female male value Political Leadership 1.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.3 0.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1945 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.94 6.4 6.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 72 Services 1.7 0.58 3.0 Number of female heads of state to date 0 14.4 11.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.26 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local 33 Health 1 , childr 0.9 0.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 297.8 273.9 1.09 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 5.5 5.9 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.09 1 0.96 9.1 Mortality 9.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.2 4.0 0.30 31.3 34.6 0.90 Average length of single life 1 4 , childbirth Mortality 1.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 6.6 4.65 Legislation on domestic violence yes 32 Mean age of women at birth of first child 19.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.47 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 99.90 Births attended Total dependency ratio 57 Antenatal car 86.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 187 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

198 rank out of 144 countries 51 scor e J amaica 0.00 = imparity 0.717 1.00 = parity AVG JAM 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 14.03 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 8,190.00 Total population (1,000s) 2,881.36 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.32 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 58.39 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 25 51 0.701 0.717 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.725 0.738 39 7 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY i NeTemJe Health and survival 93 0.972 82 0.970 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 65 0.098 74 0.171 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.725 39 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.6 0.83 ce participation 62 0.833 0.667 63.8 0.61 0.634 0.607 85 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.608 0.509 6,691 10,999 0.61 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 73 59.3 0.320 1.000 1 Legislators, senior officials and managers 40.7 1.45 – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 74.1 1.16 85.9 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 69.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 76.9 1.11 20.1 34.6 1.73 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.972 Health and survival 93 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 68.1 1.037 1.035 101 Healthy life expectancy 65.9 1.03 0.227 0.171 74 Political empowerment 0.21 0.212 95 Women in parliament 17.5 82.5 0.279 16.7 83.3 0.20 Women in ministerial positions 84 0.200 0.209 0.200 5.6 0.13 Years with female head of state (last 50) 23 0.126 44.4 2.00 1.00 0.00 188 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

199 0.717 / 1 -A0 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 56.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 17.4 9.6 1.81 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 1.5 Contributing family workers 2.31 0.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 29.0 42.1 0.69 0.86 7.3 6.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.1 99.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 92.3 1.00 92.3 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 61.1 55.7 1.10 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 25.0 Out-of-school youth 0.82 30.6 2 0.68 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 58.9 1.10 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 53.3 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.62 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 18.9 20.2 1.07 0.32 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 8.1 , age 25-54 1.67 13.5 0.6 2.3 Employers 3.58 Tertiary education attainment 1.00 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 5.1 5.1 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 36.6 1.20 Individuals using the inter net 44.1 Hold an account at a financial institution 77.5 79.2 0.98 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership yes – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1944 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 73 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.74 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 7.4 7.6 0.96 Seats held in upper house 39.1 0.64 60.9 1 0.7 0.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.57 1 0.43 0.2 Mortality 0.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.8 0.29 33.2 34.6 0.96 Average length of single life 1 89 , childbirth Mortality – Pr oportion married by age 25 – – Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 35.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.01 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 11.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 7 Potential support ratio illed health personnel 99.10 Births attended by sk Total dependency ratio 48 Antenatal car 85.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 189 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

200 rank out of 144 countries 114 scor e J apan 0.00 = imparity 0.657 1.00 = parity AVG JPN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 4,939.38 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 38,239.77 Total population (1,000s) 127,748.51 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.19 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e 72.05 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 80 114 0.645 0.657 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.580 0.545 114 83 Educational attainment 74 0.991 60 0.986 ZJsY L NeWer Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 83 0.067 123 0.078 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTepL e]k ZJsY L Yero TepL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.580 114 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 85.0 0.78 ce participation 79 0.781 0.667 66.4 0.67 0.634 0.672 52 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.524 0.509 28,724 54,818 0.52 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 100 12.4 0.320 0.142 116 Legislators, senior officials and managers 87.6 0.14 60.5 0.758 0.654 101 0.65 Pr ofessional and technical workers 39.5 Educational attainment 0.953 0.991 74 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 100.0 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 100.0 98.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 99.4 1.01 65.7 60.9 0.93 0.938 0.926 101 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 77.2 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 72.5 1.06 0.227 0.078 123 Political empowerment 0.10 0.102 129 Women in parliament 9.3 90.7 0.279 15.8 84.2 0.19 Women in ministerial positions 88 0.188 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 190 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

201 0.657 / 114 JPN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 309 4.7 1.84 Youth not in employment or education 2.6 – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 67.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 2.8 3.4 0.85 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 25.9 74.1 Discouraged job seekers 2.86 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.78 27.1 21.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 13.4 nment pr Gover 38.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.88 yes 4.4 Contributing family workers 5.33 0.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 3.9 7.9 0.50 1.00 0.1 0.0 en Out-of-school childr 0.95 533.3 Work, minutes per day 505.6 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.9 99.8 5.10 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 59.2 11.6 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Econ omic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.66 4.9 3.2 2 0.56 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.97 82.1 79.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 3.4 96.6 0.04 99.9 99.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 99.9 99.8 1.00 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 52.9 48.6 1.09 attainment, age 25-54 Employers 0.8 0.8 1.00 Tertiary education 0.50 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 11.4 22.6 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 86.4 91.9 net 0.94 96.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 97.0 1.01 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – yes ownership – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – 0.73 .) 244.6 335.2 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1945 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 72 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.6 1.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 527.6 542.1 0.97 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 9.0 10.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.11 1 0.77 19.3 Mortality 25.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 8.2 17.0 0.48 29.7 31.2 0.95 Average length of single life 1 5 , childbirth Mortality 6.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 10.4 1.73 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 15.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.46 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 2 Potential support ratio ded by skilled health personnel 99.80 Births atten Total dependency ratio 65 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 191 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

202 rank out of 144 countries 135 scor e J or dan 0.00 = imparity 0.604 1.00 = parity AVG JOR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 38.65 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 8,389.54 Total population (1,000s) 9,455.80 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.88 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.03 e 58.15 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 93 135 0.611 0.604 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.377 0.442 138 105 Educational attainment 51 0.996 70 0.979 ZJsY L NsY Ker Health and survival 113 0.969 62 0.975 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 100 0.048 126 0.075 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.377 138 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 67.8 0.23 ce participation 142 0.226 0.667 15.3 0.63 0.634 0.627 77 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.163 0.509 2,516 15,417 0.16 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 142 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.996 51 63 0.883 Literacy rate 0.989 98.4 0.99 97.4 89.3 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 77 0.997 0.979 89.0 79.3 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 83.6 1.05 42.5 47.3 1.11 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 113 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 65.9 1.037 1.025 124 Healthy life expectancy 64.3 1.02 0.227 0.075 126 Political empowerment 0.18 0.182 106 Women in parliament 15.4 84.6 0.279 7.1 92.9 0.08 Women in ministerial positions 120 0.077 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 192 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

203 0.604 / 135 JOR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 70.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 20.7 10.1 2.05 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 0.5 Contributing family workers 0.75 0.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 1.5 10.3 0.14 1.03 10.5 10.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.88 90.3 79.7 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 96.2 0.98 98.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 66.6 81.1 0.82 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 17.1 Out-of-school youth 0.67 25.4 2 0.64 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.94 42.5 40.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 72.5 0.97 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 75.0 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.19 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 26.9 22.3 0.83 0.02 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 2.6 attainment, age 25-54 0.94 2.5 0.7 1.5 Employers 2.20 Tertiary education 0.83 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.2 0.2 R&D personnel 18.7 81.3 0.23 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 15.5 33.3 0.47 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.96 1.5 1.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.68 Arts and Humanities 18.8 11.2 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 16.0 0.53 30.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 4.41 Education 26.9 6.1 ownership part 0.27 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.9 17.9 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 12.3 elfar e Health and W 13.9 0.89 female male value Political Leadership 0.0 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.0 0.27 Year women r eceived right to vote 1974 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.89 13.6 15.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 43 Services 0.2 0.97 0.2 Number of female heads of state to date 0 3.3 2.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.37 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 2.0 1.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.85 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 10.2 12.3 0.83 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.96 1 0.53 0.9 Mortality 1.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.4 0.32 25.0 29.8 0.84 Average length of single life 1 58 , childbirth Mortality 7.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 33.6 4.54 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 23.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.38 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 16 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 99.60 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 65 Antenatal car 94.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 193 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

204 rank out of 144 countries 52 scor e K azakhstan 0.00 = imparity 0.713 1.00 = parity AVG KAZ 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 133.66 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 23,419.91 Total population (1,000s) 17,987.74 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.27 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.94 e 69.78 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 32 52 0.693 0.713 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.744 0.713 30 16 Educational attainment 48 0.997 53 0.990 ZJsY L OeaeoOZ[er Health and survival 36 0.979 36 0.979 L ezLYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 69 0.089 93 0.130 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJL [s teYP[` M3T MLTeSL ezk ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.744 30 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.6 0.90 ce participation 29 0.900 0.667 74.4 0.73 0.634 0.725 30 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.594 0.509 18,983 31,952 0.59 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 82 37.1 0.320 0.589 35 Legislators, senior officials and managers 62.9 0.59 37.3 0.758 1.000 1 1.68 Pr ofessional and technical workers 62.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.997 48 45 0.883 Literacy rate 0.999 99.8 1.00 99.7 87.6 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 85 0.995 0.979 87.1 91.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 93.5 1.02 41.4 51.3 1.24 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 36 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 66.8 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 59.8 1.12 0.227 0.130 93 Political empowerment 0.37 0.372 52 Women in parliament 27.1 72.9 0.279 5.6 94.4 0.06 Women in ministerial positions 127 0.059 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 194 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

205 0. / 2 .A= TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 – – Youth not in employment or education – – 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.9 4.6 1.28 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 36.1 63.9 Discouraged job seekers 1.77 – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.22 15.8 19.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 5.7 nment pr Gover 11.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.01 yes 0.1 Contributing family workers 0.89 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 24.7 26.2 0.94 0.19 0.4 0.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.7 99.6 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 99.8 1.00 99.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 97.6 99.3 0.98 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 0.5 Out-of-school youth 0.09 5.4 2 0.69 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.98 85.8 84.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 99.6 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 99.3 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.39 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 91.2 82.9 0.91 0.23 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 17.9 ainment, age 25-54 1.53 27.3 0.1 0.8 Employers 5.85 Tertiary education att 0.73 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 14.1 19.4 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 73.0 1.00 Individuals using the inter net 72.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 55.6 52.0 1.07 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.65 4.3 2.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 2.00 Arts and Humanities 5.1 2.5 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 26.0 0.93 28.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.66 Education 32.7 12.3 ownership part 0.32 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 9.6 30.0 Mean monthly ear 0.66 99.9 151.7 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.4 elfar e Health and W 3.1 2.70 female male value Political Leadership 7.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 3.5 0.48 Year women r eceived right to vote 1924 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.85 3.4 1.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 93 Services 5.4 0.65 8.3 Number of female heads of state to date 0 2.9 1.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.00 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 3.3 2.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.70 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 61.2 61.3 1.00 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 2.7 1.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.45 1 0.30 2.3 Mortality 7.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.2 5.2 0.24 23.1 26.3 0.88 Average length of single life 1 12 , childbirth Mortality 26.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 50.9 1.94 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.63 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 10 Potential support ratio lled health personnel – Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car 87.00 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 195 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

206 rank out of 144 countries 76 scor e K en\a 0.00 = imparity 0.69 1.00 = parity AVG KEN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 70.53 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 2,925.60 Total population (1,000s) 48,461.57 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.54 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 59.48 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 73 76 0.649 0.694 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.720 0.657 44 40 Educational attainment 120 0.929 88 0.918 ZJsY L OLr`e Health and survival 1 0.980 96 0.966 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 93 0.053 83 0.147 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.720 44 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 72.7 0.86 ce participation 52 0.865 0.667 62.9 0.68 0.634 0.679 47 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.646 0.509 2,480 3,840 0.65 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 57 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.929 120 104 0.883 Literacy rate 0.883 83.8 0.88 74.0 83.2 1.04 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 86.6 52.0 123 Enr olment in secondary education 0.942 0.971 49.0 0.94 4.8 3.3 0.70 0.938 0.703 120 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 57.4 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 53.9 1.06 0.227 0.147 83 Political empowerment 0.24 0.241 84 Women in parliament 19.4 80.6 0.279 22.7 77.3 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 53 0.294 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 196 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

207 0.69 / 76 .EN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 14.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 12.2 12.1 1.01 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no – Contributing family workers – – value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers – – – 0.77 15.6 12.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.86 54.5 47.1 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 91.4 0.97 94.6 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 43.1 76.2 0.57 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 32.6 Out-of-school youth 1.41 23.1 2 0.59 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.70 25.7 18.0 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 38.1 0.85 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 44.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.95 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 27.3 6.4 0.23 0.15 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults 0.0 0.0 14.0 ion attainment, age 25-54 0.84 11.7 – – Employers – Tertiary educat 0.27 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.5 9.4 R&D personnel 39.0 61.0 0.64 0.0 – PhD graduates 0.0 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 51.9 58.9 0.88 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.76 8.7 6.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.08 Arts and Humanities 6.6 6.1 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 31.1 1.76 17.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.31 Education 24.0 18.4 ownership part 0.25 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.0 24.1 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 11.0 elfar e Health and W 7.8 1.41 female male value Political Leadership 1.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.64 Year women r eceived right to vote 1919 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.65 8.7 13.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 98 Services 1.1 3.70 0.3 Number of female heads of state to date 0 4.3 2.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.90 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 40.9 33.8 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 51.0 54.5 0.94 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 60.1 43.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.72 1 0.50 9.8 Mortality 19.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.7 5.3 0.31 22.3 26.6 0.84 Average length of single life 1 510 , childbirth Mortality 17.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 59.5 3.44 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 41.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.85 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 26.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 21 Potential support ratio nded by skilled health personnel 61.80 Births atte Total dependency ratio 77 Antenatal car 57.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 197 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

208 rank out of 144 countries 118 scor e K or ea, Rep. 0.00 = imparity 0.650 1.00 = parity AVG KOR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,411.25 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 34,985.85 Total population (1,000s) 50,791.92 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.38 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 92 118 0.616 0.650 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.533 0.481 121 96 Educational attainment 105 0.960 82 0.948 ZJsY L OsY Le0 VLW Health and survival 84 0.973 94 0.967 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 84 0.067 90 0.134 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTepL e]k ZJsY L Yero TepL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.533 121 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.4 0.73 ce participation 91 0.732 0.667 55.9 0.51 0.634 0.510 121 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.447 0.509 22,090 49,386 0.45 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 121 10.5 0.320 0.117 117 Legislators, senior officials and managers 89.5 0.12 51.9 0.758 0.928 76 0.93 Pr ofessional and technical workers 48.1 Educational attainment 0.953 0.960 105 – – Literacy rate – – – – 98.5 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 84 0.995 0.979 97.9 97.0 101 Enr olment in secondary education 0.992 0.971 96.2 0.99 104.8 80.2 0.77 0.938 0.765 112 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.973 Health and survival 84 0.956 0.93 Sex ratio at birth 132 0.935 0.920 75.3 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 70.8 1.06 0.227 0.134 90 Political empowerment 0.20 0.205 97 Women in parliament 17.0 83.0 0.279 9.1 90.9 0.10 Women in ministerial positions 115 0.100 0.209 0.200 4.7 0.10 Years with female head of state (last 50) 28 0.104 45.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 198 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

209 0.650 / 118 KOR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 3.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.6 3.8 0.95 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 63.5 36.4 Discouraged job seekers 0.57 – – empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.62 47.2 29.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 7.9 nment pr Gover 17.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.26 yes 8.7 Contributing family workers 8.71 1.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 14.1 26.5 0.53 1.36 1.1 1.4 en Out-of-school childr 1.07 466.9 Work, minutes per day 500.6 Primary education attainment, adults 0.93 97.6 91.2 4.71 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 45.4 9.6 – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Le adership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 1.19 3.8 4.5 2 0.51 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.83 79.6 66.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 2.1 97.9 0.02 – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – – Firms with female top managers 29.3 Tertiary education attainment, adults 19.7 0.67 – Employers 1.0 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – – ry education attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 3.9 96.1 0.04 Tertia 0.9 0.28 0.3 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 95.4 Hold an account at a financial institution 93.4 0.98 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.66 1.5 1.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 2.01 Arts and Humanities 23.3 11.6 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 16.0 0.89 18.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.17 Education 10.9 3.4 part ownership 0.31 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 11.7 37.7 0.62 .) 2,362.2 3,780.0 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 20.7 elfar e Health and W 8.3 2.50 female male value Political Leadership 4.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.4 0.33 Year women r eceived right to vote 1948 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.87 4.0 4.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 69 Services 8.0 1.21 6.6 Number of female heads of state to date 3 5.0 4.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.16 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 0.9 0.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 102.0 117.3 0.87 Seats held in upper house 15.4 0.18 84.6 1 4.7 4.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.97 1 0.53 5.0 Mortality 9.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 4.9 12.2 0.41 28.8 32.0 0.90 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 1.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 6.3 3.45 Legislation on domestic violence yes 32 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.30 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 37 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 199 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

210 rank out of 144 countries 19 scor e K uZaiW 0.00 = imparity 0. 1.00 = parity AVG K:T 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 114.04 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 69,329.41 Total population (1,000s) 4,052.58 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.49 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.35 e 56.08 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 86 129 0.634 0.628 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.518 0.577 125 72 Educational attainment 52 0.996 41 0.993 ZgsY i O\^em[ Health and survival 117 0.969 105 0.961 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 114 0.005 141 0.027 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[ergi [s WeYm[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.518 125 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 85.6 0.58 ce participation 121 0.576 0.667 49.3 0.63 0.634 0.630 75 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.426 0.509 41,623 97,682 0.43 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 124 14.2 0.320 0.165 111 Legislators, senior officials and managers 85.8 0.17 57.6 0.758 0.737 96 0.74 Pr ofessional and technical workers 42.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.996 52 72 0.883 Literacy rate 0.980 96.4 0.98 94.5 92.6 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 93.2 79.3 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 91.0 1.15 20.4 33.1 1.62 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 117 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 66.6 1.037 1.024 127 Healthy life expectancy 65.1 1.02 0.227 0.027 141 Political empowerment 0.03 0.032 142 Women in parliament 3.1 96.9 0.279 6.7 93.3 0.07 Women in ministerial positions 121 0.071 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 200 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

211 0.628 / 129 KWT TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 70.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.9 2.9 1.68 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.56 12.2 6.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 0.0 Contributing family workers 1.48 0.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 0.3 2.7 0.10 0.35 1.9 0.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.06 60.9 64.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 61.8 1.00 61.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 18.7 46.0 0.41 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 20.6 Out-of-school youth 0.61 33.8 2 0.59 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.38 26.4 36.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 33.4 1.47 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 22.7 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 20.2 7.0 0.35 – Firms with female top managers 1.71 Tertiary education attainment, adults 13.1 7.7 3.9 ation attainment, age 25-54 2.10 8.2 0.0 0.2 Employers 6.64 Tertiary educ 0.18 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.3 7.4 R&D personnel 40.1 59.9 0.67 0.5 0.53 PhD graduates 0.3 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 64.0 79.3 0.81 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership yes – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 2005 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 12 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.3 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 2.8 4.6 0.59 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.66 1 0.25 0.2 Mortality 0.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.2 0.24 27.5 28.9 0.95 Average length of single life 1 4 , childbirth Mortality 17.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 31.9 1.84 Legislation on domestic violence no 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.97 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 35 Potential support ratio d health personnel – Births attended by skille Total dependency ratio 30 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 201 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

212 rank out of 144 countries 85 scor e K yrgyz Republic 0.00 = imparity 0.691 1.00 = parity AVG KGZ 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 6.55 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 3,291.97 Total population (1,000s) 5,955.73 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.51 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 65.14 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 52 85 0.674 0.691 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.664 0.687 78 26 Educational attainment 79 0.990 33 0.995 ZgsY i O`Yk`a ViWyIpPg Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i eziYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 107 0.035 92 0.130 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s WeYP[` MT MiTepi ezk ZgsY i Yero Tepi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.664 78 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.6 0.66 ce participation 101 0.659 0.667 53.2 0.71 0.634 0.706 36 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.500 0.509 2,372 4,749 0.50 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 106 35.6 0.320 0.554 42 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.4 0.55 36.4 0.758 1.000 1 1.74 Pr ofessional and technical workers 63.6 Educational attainment 0.953 0.990 79 56 0.883 Literacy rate 0.995 99.5 0.99 99.0 90.2 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 111 0.980 0.979 88.4 81.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 81.7 1.01 40.8 53.3 1.31 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 66.9 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 61.0 1.10 0.227 0.130 92 Political empowerment 0.24 0.237 87 Women in parliament 19.2 80.8 0.279 14.3 85.7 0.17 Women in ministerial positions 94 0.167 0.209 0.200 1.7 0.03 Years with female head of state (last 50) 45 0.034 48.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 202 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

213 0.691 / 85 KGZ TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 29.5 2.16 Youth not in employment or education 13.6 0.0 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 19.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 9.0 6.5 1.38 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 48.2 51.8 Discouraged job seekers 1.08 – – – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.00 9.1 9.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 17.3 nment pr Gover 30.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.78 yes 14.4 Contributing family workers 2.88 5.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 15.7 32.8 0.48 1.61 1.6 2.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 98.7 97.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 25.5 Out-of-school youth 0.70 36.7 2 0.65 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.97 89.7 87.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.98 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.40 Firms with female top managers 1.17 Tertiary education attainment, adults 17.4 14.9 5.0 Employers 2.3 0.45 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – iary education attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Tert 0.0 0.67 PhD graduates 0.0 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 18.9 17.9 1.05 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.35 1.8 0.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.03 Arts and Humanities 4.8 4.7 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 41.4 0.80 51.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 5.50 Education 23.1 4.2 ownership part 0.32 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.9 12.4 Mean monthly ear 0.75 11.7 15.6 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 11.6 elfar e Health and W 5.5 2.13 female male value Political Leadership 3.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.1 0.64 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.19 2.5 2.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 1.5 0.18 7.9 Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.7 6.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.16 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 2.1 1.6 en under age 5 Mortality 0.75 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 13.6 16.5 0.82 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.9 0.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.60 1 0.33 0.5 Mortality 1.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.7 0.24 22.0 25.5 0.86 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 24.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 62.4 2.57 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.01 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 18.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 15 Potential support ratio led health personnel – Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 56 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 203 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

214 rank out of 144 countries 64 scor e L ao PDR 0.00 = imparity 0.703 1.00 = parity AVG LAO 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 15.90 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 5,734.59 Total population (1,000s) 6,758.35 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.44 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 58.36 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 64 – 0.703 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.769 – 22 – Educational attainment 118 0.933 – – ZJsY L Pes T+V Health and survival 74 0.974 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment – – 87 0.137 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.769 22 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 79.3 1.02 ce participation 1 1.000 0.667 81.2 0.74 0.634 0.741 24 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.846 0.509 5,671 6,704 0.85 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 8 31.8 0.320 0.465 66 Legislators, senior officials and managers 68.2 0.47 59.1 0.758 0.692 99 0.69 Pr ofessional and technical workers 40.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.933 118 119 0.883 Literacy rate 0.738 67.4 0.74 49.7 93.3 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 100 0.988 0.979 92.1 55.1 113 Enr olment in secondary education 0.972 0.971 53.5 0.97 17.3 16.5 0.96 0.938 0.956 100 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.974 Health and survival 74 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 59.1 1.037 1.043 85 Healthy life expectancy 56.7 1.04 0.227 0.137 87 Political empowerment 0.38 0.380 50 Women in parliament 27.5 72.5 0.279 7.4 92.6 0.08 Women in ministerial positions 119 0.080 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 204 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

215 0.703 /  LAO TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 5.9 1.36 Youth not in employment or education 4.3 3.0 105.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 0.7 0.8 0.87 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 45.6 54.4 Discouraged job seekers 1.19 – – empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.57 5.4 3.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 7.8 nment pr Gover 8.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.14 yes 45.2 Contributing family workers 1.85 24.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 43.6 54.3 0.80 1.16 6.7 7.9 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 49.8 Out-of-school youth 1.15 43.2 2 0.70 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.76 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.83 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 24.5 Employers 0.2 0.01 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – ge 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Tertiary education attainment, a – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.66 5.2 3.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.99 Arts and Humanities 7.8 7.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 48.9 1.02 48.1 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.70 Education 25.9 15.3 ownership part 0.21 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 2.3 10.8 Mean monthly ear 0.82 784.1 958.5 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 5.0 elfar e Health and W 2.9 1.72 female male value Political Leadership 6.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.7 0.45 Year women r eceived right to vote 1958 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.73 0.6 0.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 59 Services 3.3 2.07 1.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 1.1 1.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.76 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 6.5 5.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 13.7 12.1 1.13 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 4.4 2.9 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.66 1 0.52 1.2 Mortality 2.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 0.9 0.44 20.5 23.3 0.88 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 48.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 72.0 1.48 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.70 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 27.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 16 Potential support ratio led health personnel – Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 59 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 205 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

216 rank out of 144 countries 20 scor e L atYia 0.00 = imparity 0.7 1.00 = parity AVG LVA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 27.68 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 23,712.09 Total population (1,000s) 1,970.53 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -1.09 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.85 e 69.85 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 19 20 0.709 0.756 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.798 0.705 15 20 Educational attainment 1 1.000 85 0.931 ZgsY i 3e[]Pe Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 21 0.221 41 0.246 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.798 15 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 78.4 0.92 ce participation 22 0.923 0.667 72.4 0.66 0.634 0.662 60 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.700 0.509 21,747 31,078 0.70 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 30 47.2 0.320 0.896 8 Legislators, senior officials and managers 52.8 0.90 34.8 0.758 1.000 1 1.87 Pr ofessional and technical workers 65.2 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.9 1.00 99.9 96.1 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 96.1 96.6 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 100.0 1.04 55.5 79.2 1.43 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 70.7 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 63.2 1.12 0.227 0.246 41 Political empowerment 0.19 0.190 101 Women in parliament 16.0 84.0 0.279 23.1 76.9 0.30 Women in ministerial positions 49 0.300 0.209 0.200 10.1 0.25 Years with female head of state (last 50) 14 0.254 39.9 2.00 1.00 0.00 206 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

217 0.76 / 20 L9A TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 548 11.7 1.25 Youth not in employment or education 9.4 10.0 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 80.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 8.4 10.9 0.77 80.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 59.5 40.5 Discouraged job seekers 0.68 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.85 12.3 22.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 10.4 nment pr Gover 19.7 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.89 yes 0.7 Contributing family workers 0.64 1.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 6.7 8.9 0.76 0.92 3.4 3.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 100.0 100.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 100.0 1.00 100.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 3.4 Out-of-school youth 0.69 5.0 2 0.75 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.06 86.0 90.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 28.0 72.0 0.39 98.6 1.01 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 97.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.57 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 96.1 95.3 0.99 0.46 Firms with female top managers 1.65 Tertiary education attainment, adults 34.0 20.6 14.2 ry education attainment, age 25-54 2.13 30.2 1.0 2.5 Employers 2.41 Tertia 0.93 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 18.6 19.9 R&D personnel 50.6 49.4 1.02 0.7 0.52 PhD graduates 0.4 value male female Access to Assets 80.2 0.98 Individuals using the inter net 78.3 Hold an account at a financial institution 90.2 90.3 1.00 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.50 2.5 1.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.67 Arts and Humanities 9.2 5.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 34.1 1.22 28.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 6.69 Education 9.6 1.4 ownership yes 0.20 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.2 26.3 Mean monthly ear 0.84 0.7 0.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 18.6 elfar e Health and W 5.3 3.52 female male value Political Leadership 10.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.4 0.14 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.78 3.2 4.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 6.7 0.61 10.9 Number of female heads of state to date 2 11.1 5.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.92 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 14.6 11.7 1.24 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.59 1 0.42 0.3 Mortality 0.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.4 0.25 30.3 33.0 0.92 Average length of single life 1 18 , childbirth Mortality 4.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 11.1 2.64 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 32.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.54 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 17.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 98.10 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 53 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 207 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

218 rank out of 144 countries 137 scor e L ebanon 0.00 = imparity 0.596 1.00 = parity AVG LBN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 47.54 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 12,974.17 Total population (1,000s) 6,006.67 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.94 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 137 – 0.596 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.440 – 133 – Educational attainment 109 0.956 – – ZJsY L 3LIersr Health and survival 109 0.970 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment – – 142 0.019 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.440 133 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 75.7 0.35 ce participation 135 0.347 0.667 26.3 0.61 0.634 0.607 86 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.251 0.509 5,605 22,327 0.25 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 136 8.4 0.320 0.092 121 Legislators, senior officials and managers 91.6 0.09 51.7 0.758 0.933 75 0.93 Pr ofessional and technical workers 48.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.956 109 96 0.883 Literacy rate 0.934 94.3 0.93 88.1 84.7 0.93 Enr olment in primary education 119 0.932 0.979 78.9 64.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 64.9 1.00 39.5 45.7 1.16 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.970 Health and survival 109 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 66.7 1.037 1.027 118 Healthy life expectancy 64.9 1.03 0.227 0.019 142 Political empowerment 0.03 0.032 141 Women in parliament 3.1 96.9 0.279 3.4 96.6 0.04 Women in ministerial positions 138 0.036 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 208 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

219 0.96 /  L%N TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 27.3 1.71 Youth not in employment or education 16.0 – 70.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 10.4 5.0 2.07 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 63.7 36.3 Discouraged job seekers 0.57 – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.72 14.1 10.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 5.9 Contributing family workers 1.49 4.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 10.0 27.7 0.36 1.40 13.7 19.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.91 82.5 74.7 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 33.6 Out-of-school youth 0.99 33.9 2 0.58 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.97 33.4 32.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.77 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.05 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 4.0 Employers 1.7 0.44 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – cation attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Tertiary edu – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 32.9 62.4 0.53 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.12 0.5 0.5 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.97 Arts and Humanities 16.1 8.2 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 30.8 0.69 44.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 4.45 Education 7.6 1.7 ownership part 0.29 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.0 20.7 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 14.3 elfar e Health and W 7.2 1.99 female male value Political Leadership 3.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.1 0.34 Year women r eceived right to vote 1952 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.70 10.9 6.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 65 Services 0.5 0.86 0.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 11.8 6.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.76 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.87 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 15.0 17.3 0.87 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.57 1 0.52 0.7 Mortality 1.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.5 0.31 28.3 32.3 0.88 Average length of single life 1 15 , childbirth Mortality 2.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 19.3 6.64 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 35.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.72 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 8 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 47 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 209 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

220 rank out of 144 countries 73 scor e L esotho 0.00 = imparity 0.695 1.00 = parity AVG LSO 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 2.20 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 2,808.24 Total population (1,000s) 2,203.82 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.33 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.94 e 46.88 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 43 73 0.681 0.695 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.655 0.607 84 61 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY L 3LZs[Os Health and survival 35 0.979 1 0.980 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 41 0.136 84 0.147 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJL [s teYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.655 84 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 75.5 0.81 ce participation 71 0.806 0.667 60.8 0.51 0.634 0.514 120 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.587 0.509 2,258 3,847 0.59 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 86 36.1 0.320 0.565 37 Legislators, senior officials and managers 63.9 0.56 38.0 0.758 1.000 1 1.63 Pr ofessional and technical workers 62.0 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 67.7 1.25 84.9 78.8 1.03 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 81.5 29.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 45.3 1.56 8.0 11.7 1.45 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 35 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 47.9 1.037 1.059 51 Healthy life expectancy 45.2 1.06 0.227 0.147 84 Political empowerment 0.30 0.297 66 Women in parliament 22.9 77.1 0.279 18.2 81.8 0.22 Women in ministerial positions 77 0.222 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 210 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

221 0.695 / 73 LSO TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 27.2 22.1 1.23 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.27 2.0 2.5 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 3.7 Contributing family workers 0.90 4.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 16.7 10.8 1.54 0.85 20.8 17.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.38 34.0 47.1 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 63.6 1.00 63.6 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 9.2 9.6 0.95 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 37.3 Out-of-school youth 0.80 46.6 2 0.47 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.06 13.4 14.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 20.4 1.28 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 16.0 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.64 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 3.5 2.0 0.56 0.57 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 1.2 ainment, age 25-54 1.27 1.6 4.1 0.2 Employers 0.06 Tertiary education att 0.22 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.2 0.7 R&D personnel 40.3 59.7 0.68 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.87 5.5 4.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.89 Arts and Humanities 8.1 9.1 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 35.7 1.02 35.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.65 Education 27.6 16.8 ownership yes 0.28 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.9 21.3 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 13.0 elfar e Health and W 6.9 1.88 female male value Political Leadership 1.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.3 0.22 Year women r eceived right to vote 1965 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.92 21.8 23.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 52 Services 4.2 1.32 3.2 Number of female heads of state to date 0 0.4 0.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.43 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 3.0 2.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 4.5 3.3 1.37 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 6.8 6.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.93 1 0.50 0.4 Mortality 0.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.6 0.39 24.4 28.5 0.86 Average length of single life 1 487 , childbirth Mortality 18.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 51.2 2.77 Legislation on domestic violence no 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.09 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 23.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 13 Potential support ratio led health personnel 77.90 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 67 Antenatal car 74.40 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 211 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

222 rank out of 144 countries 107 scor e L iberia 0.00 = imparity 0.669 1.00 = parity AVG LBR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 2.10 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 753.56 Total population (1,000s) 4,613.82 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.52 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e 48.86 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 107 – 0.669 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.695 – 58 – Educational attainment 138 0.772 – – ZJsY i 3PIiYPe Health and survival 85 0.973 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 45 0.236 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.695 58 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 64.2 0.92 ce participation 23 0.922 0.667 59.2 0.62 0.634 0.615 81 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.982 0.509 806 820 0.98 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 2 20.0 0.320 0.251 100 Legislators, senior officials and managers 80.0 0.25 64.6 0.758 0.549 109 0.55 Pr ofessional and technical workers 35.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.772 138 137 0.883 Literacy rate 0.445 60.8 0.44 27.0 38.9 0.93 Enr olment in primary education 118 0.932 0.979 36.3 57.1 133 Enr olment in secondary education 0.794 0.971 42.9 0.75 14.2 9.0 0.63 0.938 0.631 125 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.973 Health and survival 85 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 53.7 1.037 1.039 93 Healthy life expectancy 51.7 1.04 0.227 0.236 45 Political empowerment 0.14 0.141 115 Women in parliament 12.3 87.7 0.279 15.8 84.2 0.19 Women in ministerial positions 88 0.188 0.209 0.200 12.4 0.33 Years with female head of state (last 50) 9 0.329 37.6 2.00 1.00 0.00 212 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

223 0.669 / 107 LBR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 24.4 1.76 Youth not in employment or education 13.8 – 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 2.3 2.2 1.02 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 26.7 73.3 Discouraged job seekers 2.74 68.8 1.25 – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 86.3 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.27 2.1 0.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 16.9 nment pr Gover 20.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.19 no 19.7 Contributing family workers 1.57 12.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 68.9 56.1 1.23 1.04 61.1 63.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 28.4 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 28.4 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 5.2 26.0 0.20 Economic Le adership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth – – – 2 0.56 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 13.2 32.6 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.41 Firms with female (co-)owners 1.13 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 14.6 2.5 0.17 0.43 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – .60 1.8 Employers 12.5 0.14 Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 2.2 0 3.7 0.18 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.5 3.1 R&D personnel – – – PhD graduates – – – female male value Access to Assets – Individuals using the inter – – net Hold an account at a financial institution – – – female male value yes s access to financial services Women’ Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.9 2.7 0.33 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 7.0 Arts and Humanities 1.32 5.3 part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr Women’ 12.9 1.02 12.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.68 Education 4.2 6.2 ownership part 0.44 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 8.3 18.9 1.06 .) 0.3 0.3 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 22.5 elfar e Health and W 30.4 0.74 female male value Political Leadership 4.0 Information and Comm. T echnologies 30.3 7.59 Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.60 1.6 2.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services 0.9 0.19 4.9 Number of female heads of state to date 2 10.6 12.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.86 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 6.4 5.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.82 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 6.0 5.6 1.08 Seats held in upper house 3.6 0.04 96.4 1 7.8 5.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.73 1 0.56 1.1 Mortality 2.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.6 0.27 23.2 26.4 0.88 Average length of single life 1 725 , childbirth Mortality 23.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 58.8 2.46 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 39.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.58 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 36.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 18 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 61.10 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 82 Antenatal car 78.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 213 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

224 rank out of 144 countries 28 scor e L ithuania 0.00 = imparity 0.742 1.00 = parity AVG LTU 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 42.74 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 27,904.10 Total population (1,000s) 2,908.25 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.72 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.85 e 70.81 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 21 28 0.708 0.742 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.749 0.713 28 15 Educational attainment 1 1.000 24 0.998 ZJsY i 3P[O\erPe Health and survival 1 0.980 36 0.979 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 39 0.140 42 0.241 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.749 28 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.9 0.94 ce participation 17 0.938 0.667 72.2 0.60 0.634 0.596 89 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.720 0.509 25,409 35,303 0.72 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 24 39.4 0.320 0.651 25 Legislators, senior officials and managers 60.6 0.65 2.02 33.1 1.000 1 Pr ofessional and technical workers 2.02 66.9 0.758 0.953 1.000 1 Educational attainment Literacy rate 1 1.000 99.8 99.8 1.00 0.883 97.7 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 97.9 1.00 98.1 1.00 Enr olment in secondary education 1 1.000 0.971 98.0 55.8 1.47 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 82.0 Health and survival 1 0.980 0.956 0.95 0.920 0.944 1 Sex ratio at birth 1 62.0 1.037 70.2 Healthy life expectancy 1.13 1.060 Political empowerment 0.227 0.241 42 78.7 0.27 73 0.270 Women in parliament 21.3 0.279 21.4 78.6 0.27 Women in ministerial positions 63 0.273 0.209 0.200 8.4 0.20 Years with female head of state (last 50) 16 0.203 41.6 2.00 1.00 0.00 214 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

225 0.7 /  LTU TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 309 9.3 1.03 Youth not in employment or education 9.1 30.0 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.7 9.1 0.73 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 59.0 41.0 Discouraged job seekers 0.69 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.57 16.3 25.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 9.2 nment pr Gover 19.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.08 yes 1.1 Contributing family workers 1.48 0.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 7.0 11.2 0.63 0.12 1.1 0.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 99.1 98.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 99.8 1.00 99.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.5 99.6 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 4.3 Out-of-school youth 0.61 7.0 2 0.69 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.96 86.2 82.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 98.8 1.02 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 96.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.56 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 79.4 75.6 0.95 0.27 Firms with female top managers 1.25 Tertiary education attainment, adults 36.3 29.0 16.2 ation attainment, age 25-54 1.55 25.1 0.7 1.4 Employers 1.88 Tertiary educ 0.93 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 15.5 16.7 R&D personnel 54.0 46.0 1.17 0.8 0.65 PhD graduates 0.5 value male female Access to Assets 71.1 1.01 Individuals using the inter net 71.6 Hold an account at a financial institution 77.9 77.9 1.00 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.51 3.0 1.5 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.71 Arts and Humanities 9.5 5.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 34.9 1.33 26.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.59 Education 9.1 3.5 ownership yes 0.21 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.2 34.7 Mean monthly ear 0.84 0.7 0.8 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 18.1 elfar e Health and W 6.3 2.86 female male value Political Leadership 4.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.4 0.09 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.79 3.6 4.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 1.6 0.54 3.0 Number of female heads of state to date 3 14.2 8.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.64 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 18.9 18.5 1.02 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.5 0.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.64 1 0.42 0.4 Mortality 1.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.9 0.27 30.0 32.7 0.92 Average length of single life 1 10 , childbirth Mortality 0.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 3.9 4.45 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 24.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.65 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 18.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 50 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 215 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

226 rank out of 144 countries 59 scor e L uxembourg 0.00 = imparity 0.706 1.00 = parity LUX AVG distribution of countries by scor 1.00 e 0.40 T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS 59.95 GDP (US$ billions) Economy 97,018.66 GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) Total population (1,000s) 575.75 Education owth rate (%) 1.45 Population gr 1.01 Population sex ratio (female/male) Human Capital Index scor e 69.61 Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 59 56 0.667 0.706 Health Economic participation and opportunity 76 76 0.560 0.667 Educational attainment 1.000 1.000 1 1 ZgsY L k 3\_LTIs\Y Health and survival 86 0.973 0.973 71 e]LYekL ZgsY L Political empowerment 44 66 0.135 0.184 rank out of 144 115 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KmZxergL xs WeYmx` TeSL MLTeSL Yero ZgsY L e]k MT 0.00 1.00 2.00 76 0.667 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 63.7 0.667 0.84 Labour for ce participation 59 76.3 0.835 0.71 0.713 33 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.634 0.627 0.509 81,505 130,035 0.63 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 62 17.7 0.320 0.216 104 Legislators, senior officials and managers 82.3 0.22 52.5 0.758 0.904 80 0.90 Pr ofessional and technical workers 47.5 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 92.8 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 93.2 82.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 86.5 1.04 18.2 20.7 1.14 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.973 Health and survival 86 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.1 1.037 1.038 94 Healthy life expectancy 70.4 1.04 0.227 0.184 66 Political empowerment 0.40 0.395 46 Women in parliament 28.3 71.7 0.279 20.0 80.0 0.25 Women in ministerial positions 68 0.250 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 216 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

227 0.706 / 59 LUX TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 180 5.7 0.86 Youth not in employment or education 6.6 2.0 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.6 6.0 1.10 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 45.3 54.7 Discouraged job seekers 1.21 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.86 21.8 18.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 14.7 nment pr Gover 35.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.39 yes 1.1 Contributing family workers 1.80 0.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.0 5.5 0.91 0.90 4.2 3.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 95.2 94.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 100.0 1.00 100.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 16.7 Out-of-school youth 0.84 20.0 2 0.76 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.91 83.4 75.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 13.0 87.0 0.15 78.1 0.97 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 80.3 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 66.8 50.7 0.76 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 24.2 on attainment, age 25-54 0.99 24.0 0.6 2.6 Employers 4.24 Tertiary educati 0.50 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 9.2 18.5 R&D personnel 22.1 77.9 0.28 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 98.9 0.97 Individuals using the inter net 95.8 Hold an account at a financial institution 96.7 95.6 1.01 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.85 0.4 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.64 Arts and Humanities 9.5 5.8 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 37.1 0.90 41.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.34 Education 29.3 21.8 ownership yes 0.28 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 2.6 9.2 Mean monthly ear 0.78 3.1 3.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.8 elfar e Health and W 2.9 3.05 female male value Political Leadership 7.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.7 0.10 Year women r eceived right to vote 1919 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.64 3.7 5.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 98 Services 3.9 6.73 0.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 8.4 5.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.49 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 1.6 1.6 1.03 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.10 1 0.85 0.1 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.0 0.49 27.9 30.4 0.92 Average length of single life 1 10 , childbirth Mortality 8.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 17.4 2.19 Legislation on domestic violence yes 32 Mean age of women at birth of first child 22.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.57 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio illed health personnel 99.90 Births attended by sk Total dependency ratio 44 Antenatal car 97.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 217 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

228 rank out of 144 countries 67 scor e M acedonia, FYR 0.00 = imparity 0.702 1.00 = parity MKD AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 10.90 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 13,054.78 2,081.21 Total population (1,000s) Education 0.09 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 0.698 67 28 0.702 Health Economic participation and opportunity 96 31 0.671 0.636 Educational attainment 90 64 0.985 0.985 ZJsY i 4eJiKsrPe0 [email protected] Health and survival 65 0.976 0.964 101 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 58 0.209 28 0.173 rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT ZJsY i e]k MiTeSi TeSi Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.636 96 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 52.7 78.0 0.68 Labour for ce participation 99 0.675 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.601 0.509 11,358 18,885 0.60 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 76 25.3 0.320 0.338 90 Legislators, senior officials and managers 74.7 0.34 46.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.17 Pr ofessional and technical workers 53.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.985 90 86 0.883 Literacy rate 0.958 98.2 0.96 94.1 91.4 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 90 0.993 0.979 90.7 51.8 109 Enr olment in secondary education 0.984 0.971 48.2 0.93 37.5 46.8 1.25 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 65 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 69.1 1.037 1.049 75 Healthy life expectancy 65.9 1.05 0.227 0.209 58 Political empowerment 0.52 0.519 32 Women in parliament 34.2 65.8 0.279 16.0 84.0 0.19 Women in ministerial positions 87 0.190 0.209 0.200 0.1 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 62 0.003 49.9 2.00 1.00 0.00 218 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

229 0.702 / 67 MKD TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 24.9 1.02 Youth not in employment or education 24.5 – 270.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 22.7 24.4 0.93 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 51.6 48.4 Discouraged job seekers 0.94 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.11 11.7 13.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 5.9 nment pr Gover 8.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.52 yes 10.1 Contributing family workers 2.39 4.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 6.9 17.2 0.40 1.07 8.6 9.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.84 85.3 72.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 30.4 Out-of-school youth 1.14 26.7 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.43 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.35 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 4.2 Employers 2.8 0.66 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – inment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 51.1 48.9 1.05 Tertiary education atta – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 64.0 79.7 0.80 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.47 3.0 1.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.62 Arts and Humanities 13.1 8.1 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 37.0 1.00 36.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.30 Education 8.2 3.5 ownership part 0.57 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 9.8 17.2 Mean monthly ear 0.91 30.0 32.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 11.6 elfar e Health and W 4.9 2.38 female male value Political Leadership 9.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 3.0 0.30 Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.44 3.1 2.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services 4.8 0.48 9.9 Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.6 4.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.70 Election list quotas for women, national 33 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 33 Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 9.3 9.8 0.95 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.49 1 0.37 0.1 Mortality 0.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.2 0.34 22.9 26.7 0.86 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality – Pr oportion married by age 25 – – Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 18.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.53 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 34.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio lled health personnel – Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 42 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 219 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

230 rank out of 144 countries 80 scor e M adagascar 0.00 = imparity 0.692 1.00 = parity AVG MDG 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 9.99 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,396.09 Total population (1,000s) 24,894.55 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.69 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 51.96 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 84 80 0.639 0.692 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.716 0.578 48 71 Educational attainment 114 0.950 76 0.960 ZgsY L 4eKekeZgeY Health and survival 76 0.974 49 0.978 L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment 104 0.038 94 0.127 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZgsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.716 48 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 89.9 0.95 ce participation 10 0.952 0.667 85.6 0.65 0.634 0.647 67 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.663 0.509 1,202 1,812 0.66 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 47 31.8 0.320 0.466 65 Legislators, senior officials and managers 68.2 0.47 52.5 0.758 0.904 79 0.90 Pr ofessional and technical workers 47.5 Educational attainment 0.953 0.950 114 99 0.883 Literacy rate 0.910 75.0 0.91 68.3 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 30.5 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 31.6 1.04 5.0 4.6 0.92 0.938 0.918 102 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.974 Health and survival 76 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 58.1 1.037 1.042 86 Healthy life expectancy 55.7 1.04 0.227 0.127 94 Political empowerment 0.24 0.238 86 Women in parliament 19.2 80.8 0.279 17.9 82.1 0.22 Women in ministerial positions 78 0.217 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 66 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 220 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

231 0.692 / 80 MDG TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 4.3 1.29 Youth not in employment or education 3.3 – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 0.6 0.6 1.11 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 43.2 56.8 Discouraged job seekers 1.31 – – – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.67 2.9 1.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 22.1 nment pr Gover 34.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.56 no 59.4 Contributing family workers 2.52 23.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 30.6 57.8 0.53 0.99 22.7 22.4 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 80.2 0.97 82.5 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 58.5 73.5 0.80 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 78.0 Out-of-school youth 1.07 73.2 2 0.58 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 36.0 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 36.0 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.71 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 27.0 16.5 0.61 0.39 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 4.7 5-54 0.76 3.6 23.5 2.0 Employers 0.08 Tertiary education attainment, age 2 0.51 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.1 4.1 R&D personnel 35.8 64.2 0.56 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 5.5 6.0 0.92 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.82 1.3 1.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.51 Arts and Humanities 9.1 6.0 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 48.3 1.13 42.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.76 Education 1.0 1.3 ownership yes 0.31 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 2.2 7.3 Mean monthly ear 0.69 116.3 167.6 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 9.9 elfar e Health and W 5.6 1.76 female male value Political Leadership 9.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 4.9 0.50 Year women r eceived right to vote 1959 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.74 8.4 11.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 58 Services 1.5 2.10 0.7 Number of female heads of state to date 1 13.6 14.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.96 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 22.2 18.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 32.6 35.4 0.92 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 21.3 17.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.81 1 0.50 4.6 Mortality 9.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.6 2.3 0.27 20.0 22.4 0.89 Average length of single life 1 353 , childbirth Mortality 45.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 76.1 1.69 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.18 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 19.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 19 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 44.30 Births attended Total dependency ratio 79 Antenatal car 51.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 221 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

232 rank out of 144 countries 101 scor e M alawi 0.00 = imparity 0.672 1.00 = parity AVG MWI 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 5.44 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,083.97 Total population (1,000s) 18,091.58 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.90 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 52.32 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 81 101 0.644 0.672 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.654 0.665 85 36 Educational attainment 126 0.908 96 0.860 wJsY i 4eSe^P Health and survival 77 0.974 106 0.960 i e]iYeki wJsY Political empowerment 68 0.090 81 0.152 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPw[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k wJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.654 85 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.0 1.01 ce participation 1 1.000 0.667 80.8 0.63 0.634 0.631 73 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.752 0.509 1,005 1,337 0.75 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 15 15.6 0.320 0.185 106 Legislators, senior officials and managers 84.4 0.19 64.7 0.758 0.545 111 0.55 Pr ofessional and technical workers 35.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.908 126 115 0.883 Literacy rate 0.791 69.8 0.79 55.2 89.9 1.06 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 95.3 37.3 117 Enr olment in secondary education 0.963 0.971 36.0 0.96 1.0 0.6 0.64 0.938 0.636 124 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.974 Health and survival 77 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 52.3 1.037 1.042 87 Healthy life expectancy 50.2 1.04 0.227 0.152 81 Political empowerment 0.20 0.200 99 Women in parliament 16.7 83.3 0.279 22.2 77.8 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 56 0.286 0.209 0.200 2.1 0.04 Years with female head of state (last 50) 42 0.045 47.9 2.00 1.00 0.00 222 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

233 0.672 / 101 MWI TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 56.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.9 4.9 1.40 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 40.1 59.9 Discouraged job seekers 1.49 – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.43 2.0 0.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 35.8 nment pr Gover 47.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.32 no 7.6 Contributing family workers 1.37 5.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 55.8 47.9 1.17 0.43 9.5 4.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 72.2 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.86 84.4 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 32.9 64.7 0.51 Economic Leadership yes Law mandates equal pay 52.6 1.15 60.3 Out-of-school youth 2 0.56 Advancement of women to leadership r oles – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 28.5 0.51 14.5 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.39 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 2.0 9.9 0.20 Firms with female top managers 0.17 – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 1.7 0.57 1.0 5.5 0.7 Employers 0.13 Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 0.26 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.2 1.0 R&D personnel 17.7 82.3 0.22 – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets – Individuals using the inter net – – 0.67 Hold an account at a financial institution 13.0 19.5 value male female Women’ part s access to financial services Graduates by Degr ee T ype Agri., For estry , Fisheries and V eterinary 16.1 0.85 13.7 Inheritance rights for daughters part – – – Arts and Humanities ol and ownership part Women’ s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and s access to non-land assets use, contr Women’ Education – – – part ownership Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 19.9 37.6 0.53 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear – – – .) 25.2 elfar e Health and W 5.9 4.30 female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1961 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 56 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 41.2 40.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.02 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 21.6 18.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.85 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 24.0 23.9 1.00 Seats held in upper house 11.1 0.12 88.9 1 31.5 29.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.94 1 0.55 4.1 Mortality 7.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.3 0.9 0.33 19.8 24.6 0.80 Average length of single life 1 634 , childbirth Mortality 40.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 81.4 2.01 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 31.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.57 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 26.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 18 Potential support ratio ded by skilled health personnel – Births atten Total dependency ratio 90 Antenatal car 44.70 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 223 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

234 rank out of 144 countries 04 scor e 0 ala\sia 0.00 = imparity 0.60 1.00 = parity AVG 0YS 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 296.36 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 25,660.46 Total population (1,000s) 31,187.27 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.45 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.07 e 68.29 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 72 104 0.651 0.670 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.654 0.592 87 68 Educational attainment 77 0.991 63 0.985 ZJsY i 4eSe`ZPe Health and survival 53 0.977 80 0.970 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 90 0.056 133 0.058 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.654 87 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 81.1 0.65 ce participation 105 0.651 0.667 52.8 0.78 0.634 0.782 12 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.666 0.509 21,975 33,020 0.67 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 44 20.4 0.320 0.256 99 Legislators, senior officials and managers 79.6 0.26 55.6 0.758 0.799 91 0.80 Pr ofessional and technical workers 44.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.991 77 92 0.883 Literacy rate 0.951 95.4 0.95 90.7 97.8 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.4 65.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 72.3 1.11 20.8 31.8 1.53 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.977 Health and survival 53 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 68.3 1.037 1.055 62 Healthy life expectancy 64.8 1.05 0.227 0.058 133 Political empowerment 0.12 0.116 123 Women in parliament 10.4 89.6 0.279 8.3 91.7 0.09 Women in ministerial positions 118 0.091 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 224 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

235 0.670 / 104 MYS TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 1.6 1.93 Youth not in employment or education 0.9 – 60.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.4 2.9 1.16 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 55.3 44.7 Discouraged job seekers 0.81 – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.01 11.7 11.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 3.9 nment pr Gover 8.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.11 no 7.7 Contributing family workers 3.28 2.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 17.4 18.1 0.96 0.76 2.2 1.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.93 94.4 88.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 95.6 0.99 96.2 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 60.9 83.5 0.73 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 35.6 Out-of-school youth 0.77 46.2 2 0.78 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.96 52.1 49.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 83.4 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 83.7 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.34 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 36.3 18.6 0.51 0.36 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 17.8 ttainment, age 25-54 1.14 20.3 2.3 1.4 Employers 0.62 Tertiary education a 0.36 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.1 5.9 R&D personnel 47.8 52.2 0.91 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 73.0 0.95 Individuals using the inter net 69.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 78.1 83.0 0.94 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.92 1.8 1.6 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.16 Arts and Humanities 6.6 5.7 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 24.7 1.85 13.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.90 Education 21.6 11.4 ownership part 0.37 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 15.7 42.0 Mean monthly ear 0.96 2.4 2.5 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 4.7 elfar e Health and W 2.5 1.88 female male value Political Leadership 4.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 3.6 0.82 Year women r eceived right to vote 1957 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.31 7.2 5.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 60 Services 3.2 0.74 4.4 Number of female heads of state to date 0 10.6 8.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.18 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 2.1 1.6 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 46.7 60.1 0.78 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 9.6 2.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.24 1 0.29 2.4 Mortality 8.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.7 2.2 0.30 25.7 28.0 0.92 Average length of single life 1 40 , childbirth Mortality 24.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 32.9 1.36 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.04 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 9.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 11 Potential support ratio lled health personnel 99.00 Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 44 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 225 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

236 rank out of 144 countries 06 scor e 0 alGiYes 0.00 = imparity 0.669 1.00 = parity 0DV AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 3.59 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 12,235.55 427.76 Total population (1,000s) Education 2.10 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.31 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 106 – 0.669 Health Economic participation and opportunity 94 – – 0.641 Educational attainment 1 – – 1.000 ZJsY i 4eSKPziZ Health and survival 133 0.963 – – i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 128 0.072 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT ZJsY i ezk MiTeSi TeSi Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.641 94 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 59.8 81.3 0.73 Labour for ce participation 90 0.735 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.688 0.509 10,501 15,256 0.69 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 32 13.4 0.320 0.154 112 Legislators, senior officials and managers 86.6 0.15 47.8 0.758 1.000 1 1.09 Pr ofessional and technical workers 52.2 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 98.5 1.00 98.7 93.7 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 95.9 – – Enr olment in secondary education – – – – 12.4 20.3 1.63 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.963 Health and survival 133 0.956 0.93 Sex ratio at birth 135 0.933 0.920 70.7 1.037 1.031 110 Healthy life expectancy 68.5 1.03 0.227 0.072 128 Political empowerment 0.06 0.063 136 Women in parliament 5.9 94.1 0.279 17.6 82.4 0.21 Women in ministerial positions 79 0.214 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 226 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

237 0.669 / 106 MDV TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 77.4 2.35 Youth not in employment or education 32.9 3.0 60.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.9 4.8 1.23 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 30.9 69.1 Discouraged job seekers 2.24 – – empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.59 1.2 0.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 5.8 nment pr Gover 28.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 4.91 no 8.9 Contributing family workers 3.06 2.9 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 28.0 11.8 2.37 0.64 6.3 4.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.82 42.9 35.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 87.1 0.98 88.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 26.6 5.4 4.95 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 31.1 Out-of-school youth 0.92 34.0 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.63 6.4 4.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 72.0 0.94 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 76.4 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 0.9 21.4 22.51 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 3.6 inment, age 25-54 0.66 2.4 2.9 1.3 Employers 0.44 Tertiary education atta 0.65 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.1 0.2 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership – – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 0.71 6.5 9.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1932 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 85 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.73 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 0.4 0.5 0.70 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.51 1 0.53 0.0 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.0 0.51 21.8 25.7 0.85 Average length of single life 1 68 , childbirth Mortality – Pr oportion married by age 25 – – Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.09 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 18 Potential support ratio ed health personnel 95.50 Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 38 Antenatal car 85.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 227 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

238 rank out of 144 countries 139 scor e M ali 0.00 = imparity 0.583 1.00 = parity AVG MLI 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 14.05 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,962.69 Total population (1,000s) 17,994.84 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.98 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 46.02 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 99 139 0.600 0.583 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.518 0.665 126 35 Educational attainment 140 0.741 111 0.674 ZJsY i 4eSP Health and survival 139 0.956 91 0.968 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 67 0.091 99 0.118 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.518 126 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 82.8 0.62 ce participation 117 0.620 0.667 51.3 0.64 0.634 0.636 71 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.376 0.509 1,156 3,077 0.38 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 127 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – 76.5 0.758 0.306 121 0.31 Pr ofessional and technical workers 23.5 Educational attainment 0.953 0.741 140 134 0.883 Literacy rate 0.493 45.1 0.49 22.2 58.8 0.89 Enr olment in primary education 124 0.892 0.979 52.5 34.3 132 Enr olment in secondary education 0.809 0.971 27.7 0.81 9.6 4.1 0.43 0.938 0.426 133 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.956 Health and survival 139 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 50.7 1.037 0.983 144 Healthy life expectancy 51.6 0.98 0.227 0.118 99 Political empowerment 0.10 0.097 131 Women in parliament 8.8 91.2 0.279 24.2 75.8 0.32 Women in ministerial positions 41 0.320 0.209 0.200 1.0 0.02 Years with female head of state (last 50) 51 0.020 49.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 228 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

239 0.583 / 139 MLI TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 33.8 2.27 Youth not in employment or education 14.9 3.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 10.1 5.4 1.86 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – 88.0 1.10 gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 96.9 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.25 1.3 0.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 95.1 nment pr Gover 96.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.01 yes 27.9 Contributing family workers 0.95 29.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 67.4 56.5 1.19 1.19 36.0 42.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.56 28.7 16.1 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 25.0 0.65 38.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 2.5 9.8 0.26 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 75.4 Out-of-school youth 1.11 67.7 2 0.54 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.39 8.9 3.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 11.3 0.50 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 22.5 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.18 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 4.8 1.4 0.29 0.13 Firms with female top managers 0.24 Tertiary education attainment, adults 0.7 2.7 5.0 n attainment, age 25-54 0.38 1.9 29.4 0.1 Employers 0.00 Tertiary educatio 0.35 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.5 1.4 R&D personnel 16.3 83.7 0.20 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 10.5 16.1 0.66 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.24 1.2 1.5 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.85 Arts and Humanities 9.3 10.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 60.6 1.19 51.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.47 Education 8.2 5.6 ownership part 0.32 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 1.1 3.6 Mean monthly ear 0.62 45.8 74.4 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.0 elfar e Health and W 8.5 0.93 female male value Political Leadership 1.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.4 0.34 Year women r eceived right to vote 1956 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.39 3.7 9.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 61 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 5.1 5.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.92 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 44.9 38.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.86 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 30.4 23.8 1.28 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 28.3 27.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.98 1 0.62 5.3 Mortality 8.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.9 2.3 0.41 19.0 25.9 0.73 Average length of single life 1 587 , childbirth Mortality 20.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 86.2 4.25 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 6.06 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 28.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 20 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel – Births attended Total dependency ratio 101 Antenatal car 41.20 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 229 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

240 rank out of 144 countries 9 scor e 0 alWa 0.00 = imparity 0.68 1.00 = parity AVG 0L T 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 10.95 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 35,694.04 Total population (1,000s) 429.36 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.38 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e 66.13 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 71 93 0.652 0.682 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.610 0.510 107 91 Educational attainment 1 1.000 26 0.998 ZJsY i 4eS[e Health and survival 102 0.971 65 0.974 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 48 0.126 85 0.146 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.610 107 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.8 0.64 ce participation 112 0.638 0.667 51.5 0.70 0.634 0.695 42 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.494 0.509 25,043 50,653 0.49 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 109 28.6 0.320 0.401 78 Legislators, senior officials and managers 71.4 0.40 55.2 0.758 0.813 90 0.81 Pr ofessional and technical workers 44.8 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 91.8 1.03 94.8 97.3 1.03 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 99.7 85.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 92.0 1.07 40.3 55.2 1.37 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.971 Health and survival 102 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 72.8 1.037 1.032 108 Healthy life expectancy 70.6 1.03 0.227 0.146 85 Political empowerment 0.14 0.136 117 Women in parliament 11.9 88.1 0.279 6.3 93.8 0.07 Women in ministerial positions 122 0.067 0.209 0.200 8.2 0.20 Years with female head of state (last 50) 17 0.197 41.8 2.00 1.00 0.00 230 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

241 0.682 / 93 ML T TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 11.1 1.15 Youth not in employment or education 9.6 1.0 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 82.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.2 4.4 1.20 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 0.0 81.3 Discouraged job seekers – – – empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.02 12.3 12.5 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 11.2 nment pr Gover 28.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.58 yes 0.1 Contributing family workers – 0.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 4.5 11.7 0.38 0.09 2.7 0.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 99.2 98.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 100.0 1.00 100.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 7.2 Out-of-school youth 0.42 17.1 2 0.66 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.92 38.4 35.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 91.9 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 92.2 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 49.0 33.9 0.69 – Firms with female top managers 0.94 Tertiary education attainment, adults 12.9 13.7 18.6 y education attainment, age 25-54 0.98 18.2 0.0 1.6 Employers – Tertiar 0.66 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 5.2 7.9 R&D personnel 28.5 71.5 0.40 0.4 0.39 PhD graduates 0.2 value male female Access to Assets 77.5 0.97 Individuals using the inter net 74.8 Hold an account at a financial institution 95.6 97.1 0.98 value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.02 0.2 0.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters 1.20 Arts and Humanities 14.0 11.7 Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 27.8 1.10 25.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.20 Education 14.5 6.6 ownership – 0.24 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.2 13.4 Mean monthly ear 0.82 1.4 1.7 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 17.0 elfar e Health and W 8.1 2.09 female male value Political Leadership 15.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.8 0.18 Year women r eceived right to vote 1947 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.76 7.4 9.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 70 Services 2.1 2.52 0.8 Number of female heads of state to date 2 9.4 7.0 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.35 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 1.5 1.5 0.98 Seats held in upper house 30.0 0.43 70.0 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.99 1 0.44 0.0 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.0 0.21 28.0 30.3 0.92 Average length of single life 1 9 , childbirth Mortality 3.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 10.3 2.82 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.46 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 4 Potential support ratio d health personnel 99.90 Births attended by skille Total dependency ratio 50 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 231 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

242 rank out of 144 countries 132 scor e M auritania 0.00 = imparity 0.614 1.00 = parity AVG MR T 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 4.63 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 3,572.28 Total population (1,000s) 4,301.02 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.77 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e 41.19 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 106 132 0.583 0.614 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.417 0.499 134 93 Educational attainment 131 0.853 103 0.818 ZJsY i 4e\YP[erPe Health and survival 107 0.970 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 106 0.037 57 0.214 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.417 134 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 65.9 0.46 ce participation 130 0.458 0.667 30.2 0.45 0.634 0.446 130 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.339 0.509 1,946 5,732 0.34 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 129 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.853 131 129 0.883 Literacy rate 0.616 57.4 0.62 35.3 77.4 1.05 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 81.1 25.1 124 Enr olment in secondary education 0.937 0.971 23.5 0.94 7.1 3.6 0.51 0.938 0.507 129 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.970 Health and survival 107 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 55.9 1.037 1.028 115 Healthy life expectancy 54.4 1.03 0.227 0.214 57 Political empowerment 0.34 0.336 60 Women in parliament 25.2 74.8 0.279 30.8 69.2 0.44 Women in ministerial positions 23 0.444 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 232 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

243 0.614 / 132 MR T TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 12.6 8.6 1.47 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes – Contributing family workers – – value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers – – – 0.84 21.9 18.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 54.6 0.84 65.3 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 3.5 27.4 0.13 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 73.9 Out-of-school youth 1.03 71.6 2 0.35 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 20.2 0.58 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 35.1 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.18 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 8.0 1.0 0.13 0.05 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 12.1 4 0.24 2.9 – – Employers – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-5 0.33 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.5 1.5 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 18.8 22.2 0.85 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.80 0.6 0.5 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 0.93 Arts and Humanities 19.5 20.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 37.1 1.35 27.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.40 Education 4.3 10.5 ownership part 0.28 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 2.6 9.3 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 0.3 elfar e Health and W 0.5 0.57 female male value Political Leadership 3.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 5.7 1.45 Year women r eceived right to vote 1961 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.98 8.5 8.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 56 Services 0.3 0.62 0.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 21.2 17.4 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.21 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 6.1 4.8 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 6.1 5.5 1.10 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 3.7 3.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.86 1 0.60 0.9 Mortality 1.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.5 0.33 21.8 29.4 0.74 Average length of single life 1 602 , childbirth Mortality – Pr oportion married by age 25 – – Legislation on domestic violence no 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.67 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 32.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 18 Potential support ratio led health personnel 65.10 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 76 Antenatal car 48.40 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 233 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

244 rank out of 144 countries  scor e 0 aXriWiXs 0.00 = imparity 0.664 1.00 = parity AVG 0US 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 12.16 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 19,548.64 Total population (1,000s) 1,262.13 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.23 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 60.34 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 88 112 0.633 0.664 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.595 0.483 113 95 Educational attainment 69 0.992 65 0.983 ZJsY i 4e\YP[P\Z Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 73 0.085 116 0.090 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.595 113 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.7 0.64 ce participation 110 0.643 0.667 51.8 0.62 0.634 0.623 78 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.471 0.509 13,547 28,781 0.47 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 118 28.9 0.320 0.407 77 Legislators, senior officials and managers 71.1 0.41 52.6 0.758 0.900 81 0.90 Pr ofessional and technical workers 47.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.992 69 88 0.883 Literacy rate 0.956 94.9 0.96 90.7 95.2 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 97.2 81.4 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 86.4 1.06 31.7 41.7 1.31 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 69.3 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 64.4 1.08 0.227 0.090 116 Political empowerment 0.13 0.131 119 Women in parliament 11.6 88.4 0.279 10.0 90.0 0.11 Women in ministerial positions 109 0.111 0.209 0.200 2.4 0.05 Years with female head of state (last 50) 40 0.050 47.6 2.00 1.00 0.00 234 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

245 0.664 / 112 MUS TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 5.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 11.3 4.8 2.36 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.71 6.6 4.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 22.5 nment pr Gover 31.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.42 yes 4.4 Contributing family workers 5.06 0.9 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 9.3 16.8 0.55 0.57 4.7 2.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.89 70.8 63.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 98.2 1.00 98.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 64.3 87.5 0.73 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 12.8 Out-of-school youth 0.67 19.1 2 0.61 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.84 47.6 39.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 60.1 1.00 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 60.0 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.20 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 34.4 15.1 0.44 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 4.6 ttainment, age 25-54 0.79 3.6 0.9 1.6 Employers 1.84 Tertiary education a 0.18 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.8 4.4 R&D personnel 29.5 70.5 0.42 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 54.7 0.84 Individuals using the inter net 45.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 80.0 84.6 0.95 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.74 1.6 1.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 3.19 Arts and Humanities 6.3 2.0 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 27.4 1.11 24.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.69 Education 37.6 22.3 ownership yes 0.21 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.7 17.9 Mean monthly ear 0.73 16.6 22.6 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 3.9 elfar e Health and W 4.7 0.82 female male value Political Leadership 14.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 5.7 0.39 Year women r eceived right to vote 1956 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.94 5.0 5.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 61 Services 3.1 1.20 2.6 Number of female heads of state to date 2 6.7 4.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.54 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local 33 Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 3.9 4.5 0.87 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.49 1 0.30 0.1 Mortality 0.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.25 23.9 29.2 0.82 Average length of single life 1 53 , childbirth Mortality 11.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 38.3 3.33 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.43 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 24.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 7 Potential support ratio ed health personnel 99.80 Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 42 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 235 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

246 rank out of 144 countries 81 scor e M exico 0.00 = imparity 0.692 1.00 = parity AVG MEX 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,046.00 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 16,831.12 Total population (1,000s) 127,540.42 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.28 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 61.25 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 75 81 0.646 0.692 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.518 0.480 124 98 Educational attainment 53 0.996 45 0.992 ZJsY i 4i_PJs Health and survival 58 0.977 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 45 0.133 34 0.276 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZxerJi xs WeYPx` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.518 124 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.1 0.59 ce participation 120 0.587 0.667 48.8 0.49 0.634 0.490 125 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.496 0.509 11,861 23,913 0.50 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 107 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.996 53 74 0.883 Literacy rate 0.978 95.5 0.98 93.5 94.7 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 95.5 66.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 68.8 1.04 29.9 30.0 1.01 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.977 Health and survival 58 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 69.1 1.037 1.051 67 Healthy life expectancy 65.7 1.05 0.227 0.276 34 Political empowerment 0.74 0.742 7 Women in parliament 42.6 57.4 0.279 15.8 84.2 0.19 Women in ministerial positions 88 0.188 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 236 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

247 0.692 / 81 MEX TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 30.5 3.55 Youth not in employment or education 8.6 5.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.9 3.9 1.02 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 30.5 69.5 Discouraged job seekers 2.28 49.4 1.15 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 56.8 Gover High-skilled shar 0.82 9.1 7.4 ce e of labour for nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 30.4 ovides child allowance nment pr Gover yes 1.90 16.0 Workers employed part-time Contributing family workers 2.09 3.5 7.2 female male value Education and Skills Own-account workers 23.0 21.9 1.05 0.63 2.9 1.8 en Out-of-school childr 580.3 606.5 Work, minutes per day 1.05 78.1 Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 80.5 3.17 .4 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 61.5 19 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 96.6 95.8 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 71.8 79.8 0.90 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 41.3 Out-of-school youth 0.95 43.3 2 0.48 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.93 34.7 32.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 5.2 94.8 0.05 61.4 0.97 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 63.6 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.35 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 23.6 16.2 0.68 0.17 Firms with female top managers 0.85 Tertiary education attainment, adults 13.6 16.1 18.7 ucation attainment, age 25-54 0.90 16.9 3.5 2.3 Employers 0.66 Tertiary ed 0.40 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 4.3 10.7 R&D personnel – – – 0.3 0.58 PhD graduates 0.2 value male female Access to Assets 60.5 0.90 Individuals using the inter net 54.6 Hold an account at a financial institution 38.8 38.5 1.01 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.51 2.6 1.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.26 Arts and Humanities 4.6 3.6 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 36.5 1.15 31.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.31 Education 17.1 7.4 ownership yes 0.35 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 12.2 35.0 Mean monthly ear 0.85 5.2 6.1 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 11.2 elfar e Health and W 6.3 1.77 female male value Political Leadership 2.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.5 0.54 Year women r eceived right to vote 1947 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.00 3.0 3.0 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 70 Services 0.7 0.47 1.5 Number of female heads of state to date 0 12.1 6.0 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.00 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 17.5 13.8 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 234.9 253.5 0.93 Seats held in upper house 28.4 0.40 71.6 1 10.9 6.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.62 1 0.33 8.9 Mortality 26.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 3.9 27.3 0.14 23.0 25.5 0.90 Average length of single life 1 38 , childbirth Mortality 35.6 Pr oportion married by age 25 49.6 1.39 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 47.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.18 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 10 Potential support ratio ended by skilled health personnel 95.60 Births att Total dependency ratio 51 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 237 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

248 rank out of 144 countries 30 scor e 0 oOGoYa 0.00 = imparity 0.740 1.00 = parity AVG 0DA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 6.75 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 4,944.34 Total population (1,000s) 4,059.61 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.18 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.92 e 62.29 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 17 30 0.713 0.740 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.811 0.760 11 2 Educational attainment 66 0.992 37 0.994 ZgsY i 4sSKs]e Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 50 0.117 72 0.176 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.811 11 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 50.1 0.89 ce participation 37 0.891 0.667 44.6 0.67 0.634 0.668 55 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.752 0.509 4,603 6,125 0.75 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 16 48.3 0.320 0.933 7 Legislators, senior officials and managers 51.7 0.93 33.4 0.758 1.000 1 2.00 Pr ofessional and technical workers 66.6 Educational attainment 0.953 0.992 66 54 0.883 Literacy rate 0.995 99.4 1.00 98.9 87.5 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 105 0.985 0.979 86.2 76.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 76.6 1.01 35.3 47.4 1.34 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.8 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 61.9 1.10 0.227 0.176 72 Political empowerment 0.29 0.295 67 Women in parliament 22.8 77.2 0.279 22.2 77.8 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 56 0.286 0.209 0.200 1.6 0.03 Years with female head of state (last 50) 46 0.032 48.4 2.00 1.00 0.00 238 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

249 0.740 / 30 MDA TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 1039 25.2 0.84 Youth not in employment or education 30.2 – 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 2.9 5.4 0.53 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 55.6 44.4 Discouraged job seekers 0.80 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.26 10.8 13.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 19.5 nment pr Gover 25.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.32 yes 7.1 Contributing family workers 3.24 2.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 25.5 38.2 0.67 1.05 9.8 10.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.4 99.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 38.4 Out-of-school youth 0.96 40.1 2 0.63 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.97 76.1 73.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.90 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.35 Firms with female top managers 1.23 Tertiary education attainment, adults 21.2 17.2 2.2 Employers 0.5 0.21 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – tiary education attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 51.7 48.3 1.07 Ter 0.2 1.37 PhD graduates 0.2 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 19.0 16.4 1.16 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.23 3.6 0.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.73 Arts and Humanities 6.8 3.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 37.8 1.13 33.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 4.11 Education 19.9 4.8 ownership yes 0.29 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 9.1 31.7 Mean monthly ear 0.87 4.2 4.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 6.6 elfar e Health and W 4.2 1.58 female male value Political Leadership 2.9 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.29 Year women r eceived right to vote 1924 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.79 2.1 2.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 93 Services 5.4 0.67 8.0 Number of female heads of state to date 2 10.8 4.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.23 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.74 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 19.2 20.2 0.95 Seats held in upper house 23.8 0.31 76.2 1 0.4 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.37 1 0.23 0.3 Mortality 1.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.7 0.23 21.9 25.7 0.85 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 27.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 61.5 2.22 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 25.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.24 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 11.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 7 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 35 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 239 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

250 rank out of 144 countries 53 scor e M onJolia 0.00 = imparity 0.13 1.00 = parity AVG MNG 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 11.16 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 11,328.48 Total population (1,000s) 3,027.40 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.63 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 64.35 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 42 53 0.682 0.713 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.776 0.704 20 21 Educational attainment 65 0.993 20 0.999 ZJsY i 4srksSPe Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 101 0.046 107 0.102 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.776 20 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 72.0 0.84 ce participation 58 0.835 0.667 60.1 0.72 0.634 0.718 31 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.742 0.509 10,429 14,049 0.74 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 17 40.6 0.320 0.683 21 Legislators, senior officials and managers 59.4 0.68 36.8 0.758 1.000 1 1.72 Pr ofessional and technical workers 63.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.993 65 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 98.2 1.00 98.3 97.3 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 106 0.984 0.979 95.7 77.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 86.1 1.11 57.7 79.7 1.38 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 65.7 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 58.8 1.12 0.227 0.102 107 Political empowerment 0.21 0.206 96 Women in parliament 17.1 82.9 0.279 13.3 86.7 0.15 Women in ministerial positions 98 0.154 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 65 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 240 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

251 0.13 / 3 0NG TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 19.8 1.42 Youth not in employment or education 14.0 – 120.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.7 8.2 0.82 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 66.6 33.4 Discouraged job seekers 0.50 33.1 0.81 – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 26.9 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.32 13.3 17.5 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 12.7 nment pr Gover 14.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.14 yes 4.6 Contributing family workers 3.27 1.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 40.0 47.4 0.84 1.62 2.1 3.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 95.4 95.6 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 97.1 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.03 94.6 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 86.2 94.9 0.91 Economic Le adership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.53 28.8 15.2 2 0.68 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.12 63.8 71.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 93.2 86.1 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.08 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.61 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 68.7 46.3 0.67 0.55 Firms with female top managers 20.5 Tertiary education attainment, adults 26.8 1.31 34.4 20.3 1.70 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 1.0 1.4 0.70 Tertiary ed 0.61 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 20.7 34.0 R&D personnel – – – 0.3 0.66 0.2 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 90.3 Hold an account at a financial institution 93.2 1.03 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.93 2.3 2.1 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.59 Arts and Humanities 10.2 6.4 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 29.6 0.99 30.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.52 Education 20.6 8.2 yes ownership 0.40 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 8.4 20.9 0.89 .) 760.7 856.0 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 11.4 elfar e Health and W 4.0 2.84 female male value Political Leadership 5.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.6 0.30 Year women r eceived right to vote 1924 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.59 2.4 4.0 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 93 Services 1.4 0.16 9.1 Number of female heads of state to date 1 11.4 9.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.18 Election list quotas for women, national 20 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 20 Health 1 , childr 1.0 0.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.66 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 6.7 8.5 0.79 Seats held in upper house 20.7 0.26 79.3 1 0.6 0.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.50 1 0.29 0.3 Mortality 1.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.9 0.20 24.2 26.2 0.92 Average length of single life 1 44 , childbirth Mortality 28.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 42.4 1.50 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.76 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 22.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 17 Potential support ratio ed health personnel 98.90 Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 50 Antenatal car 89.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 241 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

252 rank out of 144 countries 77 scor e o 0 ontenegr 0.00 = imparity 0.3 1.00 = parity AVG 0NE distribution of countries by scor e 0.40 1.00 SCORE A T GLANCE KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 4.17 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 15,658.11 Total population (1,000s) 628.62 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.06 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e – Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 77 0.693 – Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.653 – – 88 Educational attainment 0.988 – – 83 4sr[irikY ZgsY i s Health and survival – 75 – 0.974 e]iYeki ZgsY i Political empowerment 0.157 – – 79 rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T TeSi MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.585 0.653 88 Economic participation and opportunity Labour for 0.79 ce participation 76 0.793 0.667 51.6 65.0 0.66 0.634 0.661 61 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.509 12,293 21,539 0.57 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 92 0.571 77.9 22.1 0.320 0.284 96 Legislators, senior officials and managers 0.28 1.26 44.2 55.8 0.758 1.000 1 Pr ofessional and technical workers 83 Educational attainment 0.953 0.988 71 97.5 Literacy rate 0.883 0.98 0.981 99.4 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 101 0.988 0.979 92.3 93.4 0.93 0.988 Enr olment in secondary education 106 0.971 48.3 51.7 49.2 1.26 Enr olment in tertiary education 1 1.000 0.938 61.8 Health and survival 0.956 0.974 75 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 0.94 66.5 69.4 1.037 1.044 83 Healthy life expectancy 1.04 Political empowerment 0.227 0.157 79 65 0.279 Women in parliament 0.306 76.5 0.31 23.5 80.0 0.25 Women in ministerial positions 68 0.250 0.209 20.0 0.200 50.0 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 0.0 0.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 242 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

253 0.69 / 77 0NE TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 365 7.6 0.85 Youth not in employment or education 8.9 – 45.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 17.1 18.3 0.94 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov – 0.0 Discouraged job seekers – – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.94 12.9 12.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 6.2 nment pr Gover 12.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.98 yes 3.3 Contributing family workers 1.80 1.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 6.1 12.0 0.51 1.18 5.8 6.9 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 99.1 96.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.61 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.81 80.4 65.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.31 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.24 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 1.8 Employers 6.0 3.32 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – inment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 48.3 51.7 0.94 Tertiary education atta – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 57.9 61.9 0.94 value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership – – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.84 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 3.0 3.0 1.02 Seats held in upper house 15.4 0.18 84.6 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.46 1 0.42 0.0 Mortality 0.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.1 0.44 26.3 29.7 0.89 Average length of single life 1 7 , childbirth Mortality 5.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 22.6 4.11 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.67 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio d health personnel 99.00 Births attended by skille Total dependency ratio 48 Antenatal car 86.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 243 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

254 rank out of 144 countries 136 scor e M or occo 0.00 = imparity 0.598 1.00 = parity AVG MAR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 101.45 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 7,265.85 Total population (1,000s) 35,276.79 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.33 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 49.47 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 107 136 0.583 0.598 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.391 0.461 137 102 Educational attainment 122 0.920 99 0.848 ZJsY L 4sY sJJs Health and survival 128 0.965 90 0.968 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 92 0.053 100 0.117 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.391 137 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 78.7 0.34 ce participation 137 0.341 0.667 26.9 0.57 0.634 0.569 102 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.264 0.509 3,295 12,471 0.26 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 135 12.8 0.320 0.147 115 Legislators, senior officials and managers 87.2 0.15 64.4 0.758 0.554 108 0.55 Pr ofessional and technical workers 35.6 Educational attainment 0.953 0.920 122 120 0.883 Literacy rate 0.736 80.4 0.74 59.1 98.6 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 75 0.997 0.979 98.3 59.0 128 Enr olment in secondary education 0.899 0.971 53.1 0.90 28.7 27.5 0.96 0.938 0.958 99 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.965 Health and survival 128 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 65.6 1.037 1.013 133 Healthy life expectancy 64.7 1.01 0.227 0.117 100 Political empowerment 0.26 0.258 76 Women in parliament 20.5 79.5 0.279 13.0 87.0 0.15 Women in ministerial positions 100 0.150 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 244 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

255 0.598 / 136 MAR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 3.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 67.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 10.3 9.5 1.08 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.50 5.5 2.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 7.9 nment pr Gover 38.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 4.81 yes 47.3 Contributing family workers 3.80 12.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 16.5 33.6 0.49 1.24 1.0 1.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 60.3 0.74 81.2 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 13.3 40.3 0.33 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 47.7 Out-of-school youth 1.33 35.9 2 0.55 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 36.5 0.73 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 50.4 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.46 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 21.5 5.4 0.25 0.04 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 12.7 4 0.78 10.0 12.5 0.8 Employers 0.06 Tertiary education attainment, age 25-5 0.16 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.7 4.7 R&D personnel 25.3 74.7 0.34 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 62.8 0.82 Individuals using the inter net 51.4 Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.58 1.8 1.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.22 Arts and Humanities 14.5 11.9 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 31.8 1.57 20.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.28 Education 2.8 9.8 ownership yes 0.40 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.2 17.8 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.3 elfar e Health and W 3.3 2.53 female male value Political Leadership 16.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 14.9 0.90 Year women r eceived right to vote 1959 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.00 6.7 6.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 58 Services 0.3 0.07 3.9 Number of female heads of state to date 0 7.8 7.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.08 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 11.2 8.6 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 79.0 71.0 1.11 Seats held in upper house 10.6 0.12 89.4 1 4.9 3.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.68 1 0.54 3.9 Mortality 7.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.7 1.5 0.45 26.3 31.2 0.84 Average length of single life 1 121 , childbirth Mortality 6.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 41.0 6.31 Legislation on domestic violence no 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.49 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 10 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 73.60 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car 55.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 245 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

256 rank out of 144 countries 29 scor e M ozambique 0.00 = imparity 0.741 1.00 = parity AVG MOZ 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 11.01 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,128.28 Total population (1,000s) 28,829.48 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.88 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e 50.18 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 29 – 0.741 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.789 – 17 – Educational attainment 130 0.857 – – ZJsY i 4saeqImu\i Health and survival 56 0.977 – – i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 24 0.340 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` Mq MiqeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero qeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.789 17 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 75.5 1.10 ce participation 1 1.000 0.667 83.4 0.61 0.634 0.607 84 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.852 0.509 1,122 1,317 0.85 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 7 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.857 130 132 0.883 Literacy rate 0.541 67.4 0.54 36.5 91.4 0.95 Enr olment in primary education 116 0.950 0.979 86.8 18.5 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 18.8 1.02 7.4 5.4 0.73 0.938 0.730 116 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.977 Health and survival 56 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 50.8 1.037 1.051 65 Healthy life expectancy 48.3 1.05 0.227 0.340 24 Political empowerment 0.66 0.656 13 Women in parliament 39.6 60.4 0.279 23.8 76.2 0.31 Women in ministerial positions 46 0.313 0.209 0.200 5.9 0.13 Years with female head of state (last 50) 21 0.134 44.1 2.00 1.00 0.00 246 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

257 0.741 / 29 MOZ TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 12.5 1.69 Youth not in employment or education 7.4 1.0 60.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 26.8 23.5 1.14 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.55 0.8 0.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 56.8 Contributing family workers 4.46 12.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 39.1 65.4 0.60 1.53 8.6 13.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.45 28.4 12.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 68.5 0.80 86.2 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 20.4 59.4 0.34 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 74.0 Out-of-school youth 1.11 66.3 2 0.57 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.45 6.7 3.0 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 11.7 0.45 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 26.1 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.32 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 3.8 0.7 0.17 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 1.4 inment, age 25-54 0.70 1.0 12.7 1.1 Employers 0.09 Tertiary education atta 0.25 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.1 0.3 R&D personnel 30.0 70.0 0.43 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.94 2.3 2.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.98 Arts and Humanities 2.8 2.8 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 38.7 1.39 27.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.79 Education 26.3 33.3 ownership part 0.32 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.1 9.7 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 7.6 elfar e Health and W 5.2 1.46 female male value Political Leadership 1.8 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.7 0.39 Year women r eceived right to vote 1975 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.40 1.1 2.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 42 Services 1.6 0.37 4.3 Number of female heads of state to date 1 14.5 10.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.42 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 44.1 38.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.87 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 49.1 41.4 1.19 Seats held in upper house 26.5 0.36 73.5 1 61.0 50.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.82 1 0.63 8.9 Mortality 14.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.9 2.3 0.37 18.9 23.5 0.80 Average length of single life 1 489 , childbirth Mortality 55.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 84.7 1.53 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 32.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 5.24 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 29.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 16 Potential support ratio nded by skilled health personnel 54.30 Births atte Total dependency ratio 93 Antenatal car 50.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 247 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

258 rank out of 144 countries 83 scor e M yanmar 0.00 = imparity 0.691 1.00 = parity MMR AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 67.43 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 5,351.55 52,885.22 Total population (1,000s) Education 0.91 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e Human Capital Index scor 57.67 Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 83 – 0.691 Health Economic participation and opportunity 26 – – 0.754 Educational attainment 95 – – 0.975 ZJsY L 4`erTeY Health and survival 66 0.976 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 132 0.059 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KmZ[erJL [s WeYm[` M3T ZJsY L e]k MLTeSL TeSL Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.754 26 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 79.3 83.8 0.95 Labour for ce participation 14 0.946 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.688 0.509 4,727 6,869 0.69 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 33 28.4 0.320 0.396 79 Legislators, senior officials and managers 71.6 0.40 47.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.12 Pr ofessional and technical workers 52.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.975 95 100 0.883 Literacy rate 0.898 80.0 0.90 71.8 88.2 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 99 0.989 0.979 87.3 47.9 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 48.6 1.02 12.1 14.9 1.23 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 66 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 60.5 1.037 1.049 76 Healthy life expectancy 57.7 1.05 0.227 0.059 132 Political empowerment 0.11 0.113 125 Women in parliament 10.2 89.8 0.279 5.0 95.0 0.05 Women in ministerial positions 130 0.053 0.209 0.200 1.2 0.03 Years with female head of state (last 50) 50 0.025 48.8 2.00 1.00 0.00 248 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

259 0.691 / 83 MMR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 25.2 2.25 Youth not in employment or education 11.2 15.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 70.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 0.9 0.7 1.34 70.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 40.5 59.5 Discouraged job seekers 1.47 82.4 1.00 gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 82.7 High-skilled shar e of labour for 2.20 0.1 0.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 7.5 nment pr Gover 11.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.55 no 34.5 Contributing family workers 2.43 14.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 26.4 41.0 0.64 1.08 11.8 12.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 85.2 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.94 90.2 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 61.0 81.0 0.75 Economic Lea dership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.95 62.8 59.7 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 44.6 49.1 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.91 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.54 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 26.2 12.7 0.48 0.70 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 11.3 7.8 1.45 5-54 Employers 1.8 14.2 0.13 Tertiary education attainment, age 2 0.46 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.6 3.5 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 28.6 Hold an account at a financial institution 17.1 0.60 value male female s access to financial services Women’ part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.58 0.7 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.92 Arts and Humanities 33.3 36.4 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 5.5 0.83 6.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.24 Education 2.8 1.3 part ownership 1.00 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.9 3.9 0.73 .) 0.1 0.1 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 1.6 elfar e Health and W 0.7 2.29 female male value Political Leadership 17.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 14.9 0.87 Year women r eceived right to vote 1935 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.11 28.6 25.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 82 Services 0.4 0.77 0.5 Number of female heads of state to date 1 8.8 7.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.24 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 25.7 20.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 153.2 141.7 1.08 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 35.6 23.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.66 1 0.56 11.1 Mortality 19.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.4 3.4 0.42 23.6 26.1 0.90 Average length of single life 1 178 , childbirth Mortality 31.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 45.4 1.43 Legislation on domestic violence no 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.21 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 25.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 12 Potential support ratio nded by skilled health personnel – Births atte Total dependency ratio 49 Antenatal car 73.40 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 249 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

260 rank out of 144 countries 13 scor e N amibia 0.00 = imparity 0.777 1.00 = parity AVG NAM 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 10.27 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 9,812.41 Total population (1,000s) 2,479.71 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.18 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e 55.86 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 38 13 0.686 0.777 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.813 0.614 9 57 Educational attainment 41 0.999 43 0.993 ZJsY i ReTmIme Health and survival 1 0.980 93 0.967 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 29 0.172 26 0.318 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.813 9 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 65.0 0.89 ce participation 38 0.891 0.667 57.9 0.66 0.634 0.657 64 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.878 0.509 9,915 11,293 0.88 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 4 44.0 0.320 0.785 13 Legislators, senior officials and managers 56.0 0.78 43.4 0.758 1.000 1 1.30 Pr ofessional and technical workers 56.6 Educational attainment 0.953 0.999 41 58 0.883 Literacy rate 0.992 88.6 0.99 88.0 88.5 1.03 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 91.0 45.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 57.5 1.27 8.2 10.4 1.28 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 59.2 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 55.6 1.07 0.227 0.318 26 Political empowerment 0.70 0.705 11 Women in parliament 41.3 58.7 0.279 24.0 76.0 0.32 Women in ministerial positions 44 0.316 0.209 0.200 2.3 0.05 Years with female head of state (last 50) 41 0.048 47.7 2.00 1.00 0.00 250 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

261 0.777 / 13 NA0 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 33.1 1.19 Youth not in employment or education 27.8 – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 20.2 16.7 1.21 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 36.8 63.2 Discouraged job seekers 1.72 60.3 1.03 – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 61.9 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.11 5.7 6.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 11.9 nment pr Gover 18.3 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.54 no 5.0 Contributing family workers 1.84 2.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 26.9 15.9 1.69 0.72 10.8 7.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.98 50.7 49.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Economic Le adership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 1.12 36.7 41.0 2 0.63 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.86 19.0 16.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 30.5 28.8 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.06 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.69 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 18.6 13.1 0.70 0.38 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 6.1 5.0 1.20 ion attainment, age 25-54 Employers 3.1 2.7 1.13 Tertiary educat 0.65 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 3.8 5.8 R&D personnel 39.9 60.1 0.67 – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 60.3 Hold an account at a financial institution 56.0 0.93 value male female s access to financial services Women’ part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.59 9.9 5.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.68 Arts and Humanities 3.1 4.6 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 29.7 0.91 32.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.26 Education 50.4 39.9 part ownership 0.11 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 0.5 5.1 0.97 .) 6.8 7.0 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 4.1 elfar e Health and W 4.1 0.99 female male value Political Leadership 1.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.3 0.26 Year women r eceived right to vote 1989 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.63 2.5 3.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 28 Services 3.4 2.94 1.2 Number of female heads of state to date 1 2.9 2.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.17 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.8 1.5 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 3.5 3.1 1.12 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 2.9 2.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.81 1 0.43 0.3 Mortality 0.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.4 0.29 27.9 33.3 0.84 Average length of single life 1 265 , childbirth Mortality 10.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 22.1 2.21 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 36.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.42 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 21.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 17 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 88.20 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 68 Antenatal car 62.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 251 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

262 rank out of 144 countries 111 scor e N epal 0.00 = imparity 0.664 1.00 = parity AVG NPL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 21.14 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 2,287.72 Total population (1,000s) 28,982.77 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.12 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.94 e 55.92 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 111 111 0.548 0.664 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.599 0.465 110 100 Educational attainment 116 0.936 109 0.734 ZJsY L RLWep Health and survival 116 0.969 111 0.953 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 102 0.039 80 0.155 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTepL e]k ZJsY L Yero TepL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.599 110 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 88.4 0.94 ce participation 16 0.941 0.667 83.2 0.58 0.634 0.584 98 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.654 0.509 1,963 3,003 0.65 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 50 18.8 0.320 0.232 101 Legislators, senior officials and managers 81.2 0.23 70.2 0.758 0.424 115 0.42 Pr ofessional and technical workers 29.8 Educational attainment 0.953 0.936 116 123 0.883 Literacy rate 0.681 71.7 0.68 48.8 97.3 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 94 0.992 0.979 96.6 53.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 55.7 1.05 14.8 15.1 1.02 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 116 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 129 0.939 0.920 62.3 1.037 1.036 99 Healthy life expectancy 60.1 1.04 0.227 0.155 80 Political empowerment 0.42 0.420 43 Women in parliament 29.6 70.4 0.279 3.7 96.3 0.04 Women in ministerial positions 136 0.038 0.209 0.200 1.7 0.03 Years with female head of state (last 50) 44 0.035 48.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 252 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

263 0.664 / 111 NPL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 24.4 1.10 Youth not in employment or education 22.2 – 52.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.4 2.6 1.31 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – 98.8 1.01 – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 99.4 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.52 7.9 4.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 17.1 nment pr Gover 26.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.57 no 63.9 Contributing family workers 2.76 23.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 26.3 43.8 0.60 1.29 2.5 3.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.92 90.3 82.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 46.4 0.58 80.6 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 3.9 30.2 0.13 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 20.7 Out-of-school youth 0.62 33.2 2 0.53 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.81 38.0 30.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 26.3 0.47 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 55.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.28 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 12.5 1.6 0.13 0.21 Firms with female top managers 0.58 Tertiary education attainment, adults 6.7 11.5 13.3 tion attainment, age 25-54 0.32 4.3 23.2 0.3 Employers 0.01 Tertiary educa 0.05 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.1 2.7 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 31.3 36.7 0.85 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 0.67 5.2 7.7 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1951 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 66 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national 33 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 40 Health 1 , childr 11.2 9.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.84 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 59.1 62.3 0.95 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 12.5 9.9 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.79 1 0.61 7.4 Mortality 12.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.0 1.6 0.64 20.6 23.8 0.87 Average length of single life 1 258 , childbirth Mortality 42.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 72.7 1.72 Legislation on domestic violence yes 26 Mean age of women at birth of first child 28.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.12 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 28.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 11 Potential support ratio ed by skilled health personnel 55.60 Births attend Total dependency ratio 60 Antenatal car 59.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 253 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

264 rank out of 144 countries 32 scor e N etherlands 0.00 = imparity 0.737 1.00 = parity AVG NLD 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 770.85 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 47,128.31 Total population (1,000s) 16,987.33 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.29 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 73.07 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 12 32 0.725 0.737 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.657 0.635 82 51 Educational attainment 1 1.000 73 0.972 ZJsY L RL[lLYSerhZ Health and survival 108 0.970 67 0.974 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 10 0.319 25 0.323 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJL [s teYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.657 82 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 84.6 0.88 ce participation 47 0.876 0.667 74.2 0.68 0.634 0.676 50 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.480 0.509 33,090 68,898 0.48 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 115 25.4 0.320 0.341 87 Legislators, senior officials and managers 74.6 0.34 51.1 0.758 0.956 73 0.96 Pr ofessional and technical workers 48.9 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 98.1 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.5 89.9 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 90.9 1.01 74.7 82.5 1.10 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.970 Health and survival 108 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.2 1.037 1.028 116 Healthy life expectancy 71.2 1.03 0.227 0.323 25 Political empowerment 0.56 0.563 26 Women in parliament 36.0 64.0 0.279 37.5 62.5 0.60 Women in ministerial positions 15 0.600 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 254 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

265 0.737 / 32 NLD TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 4.7 1.01 Youth not in employment or education 4.6 2.0 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.5 5.6 1.17 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 44.4 55.6 Discouraged job seekers 1.25 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.95 17.9 16.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 28.8 nment pr Gover 62.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.16 yes 0.7 Contributing family workers 3.20 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 10.3 14.1 0.73 0.72 1.6 1.1 en Out-of-school childr 0.94 486.8 Work, minutes per day 459.7 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 98.6 98.3 2.03 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 55.3 27.3 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Ec onomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 1.07 3.2 3.4 2 0.74 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.89 73.8 65.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 28.0 72.0 0.39 91.6 91.6 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 82.3 74.2 0.90 – Firms with female top managers 31.3 Tertiary education attainment, adults 26.6 0.85 27.8 27.8 1.00 education attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.3 0.2 10.21 Tertiary 0.58 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 13.6 23.5 R&D personnel 27.5 72.5 0.38 0.8 0.35 0.3 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 93.5 92.7 net 1.01 99.4 Hold an account at a financial institution 99.2 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.92 1.5 1.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.04 Arts and Humanities 8.8 8.4 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 21.6 0.67 32.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.85 Education 15.7 5.5 yes ownership 0.24 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.5 14.2 0.58 .) 1.6 2.8 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 24.4 elfar e Health and W 11.0 2.21 female male value Political Leadership 6.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.0 0.15 Year women r eceived right to vote 1919 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.53 1.8 3.5 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 98 Services 4.7 1.01 4.7 Number of female heads of state to date 0 15.4 9.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.67 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.4 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 67.5 62.8 1.07 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 1.2 1.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.12 1 1.18 2.8 Mortality 2.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.7 1.4 0.51 26.2 28.7 0.91 Average length of single life 1 7 , childbirth Mortality 12.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 27.2 2.13 Legislation on domestic violence no 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 25.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.74 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 54 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 255 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

266 rank out of 144 countries 9 scor e N ew Zealand 0.00 = imparity 0.791 1.00 = parity AVG NZL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 185.02 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 35,269.10 Total population (1,000s) 4,660.83 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.98 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 74.14 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 7 9 0.751 0.791 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.768 0.714 23 14 Educational attainment 43 0.998 17 0.999 wJsY L RL^ ALeSerK Health and survival 115 0.969 69 0.973 L e]LYekL wJsY Political empowerment 11 0.317 12 0.430 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPw[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k wJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.768 23 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.3 0.89 ce participation 42 0.885 0.667 73.7 0.75 0.634 0.755 22 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.621 0.509 30,050 48,370 0.62 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 66 40.0 0.320 0.665 22 Legislators, senior officials and managers 60.0 0.67 44.5 0.758 1.000 1 1.25 Pr ofessional and technical workers 55.5 Educational attainment 0.953 0.998 43 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 99.3 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 79 0.996 0.979 98.9 96.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 97.7 1.02 71.6 96.7 1.35 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 115 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 72.4 1.037 1.025 126 Healthy life expectancy 70.7 1.02 0.227 0.430 12 Political empowerment 0.52 0.519 32 Women in parliament 34.2 65.8 0.279 37.0 63.0 0.59 Women in ministerial positions 16 0.588 0.209 0.200 11.0 0.28 Years with female head of state (last 50) 12 0.281 39.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 256 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

267 0.791 / 9 NZL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 13.3 1.40 Youth not in employment or education 9.4 0.0 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 47.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.5 4.8 1.15 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 34.0 47.0 Discouraged job seekers 1.38 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.14 14.9 16.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 22.1 nment pr Gover 43.5 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.97 yes 1.0 Contributing family workers 1.30 0.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 9.3 13.1 0.71 1.56 0.7 1.0 en Out-of-school childr 0.98 479.0 Work, minutes per day 469.0 Primary education attainment, adults – – – 1.91 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 56.3 29.4 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Ec onomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.21 3.9 0.8 2 0.79 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.94 71.8 67.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 22.5 77.5 0.29 99.8 99.4 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 82.1 79.5 0.97 – Firms with female top managers 24.0 Tertiary education attainment, adults 27.9 1.16 31.9 27.2 1.17 attainment, age 25-54 Employers 4.0 0.8 5.14 Tertiary education 1.05 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 25.7 24.6 R&D personnel – – – 1.0 0.71 0.7 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 82.2 81.2 net 1.01 99.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 99.2 0.99 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.21 1.6 2.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.21 Arts and Humanities 12.1 10.0 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 21.6 0.80 27.1 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.54 Education 14.2 4.0 yes ownership 0.30 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.7 12.7 0.70 .) 3.8 5.4 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 20.5 elfar e Health and W 6.9 2.96 female male value Political Leadership 11.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.6 0.22 Year women r eceived right to vote 1893 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.89 5.9 6.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 124 Services 3.2 0.55 5.7 Number of female heads of state to date 2 10.5 6.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.55 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 14.0 13.3 1.05 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.1 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.24 1 0.72 0.5 Mortality 0.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.5 0.38 30.5 32.0 0.95 Average length of single life 1 11 , childbirth Mortality 5.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 10.0 1.97 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 33.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.99 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 96.60 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 53 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 257 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

268 rank out of 144 countries  scor e N icaragXa 0.00 = imparity 0.4 1.00 = parity AVG NIC 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 13.23 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 5,136.84 Total population (1,000s) 6,149.93 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.10 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.97 e 53.11 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 62 6 0.657 0.814 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.702 0.463 54 101 Educational attainment 34 1.000 40 0.994 ZgsY i RPgeYek\e Health and survival 1 0.980 50 0.978 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 25 0.192 2 0.576 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.702 54 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 83.0 0.63 ce participation 115 0.631 0.667 52.4 0.55 0.634 0.551 111 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.816 0.509 4,986 6,112 0.82 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 10 41.0 0.320 0.695 19 Legislators, senior officials and managers 59.0 0.69 48.7 0.758 1.000 1 1.05 Pr ofessional and technical workers 51.3 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 34 50 0.883 Literacy rate 0.998 78.1 1.00 77.9 95.9 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.0 45.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 53.0 1.17 – – – – – – Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.1 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 60.4 1.11 0.227 0.576 2 Political empowerment 0.84 0.840 5 Women in parliament 45.7 54.3 0.279 52.9 47.1 1.13 Women in ministerial positions 1 1.000 0.209 0.200 6.7 0.16 Years with female head of state (last 50) 19 0.155 43.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 258 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

269 0.1 / 6 N,C TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 5.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.5 5.1 1.06 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 63.8 36.2 Discouraged job seekers 0.57 – – empl dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.22 4.4 5.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 9.2 Contributing family workers 0.92 10.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 38.3 25.6 1.50 0.10 2.8 0.3 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 100.0 1.00 100.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 31.7 Out-of-school youth 0.85 37.1 2 0.56 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 61.4 1.08 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 56.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.56 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 27.8 23.8 0.86 0.37 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 16.6 25-54 1.20 19.8 10.0 2.6 Employers 0.26 Tertiary education attainment, age 0.71 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 8.0 11.4 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 14.1 23.9 0.59 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership yes – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 1.28 14.0 10.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1950 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 67 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 1.5 1.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.76 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 10.5 11.3 0.93 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.7 0.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.58 1 0.31 0.5 Mortality 1.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.3 1.2 0.21 20.6 24.4 0.84 Average length of single life 1 150 , childbirth Mortality 42.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 63.6 1.51 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child 29.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.20 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 11.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 12 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 88.00 Births attended Total dependency ratio 53 Antenatal car 87.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 259 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

270 rank out of 144 countries 122 scor e N igeria 0.00 = imparity 0.641 1.00 = parity AVG NGA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 405.08 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 5,438.92 Total population (1,000s) 185,989.64 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.61 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.03 e 51.06 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 94 122 0.610 0.641 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.728 0.612 37 59 Educational attainment 135 0.813 104 0.816 ZgsY i RPkiYPe Health and survival 94 0.972 99 0.966 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 99 0.049 135 0.052 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.728 37 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 64.2 0.76 ce participation 85 0.760 0.667 48.8 0.76 0.634 0.763 17 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.651 0.509 4,612 7,089 0.65 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 53 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.813 135 124 0.883 Literacy rate 0.676 61.3 0.68 41.4 69.3 0.84 Enr olment in primary education 129 0.837 0.979 58.1 53.2 125 Enr olment in secondary education 0.932 0.971 46.8 0.88 11.8 8.3 0.71 0.938 0.705 119 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.972 Health and survival 94 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 48.5 1.037 1.034 103 Healthy life expectancy 46.9 1.03 0.227 0.052 135 Political empowerment 0.06 0.059 139 Women in parliament 5.6 94.4 0.279 12.0 88.0 0.14 Women in ministerial positions 103 0.136 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 260 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

271 0.641 / 122 NGA TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 50.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.1 3.6 1.40 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 8.9 nment pr Gover 14.1 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.59 no – Contributing family workers – – value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers – – – 1.39 28.9 40.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 65.8 0.80 82.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 18.4 45.9 0.40 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.62 oles Advancement of women to leadership r – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 48.5 0.76 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 64.1 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.19 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 19.1 6.6 0.35 0.16 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – .7 0.52 Employers – – – 19 10.3 Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 2.2 8.0 0.28 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ R&D personnel 26.6 73.4 0.36 PhD graduates – – – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 33.6 54.3 0.62 value male female Women’ s access to financial services no Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 0.86 391.0 453.4 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1958 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 59 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 413.9 345.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.83 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 296.4 262.8 1.13 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 457.8 353.8 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.77 1 0.62 55.6 Mortality 90.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 12.6 32.2 0.39 21.3 28.6 0.74 Average length of single life 1 814 , childbirth Mortality 15.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 67.0 4.41 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 18.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 5.53 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 19.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 19 Potential support ratio irths attended by skilled health personnel 35.20 B Total dependency ratio 88 Antenatal car 51.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 261 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

272 rank out of 144 countries 2 scor e N orway 0.00 = imparity 0.830 1.00 = parity AVG NOR 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 370.56 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 63,810.79 Total population (1,000s) 5,254.69 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.01 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e 77.12 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 2 2 0.799 0.830 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.816 0.729 8 11 Educational attainment 38 0.999 15 1.000 wJsY L RsY^e` Health and survival 80 0.973 61 0.975 L e]LYekL wJsY Political empowerment 2 0.494 4 0.530 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPw[erJL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k wJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.816 8 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.3 0.95 ce participation 13 0.948 0.667 76.2 0.78 0.634 0.777 14 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.789 0.509 52,272 66,219 0.79 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 12 37.9 0.320 0.610 32 Legislators, senior officials and managers 62.1 0.61 47.7 0.758 1.000 1 1.10 Pr ofessional and technical workers 52.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.999 38 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 99.9 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 72 0.998 0.979 99.7 95.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 95.9 1.01 62.8 91.5 1.46 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.973 Health and survival 80 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.4 1.037 1.040 90 Healthy life expectancy 70.6 1.04 0.227 0.530 4 Political empowerment 0.66 0.657 12 Women in parliament 39.6 60.4 0.279 38.9 61.1 0.64 Women in ministerial positions 12 0.636 0.209 0.200 13.8 0.38 Years with female head of state (last 50) 6 0.382 36.2 2.00 1.00 0.00 262 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

273 0.0 /  NO5 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 343 4.7 0.89 Youth not in employment or education 5.3 – – nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater – Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 3.9 5.4 0.73 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 49.0 50.9 Discouraged job seekers 1.04 – – – – nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.15 19.9 22.8 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 31.0 nment pr Gover 46.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.51 yes 0.2 Contributing family workers 1.11 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 3.5 6.3 0.55 3.61 0.1 0.3 en Out-of-school childr 0.97 454.2 Work, minutes per day 439.8 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.7 99.6 1.34 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 48.1 35.8 99.9 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.6 99.6 1.00 Econ omic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.89 9.2 8.1 2 0.85 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.98 78.1 76.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 41.0 59.0 0.69 99.8 99.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 99.5 99.4 1.00 – Firms with female top managers 22.4 Tertiary education attainment, adults 30.8 1.38 40.9 31.1 1.32 cation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 0.9 0.2 5.40 Tertiary edu 0.73 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 17.5 24.1 R&D personnel – – – 1.2 0.64 0.7 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 96.7 96.9 net 1.00 100.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 100.0 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.30 0.7 0.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.01 Arts and Humanities 8.6 8.5 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 15.1 0.90 16.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.02 Education 20.8 10.3 yes ownership 0.20 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.8 24.4 0.88 .) 41.4 47.2 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 28.6 elfar e Health and W 8.3 3.46 female male value Political Leadership 6.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.14 Year women r eceived right to vote 1913 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.87 4.7 5.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 104 Services 3.7 0.45 8.3 Number of female heads of state to date 3 11.9 10.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.12 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local 40 Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.75 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 18.0 16.6 1.09 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.3 0.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.30 1 0.95 0.8 Mortality 0.9 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.4 0.47 31.8 33.8 0.94 Average length of single life 1 5 , childbirth Mortality 1.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 5.6 2.93 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 27.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.82 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel 99.10 Births attended by Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 263 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

274 rank out of 144 countries 143 scor e P akistan 0.00 = imparity 0.546 1.00 = parity AVG PAK 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 283.66 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 4,866.16 Total population (1,000s) 193,203.48 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.98 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.06 e 46.34 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 112 143 0.543 0.546 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.309 0.369 143 112 Educational attainment 136 0.802 110 0.706 ZJsY i TeoPZ[er Health and survival 140 0.948 112 0.951 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 37 0.148 95 0.127 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.309 143 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 85.7 0.30 ce participation 139 0.300 0.667 25.7 0.55 0.634 0.546 115 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.185 0.509 1,610 8,695 0.19 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 139 3.0 0.320 0.031 125 Legislators, senior officials and managers 97.0 0.03 77.9 0.758 0.284 122 0.28 Pr ofessional and technical workers 22.1 Educational attainment 0.953 0.802 136 127 0.883 Literacy rate 0.641 69.1 0.64 44.3 79.4 0.86 Enr olment in primary education 127 0.855 0.979 67.9 48.8 134 Enr olment in secondary education 0.793 0.971 38.7 0.79 10.6 9.2 0.87 0.938 0.872 106 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.948 Health and survival 140 0.956 0.92 Sex ratio at birth 139 0.920 0.920 58.1 1.037 1.011 137 Healthy life expectancy 57.5 1.01 0.227 0.127 95 Political empowerment 0.26 0.259 75 Women in parliament 20.6 79.4 0.279 0.0 100.0 0.00 Women in ministerial positions 139 0.000 0.209 0.200 4.7 0.10 Years with female head of state (last 50) 28 0.104 45.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 264 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

275 0.546 / 143 PAK TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 9.0 5.0 1.80 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 57.1 42.9 Discouraged job seekers 0.75 71.0 1.03 – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 73.2 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.31 6.9 2.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 3.7 nment pr Gover 28.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 7.83 no 54.7 Contributing family workers 3.65 15.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 20.4 40.5 0.50 1.56 20.6 32.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.58 62.5 36.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 49.1 0.68 71.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 13.3 45.6 0.29 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 68.1 Out-of-school youth 1.17 58.1 2 0.53 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.61 34.2 21.0 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 34.7 0.64 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 54.3 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.13 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 28.8 8.1 0.28 0.06 Firms with female top managers 0.54 Tertiary education attainment, adults 6.1 11.3 12.6 ucation attainment, age 25-54 0.59 7.4 15.0 0.1 Employers 0.01 Tertiary ed 0.20 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.4 6.9 R&D personnel 22.5 77.5 0.29 1.0 0.06 PhD graduates 0.1 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 3.0 14.2 0.21 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 0.61 9.7 15.8 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1956 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 61 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 233.2 195.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.84 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 378.5 394.7 0.96 Seats held in upper house 10.0 0.11 90.0 1 90.6 70.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.78 1 0.41 26.5 Mortality 64.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 7.5 20.5 0.37 23.2 26.9 0.86 Average length of single life 1 178 , childbirth Mortality 21.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 48.0 2.29 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 39.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.48 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 20.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 13 Potential support ratio hs attended by skilled health personnel 52.10 Birt Total dependency ratio 65 Antenatal car 36.60 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 265 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

276 rank out of 144 countries 43 scor e P anama 0.00 = imparity 0.722 1.00 = parity AVG PAN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 55.19 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 21,334.94 Total population (1,000s) 4,034.12 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.60 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 63.85 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 31 43 0.693 0.722 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.691 0.647 62 44 Educational attainment 55 0.995 35 0.995 ZJsY L TereTe Health and survival 1 0.980 47 0.979 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 35 0.153 51 0.222 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJL [s WeYm[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.691 62 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 85.2 0.65 ce participation 104 0.651 0.667 55.5 0.62 0.634 0.621 79 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.623 0.509 17,656 28,347 0.62 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 64 42.5 0.320 0.739 16 Legislators, senior officials and managers 57.5 0.74 45.1 0.758 1.000 1 1.22 Pr ofessional and technical workers 54.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.995 55 67 0.883 Literacy rate 0.987 94.7 0.99 93.5 93.6 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 82 0.995 0.979 93.2 75.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 80.6 1.07 31.2 46.5 1.49 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 70.2 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 66.1 1.06 0.227 0.222 51 Political empowerment 0.22 0.224 92 Women in parliament 18.3 81.7 0.279 29.4 70.6 0.42 Women in ministerial positions 26 0.417 0.209 0.200 5.0 0.11 Years with female head of state (last 50) 26 0.111 45.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 266 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

277 0.722 /  3AN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 28.0 0.75 Youth not in employment or education 37.3 – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.6 3.5 1.63 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 56.9 43.1 Discouraged job seekers 0.76 – – – dual nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.17 13.2 15.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 19.0 nment pr Gover 27.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.45 no 7.2 Contributing family workers 2.18 3.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 23.9 29.6 0.81 1.07 6.4 6.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 82.8 82.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 96.0 0.99 96.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 84.3 85.6 0.99 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 11.7 Out-of-school youth 0.68 17.1 2 0.65 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.14 40.1 45.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 73.1 1.07 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 68.5 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.33 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 37.7 38.9 1.03 0.31 Firms with female top managers 1.39 Tertiary education attainment, adults 18.7 13.4 20.2 ucation attainment, age 25-54 1.48 29.8 3.3 2.2 Employers 0.67 Tertiary ed 0.92 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 11.0 12.0 R&D personnel 45.7 54.3 0.84 0.3 0.63 PhD graduates 0.2 value male female Access to Assets 49.9 1.05 Individuals using the inter net 52.5 Hold an account at a financial institution 40.3 46.6 0.86 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.65 1.1 0.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.08 Arts and Humanities 6.6 6.1 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 27.3 0.91 30.1 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.53 Education 28.2 18.4 ownership yes 0.56 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 8.4 14.9 Mean monthly ear 0.98 0.6 0.7 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.6 elfar e Health and W 6.2 1.39 female male value Political Leadership 7.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 4.1 0.57 Year women r eceived right to vote 1941 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.54 7.2 4.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 76 Services 2.8 0.54 5.2 Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.3 6.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.21 Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.7 0.6 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 6.6 8.0 0.83 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 1.0 0.5 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.52 1 0.21 0.2 Mortality 0.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.8 0.14 21.6 25.3 0.85 Average length of single life 1 94 , childbirth Mortality 33.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 58.7 1.73 Legislation on domestic violence yes 27 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.51 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 6.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 8 Potential support ratio ed health personnel – Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 55 Antenatal car 87.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 267 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

278 rank out of 144 countries 96 scor e P araguay 0.00 = imparity 0.678 1.00 = parity AVG PR Y 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 27.44 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 8,877.61 Total population (1,000s) 6,725.31 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.28 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.03 e 57.65 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 64 96 0.656 0.678 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.652 0.554 90 80 Educational attainment 61 0.994 83 0.944 ZgsY L TeYekye` Health and survival 97 0.971 1 0.980 L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment 38 0.144 113 0.094 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZgsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.652 90 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 88.0 0.70 ce participation 93 0.699 0.667 61.5 0.56 0.634 0.559 106 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.561 0.509 6,857 12,217 0.56 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 94 38.7 0.320 0.632 28 Legislators, senior officials and managers 61.3 0.63 46.7 0.758 1.000 1 1.14 Pr ofessional and technical workers 53.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.994 61 68 0.883 Literacy rate 0.984 95.8 0.98 94.3 88.8 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 83 0.995 0.979 88.3 66.6 100 Enr olment in secondary education 0.996 0.971 66.3 1.00 29.1 41.2 1.42 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.971 Health and survival 97 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 66.3 1.037 1.033 106 Healthy life expectancy 64.2 1.03 0.227 0.094 113 Political empowerment 0.16 0.159 109 Women in parliament 13.8 86.3 0.279 15.4 84.6 0.18 Women in ministerial positions 92 0.182 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 268 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

279 0.678 / 96 PR Y TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 20.3 3.92 Youth not in employment or education 5.2 2.0 63.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 50.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.9 4.9 1.19 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 29.2 70.8 Discouraged job seekers 2.43 63.9 1.07 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 68.3 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.29 6.2 8.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 12.3 nment pr Gover 27.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.21 no 9.8 Contributing family workers 1.62 6.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 32.4 31.0 1.04 1.03 10.7 11.0 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.96 76.3 73.6 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 97.2 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 97.7 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 86.7 92.1 0.94 Economic Leade rship Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.91 31.9 29.1 2 0.52 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.99 38.3 37.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 58.8 58.6 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 Firms with female (co-)owners 1.07 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 29.7 20.8 0.70 0.30 Firms with female top managers 10.0 Tertiary education attainment, adults 14.9 1.49 21.5 16.3 1.32 education attainment, age 25-54 Employers 3.0 6.0 0.49 Tertiary 0.76 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.1 8.0 R&D personnel – – – 0.1 1.35 0.1 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 42.9 43.1 net 1.00 – Hold an account at a financial institution – – value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – part ownership – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – 0.81 .) 1,847.3 2,272.2 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1961 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 56 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.6 1.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 12.6 13.3 0.95 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 1.2 0.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.58 1 0.33 0.7 Mortality 2.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.3 0.9 0.30 22.7 26.8 0.85 Average length of single life 1 132 , childbirth Mortality 22.3 Pr oportion married by age 25 44.8 2.01 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 18.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.48 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 5.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 10 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel – Births attended Total dependency ratio 56 Antenatal car 76.70 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 269 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

280 rank out of 144 countries 48 scor e P eru 0.00 = imparity 0.719 1.00 = parity AVG PER 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 192.09 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 12,071.59 Total population (1,000s) 31,773.84 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.24 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 62.17 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 60 48 0.662 0.719 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.632 0.531 98 86 Educational attainment 82 0.988 71 0.976 ZJsY L TLY\ Health and survival 49 0.978 58 0.976 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 31 0.165 33 0.277 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.632 98 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 85.4 0.81 ce participation 69 0.814 0.667 69.5 0.48 0.634 0.483 128 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.653 0.509 10,290 15,759 0.65 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 51 33.9 0.320 0.512 56 Legislators, senior officials and managers 66.1 0.51 54.8 0.758 0.826 88 0.83 Pr ofessional and technical workers 45.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.988 82 95 0.883 Literacy rate 0.938 97.2 0.94 91.2 93.8 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 94.4 76.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 78.7 1.02 38.6 42.5 1.10 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.978 Health and survival 49 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.5 1.037 1.056 60 Healthy life expectancy 63.9 1.06 0.227 0.277 33 Political empowerment 0.38 0.383 49 Women in parliament 27.7 72.3 0.279 36.8 63.2 0.58 Women in ministerial positions 17 0.583 0.209 0.200 1.5 0.03 Years with female head of state (last 50) 47 0.031 48.5 2.00 1.00 0.00 270 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

281 0.9 / 48 PE5 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 26.9 1.49 Youth not in employment or education 18.1 4.0 90.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.6 6.1 1.26 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 46.3 53.7 Discouraged job seekers 1.16 52.1 1.26 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 65.4 High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.98 15.6 15.2 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 11.3 nment pr Gover 23.7 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.09 no 7.1 Contributing family workers 2.04 3.5 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 28.3 26.2 1.08 0.69 2.5 1.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.88 85.9 75.3 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 97.3 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.98 99.2 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 72.5 92.2 0.79 Economic Le adership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.97 21.5 20.9 2 0.50 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.85 60.6 51.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 73.2 81.4 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.90 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.40 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 47.3 31.0 0.65 0.16 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 17.5 16.2 1.08 ttainment, age 25-54 Employers 3.3 3.5 0.94 Tertiary education a 0.51 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 7.4 14.5 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 38.5 43.2 net 0.89 35.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 22.5 0.63 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – part ownership – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – 0.81 .) 1.2 1.5 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1955 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 62 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 4 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 5.9 4.6 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 54.7 57.9 0.94 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 4.2 2.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.56 1 0.41 3.6 Mortality 8.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.3 5.1 0.25 23.8 27.5 0.87 Average length of single life 1 68 , childbirth Mortality 23.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 49.9 2.11 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 36.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.40 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 9.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 9 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 90.00 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 53 Antenatal car 94.70 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 271 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

282 rank out of 144 countries 10 scor e P hilippines 0.00 = imparity 0.790 1.00 = parity AVG PHL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 304.91 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 7,236.47 Total population (1,000s) 103,320.22 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.55 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e 64.36 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 6 10 0.752 0.790 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.764 0.757 25 4 Educational attainment 1 1.000 1 1.000 ZJsY i TlPpPWWPriZ Health and survival 36 0.979 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 16 0.269 13 0.416 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTepi e]k ZJsY i Yero Tepi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.764 25 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.9 0.65 ce participation 106 0.650 0.667 52.6 0.76 0.634 0.755 21 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.676 0.509 6,290 9,302 0.68 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 38 46.6 0.320 0.871 9 Legislators, senior officials and managers 53.4 0.87 38.5 0.758 1.000 1 1.60 Pr ofessional and technical workers 61.5 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 96.0 1.01 96.8 94.2 1.04 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 97.9 61.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 73.5 1.19 31.4 40.3 1.28 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.979 Health and survival 36 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 63.9 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 58.6 1.09 0.227 0.416 13 Political empowerment 0.42 0.417 44 Women in parliament 29.5 70.5 0.279 25.0 75.0 0.33 Women in ministerial positions 39 0.333 0.209 0.200 15.8 0.46 Years with female head of state (last 50) 5 0.462 34.2 2.00 1.00 0.00 272 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

283 0.790 / 10 3+L TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 28.6 1.68 Youth not in employment or education 17.1 7.0 60.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.8 6.6 0.88 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 72.1 28.6 Discouraged job seekers 0.40 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.98 12.9 12.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 18.3 nment pr Gover 20.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.09 no 12.0 Contributing family workers 2.21 5.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 27.9 26.6 1.05 0.23 5.1 1.2 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.04 82.5 85.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 98.4 1.00 98.3 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 94.4 95.4 0.99 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 15.3 Out-of-school youth 0.65 23.5 2 0.77 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.06 56.8 60.1 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 79.0 1.09 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 72.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 2.25 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 44.9 38.8 0.86 0.43 Firms with female top managers 1.31 Tertiary education attainment, adults 19.2 14.7 26.0 ucation attainment, age 25-54 1.26 32.6 5.4 2.1 Employers 0.39 Tertiary ed 0.90 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 15.7 17.4 R&D personnel 45.4 54.6 0.83 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 33.9 22.0 1.54 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 1.04 0.3 0.3 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1937 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 80 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 2 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 37.8 28.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.74 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 200.5 254.8 0.79 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 36.5 22.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.61 1 0.37 7.4 Mortality 20.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 2.3 13.8 0.17 24.2 26.9 0.90 Average length of single life 1 114 , childbirth Mortality 24.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 42.2 1.71 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 18.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.93 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 22.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 14 Potential support ratio ttended by skilled health personnel 72.80 Births a Total dependency ratio 58 Antenatal car 84.30 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 273 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

284 rank out of 144 countries 39 scor e P oland 0.00 = imparity 0.728 1.00 = parity AVG POL 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 469.51 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 26,003.01 Total population (1,000s) 38,224.41 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.12 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.93 e 69.61 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 44 39 0.680 0.728 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.702 0.635 55 50 Educational attainment 31 1.000 13 1.000 ZJsY L TsSerK Health and survival 1 0.980 36 0.979 L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment 58 0.107 49 0.230 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.702 55 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 75.5 0.82 ce participation 64 0.822 0.667 62.0 0.55 0.634 0.554 108 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.637 0.509 21,816 34,228 0.64 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 58 41.2 0.320 0.700 18 Legislators, senior officials and managers 58.8 0.70 42.2 0.758 1.000 1 1.37 Pr ofessional and technical workers 57.8 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 31 – – Literacy rate – – – – 96.4 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 67 1.000 0.979 96.4 92.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 93.1 1.01 54.2 82.6 1.52 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 71.6 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 65.7 1.09 0.227 0.230 49 Political empowerment 0.39 0.390 47 Women in parliament 28.0 72.0 0.279 22.7 77.3 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 53 0.294 0.209 0.200 3.8 0.08 Years with female head of state (last 50) 31 0.082 46.2 2.00 1.00 0.00 274 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

285 0.2 / 3 3OL TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 182 10.8 0.97 Youth not in employment or education 11.2 14.0 182.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.2 6.1 1.02 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 50.1 49.9 Discouraged job seekers 1.00 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.34 13.9 18.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 8.8 nment pr Gover 19.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.25 yes 3.8 Contributing family workers 2.28 1.7 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 10.4 17.1 0.61 0.99 3.5 3.5 en Out-of-school childr 1.07 460.3 Work, minutes per day 492.7 Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 99.4 98.4 1.76 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 60.0 34.1 98.7 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 98.3 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 96.1 98.1 0.98 E conomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.92 8.7 8.0 2 0.59 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.94 86.4 80.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 20.0 80.0 0.25 92.7 88.9 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.04 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.68 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 69.0 56.6 0.82 0.26 Firms with female top managers 21.2 Tertiary education attainment, adults 26.0 1.22 26.7 17.4 1.54 ation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.6 1.7 1.53 Tertiary educ 0.75 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 9.7 12.9 R&D personnel – – – 0.7 0.69 0.5 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 66.9 69.2 net 0.97 83.3 Hold an account at a financial institution 73.0 0.88 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.57 2.1 1.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.62 Arts and Humanities 8.5 5.3 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 24.6 1.13 21.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.12 Education 17.6 5.6 yes ownership 0.36 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 9.4 26.1 0.83 .) 3.7 4.5 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 15.1 elfar e Health and W 9.5 1.59 female male value Political Leadership 7.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.9 0.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.32 4.5 3.4 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services 6.8 0.67 10.2 Number of female heads of state to date 3 11.6 8.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.32 Election list quotas for women, national 35 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 35 Health 1 , childr 1.1 0.8 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 174.1 172.6 1.01 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 1.5 0.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.49 1 0.47 4.4 Mortality 9.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.4 7.6 0.18 26.6 28.7 0.93 Average length of single life 1 3 , childbirth Mortality 8.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 21.8 2.64 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 13.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.30 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 99.80 Births attended Total dependency ratio 45 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 275 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

286 rank out of 144 countries 33 scor e 3 orWugaO 0.00 = imparity 0.73 1.00 = parity AVG 3R T 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 204.56 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 27,006.87 Total population (1,000s) 10,371.63 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.43 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.90 e 65.70 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 33 33 0.692 0.734 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.730 0.669 35 33 Educational attainment 70 0.992 57 0.989 ZgsY L TsY[ykeS Health and survival 55 0.977 71 0.973 L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment 40 0.138 43 0.240 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergL [s WeYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZgsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.730 35 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 76.8 0.91 ce participation 27 0.911 0.667 70.0 0.59 0.634 0.594 93 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.723 0.509 25,916 35,862 0.72 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 23 35.8 0.320 0.559 39 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.2 0.56 46.4 0.758 1.000 1 1.16 Pr ofessional and technical workers 53.6 Educational attainment 0.953 0.992 70 80 0.883 Literacy rate 0.964 96.3 0.96 92.9 98.0 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 78 0.996 0.979 97.6 91.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 93.8 1.02 58.0 65.7 1.13 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.977 Health and survival 55 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 73.2 1.037 1.054 63 Healthy life expectancy 69.5 1.05 0.227 0.240 43 Political empowerment 0.53 0.533 28 Women in parliament 34.8 65.2 0.279 22.2 77.8 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 56 0.286 0.209 0.200 0.4 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 58 0.009 49.6 2.00 1.00 0.00 276 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

287 0.7 /  35 T TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 120 12.2 1.17 Youth not in employment or education 10.4 – – nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater – Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 11.2 11.0 1.02 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 44.6 55.4 Discouraged job seekers 1.24 – – – – nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – Gover High-skilled shar 1.52 10.0 15.2 ce e of labour for nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes ovides child allowance nment pr Gover 1.38 yes 18.3 25.3 Workers employed part-time 0.6 1.07 0.6 Contributing family workers female value male Education and Skills 9.7 Own-account workers 14.9 0.65 1.18 1.9 2.2 en Out-of-school childr 1.19 468.6 Work, minutes per day 559.4 87.5 Primary education attainment, adults 0.93 94.1 5 2.8 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 58.7 20.6 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 98.6 98.7 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 82.7 91.6 0.90 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 3.5 Out-of-school youth 1.74 2.0 2 0.62 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.08 33.9 36.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 14.0 86.0 0.16 65.3 1.08 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 60.3 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 24.8 17.5 0.71 – Firms with female top managers 1.34 Tertiary education attainment, adults 20.6 15.4 20.8 ation attainment, age 25-54 1.44 29.9 0.6 3.1 Employers 5.01 Tertiary educ 0.70 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 5.6 8.0 R&D personnel 42.1 57.9 0.73 0.6 0.64 PhD graduates 0.4 value male female Access to Assets 71.8 0.92 Individuals using the inter net 65.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 86.1 88.8 0.97 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.21 1.7 2.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.09 Arts and Humanities 9.3 8.6 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 18.7 1.00 18.6 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.53 Education 9.7 2.8 ownership yes 0.34 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 11.4 33.8 Mean monthly ear 0.84 0.8 0.9 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 24.5 elfar e Health and W 9.9 2.48 female male value Political Leadership 2.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.4 0.18 Year women r eceived right to vote 1931 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.11 6.5 5.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 86 Services 4.5 0.57 7.9 Number of female heads of state to date 1 13.1 8.8 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.50 Election list quotas for women, national 33 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 33 Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 44.9 45.0 1.00 Seats held in upper house 20.6 0.26 79.4 1 1.1 0.8 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.74 1 0.62 1.1 Mortality 1.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 1.2 0.32 30.1 32.2 0.93 Average length of single life 1 10 , childbirth Mortality 3.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 9.5 2.44 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 19.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.25 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel – Births attended b Total dependency ratio 54 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 277 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

288 rank out of 144 countries 130 scor e Qa tar 0.00 = imparity 0.626 1.00 = parity AVG QA T 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 152.47 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 118,215.30 Total population (1,000s) 2,569.80 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 3.08 Population sex ratio (female/male) 3.04 e 63.97 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 130 – 0.626 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.523 – 122 – Educational attainment 33 1.000 – – ZJsY L Ue[eY Health and survival 127 0.965 – – L e]LYekL ZJsY Political empowerment – – 143 0.016 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJL [s teYP[` M3T MLTeSL e]k ZJsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.523 122 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 94.5 0.57 ce participation 122 0.570 0.667 53.9 0.76 0.634 0.763 19 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.483 0.509 70,579 146,268 0.48 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 113 14.7 0.320 0.173 109 Legislators, senior officials and managers 85.3 0.17 74.8 0.758 0.337 119 Pr ofessional and technical workers 0.34 25.2 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 33 52 0.883 Literacy rate 0.998 97.8 1.00 97.6 91.7 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 92.5 69.3 Enr olment in secondary education 1 1.000 0.971 89.6 1.29 6.94 43.9 6.94 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 6.3 Health and survival 127 0.965 0.956 0.96 0.920 0.944 1 Sex ratio at birth 134 67.5 1.037 68.4 Healthy life expectancy 1.01 1.013 Political empowerment 0.227 0.016 143 100.0 0.00 143 0.000 Women in parliament 0.0 0.279 6.3 93.8 0.07 Women in ministerial positions 122 0.067 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 278 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

289 0.626 / 130 QA T TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 30.7 10.74 Youth not in employment or education 2.9 – 50.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 0.8 0.1 13.67 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 23.6 76.4 Discouraged job seekers 3.24 – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.33 13.7 4.5 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 0.0 nment pr Gover 0.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 7.50 no 0.0 Contributing family workers – 0.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 0.0 0.2 0.31 0.67 4.1 2.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.02 83.9 85.9 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 75.1 1.00 75.1 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 27.9 59.1 0.47 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 12.8 Out-of-school youth 0.30 42.7 2 0.77 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.43 40.7 58.0 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 55.7 1.53 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 36.5 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 33.2 11.9 0.36 – Firms with female top managers 2.17 Tertiary education attainment, adults 36.1 16.6 9.6 ucation attainment, age 25-54 2.27 21.8 0.0 0.3 Employers – Tertiary ed 0.25 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.7 11.1 R&D personnel 26.9 73.1 0.37 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 94.1 0.97 Individuals using the inter net 91.7 Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – 0.8 – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 5.40 Arts and Humanities 27.6 5.1 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 27.2 1.18 23.1 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 5.52 Education 7.8 1.4 ownership part 0.25 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 12.3 49.8 Mean monthly ear 0.88 9.8 11.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 7.9 elfar e Health and W 1.8 4.43 female male value Political Leadership 6.3 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.6 0.42 Year women r eceived right to vote 2003 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.09 2.4 2.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 14 Services 0.4 0.08 4.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 11.1 5.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.94 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 0.6 1.6 0.39 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.0 0.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.31 1 0.07 0.0 Mortality 0.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.3 0.09 25.8 27.6 0.93 Average length of single life 1 13 , childbirth Mortality 25.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 37.6 1.49 Legislation on domestic violence no 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.91 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 71 Potential support ratio ed health personnel – Births attended by skill Total dependency ratio 18 Antenatal car 84.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 279 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

290 rank out of 144 countries 58 scor e R omania 0.00 = imparity 0.708 1.00 = parity AVG ROU 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 186.69 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 21,647.81 Total population (1,000s) 19,778.08 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.50 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.94 e 66.12 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 46 58 0.680 0.708 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.698 0.673 57 30 Educational attainment 56 0.995 44 0.993 ZJsY i VsTerme Health and survival 1 0.980 36 0.979 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 79 0.074 78 0.159 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KmZ[erJi [s WeYm[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.698 57 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 74.3 0.77 ce participation 83 0.771 0.667 57.3 0.63 0.634 0.630 74 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.691 0.509 19,421 28,099 0.69 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 31 33.6 0.320 0.506 59 Legislators, senior officials and managers 66.4 0.51 44.6 0.758 1.000 1 1.24 Pr ofessional and technical workers 55.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.995 56 60 0.883 Literacy rate 0.992 99.0 0.99 98.2 87.2 0.99 Enr olment in primary education 91 0.993 0.979 86.6 83.8 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 84.1 1.00 47.8 59.0 1.23 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 69.7 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 64.0 1.09 0.227 0.159 78 Political empowerment 0.26 0.261 74 Women in parliament 20.7 79.3 0.279 24.0 76.0 0.32 Women in ministerial positions 44 0.316 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 280 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

291 0.708 / 58 ROU TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 302 21.4 1.43 Youth not in employment or education 15.0 15.0 126.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 85.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.0 6.6 0.76 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 61.7 38.3 Discouraged job seekers 0.62 – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.03 9.8 10.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 7.4 nment pr Gover 12.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.69 yes 13.3 Contributing family workers 2.75 4.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 11.1 21.7 0.51 1.02 9.8 9.9 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.99 99.1 98.2 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 97.8 1.00 97.8 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 93.3 97.5 0.96 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 17.8 Out-of-school youth 0.94 18.9 2 0.63 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.84 70.4 59.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 94.6 1.01 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 93.3 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.89 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 79.6 63.2 0.79 0.25 Firms with female top managers 0.96 Tertiary education attainment, adults 12.7 13.3 12.1 ucation attainment, age 25-54 1.26 15.2 4.8 0.6 Employers 0.13 Tertiary ed 0.59 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.5 11.0 R&D personnel 45.2 54.8 0.82 0.1 1.10 PhD graduates 0.1 value male female Access to Assets 58.4 0.91 Individuals using the inter net 53.1 Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.52 5.7 2.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.21 Arts and Humanities 9.9 8.2 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 33.9 1.42 23.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 7.06 Education 5.5 0.8 ownership yes 0.41 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 10.8 26.1 Mean monthly ear 0.92 2.1 2.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 13.0 elfar e Health and W 8.3 1.57 female male value Political Leadership 8.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 3.0 0.35 Year women r eceived right to vote 1929 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.34 6.5 4.9 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 88 Services 2.2 0.27 8.2 Number of female heads of state to date 0 11.7 5.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.14 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.1 0.8 en under age 5 Mortality 0.77 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 118.6 121.2 0.98 Seats held in upper house 22.1 0.28 77.9 1 1.9 1.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.56 1 0.33 1.5 Mortality 4.6 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.5 2.1 0.21 25.9 29.4 0.88 Average length of single life 1 31 , childbirth Mortality 11.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 32.2 2.71 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 24.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.52 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel – Births attended Total dependency ratio 49 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 281 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

292 rank out of 144 countries 71 scor e R ussian Federation 0.00 = imparity 0.696 1.00 = parity AVG RUS 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,283.16 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 24,026.00 Total population (1,000s) 143,964.51 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.04 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.87 e 72.16 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 49 71 0.677 0.696 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.724 0.696 41 22 Educational attainment 50 0.997 19 0.999 ZJsY i V\ZZPer -iKiYe[Psr Health and survival 1 0.980 36 0.979 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 108 0.034 121 0.085 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.724 41 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 79.3 0.87 ce participation 51 0.865 0.667 68.6 0.65 0.634 0.648 66 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.617 0.509 17,975 29,138 0.62 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 70 38.7 0.320 0.631 29 Legislators, senior officials and managers 61.3 0.63 36.8 0.758 1.000 1 1.72 Pr ofessional and technical workers 63.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.997 50 44 0.883 Literacy rate 0.999 99.7 1.00 99.6 96.4 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 96.7 51.8 107 Enr olment in secondary education 0.987 0.971 48.2 0.93 72.9 88.3 1.21 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 67.8 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 59.0 1.15 0.227 0.085 121 Political empowerment 0.19 0.187 105 Women in parliament 15.8 84.2 0.279 9.7 90.3 0.11 Women in ministerial positions 113 0.107 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 282 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

293 0.696 / 71 RUS TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 1025 14.5 1.50 Youth not in employment or education 9.7 – 140.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 5.3 5.8 0.92 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 68.7 31.3 Discouraged job seekers 0.46 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.00 25.6 25.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 5.2 nment pr Gover 10.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.96 yes 0.4 Contributing family workers 0.99 0.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.1 6.4 0.80 0.59 3.1 1.8 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.6 99.2 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 100.0 1.00 100.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.65 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.97 85.9 83.5 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 99.0 1.01 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 97.9 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.40 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 89.2 87.4 0.98 0.25 Firms with female top managers 1.02 Tertiary education attainment, adults 2.1 2.0 26.0 attainment, age 25-54 1.28 33.3 0.4 0.8 Employers 2.07 Tertiary education 0.79 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 20.4 25.9 R&D personnel – – – 0.7 0.96 PhD graduates 0.6 value male female Access to Assets 74.7 0.98 Individuals using the inter net 73.0 Hold an account at a financial institution 70.2 63.8 1.10 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership yes – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1918 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 99 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 10.6 8.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.75 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 868.7 803.8 1.08 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 46.7 14.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.30 1 0.31 27.2 Mortality 88.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 8.9 35.0 0.26 24.4 27.0 0.90 Average length of single life 1 25 , childbirth Mortality 22.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 42.8 1.90 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 21.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.75 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 15.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio tended by skilled health personnel – Births at Total dependency ratio 45 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 283 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

294 rank out of 144 countries  scor e R ZanGa 0.00 = imparity 0. 1.00 = parity AVG R:A 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 8.38 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 1,773.75 Total population (1,000s) 11,917.51 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.43 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e 61.06 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 4 – 0.822 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.820 – 7 – Educational attainment 113 0.951 – – ZJsY i V^erKe Health and survival 1 0.980 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 3 0.539 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.820 7 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 84.1 1.05 ce participation 1 1.000 0.667 88.4 0.86 0.634 0.861 1 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.860 0.509 1,772 2,061 0.86 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 6 33.9 0.320 0.514 53 Legislators, senior officials and managers 66.1 0.51 57.9 0.758 0.726 97 0.73 Pr ofessional and technical workers 42.1 Educational attainment 0.953 0.951 113 102 0.883 Literacy rate 0.893 72.4 0.89 64.7 94.1 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 96.1 25.2 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 29.3 1.16 9.1 6.9 0.76 0.938 0.763 113 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.98 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 60.8 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 52.3 1.16 0.227 0.539 3 Political empowerment 1.58 1.000 1 Women in parliament 61.3 38.8 0.279 47.4 52.6 0.90 Women in ministerial positions 7 0.900 0.209 0.200 0.7 0.01 Years with female head of state (last 50) 53 0.015 49.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 284 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

295 0.22 /  5:A TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 4.0 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 60.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.0 2.8 1.45 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 12.4 Contributing family workers 2.12 5.9 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 71.9 64.8 1.11 0.66 5.9 3.9 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.74 36.1 26.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 80.5 0.98 82.5 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 23.3 55.9 0.42 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.84 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.60 10.7 6.4 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 16.7 0.87 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 19.1 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.75 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 7.5 2.1 0.29 0.25 Firms with female top managers 0.48 Tertiary education attainment, adults 1.4 2.9 2.5 ment, age 25-54 0.61 1.5 5.9 0.3 Employers 0.05 Tertiary education attain 0.11 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.1 0.6 R&D personnel – – – 0.1 0.18 PhD graduates 0.0 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 30.5 45.9 0.66 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.41 8.0 3.3 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 0.38 Arts and Humanities 1.3 3.5 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 3.7 0.66 5.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.62 Education 11.9 19.0 ownership part 0.51 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.7 7.3 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr 19.3 elfar e Health and W 14.1 1.37 female male value Political Leadership 6.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 4.5 0.72 Year women r eceived right to vote 1961 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.67 2.0 3.0 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 56 Services 4.7 2.06 2.3 Number of female heads of state to date 1 50.4 33.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.51 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 7.8 6.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.82 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 13.5 18.1 0.75 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 8.1 5.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.69 1 0.33 2.3 Mortality 6.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.3 1.3 0.19 24.6 26.6 0.92 Average length of single life 1 290 , childbirth Mortality 20.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 41.2 2.04 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 56.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.89 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 21.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 20 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel 90.70 Births attended Total dependency ratio 77 Antenatal car 43.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 285 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

296 rank out of 144 countries 138 scor e S audi Arabia 0.00 = imparity 0.584 1.00 = parity AVG SAU 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 646.44 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 50,458.17 Total population (1,000s) 32,275.69 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.14 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.32 e 58.52 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 114 138 0.524 0.584 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.320 0.240 142 115 Educational attainment 96 0.975 93 0.880 ZJsY i :e\KP EYeIPe Health and survival 130 0.965 54 0.977 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 115 0.000 124 0.077 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.320 142 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.4 0.26 ce participation 140 0.263 0.667 21.1 0.56 0.634 0.559 107 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.217 0.509 17,857 82,164 0.22 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 138 5.8 0.320 0.062 123 Legislators, senior officials and managers 94.2 0.06 76.3 0.758 0.311 120 0.31 Pr ofessional and technical workers 23.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.975 96 93 0.883 Literacy rate 0.947 96.5 0.95 91.4 96.9 1.02 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.4 82.3 118 Enr olment in secondary education 0.955 0.971 78.6 0.95 64.4 61.8 0.96 0.938 0.960 97 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.965 Health and survival 130 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 64.7 1.037 1.011 136 Healthy life expectancy 64.0 1.01 0.227 0.077 124 Political empowerment 0.25 0.248 82 Women in parliament 19.9 80.1 0.279 0.0 100.0 0.00 Women in ministerial positions 139 0.000 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 286 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

297 0. / 1 SAU TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 25.9 3.94 Youth not in employment or education 6.6 1.0 70.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 21.4 2.4 8.76 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.40 19.4 7.7 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 1.8 nment pr Gover 2.8 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.54 no 0.0 Contributing family workers 1.08 0.0 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 1.1 3.2 0.35 0.51 3.0 1.5 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.87 85.6 74.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 87.2 0.92 94.4 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 18.1 66.4 0.27 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 10.7 Out-of-school youth 1.06 10.0 2 0.54 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.90 50.9 45.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 64.8 0.93 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 69.7 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 31.5 5.6 0.18 – Firms with female top managers 0.41 Tertiary education attainment, adults 0.9 2.1 16.0 tion attainment, age 25-54 1.08 17.3 0.0 0.2 Employers 8.01 Tertiary educa 0.14 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 1.7 12.5 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 76.8 0.78 Individuals using the inter net 60.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 61.1 75.3 0.81 value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.39 0.3 0.1 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters 1.77 Arts and Humanities 31.7 18.0 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 15.0 0.58 25.9 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.46 Education 17.8 12.2 ownership part 0.04 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 0.7 15.9 Mean monthly ear 0.92 6.0 6.5 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 6.1 elfar e Health and W 5.2 1.16 female male value Political Leadership 8.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 5.8 0.68 Year women r eceived right to vote – Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 2.21 11.7 5.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights – Services 1.6 1.33 1.2 Number of female heads of state to date 0 8.9 7.5 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.18 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 4.9 4.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.85 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 35.1 41.0 0.86 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 1.2 0.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.63 1 0.27 3.0 Mortality 11.1 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.6 2.5 0.23 24.9 28.0 0.89 Average length of single life 1 12 , childbirth Mortality 12.6 Pr oportion married by age 25 39.8 3.16 Legislation on domestic violence yes 32 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.53 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 23 Potential support ratio illed health personnel 98.00 Births attended by sk Total dependency ratio 40 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 287 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

298 rank out of 144 countries 91 scor e S enegal 0.00 = imparity 0.684 1.00 = parity AVG SEN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 14.77 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 2,380.39 Total population (1,000s) 15,411.61 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.83 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e 43.33 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 91 – 0.684 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.624 – 102 – Educational attainment 132 0.831 – – ZgsY L :LrLkeS Health and survival 87 0.973 – – L e]LYekL ZgsY Political empowerment – – 29 0.308 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergL [s WeYP[` MT MLTeSL e]k ZgsY L Yero TeSL 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.624 102 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 72.1 0.65 ce participation 107 0.648 0.667 46.8 0.69 0.634 0.694 43 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.504 0.509 1,731 3,435 0.50 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 105 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.831 132 128 0.883 Literacy rate 0.636 52.8 0.64 33.6 68.2 1.10 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 74.8 23.1 135 Enr olment in secondary education 0.771 0.971 17.8 0.77 12.9 7.8 0.60 0.938 0.605 126 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.973 Health and survival 87 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 59.4 1.037 1.037 96 Healthy life expectancy 57.2 1.04 0.227 0.308 29 Political empowerment 0.72 0.719 9 Women in parliament 41.8 58.2 0.279 20.0 80.0 0.25 Women in ministerial positions 68 0.250 0.209 0.200 2.5 0.05 Years with female head of state (last 50) 39 0.053 47.5 2.00 1.00 0.00 288 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

299 0.684 / 91 SEN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – 1.0 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 40.4 18.0 2.25 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.37 1.7 0.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 30.1 Contributing family workers 1.66 18.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 37.6 32.6 1.15 0.78 30.3 23.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.65 33.5 21.7 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 19.2 1.00 19.2 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 3.3 12.6 0.26 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 76.9 Out-of-school youth 1.04 73.6 2 0.62 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.45 11.5 5.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 4.0 0.42 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 9.4 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.30 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 3.4 0.5 0.14 0.16 Firms with female top managers 0.40 Tertiary education attainment, adults 1.8 4.5 3.2 n attainment, age 25-54 0.40 1.3 18.2 0.1 Employers 0.01 Tertiary educatio 0.00 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.0 1.6 R&D personnel 25.2 74.8 0.34 0.7 0.27 PhD graduates 0.2 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 8.2 16.0 0.51 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1945 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 72 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 2 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national 50 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 15.1 11.9 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 19.5 17.7 1.10 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 11.4 9.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.80 1 0.53 3.1 Mortality 5.8 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.5 1.6 0.29 22.2 29.9 0.74 Average length of single life 1 315 , childbirth Mortality 9.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 58.6 6.23 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 4.77 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 30.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 18 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel – Births attended Total dependency ratio 85 Antenatal car 48.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 289 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

300 rank out of 144 countries 40 scor e S erbia 0.00 = imparity 0.727 1.00 = parity AVG SRB 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 37.75 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 13,720.09 Total population (1,000s) 8,820.08 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.34 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e 62.50 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 40 – 0.727 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.670 – 72 – Educational attainment 47 0.997 – – ZJsY i :iYIPe Health and survival 1 0.980 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 38 0.262 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.670 72 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 71.0 0.77 ce participation 81 0.774 0.667 55.0 0.59 0.634 0.595 91 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.671 0.509 11,711 17,442 0.67 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 40 29.4 0.320 0.416 73 Legislators, senior officials and managers 70.6 0.42 43.0 0.758 1.000 1 1.33 Pr ofessional and technical workers 57.0 Educational attainment 0.953 0.997 47 66 0.883 Literacy rate 0.987 99.5 0.99 98.2 96.3 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 66 1.000 0.979 96.3 93.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 94.6 1.02 50.2 66.9 1.33 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 69.6 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 65.7 1.06 0.227 0.262 38 Political empowerment 0.52 0.524 30 Women in parliament 34.4 65.6 0.279 26.3 73.7 0.36 Women in ministerial positions 35 0.357 0.209 0.200 1.3 0.03 Years with female head of state (last 50) 49 0.026 48.7 2.00 1.00 0.00 290 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

301 0.727 / 40 SRB TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 230 18.7 1.07 Youth not in employment or education 17.5 – 135.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 18.8 16.8 1.12 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 45.5 54.5 Discouraged job seekers 1.20 17.8 0.80 – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 14.2 High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.21 11.0 13.4 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 15.1 nment pr Gover 19.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.32 yes 12.9 Contributing family workers 3.06 4.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 11.6 26.5 0.44 0.79 0.9 0.7 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.97 98.6 95.5 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 99.2 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.2 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 53.9 70.3 0.77 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 0.76 12.1 9.2 2 0.56 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.85 77.1 65.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 79.6 82.0 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.97 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.42 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 42.3 20.2 0.48 0.17 Firms with female top managers 13.3 Tertiary education attainment, adults 13.9 1.04 14.6 10.4 1.40 cation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 1.9 4.2 0.46 Tertiary edu 0.39 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 3.6 9.4 R&D personnel 49.5 50.5 0.98 0.5 0.64 0.3 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter – – net – 83.2 Hold an account at a financial institution 83.0 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.59 3.5 2.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.50 Arts and Humanities 11.1 7.4 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 26.8 1.06 25.2 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 3.47 Education 12.3 3.6 yes ownership 0.39 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 10.0 25.7 0.91 .) 33.4 36.8 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 12.5 elfar e Health and W 5.5 2.29 female male value Political Leadership 8.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.4 0.28 Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.73 5.4 3.1 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services 7.5 0.81 9.3 Number of female heads of state to date 3 10.1 8.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.23 Election list quotas for women, national 30 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 30 Health 1 , childr 0.3 0.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 49.3 50.1 0.98 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.4 0.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.73 1 0.38 0.5 Mortality 1.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 1.2 0.34 27.1 30.4 0.89 Average length of single life 1 17 , childbirth Mortality 8.0 Pr oportion married by age 25 23.7 2.96 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 24.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.61 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 7.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio y skilled health personnel 99.90 Births attended b Total dependency ratio 50 Antenatal car 93.90 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 291 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

302 rank out of 144 countries 6 scor e e S inJaSor 0.00 = imparity 0.0 1.00 = parity AVG SG3 distribution of countries by scor e 0.40 1.00 SCORE A T GLANCE KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 296.97 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 81,443.36 Total population (1,000s) 5,622.46 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.54 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 73.28 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 65 65 0.702 0.655 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.752 0.646 45 27 Educational attainment 0.977 0.931 86 94 :PrkeWsY ZJsY i i Health and survival 0.960 101 107 0.971 eziYeki ZJsY i Political empowerment 0.110 75 0.083 101 rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT TeSi MiTeSi ezk ZJsY i Yero 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.585 0.752 27 Economic participation and opportunity Labour for 0.80 ce participation 74 0.798 0.667 65.9 82.6 0.81 0.634 0.810 4 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.509 72,683 103,395 0.70 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 28 0.703 66.0 34.0 0.320 0.516 52 Legislators, senior officials and managers 0.52 0.91 52.4 47.6 0.758 0.909 77 Pr ofessional and technical workers 94 Educational attainment 0.953 0.977 79 95.4 Literacy rate 0.883 0.97 0.967 98.7 – Enr olment in primary education – – – – – 0.93 0.985 Enr olment in secondary education 108 0.971 48.2 51.8 – – Enr olment in tertiary education – – – – Health and survival 0.956 0.971 101 Sex ratio at birth 136 0.932 0.920 0.93 71.8 75.9 1.037 1.058 52 Healthy life expectancy 1.06 Political empowerment 0.227 0.110 101 62 0.279 Women in parliament 0.312 76.2 0.31 23.8 94.7 0.06 Women in ministerial positions 129 0.056 0.209 5.3 0.200 50.0 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 0.0 0.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 292 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

303 0.02 / 6 SG3 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 7 16.4 2.23 Youth not in employment or education 7.4 7.0 105.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 2.9 2.7 1.05 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 55.6 44.4 Discouraged job seekers 0.80 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.88 27.4 24.1 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 5.3 nment pr Gover 10.9 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.07 yes 0.5 Contributing family workers 1.78 0.3 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.2 10.2 0.51 – – – en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.93 90.1 83.6 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 94.6 0.99 95.6 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 49.8 72.7 0.69 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.82 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.93 73.8 68.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 85.4 0.98 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 87.3 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 53.9 33.3 0.62 – Firms with female top managers 0.86 Tertiary education attainment, adults 26.1 30.5 43.0 nt, age 25-54 0.94 40.5 0.3 3.6 Employers 12.62 Tertiary education attainme 0.42 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 5.6 13.2 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 81.2 0.95 Individuals using the inter net 77.3 Hold an account at a financial institution 96.1 96.6 0.99 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 4.11 0.0 0.1 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.89 Arts and Humanities 12.3 6.5 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 37.5 1.25 29.9 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.99 Education 3.7 1.3 ownership yes 0.40 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 14.6 36.4 Mean monthly ear 0.91 3.7 4.1 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 9.7 elfar e Health and W 3.7 2.61 female male value Political Leadership 11.0 Information and Comm. T echnologies 6.1 0.55 Year women r eceived right to vote 1947 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.31 6.8 5.2 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 70 Services 1.5 – – Number of female heads of state to date 1 7.7 4.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.82 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 8.9 11.5 0.77 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.55 1 0.34 0.1 Mortality 0.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.2 0.5 0.37 27.9 30.4 0.92 Average length of single life 1 10 , childbirth Mortality 2.4 Pr oportion married by age 25 8.2 3.47 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.25 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 6 Potential support ratio led health personnel – Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 38 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 293 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

304 rank out of 144 countries 74 scor e S lovak Republic 0.00 = imparity 0.694 1.00 = parity AVG SVK 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 89.55 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 29,156.09 Total population (1,000s) 5,444.22 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.08 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.95 e 67.14 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 50 74 0.676 0.694 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.662 0.650 79 43 Educational attainment 1 1.000 34 0.995 ZJsv i :ps]eo ViW\IpPJ Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iveki ZJsv Political empowerment 77 0.077 89 0.135 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WevP[` MT MiTepi e]k ZJsv i vero Tepi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.662 79 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 78.3 0.82 ce participation 68 0.815 0.667 63.8 0.53 0.634 0.534 117 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.603 0.509 23,199 38,489 0.60 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 75 35.0 0.320 0.539 48 Legislators, senior officials and managers 65.0 0.54 45.5 0.758 1.000 1 1.20 Pr ofessional and technical workers 54.5 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 51.0 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 49.0 0.96 41.8 64.6 1.55 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 70.9 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 65.3 1.09 0.227 0.135 89 Political empowerment 0.25 0.250 80 Women in parliament 20.0 80.0 0.279 14.3 85.7 0.17 Women in ministerial positions 94 0.167 0.209 0.200 1.7 0.04 Years with female head of state (last 50) 43 0.036 48.3 2.00 1.00 0.00 294 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

305 0.694 / 74 SVK TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 899 14.2 1.07 Youth not in employment or education 13.3 – 238.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 65.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 10.8 8.8 1.23 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 57.1 42.9 Discouraged job seekers 0.75 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.18 10.4 12.3 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 13.0 nment pr Gover 19.6 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.51 yes 0.2 Contributing family workers 3.48 0.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 8.6 15.0 0.57 – – – en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 99.8 99.8 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes – Out-of-school youth – – 2 0.60 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.91 91.1 82.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 14.0 86.0 0.16 – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.42 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.16 Firms with female top managers 1.10 Tertiary education attainment, adults 19.8 18.0 0.1 Employers 1.9 37.89 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – tainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel 42.2 57.8 0.73 Tertiary education at 0.7 0.96 PhD graduates 0.6 value male female Access to Assets 78.4 0.98 Individuals using the inter net 76.9 Hold an account at a financial institution 80.0 74.3 1.08 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.95 2.0 1.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.28 Arts and Humanities 8.0 6.3 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 22.2 1.11 20.0 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.32 Education 16.6 7.1 ownership yes 0.24 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 5.7 24.4 Mean monthly ear 0.78 0.9 1.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 22.1 elfar e Health and W 9.9 2.24 female male value Political Leadership 6.7 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.6 0.08 Year women r eceived right to vote 1920 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.08 5.7 5.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 97 Services 3.9 0.41 9.6 Number of female heads of state to date 1 13.2 8.7 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.51 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 22.5 22.6 0.99 Seats held in upper house 36.7 0.58 63.3 1 0.2 0.2 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.03 1 0.57 0.8 Mortality 1.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.6 0.18 30.1 32.6 0.92 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 4.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 9.7 2.32 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child 23.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.44 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 5 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 43 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 295 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

306 rank out of 144 countries 7 scor e S lovenia 0.00 = imparity 0.805 1.00 = parity AVG SVN 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 43.99 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 29,803.45 Total population (1,000s) 2,077.86 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.13 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.99 e 73.33 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 51 7 0.675 0.805 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.801 0.667 13 34 Educational attainment 1 1.000 22 0.999 ZJsv i :Ss]irPe Health and survival 1 0.980 71 0.973 i e]iveki ZJsv Political empowerment 88 0.060 11 0.440 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WevP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsv i vero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.801 13 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 74.5 0.91 ce participation 28 0.906 0.667 67.5 0.70 0.634 0.704 38 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.805 0.509 29,359 36,462 0.81 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 11 40.8 0.320 0.690 20 Legislators, senior officials and managers 59.2 0.69 43.4 0.758 1.000 1 1.30 Pr ofessional and technical workers 56.6 Educational attainment 0.953 1.000 1 – – Literacy rate – – – – 97.3 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.3 94.6 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 95.3 1.01 68.2 98.5 1.44 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 73.3 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 68.8 1.07 0.227 0.440 11 Political empowerment 0.58 0.579 23 Women in parliament 36.7 63.3 0.279 50.0 50.0 1.00 Women in ministerial positions 1 1.000 0.209 0.200 1.5 0.03 Years with female head of state (last 50) 48 0.031 48.5 2.00 1.00 0.00 296 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

307 0.805 / 7 SVN TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 130 9.1 0.91 Youth not in employment or education 10.0 30.0 105.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 8.6 7.5 1.15 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 46.5 53.5 Discouraged job seekers 1.15 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.43 13.9 19.9 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 17.7 nment pr Gover 28.0 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.58 yes 3.1 Contributing family workers 1.72 1.8 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 5.7 10.3 0.55 0.61 2.7 1.6 en Out-of-school childr 1.12 466.3 Work, minutes per day 520.4 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 100.0 100.0 1.54 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 55.0 35.7 99.7 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 99.6 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 99.1 99.5 1.00 Ec onomic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes Out-of-school youth 0.88 5.0 4.4 2 0.71 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.89 86.4 76.7 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 24.0 76.0 0.32 99.1 98.2 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 1.01 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.53 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 92.2 88.7 0.96 0.23 Firms with female top managers 16.0 Tertiary education attainment, adults 21.4 1.33 29.7 17.1 1.74 ucation attainment, age 25-54 Employers 2.0 1.8 1.10 Tertiary ed 0.72 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 12.1 16.8 R&D personnel 36.3 63.7 0.57 1.6 1.12 1.8 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 70.8 75.3 net 0.94 97.5 Hold an account at a financial institution 97.0 0.99 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.03 2.8 2.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.57 Arts and Humanities 11.0 7.0 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 24.8 1.34 18.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 4.27 Education 14.3 3.4 yes ownership 0.22 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 6.9 30.6 0.95 .) 1.5 1.6 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 13.1 elfar e Health and W 5.5 2.38 female male value Political Leadership 7.4 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.0 0.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1946 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.07 6.2 5.8 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 71 Services 7.9 0.81 9.7 Number of female heads of state to date 1 13.8 9.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.49 Election list quotas for women, national 35 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 40 Health 1 , childr 0.0 0.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 9.0 8.3 1.08 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.1 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.48 1 0.75 0.4 Mortality 0.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.4 0.28 33.9 35.7 0.95 Average length of single life 1 9 , childbirth Mortality 1.8 Pr oportion married by age 25 5.6 3.20 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 13.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.63 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 9.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio lled health personnel 99.80 Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 50 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 297 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

308 rank out of 144 countries 19 scor e S outh Africa 0.00 = imparity 0.756 1.00 = parity AVG ZAF 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 294.84 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 12,260.17 Total population (1,000s) 56,015.47 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.27 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e 58.09 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 18 19 0.713 0.756 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.652 0.556 89 79 Educational attainment 64 0.993 42 0.993 ZJsY i :s\[O EMYPJe Health and survival 1 0.980 59 0.976 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 8 0.326 18 0.399 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD hPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.652 89 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 63.2 0.80 ce participation 73 0.804 0.667 50.9 0.55 0.634 0.547 114 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.597 0.509 9,938 16,635 0.60 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 80 31.7 0.320 0.463 67 Legislators, senior officials and managers 68.3 0.46 46.3 0.758 1.000 1 1.16 Pr ofessional and technical workers 53.7 Educational attainment 0.953 0.993 64 73 0.883 Literacy rate 0.979 95.4 0.98 93.4 – – Enr olment in primary education – – – – 48.1 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 51.9 1.08 15.7 23.3 1.48 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 56.8 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 51.9 1.10 0.227 0.399 18 Political empowerment 0.72 0.719 10 Women in parliament 41.8 58.2 0.279 41.7 58.3 0.71 Women in ministerial positions 9 0.714 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 68 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 298 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

309 0.6 / 9 =A) TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 33.1 1.18 Youth not in employment or education 28.0 3.0 120.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 38.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 27.5 23.2 1.19 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 44.8 55.2 Discouraged job seekers 1.23 32.8 1.10 empl gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment 36.2 Gover High-skilled shar 1.10 7.0 7.7 ce e of labour for nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 16.4 ovides child allowance nment pr Gover yes 1.96 8.4 Workers employed part-time Contributing family workers 2.40 0.3 0.7 female male value Education and Skills Own-account workers 9.0 9.2 0.97 0.36 16.8 6.0 en Out-of-school childr 397.1 444.6 Work, minutes per day 1.12 80.9 Primary education attainment, adults 0.96 84.0 2.17 .9 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 56.1 25 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 94.2 93.2 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 66.6 73.2 0.91 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 23.3 Out-of-school youth 0.88 26.4 2 0.58 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.94 66.6 62.8 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 19.0 81.0 0.23 65.6 1.04 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 63.1 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.29 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 31.8 25.5 0.80 – Firms with female top managers 0.89 Tertiary education attainment, adults 5.7 6.5 12.6 cation attainment, age 25-54 1.18 14.9 0.3 2.6 Employers 8.71 Tertiary edu 0.67 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.1 9.0 R&D personnel 43.4 56.6 0.77 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 68.8 68.8 1.00 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.69 2.4 1.7 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.13 Arts and Humanities 5.3 4.7 Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 30.3 0.87 34.7 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 1.98 Education 23.3 11.8 ownership part 0.29 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.4 15.2 Mean monthly ear 0.77 2.7 3.5 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 8.1 elfar e Health and W 4.1 1.96 female male value Political Leadership 5.2 Information and Comm. T echnologies 2.2 0.43 Year women r eceived right to vote 1930 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.79 6.7 8.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 87 Services 0.6 2.78 0.2 Number of female heads of state to date 1 17.4 12.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.35 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local 50 Health 1 , childr 23.4 18.3 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 133.0 126.0 1.06 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 95.9 87.4 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.91 1 0.37 6.0 Mortality 16.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 3.9 16.2 0.24 28.0 31.2 0.90 Average length of single life 1 138 , childbirth Mortality 9.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 22.1 2.23 Legislation on domestic violence yes 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child 13.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.46 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 17.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 13 Potential support ratio ttended by skilled health personnel 94.30 Births a Total dependency ratio 52 Antenatal car 87.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 299 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

310 rank out of 144 countries 24 scor e S Sain 0.00 = imparity 0.74 1.00 = parity AVG ES3 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 1,232.09 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 33,261.08 Total population (1,000s) 46,347.58 Education Population gr owth rate (%) -0.05 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.96 e 65.60 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 11 24 0.732 0.746 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.657 0.539 81 85 Educational attainment 45 0.998 38 0.994 ZgsY i :tePr Health and survival 81 0.973 71 0.973 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 5 0.421 22 0.354 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.657 81 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 79.7 0.86 ce participation 54 0.864 0.667 68.9 0.51 0.634 0.507 122 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.632 0.509 28,257 44,677 0.63 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 60 31.2 0.320 0.453 68 Legislators, senior officials and managers 68.8 0.45 50.1 0.758 0.995 67 1.00 Pr ofessional and technical workers 49.9 Educational attainment 0.953 0.998 45 64 0.883 Literacy rate 0.988 98.8 0.99 97.7 99.3 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 99.6 95.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 97.1 1.01 82.5 97.1 1.18 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.973 Health and survival 81 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 128 0.940 0.920 74.1 1.037 1.049 71 Healthy life expectancy 70.6 1.05 0.227 0.354 22 Political empowerment 0.64 0.643 14 Women in parliament 39.1 60.9 0.279 38.5 61.5 0.63 Women in ministerial positions 13 0.625 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 300 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

311 0.746 / 24 ESP TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 0 14.9 0.91 Youth not in employment or education 16.4 13.0 112.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 21.4 18.1 1.18 100.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 28.8 71.2 Discouraged job seekers 2.47 – – gov gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – Gover High-skilled shar 1.11 18.1 20.2 ce e of labour for nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes ovides child allowance nment pr Gover 1.99 yes 16.1 32.0 Workers employed part-time 0.6 1.47 0.4 Contributing family workers female value male Education and Skills 8.8 Own-account workers 13.8 0.63 0.55 0.6 0.4 en Out-of-school childr 1.03 487.8 Work, minutes per day 503.9 88.8 Primary education attainment, adults 0.96 92.2 2 1.6 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 51.2 31.5 Primary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 95.3 94.7 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 70.4 78.3 0.90 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 1.3 Out-of-school youth 0.64 2.0 2 0.52 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.98 48.4 47.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 20.0 80.0 0.25 83.2 1.03 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 81.1 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 46.6 34.4 0.74 – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 12.8 ainment, age 25-54 1.26 16.2 0.4 3.4 Employers 8.59 Tertiary education att 0.36 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 2.3 6.4 R&D personnel 39.8 60.2 0.66 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets 80.3 0.96 Individuals using the inter net 77.1 Hold an account at a financial institution 97.6 97.6 1.00 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.53 1.5 0.8 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 1.17 Arts and Humanities 9.4 8.1 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 20.0 1.09 18.3 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.87 Education 22.9 8.0 ownership yes 0.27 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.5 27.4 Mean monthly ear 0.77 1.6 2.1 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 19.2 elfar e Health and W 8.8 2.19 female male value Political Leadership 7.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.0 0.14 Year women r eceived right to vote 1931 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.93 4.9 5.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 86 Services 5.1 0.60 8.6 Number of female heads of state to date 0 8.1 5.6 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.46 Election list quotas for women, national 40 female male value Election list quotas for women, local 40 Health 1 , childr 0.9 0.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.81 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 180.5 182.1 0.99 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 2.7 2.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.96 1 0.84 4.5 Mortality 5.3 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.1 3.2 0.34 27.7 30.3 0.91 Average length of single life 1 5 , childbirth Mortality 7.7 Pr oportion married by age 25 16.8 2.17 Legislation on domestic violence yes 32 Mean age of women at birth of first child 13.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.36 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 12.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel – Births attended Total dependency ratio 51 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 301 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

312 rank out of 144 countries 109 scor e S ri Lanka 0.00 = imparity 0.669 1.00 = parity AVG LKA 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 81.32 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 11,417.26 Total population (1,000s) 20,798.49 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.39 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.93 e 61.19 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 13 109 0.720 0.669 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.521 0.545 123 84 Educational attainment 86 0.986 52 0.990 ZJsY i :YP 3eroe Health and survival 1 0.980 1 0.980 i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 7 0.365 65 0.188 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.521 123 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.8 0.42 ce participation 132 0.415 0.667 33.6 0.63 0.634 0.627 76 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.349 0.509 6,491 18,599 0.35 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 128 24.8 0.320 0.330 91 Legislators, senior officials and managers 75.2 0.33 50.7 0.758 0.972 69 0.97 Pr ofessional and technical workers 49.3 Educational attainment 0.953 0.986 86 77 0.883 Literacy rate 0.972 92.6 0.97 90.0 98.0 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 108 0.982 0.979 96.3 83.9 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 87.0 1.04 15.6 24.0 1.54 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.96 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 69.7 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 64.2 1.08 0.227 0.188 65 Political empowerment 0.06 0.061 138 Women in parliament 5.8 94.2 0.279 4.3 95.7 0.04 Women in ministerial positions 132 0.044 0.209 0.200 13.1 0.36 Years with female head of state (last 50) 7 0.356 36.9 2.00 1.00 0.00 302 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

313 0.669 / 109 LKA TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 37.3 2.13 Youth not in employment or education 17.5 – 84.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 7.6 3.0 2.54 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 44.7 55.3 Discouraged job seekers 1.24 – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.96 10.0 9.6 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no 15.8 nment pr Gover 24.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.55 no 20.6 Contributing family workers 7.21 2.9 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 23.7 36.1 0.65 1.98 1.8 3.6 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.94 88.4 83.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 96.6 0.99 97.4 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 84.4 94.1 0.90 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 17.9 Out-of-school youth 0.78 23.0 2 0.61 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.98 56.6 55.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 79.5 1.05 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 75.4 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.35 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 47.8 41.0 0.86 0.10 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 19.4 ttainment, age 25-54 1.33 25.8 2.9 1.0 Employers 0.35 Tertiary education a 0.68 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.9 10.2 R&D personnel 32.6 67.4 0.48 – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 83.1 82.2 1.01 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ no ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 0.84 18.6 22.0 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1931 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 86 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 2 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.7 1.4 en under age 5 Mortality 0.79 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 53.6 59.5 0.90 Seats held in upper house 11.7 0.13 88.3 1 2.5 1.7 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.68 1 0.43 3.0 Mortality 7.0 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 1.5 6.4 0.24 23.8 27.6 0.86 Average length of single life 1 30 , childbirth Mortality 17.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 42.4 2.37 Legislation on domestic violence yes 30 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.05 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 7.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 7 Potential support ratio lled health personnel 98.60 Births attended by ski Total dependency ratio 51 Antenatal car 92.50 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 303 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

314 rank out of 144 countries  scor e S urinaPe 0.00 = imparity 0.9 1.00 = parity SUR AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 3.62 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 13,113.86 558.37 Total population (1,000s) Education 0.91 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 86 – 0.689 Health Economic participation and opportunity 105 – – 0.618 Educational attainment 73 – – 0.991 ZJsY i :\YPreTi Health and survival 91 0.972 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 71 0.177 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` MT ZJsY i e]k MiTeSi TeSi Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.618 105 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 45.0 73.5 0.61 Labour for ce participation 119 0.612 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – 0.453 0.509 8,810 19,441 0.45 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 120 35.8 0.320 0.558 41 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.2 0.56 38.5 0.758 1.000 1 1.60 Pr ofessional and technical workers 61.5 Educational attainment 0.953 0.991 73 84 0.883 Literacy rate 0.959 94.9 0.96 91.0 93.1 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 93.5 55.6 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 65.6 1.18 – – – – – – Enr olment in tertiary education 0.972 Health and survival 91 0.956 0.93 Sex ratio at birth 132 0.935 0.920 64.9 1.037 1.056 56 Healthy life expectancy 61.4 1.06 0.227 0.177 71 Political empowerment 0.34 0.342 59 Women in parliament 25.5 74.5 0.279 22.2 77.8 0.29 Women in ministerial positions 56 0.286 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 304 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

315 0. /  SU5 TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – – nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater – Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 11.8 3.5 3.36 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 71.5 28.6 Discouraged job seekers 0.40 – – – – nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.60 4.9 3.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 4.7 nment pr Gover 16.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 3.53 yes 2.2 Contributing family workers 2.09 1.1 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 7.9 12.5 0.63 0.85 5.8 4.9 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.95 92.8 88.1 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 30.8 Out-of-school youth 0.81 38.0 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 1.14 23.1 26.2 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners 0.22 Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – 0.18 Firms with female top managers 1.23 Tertiary education attainment, adults 10.1 8.2 1.1 Employers 0.7 0.63 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – ary education attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Terti – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services – Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.23 1.0 1.2 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For – Inheritance rights for daughters 2.58 Arts and Humanities 3.9 1.5 Women’ – ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 36.4 1.31 27.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 0.91 Education 36.6 40.1 ownership – 0.38 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 7.0 18.6 Mean monthly ear – – – .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1948 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 1.23 9.0 7.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 69 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 2.5 1.2 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.02 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.1 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.73 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 1.4 1.5 0.91 Seats held in upper house 10.4 0.12 89.6 1 0.1 0.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.87 1 0.40 0.1 Mortality 0.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.0 0.2 0.29 29.3 32.8 0.89 Average length of single life 1 155 , childbirth Mortality 5.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 14.7 2.90 Legislation on domestic violence yes 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.37 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 10 Potential support ratio led health personnel 90.00 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 50 Antenatal car 66.80 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par – ental rights after divor Parity of par ce – 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 305 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

316 rank out of 144 countries 105 scor e S waziland 0.00 = imparity 0.670 1.00 = parity AVG SWZ 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 3.73 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 7,733.81 Total population (1,000s) 1,343.10 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 1.80 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.94 e 47.15 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 105 – 0.670 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.595 – 112 – Educational attainment 59 0.995 – – wJsY i W^eaPSerK Health and survival 1 0.980 – – i eziYeki wJsY Political empowerment – – 102 0.109 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPw[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk wJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.595 112 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 67.3 0.64 ce participation 113 0.637 0.667 42.8 0.67 0.634 0.668 56 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.457 0.509 5,296 11,585 0.46 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 119 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.995 59 69 0.883 Literacy rate 0.983 83.9 0.98 82.4 79.8 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 81 0.996 0.979 79.4 31.7 1 Enr olment in secondary education 1.000 0.971 40.7 1.28 5.2 5.5 1.05 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.97 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 52.5 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 49.2 1.07 0.227 0.109 102 Political empowerment 0.07 0.066 135 Women in parliament 6.2 93.8 0.279 26.3 73.7 0.36 Women in ministerial positions 35 0.357 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 306 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

317 0.670 / 105 SWZ TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 14.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 31.2 25.7 1.21 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no – Contributing family workers – – value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers – – – 1.01 20.1 20.4 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults – – – – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – 43.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 43.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 10.2 12.3 0.82 Economic Leadership no Law mandates equal pay 26.1 1.18 30.7 Out-of-school youth 2 0.61 Advancement of women to leadership r oles – – – Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 8.0 0.80 6.4 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.56 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 0.9 1.4 0.62 Firms with female top managers 0.38 – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 1.4 0.91 1.3 – – Employers – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 0.72 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 0.0 0.0 R&D personnel – – – – – – PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets – Individuals using the inter net – – – Hold an account at a financial institution – – value male female Women’ part s access to financial services Graduates by Degr ee T ype Agri., For estry , Fisheries and V eterinary 9.1 0.45 4.1 Inheritance rights for daughters part 1.59 4.6 7.3 Arts and Humanities ol and ownership part Women’ s access to land use, contr 32.8 0.91 29.9 Business, Admin. and Law ol and s access to non-land assets use, contr Women’ Education 43.4 39.7 1.09 part ownership Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 1.1 2.4 0.47 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear – – – .) 8.0 elfar e Health and W 2.7 2.96 female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1968 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.36 1.3 3.7 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 49 Services 0.5 – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 4.8 5.1 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 0.95 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 1.2 1.0 en under age 5 Mortality 0.84 no Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 2.5 2.1 1.17 Seats held in upper house 23.8 0.31 76.2 1 2.4 2.0 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.83 1 0.53 0.3 Mortality 0.5 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.1 0.3 0.36 26.8 30.0 0.89 Average length of single life 1 389 , childbirth Mortality 7.9 Pr oportion married by age 25 33.3 4.22 Legislation on domestic violence no 28 Mean age of women at birth of first child – Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 3.08 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 13.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 19 Potential support ratio led health personnel 88.30 Births attended by skil Total dependency ratio 68 Antenatal car 76.10 e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par part ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 307 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

318 rank out of 144 countries  scor e S ZeGen 0.00 = imparity 0. 1.00 = parity AVG S:E 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 511.00 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 46,441.21 Total population (1,000s) 9,837.53 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.75 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.00 e 73.95 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 1 5 0.813 0.816 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.809 0.731 12 9 Educational attainment 37 0.999 23 0.999 ZgsY i :^iKir Health and survival 112 0.969 70 0.973 i e]iYeki ZgsY Political empowerment 1 0.550 8 0.486 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[ergi [s teYP[` M3T MiTeSi e]k ZgsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.809 12 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 84.1 0.95 ce participation 12 0.949 0.667 79.8 0.74 0.634 0.738 25 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.785 0.509 43,249 55,098 0.78 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 13 39.3 0.320 0.647 27 Legislators, senior officials and managers 60.7 0.65 47.6 0.758 1.000 1 1.10 Pr ofessional and technical workers 52.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.999 37 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 99.4 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 65 1.000 0.979 99.4 99.8 97 Enr olment in secondary education 0.996 0.971 99.5 1.00 49.6 75.7 1.53 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.969 Health and survival 112 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 110 0.943 0.920 73.0 1.037 1.027 121 Healthy life expectancy 71.1 1.03 0.227 0.486 8 Political empowerment 0.77 0.772 6 Women in parliament 43.6 56.4 0.279 52.2 47.8 1.09 Women in ministerial positions 1 1.000 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 308 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

319 0.16 /  S:E TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 480 6.5 0.94 Youth not in employment or education 6.9 10.0 0.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater – Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 6.6 7.4 0.90 50.0 Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 47.0 53.0 Discouraged job seekers 1.13 – – gov – nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 1.30 17.2 22.2 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 28.1 nment pr Gover 41.2 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 1.47 yes 0.3 Contributing family workers 1.13 0.2 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 4.2 7.9 0.53 0.82 0.4 0.3 en Out-of-school childr 1.00 475.9 Work, minutes per day 475.2 Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 100.0 100.0 1.34 Pr oportion of unpaid work per day 43.5 32.4 100.0 Primary education attainment, 25-54 1.00 100.0 male value female Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Econ omic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no Out-of-school youth 2.01 1.4 2.9 2 0.82 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.98 75.8 74.3 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies 36.0 64.0 0.56 98.5 99.3 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 0.99 Firms with female (co-)owners 1.11 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 71.7 73.9 1.03 0.14 Firms with female top managers 19.6 Tertiary education attainment, adults 26.3 1.34 32.6 23.3 1.40 ry education attainment, age 25-54 Employers 1.7 0.2 7.04 Tertia 1.15 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 22.5 19.6 R&D personnel 28.4 71.6 0.40 1.5 0.60 0.9 PhD graduates value male female Access to Assets Individuals using the inter 91.1 90.1 net 1.01 99.7 Hold an account at a financial institution 99.8 1.00 value male female s access to financial services Women’ yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 1.08 0.9 1.0 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For yes Inheritance rights for daughters 0.92 Arts and Humanities 5.9 6.3 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 16.2 0.99 16.4 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.82 Education 17.5 6.2 yes ownership 0.26 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 8.7 33.4 0.87 .) 29.2 33.6 nings (1,000s, local curr Mean monthly ear 30.1 elfar e Health and W 11.1 2.72 female male value Political Leadership 6.6 Information and Comm. T echnologies 1.4 0.21 Year women r eceived right to vote 1919 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.61 3.4 5.6 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 98 Services 1.9 0.76 2.4 Number of female heads of state to date 0 13.2 10.9 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 1.21 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.2 en under age 5 Mortality 0.78 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 41.8 38.4 1.09 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.6 0.6 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.01 1 0.78 1.3 Mortality 1.7 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.5 1.1 0.43 31.0 33.1 0.94 Average length of single life 1 4 , childbirth Mortality 2.2 Pr oportion married by age 25 6.4 2.93 Legislation on domestic violence yes 31 Mean age of women at birth of first child 28.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.91 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 3 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 59 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce part 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 309 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

320 rank out of 144 countries 1 scor e S wiWzerland 0.00 = imparity 0.755 1.00 = parity AVG C+E 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 659.83 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 56,625.14 Total population (1,000s) 8,401.74 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 0.93 Population sex ratio (female/male) 0.98 e 76.48 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor 26 21 0.700 0.755 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.743 0.709 31 18 Educational attainment 63 0.993 79 0.957 wJsY i W^P[aiYSerK Health and survival 90 0.972 35 0.979 i eziYeki wJsY Political empowerment 34 0.154 28 0.314 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPw[erJi [s WeYP[` MT MiTeSi ezk wJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.743 31 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 88.6 0.89 ce participation 34 0.894 0.667 79.2 0.71 0.634 0.708 34 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.701 0.509 51,914 74,062 0.70 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 29 35.6 0.320 0.552 43 Legislators, senior officials and managers 64.4 0.55 52.8 0.758 0.894 82 0.89 Pr ofessional and technical workers 47.2 Educational attainment 0.953 0.993 63 1 0.883 Literacy rate 1.000 99.0 1.00 99.0 93.5 1.00 Enr olment in primary education 76 0.997 0.979 93.2 86.0 111 Enr olment in secondary education 0.975 0.971 83.8 0.98 56.9 58.5 1.03 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.972 Health and survival 90 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 74.3 1.037 1.036 98 Healthy life expectancy 71.7 1.04 0.227 0.314 28 Political empowerment 0.48 0.481 35 Women in parliament 32.5 67.5 0.279 28.6 71.4 0.40 Women in ministerial positions 27 0.400 0.209 0.200 6.5 0.15 Years with female head of state (last 50) 20 0.149 43.5 2.00 1.00 0.00 310 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

321 0.755 / 21 CHE TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – 6.7 0.84 Youth not in employment or education 7.9 – 98.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 59.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 4.9 4.4 1.10 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – 18.6 81.4 Discouraged job seekers 4.38 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for 0.71 22.5 16.0 ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes 23.1 nment pr Gover 51.4 Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance 2.22 yes 2.5 Contributing family workers 1.56 1.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 7.1 7.1 1.00 0.24 0.6 0.1 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 1.00 100.0 100.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 100.0 1.00 100.0 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 100.0 100.0 1.00 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 19.7 Out-of-school youth 1.12 17.5 2 0.75 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.92 88.9 81.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 93.5 0.98 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 95.8 Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ 97.1 95.8 0.99 – Firms with female top managers 0.68 Tertiary education attainment, adults 30.0 44.2 34.4 iary education attainment, age 25-54 0.64 22.0 1.6 3.5 Employers 2.19 Tert 0.33 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 9.5 28.6 R&D personnel – – – 4.0 0.47 PhD graduates 1.9 value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 96.7 99.4 0.97 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.48 1.9 0.9 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.68 Arts and Humanities 10.3 6.1 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 26.1 0.85 30.5 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.35 Education 14.0 5.9 ownership yes 0.20 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 4.9 25.2 Mean monthly ear 0.83 6.5 7.8 .) nings (1,000s, local curr 22.0 elfar e Health and W 7.3 3.01 female male value Political Leadership 4.1 Information and Comm. T echnologies 0.5 0.13 Year women r eceived right to vote 1971 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics 0.82 6.0 7.3 Years since any women r eceived voting rights 46 Services 5.2 0.77 6.8 Number of female heads of state to date 5 9.9 4.3 nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour 2.28 Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 0.2 0.1 en under age 5 Mortality 0.80 yes Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 30.3 27.7 1.09 Seats held in upper house – – – 1 0.2 0.3 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 1.20 1 0.96 1.3 Mortality 1.4 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 0.4 0.9 0.49 30.4 32.8 0.93 Average length of single life 1 5 , childbirth Mortality 3.5 Pr oportion married by age 25 9.6 2.78 Legislation on domestic violence yes 32 Mean age of women at birth of first child 10.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 1.55 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s – Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health yes 4 Potential support ratio skilled health personnel – Births attended by Total dependency ratio 49 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par yes ental rights after divor Parity of par ce yes 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 311 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

322 rank out of 144 countries 4 scor e S \ria 0.00 = imparity 0.68 1.00 = parity SYR AVG 1.00 0.40 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 40.41 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) – 18,430.45 Total population (1,000s) Education -1.26 owth rate (%) Population gr Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.02 e Human Capital Index scor – Politics 2006 2017 scor e rank rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 142 – 0.568 Health Economic participation and opportunity 144 – – 0.274 Educational attainment 110 – – 0.956 ZJsY i :`YPe Health and survival 1 0.980 – – i eziYeki ZJsY Political empowerment 130 0.063 – – rank out of 115 144 Y SCORE CARD COUNTR KPZ[erJi [s WeYP[` MT ZJsY i ezk MiTeSi TeSi Yero 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.274 144 0.585 Economic participation and opportunity 13.1 74.0 0.18 Labour for ce participation 144 0.177 0.667 – – – – – Wage equality for similar work (survey) – – – – – – Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) – 8.9 0.320 0.098 120 Legislators, senior officials and managers 91.1 0.10 60.6 0.758 0.650 102 0.65 Pr ofessional and technical workers 39.4 Educational attainment 0.953 0.956 110 108 0.883 Literacy rate 0.839 87.8 0.84 73.6 67.5 0.98 Enr olment in primary education 114 0.975 0.979 65.8 46.8 102 Enr olment in secondary education 0.990 0.971 46.4 0.99 41.3 47.0 1.14 0.938 1.000 1 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.980 Health and survival 1 0.956 0.95 Sex ratio at birth 1 0.944 0.920 59.7 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 52.6 1.13 0.227 0.063 130 Political empowerment 0.15 0.152 110 Women in parliament 13.2 86.8 0.279 6.1 93.9 0.06 Women in ministerial positions 125 0.065 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 312 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

323 0.568 / 142 SYR TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) no Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women – – – Youth not in employment or education – – 120.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 37.1 10.4 3.56 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits – – – Discouraged job seekers – – – – empl nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e no – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – no 8.2 Contributing family workers 3.34 2.4 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 7.8 32.9 0.24 1.05 28.4 29.9 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.77 76.1 58.4 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 – – – female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ – – – Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay no 66.7 Out-of-school youth 0.99 67.2 2 – oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.76 24.8 18.9 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – – – Secondary education attainment, 25-54 – Firms with female (co-)owners – Secondary education attainment, 65+ – – – – Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 2.4 Employers 1.0 0.42 – – – Tertiary education attainment, age 25-54 – cation attainment, age 65+ – – R&D personnel – – – Tertiary edu – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution – – – value male female Women’ s access to financial services part Graduates by Degr ee T ype – – – eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For no Inheritance rights for daughters – Arts and Humanities – – Women’ part ol and ownership s access to land use, contr – – – Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr – Education – – ownership part – Engineering, Manuf. and Construction – – Mean monthly ear 1.07 12.0 11.2 .) nings (1,000s, local curr – elfar e Health and W – – female male value Political Leadership – Information and Comm. T echnologies – – Year women r eceived right to vote 1949 Natural Sci., Mathematics and Statistics – – – Years since any women r eceived voting rights 68 Services – – – Number of female heads of state to date 0 – – nalism and Information Social Sci., Jour – Election list quotas for women, national – female male value Election list quotas for women, local – Health 1 , childr 3.3 2.7 en under age 5 Mortality 0.82 – Voluntary political party quotas 1 Mortality , non-communicable diseases 31.2 37.5 0.83 Seats held in upper house 34.7 0.53 65.3 1 1.2 1.1 , infectious and parasitic diseases Mortality 0.87 1 0.30 1.2 Mortality 4.2 , accidental injuries value female male Family 1 Mortality , intentional injuries, self-harm 18.7 44.0 0.42 25.4 29.3 0.87 Average length of single life 1 – , childbirth Mortality 9.1 Pr oportion married by age 25 42.8 4.70 Legislation on domestic violence no 29 Mean age of women at birth of first child 25.0 Pr evalence of gender violence in lifetime 2.92 Average number of childr en per woman Law permits abortion to pr eserve a woman’ s 10.00 Women's unmet demand for family planning physical health no 14 Potential support ratio by skilled health personnel – Births attended Total dependency ratio 71 Antenatal car – e, at least four visits ental rights in marriage Parity of par no ental rights after divor Parity of par ce no 1 2 Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population. Data on a 0-to-1 scale (0 = worst score, 1 = best score) 313 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

324 rank out of 144 countries 95 scor e T ajikistan 0.00 = imparity 0.678 1.00 = parity AVG TJK 0.40 1.00 distribution of countries by scor e T GLANCE SCORE A KEY INDICA TORS GDP (US$ billions) 6.95 Economy GDP per capita (constant '11, intl. $, PPP) 2,762.59 Total population (1,000s) 8,734.95 Education Population gr owth rate (%) 2.13 Population sex ratio (female/male) 1.01 e 63.79 Human Capital Index scor Politics 2017 2006 rank scor e rank scor e e Global Gender Gap scor – 95 – 0.678 Health Economic participation and opportunity 0.708 – 52 – Educational attainment 115 0.941 – – ZJsY i ;enPoPZ[er Health and survival 67 0.976 – – i e]iYeki ZJsY Political empowerment – – 117 0.088 rank out of 144 115 COUNTR Y SCORE CARD KPZ[erJi [s teYP[` jT jiTeSi e]k ZJsY i Yero TeSi 1.00 0.00 2.00 0.708 52 Economic participation and opportunity 0.585 Labour for 80.4 0.77 ce participation 82 0.772 0.667 62.1 0.76 0.634 0.759 20 Wage equality for similar work (survey) 0.578 0.509 2,181 3,771 0.58 Estimated ear ned income (PPP , US$) 90 – – – – Legislators, senior officials and managers – – – – – – – Pr ofessional and technical workers – Educational attainment 0.953 0.941 115 55 0.883 Literacy rate 0.995 99.7 1.00 99.2 97.1 1.01 Enr olment in primary education 1 1.000 0.979 98.5 87.6 129 Enr olment in secondary education 0.898 0.971 78.7 0.90 33.6 24.0 0.72 0.938 0.715 118 Enr olment in tertiary education 0.976 Health and survival 67 0.956 0.94 Sex ratio at birth 129 0.939 0.920 65.0 1.037 1.060 1 Healthy life expectancy 59.7 1.09 0.227 0.088 117 Political empowerment 0.24 0.235 88 Women in parliament 19.0 81.0 0.279 5.9 94.1 0.06 Women in ministerial positions 126 0.063 0.209 0.200 0.0 0.00 Years with female head of state (last 50) 69 0.000 50.0 2.00 1.00 0.00 314 The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

325 0.678 / 95 TJK TA SELECTED CONTEXTUAL DA female male value female male value ce Participation Car e Workfor ental leave (days) yes Length of par Non-discrimination laws, hiring women 478 – – Youth not in employment or education – – 140.0 nity leave (days) nity/pater Length of mater 100.0 Unemployed adults nity/pater Wages paid during mater nity leave 10.5 12.3 0.85 – Pr ovider of par ental leave benefits gov 31.2 68.8 Discouraged job seekers 2.20 – – – gov nity leave benefits nity/pater Pr ovider of mater Workers in informal employment – High-skilled shar e of labour for – – – ce Gover nment supports or pr ovides childcar e yes – nment pr Gover – Workers employed part-time ovides child allowance – yes 0.3 Contributing family workers 0.51 0.6 value male female Education and Skills Own-account workers 40.8 51.2 0.80 0.21 1.8 0.4 en Out-of-school childr – – Work, minutes per day – Primary education attainment, adults 0.98 98.3 96.0 – Pr oportion of unpaid work per day – – Primary education attainment, 25-54 99.7 1.00 99.7 female value male Primary education attainment, 65+ 97.7 98.9 0.99 Economic Leadership Law mandates equal pay yes 48.4 Out-of-school youth 1.58 30.6 2 0.69 oles Advancement of women to leadership r 0.87 84.4 73.6 Secondary education attainment, adults Boar ds of publicly traded companies – – – 80.9 0.91 Secondary education attainment, 25-54 88.8 Firms with female (co-)owners 0.49 Secondary education attainment, 65+ 78.8 51.1 0.65 0.11 Firms with female top managers – Tertiary education attainment, adults – – 17.0 ttainment, age 25-54 0.61 10.3 0.6 0.1 Employers 0.21 Tertiary education a 0.26 Tertiary education attainment, age 65+ 6.4 24.9 R&D personnel – – – – – PhD graduates – value male female Access to Assets – – Individuals using the inter net – Hold an account at a financial institution 9.1 13.9 0.65 value male female Women’ s access to financial services yes Graduates by Degr ee T ype 0.10 3.9 0.4 eterinary estry , Fisheries and V Agri., For part Inheritance rights for daughters 1.19 Arts and Humanities 11.8 10.0 Women’ yes ol and ownership s access to land use, contr 4.1 0.47 8.8 Business, Admin. and Law ol and Women’ s access to non-land assets use, contr 2.47 Education 31.9 12.9 ownership part 0.20 Engineering, Manuf. and Construction 3.6 17.5 Mean