OppForAll2

Transcript

1 Opportunity for All Opportunity for All How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access The U.S. IMPACT Study A research initiative examining the impact of free access to computers and the Internet in public libraries. Principal Authors Samantha Becker Michael D. Crandall Karen E. Fisher Rebecca Blakewood Bo Kinney Cadi Russell-Sauvé

2 This report and its appendices can be downloaded at http://tascha.washington.edu/usimpact. Published June 2011 in the United States of America by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). IMLS will provide visually impaired or learning-disabled individuals with an audio recording of this publication upon request. Contact Institute of Museum and Library Services 1800 M Street NW, 9th Floor Washington, DC 20036 202-653-IMLS (4657) www.imls.gov Suggested Citation Becker, Samantha, Michael D. Crandall, Karen E. Fisher, Rebecca Blakewood, Bo Kinney, and Cadi Russell-Sauvé. (2011). Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access (IMLS-2011-RES-01). Institute of Museum and Library Services. Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Not available at the time of printing.

3 Contents 3 ... Foreword Executive Summary ... 5 1 Introduction ... 9 ... 12 2 Coalitions and Strategies for Digital Inclusion A Cycle of Demand for Public Internet Access in Libraries 12 ... 2.1 Factors Affecting the Quality of Public Access Services in Public Libraries ... 13 2.2 ... Acceptable Levels of Access: How Much is Enough? 16 2.3 2.4 ... 17 Conclusion 3 Public Access Services in Four Communities ... 19 3.1 Case Study Visits ... 19 3.2 The En och Pratt Free Library ... 20 3.3 Fayetteville Public Library ... 39 3.4 The Oakland Public Library ... 58 3.5 Marshalltown Public Library 72 ... 4 A Look at the Factors that Affect the Character of Public Access Service 85 ... 4.1 External Demands and Public Access Service ... 85 4.2 Political Relationships ... 89 4.3 ... 90 Relationships with Supporters 4.4 Organizational Capacity and Public Access Service ... 95 Library Resources and Services 4.5 99 ... 4.6 Conclusion ... 105 ... 5 Recommendations 106 5.1 Within the Library ... 106 5.2 Within the Community ... 109 5.3 Across the Nation ... 111 5.4 Future Research ... 112 113 ... 5.5 Conclusion 115 ... References How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 2 | Opportunity for All:

4 Foreword Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access is a companion volume to the first report in the U.S. IMPACT Study, Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries . T his second report from the study looks at the libraries providing public access technology to use rs across the country. Through nearly 300 interviews with staff, users, funding agencies, community -based organizations, and support organizations in four case study sites (Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland; Fayetteville Public Library in Fay etteville, Arkansas; Oakland Public Library in Oakland, California ; and Marshalltown Public Library in Marshalltown, Iowa), along with data derived from the Institute of Museum and veys, Library Services annual Public Library Survey and the U.S. IMPACT Study sur this report explores the factors involved in providing and supporting public access technology services through public libraries. the service environments The four libraries used in the case studies reflect encountered by the vast majority of library patrons and provide a solid foundation for the exploration of policy tradeoffs and their consequences, as well as opportunities for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of public access technology and the services associated with that technol ogy. The goal of this report is for libraries to recognize themselves in the characteristics of the case studies and to be able to identify policy implications related to their operations from the discussions in the report. As noted in the first report fro m this study, this project has been the result of many people’s labor and support over the three years of field study and analysis. In addition to the many people and organizations mentioned in the first report who provided expert advice and significant co ntributions to the research, we would also like to acknowledge the continuing contribution of University of Washington students to this work, especially Ahsan Ali, Joel Turner, Cortney Leach, Paul Simons, and Ke (Claire) Ding, who joined the g the analysis and writing of this second report. research durin We would like to acknowledge once more the generosity of the Institute of Museum and Library Services, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the libraries and communities that provided their time and sup port in allowing us to gather the information in the field that made this second report possible: the Enoch Pratt Free Library, Fayetteville Public Library, Oakland Public Library, and their Marshalltown Public Library. The leaders and key personnel who donated insights and provided access to key community members were instrumental in How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 3 | Opportunity for All:

5 gaining the rich materials that were mined to produce this analysis. We would especially like to thank the se library leaders : Carla Hayden, Ann Smith, Pat Costello, Louise Sch aper, Shawna Thorup, Carmen Martinez, Diane Satchwell, Carole Winkleblack, and Brian Soneda. We hope that this report and its companion will be useful for libraries as an aid in informing the public of the value of public computing services, and that funde rs and policymakers will find the results of interest as they consider future efforts in this area. Public libraries have become an essential component to , and we believe the local communities access to the Internet and computers in results of our research show that the impact of these services is well worth the investment of public dollars and resources to make this possible. Michael D. Crandall, MLIS Co -principal investigator Karen E. Fisher, PhD Co -principal investigator Samantha Becker, MLIS, MPA Research Manager How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 4 | Opportunity for All:

6 Executive Summary How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Opportunity for All: Access is the second report from the U.S. IMPACT Study research into the users access technology in public libraries . It highlights the ways in and uses of public contribut ion to their which public libraries can maximize this critical as it at the same time es related address communities policy priorities at the national level. The U.S. IMPACT Study t eam visited four public libraries representing a range of community characteristics and operational environments. These sites were selected to account for the types of library environments most patrons encounter in U.S. public libraries as well as the rang e of issues and concerns faced by library administrators, librarians, and other staff in providing public technology. library staff Interviews with users, , and community stakeholders, including s) , government agencies, -based organizations (CBO unity people from comm the foundation to discuss the wide range of , provide schools, and library funders internal and external factors that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of public access technology services . The following recommendations for good practice wer e drawn from the interviews with a wide range of local stakeholders . ith Other Integrate Technology Services w Library Services Public access technology and technology help and training are integral s aspect provide communities. The allocation of space and of the value libraries personnel resources for public access computing in particular affects library patrons, as well as library staff, administration, and other community members. The policy a library decides to adopt to govern computer time limits, for instance, not only affects the tasks a patron can accomplish on the computer, but also affects staff interactions with patrons. Activity -Based Budgeting c an Help Account of Public Access Services for the Cost -based budgeting highlights the costs of providing certain library Activity functions and is helpful for planning and allocating costs. Showing the technology costs and staff time as a functional area in library budgets will help reflect the full cost of library computer services and make it easier to tie the How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 5 | Opportunity for All:

7 expenditures to strategic planning goals. Libraries are often not reporting in a access to patrons, visible way the costs of providing computer and Internet which include not only the hardware, software, maintenance and replacement costs, and upgra de costs for the technology itself, but also staff time on computer operations and time answering computer -related questions. Understanding the real costs of technology in the library is a first step toward estment needed for demonstrating to funding agencies the overall inv g, and services in libraries. It will also computers and related technology, trainin in identifying efficient models of public access technology services. help going Technical Training f or Provide On Library Staff The role of librarians in enabling public access technology services requires constant training and updating of their technical skills. Librarians play an important role in “mediating between users and technology” (O’Gorman and Trott 2009, p. 328). The need for increased technology training was expressed by many of the staff interviewed for the case studies and was reflected in the training programs instituted by the libraries themselves. The case study libraries dealt with staff technical training in very different ways, ranging from online training modules in Fayetteville and Baltimore to the do -it-yourself approach in Oakland (a result of their severe budget cuts). Without the commitment of the integration into evaluation mechanisms for staff leadership and performance, training takes a back seat to other more pressing duties. often Making skills development and technical training part of the expected daily activities of staff, and including these elements in the costs of offering public access technology services , is critical to the overall success of public access technology programs and to the success of patrons who depend on the expertise of library staff when utilizing library equipment. Formalize Relationships w ith Community - Based Organizations This study identified a wide range of interdependencies between public access computing services through local libraries and the services provided by local . The study found that p ublic and private sector agencies governments and CBOs send clients and customers to the public library to use the computers for a wide variety of needs . In some cases, they also send staff to use the library computers and be trained . While many libraries have direct program partnerships, it is not uncommon for agencies that are not in explicit partnerships to refer clients to Internet computing services without the awareness of and the public library for Libraries can be more active in accounting for and addressing the library staff. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 6 | Opportunity for All:

8 additional pressures these service referrals bring . First, they can in two ways access at other venues work with other groups to expand public Internet . work to uncover and formalize relationship s with agreements Second, they can that may a more explicit accounting of the project resources needed to include execute the work and, in some cases, the contractual obligation of financial support . Establish a Set of Common Indicators f or Public Library Technology Services Use of valid and reliable indic ators as a basis of a performance evalu ation and measurement system can improv e performance and stimulat e reinvestment in public access technology resources and services. Benchmarks can be used both locally and nationally to influence policymakers and fund ers by demonstrating the extent to which these resources are used and the important outcomes that result. They also help libraries better manage their resources and set appropriate motivating goals for librarians and other staff. o Communicate the tories t Use Data and S Value o f Public Access Technology Communicating the value, both in terms of quality and quantity, that library computer access provides to the community is critical for expanding the library’s base of support and increasing funding. Interv iews with key stakeholders in funding and support organizations in the case studies showed that both data and stories were necessary for the message to engage their attention. Focusing on ways to package and deliver key messages about public access computi ng services to the right people and organizations in the community is an important activity for all libraries, no matter how they are funded. The combination of solid, outcome -based measures of public access technology results with stories from users who h ave taken advantage of the services and can articulate why it is important to the community is essential for building and maintaining the support of funders and influential backers in the community. Stories need to be specific and personal. Leverage Libr ar y Technology Resources to Enhance Broadband Adoption a nd Support A unique opportunity for libraries has opened up with the recent publication of the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC’s) Connecting America: The ent of Commerce 2010). In that report, (U.S. Departm National Broadband Plan the FCC discusses the specific and important role of public libraries and other How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 7 | Opportunity for All:

9 CBOs in meeting the needs of the American public for access to the Internet. The report reinforces many of the points made in this study, particularly the critical role library staff play in providing help for users new to the Internet and the limitations imposed by inadequate space and equipment to meet those users’ needs . Conclusion Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access provides useful lessons for libraries in communities across the country from an analysis of the findings from the four case studies and the surveys that formed the basis of the U.S. IMPACT Study. It has placed those findings in a framework that allows libraries to calibrate their approaches to the complex problems involved in providing public access computing services to their communities, and to make the difficult choices between options available for with often inadequate resources. achieving their missions The central importance of defining a clear mission focused on the needs and eristics of the local community is the basis for many of the charact recommendations that have come out of this analysis. Those libraries that have made the effort to understand the local landscape and take the steps necessary to meet the changing needs of their stakeholders and users have been able to integrate public access computing services into their offerings in different ways. f this reflection of the local community is perhaps the most The importance o to be drawn from this analysis. Although the problems and salient conclusion opportunities facing libraries across the country as they incorporate access to offerings are similar in nature, their the Internet and computers into their solutions may be radically different if they are doing their job well. As shown in both this report and its companion, the American people rely on for the public libraries of the country for access to computers and the I nternet many reasons, and libraries everywhere have responded in different ways to these demands. This report has attempted to illuminate some of the key factors that libraries should take into consideration as they marshal their resources to better meet the increasing demand for their technology services, so they can the needs of their users and the demands of their stakeholders. satisfy How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 8 | Opportunity for All:

10 Introduction The Internet has had a profound impact on the scope of public library service , as see computer and Internet libraries and the public now access as central to both the mission of the public library. This shift has required libraries and librarians to rethink their traditional service models and in some cases to rearticulate their missions to accommodate the role of technology and to expand services . Today, virtually every public library in the United States provides p ublic access Internet 1 computers. Change comes with a cost —often, shifting resources away from traditional services. Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access is the second report from the U.S. IMPACT Study research into the users and uses of public access technology in public libraries and how these services impact individuals, families, and communities. The first report, Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries , showed how individuals use computers and the Internet in public libraries to accomplish important tasks for themselves and oth ers. Th at report documented the extent to which the public depends on public library technology to participate in digital culture and how public Internet members of access helps the public accomplish goals that improve their lives. w the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at Opportunity for All: Ho reported findings from a national telephone and web survey that U.S. Libraries showed that 32 percent of the U.S. population age d 14 or over have used a public library computer or wireless network to a ccess the Internet in the past year. As a result of public library technology access: • Thirty two and a half million people (42 percent of public access technology users) pursued educational activities, with youth being major users of library computers for this purpose. Among educational users, 37 percent did homework , 24 percent took online classes , and 37 percent looked for information about college or vocational programs. • Forty percent (30 million people) of public access technology users used library computers and Internet access for employment or career purposes. Among these users, 76 percent used library computers to search for jobs , 46 percent worked on their resumes , and 23 percent received training re lated to their jobs or professions. An estimated 3.7 million people were actually hired for positions for which they applied using library computers or wireless networks. 9 How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access | Opportunity for All:

11 • Twenty -eight million people (37 percent of public access technology users) sought inf ormation or carried out tasks related to health and wellness. Over 80 percent of people who used public Internet access in libraries for health and wellness needs looked for information about illnesses or other medical conditions , 60 percent learned about diet or nutrition , and 48 percent found out about exercise or fitness. Among those looking for dietary or exercise information, more than 80 percent made changes to their diets or fitness regimes. Significant numbers of library patrons also use public acc • ess technology , access , maintain social connections to start or manage businesses government and legal services , manage household finances , and participate in community life. From nearly 300 interviews with patrons, library staff, and community stakeholder s in four U.S. cities and thousands of comments left in the web survey, Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries also provided the context of how free access to patrons and their families. The computers and the Internet benefits library using library technology revealed stories of users and their accomplishments both the need for library technology in American communities, as well as the importance of these resources and services to their users. Providing in public libraries is a major free access to computers and the Internet investment of public resources. But it is one, as shown in Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries , that creates significant valu e for the American public. Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access picks up where Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries left off and delves deeper into the benefits of public access technology in public libraries for community -, economic- , social- , and national - level policy goals. It also documents the tradeoffs libraries make in providing can evaluate and communicate the value of public these services and how they access technology to stakeholders and funders. The specific goals of this report are threefold: 1. To discuss the service and resource dimensions of providing public access technology in public libraries and to explore how differences in the library’s community, funding, service orientation, and library policies may affect the quality of public access services. . through the examples of four case studies how these To demonstrate 2. policy and resource allocation decisions impact the outcomes library ns are able to achieve using public access technology and how patro How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 10 | Opportunity for All:

12 relationships with external stakeholders affect the library’s ability to provide these services 3. To provide recommendations for dealing with internal and external policy issues depending on the library’s community and system size. Chapter 2 provides background information on the ways in which public libraries are defined as an appropriate place —and in many communities the only place —for public access to the Internet and the challenges of determi ning 3 examines the acceptable levels of access within resource constraints. Chapter internal and external policy environment s through the interviews conducted with staff, policymakers, community -based organizations (CBOs), and others in a the four case stud y library communities. Chapter 4 takes a deeper look at how range of internal and external factors in the local environment affect the demand for library services and the different policy options available to libraries 5 provides recommendations to response to these conditions . Finally, Chapter to all library types for improving public access services, as well as recommendations for national policy action and additional research that could . help improve public access technology services in libraries How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 11 | Opportunity for All:

13 Strategies for Digital Inclusion digital divide debate was The tion that rapid advances in an early recogni Internet and communication technologies can result in disparate and unequal outcomes . Early on in this debate , public libraries were identified as vital partner puter and Internet s in addressing disparities in access to com technologies (U.S. years, artment of Commerce 1995) . Over the last 15 Dep 2 public computing services in libraries have blossomed into a core service area, with virtually every library in the country adopting the service as a core function of their traditional role of providing information . es the growth of this unique service and the role public This chapter discuss libraries comput ing and the play as principal community access points for Internet services . It concludes by examining the challenge of determining acceptable levels of access and the resource constraints that libraries face in delivery levels. sustaining current service 2.1 A Cycle of Demand for Public Internet Access in Libraries The growing necessity of computing to participate in activities of everyday life public anchor institutions as community coupled with the visibility of libraries and supplier demand for library s of information combined to create high demand for technology resources computing services. Increased spurred growth and investment in computer technology and physical infrastructure s necessary to expand access for patrons . As a result of this cycle of demand, t he adoption of the Internet aries has been rapid, especially compared with other by libr technologies: “In contrast [to the Internet], it took nearly 40 years after its commercial development before a majority of libraries adopted the typewriter” (Dowlin 1999, p. 22). State and federal fundi ng initiatives bolstered by major donations from private foundations played an important role in libraries becoming key providers of public access technology. The funding initiatives , such as discounted access fees through the Federal Communications Co mmission’s ) “E -rate” program, (FCC’s technology support through the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) administered by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) , and the support of private donors such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundatio n, leveraged resources . These efforts help propel libraries into the state and local forefront of public access services while other providers such as community technology centers, community -based nonprofit organizations , and other How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 12 | Opportunity for All:

14 private , s uch as computer kiosks, were just getting off the access models ground. Improved services at the lo cal level may have had the effect of further increas ing demand as patrons beca me more familiar with digital resources offered by public libraries , including online tutorials, databases, e -books, and other web -based resources, that are not always available at other public access . These resources are often supplemented by training programs centers and one - on support to help patrons identify education resource s, acc ess health -one information , conduct job search es, and other important tasks. Patron demand related to job seeking during the current recession, in particular, seems to have created the most recent upward pressure on demand for public access in libraries (Davis 2006 ). Factors Affecting the Quality of Public 2.2 Access Services in Public Libraries The acceptance of libraries as centers for public technology access and the growth of these services in the early years were strongly influenced by a policy local demand and investment, national confluence of factors including , and state - and national- level investments . While there has been concerns investment in these services in public libraries across the country , considerable influence the quality of services at the local there are a number of factors that level . Funding over the last 10 years Although library connectivity has grown , libraries are still challenged to keep pace with demand for public Internet . A 1998 services 90 percent evaluation of the “OnLine at PA Libraries” grant program found that of the state’s library directors reported that they were unable to fund Internet workstations (Oder 1998). By 2003, 25 percent of the libraries that had received Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funding in 1997 were finding it difficult to sustain their programs. These “fragile” libraries were generally small, rural, and/or independent libraries (Gordon, Moore, and Gordon 2004). More recent studies have found that m any libraries h ave no set schedule for technology upgrades, and the majority of libraries’ technology budgets do not increase annually (Jaeger, Bertot, McClure, and Langa 2006). Challenges in technology funding are not the only budgetary issues that affect computer and Internet access. According to a study conducted by the American received decreases in funding Library Association (ALA) in 2006, libraries that consequently reduce d services in the following order: materials, staffing, hours How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 13 | Opportunity for All:

15 of operation , and electronic ac 2006). All four of these service cess (Davis reductions have an impact on library computer users, who often rely on staff for computer training and assistance accompany their computer use while they with use of traditional and online library materials . Ph ysical and Technological Infrastructure A l ibrary’ s physical infrastructure may place further limits on its ability to increase the availability of computer and Internet access to meet demand . quate space Common p hysical infrastructure problems reported include inade for workstations and lack of electrical outlets and cabling for adding additional Bertot and Davis 2007; Bertot, McClure , and Jaeger terminals (Bertot 2009; 2008b ; Garafolo 1995). Technical and connectivity issues include inadequate bandwidth t o support additional terminals, lack of broadband Internet service providers in some areas, and difficulty in maintaining or upgrading hardware and software of existing workstations ( Bertot 2003; Bertot, McClure , and Jaeger Clark 2008b ; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 2004; Davis, Bertot, McClure , and 2009; Lowe 2008; McClure, Ryan, Moen 1993). and Physical and technological infrastructure limitations may be part of the reason Internet why analysts have documented a leveling off in the number of workstations per public library outlet . Several authors have identified an “infrastructure plateau” that is influenced heavily by library size, space limitations, and technical/telecommunications issues ( Bertot and Davis 2007; Davis Bertot, McClure Jaeger 2008b ; Clark and , and 2008; McClure, Jaeger, and Bertot 2007). Bandwidth Availability of bandwidth is a critical limiting factor in libraries meeting the demands placed on public access services by patrons. The ALA’s Office of Information Technol ogy Policy (OITP) note s in a 2007 report that, due to the new uses and increasing complexity of Internet applications, “one of the most crucial issues to emerge in recent years has been maintaining adequate connectivity, or bandwidth” ( Weingarten, Bolt, Bard , and Windhausen 2007, p. 1). Though U.S. libraries have largely report ed a stable number of workstations per outlet since 2007 , the addition of wireless Internet connectivity in libraries has percent of , 75 . In a re cent study affected the overall access speed of the facility libraries reported that wireless was added without increasing purchased , further stressing networks that the majority of libraries already bandwidth reported were insufficient for meeting patron demand some or all of the time How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 14 | Opportunity for All:

16 tot, McClure (Ber Jaeger 2008 b; Davis, Bertot, McClure , and Clark 2009 ; , and and Bertot 2007 Jaeger, Bertot, McClure, ). Langa 2006; McClure, Jaeger, and report, ALA’s OITP In a 2007 an “absolute minimum standard” be recommended set at 1.5 megabytes per second for library connection speed, while acknowledging that most libraries need much more than this ( Weingarten, Bolt, Bard , and Windhausen 2007, p. 39) . In 2009, only half of U.S. public libraries had met this minimum ( Langa, Grimes, Sigler, and Simmon s 2010) . Bertot, Library Staff In order to accept and successfully provide public access technology, library staffs need a variety of skills in the areas of technology, information literacy, service and facilities planning, management, and leadership and advocacy (Bertot 2009). Lack of funding for staff training is a significant barrier for public McClu library technology access (Tomasello and re 2003). As Internet technologies change, library staff report needing to receive updated training, for instance to help them understand broadband connectivity ( Weingarten, Bolt, Bard , and 2007 ). As one state librarian put it: “If ‘location, lo cation, Windhausen location’ is the key to real estate success, ‘training, training, training’ is the key to network success” (Chepesiuk 1996, p. 44). Patron Demand Demand for library computers and Internet access has grown at a precipitous rate in the last 10 years . In many libraries, throngs of patrons rushing to the computers the moment the library opens are a common sight as more everyday activities require Internet access (Barber and Wallace 2008; Mantell 2008). Many news stories on library use in economic downt urns highlight increased demand for library computers by job seekers (Brustein 2009; Gronowska 2009; Cullotta 2009; Yates 2009). and Saulny Besides use by patrons who lack Internet access at home, one factor driving patron demand are the i s of Internet users who need or ncreasing number expect access in more than one location. In 2001, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration ( NTIA ) found the number of people using the Internet in more than one location was growing at a fast pace, leading them to conclude that “the Internet is increasingly viewed as a basic communication and information tool, closer in nature to the telephone than the desktop computer” ( U.S. Department of Commer ce 2002) . The U.S. IMPACT Study bore this out as it pertains to public library access: 78 percent of public library Internet users have access at home, work, school, or somewhere ters et al. 2010). Further, the study found that public library compu else (Becker serve as an important safety net for situations where household competition, How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 15 | Opportunity for All:

17 temporary Internet , travel, and equipment malfunctions disrupt service outages access. a patron’s usual al, state, Demand for public library computers has also been influenced by feder and local government s’ increased focus on making government resources —in some cases, eliminating traditional formats. In 1996, the available online U.S. Government Printing Office reframed its Federal Depository Library Program, which distribute s government information to designated libraries, placing greater emphasis on electronic access, including public access workstations ( U.S. Government Printing Office 1996) . The E -government Act of providing indirectly reinforced the role of public libraries in Internet 2002 access for citizens by increasing the federal g ’ use of electronic records overnments (Jaeger, Bertot, McClure , and Langa 2005 ). As governments shift to electronic documents and processes, the burden of assisting citizens who have limited or no access to computers has devolved to community -based public access facilities. As the primary provider of technology services and a trusted community resource for information, public libraries by default have become the local access point for government information services such as Medicare , applications, tax forms, and emergency relief assistance (Bertot, Jaeger, Langa 2006a , 2006b and McClure Weingarten, Bolt, 2007; ; McClure, Jaeger, and Bertot Bard , and 2007) . Windhausen Acceptable Leve How M uch is 2.3 ls of Access: Enough ? access and to Libraries have struggled to determine acceptable levels of Internet ensure that they meet high of public service . At a time when most standards libraries have some degree of access , the push to define sufficient access is gaining momentum, with some libraries, library researchers, and funders calling for standards and benchmarks as a way to help sustain practice and incent ivize public and private investment. efining adequate access can be a challenge as the needs of local However, d ies vary substantially and the rate of innovation in information and communit communication technolog y (ICT) dramatic ally affect s what is considered adequate from one day to the next. The variables used to measure ac cess levels include the number of workstations; bandwidth and connection speed; community characteristics such as poverty, level of home connectivity, and availability of alternative access points; and patron demand. oked factor in adequate access is the Another important but sometimes overlo amount of time that libraries are open. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in a divide noted that maintaining building igital 2004 report on libraries and the d How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 16 | Opportunity for All:

18 hours was a key component of public access that threatened by was often budget challenges (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 2004). Jaeger, Bertot, McClure, and Rodriguez (2007) also include library open hours as one of the conditions of sufficient access. The importance of library operating hours on public computer access highlights the impact that nontechnology issues and external conditions can have on computer and Internet provision. Library open hours are linked to the quality of experience the user receives, as outlined by the NTIA: Where peopl e use the Internet may have implications for the quality of access they enjoy ( ., the degree of availability or access they actually i.e have) or the type of activities they undertake online. For example, home Internet access may be thought of as a higher q uality type of access because it is available (theoretically) 24 hours a day, seven days a week, while school or library access periods are limited to specific hours and often with time limits per session. (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2002) While digital inclusion initiatives at the national level, like the Broadband ), promote both infrastructure BTOP Technology Opportunities Program ( developments as well as public access, initiatives at the local level have also er providers, gain support from city supported public access. Libraries, and oth councils, library boards, local voters, and other groups for increasing resources for digital inclusion. These activities include efforts to increase availability of public access computers, partnerships with other publ ic access service providers, and the creation of new training programs and online resources for increasing digital literacy. 2.4 Conclusion are Public libraries unique position s within the digital inclusion policy area. in With their history of service, p rominence in local communities , existing infrastructure, and professional staff , public libraries are well placed to play a central role in policies and programs designed to provide a wide range of public comput ing and Internet services in communities acro ss the country . Alt hough the demand for Internet access and electronic resources in public libraries continue s to grow, m any libraries face barriers to expanding public access services because of funding, physical and technological infrastructure, and ; Bertot, McClure, and Jaeger 2008a. bandwidth challenges (Bertot 2009 ; Bertot and escribes the problem: Davis 2007; Garafolo 1995). As Block (2003) d —you can’t Buying technology for your library is like mowing the lawn do it just once and be done with it. Once you’ve got the computers and How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 17 | Opportunity for All:

19 connections and the databases, you have to keep on the fast Internet buying newer faster comp uters, because no matter how many you have, your patrons will want more. You must continually buy new or upgraded software for all those machines. You have to hire expensive techies to make all the systems work, and spend money training staff on how to use them . (p. 187) outreach As a result, some libraries may be hesitant to expand services and or may to advertise they be unable to respond to the computer resources because growth in demand for services. However, the future of public access services , demand continues to grow whose , depends on public and political support . The decisions about following chapter will examine some of the factors influencing that emerged from an public access technology services in public libraries analysis of the case studies and survey responses in the U. S. Impact Study research. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 18 | Opportunity for All:

20 Public Access Services in Four Communities The U.S. IMPACT Study team spent four weeks in the field visiting public libraries, talking to and observing patrons using library computers, and interv iewing library staff, administrators, library trustees and friends, and local 3 They also spent time at other public access venues and government officials. -based service organizations. These visits afforded a talked to staff at community deep understanding of how public access technology fits into the life of a community and the lives of library patrons. case study sites reflect a wide range of community characteristics; diverse The public access modes of , service delivery ; a variety of relationships with CB Os policymakers, and funders; and different approaches to , for the libraries, administrative policies and operational constraints. T his chapter will discuss external and internal factors that affect public access services in public libraries through the l enses of these four case studies . The case studies are presented with a focus on how policy and resource allocation decisions impact the outcomes library patrons are able to achieve using public access technology and how relationships with external stakeho lders affect the library’s ability to provide these services. Case Study Visits 3.1 While no library or community can truly be said to be typical many of another, readers will see aspects of their own communities reflected in these cases. Within these four cases are public libraries that serve large urban areas and small remote communities; multibranch and single -outlet libraries; well- resourced systems and libraries struggling to provide service in a constrained budget environment. The sel ection process occurred in three stages: • U.S. libraries were matched with U.S. Census population data at the county level and points were a ward to communities with higher than ed average levels of diversity, immigrant populations, and poverty. Libraries wit h top community scores were balanced according to the • size of the population served, per capita funding levels, geographic regions, and urban status. • The library’s ability to participate in the study and recommendations from state librarians and other exp erts were considered. The case study sites selected were: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 19 | Opportunity for All:

21 • (population 632,941) Enoch Pratt Free Library: Baltimore, Maryland Public Library (FPL): Fayetteville, Arkansas (population • Fayetteville 57,491) • Oakland Public Library (OPL) : Oakland, California (population 431,634) • Marshalltown Public Library (MPL) : Marshalltown , Iowa (population 30,353) Though the communities these libraries serve vary substantially , librarians and library leaders in each case spoke clearly about the resource constraints they are experiencing in the deliver y of public access technology services. Indeed, respondents referenced many of the same concerns: not enough computers to meet demand , not enough time to spend helping patrons , lack of technology , and lack of sufficient funding to address those infrastructure and physical space problems. The section provides a comparative summary of case study library following characteristics and an in-depth review of each field visit . In orde r to focus the analysis of the four case study visits, classify observations , and discuss local main program implementation , a framework consisting of three categories was applied to the case study data. This framework drew out how the libraries lue for their communities through programs and services targeted to created va the specific needs of their communities; how they generated support through engaging external stakeholders, developing partnerships, and communicating the value of the library to funders and decision makers; and how they organized their operations and administration to create the most value possible within their resource constraints. 3.2 The Enoch Pratt Free Library To provide equal access to information and services that support, empower , and enrich all who pursue knowledge, education, cultural enrichment, and lifelong learning. –Enoch Pratt Free Library Mission Statement We are the leveler for the people in this city. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 20 | Opportunity for All:

22 –Dr. Carla Hayden, Chief Executive Officer The Enoch Pratt Free Library, located in Baltimore, Maryland, was the first of four library systems the U.S. IMPACT Study research team visited in order to better understand the users of public access technology, how libraries provide s, and the role these resources play in the library’s public access service community. Table 1: Case Study Details The Pratt Library is a Study site visit March 15 to 22, 2009 dynamic community Central Library Visit locations , institution that Orleans Branch Library Southeast Anchor Library despite high demand Interviews –17 in two focus groups 12 users aged 14 in a difficult economic conducted 26 adult users , provides a full climate 16 library administrators, branch complement of managers, librarians, and other library technology services staff and resources. 2 members of the Friends of the Library 2 staff from peer agencies The City of 417 completed surveys with 160 survey Web re spondents providing suggestions for Baltimore improvements porated in 1796, Incor Baltimore sits on Chesapeake Bay 40 miles northeast of the District of Columbia. Baltimore itself has not been part of any county since its separation from Baltimore County in 1851 . The city is divided (Maryland State Archives 2011) nine into geographical regions, containing a unique mix of working class neighborhoods, industrial centers, and gentrified historic districts, which has earned it the nickname of the “City of N (City of Baltimore eighborhoods” 2010a ). , Baltimore is home to T he Joh ns Hopkins University, as well as Fort McHenry which played an important role during the War of 1812. The Inner Harbor is considered the “crown jewel” of downtown Baltimore; it offers locals and visitors alike a view of the waterfront, historic ships, and a variety of The city has many attractions for sports enthusia restaurants. sts including aseball, and horse racing’s Baltimore Ravens football, Baltimore Orioles b Preakness Stakes. Though it has made progress in improving the living conditions across many measures, Baltimore still struggles with unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy above national averages. Despite these problems, the city thrives with cultural, How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 21 | Opportunity for All:

23 historical, education al, and business opportunities to which the Pratt Library is a major contributor. Population Characteristics In 2006 2008 , Baltimore City’s population was approximately 640,000, a to significant decrease from the 1950s industrial and manufacturing era when the million (U.S. Census Bureau n.d. -b). Though still a population was nearly 1 relatively small segment of the city, Baltim ore’s population of Hispanics and Latinos, especially immigrants from El Salvador, Honduras, Ecuador , and Mexico, increased more than 40 percent between 2000 and 2007, though the rest of Baltimore’s population declined over the same period (Reddy 2008) . Baltimore City has a Table 2: Baltimore City Demographic Data highly concentrated 639,343 Total population Black or African Race 31.9% White American population Black or African American 63.4% 0.2% American Indian or Alaska Native compared to the State 1.9% Asian of Maryland as a 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander whole. The U.S. Census 0.9% Some other race Bureau estimated in Two or more races 1.6% 2008 that 63 percent rigin (any race) Hispanic or Latino o 2.6% of Baltimore’s 19 and u nder 27.7% Age population is Black or 11.9% 65 and over African American, 8.2% Language other than English spoken at home while statewide they Median household income $39,083 account for 30 percent 15.5 Poverty rate ( family) of the population. 8.7% 2008 2006– Unemployment * Whites make up Rate 10.2% 2009 approximately 32 ureau of Labor Statistics 2009. *Source: U.S. B percent of Baltimore’s -a. n.d. Source: U.S. Census population; Asians and people of two or more races account for another 4 percent of the population. Many segments of Baltimore’s population suffer from low income levels or poverty. The median household income in Baltimore is $39,083, well below both the national median of $52,175 and the state median income of $70,005. Approximately 16 percent of families and 20 percent of individuals have income overty level, compared with national figures of 10 percent and 13 below the p percent , respectively. Black or African American individuals and families are in Baltimore. disproportionately poor How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 22 | Opportunity for All:

24 Related to the high poverty levels, Baltimore is also below national a verage the a number of educational measures. In 2009, fourth -graders for - and eighth attending Baltimore public schools had the lowest reading assessment scores among the 18 urban school districts that participated in the Trial Urban District ding 2009 (National Center for Education Statistics 2010) . Assessment in rea According to a 2002 study by Baltimore Reads , 38 percent of adults in Baltimore are considered illiterate . (Baltimore City Council 2007) High school dropout rates are high as well, with approximat ely 25 percent of the population 25 years and older having not earned a high school diploma, nearly twice the statewide estimate. Despite low levels of literacy and graduation rates, Baltimore’s population of adults age 25 years and over with a bachelor de gree or higher is close to the national average (24 percent compared with 27 percent, respectively ; U.S. Census Bureau n.d. -a). Librarians and administrators at the Pratt Library repeatedly reflected on how s how the library perceives its poverty and illiteracy among Baltimoreans affect role in the community and the types of services it offers, especially around : providing free access to computers and the Internet I think a big part of our role, it's sort of cliché, is addressing the digital a very poor population in Baltimore. Many people don't divide. We have have computers at home or are not computer literate. We have a high illiteracy level in general in this city. I think that the computers definitely address that to some extent. --L ibrary administrato r Indeed, library computers are used by many patrons who are pursuing educational opportunities and gaining skills leading to increased self- sufficiency. Among users interviewed and those responding to the U.S. IMPACT web survey, -related activiti education es were among the top reasons for using library computers, with patrons of all ages reporting enrolling in high school general education development programs, searching for college completion or programs, or doing homework. Employment and Business Climate From 2006 to 2008 , the average annual unemployment rate in Baltimore was 8.7 percent . However, the economic downturn affecting the entire nation is reflected in a large jump in Baltimore’s unemployment rate: unemployment in 2009 (Ec onomic Development Intelligence System climbed to 10.2 percent . 2009) How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 23 | Opportunity for All:

25 Beyond the economic downturn, according to the Baltimore City Council, Baltimore’s high illiteracy rates are a contributing factor to the city’s ince losing its industrial economic base and moving unemployment rate. S toward a “cerebral- based center of commerce,” even employers who are hiring are unable to find qualified employees among Baltimore’s unemployed to fill (Baltimore City Council 2007) . their vacant positions is the major employer in Baltim ore, with healthcare and social Government assistance as the largest industries employing people in the civilian sector (Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development n.d.) . Other major employment sectors are educational services, public administration, (Economic pr ofessional and technical services, retail, and finance and insurance Development Intelligence System 2009) . The Pratt Library strives to make Baltimore a livable city and provides direct and indirect support services to help people find employ men t and to encourage business. As an historic institution, it is an attraction for tourists who enjoy local its take advantage of public access computers to keep in it as a destination and touch with friends and family. It also supports entrepreneurship with a dedicated business resource center at the Central Library and provides a place —particularly for hotel, grocery, retail, and - for potential employees other entry level positions —to apply for jobs when they may not ha ve other realistic alternatives. Recognizing the difficulties many patrons experience trying to apply for jobs, one library administrator notes why access in libraries is important to the un employed in Baltimore : When I go to the Wal -Mart, they have one little rinky -dink computer station and nobody to help do the application, whereas when you walk o a library, there are state -of -the -art computers. There is somebody int to answer your questions , there is somebody who you feel is not going to judge you because you don't know certain things. If you're applying for a job, you don't want to look like you don't know what you're doing, even if that's not what your job is going to be. –Library adminis trator The Pratt Library also provides resources and classes on job searching, resume preparation, interviewing techniques, and technology training that are used by individuals and area employers to improve job skills. Indeed, beyond routine use of library computers for maintaining social ties through email and social networking sites, employment- related uses were the most frequently cited activities by users interviewed during the case study visits and were nearly so for those responding to the web survey. While invisible to many of the How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 24 | Opportunity for All:

26 employers who benefit, all of these services contribute to workforce preparedness by improving technology skills and ensuring that employers can connect with the employees they need. Technology Infrastructure and Adoption Ba ltimore is in many ways on the cutting edge of technology. Ranked #10 in a 2009 list of America ’s most wired cities and home to universities, medical research centers, government security agencies, and other employers with major technology use and needs, i t is striving to meet the demand of this sector by building out its technology infrastructure and expanding broadband Internet access (Woyke 2009) . Due to its municipal conduit system, which allow s laying of fiber optic cable with much less disruption than in other locales, Baltimore is uniquely situated to meet increased demand by presenting itself as an attractive location for high -tech business. Currently, approximately 75 percent of households have access to broadband Internet and 60 percent subscribe to it (Baltimore City Municipal Response . Though broadband availability and household subscription is comparable 2010) to national adoption figures, librarians at the Pratt Library report that Internet ohibitive for many patrons. access in the home is cost pr computers and Users Pratt Library who could not afford Internet access at home of the repeatedly emphasized how important the library is for keeping connected to family and friends, doing homework, and looking for jobs. While some businesses , such as coffee shops, do offer wireless Internet access for paying customers, they are unlikely to operate in the city’s many impoverished neighborhoods where even access to grocery stores is severely limited (Baltimore City Food Policy Task Force 2009) . According to librarians, the local library branch is the only place to get Internet access in most of these areas. Future Outlook Baltimore City, like many municipalities across the country, is facing enormous fiscal challenges and large budget shortfalls. Still, Baltimore is a desirable place to live, work , and visit. Despite an upswing in unemployment related to the from the stability of its large number of economic downturn, the city benefits -resistant employers in the health, education, and government sectors. recession Further, recent efforts by the mayor and city council to adapt to fiscal challenges resulted in the city retaining its AA bond ratings from Standard & (City Poor’s at a time when many municipalities are seeing their ratings reduced . of Baltimore 2010b) How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 25 | Opportunity for All:

27 The Pratt Library’s Place in the Community Beginning as early as 1982, the Pratt Library began to integrate computers into its , the Pennsylvania technology offerings to the public. The following year Avenue Branch was remodeled to become the system’s first computer center, offering computer education to more than 500 adults within the first year. The Pratt Library was also an early adopter of online resources and was the first library in the country to subscribe to the New York Times Infor mation Bank in 1994. Following a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 1997 proved to be the . The grant defining moment for public access technology at the Pratt Library allowed the library to start their first computer lab . Around the same time, the Pratt Library became the operations center for SAILOR, Maryland’s online public information network, which offers statewide access to library services and databases to its residents and Internet services for government agencies and schools; SAILOR also supports free dial- up access for residents. Current State of Affairs At the time of the U.S. IMPACT Study visit, the Pratt Library system had nearly 400 computer and Internet terminals and had recently completed a project y Bank of America to provide wireless Internet access at all the funded b branches. Dr. Carla Hayden became the Pratt Library’s new director in 1993 and e new branches have continues in this capacity today. Under her leadership, thre been opened —the first new constr uction the Pratt Library has undertaken in 35 in years. Dr. Hayden was recognized as Librarian of the Year by Library Journal 1995. The library has also been recognized for its innovation and leadership, with its website and print publications winning thre e Best of Show awards during the 2008 American Library Association convention in Anaheim, California. Mission The Pratt Library has maintained its connection to Enoch Pratt’s original vision to be the “people’s university” for Baltimore, welcoming people from all walks of life. The mission of the Pratt Library is “to provide equal access to information and services that support, empower, and enrich all who pursue knowledge, education, cultural enrichment, and lifelong learning” (Enoch Pratt Free Library home for lifelong Through supporting this mission, the Pratt Library is a n. d.). learners, a unifying force for neighborhoods, and a pillar of Baltimore’s civic infrastructure. The high poverty and low levels of literacy in Baltimore affect how the Pratt rary perceives its role in the community. Though the formal mission of the Lib How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 26 | Opportunity for All:

28 Pratt Library is broad , many librarians and library administrators expressed an extra commitment to serving the needs of children and teen ager s, people who are unemployed , and with regard to public access technology, those who lack access to computers and the Internet at home or elsewhere or who need help learning how to use computers and get online. Library patrons in Baltimore, whether or not they use library computers, are highly supportive of public access technology as a part of the library mission: in the web survey, 92 percent of respondents indicated that having access to Internet computers and the at the library is important or very important for the community. Teen ager s ar e the focus of a cons iderable amount of the library’s special programming, which often centers around the library’s computers. As one of the library’s administrators explained, these services are seen as a way to bring a new generation into the library and also to provide equality of access: —not I think this is kind of a shared vision just my vision, but of the whole leadership. The whole idea is that there would be really good access for teens in the library. We would like for it to be equitable. We would like them to have access to the classes and instruction that they need and that any age group would have. My vision for teens and computing in the library is that the teens would be able to easily balance getting information, recreation, and personal needs met through computing and through all the other resources of the library. That they would have a clear understanding that all of these things can help them reach those needs and that computing is one of them. The importance of the Pratt Library’s computer and Internet services for th services staff, who teen ager s was highlighted by one of the library’s you pointed out that many teen ager s use library computers to fill out and submit (FAFSA) forms and learn about college Free Application for Federal Student Aid and many college catalogs programs and admissions processes. As FAFSA forms are available only online, lack of access to the Internet is a defining barrier to pursuing a college education. Natasha, a 20- year- old aspiring to a career in forensic science, used library computers to “check out schools online that I’d o” and to fill out applications, as well as to look into financial aid like to enroll int options. Funding Sources The Pratt Library is a nonprofit 501(c)3 organization governed by an independent Board of Directors and a Board of Trustees. Its nonprofit status allows it to seek and receive private gifts and grants directly for the library, as How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 27 | Opportunity for All:

29 opposed to many municipally -governed public libraries where donations may end up in a municipal general fund. In fiscal year ( FY ) 2008, the library’s operating revenue of $ 41.5 million was acquired from a variety of funding sources: 38 percent from the c ity of Baltimore, 16 percent from s tate funding, 0.8 percent and ernment. from the federal g ov Pratt also received 3 percent of its income from federal E , which provides an 80 percent subsidy for -Rate funds Internet access. Other income includ ed a per capita allotment from s tate funding that goes toward the State Library Resource Center, gifts and private donations, fines and fees, and other sources. Table 3: FY 20 08 Operating Revenue The Pratt Library has a Total income $41,571,800 dedicated development office Local 37.5% government conducts fundraising that campaigns, applies for grant State government 15.9% funding, and cultivates major 0.8% Federal government Other income 45.8% private and institutional . et al. Henderson 2010 Source: donors. The Pratt Library belongs to a United Way combined fund, allowing employees of participating agencies to designate ratt Library through payroll deduction. Recent major regular donations to the P donations include a gift from Bank of America to provide funding for the newly expanded wireless network, as well as to build a new computer commons area rn, however, foundation in the Central Library. Since the economic downtu because of the poor return on endowment investments. funding has decreased The Pratt Library relies less on local government funding than any of the other libraries visited by the U.S. IMPACT Study, and indeed less than most librari es in the country, which may provide it with more fiscal stability than libraries that are almost wholly dependent on the municipal budget. Further, as a State Resource Center, it is a recipient of unusually large direct state government support for its se rvices. Community Relationships The Pratt Library administration and branch managers are very active in maintaining relationships with Baltimore City, local museums, consortiums, and neighborhood and community groups, of which Baltimore has hundreds. In ad dition to outreach to these groups, the library maintains an active presence in the city through newsletters, brochures, television ad s, bus banners, vertisement and other media. The library also employs a full- time community outreach coordinator, based at the Southeast Anchor Library, who is responsible for two - way communication with the community, including working with the business hat area. community in t How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 28 | Opportunity for All:

30 Political Context When the municipal budget is tight, the Pratt Library often finds its portion of the municipal budget allocation in competition with other city services; this was an important topic for one library patron : me problem that a lot of other cities have. When it Baltimore has the sa comes time to cut the budget, which everybody has to do right now, there are only certain areas that you can cut. Most of the budget is spoken for. Police, schools —there are some places that either for structural or political reasons, you can't cut. Nobody dares to cut the cops. In Baltimore, the two places that are first up before the guillotine are the Pratt Library and the parks. Even though it's been pretty much proven over the last 10 years that with a vibrant park system and a great library, you attract wealthier people into the city to pay their property taxes and do things like that, it's the first place that they cut. Relationships with Supporters The Pratt Library cultivates donors and major suppo rters through the work of its leadership, development office, Board of Directors and Board of Trustees, and the Friends of the Enoch Pratt Free Library. In FY 2009, these efforts were rewarded with illion totaling $ 2.7 m , contributions, and bequests private gifts (Enoch Pratt Free Library 2009 ). Peer Agency Relationships Social service agencies are a major beneficiary of the Pratt Library’s technology resources and services. The library works closely with many of these organizations to provide technology ac cess and training, either directly through special classes or services developed for them, or indirectly through agency they cannot provide themselves. For referrals of clients for support that example, a case manager from a social service agency described scheduling her clients to do work in the library as part of their job preparedness program: We had times on the schedule for the ladies that they needed to go to the library and research jobs. That was their sole duty for that day: to go to Pratt Library, , and research jobs. That was their get on the computer field work, I guess you could say. Other agencies refer clients to use library computers to find housing, apply for government benefits, get public transportation schedules, and other critical sufficiency. Though some have tion for helping them achieve self- informa computers for their clients to use, usually the access is limited in both time and How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 29 | Opportunity for All:

31 the type of activities clients are allowed to pursue. And there is rarely sufficient make the technology truly accessible to clients. equipment or support to Clients of these agencies are not the only beneficiaries of the Pratt Library’s technology; many of the agency staff also take advantage of the technology training offered by the library. The c ity of Baltim ore and other employers use the library’s classes for improving the technology skills of police officers, nurses, and other workers. Interdependence between Public Libraries and Community - Based Organizations While the Pratt Library is committed to providing resources and services to all its patrons, it also provides support and services to many social service organizations that do not have sufficient resources to fully serve their clients. Often , these services go unacknowledged and unfunded, and place a strain on the library’s already limited resources. In particular, agencies whose purpose largely encompasses linking clients to seem to rely on the Pratt Library for providing the government services technology necessary to do so. Generally, these agencies direct their clients to the library to apply for social security benefits, submit immigration forms, and complete other tasks because they do not maintain computers or Internet access for the use by their clients. Librarians note that often these patrons lack the basic computers skills necessary to accomplish their tasks, especially signing up for email accounts, which is necessary to take advantage of many online resources. Referring clients to the library fo r technology resources and services also has an added benefit for case managers, as noted by one agency manager: “When they’re independent and they’re able to research things on their own, and they do that at the library, that decreases the amount of work that we will have to do as case managers.” Social service ies of the Pratt Library’s agencies are not the only beneficiar technology resources and services. L ocal employers who have moved their job application processes online are connecting with potential employees through library computers . Another library supporter discussed the impact of making library computers applicants effort to entice . After a multiyear a new grocery available for job store cery store], we to open in the area: “When we actually attracted that [gro were not sure it would be staffed. If it weren't for the library really helping with the job applications, it would have been a lot harder.” Such stories illustrate the How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 30 | Opportunity for All:

32 hidden importance of the library’s computer and Internet services, and the staff vidual and the community . support in using those tools, to both the indi Library Characteristics Budget -nine percent Fifty of the Pratt Library’s budget goes toward the salaries and fringe benefits of 459 full - and part -time positions ; 20 percent supports contractual costs such as utilities, building maintenance, Internet, cataloging, bookbinding, and equipment maintenance; 11 percent supports the purchase of atabases. Some donated funds are books a nd materials, including SAILOR d ey are used because of donor restrictions ; increasingly limited in how th , these donations are earmarked for technology needs, indicating a high level of . appreciation for the necessity of these resources Table 4: FY 2008 Expenditures budget includes a The Pratt $41,571,800 expenditures Total five -year replacement cycle 58.3% Staff (salaries and benefits) for computers, software Print 7.0% collection upgrades, improvements to collection Electronic 4.5% the existing network 0.9% material Other expenditures hardware and expenditures 29.2% Other operating infrastructure, and $65.38 Expenditures per capita partnerships with local Source: Henderson et al. 2010. agencies to increase network capacity and redundancy. However, even with per capita expenditures at $65.38 —the highest among the four libraries visited by the U.S. IMPACT Study and above the —the Pratt Library still struggles to meet demand. $40.43 average for large cities One of the library’s administrators explains: One of our biggest challenges is just to provide access as much as possible throughout the city to everybody who needs it. Of course that ’ve been challenged means hours and locations and just being there. We a little bit, budgetwise, as far as being open, the number of hours that ’re open, and the number of staff that we have available. So that ’s a we big challenge to us in providing the access that we want to provide. Indeed, the need for funding of additional staff was identified by the majority of library administrators, librarians, and other staff, and in many cases was seen as more critical than the need for additional terminals. One librarian explained: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 31 | Opportunity for All:

33 I’d like to see more and better access for the public, for all ages. We do have access, yes, but there make people ’s still m ore that can be done— feel more comfortable, and really to have more staff so that we can work with them better. It’s difficult when you only have one librarian for ’s only so much you can do. You see so a pretty large building. There many people in need and people who want to learn. So we really want to be there for them to make it work. master of library and i nformation science The library aims to be staffed with (MLIS) –level librarians, qualified teachers, as well as IT professionals in the areas of engineering, programming, network development, web management, and digitization. But Pratt has found that the salaries it is able to offer are inadequate to recruit and retain many of their professional- level staff positions, especially in IT where salaries need to remain competitive in the labor marketplace. Personnel Practices Of the Pratt Library ’s 459 staff, 149 are classified as librarians. One hundred of the librarians hold master degrees from ALA seventeen -accredited s. Pratt Library has one librarian to serve every 4,239 people institution within which is higher than the national average for large cities the legal service area, (one librarian per 7,672 people ). maintains its own also IT department unde The Pratt Library r the umbrella of the information access division. Consolidating public access computers and nformation Internet access, internal systems, and the library website, the i division also manages instructional services for patrons. access Staff Training Ongoi ng staff development and training is important at Pratt Library. Indeed, it is such a high priority that t he second goal of the library’s Strategic Information Technology Plan is to “ensure that library staff is trained to use software and work modules mor e efficiently and uniformly, can access and use electronic library forms and reporting tools in their work, and is able to integrate that knowledge into efficient and effective delivery of quality IT -based services to users.” To this end, the Pratt Library has online training modules for staff and expresses leadership commitment to staff development; it also provide s training udget, to other municipal staff. Staff development and training is built into the b 2009 expenditures of over $500,000, not including salaries. with FY Still, many of the librarians who spoke with the research team said that the available training does not necessarily address the skills needed to help patrons How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 32 | Opportunity for All:

34 with technology probl ems. One librarian emphasized that the problem is not really with technical skills, but rather patience with the patron, and advised new librarians that: They need to realize that many customers have no knowledge at all about computers. They know about the Internet , they know it’s there. They know they can do job searches, they know what ’s available but ’t know how to access it. [Librarians] have to be patient and they don they have to be willing to take the customer where he needs to go. Volunteers he Pratt Library has an active volunteer base for many of its functions, Though t public access technology. it aspires to greater use of volunteers to support its One library manager explains: For the most part, we really need people in volunteer positions to be av ailable at the branches for people who need assistance. Many times, the librarians are busy doing reference questions or other assistance, but the person sitting at the computer reaches a point where they need st in that general area some help. It would be good to have someone ju walking back and forth, to be able to give them that on -the -spot assistance. Currently, the Pratt Library recruits some volunteers from nearby colleges to help with one -one training and from the Youth Corps to help with computer -on Occasionally, community service agencies that partner with the library classes. supply some volunteers for the programs they sponsor. However, in order to fully take advantage of volunteers, librarians and administrators feel they need a volunteer coordina tor to more effectively schedule and train volunteers for assisting in classes and providing one -on -one help. Evaluation Expanding e valuation of services is part of Pratt Library’s current strategic plan, including increasing the use of statistical and ot her reports to assist in collection development, staffing, marketing, outreach, development, and improving customer service. Leadership at the library understands the importance of providing this information to funders and other stakeholders, as well as fo r internal decision -making and planning. Staff are responsible for assisting in collecting some data, such as tracking , and reference questions, volunteer hours program attendance, and for s, while other data ar oratorie counting students in classes and lab e collected How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 33 | Opportunity for All:

35 electronically, such as the number of hits on a webpage or the SAILOR , and in the catalog , the number of user sessions and pages viewed. homepage Annual reports with these data are generated and posted on the library website. Like the other li braries visited by the U.S. IMPACT Study research team, the Pratt Library has a difficult time counting the number of unique individuals using the library’s computers and has no way of knowing how their patrons are using them except for anecdotes and glimp ses of computer screens. Operational Context Physical Infrastructure The Pratt Library system consists of the 34,000 square foot Central Library and 21 branch libraries of various sizes, from just 2,400 square feet at the Washington Village Branch to nearly 27,000 square feet at the new Southeast Anchor Branch. Much of the Central Library is still in its original configuration with a great hall, reading rooms, mezzanines, and balconies. The Central Library is open to the public 52 hours per week, including Sunday hours from October to May. The Southeast Anchor Library, one of two visited by U.S. IMPACT Study researchers, is situated in the heart of Highlandtown. This new library opened in May 2007 and is open 56 hours per week. The Orleans Branch, also vis ited by the researchers, is located adjacent to Johns Hopkins Medical Center and is open 37 hours a week. Orleans is a 15,000 square foot facility that was completed in 2007, replacing a large vacant lot that had been without a building for decades. I t was built as a gift from Johns Hopkins Medical School, which took the former branch site to build a high rise educational building. The Pratt Library’s Southeast Anchor Library was the first new construction the remaining branches are badly within the Pratt system in 35 years. Many of in need of upgrades to wiring and of increased space, especially to accommodate additional computer terminals. Technology Infrastructure Free access to computers and the Internet is available at the Central Library and all branches, with a total of 383 terminals distributed among the library outlets. In addition, wireless Internet access is now available at all locations. Computers spaces at the Pratt Center for Technology Training are located in designated lab at the Centr al Library, as well as scattered throughout the library. The Southeast computer lab Anchor Library also has a , while at the smaller branch libraries computers are located wherever space allows. Despite recent expansions of How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 34 | Opportunity for All:

36 computer lab , public access technology users, librarians, s and wireless access and administrators are still frustrated by inadequate resources. Patron Demand The Pratt Library is a very active institution and the public access computers drive much of that activity. Researchers observed patrons lining up in the morning outside the Central Library; when it ope ned, most went directly to sign on to a public access computer terminal. The library also faces seas onal and temporal congestion, with peak times in the morning and then again after school hours when teen s descend on the library in large numbers. ager Computers are nearly always reserved , and there is often a waiting list for comput ers, especially in the evenings , with some patrons being turned away without having an Internet session by the time the library closes . Because of limited physical infrastructure, some branches have as few as four computers se the computers. and as a result patrons almost always have to wait to u According to patron: one With the limit and not a lot of computers and now with the economy, everybody’s coming to the library to use the computers. There’s not a lot of access to them. I value the services of the library , but it’s not as accessible sometimes. Because of the number of computers, the number of people, it’s always crowded , and there is always a waiting list. The Pratt Library attempts to address the patron demand with a variety of different strategies, including having designated computers for certain tasks, opening the computers to adults during school hours, and using for teenagers session management software to limit session lengths during congested periods. Despite these efforts , patrons often have to wait for a turn on a computer and sometimes complain to librarians about other users who are playing games or other activities that seem to have primarily an entertainment value. Many librarians expressed sympathy with this frustration , as reflected in this comment : from one librarian If you come in here and you have some work you really need done, then you need more than half an hour to do it. I understand why some of them get mad. If I have something serious I have to do and this little kid e wants to get on MySpace, I'd be a is about to boot me off because h little upset about that as well. The Central Library is now experimenting with lending laptops to free up space and let people roam around the library. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 35 | Opportunity for All:

37 Other patrons bring their own laptops to the library. One web surv ey at the library is great. respondent commented that, “Having wireless Internet Trying to use the library's computers is often difficult, since there are too many other people are trying to use them. There is more demand for computer time omputers.” than there are c Even so, a common refrain from case study interviews and survey responses was for the library to “add more computers for more people to access.” One web survey respondent noted: “ Any time I go to the library the computers are all occupied. The o nly suggestion I have is to make more [computers] available within funding limitations.” Use Policies: Time Limits, Filtering, and Behavior Standards Because each branch has a different number of computers, the length of computer sessions varies by locatio n as well. The library reserves the right to limit workstation and printer usage at peak hours or to schedule workstation and printer use in order to accommodate the largest number of customers at specific locations. -, two -, and four -hour The Central Branch has computers design ated for one time slots, as well as 15 -minute quick access stations; two -hour time - and four slots are reserved for “serious” work, such as job searching. When classes are not in session, the computer lab is open for library patrons o ver the age of 17. This allows the library to provide more resources when available, rather than letting them go unused when there are no classes. Because the Pratt Library receives federal funding for its Internet access (E - Rate), filtering devices are en abled on all computers. These filtering devices may be disabled on request for adult patrons over the age of 17 years. Teen ager s come to library after school to study as well as to work and play on the computers. The Young Adult Department is closed until 2:30 pm to all users under the age of 19 years in compliance with local truancy ordinances. After school, computer use in the Young Adult Library is restricted to patrons aged 13 to 19. According to some librarians, young patrons waiting for a turn on th e computers during peak after- school hours are the biggest source of behavior problems, though some also discussed problems with young people crowding around computers with their friends. Generally, this is not allowed; however , there are exceptions: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 36 | Opportunity for All:

38 We do try to adhere to one person to one computer, unless it's a parent and child or a teacher and a student. There are occasions where people will come in and say, “I'm trying to help my friend do this ,” and then of course we let them do that. This flexibility with patrons recognizes that many users give and receive help from other users and the benefits that this unique communal learning environment has for patrons and librarians. One patron reported that he talked another patron o ne morning: “He doesn’t kn ow how to go get on email. He to asked me to help him. I know a little bit— I was helping him when I knew something. I help people because sometimes I ask people, too, for help on this and that.” Another user noted that patrons “are trying to help each other. It’s a h kind of a helpful area. You always see so mebody and you just run over, ‘O here, let me show you that.’ Yes, it’s very friendly.” Technology Classes and One -on-One Help Both library staff and administrators acknowledge that many of their patrons lack sufficient computer literacy to accomplish their goals. To help remedy this problem, the Southeast Anchor Library and the Orleans Branch offer a variety of Beginner classes include keyboarding, basic computer use, computer classes. , email, and Microsoft Word and Excel. More advanced Windows, the Internet classes are available for Microsoft PowerPoint and Publisher, and for other gy class for seniors is offered in special topics depending on interest. A technolo the spring and fall, while a computer camp for children takes place during the summer. Online tutorials on basic mouse skills and other tutorials for Microsoft Office 2003 applications such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Publisher are also available through the library website. The computer classes are considered a great success for the library as people are acquiring job readiness skills. A technology instructor shared that “what we offer is really valuable to people. I feel good because a lot of people, particularly in the keyboarding class, have gotten city jobs and government jobs, and some have gotten promotions.” Another technology and training manager agrees: “We're preparing them for the working world . ... Most of th e customers that come in, they want to get into computers, work in an office because they got laid off, or they're just not making enough money.” The Pratt Library demonstrates that computer and Internet services go beyond Internet capable computers. Training is a ith providing library users simply w significant part of this service, and the library has accomplished this with considerable success. The computer classes are also congested: currently there How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 37 | Opportunity for All:

39 is only capacity for 24 students, but organizers repor getting up to 40 t regularly people asking to attend. Though computer classes are in great demand, most librarians agreed that one - on -one help to solve patrons’ immediate needs is an important service. However, providing one -on -one help is labor intensive and not as efficient as reaching many patrons at one time in a class. It is hoped that building a more oratorie s will alleviate some of robust volunteer program for the computer lab the demands on librarians’ time while still providing vital help to new us ers. Case Summary providing a full complement of services for its The Pratt Library prides itself on patrons and the economic and community development of the ing on support city of Baltimore. Enoch Pratt envisioned the library as a welcoming home for long learning, a unifying force for neighborhoods, and a stalwart pillar of life Baltimore’s civic infrastructure. The essential vision of Enoch Pratt remains a driving force for the library as it grows and adapts to the changing needs of Baltimore. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 38 | Opportunity for All:

40 3.3 Fayetteville Public Library Our vision is to be powerfully relevant and completely accessible. Our mission is to strengthen our community and empower our citizens with free and public access to knowledge –FPL Mission Statement We do partnerships with a lot of people. It’s our strength. We try to leverage every dollar, every service. –Shawna Thorup, Executive Director The FPL, a single outlet library in Fayetteville, Arkansas, was the second of the four library systems the U.S. IMPACT research team visite d. 5: Case Study Details Table is an innovative FPL visit site Study April 5 to 11, 2009 has that library –17 in two focus groups Interviews 13 users aged 14 received national 28 adult users conducted recognition, being 8 library administrators, branch Library named managers, librarians, and other library ’s Library of the Journal staff Year in 2005. 18 community stakeholders including library board, friends of the library, peer The City of agency staff, government representatives, and community Fayetteville members Located at the foothills survey 214 completed surveys with 62 Web respondents providing suggestions for of the Ozark improvements Mountains in the northwest corner of Arkansas, the community of city of Fayetteville is a vibrant nearly 70,000 residents. Fayetteville has been repeatedly recognized for its quality of life and employment opportunities. In 2009, it was ranked #4 in Forbes Magazine ’s “Top 10 Best Places in America for Business and Careers” Kiplinger (Badenhausen 20 09) and listed #7 in ’s 2008 “Best Cities to Work, Live (Staff 2008). With both small businesses common to college towns as and Play” well as the offices and factories of some of the largest corporations in the world, -up businesses, but Fayetteville offers myriad op portunities not only for start also for job seekers. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 39 | Opportunity for All:

41 Population Characteristics * Table 6: Fayetteville City Demographic Data Incorporated in 1870, 70,401 Total population Fayetteville has a fairly Race White 83.1% homogeneous 7.3% Black or African American population grew that 0.7% American Indian or Alaska Native from just over 58,000 3.2% Asian in 2000 to 70,000 in 0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2008 (U.S. Census 3.3% Some other race Bureau n.d. -a). Two or more races 2.2% 4.9% Hispanic or Latino o rigin (any race) Whites (83 By race, 28.7% Age 19 and u nder percent) make up the 7.6% 65 and over largest ethnic group in Language other than English N/A spoken at home Fayetteville, with a income $40,255 Median household much smalle r family) 11.7% Poverty rate ( population of Blacks or 4.0% Unemployment 2006– 2008 African Americans † rate 2009 % 5.7 than the rest of the * -a. U.S. Census Bureau n.d. Source: † state (7 percent in Source: Arkansas Department of Workforce Services 2009. Fayetteville compared to 16 percent for Arkansas). Hispanics or Latinos of any race compose about 5 percent of Fayetteville’s population (significantly below the national average of 15 percent ; U.S. Census Bureau n.d. -a). Owing in part to sizable student population attending the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville has a smaller proportion of senior citizens than state or national averages; fewer than 8 percent of Fayettev ille’s residents are over age 65, compared to the state average of 14 percent and the national average of lso likely related to the University of Arkansas, residents of about 13 percent . A Fayetteville exceed other residents of the state in their level of educational attainment. More than 91 percent of Fayetteville residents have at least graduated from high school, compared with 81 percent of Arkansans and 85 percent nationally. Beyond this, Fayetteville residents are also highly educated with nearly 44 per cent holding a bachelor degree of higher, compared with just 19 percent of Arkansans and the national average of 27 percent (U.S. Census -a). Bureau n.d. The median household income in Fayetteville in 2007 was $40,255, lower than the national median of $52 ,175 and only very slightly above the state median of $39,127 (U.S. Census Bureau n.d. -a). Poverty rates in Fayetteville are slightly higher than the national average, but lower than the state average. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 40 | Opportunity for All:

42 Staff of the FPL noted that since the economic downtu rn, they have experienced an increase in general library use, and particularly in the use of public access computer terminals. Anecdotally, some of this increase in use is driven by olds that have given up Internet access in order to economize in the face househ of reduced earnings, or, in at least one case, because of a higher monthly housing payment resulting from an adjustable rate mortgage. Employment and Business Climate One of the reasons cited by respondents for Fayetteville’s frequent selection as a “best city” in various lists is its business climate and strong job market. Though the unemployment rate increased in 2009 to nearly 6 percent from only 4 percent in 2008, overall Fayetteville remains lower than the statewide average of 7.3 percent and mu ch lower than the national average of 9.3 percent during the same period . (Arkansas Department of Workforce Services 2009) The city’s major employers are a mix of government, education, manufacturing , and service industries, which helps keep Fayetteville’ s economy resilient. The University of Arkansas, with 4,000 employees, is the largest employer, followed by Northwest Arkansas Mall, and Tyson Foods. (City of Fayetteville 2006 ). In addition, northwest Arkansas is home to the corporate headquarters of Walm art and J.B. Hunt, three of the world’s largest employers. supports the business and nonprofit community by providing an The FPL extensive electronic library of business plans, a and center, nonprofit resource workshops on nonprofit management and funding. The n resource onprofit center is a grant -funded initiative and is available for use by staff and board members of nonprofits located in the four counties surrounding Fayetteville (FPL n.d. -b). Technology Infrastructure and Adoption th in the nation in deployment of broadband Internet Arkansas ranks 49 access , which can creat (Connect Arkansas e a major barrier for economic competition n.d.) . High- speed Internet access is available throughout the city of Fayetteville and most of the surrounding areas, although major sections of rural Washington County are not served by broadband providers. In 2007, the State of Arkansas conducted a survey that found 26 percent of residents in Northwest Arkansas have never used the Internet, which is only slightly less than the statewide rate of 29 percent. The rate of broadband access at home in Northwest Arkansas is rthwest Arkansas likewise slightly less than the statewide rate: 40 percent of No residents report having broadband access at home compared with 42 percent across the state . (Connect Arkansas 2008) How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 41 | Opportunity for All:

43 The survey report , “Connect Arkansas d that the likelihood of Internet use ”. note er studies have shown a very high in Arkansas increases with income and oth use and higher educational attainment (Pew correlation between Internet . With both income and educational Internet and American Life Project 2009) to attainment higher in Fayetteville than Arkansas as a whole, there is reason believe that Internet use and broadband access at home is greater in the city of Fayetteville than the surrounding region. Librarian s at FPL note d that people who can only get dial -up Internet access often opt to forego access at home. Further, they co even in those ntend that outlying areas where broadband is available, the cost of subscribing is prohibitive for low -income households. There was general recognition among patrons, library staff, supporters, and others that FPL is providing a critically im portant service in Washington County. However, while computer and Internet access at FPL is seen as an integral part of the area’s technology infrastructure, lack of public transportation to the library is a barrier for many who would m the service . otherwise benefit fro Future Outlook The City Plan 2025, which solicited participation from people from all sectors, was adopted in 2006 and serves as Fayetteville’s comprehensive land use plan. More recent planning activities focus on eco nomic development and identify making Fayetteville competitive in the “Global Knowledge Economy” as the reliance on sales main strategy for attracting new business es, thereby lower ing tax for funding government services (City of Fayetteville 2008 b). Among barriers listed for ac hieving this goal is a gap between the skills necessary to support knowledge industries and those of the current workforce. In addition, Fayetteville has limited technical education opportunities for high school students and adults (City of Fayetteville 20 08a) . City leaders recognize the FPL as a key player in the city’s development, especially in terms of connecting residents with technology, both to build new skills and also to expose residents to other places and ideas, as expressed by a government offic ial: We look at [the library] as an economic development tool. We look at it as access to public information, research. When we’re studying new , we want the citizens to be able to come to the ordinances in the city library and research best practices in o ther communities. We often cite this as the public space to be able to get access to information. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 42 | Opportunity for All:

44 Fayetteville Public Library’s Place in the Community The FPL has been a community and intellectual hub since its founding in 1916. It has continued to grow with the area’s population, with expansions into ever , and 2004. In 1999, the Washington County larger facilities in 1937, 1962, 1992 -county Library System was established as a result of the dissolution of the two Ozark Regional Library System : the Talking Books service was split between the Fort Smith Public Library and the Arkansas State Library , and the space was -station computer center funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates converted into a 12 Foundation. In late 2000, when the Washington County Library Sys tem moved to its own facility, the space was converted for staff and FPL Foundation use. se Table 7: Library C haracteristics and U Despite these Urbanicity City, small improvements, the 58,047 population area service legal 2008 library soon found that Number of branches 0 its facilities could not Staffing 44 Total staff serve Fayetteville’s levels 19 All librarians growing population ML IS librarians 12 and embarked on a Population per librarian 3,001 capital campaign to terminals 92 Number of Internet build a new facility. In terminal 631 Internet per Population 2000, voters Visits 580,361 overwhelming Circulation 951,872 transactions supported a Internet uses 140,099 Annual terminal temporary sales tax ses 4:1 Visits: u nd the increase to fu uses Transactions: 7:1 construction and Jim Source: Henderson et al. 2010. Blair, a Tyson Foods executive, donated $3 million toward the new building. Groundbreaking for the new building was held in April of 2002, and the 88,000 square foot library — three times the size of the previous building —was comp leted in 2004. The new library has functioned as a space in which people gather in the event of emergencies. Library staff helped many evacuees with government and insurance paperwork and assistance in finding family members after Hurricane , the Katrina in 2005. More recently mayor of Fayetteville, Lioneld Jordan, praised the library for its emergency response to a devastating January ice storm: The FPL was instrumental in assisting the community during the 2009 gathering ice storm by providing a phone -charging center, a community place, providing an escape from a harsh reality, providing warmth when How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 43 | Opportunity for All:

45 so many people were without power, providing computer access when people couldn’t find information, and providing a sounding board for o listen to them . Thank you many people who simply needed someone t for all you do for our community. (FPL 2009a ) FPL Current State of Affairs The new building is the most visible manifestation of the achievements of Louise Sharper, the director of the FPL at the time the U.S. IMPACT Study fiel d visits were conducted, and of the library staff and volunteers who energized the FPL and made it more attractive to the community as a social and intellectual gathering place. These efforts were recognized in 2005 by Library Journal which named FPL Library of the Year. FPL was also recognized in 2006 by TravelSmart newsletter as one of “15 Landmark American Libraries” (Fayetteville Public LIbrary n.d. -a). The current director is Shawna Thorup, who continues to keep The demand for library services is the library a stro ng center of the community. growing as the city of Fayetteville grows, and the library hopes to meet community need by opening one to two branch libraries in the future. Mission The mission of the FPL is to “strengthen ou r community and empower citizens with free and public access to knowledge.” The goals the library has set to meet its mission include developing and delivering quality, customer -focused service; using technology to maximize information access and continual ly improve efficiency of operations; and meeting the lifelong learning, cultural, scientific, and business needs of its diverse community of families and individuals. FPL’s administrators and staff see public access computers and Internet access o its mission, and as especially critical to area residents who do not as core t have access at home. The role of the computers, one librarian explains, is “to enrich their lives, to help them grow and to find jobs, to develop their skills, to The library administration is also dedicated to help them in the 21 st century.” seeking out “greener technologies” for the library with a goal of greener public access computing. Patrons also believe public computing should be provided by libraries as an integral part of the library’s mission. One web survey respondent, who lives in a -hour small town where the library only has five public computers with a one time limit, pays “a fee to use the computers [at Fayetteville]. I think all libraries e people who need to use them. I am should have enough computers for th unemployed and use the Internet to file for unemployment and apply for jobs, as well as for email and personal interests. One hour is not enough.” How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 44 | Opportunity for All:

46 Funding Sources Table 8: FY 2008 Operating Revenue The FPL is an independent income $3,825,427 Total organization deemed “quasi - 79.8% government Local Internal governmental” by the State government 3.4% ayor Revenue Service , as the m Federal government 0.0% ts board of Fayetteville selects i 16.8% income Other members. For FY 2008 , 80 Source: Henderson et al. 2010. percent of the budget came from the city, which is heavily funded through sales tax, and from a special library property tax. The remaining operating revenue came from fines, fees an d other charges, donations, and a small contribution from the Arkansas State Library. FPL’s expenditures per capita are about the same as those in Oakland , California; however, they rely on less local funding for their budget. The FPL draising arm of the library and contributed over $150,000 Foundation is the fun to the library’s operational budget. Community Relationships FPL expressed a desire to do more outreach to some Staff and supporters of the of the smaller population segments in Fayetteville. In particular, they are interested in trying to engage the relatively small senior citizen population, who may be intimidated by technology and need more he lp getting online. Making the library more friendly and relevant to Fayetteville’s growing Hispanic population is also a priority for the staff. The library advertises the classes it on television, radio, and online but does not pay to run and offers in print ad vertisements. Political Context At the time of the case study visit, the city of Fayetteville was in strong financial shape and not facing any cuts. However, city leaders were concerned about relying on sales tax, encouraging good growth, and contain ing the cost of city - sponsored programs. The library has tremendous support in Fayetteville, both from its citizens and elected officials. According to one city official, the mayor “believes that the basis of everything is education and the library touches every he also considers the library one of six basic but essential aspect of that,” and services —the others are police, fire, water, sewer, and trash collection. Another city official reflected on the value of the library for economic development: I feel like any time you have a library that offers the things this library offers to the public, it enhances the quality of life and in turn brings How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 45 | Opportunity for All:

47 people here to work and to find jobs, and businesses to locate here. I definitely think there’s a relationship that way. services are a key part of the value policymakers see in Computer and Internet the library, especially in terms of helping people connect with others and learn new skills. This recurrent theme was expressed by another city official: I think the stro ngest value of the library is providing an opportunity to be engaged and connected. A lot of families in our community don’t have the opportunity otherwise, especially low- income families. We have a fairly good computer lab, but more than that, a lot of th ose families don’t have the skills to use those tools as effectively. This library goes to extra lengths to host workshops and provide training. They do that free of charge to really make that a tool for the community. Though universally supportive of the library, city officials interviewed during the U.S. IMPACT case study visits also expressed concern about the cost of government and a need to keep library expenditures low. Providing them with evidence of the benefits of public technology, especially in removing barriers and increasing innovation, was seen as important in efforts to gain political legitimacy and support. Computer training opportunities at the library, in particular, were seen as highly valuable. Relationships with Supporters FPL pported by a board of trustees, the Friends of FPL , and the FPL The is su Foundation. The Library Board of Trustees serves as a liaison between the library and the city and ensures the library meets the informational, educational , and recreational needs of the commu nity. Vacancies on the b oard are appointed by the mayor with the approval of the c ity council ; trustees serve -year terms. staggered five The Friends of the FPL support and assistance and the FPL Foundation provide to the library. The Friends operate s the Friends bookstore and provide s funding extras for the “ ” not covered by public money, such as special programming for adults, teen agers, and children; expanding collections and electronic resources; ovides support for and building improvements. The FPL Foundation also pr collection development and programming through private donations, bequests, grants, and business donations. Peer Agency Relationships One of the library’s goals is to enhance services, expand resources, and increase visibility by pursuing mutually beneficial partnerships with other libraries, How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 46 | Opportunity for All:

48 government and community agencies, education institutions, business and industry, and the public. FPL has at least 70 partnerships with local organizations it work rograms for youth, adult literacy, job who s with throughout the year on p seeking, leadership skills, and lifelong learning. The library’s administration sees resources to provide better service these partnerships as a way of leveraging its so building them is a priority. to the public It is particularly active with the Chamber of Commerce and the nonprofit community, providing space and training in cooperation with both. FPL also received three years of funding from the C Foundation for access to a are nonprofit database and for its n onprof it resource center. The computer lab at the new library has proven to be an especially important resource in FPL’s partnerships. Both agencies and community groups have used the library’s computers for classes ranging from basic computer skills to genealogy research. FPL tak es great care in identifying community groups and working with them to serve their particular needs, whether it is for meeting room space, instruction from librarians, or computer access. Making these connections has helped keep visibility in the commu its political legitimacy. its nity high and has increased -Based Interdependence between the Library and Community Organizations Though some social service groups in Fayetteville provide computer access, for a limited amount of often that access is limited to a specific type of use or or clients of these agencies, the library time . Library staff reported that f provides broader access, particularly on weekends and evenings when the agencies are closed. An indirect benefit expressed by several staff members fro m peer agencies that access for limited purposes is reduced stress provide computers and Internet and demand on their time. One staff member from an employment agency that provides computers for job searching explained: [Having the library here] reduces my frictions of having to tell people you have to quit doing what you’re doing on the computers , [because I can tell them they can] go to the library and do that. That helps our workload in that sense that we don’t have to monitor as much, hat sites they’re on. And that helps us in the long watching people, w run so that we don’t have those folks coming in to the office to do things they’re not supposed to be doing. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 47 | Opportunity for All:

49 Public meeting space was an important service for all the public libraries visited by the U.S. IMPACT Study; Fayetteville was unique among them, however, in computer lab for a peer agency’s classes. providing the use of its Library Characteristics Budget FPL’s expenditures, 67 percent, went toward personnel services. The majority of Fourteen -resources; 19 percent went to books, audiovisual materials, and e percent to other expenditures, including services, charges, and maintenance. The library’s administration estimates that about 7 percent of the library’s access budget supports the public access co mputer terminals and Internet across these budget categories. In terms of per capita expenditures, Fayetteville was closest to Oakland , California, and well above the $36.51 average for single outlet, small city libraries. FPL t shortfall or cuts at the was not facing a budge time of the U.S. IMPACT field visit ; however, like most libraries, funding was tight and had to be balanced against competing priorities. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 48 | Opportunity for All:

50 ne l Practices Person 9: FY 2008 Expenditures Table FPL had 44 employees in $3,124,347 Total expenditures 2008, with 15 librarians, 10 67.4% Staff (salaries and benefits) of whom had master Print 10.1% collection degrees in library science Electronic collection 1.2% -accredited from ALA Other 2.4% material expenditures institutions. This is an Other operating expenditures 19.0% increase from 2005, when Expenditures per capita $53.82 full- there were just 35 time Source: Henderson et al. 2010. . An increase in employees staff has helped realize the lib rary’s strategic plan of offering quality customer service and attentive staff who aim to provide courteous and complete attention to all inquiries and suggestions, as well as accurate and timely service. The library’s pledge of quality customer service he focus on the lps keep the needs and priorities of the local communities. In 2008, FPL had one librarian per 3,001 people in the library’s legal service area, the best ratio of the case study sites and well below the average of one librarian per 6,582 peop le for small city libraries. The library continues to try to expand staffing levels while working within fiscal constraints. FPL has dedicated technology staff consisting of a director, systems -time work -study staff. Having its ow n IT staff helps the administrator, and a part library keep up with current technology and seek out new “green” technology to use for public access computing. Staff Training FPL’s administration feels that keeping staff trained and up to date on ary’s success. Even though there is in technology is important to the libr -library IT staff, other staff members feel librarians need more IT and technology skills to stay relevant and to effectively help patrons. To help meet these training out of service have been ken needs, some library computers that have been ta repurposed to create staff -training stations. Volunteers FPL has an active volunteer community that is critical to fulfilling its mission and FPL manager. overseen by the v olunteer it is volunteers put in 13,826 services hours in 2009 through participating in a variety of capacities including in the Sit, ; as Library Greeters and Library Patrol, Stay, Read Therapy Dog Program ; acting ; shelving audiovisual materials delivering books to homebound patrons How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 49 | Opportunity for All:

51 as tour guides ; gardening d reading to preschool children (FPL 2009b) . ; an Volunteers from the Friends of FPL also run the bookstore. Like the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland, FPL has a high degree of volunteer involvement across many library functions, but has a more limited role for volunteers around public access computers. S tudents from the University of Arkansas and other volunteers help with one -one patron -on computer training and monitoring the computer lab . However, though volunteers help relieve some time press ures on librarians, using volunteers to help computer users has been challenging, particularly around maintaining a regular schedule of when one -on -one help from volunteers is available. Evaluation FPL reference, program tracks statistics related to visits, circulation, The attendance, and the number of computer sessions. These numbers are the benchmark average of seven compared both to the national average and to other libraries, and are used in the library’s annual report and in s with funde rs and other stakeholders. communication To inform the library’s strategic plan, FPL consultants interviewed community representatives, local officials, and library staff. Findings of these interviews extending informed the strategic plan’s five main areas of focus: improving and access to library collections and services; developing and maintaining a materials collection that is responsive to the needs and demands of the community; defining essential activities and service levels; promoting the contributions and value o f the library to the greater Fayetteville area; and seeking funding sources that are reliable, sustainable, and adequate to carry out the library’s mission. Operational Context Physical Infrastructure FPL’s new building quickly became a community hub and intellectual center , 88,000 square foot library was funded after opening in 2005. The $23.3 million through sales tax and private donations and tripled the size of the previous facility. The library now prov ides an inviting setting for both traditional and -century library services and is the first building in Arkansas to be registered 21st with the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification program. ew library includes a café, bookstore, and seating for individuals or small The n groups throughout the building. There are multiple meeting rooms, an How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 50 | Opportunity for All:

52 automated book drop, a book conveyor sorting system, self -checkout stations, edia and and a theft detection system. The m magazine wing is a particularly comfortable space with a panoramic view of the Ozark s that invites patrons to hildren’s read and use their laptop computers. The c library is also a busy hub of activity within the library with many resources available for younger children, including the Anderson Imhoff Read Aloud Room —where the Sit, Stay and Read Program helps emerging readers gain confidence by reading to registered therapy dogs —a puppet theater, and several small meeting rooms. According to library staff, the library serves an active community of homeschoolers children’s and also provides space for tutors to work one -on -one with children. FPL has an advantage to the Pratt (Baltimore, Maryland) and Oakland (California) libraries, as well as many old er libraries across the country , in that its space was designed to provide the best possible layout for the multiple uses modern libraries are expected to accommodate. In particular, spaces for public he building plan, which access technology were thoughtfully incorporated into t not only gives users more space, but also makes it clear that technology is fully integrated into all library services. For most users interviewed during the U.S. IMPACT field visit, FPL’s environment was welcoming and accommodated their needs. Clearly, this sentiment is shared by many residents of Fayetteville and the surrounding areas: visits to the library have tripled and circulation, program attendance, and the number of registered borrowers have all significantly increased sinc e the new building opened. Technological Infrastructure At the time of the U.S. IMPACT Study visit, FPL maintained 65 public access computer terminals throughout the library. These terminals are concentrated in the second floor computer lab and their use is restricted to adults. Other terminals for adult use are located near the entry area, café, and refere nce resource areas, as well as terminals in the genealogy section and n onprofit center. with the Windows XP All the computers are personal computers operating system and the complete Microsoft Office suite. Users can save their work either by emailing it t o themselves or using a portable storage device such -laptops (netbooks) to adult patrons as a flash drive. FPL has begun lending mini -library use and for 2 for in -week periods out of the library. Several printers and copiers for public use are located near computer terminals. 5 or library The children’s ’s “Star Island” has computers for children aged younger that are loaded with interactive educational games, but are not for browsing. Older children, up to age 12, have the connected to the Internet library. FPL has also hildren’s use of 15 computers in a lab located within the c thoughtfully provided one computer for parents to use while their children are How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 51 | Opportunity for All:

53 occupied with the children’s computers or other programming; librarians also -laptops to use while note that parents frequently borrow the library’s mini wat ching their children. young adult section, located on the second floor, has five Internet The to 18 years old. Not surprisingly, it was computers for use by children aged 12 noted by staff and youth in focus groups that this is an insufficient number of users, and that teen age ager computers for teen s often have to wait for a terminal, oung especially on weekends or after school. An expansion of the y adult ar ea was slated for 2010 and was to include a Macintosh -based technology center with 16 desktop termin als and 12 MacBooks for in -library use. The computer lab houses 26 unfiltered computers in the center of the second , and two floor. Users must be 18 or over to use the computers in the lab day per computers have assistive technology. Time limits are two hours per user. Most of the patrons interviewed by the U.S. IMPACT researchers relied on the FPL for all of their computer and Internet needs, though more than 90 percent of users who responded to the web survey indicated they had also had access at home. Patrons without alternative access reported using library computers for a full range of tasks including corresponding with friends and family through email and social networking sites, shopping online, and keeping up with current es. These patrons tended to use library computers events through news websit nearly every day and for the most part did not have plans to purchase computers for their homes, either because of cost or, in the case of some older users, because they did not feel comfortable enough with the technology to maintain it themselves. One user had written two published novels on FPL’s public access computers and was completing her third at the time of the visit. Users with or without alternatives for computer and Internet access used the library’s terminals for researching health or employment information, and many completed job applications online at the library. The library was considered an “office away from the office” for some with alternative locations for Internet access as it provides a quiet sanctuary where users can get work done without the distractions they might encounter at home or work. For younger users, the library provides an escape from distracting siblings and is also more convenient for completing homework assignments as librarians and other resources are on nd to help them, as two 17 olds discussed in one of the youth focus -year- ha groups: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 52 | Opportunity for All:

54 Uri: When I’m writing things, just like for recreational reasons, it’s better ed to be to come to the library than to be at home because it’s requir quiet and you can function a lot more because there are no distractions around you. The library’s a nice place to come when you don’t want people to talk to you. Jelena: Well, I live like 30 miles away from here, so sometimes we go I’ll need to hang around for an hour or two and hey, into school and let’s go to the library and while I’m there I can do homework and sometimes check my email and that kind of stuff. There are no time limits for using the wireless access at FPL. Wireless Internet is filtered because it is available from anywhere within the building, including children’s areas. The only nonfiltered computers a re in the computer lab where one must be 18 or over and in the business/genealogy section on the second floor. For the most part , users interviewed during the field visit were highly satisfied with the public access technology resources and services provided by the FPL, but some indicated that time limits, the number of computers available, content barriers filters, and having to save their w ork to personal storage devices were to accomplishing their goals. Web survey respondents were also pleased with percent the library’s public technology: 87 reported they were very satisfied or Internet connections, though some satisfied with public access computers and of these respondents also suggested that the library add more computers, ager especially for teen s. The public access computers and Internet access available at the FPL are clearly valuable resources for the entire community, regardless of age, race, or income. The users in Fayetteville were more diverse in terms of income than the users in the other locations visited by the U.S. IMPACT Study , and at least among those interviewed, the city had a higher proportion of users with access to computers and the Internet elsewhere. That the library is an inviting space, has faster Internet connections than what may be available in the area, and has librarians available to help with technical questions or finding information drives many people in Fayetteville to use the library rather than other options they may have is the only access at home, the FPL available. For those without Internet dependable point of access in the area. Patron Demand , and that increase Since the new Blair Library opened, library visits have tripled is also reflected in the use of library computers. Even with greatly expanded resources and services, users sometimes have to wait for a computer, though How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 53 | Opportunity for All:

55 both u sers and staff agreed that it is only a problem during peak periods in the around the computers afternoon and on the weekend. Carl, a patron, notes that there are “crowded conditions. Sometimes in the afternoon, they are all full.” Weekends are a busy plac e in the computer lab . According to users, Sunday is the busiest day for computer usage and often people wait for computers to become available. ager s appear to be impacted by congestion more than adults or younger Teen children because they are restricted to using the five computer terminals located in the y oung adult area. This is especially frustrating for teen ager s when computers are vacant in other areas of the library, as 15 old Lance -year- explains: I am personally limited to the five computers in the top of the library [in the teen age r center] because of my age. Sometimes they’re full and I’ve had times when there was no Internet at all on them. Most of the kid’s center down at the bottom, I’ve never seen it half full and I think it should be more ope n. The library employs several strategies for addressing excess demand, including using session management software to reduce session lengths and providing mini -library use so patrons can be seated in other areas of the -laptops for in library. This is espe r area where there is not enough age cially helpful in the teen surface area for installing stationary terminals. Several Fayetteville teen ager s and adults discussed surrendering their sessions to others when the library computers are full. Fayetteville was the only library where the researchers encountered this type of altruism toward their fellow users, even though many users at all four case study libraries discussed helping other users find information or complete tasks. Jared, a 49 -year -old , explains his thinking: Sunday is the only time it’s a rat race around here. You got people running around like a chicken with its head cut off. Then there are a lot of people standing in line for the computer and then a lot of times I feel guilty and I ju st get off because I want them to get access to it to. A lot of times if they stand up there for 15, 20 minutes I’ll let them have it. Use Policies: Time Limits, Filtering, and Behavior Standards The library uses access control software to manage and enforce time limits on public computer sessions. Users log on to computers using valid library card barcodes and are allowed a total of two hours of computer per day use on a -come, first -served basis. The library does not allow patrons to reserve first s in advance. Patrons can use their two hours of time at one sitting, computer unless the lab , at which point the access is at more than 70 percent capacity How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 54 | Opportunity for All:

56 control software limits each session to one hour; users can logon for their vailable. second hour when a terminal is a The library also has several stand -up, 15 -minute express stations for patrons who want quick access to the Internet. However, the express stations can cause some patron confusion, as noted by patron Jareb: ed off after 15 minutes. I’ve seen A lot of people don’t know you get kick a lot of people get mad. ”Why’d they kick me off?” And I say, “Did you 15- minute sessions?” I think they should have a big know that it’s for sign that says for minute sessions. Because I’ve seen a lot of people 15- cuss a t the computer or at people for no reason. Well, I guess it is a reason to them. Fayetteville does have flexib ility with its time limits. Librarians can extend sessions for certain uses, such as business -related research. Staff find that the session management software is difficult for some patrons to manage, but 1 overall it allows for flexibility to best serve the needs of patrons. services. A valid library card is required to access FPL’s computer and Internet However, a one -day visitor’s pass is available for such library users as business travelers or vacationers. No library card is required for wireless access. Library cards also serve the purpose of restricting access to computers intended for ing to log onto a KidTech computer specific users. For example, an adult attempt - to 12- old age criteria, and would be refused access as he does not fit the 6 year- a child could not attain access to the unfiltered computers found in the computer lab . mputer to regulate behavior, Fayetteville has policies stating one patron per co age patrons notice that one which are enforced to varying degrees. Some teen “problem, other than the trusty computer drama at the library, is every once in the chairs by a while there will be a group of three people that will sit in three of the computers and not use the computers and talk to each other. That is not fair.” Adults can choose unfiltered access while youth computers are always filtered at Fayetteville. The librarians also monitor the computers for inappropriate be havior. Fayetteville filters all its wireless access as a condition for receiving E - ed about difficulty of getting E Rate funds. Some staff complain -Rate funds and applying different levels of filtering to different types of access. One of the patron interv iewees, Moses, wished the library filters were more accurate. 1 Since the time of the field visit, new session management software has been installed, and patrons appear to have much less difficulty in using the system. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 55 | Opportunity for All:

57 frustrations with the filter, noting that eBay was not Patron Raya also described accessible. Patron Adam does not like how MySpace is filtered, as he is unable on their pages , and Nancy cannot access to listen to songs that bands put information about her high school reunion because Facebook is blocked by 2 . filters Another patron, Roberto, described a common frustration with filtering: ry about a [I was] trying to do some research on HIV/AIDS. I saw a sto famine in southern Africa and was trying to follow some links to it and hit the censorship software. There are certain sites that you can’t go to in the library. I went to the librarian and said that I wasn’t trying to hit -rated site or a p orn site. This was about famine. She adjusted the an X filter so I could use it. While many case study participants wanted looser computer filters, patron Lydia found that “some people can still check the pornographic sites even though it’s an adult site. Some of the sites could be dangerous when used by someone who knows the tricks. The library needs to figure out what they really need to have on the computers and what not.” Filtering and other restrictions on Internet content were discussed at much than at the Enoch Pratt greater le ngth and frequency by patrons at the FPL Library in Baltimore, Maryland, which also applies content filters. It was unclear during the case study visit why filtering was a more contentious issue in Fayetteville, especially considering that the Pratt Library applies content filters to all adult computers, in addition to those used by youth. However, library administrators suggest that residents in Fayetteville have strong sensibilities around interference in free speech. Technology C lasses and One -On -One Help FPL provides free computer classes as part of its computer and Internet services. The Computer Boot Camp is a basic skills class, while the “ One Click Away: Finding a Job ” workshop speaks more specifically to employment concerns. By making computer and training available, the library aims to alleviate Internet much of the frustration felt by those who are new to this technology. Additionally, library staff find they have fe wer requests for one -on -one help, as computer users become more independent navigating the Internet and filling out forms: What we’re finding is that people are showing up with no skills on the computer and wanting to jump from A to T, you know, in their s kill 2 Since the research was conducted, Facebook has been unblocked from the adult areas. It remains blocked in the children’s area and via wireless due to E -Rate conditions. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 56 | Opportunity for All:

58 levels and they’re really frustrated to have to learn B through S. They just don’t have time to learn all those skills. So they just want someone to come in and sit down with them and help them immediately become functional. What we kind of hope to do with that workshop is sort of skip all of this, “this is Word, this is a mouse, this is how you highlight.” We’re just going to skip all of that and go straight to applying skills to something that’s really important to them. Users interviewed at the time of the U.S. IMPACT field visit indicated that for -sufficient as far as needing assistance on the the most part they were self computers; however, in the event that they did need assistance, the staff at FPL was extremely helpful and responsive to their ne eds. Case Summary experienced a surge in use associated with the opening of its new The FPL facility in 2006. Demand for public access computers and wireless Internet access sometimes exceeds the library’s current capacity. However, the administration and staff of the library continue to try to meet patron needs by adding computers and experimenting with circulating laptops. The library’s focus on making and maintaining community connections, building partnerships, and being responsive to the changing need s of its patrons helps generate enthusiastic support from city leaders and residents and makes the library a visible contributor to the economic and social health of Fayetteville. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 57 | Opportunity for All:

59 3.4 The Oakland Public Library The Oakland Public Library informs, inspires , and delights our diverse community as a resource for information, knowledge, and artistic and literary expression, providing the best in traditional services, new technologies and innovative programs. ssion Statement –OPL Mi We are the great equalizer, the library, for our range of materials and resources. We’re exposing people to the online world, the world of technology. –Carmen Martinez, Director of Library Services The OPL serves the city of Oakland, Califo and was the third of four library rnia, systems the U.S. IMPACT research team visited. 10: Case Study Details Table May 10 to 17, 2009 isit v ite s Study The City of locations Visit Main Library Rockridge Branch Library Oakland Branch Library Eastmont Situated on the east ávez Branch Library César E. Ch side of San Francisco Asian Branch Library Bay, Oakland, to 13 users aged 14 Interviews 17 in three focus enjoys 19 California, conducted groups miles of coastlands to 29 adult users the west and rolling 36 library administrators, branch the east. The hills to managers, librarians, other library staff, city is connected to and library board members 10 staff from peer agencies San Francisco by the Web survey 71 completed surveys with 28 San Francisco -Oakland respondents providing suggestions for serves Bay Bridge and improvements as the county seat for Alameda County. According to the Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA), ly restored Victorians from Oakland has a unique range of housing from elegant the late 1800s to modern multimillion dollar estates perched in the hills. Oakland remains a more affordable housing option than many Bay Area cities How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 58 | Opportunity for All:

60 with a median home price of $230,500 in 2008 compared to $473,510 for the enti re Bay Area, including San Francisco. , and poverty, criminal activity As the city struggles with job creation, education constitutes one of Oakland’s highest profile issues. Though there was some reduction in homicide and violent crime rates in 2007 and 2008, according to City Crime Rankings , Oakland was thi rd in the nation for re the CQ Press ports of certain violent and property crimes in 2009 (CQ Press n.d.) . Crime, violence, and gang activities are a major focus of public debate and policy initiatives, with many different voices weighing in on the best ways to address the problem. Oakland’s police and community groups are actively experimenting with solutions including community policing and street outreach that connects at -risk populations with prevention programs and job training to address the 3 underlying causes of violent crime. OPL is not immune from the problems faced by the communities it serve s. The Though librarians noted that the library is considered a safe place or neutral territory by most patrons, they also reported incidents of criminal activity inside and around the library. Population Characteristics The population of Oakland was an estimated 360,000 in 2008, a decrease of around 37,000 people from the 2000 c ensus -a). It is (U.S. Census Bureau n.d. the eighth largest city in California and, according to the y Diversit USA Today Index , is one of the two most diverse cities in the country (Oakland Community -a). Thirty -seven percent of the and Economic Development Agency n.d. Black or African American, 16 percent are population is White, 30 percent are Asian, 13 percent identify a s some other race, and 4 percent are of mixed racial background. People of Hispanic or Latino origin, regardless of race, make up 25 percent of the population, which is less than California’s overall Hispanic or Latino population of 36 percent, but signifi cantly more than the national average of 15 percent. Oakland is also home to a large immigrant population: 28 percent of residents were born outside of the United States, and nearly 40 percent speak a language other than English at home, both well above th e national average, though less than California’s average for these populations. Of those speaking a language other than English at home, 56 percent spoke Spanish and 44 percent spoke some other language; 57 percent reported that they did not speak English “very well ” (U.S. Census Bureau 2008). 3 , Ella Baker Center or a Sustainable Economy For two examples see: East Bay Alliance f for Human Rights, and Urban Peace Movement (2009) and Oakland Police Department (2010). How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 59 | Opportunity for All:

61 Of the population over the age of 25, Oakland has a smaller proportion of high school graduates than the national average (78 percent in Oakland compared with the national average of about 85 percent); however, Oakland has a higher proportion of its * Table 11: Oakland City Demographic Data tion holding a popula Total population 362,342 bachelor degree or White 36.9% Race higher level degree 29.8% Black or African American than the national 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native average (35 percent in Asian 15.6% Oakland compared or Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian 0.5% 12.9% Some other race with 28 percent 3.7% Two or more races nationally). In rigin (any race) Hispanic or Latino o 25.2% Oakland, an 19 and u nder 25.6% Age estimated one in four 11.0% 65 and over English -speaking Language other than English spoken at home 39.8% adults (approximately income $48,596 household Median 80,000 people) can Poverty rate ( 15.3% family) neither write clearl y 2006– 2008 8.7% Unemployment nor fully understand † rate 16% 2009 (OPL what they read * -a. U.S. Census Source: Bureau n.d. † 2009b ). Nineteen Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2009. percent of adults in rated as below basic prose Alameda County, which includes Oakland, are literacy , compared to 14 percent of the U.S. population on the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literac y (National Center for Education Statistics 2003) . The poor educational outcomes and literacy skills are a major problem in Oakland, adding to already high levels of unemployment and poverty. While the median household income is $48,596, over 15 percent o f Oakland’s families live below the poverty line, well above the California and national averages of 9.6 -Walt, Proctor, and Smith 2009) percent (DeNavas . To help improve opportunities for residents with limited literacy, the OPL maintains the “ Second Start Adult Literacy Program ,” which provides free skills assessment, one -on -one tutoring, and classes in reading, writing, math, and (OPL spelling ). Since its inception in 1984, the program has helped over 2009b 5,000 adult learners improve their literacy skills. Employment and Business Climate Unemployment is a serious problem in Oakland. Already high in 2008 with a 9.5 percent unemployment rate, it jump ed to an estimated 16 percent in 2009; the (U.S. Bureau of Labor national average was 9.5 percent during the same period How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 60 | Opportunity for All:

62 Statistics 2009) . Currently, the service industry employs almost half of Oakland ing for about 20 percent residents, with retail trade and manufacturing account of employers . Other employment sectors represented in the area include finance, insurance, and real estate (6.5 percent); transportation, warehousing, and utilities (6.2 percent); construction (6.0 percent); information (4.6 percen t); (Oakland Community and Economic and public administration (4.5 percent) -a). Major employers in the area include Kaiser Development Agency n.d. Permanente Hospital, Clorox, and Dreyer’s Grand Ice Cream. Though the CEDA is active in developing strategies for economic growth, it is clear that a great deal of long -term work and investment will be necessary to improve the outlook and quality of life for Oakland’s residents. In this discouraging environment, OPL stands out for its dedication to providing idents with meaningful tools and opportunities for bettering their res circumstances. Technology Infrastructure and Adoption Downtown Oakland is home to a vast telecommunications network with hundreds of miles of fiberoptic cable underground (Oakland Community and Economic Development Agency n.d. -b). The major telecommunications company is Comcast , which provides cable and Internet to customers. The City owntown of Oakland provides a wireless hotspot in the Frank Ogawa Plaza in d - an , and some d technology Oakland to foster a business -friendly environment local coffee shops and businesses also but with offer customers wireless access, the closure of the Eastmont Computer Center, OPL is the only location for free access to both computers and the Internet in the are a. Future Outlook Struggles with poverty and crime, as well as the poor fiscal outlook for California near as a whole, may present serious challenges Oakland’s -term economic recovery. However, the city has several unique attributes that may help it mitigate some long- term financial problems. Oakland’s diversity of businesses, industry, ethnicities, races, and income levels make the city a vibrant place to live and work. Further, community and business leaders have been successful in cultivating private investment and bringing in new businesses to the city. In recent years, public and private investment has driven more than 75 major -rate residential housing to achieve development projects, including market 10,000 new downtown residents former Mayor Jerry Brown's goal of attracting (Oakland Community and Economic Development Agency n.d. -c). How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 61 | Opportunity for All:

63 Oakland Public Library’s Place in the Community The OPL began as the Oakland Free Library in November of 1878. OPL serves a population of nearly 450,000 wit h a main l ibrary, 15 branches, t he African American Museum and Library at Oakland , the Second Start Adult (AAMLO) ending Library, and a bookmobile . The library Literacy Program, the Tool L , and branches are spread throughout Oakland, with the Central Library, AAMLO the Asian branch located downtown near Bay Area Rapid Transit stations. The -run Second Start Adult Literacy P rogram provides confidential adult basic library ). The Temescal Tool Lending Library provides carpentry, education (OPL 2009b -to books and videos gardening, plumbing, a nd electrical tools as well as how Internet services were introduced in 1995 and n.d.) . Computers and (OPL wireless began to rollout in 2007 with all branches having wireless capability by 2009. Current State of A ffairs library is located at 125 14 th Street and is open to the public seven The main libraries are closed on Sunday and Mondays; hours of branch days a week. All 15 operation vary from branch to branch. The library system has 174 public Internet terminals and Table 12: Library Characteristics and Use Urbanicity City, large wireless Int ernet 441,010 population legal service area 2008 access at all branches. Number of branches 16 Carmen Martinez has Total staff 251 Staffing been the Director of levels librarians All 85 Library Services since ML 85 IS ibrarians l ibrarian 5,188 Population per 2000. Library of Internet terminals 174 Number technology Population per Internet t erminal 2,756 advancement during 3,240,395 Visits her directorship 2,270,755 transactions Circulation s increasing the include erminal uses 370,694 Annual Internet t number of public 9:1 uses Visits: access computers, Transactions: uses 6:1 the installing WiFi at Source: Henderson et al. 2010. main and branch libraries , and AAMLO , live chat and reference the introduction of eBooks offered via the Internet mail, and the TeenZone at the Central Library service using e , which now offers ager s use of the only Apple iMac computers available in the OPL System teen and the City of Oakland. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 62 | Opportunity for All:

64 Beginning in November 2008, a budget shortfall for the city of Oakland forced the library to institute mandatory shutdowns and cutbacks in branch hours. . Even a s the li brary These budget problems continued through 2009 and 2010 faced cuts, it saw increased demand for services, especially for the library’s Internet access. Librarians report that more people computers and wireless from higher income levels seem to be coming to the library, perhaps to save money on home Intern et connections. In addition, cutting branch hours has had ripple effects in surrounding communities, w here cutbacks at social service agencies pushed more people to use the library’s resources, even as it is have open fewer hours to serve them. Mission Th e OPL’s mission is to inform, inspire , and delight its diverse community as a resource for information, knowledge, and artistic and literary expression, providing the best in traditional services, new technologies , and innovative nistration further stresses the importance of training programs. The library admi patrons on public computing as a part of the library’s mission and the -skill users. One library supporter shared importance of engaging early and low his views of the importance of computer and Internet access in terms reflected in interviews with other supporters, staff, peer agencies, and the library’s administration. He speaks to issues of justice, equity, and the importance of digital inclusion to our society: It’s ensuring that we’re doing what we can to minimize the differences that exist between those who have access to the computers and Internet and those who don’t. And I think that given the increasingly important roles that computers and the Internet play in our society, it’s very important tha t all people have access to that. So I think there are a whole host of issues relating to inequality and injustice that are directly addressed by expanding access to the Internet and the computers. Still, there is some tension about where the library’s priorities lay. As staff role of struggle to provide patrons with the services they expect, many see the the librarian evolving to keep pace with the needs of the community, while others are concerned that electronic resources are displac ing traditional services. One staff member expressed her concerns this way : “M any times, librarians are last to jump on a bandwagon — —they are here in Oakland probably more than any other organizations; they really hold on to the historical significance of their profession.” How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 63 | Opportunity for All:

65 Re gardless of personal feelings toward technology, there was wide agreement services is essential to Oakland’s future that access to computers and Internet as a viable community for its citizens. As one librarian noted, this is especially important for provi ding opportunities for young people: “Just having children that are exposed to these kinds of technologies you could extrapolate and say that the entire community is in a better position.” , OPL respond ed by setting up job In the midst of the economic downturn centers as another way of contributing to and enhancing the local community. However, w as much as the area it ith the library impacted by the recession serves , librarians have found it difficult to keep up with the demand . Funding Sources OPL receives the bulk of its funding from the city of Oakland, which is currently in a dire budgetary situation. The city had to address a $91 to $97 million annual general purpose fund shortfall in FY 2009 to 2011 (which is between 18 and 19 percent of the baseline budget). This shortfall was on top of the $42 million budget gap balanced in November 2008 and further adjustments made in May 2009 to avoid an $8 million shortfall . As a result, the (City of Oakland 2009) library, along with other municipal de partments, suffered an across the board budget cut of 20 percent. 13: FY 2008 Operating Revenue Table In a struggling city, the current Total income $23,821,646 funding structure for OPL 98.8% Local government provides for only the bare 0.7% government State basics of service and very government 0.5% Federal limited options for capital 0.0% Other income projects. Of the local funding, Henderson et al. 2010. Source: 44.6 percent ( $10,580,021) comes from the city of Oakland and 55.4 percent ($13,153,914) comes from a special parcel tax known as Measure Q. Passed in 2004, with 78 percent of voters in favor, Measure Q was the reauthorization and increase of a dedicated parcel tax to bolster library funding. Thoug h the funding from Measure Q is ity of Oakland, it is still very vulnerable more stable than that provided by the c to fluctuations in city funding. Further, Measure Q funds are restricted to l operational expenses and so cannot address the need for structura improvements and other capital projects the library needs in order to maintain of support from the state and federal receives only a small amount services. OPL governments and from fundraising. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 64 | Opportunity for All:

66 Political Context ity o f Oakland and is governed by an eight - The library is a department of the c mayor , with approval by the c ity council , appoints the member city council. The member Library Advisory Commission , which is also charged with oversight 15- of Measure Q funds. While the Library Advisory Commission make s recommendations about library spending, it is ultimately the c council that ity approves those recommendations. OPL ity council members, the c ity administrator, leaders maintain contact with c and state legislators, sharing library newsletters, use statis tics , and information about their services. They see this role as a major responsibility as it keeps the library connected to its major external stakeholders and helps remind them of OPL’s importance to the residents of Oakland. Relationships with Support ers The Friends of the OPL provide s money for books, programming, and OPL scholarships for library staff to attend library s chool . Friends of the totaling $102,000 for 2010. The Friends to 2009 provided grants to the OPL FY support during this period included $45,000 for an innovative new branch library scheduled to open in 2011 in East Oakland. In addition to the Friends of the OPL , local Friends ’ groups provide support to the Elmhurst, Lakeview, (Friends of Melrose, a nd Montclair branch libraries and the Tool Lending Library the OPL 2010) . Peer Agency Relationships agencies, The OPL maintains relationships with a variety of peer community especially the Oakland Unified School District with which it is work ing to open a new branch in East Oakland. The Oakland Unified School District provided land city of Oakland in order to build the library, while the bulk of the funds to the come from a state g rant ($6.5 million), with the next largest portion coming the Oakland Coliseum Redevelopment Project Area ($4.7 million). The from Friends of the OPL , foundations, individuals , and business have donated $3 million for new furniture, fixtures, equipment , and books for the new library 2010) (OPL . Staff from other local agencies interviewed during the U.S. IMPACT field visit stressed the importance of free access to computers and technology because many of their clients lack access at home. The access available at the library has increased in importance because the Eastmont Computing Center, the main source for free access to computers and the Internet in Oakland besides the public library, had to close due to lack of funding. Though OPL does not have a How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 65 | Opportunity for All:

67 systemwide outreach or communication plan for disseminating information about the library’s computers or training courses, many of these agencies refer people to the library for housing, employment, and government assistance. Interdependence between the Library and Community -Based Organizations During interviews with OPL administrators and staff, community partners, and team identified a number of ways in which the users themselves, the research services in the library. For local agencies rely on public access computer example, the principal of one local charter s chool spoke about the fact that the own library or computer center because school did not to have to maintain its were up to date and accessible . Other core local agency the facilities in the OPL functions are carried out by library staff as well. Librarians reported providing teen ager s coming to the library for help with more advice and assistance to after the district eliminat ed searching for colleges and applying for financial aid positions. chased In addition, the library has pur most of its guidance counselor a number of the subscription databases that the district could no longer afford . that classes are brought to the library to use the Librarians also report computers to research material for school reports. Though these types of demands were present in all of the communities studied during case study visits, the extent to which they occurred in Oakland was a more obvious strain on the library’s resources for two prominent reasons. First, eding assistance Oakland is a struggling community with many of its residents ne in securing basic services and benefits. Second, the agencies themselves have fewer resources to mobilize on behalf of their clients. Library Characteristics Budget The majority of Oakland’s budget, 78.8 percent for 2008 to 2009, was FY expended on personnel costs; 13.1 percent on operations and supplies, and 8.1 percent on books and other materials. Oakland spends $54.02 for every resident within the legal service area, which is about $9 less per capita than Baltimore’s expenditures, but more than the $40.43 average for large libraries. Personnel Practices Table 14: FY 2008 Expenditures $23,821,645 Total expenditures Staff (salaries and benefits) 79.2% How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 66 | Opportunity for All:

68 Print 6.0% collection In addition to the library c Electronic ollection % 1.1 OPL’s director, expenditures 0.8% Other material management team is made Other operating expenditures 12.9% up of managers from six Expenditures per capita $54.02 departments: community Source: Henderson et al. 2010. grants and relations, development, AAMLO, public services, support and strategic planning, and the f inancial and administrative services office. Within the public services department, libraries are broken into two branch districts in addition to the main library. OPL does ity’s IT d epartment. In not have its own IT staff, instead being served by the c 2008, Oakland employed 244 staff members, with 83 librarians who hold degrees from ALA -accredited institutions. All the library’s administrators and staff commented on b udget problems faced by the city of Oakland, particularly because of its implications for staffing levels. OPL has the lowest number of librarians per capita of the four libraries visited by average for the U.S. IMPACT Study researchers but is still above the national librarian per 7,672 residents. Increases in use large urban libraries, which is one coupled with minimal staffing levels, increased numbers o f vacancies, and little hope of adding to the library payroll have left staff frustrated and stressed, though still maintaining their dedication to helping patrons. Staff Training Due to Oakland’s budgetary limitations, staff are unable to receive computer training and in turn some staff are not comfortable with teaching technology allows them to skills to patrons. Some staff would like to see more training, as it better answer the new nature of questions patrons ask around the Internet and computers. Volunteers hours during FY Volunteers put in 17,063 Oakland uses students 2006 to 2007. puter volunteers and also gets some volunteers to provide informally as com more advanced training classes. Some partnerships may provide volunteers but they are not specifically for technology help and training. For example, some volunteers conduct story times at Head Start and other preschool organizations. Evaluation The tracks general statistics including total circulation, registered OPL borrowers, library visits, public service hours, reference questions received, number of programs offered and attendance, the number of computer sessions, How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 67 | Opportunity for All:

69 and the number of website visitors. In FY 2006 2007, the library saw 370,694 to ; it saw 391,240 in FY 2008 to 2009 (OPL 2009a) . Total library computer sessions a 7.4 percent increase. visits increased from 3,094,268 to 3,340,395— Operational Context Physical Infrastructure The OPL has a main library and 15 branch libraries. Oakland is most affected by problems of old branc have inadequate space, wiring, and h buildings that electrical outlets. Some of Oakland’s branches lack restrooms. One unique branch is the Eastmont Branch, located in a former indoor shopping mall in East Oakland. In addition to the library branch and com puter lab , the Town Center mall now contains social and community service agencies including Planned Parenthood, Social Security, Head Start, a diabetes clinic, a nutrition center, and police hub. ommunity Library OPL recently completed construction on a new branch, the C at 81st Avenue, which open 2011. The new branch is located on in January, ed the campus of the Acorn Woodland Elementary School and EnCompass and is the system ’s largest branch, providing services to a Academy neighborhood that has long needed its own library. Technological Infrastructure According to the 2008 Public Library Survey, 174 public access computers are available systemwide. Patron use is limited to one hour per day. Computers are equipped with basic Microsoft software, including Word, Internet Explorer, and Windows Media Player. Because the library’s technology is maintained by the city, the library does not have much control over what types of computers or software are offered to patrons; for example, they cannot install the F irefox web browser on library computers. The main library and all branches have wireless access. Internet The OPL is committed to providing access to people with disabilities and had the most visible presence of adaptive technology of the four libraries vi sited by the U.S. IMPACT Study researchers. The library has also invested in multilingual Microsoft software to appeal to the needs of its highly diverse community. While the library computers are mostly equipped with Windows operating ain systems , the Teen Zo ne at the m branch has several new Macs. The computers in the Teen Zone also have different software from those in : the other parts of the library and much more capability machines are equipped How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 68 | Opportunity for All:

70 with the Safari web browser and an expanded Microsoft Office Suite (Word, Excel, and PowerPoint). Several branch libraries in Oakland are Carnegie -era buildings and are not capable of handling more data lines. This infrastructure often interferes with the library meeting patron demand for bandwidth and more computers. In addition, ity IT department, when because the computers are supported by the c computers break down the y do not always get fixed promptly. Likewise, library computers are replaced according to the city’s replacement schedule, which is two to three years. every Patron Demand OPL computers are always busy, especially on Saturdays, as explained by an administrator of the OPL: “We’re very busy, especially if you come on Saturday, you can’t even find a place to sit. Now it’s even worse because we have free WiFi so people come in with their laptops. Sometime they sit on the floor —you know —people all over the place .” Because of the intense competition for public access computers, librarians are because reluctant to promote these services there is no guarantee that they To work around the limitations of could accommodate an increase in demand. the physical space while acknowledging the importance of access to the st project with laptops in July 2009. community, the library was set to begin a te These laptops were to be made available for a three -hour checkout within the library to reduce wait times and provide longer sessions . Use Policies: Filtering, Time Limits, and Behavior Standards Though there is clearly excess demand for computers in the library, a closer examination of the context of complaints suggest that a significant problem patrons would like to be add ressed is actually the short session lengths —the assumption implicit in suggestions for increasing the number of terminals within this context is that such action would lead to longer sessions, which is not necessarily true. OPL’s public access computers h ave a time limit of one hour per day, systemwide. Some patrons find the one -hour policy limits the types of tasks they can accomplish online. One patron, Mercedes , describes her frustration : You can only use it for an hour a day and that has been a challe nge in the past, before I go k, I have to make t my own computer. It's like, “O sure that I can get as much work done as I can during that time.” Sometimes the Internet is kind of slow here. At least it was at the time I elay cuts into [what you can get was using it regularly. Any kind of d How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 69 | Opportunity for All:

71 done]: if it takes you 20 minutes to check your email then that ’s 20 ’t do some other work. minutes of time that is gone that you can There are no time limits for wireless use; in fact , wireless is available at all times anyone who brings a laptop near any library branch. Patron Ula, who is 22 to , brings her laptop with her to the library: “When I found out that they years old had the free WiFi I started coming more often because I could bring my laptop and do my [home]work. There’s not that many computers here and they do get used. Sometimes I don ’t feel like reserving a computer and waiting for it. When I found out they had free WiFi I was like ey, I can use the computer!’” , ‘H Neither the library computers nor the wireless I nternet network are filtered. Oakland receives federal funding in the form of E -Rate, but the funding only covers hardware so the library is not obligated to apply filters to its Internet . Help and Training having difficulty finding the With minimal staffing levels, librarians reported time to provide one -one help for patrons. Computer questions are -on prioritized by reference staff. F s patrons reserve and or example, the library help log onto computers, but they do not support software assistance like helpi ng patrons download eBooks onto MP3 players and are judicious about the amount of time they spend with a given patron. Some staff hope to remove priorities placed on types of questions and rather see all inquiries, whether about physical or electronic libr ary resources, as equal: Something that could happen in the library is ensuring that there are staff in the library who are familiar with resources that exist on the Internet and that can help provide the same , and guidance to someone wheth er they’re , advice service looking for something that’s on printed material in the library or something on the web. There obviously are a lot of resources that exist on the web that are not immediately obvious to someone and might not turn up on the first page of an Inter net search. And by having people who are in the library trained in answering a lot of the common issues and I think questions that the pe ople come into the library have, that’s providing a very valuable service. Other librarians feel prioritizing computer questions is necessary because if they didn’t, “we wouldn’t be able to check out books, we wouldn’t be able to help with other information or database stuff.” How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 70 | Opportunity for All:

72 Basic computer classes are held each Saturday at the Chavez Branch, where they are conducted in both English and Spanish. Pre -registration is required and classes often have waiting lists. The Asian Branch has computer classes in Cantonese and Mandarin offered three days every week. One user, Alex, spoke of how she appreciated classes offered in Span ish at the Chavez Branch so she could learn how to use the computer and hopes to eventually transition into also participated in classes at classes in English down the line. One user, Hilda, the Chavez Branch but wishes there was "another instructor becaus e there are more and more of us each time and even though she explains things well to us and everything. I am happy with her, but... it’s just there are a lot of people for her, it would be better if someone helped her as well so she didn’t have so much.” The library also maintains a directory of schools offering free or low -cost computer classes for adults in the Oakland area , as well as agencies offering free -cost computer classes for people with disabilities. or low Case Summary While the c successive budget shortfall s and cuts , ity of Oakland struggles with the library is becoming increasingly busy and seeing a growing demand for access to computer resources. While many residents have access to computers and the Internet at work or home, ot her Oakland residents have a real need for computer and Internet access because they cannot afford access or equipment at home. The staff, despite feeling overwhelmed, is passionate about serving library patrons and helping them become more familiar with t echnology resources. The library provides a valuable service by offering access to computers and the Internet , computer classes in the languages of the community, and as much one -one help as possible. -on How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 71 | Opportunity for All:

73 3.5 Marshalltown Public Library Marshalltown Public Library exists to provide residents of Marshalltown and Marshall County with materials and services that meet their needs for recreation, information, education, and cultural awareness. Mission Statement –MPL The computers draw in a more diverse group of people than it used to be when I worked in libraries before computers. When people come in they’re seeing children, they’re seeing Latino folks, they’re seeing all ages, all kind of economic groups. It makes yo u realize how rich your community is. –Carole Winkleblack, Library Director Marshalltown Public Library (MPL) in Marshalltown, Iowa, was the last of the four library systems the U.S. IMPACT research team visited to gain a first -hand understanding of the l ocal context surrounding the use of public computers and the Internet in public libraries across the country. Table 15: Case Study Details funded the city In 2008, May 12 to 18, 2009 visit site Study the construction of a 17 in two 11 users aged 14 Interviews to focus brand new library groups conducted building, completed in 32 adult users 2008. 8 library administrators, branch managers, librarians, and other The City of library staff 2 library board members and Friends Marshalltow n group of the MPL Founded in 1853, 1 member of a funding agency sits Marshalltown, Iowa, 2 government officials de between the on the divi 10 peer agency staff 51 completed surveys with 11 survey Web Iowa River and Linn Creek. respondents providing suggestions The city has a total area of for improvements 18 square miles in Central Marshall County and serves as the county seat for Marshall County. -winning schools, Marshalltown has a diversified base of businesses, award How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 72 | Opportunity for All:

74 esteemed medical maintained facilities, modern shopping centers, well- recreational and cultural amenities, and high -quality residential areas. Population Characteristics * According to reports 16 : Marshalltown City Demographic Data Table the Marshalltown by Total population 26,192 Economic White Race 87.4% Development Black or African American 2.0% Committee, the 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native Asian 1.6% population was 24,984 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander in 2009 and projected 7.1% Some other race to be 25,127 in 2014, Two or more races 1.4% a slight increase in 19.2% Hispanic or Latino o rigin (any race) contrast to past U. S. Age 19 and u nder 28.0% Census statistics that 65 and over 18.2% show that Language other than English spoken at home N/A Marshalltown has $41,772 Median household income seen a slight decrease Poverty rate ( family) 10.1% in population for the 6.9% Unemployment 2006– 2008 past several years † rate 2009 6.8% * (Marshalltown U.S. Census Bureau n.d. -a. Source: † Economic Source: Iowa Workforce Development 2009. Development Impact . According to the U .S. Census Bureau, Marshalltown has a large Committee n.d.) Hispanic or Latino p opulation, comprising nearly 20 percent of the total population. By race, Whites are the largest segment of the population, making up 87 percent of the population , with the remainder being split among people of other races. The Black or African American po pulation is well below the national average, while the Hispanic or Latino population is significantly above the national average. Foreign -born individuals make up 11 percent of the (U.S. Census Bureau n.d population, slightly less than the national average .-a). For the time period between 2006 2008, 7 percent of Marshalltown’s and population had attained a graduate or professional degree, 12 percent a bachelor degree, 8 percent an associate degree, and 19 percent some college without a degree. A high school diploma was the highest level of education for 36 percent of the population, with 19 percent attaining an educational level below a high school degree -a). The state overall is (U.S. Census Bureau n.d. better educated with 8 percent that attained a graduate or professional degree, 17 percent a bachelor degree, 9 percent an associate degree, and 21 percent some college without a degree. Statewide, 35 percent have a high school percent attaining an educational level below a diploma or equivalent, with 10 How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 73 | Opportunity for All:

75 high are rated as below percent of Marshall County residents school degree. Ten basic prose literacy, higher than the state average of 7 percent. This is still lower than the national average of 14 percent of the U.S. population on the 2003 of Adult Literacy (National Center for Education Statistics National Assessment . 2003) Marshalltown has a significant population of low -income residents —between 2006 and 2008, 10.1 percent of the families were below the poverty threshold (U.S. Census Bureau n.d. in the 2008 -2009 school year, nearly 60 percent -a). and of students in the Marshalltown Community School District were eligible for free or reduced price lunch, putting them in the top 10 Iowa districts according to eligibility rates (Iowa Department of Education 2009) . Marshalltown’s population of seniors at 18 percent is the highest among the libraries visited by the U.S. IMPACT Study research teams and is also higher than national and state u n.d. averages of 13 percent (U.S. Census Burea -a). According to one local, Marshalltown’s higher than average population of seniors is a result of many retired people staying in Marshalltown after some of the area’s major employers moved away. Employment and Business Climate Marshalltown is surviving the country’s economic downturn relatively well compared to other communities across the nation. As of August 2009, Marshalltown had an unemployment rate of 6.3 percent , which is notably lower than the national average of 9.8 percent (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics n.d. (). Food processing, manufacturing, and educational and social services are the major employers in Marshalltown, including the JBS Swift meatpacking plant with 2,300 employees, which employs many Mexican immigrants. Villachuato, o, is the unofficial sister city of Marshalltown, and many Villachuato Mexic residents have moved to Marshalltown to work for the Swift meatpacking plant . The city received national attention in 2006 when (Grey and Woodrick 2002) the Swift meatpacking plant (alo ng with five other Swift plants in western states) was raided by the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency and 90 undocumented workers were arrested (Preston 2006) . Other major employers include Emerson Process Management Fisher Division with 1,200 e mployees ; Marshalltown Community School District ; with just over ; and the Iowa Veterans Home, with 1,000 employees 1,000 employees . (Marshalltown Economic Development Impact Committee n.d.) economic and The relatively stable employer base in the area has contributed to demographic stability in the community over time. This has allowed the community to invest in infrastructure projects such as the new library, schools, a How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 74 | Opportunity for All:

76 $25 million aquatic center and YMCA, and others (Marshalltown Economic Development Impac t Committee n.d.) . Technology Infrastructure and Adoption Marshalltown is home to a robust, redundant fiber loop that connects Marshalltown, Ne wton, Ames , and Des Moines to major metropolitan points in the nation (Marshalltown Economic Development Impact Committee n.d.) . Internet High- speed access is available to households within the city; however, much of of Marshall County remain dependent on dial -up the surrounding area access (Connect Iowa 2011). Last year, the city installed free access to wireless in the downtown area, although it is limited to just one hour of use, with additional time available through subscription by credit card. Otherwise, MPL is the only freely available public access Intern et location, though there are a few businesses that offer wireless access for customers. Outlook Future Marshalltown has a solid, long -term economic base, which has managed to weather the recent downturn in the economy better than many locations in the ntry. Recent civic projects have provided the residents of the city and county cou with many new resources, including the new library finished in 2008. The residents of the community are proud of their city and are willing to invest in to live. making it a better place Marshalltown Public Library’s Place in the Community The MPL was established as a free municipal library in 1898. In 2000, the Friends began holding community focus groups concerning the state of the of MPL library. They learned that community m embers were dissatisfied with the current building. It was then decided that remodeling the existing facility would be insufficient and an entirely new building was warranted. Located at 105 West Boone Street, this new library was completed in December 200 8 and has been coined a “New Library for a New Century.” Current State of A ffairs Carole Winkleblack is the current Director of MPL and managed the fundraising, civic engagement, and transition to the new library. She has been with the include s working with the library board to set library for 16 yea rs, and her role and maintain policy, personnel management, and budget management. She also MPL and library personnel. serves as a liaison between the Friends of the How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 75 | Opportunity for All:

77 Table 17: Library Characteristics and Use The new building Urbanicity Town, remote became the first public 2008 legal service area population 30,453 library in Iowa to Number of branches 0 receive LEED silver Total staff Staffing 12 certification from the levels 10 librarians All U.S. Green Building IS librarians 2 ML Council. The 35,670 Population per librarian 3,045 - t, single oo square f Internet Number of terminals 7 level facility not only of Number 29 terminals Internet helps users with (US IMPACT field visit 2009) mobility issues but terminal 1,050 per Population Internet also reduces the 121,628 Visits num ber of staff 233,176 Circulation ransactions t needed to manage Annual Internet terminal uses 24,284 service areas. Visits: uses 5:1 Transactions: 10:1 uses Mission al. 2010. Source: Henderson et MPL’s mission is “to provide residents of Marshalltown and Marshall County with materials and services that meet their needs for recreation, information, education, and cultural awareness.” The library’s administration stresses that technology is a critical com ponent of meeting the mission and staying relevant in a changing world. This is echoed by government officials and board members who emphasized the role of the library in providing the public with information they would otherwise be unable to access, and spoke of the library as the foundation of democracy. Another library administrator articulated the mission of the library related to technology as providing free access and quality information for users. There is some disagreement among Marshalltown staff on the role of technology in the library. One respondent recognizes the importance of public access to computers, but stresses that the library’s focus should be on books: “It’s a good thing that we are getting more computers. I don’t think we want to a ton more because I feel like our library’s main purpose is not the Internet have [sic] the main reason for a library.” Another respondent computers but books is stresses that technology is in no way an enemy to reading; rather, it can serve as a gateway to reading and learning and that “people are what matter and people’s lives, whether you’re talking about books or technology. That’s what —to have people connecting and help people and empower libraries are people.” Yet another feels that there is a “disconnec t between how people use the Internet and the people who are supposed to be helping them. It’s sometimes very frustrating.” How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 76 | Opportunity for All:

78 Funding Sources The library is a department of the c ity of Marshalltown and is funded primarily by mu nicipal tax dollars. A seven -member Board of Library Trustees sets policy oversees the budget and operation 2009 s of the library. For FY and , the first full year in the new library building, 92.6 percent of the budget came directly from the city ; 5.4 percent from the endowment, gifts, fines, fees, and other sources ; tate while the remain ing 2 percent came from s library and other state sources. State funding helps expand services Table 18: FY 2008 Operating revenue income Total $692,154 on a grant basis primarily for arts Local 92.6% government and culture programming but also 2.0% State government provides a high level of support to government Federal 0.0% all of Iowa’s public libraries income 5.4% Other including access to s ubscription Source: Henderson et al. 2010. MPL’s databases. Much of collection development budget comes from fundraising done by Friends of the MPL . Wireless Internet service is donated by Dynamic Broadband and Mediacom. MediaCom also donated 7 megabits of bandwidth to the library. The new building was supported by a $5 million bond issue, along with $4.5 million from fundraising and state support. Community Relationships There is limited media available in the city, and the library has no formal outreach initiatives to inform residents of the availability of computers or other it offers. Instead, the library primarily relies on its website for services disseminating inform ation about the library and its services. It has also visibility by partnering with the Arts Alliance and the Chamber of increased its Commerce to maintain a community events calendar on the library website and being featured on the front page of the city website. by Political Relationships The city council was not originally a strong advocate of public access through the library and was split on funding for the new building, never voting to endorse it. For the bond issue to build the new library , the dir ector, Friends of MPL the , and library staff lobbied community organizations and cultivated support among individuals through house parties and one -one development. -on Current civic leaders who spoke with U.S. IMPACT researchers recognize the value of library public access computing and are supporters of the library. While the library is a department of the c ity, a local government member described how autonomo us it is: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 77 | Opportunity for All:

79 It’s run by the b oard and its structure and rules cannot be changed by of the frivolous actions council, rather only through a vote of the people. The purpose for that is to make libraries less susceptible to political pressures. That makes a difference because the c ity is not that actively involved other than funding the library. The library runs under its own rules. So we don’t as a city have anything that dictates inclusion or anything to do with the digital effects or free other than through the funding of the library. Maintain ing relationships with the c ity while also exercising autonomy requires effective communication. A council member explained that the most one of important way s to communicate with politicians is through anecdotes: “Numbers are important. They’re more important than an anecdote, but it sure brings it home to people if they can hear of a personal account of someone doing something on the Internet at the library that they couldn’t do anywhere else in town.” Another respondent extended this to emphasize the importance of informing policymakers on the impact of public access computing in libraries, and how effective communication is one vital strategy. Relationships with Supporters enga ge in fundraising for everything from buying new The Friends of the MPL materials, to providing free programming to youth and adults, to helping to publicize and promote the new library building. The Friends of MPL is a separate not -for- profit, 501 (c)3 organization and was established in 1997. Working with the Friends of the MPL and allies in the government, the library was able to engage local corporations in supporting the referendum to build the new library, to provide funds to that end, and to encourage their employees to some opposition by those who did vote in favor of the referendum. Despite not think the library needed the Internet and related services because everybody had it “at home ,” the well -coordinated effort resulted in the support necessary to pass the referendum and make the new library a reality. The Martha Ellen Tye Foundation's donation of $1 million —timed seven weeks before the vote to generate excitement— was one major reason that the library bond issue was passed with over 70 percent of the vote. Peer Agenc y Relationships The library tries to engage with peer agencies and in some cases form s partnerships with them. However, these relationships have had mixed success. For example, the library worked with a local workforce development center to g for users, but the class did not meet library expectations: provide trainin How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 78 | Opportunity for All:

80 The [workforce center is] sending a person down —we thought to help —but it turns out she’s actually just showing them how to people apply do resumes and so forth. It’s like a course, a little mini -course. The people who need help finding a job aren’t going to sit through a 2 -hour course about how to write a resume. With limited resources for adult basic education and skills training in Marshalltown, the lack of computer classes at MPL is a limiting factor to the library’s ability to engage in meaningful partnerships with other organizations. While the library is clearly a central resource in the community for technology needs, peer agencies indicated a desire for more engagement through outreach and training efforts. One peer agency that provides some computer training in Marshalltown also refers clients . That agency to the library to use computers believe s the library should be offering computer training as well because the need for training is so great in the community. Interdependence between the Library and Community -Based Organizations services, MPL has been successful in mobilizing community support for its forged relationships with both including infrastructure and technology. It has the governmental agencies providing its and with the local basic budget business community through its outreach efforts during the capital campaign. Library staff report that many other agencies and services in town are turning to the library as a resource for their computing and Internet needs. One peer agency reports that clients “who come in and want the N400, which is the application for citizenship, we tell them that they can come over [to the library] to download it.” City library to get information from send people to the gover nment staff also the city website, as expressed by one high -ranking government official: We recommend people come to the library. In fact, this morning already I’ve heard [a referral] twice by somebody who said “now, you know we have this information on our website but if you don’t have a computer ” ... at home, just go to the library you can get free access there. These are public documents that we are dealing with. If somebody comes in ave to provide it. We can have a reasonable and requests one, we h charge for copying, but it’s so much better to not take the time for our clerk to do the copying and hand them the hard copy if we can say “go to the library where it’s free access.” How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 79 | Opportunity for All:

81 One human service agency that works with over 2,000 clients a year refers people to library for computer access “if they need to do job searches or if they need to seek out another provider in the area that we may not be able to track down, they can come here and use the computer and find out.” Other agencies do the same and many rely on library computers for employment assistance and mental health support. At the present time, the library appears to be able to y handle this use, but is conscious of the need to monitor the impact this ma have for the future. Library Characteristics Budget Table 19: FY 2008 Expenditures Of the 2008 operating $692,154 Total expenditures budget, 72 percent of 72.0% Staff (salaries and benefits) expenditures were on 12.5% Print collection staff, 16.4 on collections 0.9% collection Electronic 0.9 percent went (of which aterial Other m % e xpenditures 3.0 toward electronic 11.7% expenditures Other operating materials), and 11.7 Expenditures per capita $22.73 percent on all other Source: Henderson et al. 2010. expenditures including and computer equipment. Marshalltown receives its electronic Internet collection through the state library and so has much lower expenditures for this functi on than most other libraries. Marshalltown spends $22.73 per resident within the legal service area, which is less than the average $25.50 for single - outlet libraries in remote towns. Marshalltown has a surplus from the building al funds to increase staffing or the operational fund but cannot spend capit budget. Marshalltown is also under a citywide hiring freeze. Practices Personnel MPL employs 19 full - and part -time employees including five full- time librarians, two of whom have l ibrary director oversees the library science degrees. The reference assistant director, youth services director, supervisor, a library ataloger. T he assistant director oversees a library assistant and assistant, and c library pages and adult services a ssistants. The y outh supervisor services , and the r oversees the y outh supervisor oversees the eference librarian reference librarians. Marshalltown does not have designated IT staff. The library uses an IT consultant through the city and has two librarians designated for IT support amo ng their other job duties. Marshalltown has one librarian per 3,045 How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 80 | Opportunity for All:

82 people best ratio of the case study libraries after Fayetteville, , the second Arkansas, as well as below the one to 5,599 average for other remote towns. The library staff indicated an interest in providing more outreach activities, particularly in the educational area. Currently the library runs an EMERGE program, wherein all six th graders are bused to the l ibrary and take classes book talks, and about the library, have the chance to check out books with have a due date that falls on the next class trip to the library. youth services The supervisor also routinely visits the high school to conduct book talks and to hold lunch meetings with guest speakers. Th e library values outreach to the community and , as described by one librarian, would like more opportunities “to see if our outreach librarians can go and engage the various communities. , our elec tronic Part of their process is teaching about computers, Internet databases, and homework help.” However, the library does not have a developed outreach initiative to interact with all local populations, and as one staff member explained: “we don’t seem to have time, or we don’t put aside time for outreach [to par ticular populations we’d like to see in the library].” Staff Training The library does not provide organized training for staff, although staff pointed out a need for it, especially around outreach activities and developing training programs for users. One staff member spoke of the challenge for librarians of “having the time and the know -how about doing outreach, because I’m not sure any of us have ever been trained very heavily in that.” Training tends to be informal. Some information that is put on the library website is helpful as it also acts as a way “to remind our staff. ... Having such a small staff [means] we don’t have a lot of training.” Volunteers MPL has over 50 volunteers who help with various library duties, including teen age and genealogy vol unteers, although staff report that volunteers, except for the library’s volunteer genealogist, do not help with computer questions or training. Administration likes the idea of volunteers helping with computer questions and is currently exploring having y oung adults help train older adults on the computer but does not currently have the time or staff to develop a program. Evaluation racks the number of Internet The library t sessions but like most libraries finds it ual users. A Library Board of Trustee difficult to count the number of individ How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 81 | Opportunity for All:

83 member described how it was important for policymakers to know how the computers are used so that they would have statistics that are comparable to circulation figures. In addition to numbers, knowing the individual histories of users and the benefits they get from the computers is critical for demonstrating the importance of access to individuals and the commun ity. Operational Context Physical Infrastructure The new MPL is twice the size of the previous facility. The library’s design and openness allow for an abundance of natural lighting. This is excellent for working, although on sunny days it can create a glare on monitors making it difficult to see the screen. There is ample space and room for growth (pending increased staff capacity). Private rooms are available for patrons to apply for jobs (and could be used for private work spaces when laptops begin circu lating in the library). The library is nearly out of table space for more computers, however. Technological Infrastructure The number of computers available for patrons increased from 7 to 29 when the new facility opened. MPL’s computers are split into two sections : the youth services area, with 6 Internet computers, and the adult section, with 23 Computers run Windows XP and have Explorer and Firefox for computers. Internet browsing. Google Earth and instant messaging services are installed on all computers. The strategic plan has a staggered replacement schedule for computers built into it. Wireless is available throughout the library and is donated by Dynamic Broadband and Mediacom, the local Internet service providers. Frequ ently, people can be seen using their laptops tucked away in one of the many quiet spaces or designated study rooms. The wireless network extends beyond the building and when the library is closed people sit in the library parking lot to access the wireles s. The wireless i s not filtered , and no library card or password is required to connect. One peer agency interviewee pointed out that often the only form of access outside Marshalltown itself was dial- up, so many people come to the library for - the higher bandwidth. A user commented on the value of having well maintained computers available in the library: “There’s normally no problem with it ugh stuff.” —no viruses or spyware. It’s just less of a hassle getting thro How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 82 | Opportunity for All:

84 Despite the financial surplus that can be used to increase computer capacity, there is a lack of staff (and the appropriate budget) to oversee and facilitate any proposed increase in computer terminals. Patron Demand The new library building in creased the number of computer terminals available to the public and reduced congestion significantly when the building first opened, but the administration is now noticing lines to access the computers are forming once again . MPL finds demand for computer s increases when s patron Sylvia notes: “The only time you can’t school lets out for the day . A really get on the computer is when the kids get out of school.” Use Policies: Filtering, Time Limits, and Behavior Standards There are no restrictions on content, but the library has software that ranks use types and gives lower priority to activities like file sharing. Policies discourage multiple users at one terminal to minimize disruptions to other users and library patrons. Users must have a valid MPL library card and PIN to logon to public computers. Computers are available on a first -come , first -served basis with no reservations or advanced scheduling available. At the time of the visit, 18 computers in the reference area were available for adult use for up to one hour per day; since the visit, Marshalltown has added two additional computer terminals for adult use. In addition, the library has -minute Internet stations for quick uses, two dedicated stations for three 15 word processing, and another for doing genealogical research. Session times are never extended, which serves to limit conflicts between librarians and patrons around making exceptions and judging the legitimacy of needs ; however, some users find the time limits a problem: “When you’re trying to look up something important, you try to scramble before you lose your connection. It automatically restarts whether you’re done or not. The old librarians would give you extra time. It says you have minutes left and to save stuff. Then you think about wha t you should’ve done. The time limit makes it harder.” The children were ’s department had four computers at the time of the visit that ’s computers; Marshalltown has since separated from the rest of the library added two terminals in the children’s departme nt. Children’s computers are -minute increments . The , which can be extended up to one hour available in 30 children ’s computers at MPL have YouTube and MySpace and some other sites is with potentially explicit images blocked , and downloading music using iTunes . Youth have been observed sneaking onto MySpace when they can. disabled s and children at the top of the The library staff mentioned placing teen ager priority list when developing computer use policies. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 83 | Opportunity for All:

85 Technology One -on -One Help Classes and MPL does no t currently offer technology classes, though it aspires to in the future. The library staff was concerned about information literacy, especially in searching and assessing online sources. The staff worry about patrons and hope to promote information educat ion either through classes or one -to-one, particularly for patrons who come into the library with limited or no computer skills. However, the staff is limited in the amount of time they can spend with a given patron. One staff member tries to limit the amo unt of time she spends ; when they need more help she tells them, “I just can’t with users to 15 minutes stay with you. Try to bring somebody in with you if you can, somebody who can sit with you and help you.” ire for formal classes to help Both peer agencies and patron s indicated a des become better users of the technology services. As one user put it: patrons “Classes for proper usage is one thing [the library could do]: there are a lot of thing people who don’t know how to use the computers. They don’t know any about them. There’s so much you can get out of them, and until you learn how to do it, you’re not going to get anything. And then it’s a waste of time and money. This is a big building they built, take one of these rooms and teach, put a class here!” Case Summary The MPL is in the enviable situation of having a new building, solid technology mission. The relatively stable infrastructure, and community support for its economy has helped to ensure that the library’s budget is stable, though recent down turns have resulted in staff hiring freezes, which are preventing additional services, such as classes, from being offered in the new building. The work that the library has done over the past few years in gaining support for its building campaign appears to have helped its visibility and support within local trusted to use funds wisely for its purposes without direct government, and it is supervision by the city council. As demands grow for the newly available the technology; future plans will services, pressures will increase on staff and need to take this into account and work toward continuing the strong support shown by the community to date. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 84 | Opportunity for All:

86 A Look at the Factors that Affect the Character of Public Access Service case studies Across all , the research team observed how the local environment 4 affected the demand for library services and the policy choices libraries made in . In each case response to these conditions , there were a range of internal and external factors that the ways in which libraries responded to the influenced demand for public access services. 4.1 External Demands and Public Access Service The external environment influenced the demands on library services and the and policy choices libraries made in response to conditions in th eir communities . Chief among the community concerns that drove public other policy goals access decision making were the poverty and literacy levels of residents, unemployment rates, and the technology infrastructure, including other public access prov iders, available to residents. Although each library has different ways of dealing with the social and economic conditions in their communities, the alignment of their policy goals and strategies with those of local leaders promotes their success in achie ving political legitimacy and sustainable support, not just for public access technology services, but for public library operations as a whole. Resident Need In Baltimore, librarians and administrators at the Pratt Library repeatedly reflected on how poverty and low literacy rates among Baltimoreans affects how the library perceives its role in the community and the types of services it offers, especially aroun ree access to computers and the Internet : d providing f I think a big part of our role is addressing the digital divide. We have a very poor population in Baltimore. Many people don ’t have computers at home or are not computer literate. We have a high illit eracy level in general in this city. I think that the computers definitely address that to some extent. One way the library responds to this community challenge is by focusing its computer training on basic instruction. External factors like illiteracy and How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 85 | Opportunity for All:

87 poverty are outside the library’s immediate control; how the library chooses to respond to these factors, however, has a great effect on the perception of the library as a valuable community institution. In the case studies, certain external factors drove more policy choices than others, including the demographic makeup of the community, poverty and employment levels, economic outlook , and the local technology infrastructure. to offer wider ranges of services than what might be Urban libraries have necessary in the usually more homogenous communities in rural or suburban areas. For example, Oakland is the second most diverse city in the United States; to accommodate this demographic reality, the OP L maintains collections, resources, and instruction in English, Spanish, and eight Asian languages, in the AAMLO . The size of the geographic region addition to what is available at served by a library is also an external factor that affects how libraries approach their services. Larger geographic areas need to be served by multiple outlets or the library is not a viable option for people without access at home; this condition can exist in both urban and rural library districts. Employment identified as a major use of library Employment -relate d activities were -related activities were the third computers. Across the country, employment highest use of library computers, with 40 percent of users having looked for -related activities in the past year (Becker et al., work or done other employment 2010). The community’s unemployment rate was reported to have an impact on the demand for public access computers . In Baltimore, where poverty was already high, the economic downturn drove unemployment up to 10.3 percent in 2009. The Pratt Library is very aware of its role as a place to apply for jobs (particularly for hotel, grocery, retail, and other entry -level positions) in the absence of home computer access. The Pratt Library to the needs of Baltimore’s unemployed by responds increasing classes on job search strategies and basic computer skills and opening the Job and Career Information Center at the Central Library , which has a librarian and computers reserved for job searching. In responding to the city’s economic downturn with increased job search help, the library not only helped the individuals who used the resources, but also community -based organizations that were able to arrange for special computer training sessions also benefitted by having less demand on their time for their clients and that and services. Oakland, like Baltimore, experienced high unemployment before the recession. But without the government, education, and health industries that anchor How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 86 | Opportunity for All:

88 Baltimore economically, the economic downturn had a greater effect in national Oakland. Oakland’s unemployment rate jumped to an estimated 16 percent in 2009. Service cuts as a result of a city budget crisis have had a huge impact on how the OPL has been able to respond to the rising need in the community. In addition to experiencing increased use associated with household economizing and job seeking, the library is also impacted by CBOs , facing cuts of their own , relying on it to meet client needs. The only other significant provider of free computer and Inter net access, a community technology center, shut down due to loss of funding, driving more OPL . The cutting of branch people to the already overcrowded computers at the hours and furlough closures further amplifies the problem of congestion, with patrons an d librarians reporting people leaving at the end of the day without having a turn on a computer —fewer hours means fewer sessions. In responding to economic downturn s with increased job search help, public libraries not only help ed the individuals who used the resources, but also community based organizations who were able to arrange for special computer training sessions for their clients and also benefitted by having less demand on their time and -value by policy makers and eived as high services. These services were perc users and help improve the perception of the library’s contribution to the community. Technology I nfrastructure and A lternatives for A ccess The U.S. IMPACT Study showed that more than three out of four users of publ ic access computers and wireless Internet networks in public libraries had access at home, school, work, or somewhere else (Becker et al. 2010). This finding and users ’ comments in case study interviews and web survey responses suggest penetration that greater broadba nd will not necessarily reduce demand for public access technology. Several considerations would seem to drive demand Internet access in public libraries to continue even as broadband penetration for in the home increases: • Cost: Without subsidi es, broadband Internet access in the home is out of reach for low -income people. Cost of access is also not just limited to the Internet connection but also includes the cost of the computer, software, and maintenance. Need for help and instruction: New u sers and youth, in particular, need • help and instruction and rely on libraries for this. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 87 | Opportunity for All:

89 • : For users who alread y make use of Temporary service interruptions Internet ay -to-day activities, temporary interruptions in the for d access due to equipment malfunction, natural computer and Internet disasters, or other emergencies can have serious consequences. • Household competition: Youth , in particular, face household competition with siblings and parents for computer use and may find the library a better place to do homework than school or home. • Mobile use: With the cost of laptops and netbooks continuing to fall, more people will find them within reach and seek out comfortable spaces where they can work without the obligation of paying for food or beverages. Wh ile users without access in all four case study locations cited the cost of high - speed Internet access as the primary reason why they use library computers, report that users from outlying areas librarians in Marshalltown and Fayetteville supplement their home service by where only dial- up service is available either downloading larger files or doing bandwidth -intensive tasks at the library, or they forego home dial- up access entirely as it is impractical for most uses. Both Arkansas and Iowa are working on plans to expand broadband access to those areas that are not connected through Federal Broadband Technology Opportunities Program ( BTOP ) grants. t-of -town In Fayetteville and Baltimore, in particular, tourists and other ou visitors are a prominent segment of users. This on -the -ground observation together with results from the U.S. IMPACT survey showing that 24 percent of users used public access computers and wireless networks during travel suggests that library co mputers and wireless networks are an important part of the technology infrastructure needed to support tourism and business travel. Baltimore, Fayetteville, and Marshalltown have all invested in public WiFi hot spots in downtown areas, showing some local support for open wireless access and suggesting overlapping interests with the library’s resources. The significance of the tourism and travel aspect of library computer use was one that was unexpected in the research, but was frequently reported by case s tudy subjects and web survey respondents. One limiting factor of the library’s ability to fill in the technology infrastructure felt particularly in rural areas or smaller towns, or of a service area that may be -outlet libraries, is the availability of public transportation. Librarians with single and users in both Fayetteville and Marshalltown reported that the library was difficult to get to for people without cars. In Fayetteville, the bus ran closer to the University of Arkansas, driving some public ac cess users there instead of the How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 88 | Opportunity for All:

90 FPL . Though the university allows public users, they are asked to leave if students are waiting. Libraries promote their services in the community and cultivate relationships roaches taken by the case study with political actors in different ways. The app libraries toward this important task varied greatly. Most of the libraries believe access sells itself and that most community members are computer and Internet already aware of what the library offers. Outreach efforts are of ten informal and not systematic; there is limited funding for outreach campaigns and a lack of staff time to develop relationships and partnerships with community organizations. 4.2 Political Relationships Though generally supportive of the library, several city officials interviewed also expressed concern about the cost of government and a need to keep costs low. the need for They emphasized evidence of the benefits of public technology, ontinued support. especially in removing barriers and increasing innovation for c Computer training opportunities at the library, in particular, were seen as highly valuable. Administrators of the Enoch Pratt Library in Baltimore highlighted the ing close relationships with elected officials . They also importance of maintain ing individual and corporate donors. In highlighted the importance of cultivat building a recent branch, support was received from the governor and local councilm en, who use the library for meetings. The director of the FPL reported gaining considera after ble political capital Library Journal having received ’s 2005 Library of the Year award. Members of the Fayetteville City Council stressed the importance of the library director’ s ’s office, describing how the library should relationship with the mayor lead efforts to gain political legitimacy and should use public technology to remove barriers to collaboration and innovation. Administrators of the OPL System discussed the need to keep in close contact with city council members, the city administrator, state legislators. To prove and the worth of library computers and other services , t hey hope to provide city council and management with usage statistics. Sending newsletters to city councilpersons is one effort they employ . Oakland staff described how the library obtained wireless connectivity because of the relationship between the library director and city IT staff. ayor did not initially In Marshalltown, the city council and the m support the . The library director spoke of th library development proposed e poor How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 89 | Opportunity for All:

91 relationship between the library and the city ’s political leaders. However, during the referendum for the new library, local corporations provided funds and promoted the referendum to their employees . The corporate interest seemed to neutralize civic leaders who did not think the library needed the Internet and related services “because everybody had it at home .” The director reported that current local government leaders recognize the value of library public access computing and have supported fundr aising for the new library. Because libraries compete for funding with other local services and agencies, these activities aimed at cultivating on -going relationships with community decision -makers were important for maintaining support for the library. Policy makers who understood the library’s mission and how it contributes to individual and community goals were more supportive of library initiatives and better able to articulate the value of the library. Especially in times of constrained budgets or during capitol campaigns, these relationships provide the foundation for library advocacy. 4.3 Relationships with Supporters Friends of the L roles in ibrary, board members, and trustees also play important supporting and communicating the roles that libraries play in providing public had Friends organizations that were access computing. All the libraries visited responsible for policy advising, fundraising, and maintaining community relationships; some also had governing boards that had more decision -making Library administrators saw advocacy as central to their responsibility. also and tried to m aintain responsibilities relationships with their governing strong boards and city council. Methods used for communication varied across the different communities in the study, though several techniques were mentioned often. Friends and CBOs mentioned that face- word -of -mouth engagement with the to-face or community is an effective and widely practiced method of communication. One staff member in Oakland referred to this as “evangelizing” the public about the library’s public access technology resources and services . Though staff focus is on increasing use of the library, they also cultivate political relationships and such as teaming up with community look for opportunities to partner, associations to integrate events calendars. suggested having patrons write a CBO In Fayetteville, staff interviewed from letters to policymakers about how they benefit from public access. One community staffer described how she met library personnel through small business meetings. Respondents from the three of the four libraries mentioned repeatedly the use of brochures and newsletters as effective means of reaching How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 90 | Opportunity for All:

92 other organizations. member of a Friend ’s group noted that In Marshalltown, a many people in the community learned about the library’s public technology services through leaflets, brochures, and the website. Oakland’s Asian library has its own “Friends ” group. A member of its Friends group commented, “Lots of people don’t realize the importan ce of the library . If people get to know how important the library’s services are to the co mmunity then they would be more willing to make donation ” s and so forth. In Marshalltown, a foundation ’s donation was a major reason that the library bond issue was passed —it was timed seven weeks before the vote to generate excitement and passed at over 7 0 percent . A staff person for the f oundation said they were eager to partner with the library and admire the work it do es , adding that libraries need to collect stories to share with policymakers, and that a coordinated campaign would be effective with stories from many different libraries. In each site residents reported that more could be done to publicize , community library services. Most of these comments came from CBOs . For example, in Fayettevill e, one respondent noted that the library is not assertive enough in making its public access technology services known. According to a member of a Marshalltown peer agency, there will always be people who do not think libraries are necessary or who think that everything is now online: “many community leaders feel pride in the services the library provides but there ’s no connection between politics and logic; some politicians are more swayed by logic and want to have hard factual information and connections between services and outcomes. But for people who aren ’t swayed by logic, you have to rely on politics —the people who are connected and value the library. You need to cultivate those relationships by looking at voting records and finding people who suppor t arts and culture.” The study observed that these communication strategies and the Friends groups were important for building a wider base of support for the library than just library users. Publishing newsletters, events calendars, and other materials -users for reaching non related to library programming were effective methods as well as for keeping library patrons informed and helped keep the library visible in the community. Financial Support es: local tax funding, Most libraries receive their funding through four main sourc either through allocation from a county or municipal government or directly How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 91 | Opportunity for All:

93 through a special property or sales tax levy; state support in the form of grants s. In or direct assistance; federal funding; and proceeds from fundraising effort many states, support also comes indirectly through the state library in the form of resources and services to public libraries, such as subscription databases, website hosting and online catalogs, and training for library staff, though this support i s not reflected in per capita expenditures. The sources of funding in the case study libraries reflected the legal relationship with the main funding source, the municipal government of each city. In exempt Baltimore, the Pratt Library is a 501(c)3 tax org anization and, like Fayetteville, is a separate entity from the government. Though both libraries are closely tied to the city government, they enjoy greater independence to pursue funding opportunities and private and business grants and donations account for a greater portion of their total income. The Pratt Library receives a large portion of its funding from the state as a per capita allotment for serving as the state resource center and operations center for SAILOR, Maryland’s on line public informatio n network. In addition to , and statewide access to library services and databases to its residents offering Internet services for government agencies and schools, SAILOR also supports free dial- s a high priority on place up access for residents. The library development and fundraising, with dedicated staff for those purposes and has been successful in attracting large foundation and business donations. Funding for technology has been particularly attractive for some of these donors, as nt Bank of America grant for a new computer commons demonstrated by a rece at the Central Library. Fayetteville is heavily dependent on city tax funding, and this may be vulnerability in the future. Though universally supportive of the library, Fayetteville city officials interviewed during the U.S. IMPACT case study visits expressed concern about the cost of government and a need to keep costs low. This is a general theme in discussions about Fayetteville’s future with some recent planning activities that , in part, aim to lower reliance on sales tax for funding government services (City of Fayetteville 2008 -b). In contrast to the Fayetteville example, Oakland and Marshalltown found ways to leverage community support for public libraries to receive funding that was not supported directly by the municipal government. All the libraries except Fayetteville mentioned the need for additional money for hours, space In Oakland, competition , and equipment, but especially for staff. with other agencies is a critical part of the picture, be city funds are spread cause thinly and are scarce (last year saw an $85 million city budget shortfall and a 20 percent cut across all departments in the city). Baltimore has to fight with other How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 92 | Opportunity for All:

94 agencies for funding and made hard choices to eliminate some b ranches so others could get computers and be upgraded. Fayetteville is in good shape and not facing any cuts, but government officials want to see the benefit of technology, either through improved services or reduced costs in other areas. All of the case study libraries supplemented their government funding with other sources of support, often project -based or short -term and requiring consequent effort to maintain. Baltimore receives money from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation , which provides for their wireless network, from the Cavanaugh Foundation for children’s programs, and for the computer commons. The from Bank of America library also belongs to the United Way combined fund so donations can be made through that channel. As the Pratt is set up as a 501 (c)3, it is able to receive charitable contributions directly, and donations are a big source of funds. Marshalltown is hoping for a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation grant to replace their computers and was able to get a local business, Mediacom, to ate It also received state funding to help expand broadband service. don its services on a grant basis primarily for arts and culture programming. The city provides funding for building and staffing through the general fund, and the new building was supported by a $5 million bond issue, along with $3 million raised by fundraising and state support. , much of the current funding is from external sources and requires a In Oakland term, and does not tremendous amount of time and energy to get, is not long- help with -needed capital projects. The parcel tax, Measure Q, which much provides about half the funding, is restricted to salaries and materials (including computers). The FPL is supported by a 0 .01 cent sales tax levy and also receives funding from the city gener In addition, they rece ived three years of funding from the al fund. Care Foundation for a nonprofit database but will need to sustain it after the grant ends through other resources. Funding structures are difficult to change and require long term strategic planning to build and mobilize support. Findings from the case studies suggest that public libraries that are separate entities from the local government , or that maintain robust fundraising activities, may be more financially stable and better aintain their investments in public access technology. able to m Partnerships Beyond showing connections between library services and outcomes that contribute to overall community goals, public libraries can demonstrate their How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 93 | Opportunity for All:

95 interest in helping to reach community goals by engaging in partnerships that ffectiveness of other community -based organizations enhance or amplify the e (CBO). In the case studies , libraries maintained partnerships with schools, workforce centers, adult basic education organizations, and refug ee resettlement agencies, with computer access and training as a central feature of many of these relationships. CBOs are major beneficiaries of free access to computers and the Internet in public libraries . They routinely refer clients to public libraries to use public access computers for tasks associated with the services they provide. In general, h CBOs supported the library’s mission; however , there are partnerships wit occasions where the activities present s ignificant resource challenges . For example, this may occur when a school group shows up unexpectedly wanting to use a block of computers or get instruction from a librarian. s in all four cities were aware of the library’ Staff and administrators from CBOs technology services and spoke very highly of them and of how they benefit their clients. They also spoke of how the library computers benefit them personally and their organizations. Frequently , they spoke of relying on the library’s resources rather tha n, or in supplement to, having compu ters available for their client s’ use. In many cases, client use of computers and the Internet was essential or mandatory for successful participation in a program and so the library was in effect providing the infrastru cture for another organization’s programs. This represents a savings or externalization of costs to the public library, though the library’s status as essentially a free subcontractor is neither or in many cases even recognized. compensated Pointing out t hese linkages between libraries and other community organizations is important for expanding the public library’s base of support within the community by showing that the library not only serves individual patrons and users, but is also essential to the CBO’s ability to achieve its programmatic goals. The linkages are more easily seen when the library formalizes its partnership with the organizations, even if such formalization does not substantively change the nature of the relationship. Partnerships with peer agencies serve a dual pu rpose of outreach and In Fayetteville, partnerships supportive political relationships. development of been a valuable tool for generating support. Administrators can point to have over 70 partnerships with community and other groups who use library resources. Interdependencies were also seen with the library and other government agencies. Applications for social security benefits, immigration, taxes, permits, How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 94 | Opportunity for All:

96 licenses , and government activities often need to be submitted onli ne, but access for the use of their these agencies do not maintain computers or Internet . Librarians note that patrons seeking these services tend to be the same clients patrons who lack basic computers skills . Organizational Capacity 4.4 s and Public Acces Service The case studies also highlighted aspects of the library’s internal environment that had significant impact on the delivery of public technology and on the ability of users to achieve their goals using the resources and services the library provi des. While a library’s mission describes how it seeks to serve the public interest, i ts organizational and operational policies are the means by which it implements this mission. In the case study libraries , three areas were identified as being important for public access technology support from the organizational perspective: budget ing and resource allocation , personnel practices and staff training, and evaluation of programs and policies . Budget ing and Res ource Allocation Though the case study libraries varied in terms of the level of their funding, all felt the constraints of budgets that have not kept pace with increased demand hese libraries on services. The situation in t is not unlike what is seen in libraries across the country. In a nationally representative survey study, Davis, Bertot, (2009) found that only 38 percent of library budgets a McClure, and Clark re keeping pace with or exceeding the inflation rate, a decrease from 44 percent the year befor e. The remainder of library budgets either increased below the inflation rate, stayed the same (around 26 percent), or decreased (around 12 percent) from the previous year. Library administrators reported that one of most significant budget ary constraints s with trying to maintain service hours while still providing come adequate levels of staff support, collection development, and programming activities. For public access technology, the number of hours the library is open is critically tied to the value of the services. No matter how current the library’s systems might be, if the library is not open sufficient hours to serve users with different schedules, it will not meet their needs. Many patrons and staff from peer agencies cited the evening and weeken d hours the library maintains as an important reason why library technology resources are more valuable than need. the However, this still may not meet available elsewhere. public resources How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 95 | Opportunity for All:

97 Several p atron the library hours as limite d factors in respondents pointed to Zarek from F ayetteville wanted the library their ability to use library computers. to think about extending the hours, on Saturday in particular: “N ine to five on Saturday. A lot of people work d ur ing the week, and don’t get a chance to [use library computers].” A patron from Oakland suggested the following : On Sundays they open up at one. Sunday is a day you want to get stuff done early, so you can go home and get ready for the work week, or school week. So, you come here at one. And you plan your whole day trying to get here at one o’clock, you try to do stuf f early. You have to be done [with other tasks] by one o’clock to get here to the Internet . And by this time, your day is pretty much shot. So if they opened up earlier it’d be a lot better. Naomi from Marshalltown thinks the library should be open on Sund ays: “That’s when the kids need to study. That’s when college students need to study. That’s when they need access to get that last little report done, and the library is closed. I mean, close at 5:00 at night, or, you know, 7:00 at night [on the , save an hour, and have them open it five hours on Sunday. And weekdays] they’re not utilizing the time when it needs to be open. It doesn’t need to be open till 8:00 at night [on weekdays].” Increasing the number of computers available was often suggested by inter viewees as a way to deal with the high demand, but w ith more computers comes more expenses for software licenses, digital resourc es, and databases, as well as more hours for maintenance, replacement schedules , and repairs, making it difficult to figure out which balance of hours, staff, and computers will yield the most access to the most library services. The cost of maintaining library computers was represented in various ways in all the case study library budgets, but the total cost of providing the pub lic access services When asked how was difficult to separate from other library functions. much of the budget went to supporting public access technology, two library administrators offered an e stimate of around 7 to 10 percent, but it was not clear what aspects of public access services were included in this estimate. Having clearer cost information about public access technology may have been helpful to these libraries in planning and evaluation activities. Personnel P ractices and Staff T raining -to-day time and ross all libraries complained of pressures on their day Staff ac struggle between wanting to serve patrons, plan activities, and the get training. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 96 | Opportunity for All:

98 These pressures were magnified by hiring freezes in place at each library . are of the effect from minimal levels of Administrators are not unaw on morale included in librarians staffing and the wide range of duties . ’ job responsibilities The place of public computers within the library is also a source of personnel stress, with many overlapping roles and responsibilities between librarians, IT staff, and paraprofessionals. However, the most frequent concern voiced by library staff was the lack of adequate staffing -levels for helping patrons with computer ust starting to use -related questions. Helping users, especially those j computers, was a source of great job satisfaction for most librarians, but this was often frustrated by competing duties. As one librarian from the Pratt Library said, “It’s difficult when you only have one librarian for a pretty large building. There’s only so much you can do. You see so many people in need and people who want to learn. So we really want to be there for them to make it work.” The availability of time for staff training, particularly for technology -related skills, was another commonly voiced concern for librarians and other staff at all four libraries. With stress on staff time in general, most of it was being directed and at providing direct patron services. Though some of the libraries budget ed schedule d for training, librarians still expressed anxiety about keeping current with technology, “I feel like we’re in a place now where librarians need to learn more IT skills ... because we want to stay relevant.” Besides training for how to use technology and teach it to patr ons, some librarians also expressed interest in learning more about outreach and using social media for promoting library services. Fayetteville and Baltimore use online training modules extensively for for staff use. This technology training, with designated terminals set up arrangement might make it easier for these libraries to build training into work schedules, but it was unclear from librarians whether online training adequately staff morale was met their learning needs. Nonetheless, in these libraries, in helping patrons, suggesting that higher and librarians felt more competent the clear support for staff development indicated by even minimal scheduling and budgeting for staff training can have an impact on library performance. Use of V olunteers Volunteers have a long and valuable tradition in public libraries. They provide assistance with programs and events, run book sales, serve on advisory boards, and collect signatures for ballot initiatives to support library funding. More recently , they have also become part of the public technology services that and they libraries offer, show potential to help alleviate some of the stresses on staff time. Still, as learned during the case studies, using volunteers effectively How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 97 | Opportunity for All:

99 to support public tec hnology requires coordination and training and may require a greater investment in library resources than expected. Each of the libraries visited during the case studies used volunteers to a oups, to more different extent, from only fundraising activities of F riends gr formal community volunteer partnerships that operate in many areas in the library. The use of volunteers for public technology is more limited than their roles in other library activities: positions to be For the most part, we really need people in volunteer available at the branches, anyhow, for people who need assistance. Many times, the librarians are busy doing reference questions or other assistance, but the person sitting at the computer reaches a point where they need some help. It woul d be good to have someone just in that general area walking back and forth, to be able to give them that on -spot assistance. -the --Librarian Volunteers may provide a good supplement to librarians for providing one - -on one help to public access technology us ers, monitoring computer labs, and in some cases providing instruction for classes. However, t he key to success in using volunteers for helping with computer users was seen as having a volunteer coordinator to schedule and train volunteers. Using volunteer s from because nearby schools worked well for the Pratt Library and FPL , to a certain extent , it prescreened the volunteers for requisite skills. Creating community -on -one volunteer support in libraries may help partnerships for providing one olunteer program more easily than the library taking on that implement a v function itself. Evaluation of Programs and Policies Libraries continue to grapple with the question of what kind and how much evaluation is appropriate. Most libraries collect data on the input s and activities of library services such as the number of visits, items circulated, reference questions, volunteer hours, program attendance, and students in classes. These data are used to show the demand for library services and, in some cases, the satisfaction with them. In the case study libraries, the use of data for evaluation and decision -making was limited by the types of data available. None of the libraries had data on how many individual users they have or what types of things they used the comp uter for ; the only data that is available to indicate the level of public access technology use was the number of sessions or the amount of time the computers are in use. Information on the number of wireless users was also unavailable. E ulating policies or allocating resources for form valuation How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 98 | Opportunity for All:

100 was mostly s of ad hoc and based on anecdotal information from observation , comment cards, and notes from users librarians . In most of the libraries, there was a gap between the types of activities the wer e engaging in for evaluation and the types of measures libraries policymakers and external audiences expressed they needed or wanted to see. Input and output metrics do little to evaluate the effectiveness of library services or suggest how staff can improve service s. Possible barriers to implementing evaluation practices in libraries other than a lack of staff or management buy -in include the following : • Staff believe that benefits are too intangible to measure. • Libraries lack planning: service response is often crisis -based and thus leaves little time to test effectiveness or logic of service response. • Staff do not have enough time, there is no dedicated staff for evaluation, and regular staff is not trained to evaluate. • Staff fear t poorly on their work, rather negative evaluation will reflec than seeing suggestions for improvement. Despite these barriers, over the past several decades library managers have gradually realized the importance of evaluating public library services. The latest ion involves developing outcomes -based evaluation plans trend in library evaluat for libraries and integrating such plans into the organizational and professional , Bertot, McClure , and culture (c.f. -b; Holt and Elliot 2003; Kyrillidou Jaeger 2008 2002; Steffan, Lance , & Logan 2002). 4.5 Library R esources and Services Beyond the organizational decisions about allocation of budget, staffing , and evaluation of services, decisions must be made about how those resources resources are made available to the public. Policies ne ed to be ope rationally feasible, meaning that they can be implemented within the mission of the library and the resources available. Operational p olicy areas that emerged from the U.S. IMPACT S tudy research centered around the physical infrastructure of the library , the technology infrastructure and its maintenance , congestion around public access computers , privacy and security issues , use policies for the computers (including filtering , and help and training for public access technology and behavior standards) es. servic Each of these are discussed in more detail in the following sections. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 99 | Opportunity for All:

101 Physical and Technological Infrastructure libraries are hobbled by physical and technological Many infrastructure that makes expansion of public access computing services to meet patron demand difficult . Public libraries housed in older buildings find that installing p ower and cost -prohibitive data lines is , while all libraries seem to struggle with adequate space for accommodating additional terminals and wireless users . In addition, many libraries suffer from inadequate bandwidth capacity, causing slowdowns when multiple users are engaged in resource -intensive Internet use. The FPL and MPL , both with new facilities, ha ve an advantage over the many older branches in the Pratt and Oakland systems , as well as many older Library libraries across the country , in that their spaces were designed to provide the best possible layout for the multiple uses modern libraries are expected to accommodate. In particular, spaces for public access tec hnology were thoughtfully incorporated into the building plan, which not only gives users more room but also makes it clear that technology is fully integrated into all library services. Libraries without such accommodation or recent upgrades face barriers to providing good service. OPL user Abe, for example, when asked if anything prevents him from using library computing resources, responded: “There is a lack of power supply. I understand that this is an older building so it’s probably not wired for that . But, for example, the Alameda Library provides power supplies at each desk, and that’s a real difference.” Though both the Pratt Library and OPL have opened new branches recently and have plans for construction, the process of updating libraries to acco mmodate the increasing use of technology is very slow. The lack of power outlets and room for tables and chairs were particularly problematic in older branches where the options to address excess demand for computers and wireless access fficient infrastructure. The need to provide separate areas for are limited by insu children and teen s is also a significant space consideration, as is providing ager areas where users can work together. Crowding in computer areas lead to p atron worrie s about the lack of priv acy on public computers due to the close proximity of terminals . One user discussed his concerns: “ There’ll be people who ’ll be sitting at the computer hanging out with someone who ’s there or standing behind you. Complaining to the librarians doesn ’t alway s work and there’s a basic protocol. Most people with any brains someone ’t stand behind them.” ’s on the computer you don understand when Another patron, Ewan , echoed this concern, stating: “I think they really need to tighten up on some of the privacy issu es. Because even though I’ve done it, How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 100 | Opportunity for All:

102 even though I’ve snooped on some people I know, I did it because I could. I didn’t break any laws. I did it because I could.” land was concerned Other patrons worried about security. Newton from Oak about identity theft: “You can’t put personal information like your phone number or anything like that, because there are so many hackers out there, you don’t know who gets on the computer after you get on.” On the other hand, teen ager s from Fayetteville though t there was too much security on library computers, especially as patrons cannot save work to the hard drive: “T here is no way to save stuff on computers. That is especially difficult. Last school , I was working on a PowerPoint for French and I had no way to save it semester and make it as an attachment to my email and send it to myself. So I had to leave the library, go home and remake the PowerP oint all over again. That’s kind of a pain.” Naomi, a student from Marshalltown, was also frustrated by computer deep -cleans between patron session s: “I lost a 19 -page report. You know, once it’s gone it’s gone. I’ve seen kids say, ‘What do you mean, I can’t save it?’ They’ll think it’s going to be there tomorrow. There needs to be some , but [ retrieve the to kind of backup retrieval someh ow —not to pull up idle stuff document] when someone loses a 19 -page report because they thought they could save it to [the hard drive]. So, that is the only thing I would suggest, that there has to be some kind of emergency retrieval. ” The physical infrastructure of libraries significantly limits the number of public access computer terminals that can be accommodated, but libraries are also limited by their technology infrastructure and their ability to maintain the equipment they have in good working order. The heavy use of public access terminals requires constant maintenance and frequent replacement. With demand high, terminals that are taken out of circulation can be a major cause of congestion. The libraries that relied on maintenance provided by the municipal agency reported more frustration with maintenance delays. All the libraries had a replacement schedule, but the replacements were taken into not always account in budget ing. All of the case study libraries had wireless Intern et access for users with their own laptops. The wireless network was also being used t o help relieve some of the demand on the computer terminals: three of the case study libraries were experimenting with lending laptops or netbooks for patron use within t he library. Fayetteville is also testing circulating laptops for home use. There were no complaints of inadequate bandwidth among laptop users , but print control and providing adequate electrical outlets for personal laptops were frustrations for patrons. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 101 | Opportunity for All:

103 Congestion and Use Policies During the case study visits and in comments from the web survey, users made it clear that they perceive the biggest need as being more computer terminals. But it is helpful to understand that the call for more computers is com ing from two related problems associated with providing public access technology: waiting times to get a terminal and inadequate session lengths to complete tasks. Though users are understanding of the limitations that the library has in terms of adding mo re computers, it is still frustrating, especially during peak times. Mason from Baltimore finds that, “Now, with the economy, everybody’s coming to the library to use the computers, so there’s not a lot of access. Although I value the services of the library because Enoch Pratt Library is great for the city, it’s not as accessible sometimes. The number of computers, the number of people: it’s always crowded and there is always a waiting list. You generally have to wait for 15, 20 minutes sometimes and it tu rns you off just a little bit, just a little bit.” Libraries try to deal with congestion by shortening session times in order to provide the most number of sessions each day, reasoning this provides the most on lengths limit the outcomes access to the most people. However , short sessi patrons can achieve using library computers. s doing homework ager , job Teen seekers , and those looking up health information or applying for government services were particularly impacted by session limits of less than two hours. Each of the case study libraries had different approaches to setting time limit policies and most instituted some combination of providing express terminals for quick uses (15 to 30 minutes), flexible time limits based on demand for computers, and privi certain types of uses like job searching with extra leging session lengths. Flexible time limits can be implemented with session management software to avoid staff intervention but is only an effective option where demand for computers was not constant, wh ich was rare in the large urban systems. One way of addressing problems caused by congestion and time limits is to privilege certain types of use or users. Privileging use helps libraries maximize particular patron outcomes , such as finding jobs or comple ting homework, both . However, patrons of which are high -value activities to external stakeholders (and librarians) have mixed feelings about computers that are set aside for particular uses. For the most part, patrons understand the motivation behind privileging some types of computer use over others but are also frustrated because the purposes of their use might be just as urgent. Libraries privileged How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 102 | Opportunity for All:

104 use for job seeking, business, and genealogy, but none that were visited h, for example, though libraries located near privileged use for health researc hospitals noted that many people newly diagnosed come seeking information on the library computers. In addition to time limits, use policies around content filtering of objectionable materials on computers were a concern for patrons and staff. Neither OPL or MPL apply content filters to their public Internet connections, though MPL does area. block certain sites that have caused behavior problems in the teen ager Baltimore and FPL age r computers and the wireless filter children and teen network. Filtering was not a controversial issue for the staff or patrons interviewed in Baltimore, while in Fayetteville there were more reported annoyances with blocked content. However, in comments from the web survey and in s ome interviews with patrons, filters were often seen as a positive choice by the library. More of a problem in the case study libraries and web survey comments were enforcement of behavior standards, particularly the disruptions caused by multiple people gathering around terminals. Most of the case study libraries computer use to one patron at a time but acknowledge have policies that limit that this often interferes with people working together on homework projects or search for information. The one or helping others learn to use computers person per computer policies were not uniformly applied, and exceptions were frequently made. In addition to disruptions caused by multiple users gathering around terminals, librarians in the large urban systems reporte d problems caused by users while they wait for their session s. Often, these disruptions occur in the hours after to the library to use the schools let out and teen ager s migrate en masse ager spaces helps contain this proble computers. Having designated teen m and prevents disruptions to other users. Help and T raining Libraries have long recognized that users need help learning how to use technology. The availability of one of training -on -one help from librarians and classes for users is one of the core aspec ts of public access to technology in libraries and a key difference between library access and other forms of public technology. Librarians provide help to patrons on two levels. First, they help ing on software. users with computer skills, from basic use to advanced train Second, they help users locate and evaluate information. -one help from librarians lets them -on For patrons, particularly new users, one accomplish important tasks while they are still learning the basics of using How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 103 | Opportunity for All:

105 computers. Providing this kind of help, though rewarding, is hard to ’s probably an awful lot of staff “It accommodate, as one librarian explained: ’t know how to get an email account or don ’t know how assistance. People don to fill out an online job application. So they ’re constantly asking for assistance in that regard. As much as possible, as long as there ’s staff on the floor, they do it as much as they can.” Staff struggled with knowing the most effective ways to provide help to patrons, ran into the limits of how much time they could spend: and —and that’s the [We can’t] spend half an hour with someone in the lab bottom line. So we have volunteers, certain times of the week. But as volunteers things come up and they aren’t able to come. So we don’t really have a consistent sched ule. But the volunteers are there to help “this is how you highlight, this is how you print. ” I just do not have with, I need to write a resume. Can the staff if someone comes in and said, “ someone help me? ” The answer is “ I can help you get the machine turned on; I can help you find Word. I can show you the template in Word but then you’re going to have to be on your own. ” Only we say it much nicer than I just did. Among the libraries, there was informal agreement that half an hour was at the outer limits of how much time staff could reasonably spend with an individual patron, though if the library was very busy, the time available is much less. When users need more time than librarians can spare, they will often refer patrons for basic computer instruction either at a library class or one provided by a local peer agency , though some librarians made appointments with users during nonpeak times . The more stress on staff time, the more likely a user is to find this type of response from librarians , “If it was somebody who really had no computer literacy, I would probably just have to refer him to a class or another agency.” However, the library is the only local agency to provide free often computer access and training, or the only one accessible to users. Other agencies might charge for services, which some patrons are unable to afford, or have schedules that do not accommodate work schedules. Help and training is a key part of equalizing the playing field for users and ensuring that they are able to make good use of the library’s resources. One -on - one help, while very time intensive for staff, is not fully replaceable by formal training classes and is very important from the users’ perspective, particularly new users who have frequent questions as they work. Offering users classes where many can be instructed at once is a more efficient arrangement than classes are targeted at adult patrons just one -on -one help , and many learning to use computers. d help However, new users, like Nelson in Marshalltown, still nee How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 104 | Opportunity for All:

106 If you’ve messed up they’ll come that they are on hand: “ from librarians and like over and help you. It’s pretty nice to have them by the computers so that you don’t have to walk away. You just raise your hand and they’ll come help you.” Staff also need t o be on hand to answer questions about logging onto library computers or connecting to the wireless network. 4.6 Conclusion Developing administrative and operational policies for delivering public access e decisions that maximize the technology is no easy task; every library must mak resources that are consistently valuable to its use of its and deliver services ies . The range of issues and policy options for dealing with them communit described in the proceeding sections , however, may help libraries better understand how public computing policies affect the ability of patrons to achieve their goals. Libraries need to balance the tradeoffs between each policy to maximize the distribution of resources so that computing services continue to be a valued and val uable component of public libraries. Nonetheless, questions will still arise: Will these policies address both current and future conditions and problems? Could policies be misconstrued by the community? Are there partnerships or alliances the library could create with other community groups that are more effective than changing existing computer use policies? In order supportive of library staff, library to be responsive to patron needs, and be planning must include thoughtful discussion and implementation of technology policies that are sensitive to the context of the library. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 105 | Opportunity for All:

107 Recommendations The preceding analysis of the results from the U.S. IMPACT Study of library policies related to public access technology services and their impact on the place of the library in the community points out the deeply interconnected nature of choices made by l ibraries, and the necessity of understanding those choices in a local context and communicating the results effectively. This final chapter will provide some recommendations for prioritizing the internal 5 allocation of resources and for engag ing with the br oader community. , These recommendations are provided in three main areas: within the library within the community , and across the nation. Additional research that could help improve public access technology services in libraries is also included in this section. 5.1 Within the L ibrary Recommendations for libraries to follow as a means of improving their delivery are of public access services and integration with other library services . discussed subsequently Integrate Technology Ser ith Other vices w Library Services Once a clear role for public access computing has been established through the library’s mission, the next task is to further integrate technology into the budget, planning, policies, and staff time and training. Rather t han seeing public access technology and technology help and training as adjunct service s, libraries must view technology services as integral aspect s of the value they provide communities. The allocation of space and personnel resources for public access computing in particular affects library patrons, as well as library staff, administration, and other community members. The policy a library decides to adopt to govern computer time limits, for instance, not only affects the amount of time and the tasks a p atron can accomplish on the computer, but also affects staff interactions with patrons. The increased demand placed on staff in assisting patrons on computers can lead to a sense of not having enough time to accomplish all the traditional tasks required of them. Staff are vocal supporters of computer access and helping patrons become more computer literate, yet they also stress how they do not have the time to assist patrons as much as needed. However, the training and one -on -one help provided to patrons wi th technology questions are a key and central value of having public access computers in public libraries . Services for 106 How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access | Opportunity for All:

108 these patrons who are utilizing computers should be treated as no less valuable ion between traditional or necessary than any other reference service. The divis library services and those that are technology -related is especially evident when there are formal or informal limits on how much time librarians can spend answering technology questions or restrictions about what types of technolog y questions they are allowed to answer, even though there are no such limits for other reference questions. Not fully integrating these aspects of modern library services risks creating different classes of library patrons and may discourage them from maki ng full use of everything the library has to offer. Use Activity o Account -Based Budgeting t for the Cost of Public Access Technology Services Activity -based budgeting is a way of showing the costs of providing certain library functions and is helpful for planning and allocating costs. Showing the technology costs and staff time as a functional area in library budgets will help reflect the full cost of library computer services and make it easier to tie the expenditures to strategic planning goals. Librarie s are often not reporting in a visible way the costs of providing computer and Internet access to patrons, which include not only the har dware, software, maintenance, replacement, and upgrade costs for the technology itself, but also staff time on computer operations and time answering computer -related questions. Understanding the real costs of technology in the library is a first step toward demonstrating to funding agencies the overall investment needed for computers and related and technology, training, services in libraries . It will also be helpful in identifying efficient models of public access technology services. Use policies mitigate demand issues but do not provide a solution to the other problems facing the library in providing public access tech nology services. In the current situation, these costs are buried and cannot be pulled out for comparison or evaluation (as was evident in the financial reports provided by the case study libraries in this study). By using activity -based budgeting, technol ogy costs and staff time can be clearly identified within library budgets tied to performance goals that reflect the full cost of library computer be and services. This information over time will help build public awareness that libraries can use to more e ffectively advocate for increased resources for library computing technologies. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 107 | Opportunity for All:

109 Use Data t nd o Improve Performance a Communicate with Stakeholders As previously discussed, evaluation has two functions in the library organization : performance management and communication with stakeholders. As libraries move toward more outcomes -based evaluation, it becomes possible to use data collected at the library to track the success or failure of decisions made about public access computing. With a strong connection to the library’s mission and community needs, libraries can use their outcome data to allocate resources in a way that improves their performance against their stated goals. There are two areas where data are need ed to provide a more complete picture of the public access technology landscape. The first piece of information account s for the number of unique patrons who use public access computers and wireless networks. Though most libraries are able to count the number of ring, very few have a reliable way of knowing how many sessions occur Internet individual patrons in their communities use the library computers. Further, none of the libraries visited for the case studies had any way of counting either s. With the rapid growth sessions or users of their public access wireless network of wireless access provided by libraries, it will become increasingly important to find ways to measure the use of these services. Without documenting the usage and impact of wireless services, the library is losing t he opportunity to manage the services in a way that meets the needs of the users while incorporating the actual costs into the overall budget. In turn, the results of the measurement can be used to demonstrate to funders and community stakeholders the valu e of gain funding and support for maintenance and the wireless services and to expansion without sacrificing other services in the library. -on -one Second, better tools for tracking the time that librarians spend in one to be developed. If these help or other support for computer us ers need transactions were counted along with reference questions, a more realistic picture of staff time might emerge that could both improve services and demonstrate to the community the effort that the library is putting into supporting users of their technology services (and provide evidence of needed additional funding). going Technical Training f or Provide On Library Staff The role of librarians in enabling public access technology services requires ting of their technical skills. Librarians play an constant training and upda important role in “mediating between users and technology” (O’Gorman and How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 108 | Opportunity for All:

110 Trott 2009, p. 328). More and more information is becoming only available via the , from government publication and forms, t o news outlets and job Internet applications. It has become part of the staff’s role to show users how to use the tools to access that information; today , that means helping patrons use . computers effectively and find reliable information on the Internet or increased technology training was expressed by many of the staff The need f interviewed for the case studies and was reflected in the training programs instituted by the libraries themselves. The case study libraries dealt with staff technical training in very different ways, ranging from online training modules in Fayetteville and Baltimore to the do -it-yourself approach in Oakland (a result of their severe budget cuts). It is clear that without leadership commitment and integration into evaluation mechanisms for staff performance, however, training takes a back seat to other more pressing duties. Making skills development and technical training a part of the expected daily activities of staff, and including them in the costs of offering public access technology services , is critical to the overall success of public access technology programs and to the success of patrons who depend on library equipment and who look to library staff for help. 5.2 Within the Community d as guidelines The following recommendations are meant to be use for libraries in working with external agencies to gain support and buy -in for their public access services, and for communities to consider in their funding and support of library public access services and integration with other public ac cess initiatives —both private and public. ith Community Formalize Relationships w - Based Organizations A key finding of the U.S. IMPACT Study is that staff from organizations in both the public and private sectors at local, state , and federal levels send th eir clients and customers to the public library to use the computers through both direct and indirect referrals. In some cases, they also send their staff to use the library computers and training. As discussed in the case studies , these get interdependenc ies are something that libraries are aware of to different degrees —in some instances , they begin organically as new users and outside agency staff are referred to the library’s computing services without the awareness of library staff. I n other instances, library staff are aware of the usage and may work to facilitate it through outreach services and training. Libraries can be more active in accounting for and addressing the additional pressures in two ways: first, they can work with external bring interdependencies these How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 109 | Opportunity for All:

111 groups to expand public Internet access at other venues; second, they can . uncover and formalize the relationship to include financial support To help gain some control of the external factors that affect it, a library should understand what other community -based scan the environment and are in its area , what assistance they offer residents organizations , who they are serving, and their technological infrastructure needs. Libraries should seek to partner with CBOs that m ake use of library computers in a reciprocal, mutually beneficial relationship. Understanding the external environment can help the to library better allocate resources. Examples such as the initiative by the OPL build a new branch in cooperation with the school district are excellent models for this kind of engagement. Another benefit of making these relationships explicit and part of the strategic planning of the library is that it pressures both agencies to better track and report the service use. These relationships tend to highlight true costs by mak ing each partner’s contribution to the success of programs more visible. Stories t o Communicate the Use Data and Value o f Public Access Technology Public libraries often need strong advocates. As w ith other public services, public library budgets are experiencing extraordinary challenges . Yet more people are turning to the public library for assistance in job search and application, government information and forms, and accessing information online. Libraries teach users how to use computers; how to navigate programs, applications, and websites; and how to find and access information. Libraries help community members create assets by increasing individual s’ effectiveness and marketability as workers and participants in civil society. L ibraries should be vocal in marketing the and se programs and services to increase public use governmental interest. Communicating the value, both in terms of quality and quantity, that library computer access provides t o the community is critical for expanding the library’s base of support and increasing funding. Interviews with key stakeholders in funding, and support organizations in the case studies showed that both data and stories were necessary for the message to engage their attention. Focusing on ways to package and deliver key messages about public access computing services to the right people and o rganizations in the community is an important activity for all libraries, no matter how they are funded. The combination of -based measures of public access technology results, along with solid, outcome stories from users who have taken advantage of the services and can articulate why it is important to the community essential for building and maintaining , are How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 110 | Opportunity for All:

112 the support of funders and influential backers in the community. Stories need to ady for use. , and every library leader should have one re be specific and personal 5.3 Across the N ation ecommendations are for policymakers and leaders to take action on These r matters related to the findings on public access technology services in libraries. Establish Libraries a s Lead Agencies f or Broadband Adoption a nd S upport A unique opportunity for libraries has opened up with the recent publication of FCC’s Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan (U.S. Department the of Commerce 2010). In that report, the FCC discusses the specific and important role of public libraries and other community -based organization in meeting the needs of the American public for access to the Internet. The report reinforces , particularly the critical role many of the points made in this study and others library staff play in providing Internet and the help for users new to the limitations imposed by inadequate space and equipment to meet those users’ needs: But public computing centers provide more than just free access to the Internet. They provide supportive environments for reluctan t and new users to begin to explore the Internet , become comfortable using it and (ALA 2009a) develop the skills needed to find, utilize and create content. Patrons of these centers overwhelmingly express the value of the personnel who staff them and can offer one -on -one help, training or guidance. (Daily, Bryne, Powell, Karaganis, and Chung 2010) However, many libraries lack the computer equipment to meet the needs of today’s patrons. Eight in 10 libraries report hardware shortages that produce waiting li sts during part or all of the day. More than 80 percent of libraries enforce time limits on use; 45 percent of libraries enforce time limits ranging from 31 minutes to 60 minutes , which is not enough time to complete many popular and highly useful tasks . (ALA 2009b) In their recommendations, the FCC puts the IMLS and libraries in the lead role for making policy changes in the years ahead that will provide additional funding and support for libraries. This is a remarkable opportunity for change the that library community should embrace and move forward with. In particular, the FCC has recommended establishing a “ digital literacy corps ” to help new technology users learn about the ways in which technology can help them and How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 111 | Opportunity for All:

113 to teach the skills they need to get online. Public libraries in the United States have the most robust infrastructure to support programs for teaching digital ormation literacy skills and inf , and the public library community should seize this opportunity for making libraries the central hub for growing a digital literacy corps. Establish Common Indicators f or a Set of Public Library Technology Services Using vali d and reliable indicators as a basis of a performance evaluation and measurement system and establishing them as benchmarks is an important step in improving performance and stimulating reinvestment in public access technology resources and services. Benchmarks can be used both locally and nationally to influence policymakers and funders by demonstrating the extent to which these resources are used and the important outcomes that result. They also help libraries better manage their resources and set appropriate motivating goals for librarians and other staff. It is heartening to see that the FCC also considers this to be an important part of their agenda for better access for all, and has put the IMLS in the lead role for ing for not only technology but also this effort, as well as recommending fund training: IMLS should develop guidelines for public access technology based on populations served and organization size. These guidelines would help libraries and CBOs assess their needs for public access workstations, portable devices and bandwidth. IMLS should work with these organizations to develop guidelines and review them annually to reflect changing technology and practices. (U.S. Department of Commerce 2010 , Recommendation 9.3 .) 5.4 Future R esearch Some areas u ncovered through the U.S. IMPACT Study warrant further investigation and research as a way to explore innovative solutions to the difficult choices that libraries face in supporting their public access technology services. A number of these were outlined i n the first report, Opportunity for All: ; several How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries more were uncovered in the analysis contained in this report. These are briefly as starting points for future investigation. here described How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 112 | Opportunity for All:

114 Quantify the V alue of P ibraries to ublic L rganizations Other O As shown in the present report, libraries often provide resources and services to other schools, government agencies, and CBOs that are not accounted for in the library budget or financial reports. While this report demonstrate s the value of the library’s support for these organizations in terms of amplifying their urces, and relieving their workload, effectiveness, expanding their reso quantifying the cost and monetary benefits of the libr ary’s investment in these groups is a critical next step in showing the value of the public library. One way to show the financial impact of shadow mandates is through the use of cost - benefit analysis, which has already been used as a way to demonstrate the value of library resources for individual users (Elliot, Holt, Hayden, and Holt 2007). ublic A Incorporate the Use of P ccess Technology ducation in Library E Librarians today require different skills and knowledge to successfully serve patrons than in the past. It would be worthwhile to review professional library and information science education in the light of some of the findings in this study. Particularly worthwhile would be a c ritical appraisal of l ibrary and curriculum related to the public policy and leadership skills sciences information necessary to successfully engage communities in the support of public access computing. The integration of public access computing services into the library requires an understanding of the impact these services have on the internal organization of the library itself and on the core services that libraries have always provided, as well as the communities the libraries serve. A basic ing of the public policy process, management and leadership, budget understand and finance, and program evaluation are all essential to successful implementation of the recommendations coming from this study, and finding , is an area fruitful for further ways to weave them into the curriculum investigation. 5.5 Conclusion This report has tried to draw useful lessons for libraries in communities across the country from an analysis of the findings from the four case studies and the S. IMPACT Study. It has placed those surveys that formed the basis of the U. findings in a framework that allows libraries to calibrate their approaches to the complex problems involved in providing public access computing services to How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 113 | Opportunity for All:

115 make the difficult choices between o ptions available their communities and to for achieving their missions with often inadequate resources. The central importance of defining a clear mission, focused on the needs and characteristics of the local community, is the basis for many of the recommendations that have come out of this analysis. Those libraries that have take the steps made the effort to understand the local landscape and to necessary to meet the changing needs of their stakeholders and users have been able to integrate public access computing services into t heir offerings in different ways. The importance of this reflection of the local community is —although perhaps the most salient conclusion to be drawn from this analysis the problems and opportunities facing libraries across the country as they access to the Internet and computers into their offerings are similar incorporate in nature, their solutions may be radically different if they are doing their job well. As shown in both this report and its companion, the American people rely on the public libraries of the country for access to computers and the Internet for many reasons, and libraries everywhere have responded in different ways to these demands. This repo rt has attempted to illuminate some of the key factors that libraries should take into consideration as they marshal their resources to a . It also has defined meet the increasing demand for their technology services he needs of their users and the demands context satisfying t for identifying and of their stakeholders. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 114 | Opportunity for All:

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117 Bertot, J. C., C. R. McClure, and P. T. Jaeger. 2008a. The impacts of free public internet access on public The Library Quarterly –301. library patrons and communities. 78(3):285 Bertot, J. C., C. R. McClure, and P. T. Jaeger. 2008b. Public libraries and the Internet 2007: Issues, Library and Information Science Research 30 :175 –184. implications, and expectations. Bertot , J. C., C. R. McClure, P. T. Jaeger, and J. Ryan. (2006). Public libraries and the Internet 2006: Study results and findings . Tallahassee, FL: Information Use and Policy Management Institute, Florida State University. www.ii.fsu.edu/projectFiles/plInternet/2006/2006_plInternet.pdf . Bertot, J. C., C. R. McClure, S. Thomas, K. M. Barton, and J. McGilvray. 2007. Publi c libraries and the Internet 2007: Report to the American Library Association. Tallahassee, FL: Information Use and Policy Management Institute, Florida State University. www.ii.fsu.edu/projectFiles/plInternet/2007/2007_plInternet.pdf . Bertot, J. C., and D. M. Davis. 2007. Public library public access computing and Internet access: Factors which contribute to quality services and resources. Public Library Quarterly 25 (1) :27–42. Bertot, J. C., L. A. Langa, J. M. Grimes, K. Sigler, and S. N. Simmons. 2010. 2009 -2010 Public Library Funding and Technology Access Survey: SurveyFindings and Results . College Park, MD: Center for vation, University of Maryland. Library and Information Inno . http://clii.umd.edu/sites/default/reports/PLFTAS_Report_2009 -10_Full.pdf Bertot, J. C., P. T. Jaeger, L. A. Langa, and C. R. McClure. - 2006a. Drafted: I want you to deliver e government. Library Journal 131 (13) :34 –7. Bertot, J. C., P. T. Jaeger, L. A. Langa, and C. R. McClure. 2006b. Public access computing and Internet access in public libraries: The role of public libraries in e -govern ment and emergency situations. First Monday 11 (9). www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1392/1310 . Tow Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2004. ard equality of access: The role of public libraries in addressing the digital divide. . www.imls.gov/pdf/Equality.pdf Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2009. Our approach: Libraries. www.gatesfoundation.org/topics/Pages/libraries.aspx . Block, M., Ed. 2003. Net effects: How librarians can manage the unintended consequences of the Internet . Medford, N J: Information Today. Brustein, J. 2 009. It has computers, gives advice and is free. New York Times . www.nytimes.com/2009/03/26/nyregion/26libraries.html . . n.d. oyment training/workforce Center for What Works Candidate outcome indicators: Empl . development program www.urban.org/center/met/projects/upload/Employment_Training.pdf . How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 116 | Opportunity for All:

118 Chepesiuk, R. 1996. Where the information superhighway meets the back roads. American Libraries :42 –44. 27(10) City of Baltimore. 2010a. Baltimore City residents portal. . www.baltimorecity.gov/Residents.aspx City of Baltimore. 2010b. City bond ratings affirmed due to “proactive” fiscal management. www.baltimorecity.gov/OfficeoftheMayor/NewsPressR eleases/tabid/66/ID/394/City_Bond_Ratings_Affi rmed_Due_to_Proactive_Fiscal_Management.aspx . City of Fayetteville. (2006). City Plan 2025. www.accessf ayetteville.org/government/strategic_planning/projects/City_Plan_2025.cfm . City of Fayetteville. 2008a. Economic development strategy executive summary. www.accessfayetteville.org/government/economic_development/documents/EK_Fayetteville_S WOT_ExecSumm_1 -23 . -09.pdf —Past, present and options for the future. City of Fayetteville. 2008b. Fayetteville www.accessfayetteville.org/government/economic_development/documents/2008_Econ_Dev_ White_Paper.pdf . City of Oakland. 2009. California FY 2009 -11 adopted policy budget. ion/d/BudgetOffice www2.oaklandnet.com/Government/o/CityAdministrat . Clark, L., and D. Davis. 2008. The state of funding for library technology in today’s economy . Chicago, IL: American Library Association. Connect Arkansas. n.d. Home page. http://connect -arkansas.org/about -2 . Connect Arkansas. 2008. Preliminary broadband survey. http://connect - /Connect -Broadband -Survey.pdf . arkansas.org/files/2010/01 -AR Connect Iowa. 2011. Marshall County broadband inventory map. . http://connectiowa.org/mapping/county_maps/marshall -nots? Public Libraries 46 (1) :18 –19. Cooper, T. 2007. Are we helping the information have CQ Press. n.d. Cit y crime rankings 2009 -2010. http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/2009/CityCrimeRankings2009.htm . Dailey, D., A. Bryne, A. Powell, J. Karaganis, and J. Chung. 2010. Broadband adoption in low -income communities. http://www.ssrc.org/programs/broadband -adoption -in-low -income -communities Davis, D. 2006. The status of public library funding 2003 -2005: Impact of local operating revenue fluctuations. Public Library Quarterly 25 :5–26. Davis, D., J. C. Bertot, C. McClure. and L. Clark. 2009. Libraries connect communities : Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study, 2007 . Chicago, IL: American Library Association. -2008 How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 117 | Opportunity for All:

119 de la Peña McCook ntroduction to public librarianship . New York: Neal -Schuman. I , K. 2004. DeNavas -Walt, C., B. D. Proctor, and J. C. Smith. 2008. Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2007. .census.gov/prod/2008pubs/p60 -235.pdf . www Public Libraries 38 (1) :22– 23. Dowlin, K. 1999. The Internet and the library. , P. 2009. On the street and on Facebook: The homeless stay wired Dvorak . The Wall Street Journal . http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124363359881267523.html . East Bay Alliance for a Sustainable Economy, Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, and Urban Peace 2009. Good jobs, safe streets: How economic recovery in Oakland can lead to community Movement. safety . www.ellabakercenter.org/downloads/ebc/good -jobs -safe -streets -full- report.pdf . Economic Development Intelligence System. 2009. Baltimore city. . https://edis.commerce.state.nc.us/docs/countyProfile/MD/24510.pdf Measuring your library Elliot, D. S., G. E. Holt, S. W. Hayden, and L. E. Holt. 2007. ’s value: How to do a cost -benefit analysis for your public library . Chicago, IL: American Library Association. . Enoch Pratt Free Library. n.d. About the library . www.prattlibrary.org/about Enoch Pratt Free Library. (2009). Annual Financial Report for the0 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2009. 2009Report.pdf www.comptroller.baltimorecity.gov/Audits%20Info/Audit%20Reports/EPFL . Estabrook , L., E. Witt, and L. Rainie. 2007. Information searches that solve problems: How people use the Internet, libraries, and government agencies when they need help . www.pewInternet.org/Reports/2007/Information -Searches -That -Solve -Problems.aspx . Fayetteville Public Library. n.d .-a. Home page. www.faylib.org . Fayetteville Public Library. n.d. -b. Nonprofit resource center. www.faylib.org/services/nonprofit - resource -center.asp . Fayetteville Public Library. 2009a. Annual report. www.faylib.org/information/pdf/FPL2009_AnnualReport.pdf . Fayetteville Public Library. 2009b. Volunteer opportunities. www.faylib.org/support/volunteer.asp . Federal Communications Commission. 2009. Comments in response to NB P [National Broadband Plan] Public Notice #16 – Broadband Adoption, filed Dec., 2, 2009 at 3. http://connectednation.org/_documents/Connecte dNationresponseNBPNo16BroadbandAdopti onFINAL11_2009.pdf 2010. Home page. Friends of the Oakland Public Library. www.fopl.org . How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 118 | Opportunity for All:

120 Garofalo, D. A. 1995. Internet use by rural public libraries: An examination of two programs in the Hudson Valley of New York State. In E. J. Valauskas and N. R. John (Eds.). The Internet initiative: Libraries providing Internet services and how they plan, pay, and manage. Chicago, IL: American Library Association. fi thrives —on a small scale. Christian Science Monitor . Gaylord, C. 2007. Municipal wi- ml . stct.ht www.csmonitor.com/2007/0913/p13s01- Gordon, A. C., M. T. Gordon, E. Moore, and L. Heuertz. 2003. The Gates legacy: What’s changed and (4). Library Journal what’s next as librarians work to sustain public access computers. 128 www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA276674.html . Gordon, M., A. Gordon, and E. Moore. 2001. New computers bring new patrons. Library Journal 126(15):134 –8. Gordon, M. T., E. J. Moore, and A. C. Gordon. 2004. Sustainability in the first ten states to receive Gates awards: Libraries maintaining public access computing programs, but 25 percent are still fragile . Seattle, WA: Public Access Computing Project, Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington. Grey, M. A., and A. C. Woodrick. 2002. U nofficial sister cities: Meatpacking labor migration between Villachuato, Mexico, and Marshalltown, Iowa. Human Organization: Journal of the Society for Applied Anthropology 61 (4):364. ka, E. 2009. Reading into the future. . Newsweek Gronows www.newsweek.com/id/192764 . Hatry, H. P. 2006. Performance measurement: Getting results . Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Henderson, E., K. Miller, T. Craig, S. Dorinski, M. Freeman, N. Isaac, et al. 2010. Public libr aries survey: Fiscal year 2008 . Washington, DC: Institute of Museum and Library Services. Hiller, S., M. Kyrillidou, and J. Self. 2008. When the evidence is not enough: Organizational factors that influence effective and successful assessment. Performance Measurement and Metrics 9(3) :223 - 230 . Hogan, P. M. 1999. An administrator’s perspective on the Internet. Public Libraries 38 (1) :23 –4. Holt, G. E., and D. Elliott. 2003. Measuring outcomes: Applying cost -sized and -benefit analysis to middle smaller public libraries. Library Trends 51(3):424 –40. Horrigan, J. 2009. The mobile difference: Wireless connectivity has drawn many users more deeply into digital life. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project. www. pewInternet.org . 2008- 2009 Iowa public school PK -12 students eligible for free and Iowa Department of Education. 2009. reduced- price lunch by district . www.iowa.gov/educate/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&gid=515&Itemid=55 . How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 119 | Opportunity for All:

121 Iowa Workforce Development. 2009. January thru December labor force summary. . rkforce.org/lmi/laborforce/etables/lastyear/area64.txt www.iowawo Jaeger, P. T., J. C. Bertot, C. R. McClure, and L. A. Langa. 2005. CIPA decisions, implementation, and impacts. Public Libraries 44 (2):105 –9. ga. 2006. The policy implications of Internet Jaeger, P. T., J. C. Bertot, C. R. McClure, and L. A. Lan Government Information Quarterly 23 :123 –41. connectivity in public libraries. Jaeger, P. T., J. C. Bertot, C. R. McClure, and M. Rodriguez. 2007. Public libraries and Internet access across the United States: A comparison by state 2004 –2006. Information Technology and Libraries 14. 26(2):4– Johnson, F. 2009. Wireless Internet will be key to minority, low -income areas. The Wall Street Journal . http://online.wsj.com/article/BT -CO -20090608 -711675.html . based monitoring and evaluation system: A Kusek, J. Z., and R. C. Rist. 2004. Ten steps to a results- handbook for development practitioners . Washington, DC: World Bank. Kyrillidou, M. 2002. From in put and output measures to quality and outcome measures, or, from the Journal of Academic user in the life of the library to the library in the life of the user. 28(1):42– 6. Librarianship American libraries and the Internet: The social construction of web appropriation and use . Li, B. 2008. Youngstown, NY: Cambria. Liu , L -G. 1995. The Internet and library and information services: A review, analysis, and annotated bibliography . Occasional papers no. 202. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois. Lowe, C. 2008. Rethinking the E -rate. American Libraries 39(9) :62– 4. Mantell, C. 2008. Fresh start at a neighborhood library. 27 (2):134 –8. Public Library Quarterly Marshalltown Economic Development Impact Committee. n.d. Home p age. www.marshalltownworks.com . Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development. n.d. Home page. http://choosemaryland.org . Maryland State Archives. 2011. Baltimore City archives. www.msa.md.gov/msa/mdmanual/36loc/bcity/html/bcity.html . Public library Internet services and the digital divide: The McClure, C. R., J. Ryan, and C. R. Bertot. 2002. role and impacts from selected external funding sources . Tallahassee, FL: Information Use and Policy Management Institute, Florida State University. How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 120 | Opportunity for All:

122 McClure, C. R., J. Ryan, and W. E. Moen. 1993. The role of public libraries in the use of Internet/NRE N Library and Information Science Research 15 (1) :7–34. information services. McClure, C. R., P. T. Jaeger, and J. C. Bertot. 2007. The looming infrastructure plateau? Space, funding, connection speed, and the ability of public libraries to meet the demand for free Internet access. 12 (12). First Monday . www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2017/1907 McKenna, M. 1994. Libraries and the Internet. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. www.ericdigests.org/1995 . -2/libraries.htm Moore, M. H. 1995. Creating public value: Strategic management in government . Cambridge , MA: Harvard University Press. National Center for Education Statistics. 2003. National Assessment of Adult Literacy. http://nces.ed.gov/naal/kf_demographics.asp . National Center for Education Statistics. 2010. The nation’s report card: Trial urban district assessment reading 2009. . http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/dst2009/2010459.asp Naumer d logic model: Using the model in the real world. In M. Crandall and K. E. , C. M. 2009. Situate Fisher (Eds.). . Information and community technology: Identifying local and global impact Medford, NJ: Information Today. O’Gorman, J., and B. Trott. 2009. What will become of reference in academic and public libraries? Journal of Library Administration 49( 4): 327 –39. Oakland Community and Economic Development Agency. n.d. -a. www2.oaklandnet.com . Oakland Community and Economic Development Agency. n.d. -b. Market updates: office. http://business2oakland.com/main/ . officemarketupdate.htm Oakland Community and Economic Development Agency. n.d. -c. Our city: overview. http://business2oakland.com/main/ourcity.htm . Oakland Police Department. 2010. Oakland polic e department vision. www2.oaklandnet.com/Government/o/OPD/a/mission/index.htm . Oakland Public Library. n.d. Temescal tool lending library. www.oaklandlibrary.org/Branches/temtll.htm . Oakland Public Library. 2009a. Annual report 2008 -2009. -09_01.html . -09/annual_report_08 http://www.oaklandlibrary.org/annual_report_08 Oakland Public Library. 2009b. Second start adult literac y program. www.oaklandlibrary.org/services/SecondStart/about.html . How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 121 | Opportunity for All:

123 Oakland Public Library. 2010 , July 30 Avenue: Frequently . New East Oakland Community Library at 81st questions. asked . http://www.oaklandlibrary.org/branches/81st/81st.htm St. Lifer, E. and M. Rogers . 1998, February 1 . Pennsylvania study reports Internet essential to libraries. Library Journal 123( 2):14 . Pew Internet and American Life Project. 2009. Internet, broadband, and cell phone statistics. www.pewInternet.org/Reports/2010/Internet- broadband -and -cell- phone -statistics.aspx?r=1 . plants in ID c Preston, J. 2006. U.S. r aids 6 m eat ase . New York Times . www.nytimes.com/2006/12/13/us/13raid.html . Reddy, S. 2008, October 21 . Gree ktown develops Latin flavor: E. Baltimore enclave is somewhat awkwardly absorbing new immigrant group . Baltimore Sun. http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2008 -10- 21/news/0810200222_1_greektown -sense -of - community -latin -music . Rist, R. C., and J. Z. Kusek. 2004. Ten steps to a results- based monitoring and evaluation system: A , DC: World Bank. Washington handbook for development practitioners. Ritchie, J., and L. Spencer. 1994. Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. In A. Bryman and R. G. Burgess. Analyzing qualitative data. . London and New York: Routledge -Smith. 1993. Sabatier, P. A., and H. C. Jenkins hange and learning: An advocacy coalition Policy c approach . Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Saulny, S., and K. A. Cullotta. 2009. Downturn puts new stresses on libraries. New York Times . www.nytimes.co . m/2009/04/02/us/02library.html Schmidt , T., and A. Townsend. 2003. Why wi -fi wants to be free. Communications of the ACM 46(5):47 – 52. www.cc.gatech.edu/~wenke/wirelesssecurity /p47 -schmidt.pdf . Schuyler, M. 1995. The view from the top left corner: Prepare to be overwhelmed. Computers in Libraries 15(4):42 –4. Staff. 2008. Best cities to live, work and play. Kiplinger Personal Finance . www.kiplinger.com/magazine/archives/2008/07/2008 -best -cities -to-live -work -play.html . Steffan, N. O., K. C. Lance, and R. Logan. 2002. Time to tell the whole story: Outcome- based evaluation and t he counting on results project. Public Libraries 41(4):222 –8. Tomasello, T. K., and C. R. McClure. 2003. Public libraries and Internet access models: Describing (3) 21 37. possible approaches. Public Library Quarterly :11– . Databases, Tables, & Calculators by Subject (Area Marshalltown City, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. n.d IA). How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 122 | Opportunity for All:

124 http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet;jsessionid=12D1C1A4D7 3BE4B329A784C4930413 . 66.tc_instance4 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2009. Unemployment rates for the 50 largest cities annual average rankings . www.bls.gov/lau/lacilg09.htm . -a. 2006- 2008 American community survey 3 -year estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. n.d. . http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DatasetMainPageServlet?_program=ACS&_submenuId=&_lang=en &_ts=U.S. Census Bureau. n.d. -b. Home page. www.census.gov . ommunity n.d. -c. 2008 American c survey 1 U.S. Census Bureau. -Year estimates: Oakland, CA. -geo_id=16000US0653000& - http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y& con text=adp& -ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_& -tree_id=308& -_lang=en& -_caller=geoselect& - format = U.S. Department of Commerce. 1995. Falling through the net: A survey of the “have nots” in rural and urban America . Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration. . U.S. Department of Commerce. 1998. Falling through the net II: New data on the digital divide Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration. ent of Commerce. 1999. U.S. Departm . Washington, Falling through the net: Defining the digital divide DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration. Falling through the net: Toward digital incl usion: A report on U.S. Department of Commerce. 2000. . Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Economic and Americans’ access to technology tools Statistics Administration: National Telecommunications and Information Administration. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2002. A nation online how Ame ricans are expanding their use of the Internet . Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration: Economics and Statistics Administration. . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. 2008. Networked nation: Broadband in America, 2007 U.S. Department of Commerce . U.S. Department of Commerce. 2010. Connecting America: The national broadband plan . Washington, DC: Federal Communications Commission. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1996. Report to the Congress: Study to identify measures necessary for a successful transition to a more electronic federal depository library program . Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. http://www.fdlp.gov/home/repository/doc_download/1768 - -to-a- -transition report -to-the -congress -study -to-identify -measures -necessary -for- a-successful . -e more How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 123 | Opportunity for All:

125 U.S. Whi te House. 2010. Vice President Biden announces recovery act investments in broadband projects to bring jobs, economic opportunity to communities nationwide . www.whitehouse.gov/briefing- room . Warschauer, M. 2003. Demystifying the digital divide. Scientific American 289 (2) :42 –8. Weingarten, R., N. Bolt, M. Bard, and J. Windhausen. 2007. Public library connectivity project: Findings Information . Chicago, IL: American Library Association, Office for and recommendations Technology Policy. http://www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/oitp/publications/booksstudies/Public_%20Library_Conn.pdf . Woyke, E. 2 009. America’s most wired cities. - -wire www.forbes.com/2009/01/22/wired -cities -2009 -tech . cx_ew_0122wiredcities.html boon for libraries. Yates, K. 2009. Hard economic times a . www.cnn.com/2009/US/02/28/recession.libraries How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access 124 | Opportunity for All:

126 This report and its appendices can be downloaded at http://tascha.washington.edu/usimpact. Published June 2011 in the United States of America by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). IMLS will provide visually impaired or learning-disabled individuals with an audio recording of this publication upon request. Contact Institute of Museum and Library Services 1800 M Street NW, 9th Floor Washington, DC 20036 202-653-IMLS (4657) www.imls.gov Suggested Citation Becker, Samantha, Michael D. Crandall, Karen E. Fisher, Rebecca Blakewood, Bo Kinney, and Cadi Russell-Sauvé. (2011). Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access (IMLS-2011-RES-01). Institute of Museum and Library Services. Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Not available at the time of printing.

127 Opportunity for All Opportunity for All How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access The U.S. IMPACT Study A research initiative examining the impact of free access to computers and the Internet in public libraries. Principal Authors Samantha Becker Michael D. Crandall Karen E. Fisher Rebecca Blakewood Bo Kinney Cadi Russell-Sauvé

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