OSHA 3384 SMALL ENTITY FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD REV 9.28.11:Layout 1

Transcript

1 Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Respiratory Protection Standard OSHA 3384-09 2011

2 Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 “To assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women; by authorizing enforcement of the stan dards developed under the Act; by assisting and encouraging the States in their efforts to assure safe and healthful working conditions; by providing for research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health.” overview of a This publication provides a general particular standards-related topic. This publication does not alter or determine compliance responsibil- ities which are set forth in OSHA standards and the Occupational Safety and Health Act . Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult current administrative interpretations and pational Safety and Health decisions by the Occu Review Commission and the courts. This document is intended to provide relevant information to employers and employees in deter - mining whether respirators are needed, and, if so, how the respirators should be selected and used. This publication does not replace the official Respi- ratory Protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134). Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission. Source credit is requested but not required. This information will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 693-1999; teletypewriter (TTY) number: 1-877-889-5627.

3 Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Respiratory Protection Standard Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor OSHA 3384-09 2011 Original cover illustrations created by Attiliis & Associates

4 (d)(2)(ii) Respirators for escape from IDLH Contents atmospheres must be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which ntroduction ... 5 I 18 ... they will be used The audience for this guide 6 ... Yo u m u s t c o n s i d e r a l l o x y g e n (d)(2)(iii) 18 deficient atmospheres to be IDLH ... How to use this guide ... 6 (d)(3) Respirators for non-IDLH Respiratory protection equipment 8 ... atmospheres ... 18 OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e r e s p i r a t o r s (d)(3)(i) ... 9 Standard that are adequate to protect employee 9 ... The Respiratory Protection Program health and ensure compliance with all other OSHA requirements under routine When to use the Respiratory and reasonably foreseeable emergency Protection Program ... 9 18 ... situations Updates to OSHA’s Respiratory (d)(3)(i)(A) Yo u m u s t s e l e c t r e s p i r a t o r s Protection Standard ... 10 according to Assigned Protection Factors The benefits of the Respiratory 19 (APF) ... 10 ... Protection Standard Yo u m u s t s e l e c t r e s p i r a t o r s (d)(3)(i)(B) Points of Contact for additional after considering the Maximum Use 11 ... information Concentrations in your workplace under 19 ... which respirators are used Section (a): Permissible practice ... 11 You must select respirators that (d)(3)(ii) are appropriate for the chemical state 11 (a)(1) Engineering controls ... and physical form of the contaminant 20 ... (a)(2) Providing employees with (d)(3)(iii) Respiratory protection for respirators 12 ... 20 gases and vapors ... 12 ... Checklist for Permissible Practice Respiratory protection for (d)(3)(iv) 13 ... Section (b): Definitions particulates ... 22 ... Checklist for Respirator Selection 23 Section (c): Respiratory protection 24 Ta b l e I : A s s i g n e d Pro t e c t i o n Fa c t o r s ... ... 13 program ... 27 Ta b l e I I : O x yg e n D e f i c i e n t A t m o s p h e r e s (c)(1) Program development and implementation ... 13 Section (e): Medical evaluation 27 ... (c)(2) Where respirator use is not required .. 14 (e)(1) Employer provided medical 15 (c)(3) Program administrator ... 27 evaluations ... 16 ... (c)(4) Employer-provided respirators ... 27 (e)(2) Medical evaluation procedures Checklist for Respiratory Protection (e)(3) Follow-up medical examinations 28 ... 16 ... Programs (e)(4) Administration of questionnaires ... and examinations 28 ... 16 Section (d): Respirator selection (e)(5) Supplemental information for 16 (d)(1)(i) General guidelines for selection ... 29 ... the PLHCP (d)(1)(ii) Selected respirator must be ... (e)(6) Medical determination 30 certified by the National Institute for 30 ... (e)(7) Additional medical evaluations 17 Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ... 31 Checklist for Medical Evaluation ... (d)(1)(iii) Employers need to identify 17 ... and evaluate worksite hazards 31 ... Section (f): Fit testing Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t (d)(1)(iv) Te s t i n g a n d U s e r Se a l Qualitative Fit number of respirators to correctly fit Checking ... 34 18 the user ... (f)(1) Respirators that require fit testing ... 35 ... 18 (d)(2) Respirators for IDLH atmospheres (f)(2) When fit testing must be conducted: 18 Types of respirator s ... (d)(2)(i) general requirements ... 35 2 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

5 (f)(3) When fit testing must be conducted: (i)(6) Compressors that are not oil changes in the respirator wearer’s ... lubricated 52 35 physical condition ... (i)(7) Compressors that are oil lubricated ... 52 (f)(4) When fit testing must be conducted: 53 ... (i)(8) Precautions regarding couplings unacceptable fit as determined by an (i)(9) Labeling of breathing gas containers .. 53 ... employee after fit testing 35 Checklist for Breathing Air Quality (f)(5) Fit testing procedures: general ... and Use 53 ... 35 fit testing procedures (f)(6) Limitation on use of qualitative Section (j): Identification of filters, ... fit testing 35 54 ... cartridges and canisters ... (f)(7) Use of quantitative fit testing 36 ... 54 Section (k): Tr a i n i n g a n d i n fo r m a t i o n (f)(8) Fit testing for atmosphere-supplying ... and powered air-purifying respirators 36 (k)(1) Content of training ... 54 Te s t i n g Checklist for Fit 41 ... ... (k)(2) Comprehension of training 55 (k)(3) Timing of training ... 55 Section (g): Use of respirators 41 ... ... 55 (k)(4) Portability of training (g)(1) Preventing leaks in the face- 55 ... (k)(5) Retraining 41 ... piece seal (k)(6) Information for voluntary 43 (g)(2) Continuing respirator effectiveness ... respirator users 56 ... (g)(3) Procedures for Immediately 56 ... Tr a i n i n g a n d I n fo r m a t i o n Checklist for Dangerous to Life or Health atmospheres and for interior structural firefighting ... 43 Section (l): Program evaluation 56 ... (g)(4) Procedures for interior structural firefighting ... 46 56 ... (l)(1) Conducting program evaluations Checklist for Proper Use of ... (l)(2) Consulting with employees 56 Respirators 47 ... 57 ... Checklist for Program Evaluation Section (h): Maintenance and care ... 57 Section (m): Recordkeeping 47 ... of respirators (m)(1) Medical evaluation records 57 ... 47 ... g (h)(1) Cleaning and disinfectin (m)(2) Respirator fit testing records ... 57 ... (h)(2) Storage 48 (m)(3) Written respiratory protection n ... 48 (h)(3) Inspectio program 57 ... 48 ... s (h)(4) Repair (m)(4) Access to records 57 ... Checklist for Respirator Maintenance 57 ... Checklist for Recordkeeping and Care 49 ... Attachment 1: APF Glossary Section (i): Breathing air quality 58 ... and definitions and use ... 49 ... Attachment 2: Checklists 61 (i)(1) Specifications for breathing air ... 50 Checklist for Permissible Practice 61 ... (i)(1)(i) Compressed and liquid oxygen ... 50 Checklist for Respiratory Protection ... (i)(1)(ii) Compressed breathing air 50 61 ... Programs (i)(2)&(3) Oxygen use ... 51 Checklist for Respirator Selection 62 ... 51 ... (i)(4) Cylinder use ... 62 Checklist for Medical Evaluation 51 ... (i)(5)-(7) Compressor use Te s t i n g 63 Checklist for Fit ... 51 .. (i)(5)(i) Location of compressor during use Checklist for Proper Use of (i)(5)(ii) Low moisture content of 63 ... Respirators 51 ... ambient air Checklist for Respirator Maintenance 51 ... (i)(5)(iii) Inline air purification 64 ... and Care 52 (i)(5)(iv) Tr a ck i n g o f b e d a n d f i l t e r changes .. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 3 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

6 Checklist for Breathing Air Quality Agencies are required to prepare and publish one ... 65 and Use or more guides to assist small entities in complying ... 65 Checklist for Tr a i n i n g a n d I n fo r m a t i o n with regulations for which an agency is required 66 Checklist for Program Evaluation ... to prepare a final regulatory flexibility analysis. 66 ... Checklist for Recordkeeping (Requirement is in the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act , (P.L. 104-121, March 29, Attachment 3: 1996, as amended by P.L.110-128, May 25, 2007). ... Respiratory Protection Standard 67 ... 71 Ta b l e I : A s s i g n e d Pro t e c t i o n Fa c t o r s 72 Ta b l e I I : O x yg e n D e f i c i e n t A t m o s p h e r e s ... Appendix A to § 1910.134: Fit Testing ... 81 Procedures (Mandatory) Part I. OSHA-Accepted Fit Te s t Pro t o c o l s ... 81 Ta b l e A- 1 : C N P R E D O N Q u a n t i t a t i ve 93 ... Fit Testing Protocol ... 93 Te s t Part II. New Fit Protocols Appendix B-1 to § 1910.134: User 94 ... Seal Check Procedures (Mandatory) Appendix B-2 to § 1910.134: Respirator 95 ... Cleaning Procedures (Mandatory) Appendix C to § 1910.134: OSHA Respirator Medical Evaluation 96 ... Questionnaire (Mandatory) 96 ... Part A. Section 1. (Mandatory) Part A. Section 2. (Mandatory) ... 96 Appendix D to § 1910.134: Information for Employees Using Respirators When Not Required Under the Standard (Mandatory) ... 100 ... Attachment 4: Sample Program 101 Attachment 5: NIOSH MultiVapor ... 112 Information Ta b l e s o f Attachment 6: NIOSH Cartridges and Canisters by APFs (Modified to OSHA APFs) 113 ... Ta b l e 1. Pa r t i c u l a t e R e s p i r a t o r s ... 113 Ta b l e 2 . G a s / Va p o r R e s p i r a t o r s ... 114 Ta b l e 3 . C o m b i n a t i o n G a s / Va p o r ... 115 and Particulate Respirators Complaints, Emergencies 116 ... and Further Assistance 118 ... OSHA Regional Offices 4 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

7 In August 2006, OSHA again revised the standard by Introduction adding definitions for APF and MUC and a table (Table Agencies are required to prepare and publish one or I) of APF values. This guide provides a discussion of more guides to assist small entities in complying with these APF provisions and their role in the overall regulations for which an agency is required to prepare a Respiratory Protection standard. (See the Small Business regulatory flexibility analysis. Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act, (P.L. 104-121, History of OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Standard March 29, 1996, as amended by the P.L.110-128, May 25, Ye a r Event 2007).) 1971 The existing American National Standards This Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG) is Institute (ANSI) standard adopted as OSHA’s intended to help small businesses comply with the Respiratory Protection standard Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Respiratory Protection standard (63 FR 1152; OSHA’s Final Revised Respiratory Protection 1998 January 8, 1998). While the guide is for small entities, Standard (Assigned Protection Factors the guide itself is not small. OSHA’s goal for this reserved) document is to provide small entities with a compre- 2004 CNP REDON Fit Test Approved for Use hensive step-by-step guide complete with checklists and commonly asked questions that will aid both Assigned Protection Factors Rulemaking Final 2006 employees and employers in small businesses with a (APF) including APFs, MUCs, Table I: Assigned better understanding of OSHA’s respiratory protection Protection Factors (71 Fed. Reg. 50122) standard. The reader should be advised that OSHA also has other shorter documents and visual aids that may OSHA’s Respiratory Protection standard specifies be used to better understand respiratory protection and only the minimum requirements for an effective the OSHA standard itself. That information can be respiratory protection program. Under the standard, found on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov. OSHA may require you to establish a respiratory If the employees of a small business are only protection program when exposure to an airborne exposed to nuisance dusts and relatively non-toxic contaminant or to low oxygen levels can cause illness chemicals and use only a few types of relatively simple or injury to an employee and when these health effects respirators, knowledge of the guide and materials can be prevented by the use of adequate engineering supplied by the respirator manufacturer may be and administrative controls and/or the appropriate sufficient for the small business owner or an employee selection and use of a respirator. OSHA may also to become qualified as a program administrator. If require you to establish a respiratory protection more dangerous chemicals or high exposures are program while these engineering and administrative present, or sophisticated respirators are used, the controls are being installed or maintained and repaired, program administrator must have more knowledge or or for emergencies. You are encouraged to exceed experience. In these circumstances, it may be neces - these minimum criteria if doing so enhances the safety sary for the administrator to seek out the expertise and health of your employees. This SECG provides a needed or to obtain appropriate training. sample respirator program to guide small business ad - (See Attachment 4 of this guide.) ministrators. OSHA’s original Respiratory Protection standard was adopted in 1971 from an existing American National This document is advisory in nature, informational Standards Institute (ANSI) standard. On October 5, in content, and is intended to assist employers by using 1998, OSHA issued a revised standard that updated plain English to explain each provision of the standard, and replaced that 1971 standard. At that time, in 1998, whenever possible. However, technical terms that apply OSHA reserved the definition under (d) (respirator to respiratory protection have legal definitions, as set selection) Assigned Protection Factors (APFs) for the , forth in the Respiratory Protection standard. In this Maximum Use Concentrations (MUCs) and Ta b l e I : and guide, whenever these terms are used, they are used Assigned Protection Factors values until further rule- only as they are legally defined. A list of these terms making was completed. of the Respiratory can be found under (b)(definitions) Protection standard. A copy of the standard is included In addition, the revised 1998 Respiratory Protection in this guide under Attachment 3. standard included a new provision that allowed the development of new fit tests. In compliance with this The Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR provision, OSHA approved and adopted an additional 1910.134) establishes, in one place, the required quantitative fit testing protocol, the controlled negative program for properly selecting and using respirators. (See pressure (CNP) REDON fit testing protocol, in 2004. All mandatory respirator use is covered by the Appendix A of the standard.) Respiratory Protection standard. The Respiratory SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 5 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

8 In 27 states and territories, occupational respiratory Protection standard also applies to: Shipyards (29 CFR requirements are enforced by the state agency respon - 1915.154); Marine Terminals (29 CFR 1917.92); sible for the OSHA-approved State Plan. These states Longshoring (29 CFR 1918.102); and, Construction are: Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, (29 CFR 1926.103). The final standard covers required Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, respiratory protection for use against hazardous airborne New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, workplace exposures, including biological hazards. South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. Connecticut, Illinois, The audience for this guide New Jersey, New York, and the Virgin Islands operate Yo u s h o u l d r e a d t h i s g u i d e i f i t i s l i k e l y t h a t y o u w i l l OSHA-approved State Plans that apply to state and need to establish and implement a respiratory local government employees only. protection program for your business. This guide is intended to assist program administrators, employers State Plan states are required to adopt and enforce who need to develop a program, employees who may respiratory protection standards that are either be required to wear respirators, and licensed medical identical to or at least as effective as the Federal OSHA professionals who must evaluate an employee's ability standards. These states are also required to extend the to wear respirators, among others. coverage of their respiratory protection standard to state and local government employees, including paid, Program administrators need to develop a written and in some states, volunteer firefighters who are respiratory protection program that covers procedures otherwise not covered by the Federal standard. The for the use of respirators in any work area in which information in this guide should be equally applicable employees are exposed to airborne hazards. This guide to you if you are located in a State Plan state, although provides information on procedures that will help the you should check to see if there are any unique or administrator develop a program for the particular additional requirements that may apply. workplace. The program needs to cover each provision of the standard. All required elements of the respiratory protection program must be in writing unless a How to use this guide particular element does not apply to your workplace. This guide is divided into the same sections that appear For example, if no employees volunteer to wear (See Attach in the final Respiratory Protection standard. - respirators, then the program administrator does not ment 3.) The organization of the guide follows the same need to develop procedures for that type of respirator organization as the corresponding provision of the use. Employees themselves will find useful information standard, proceeding from paragraph (a)(Permissible in this guide on training and medical examinations. Practice) to mandatory appendices of the Respiratory Licensed healthcare providers will find additional Protection standard (§ 1910.134.) A special feature of information in this guide on the timing of medical the electronic version of this guide on OSHA’s webpage examinations and follow-up exams for employees who is included in the Table of Contents. This feature allows use respirators, as well as information about the types you to “click” on the section of interest to you in the of respirators that are available. Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s a n d g o d i r e c t l y t o t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e This document provides guidance only, and does guide. not alter or determine compliance responsibilities, References to the appendices to the Respiratory Occupational Safety and which are set forth in the Protection standard are in italics in the text of this . The guide does not Health (OSH) Act (29 U.S.C. 655) guide. Respiratory Protection standard (29 replace the official . A copy of the Respiratory Protection CFR 1910.134) § 1910.134 Respiratory Protection Standard standard is provided in Attachment 3 of this guide. You Section (a) Permissible Practice – must refer to the standard to ensure compliance. Lists – Definitions Section (b) of appendices for this guide and for the Respiratory – Respiratory Protection Program Section (c) Program standard are provided under “How to use this – Section (d) Respirator Selection guide.” Ta b l e I : A s s i g n e d P r o t e c t i o n F a c t o r s Ta b l e I I : O x y g e n D e f i c i e n t A t m o s p h e r e s There are two limitations to the use of this guide. Medical Evaluation – Section (e) First, interpretations and enforcement policy may Section (f) – Fit Testing change over time. To stay up-to-date on interpretations Section (g) – Use of Respirators and enforcement policies, you should consult current Maintenance and Care of Respirators – Section (h) administrative interpretations and decisions by the Section (i) – Breathing Air Quality and Use Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission Identification of Filters, Cartridges Section (j) – and the courts for additional guidance on OSHA and Canisters compliance requirements. And second, new fit tests may be approved through Section 6(b)(7) rulemaking. 6 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

9 The attachments in this guide are: Section (k) – Tr a i n i n g a n d I n f o r m a t i o n – the glossary and list of definitions from Attachment 1 Section (l) Program Evaluation – the Assigned Protection Factor rule Section (m) – Recordkeeping Attachment 2 – a complete set of the checklists used in Section (n) – Effective dates this guide Appendices – Section (o) – a copy of the Respiratory Protection Attachment 3 The appendices to the Respiratory Protection standard standard are: – a Sample Program Attachment 4 Appendix A to § 1910.134: Fit Testing Procedures – NIOSH MultiVapor Information Attachment 5 (Mandatory) Attachment 6 – NIOSH tables of cartridges and Part I. OSHA-Accepted Fit Test Protocols canisters by APFs (modified to OSHA’s APFs) Ta b l e A - 1 : C N P R E D O N Q u a n t i t a t i v e F i t Te s t i n g Citations to the standard provided in each section Protocol enable you to compare the text in this guide with the Part II. New Fit Test Protocols standard. (See Attachment 3 of this guide for a copy of Appendix B-1 to § 1910.134: User Seal Check the Respiratory Protection standard.) For example, to Procedures (Mandatory) review the new assigned protection factors and maxi - Appendix B-2 to § 1910.134: Respirator Cleaning mum use concentrations in the final standard, at Procedures (Mandatory) (d)(3)(ii)(A)-(B), it might be useful to know that you will Appendix C to § 1910.134: OSHA Respirator Medical need to begin with and proceed through section (d) Evaluation Questionnaire (Mandatory) to (d)(1) and (d)(2) (d)(3) and then through (d)(3)(i) to Part A. Section 1. (Mandatory) and so forth. (d)(3)(ii), Part A. Section 2. (Mandatory) Appendix D to § 1910.134: Information for Employees Using Respirators When Not Required Under the Standard (Mandatory) Citation for Assigned Protection Factors and Maximum Use Concentrations, under paragraph (d) Selection of Respirators Name of Section in Standard Citation to the standard Small Entity Compliance Guide (d)(1)-(2) Respirator Selection Employers need to know specific information on: NIOSH Paragraph certification, unknown exposures; workplace factors; user factors, the two major types of respirators; respirators for oxygen deficient, and other IDLH atmospheres. Ta b l e I I : O x y g e n D e f i c i e n t A t m o s p h e r e s , is described in (d)(2). Paragraph When providing respirators, employers must provide respirators Respirators for non-IDLH atmospheres (d)(3)-(d)(3)(i) that are adequate to protect employee health and ensure compliance with all other OSHA requirements under routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations. Paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) Respirators for IDLH atmospheres Employers need to know specific instructions on how to select respirators using Ta b l e I . A s s i g n e d P r o t e c t i o n F a c t o r s . (A) Assigned Protection Factors (APFs) Ta b l e I . A s s i g n e d P r o t e c t i o n F a c t o r s is described in this paragraph. Employers must use the assigned protection factors listed in Table I to select a respirator that meets or exceeds the required level of employee protection. Paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) Respirators for IDLH atmospheres The employee’s exposure must be at or below the MUC when the exposure is measured outside the respirator. Instructions on Maximum Use Concentrations (MUCs) how to select respirators using MUCs, including the limitations of MUCs, are provided. Respirator selection for chemical and Paragraph (d)(3)(ii)-(iv) physical form of contaminant, and other provisions. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 7 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

10 Ta b l e I : In the final Respiratory Protection standard, industry, construction, longshoring, shipyard, and is at the end of section Assigned Protection Factors marine terminal workplaces. A copy of the standard is (d)(3)(iv) . From this example, it is clear that major provided in Attachment 3. provisions, such as those covering APFs and MUCs, are Atmosphere-supplying respirators are used to actually subparagraphs of the larger selection citation provide breathing air from a source independent of the provision for non-IDLH hazards. It is these citations to ambient atmosphere. Respirators that supply breathing the standard that are included in the text of this guide, air are generally used in highly hazardous work as appropriate. environments. It is critical that such respirator systems provide breathing air of optimal quality and that the Respiratory protection equipment equipment operates reliably. Respirators are devices that protect employees from The two types of such equipment are: inhaling harmful substances, including chemical, Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units, • biological, and radiological agents. These substances for which air is supplied from a tank (a cylinder of can be in the form of airborne vapors, gases, dust, fogs, compressed air or oxygen). For this type of respira - fumes, mists, smokes, or sprays. Some respirators also tor, the source of the breathing air is designed to be ensure that employees do not breathe air that contains transported by or with the equipment user. dangerously low levels of oxygen or that is otherwise immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH), (e.g., Supplied-air respirators (SARs) (also known as air • - life-threatening exposures during interior structural line respirators), which receive air from a connecting firefighting.) Respirators may be used to provide hose. The source of air is either a pressurized protection during routine operations where engineering cylinder or an air compressor. Because the controls and work practices are not able to provide employee does not carry the air on his or her back sufficient protection from these hazards, or in when using a SAR, breathing air can be provided emergencies. over a longer time period than is the case with an SCBA. In situations in which employees are exposed to harmful airborne hazards, respirators must “seal off” Examples of atmosphere-supplying respirators with and isolate the user’s respiratory system from the - tight-fitting facepieces and positive pressure character contaminated environment. The risk that a user will istics include: experience an adverse health outcome when relying Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), on respiratory protection is a function of the toxicity or supplied-air respirator (SAR) and full elastomeric hazardous nature of the air contaminants present, the facepiece; concentrations of the contaminants in the air, the Abrasive-blasting SAR in the continuous mode and duration of exposure, and the degree of isolation full elastomeric facepiece; and provided by the respirator. When respirators fail or do not provide the degree of protection expected by Supplied-air respirator (SAR) with an escape bottle the user, the user is placed at an increased risk of any and full elastomeric facepiece. adverse health effects that are associated with exposure Pressure-demand respirators are positive pressure to the respiratory hazards present. Furthermore, the atmosphere-supplying respirators that admit breathing margin for error in IDLH atmospheres is slight or air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is nonexistent because an equipment malfunction or reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation. employee mistake can, without warning, expose the An air-purifying respirator (APR) is a respirator employee to an atmosphere incapable of supporting which removes contaminants from the air. An human life. Such exposure may disable the employee atmosphere-supplying respirator, or Supplied-air and require an immediate rescue if the employee’s life respirator (SAR), is one which provides clean breathing is to be saved. Therefore, it is critical that respirators are air from an uncontaminated source. properly selected and used in compliance with the Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134). Elastomeric facepieces include facepieces made from Natural or Synthetic Rubber (e.g., EPDM); EPDM Respirators provide protection from respiratory is an acronym for a specific type of rubber; that is, hazards only when they are properly selected and used Ethylene propylene diene M-class rubber. Respiratory Protection standard in compliance with the . The final (29 CFR 1910.134 and 29 CFR 1926.103) Respiratory Protection standard applies to general 8 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

11 Examples of an air-purifying respirator and an atmosphere-supplying respirator Air-purifying respirators (APR) Supplied-air respirators (SAR) or Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide remove contaminants from the air clean air from an uncontaminated source Self-contained Breathing Apparatus Half mask filtering facepiece (SCBA) Full facepiece Elastomeric Dust Mask contains more information on respiratory protection OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Standard programs. The Respiratory Protection standard requires employ- When respirators are used during operations where ers to establish and maintain a respiratory protection exposures exceed OSHA’s permissible exposure limit program to protect their respirator-wearing employees. (PEL), use of properly functioning respirators is essen- OSHA revised the original 1971 Respiratory Protection tial to ensure that employees are not placed at signifi- standard in 1998. The new standard incorporates cant risk of material impairment of health. Respiratory scientific principles and technologies that emerged protection is necessary in situations where engineering since 1971. Because of advances in technology, many and administrative controls are insufficient to reduce areas covered by the previous standard had become airborne hazards, in emergencies, in situations in which outdated. engineering and other controls are being installed or The final revision of the Respiratory Protection maintained, in oxygen deficient atmospheres, or for standard is intended to: internal structural firefighting. The final Respiratory Enhance the protection of employee health. • Protection standard establishes the minimum elements of a comprehensive program that are necessary to Promote more effective use of respirators. • ensure effective performance of a respirator. Make it easier for you to comply with its provisions. • - Make it easier to understand the policy and proce • When to use the Respiratory Protection dures you must follow when implementing a respi- Program ratory protection program. Generally, you are required to establish a respiratory Supersede most respiratory provisions in existing • protection program whenever you or OSHA requires standard. your employees to wear respirators. For example, you may need to establish a respiratory protection program: The Respiratory Protection Program If your employees work in situations where the level • A respiratory protection program is a cohesive of oxygen is insufficient or potentially insufficient. collection of written worksite-specific procedures and If your employees are potentially exposed to • policies that, taken together, address all respiratory harmful levels of hazardous gases or vapors. protection elements required by the standard. For If your employees are exposed to other potential • example, a respiratory protection program must respiratory hazards, such as dust, airborne contain specific procedures describing how respirators biological hazards, mists, fumes, sprays, and other will be selected, fitted, used, maintained and inspected airborne particles. in a particular workplace. Section (c) of this guide SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 9 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

12 Yo u n e e d t o s u p p l y e m p l o y e e s w i t h r e s p i r a t o r s Major new provisions and other non-mandatory when all preferred methods of protecting them from changes included in the final standard. breathing contaminated air have been determined to The Respiratory Protection standard has been updated be insufficient to reduce the contamination to non- and now includes the following important new hazardous levels. You must also consider the potential provision: for emergencies, that is, for reasonably foreseeable • Assigned Protection Factors (APFs), Maximum Use emergencies, when evaluating the respiratory hazards Concentrations (MUCs), and APF Table I. in the workplace. These preferred methods include: And other changes: Engineering controls, such as: local or general • New fit test procedures – Controlled Negative • dilution ventilation, change of the work process, Pressure REDON (CNP REDON) isolation or enclosure, or substitution, and • Administrative controls, such as: employee rotation, Assigned Protection Factors (APFs) and Maximum Use or scheduling major maintenance for weekends or Concentrations (MUCs) times when few employees are present. OSHA published the final Respiratory Protection If you have any questions about when to supply standard in January 1998, and reserved the APF your employees with respirators, refer to the copy of provisions, (i.e., the APF and MUC definitions and the the standard in Attachment 3. . The rulemaking on the Ta b l e o f A P F s ) ( 6 3 F R 1 2 0 3 ) reserved APFs of the Respiratory Protection standard was completed on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50122). The Updates to OSHA’s Respiratory Protection rule amends (d)(3)(i)(B) and 29 CFR 1910.134(d)(3)(i)(A) Standard of the Respiratory Protection standard by specifying a In the final Assigned Protection Factor rule, OSHA set of APFs for each class of respirators. The new revised its existing Respiratory Protection standard to provisions for APFs, MUCs, and Table I cover selection add definitions and requirements for Assigned Protec - procedures for respiratory protection. These procedures tion Factors (APFs) and Maximum Use Concentrations are discussed in more detail in the following section on (MUCs). The revisions also supersede the respirator respirator selection. The APFs specify the highest selection provisions of existing substance-specific multiple of a contaminant’s permissible exposure limit standards with these new APFs (except for the respira - (PEL) at which an employee can use a respirator. tor selection provisions of the 1, 3-Butadiene Standard). As part of the final Assigned Protection Factor rule, Te s t P r o c e d u r e s - C o n t r o l l e d N e g a t i v e P r e s s u r e New Fit pertinent provisions of the substance-specific standards REDON (CNP REDON) that were superseded were modified in each individual The 1998 revised Respiratory Protection standard substance-specific standard to make clear where the allowed the development of new fit tests. This provision Respiratory Protection standard is to be followed, Part II of Appendix A of the standard . A is contained in thereby reducing any confusion when referring to those copy of the Respiratory Protection standard is provided substance-specific standards. in this guide under Attachment 3. This provision for The Agency developed the final APFs after new fit test procedures specified, in part, the procedure thoroughly reviewing the available literature, including individuals must follow to submit new fit testing chamber simulation studies and workplace protection protocols for the Agency’s consideration. In compliance factor studies, comments submitted to the record, and with this provision, OSHA has approved and has hearing testimony. The final APFs provide employers adopted an additional quantitative fit testing protocol, with critical information to use when selecting the controlled negative pressure (CNP) REDON fit test- respirators for employees exposed to atmospheric ing protocol, for inclusion in Appendix A of the contaminants found in general industry, construction, Respiratory Protection standard. (69 FR 46986) (See shipyards, longshoring, and marine terminal work- Section (f) of this guide.) places. Proper respirator selection using APFs is an important component of an effective respiratory The benefits of the Respiratory Protection protection program. Accordingly, OSHA concludes that Standard the final APFs are necessary to protect employees who The updated standard now provides: must use respirators to protect them from airborne contaminants. A complete set of definitions that will eliminate • confusion about terminology and how these terms 10 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

13 apply to respirators and their use. (See: Attachment 1 Points of Contact for additional information of this guide (APF Glossary of Definitions); and the For additional assistance in establishing and imple- . definitions under Section (b) of the standard) menting a respiratory protection program, contact the • (See Section (d) of Criteria for selecting respirators. OSHA area office nearest you. If you are unable to this guide.) contact your local OSHA area office, you may contact the appropriate OSHA regional office for information or • General information assistance. A list of OSHA regional offices is at page 118. • Assigned Protection Factors • Ta b l e I : A s s i g n e d P r o t e c t i o n F a c t o r s Section (a): Permissible practice Maximum Use Concentrations • When engineering controls are not feasible, or while When issuing the 1998 rule, OSHA estimated that engineering controls are being put in place, appropriate compliance with the standard would prevent hundreds respirators must be used. of deaths and thousands of illnesses in U.S. workplaces (a)(1) Engineering controls each year (63 FR 1173). The APFs in the final rulemaking help ensure that these benefits are achieved, as well as To p r e v e n t i l l n e s s o r d i s e a s e s c a u s e d b y b r e a t h i n g provide an additional degree of protection. These new hazardous air in the workplace, you must use APFs reduce employee exposures in some instances to engineering controls to the extent feasible to prevent several Section (6)(b)(5) chemicals covered by standards contamination of the workplace atmosphere. When with outdated APF criteria, thereby reducing exposures engineering controls are not feasible, or while to chemicals such as asbestos, lead, cotton dust, and engineering controls are being put in place, appropriate arsenic. While the Agency did not quantify these respirators must be used. benefits, it estimated that thousands of employees How to know if the atmosphere in your workplace is would have a higher degree of respiratory protection hazardous under this APF standard. The Respiratory Protection An atmosphere is hazardous if it does not contain standard has been determined to be economically and sufficient oxygen, or if it contains chemical, biological, technologically feasible for covered industries. or radiological contaminants in sufficient quantity to In addition to health benefits, OSHA believes that harm the health of employees. Section (d) of this guide other benefits result from the harmonization of APF contains information on how to identify and evaluate specifications, thereby making compliance with the respiratory hazards in your workplace. respirator rule easier for employers. Employers no What are engineering and administrative controls? longer have to consult several sources and several OSHA standards to determine the best choice of Engineering controls physically change the work respirator, but can make their choices based on a single, environment to reduce employee exposure to air easily found regulation. In addition to having only one contaminants. Such engineering controls may include: set of numbers (i.e., APFs) to assist them with respirator Change of the work process • selection for nearly all substances, some employers may • Isolation or enclosure of the work process or of be able to streamline their respirator stock by using one employees respirator class to meet their respirator needs instead of several respirator classes. The increased ease of • Local exhaust or general dilution ventilation compliance also yields additional health benefits to • Substitution of less hazardous substances for employees using respirators. harmful materials The revised APFs clarify when employers can safely Administrative controls involve changes in the length place employees in respirators that impose less stress of time or the time of day in which an employee can on the cardiovascular system (e.g., filtering facepiece be exposed. Examples of administrative controls are: respirators). Many of these alternative respirators may Employee • rotation have the additional benefit of being less expensive to purchase and operate. OSHA estimated that over 15,000 • Rescheduling work in area to times when air employees used respirators that fall into this group (i.e., contaminant levels are low employees that may safely shift to a less expensive respirator). SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 11 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

14 What guidance is available on the type of engineering and CHECKLIST FOR PERMISSIBLE PRACTICE administrative controls that may need to be put in place? √ Check all that apply: Potential sources for this type of information include: Hazard Determination • Tr a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s . Is there a hazardous atmosphere in your workplace, • Manufacturers or suppliers of materials or equipment which has (check all that apply): associated with the creation of air contaminants. q Insufficient oxygen Yo u r w o r k e r s ’ c o m p e n s a t i o n i n s u r a n c e c a r r i e r. • Harmful levels of chemical, biological, or q OSHA Consultation Program (See http://www.osha. • radiological contaminants gov/dcsp/smallbusiness/consult.html) for the list of: q Known and reasonably foreseeable emergencies - states with consultation programs related to... - industrial hygiene consultants. q Unknown exposure levels or exposures to substances without an OSHA PEL (a)(2) Providing employees with respirators If you did not check any of the boxes above, the Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e r e s p i r a t o r s w h e n s u c h e q u i p m e n t i s does not apply to Respiratory Protection standard necessary to protect the health of employees. The your workplace. respirator provided must be suitable for its intended If you checked any of the boxes above, the Respira- purpose. When you are required to provide respirators, tory Protection standard - apply to your work may you must establish and maintain a respiratory place. protection program. OSHA requires use of the following methods to con- The requirements for a respiratory protection trol the hazardous atmosphere(s) in your workplace: program are described in Section (c) of this guide. Engineering controls, such as ventilation, isolation q How do I know if the Respiratory Protection standard or enclosure of the work process, or substitution of applies to me? non-hazardous materials for the materials that pose Yo u s h o u l d u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e respiratory hazards; and steps covered in paragraph (a)(1) to determine whether Administrative controls, such as rotation, worker q the Respiratory Protection standard applies to you. or scheduling major maintenance for weekends or For example, information on the type and levels of times when few workers are present. hazardous airborne exposures in your workplace and When engineering controls are not feasible, or on the engineering and administrative controls while engineering controls are being installed or available to you should be used when evaluating the maintained, or whenever there is an emergency, need for a respirator program. be used. must appropriate respirators The vendor who supplies your engineering controls Does your workplace have (check the box to indicate may be able to help you determine whether the controls yes, and check all that apply): will adequately protect your employees from respira- - tory hazards. You must evaluate the level of contami Sufficient engineering controls to prevent illness q nation in your workplace after the engineering controls or diseases caused by breathing hazardous air in the are installed, as explained in Section (d) of this guide. workplace q Sufficient administrative controls to prevent illness How do I know what type of respirator is suitable for protecting the employees’ health? of the boxes above, both If you did not check to does apply the Respiratory Protection standard Proper selection of respiratory protection equipment your workplace, and you must develop a written involves the evaluation of the workplace environment, respiratory protection program that is specific to types of job functions that are performed in the your workplace. workplace, identification of reasonably foreseeable emergencies, employee health conditions, and unique facial characteristics that may affect proper use. Section (d) of this guide provides further information about selecting a suitable respirator. 12 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

15 Additionally, you are required to ensure that certain Is employee rotation acceptable as an interim requirements of the respiratory protection program are administrative control while engineering control - followed by employees who wear a respirator voluntar measures are being developed and implemented? ily (that is, they wear respirators even though respirator Rotation is an acceptable practice for less-toxic use is not required by either you or OSHA). contaminants. It is never permitted for protection against cancer-causing substances. In addition, many (c)(1) Program development and implementation of OSHA’s substance-specific health standards contain Yo u a r e r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p a n d i m p l e m e n t a w r i t t e n ceiling limits that may limit the use of employee respiratory protection program and to update it as rotation. If respirators are also necessary to protect the necessary. health of the employee while engineering controls are being developed, they must be provided. Program Development Yo u m u s t d e v e l o p a w r i t t e n r e s p i r a t o r y p r o t e c t i o n Section (b): Definitions program that includes procedures for the use of respirators in any work area where protection from This section of the Respiratory Protection standard airborne hazards is required. The procedures in your contains definitions of terms used in the text of the program must be specific to your particular workplace. standard. The definitions clarify the requirements of All required elements of the respiratory protection the standard. The definitions from the final Respiratory program must be in writing. Protection standard (63 FR 1152; January 8, 1998), and from the final Assigned Protection Factors standard Why a written program? (71 FR 50122; August 24, 2006), have been combined The program must be in writing because health under Attachment 1 to facilitate ease of use. and safety programs are usually more effectively The terms are contained in paragraph (b) of the implemented and evaluated if the procedures are Respiratory Protection standard. The full text of the final available in a written form for study and review. Also, a standard (63 FR 1152) , with the new definitions and written respiratory protection program is the best way Ta b l e o f A P F v a l u e s (Assigned Protection Factors to ensure that the unique characteristics of the worksite is provided in Attachment 3. standard), 71 FR 50122, are taken into account. Developing the written program encourages you to thoroughly assess and document As OSHA developed this Small Entity Compliance information pertaining to respiratory hazards posed to Guide, the sections were written using the terms from your employees both during normal operating condi- the standard. As you review this document, if you have tions and during reasonably foreseeable emergencies. any questions about a term that is used, you should review the definition of the term in Attachment 1 to Program Content clarify exactly what is being discussed. The terms Yo u a r e r e q u i r e d t o i n c l u d e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and Employee elements (as applicable) in your respiratory protection Exposure are both defined (see Attachment 1 of this program: guide.) PELs are OSHA’s enforceable exposure limit • Selecting appropriate respirators for use in the values and should not be confused with threshold workplace. limit/exposure limit values (TLVs) or recommended exposure limits (RELs). These and other terms from the • Tr a i n i n g e m p l o y e e s i n t h e p r o p e r u s e o f r e s p i r a t o r s APF standard can be found in Attachment 1 of this (including putting them on and removing them), the guide. limitations on their use, and their maintenance. • Providing medical evaluation of employees who Section (c): Respiratory protection must use respirators. program • Fit testing tight-fitting respirators. Whenever respirator use is required by the employer or • Using respirators properly in routine situations as by OSHA, this section of the Respiratory Protection well as in reasonably foreseeable emergencies. standard dictates that the employer must: • Ensuring adequate air supply, quantity, and flow of • Develop a written respiratory protection program breathing air for atmosphere-supplying respirators. with procedures that are specific to your worksite; Establishing and adhering to schedules for cleaning, • • Implement the program and update it as necessary; disinfecting, storing, inspecting, repairing, removing and from service or discarding, and otherwise maintain- • Assign a qualified program administrator to run and ing respirators. evaluate the program. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 13 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

16 • Regularly evaluating the effectiveness of the program. respirator user with the advisory information in of the standard. This appendix provides Appendix D The checklist in this section on establishing a written basic information on the proper use of respirators for respiratory protection program at page 16 provides a employees who are voluntary users of the equipment quick list to use for guidance on the required content of and thus are not required to undergo training. These the respiratory protection program. precautions can be presented to the employee either Program Implementation and Updating verbally or in a written form. (See section (k) of this guide on Training and information.) Once you have established a written program that covers all the required elements that apply to your Applicable components of the respiratory protection workplace, you then must ensure that the program is program appropriately implemented. Implementation of the Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s o f y o u r program must be administered and overseen by your respiratory protection program are implemented for program administrator. voluntary respirator users: Once your program has been implemented you (i) If filtering facepieces are the only respirator being must ensure that it is updated as necessary to reflect worn voluntarily, you are only required to provide the relevant changes in the workplace. That is, you need to Appendix D employee with a copy of and make sure revise the elements of the program that have been that the respirator itself is not creating a hazard, such affected by changes that relate to respiratory hazards as dermatitis from a dirty respirator. in work areas. For example, you need to revise the appropriate sections of your written program if new (ii) Elements of the program that apply to voluntary processes or new chemicals are introduced into the users (using respirators other than filtering facepieces workplace that could impact respirator use. (i.e., dust masks) involve: In addition, if you make any changes in the types • Provisions for medical evaluation of employees. of respirators used or in any of the other elements of • Establishing and adhering to schedules for cleaning, the respiratory protection program, you must make disinfecting, storing, inspecting, repairing, removing appropriate revisions to the written program and from service or discarding, and otherwise maintain- ensure that they are implemented. ing respirators. (c)(2) Where respirator use is not required Implementation of the elements of the program for a voluntary respirator user will ensure that the Voluntary use is when an employee chooses to wear respirator is used properly and does not create a hazard a respirator even though the use of a respirator is not to the user. required by either you or by an OSHA standard. • A dirty respirator could cause dermatitis. What is meant by voluntary use of respirator • A dirty or poorly disinfected respirator could cause equipment? an unnecessary inhalation hazard. Where respirator use is not required, you must ensure that all employees who use a respirator voluntarily • A respirator wearer’s health could be jeopardized are provided with certain basic information on proper due to an undetected medical condition (e.g., respirator use. Additionally, you must ensure that asthma, heart condition.) employees are included in your program provisions for What types of respirators do the voluntary use medical evaluations, and for cleaning, storage, and requirements apply to? maintenance of respirators, as applicable. This requirement applies primarily to tight-fitting Providing basic information to voluntary respirator negative pressure APRs, but would also apply to users powered APRs if an employee elected to voluntarily - Yo u m a y a l l o w a n e m p l o y e e t o u s e a r e s p i r a t o r v o l u n use this type of respirator. tarily if you determine that the respirator itself will not Do I need to have a written respiratory protection present: a hazard to the employee due to misuse; other program if only voluntary users wear respirators at hazards or conditions in the workplace; or a hazard to my facility? an individual employee, based on medical conditions. No, if the only respirators being worn voluntarily are In such cases, you may provide employees with filtering facepieces (dust masks). respirators or allow them to use their own respiratory protection. (See (c)(2) of the standard.) If you allow Ye s , i f o t h e r r e s p i r a t o r s , s u c h a s e l a s t o m e r i c A P R s o r such use of a respirator, you must provide the voluntary powered APRs, are being used voluntarily. In this case, 14 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

17 your written program needs to include only the types of relatively simple respirators, knowledge of this elements that pertain to voluntary users, e.g., a section guide and materials supplied by the manufacturer may on medical evaluations, and one on inspection, care, be sufficient for you, or a designated employee, to and maintenance. serve as the program administrator. When employees choose to voluntarily use respira - If more dangerous substances are present, if the tors in the workplace, you must provide the employee potential for high exposures exists, or if more complex with a copy of the mandatory document found in respirators are used, the program administrator must of the standard. Appendix D have more extensive experience and/or training. In these circumstances, you may need to seek out the Who is responsible for any costs associated with expertise needed or obtain appropriate training. voluntary use of a respirator? Is there a list of approved training courses my program Yo u a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o p a y f o r f i l t e r i n g f a c e p i e c e administrator can attend? respirators used voluntarily by employees. No, OSHA does not provide a training course If the employer determines that any voluntary specifically to train respiratory protection program respi rator use is permissible, the employer must administrators, nor does OSHA require program respirator users with the information provide the administrators to attend a specified course. OSHA contained in Appendix D of the standard (“Information only requires the program administrator to have an for Employees Using Respirators When Not Required adequate level of training or experience to deal with Under the Standard.”) the complexity of the respiratory protection program If you permit the use of respirators other than at the worksite. filtering facepieces, you must pay for required medical Yo u m a y w a n t t o c h e c k w i t h t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s o r evaluations for voluntary users and provide voluntary adult education programs run by universities or techni- users with appropriate facilities and time to clean, cal and vocational schools in your area. The OSHA disinfect, maintain, and store respirators. Consultation Program can help you identify appropriate training courses, or, if you hire a consultant to help you (c)(3) Program administrator with your respiratory protection program, he or she Yo u m u s t d e s i g n a t e a p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o r u n t h e may be able to provide training. program and evaluate its effectiveness. How will OSHA determine that a person is experienced An individual is qualified to be a program and/or trained to be a respiratory protection program administrator if he or she has appropriate training or administrator? experience in accord with the program’s level of Usually, the OSHA compliance officer will review the complexity. This training or experience is appropriate written program and interview the respiratory protec - if it enables the program administrator to fulfill the tion program administrator. Questions asked during the minimum requirements of recognizing, evaluating, and interview are likely to focus on determining how famil- controlling the hazards in your workplace. For example, iar the program administrator is with the OSHA Respi- if your program requires air-supplying respirators for ratory Protection standard and the use and application use in immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) of the respirators at the particular workplace. Significant environments, your program administrator must have deficiencies in the written program also could indicate a training and experience pertaining to the use of this lack of training and understanding of the standard. type of equipment. Similarly, if you do not use air- supplying respirators and do not have significant Only one person can fulfill the primary responsibili- respiratory hazards at your workplace, someone with ties of running the program, unless your company less experience or training might be able to effectively has more than one worksite. In that case, you may serve in this position. have a program administrator for each site. Ordinarily, however, you cannot divide the responsibilities among Ultimately, the appropriate qualifications for your several employees. Requiring an administrator with program administrator must be determined based on sole responsibility helps ensure the integrity of the pro - the particular respiratory hazards that exist, or that are gram by maintaining continuous oversight from one reasonably anticipated, at your workplace. person. Nonetheless, the administrator may rely on How do I, or a designated employee, become a other employees to help run parts of the respiratory qualified program administrator? protection program (e.g., fit testing, medical evaluations). If your workers are exposed only to nuisance dusts and One of the program administrator’s primary respon- relatively low-toxicity materials, and they use only a few sibilities is to evaluate the program. Although OSHA SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 15 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

18 and pay for necessary personal protective equipment CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (such as respirators) used by employees on the job. PROGRAMS Section (d): Respirator selection Does your program contain written procedures for √ This paragraph requires the employer to evaluate (check all that apply): respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace, identify relevant q Yo u r s p e c i f i c w o r k p l a c e workplace and user factors, and base respirator Selecting respirators q selection on these factors. The paragraph also specifies respirators for use in IDLH atmospheres, and limits the q Medical evaluations of employees required to selection and use of air-purifying respirators. wear respirators (d)(1)(i) General guidelines for selection Fit testing q Yo u m u s t b a s e s e l e c t i o n s o f r e s p i r a t o r s o n t h e h a z a r d s q Routine and emergency respirator use to which your employees are exposed and must Schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, q consider how workplace and user factors affect inspecting, repairing, discarding, and maintaining respirator performance and reliability. respirators What are workplace and user factors? q Ensuring adequate air quality for supplied-air Workplace factors refer to the actual workplace facility respirators and its geographic characteristics, among other factors. q Tr a i n i n g i n r e s p i r a t o r y h a z a r d s User factors refer to the distinguishing characteristics of the individual employee. Some examples include the Tr a i n i n g i n p r o p e r u s e a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f q following: respirators • The level of the contaminant in relation to the APF of Program evaluation q available respirators Ensuring that employes who voluntarily wear q • The conditions of the workplace (e.g., size, configu- respirators (excluding filtering facepieces) comply ration, temperature, humidity) of the workspace with the medical evaluation and cleaning, storing and maintenance requirements of the standard - Are employees equipped with atmosphere- supplying respirators able to fit into any tight A designated program administrator who is q space in your workplace? qualified to administer the program - Would the temperature and humidity affect the ef - Updating the written program as necessary to q fectiveness of filters, cartridges, and other respira- account for changes in the workplace affecting tor parts, as well as the comfort of the wearer? respirator use Ease of employee communication • q Providing equipment, training and medical evaluations at no cost to employees - Are your employees wearing respirators able to communicate with one another and warn one If you did not check all of the boxes above, your another of hazards? meet OSHA respiratory protection program does not standards. Ease or difficulty of the work or rate of activity • - Are your employees doing heavy lifting that recognizes the value of an objective assessment, the may deplete the air supply of a self-contained Agency did not want to burden small businesses with breathing apparatus (SCBA)? the cost of arranging for an outside party to conduct - Would a fast work pace lead to discomfort, the evaluations, and the standard, therefore, allows causing the employee to move the respirator program administrators to perform the program and, thus, affect the protection afforded by the evaluations required under the standard. respirator? (c)(4) Employer-provided respirators • The type of workplace tasks and proximity to the source of contamination (e.g., cutting wood on a Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e r e s p i r a t o r s , t r a i n i n g , a n d m e d i c a l band saw would differ from hand polishing a wood evaluations at no cost to employees who are required veneer on furniture.) to wear a respirator for protection from respiratory hazards at your workplace. This requirement reflects - Would hospital emergency medical staff be close the philosophy that employers are obligated to provide to infectious clients? 16 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

19 • The location and movement of other personnel and are tiny droplets of liquid suspended in the air. Mists equipment Oil mists can be produced from lubricants used in - metal-cutting operations, acid mists from electroplat - Would the mobility of your employees or the ing, and paint-spray mist from spraying operations. presence of moving machinery entangle the airlines of atmosphere-supplying respirators? Gases are materials that exist as individual molecules in the air at room temperature. Examples are welding (d)(1)(ii) Selected respirator must be certified by gases, such as acetylene and nitrogen, and carbon the National Institute for Occupational Safety and monoxide produced from internal combustion engines. Health (NIOSH) are the gaseous form of substances that are Va p o r s All respirators must be certified by NIOSH and used in normally in the solid or liquid state at room tempera - compliance with the conditions of certification. ture and pressure. They are formed by evaporation. Most solvents produce vapors. Examples include (d)(1)(iii) Employers need to identify and evaluate toluene and methylene chloride. worksite hazards • Identify the respiratory hazards to which your Suggestions for Measuring or Making “Reasonable” employees are exposed and evaluate these hazards. Estimates of Employee Exposures Determine the state and physical form of the • • Personal monitoring is the most accurate way of ob- respiratory hazard. taining employee exposure information. Sampling equipment and analytical methods are available for - Are they solids, liquids, or gases? substances regulated by OSHA’s Air Contaminants - Are they particulate, radioactive or chemical standard (29 CFR 1910.1000 and 29 CFR 1926.55). substances? OSHA has specific monitoring requirements for its • Estimate or measure employee exposures to the substance-specific standards (e.g., benzene or as- hazards. bestos). See subpart Z of 29 CFR parts 1910 and 1926, for OSHA’s substance-specific standards. Assume IDLH atmospheres if unable to estimate an • employee’s exposure. • If there is no specific monitoring requirement, you can also estimate exposures by monitoring fixed Potential Respiratory Hazards: locations or by sampling for short time periods. If Listed below are potential respiratory hazards: you do this, you should measure under worst-case - conditions to be sure that you are providing ade Dusts and fibers are solid particles dispersed into the quate protection for your employees. For example, workplace atmosphere through mechanical processes even though employees generally move about and such as crushing, grinding, drilling, abrading, blasting, do not spend most of their work shift near the shaking or physiological processes such as coughing, source of emissions, if you select a respirator based sneezing. Examples include: silica, metal dust in on a reading obtained from a fixed sample collected baghouses, and asbestos. Once an employee’s hands close to the source of the emission, the respirator and garments, boots, and respirators are contaminated selected is more likely to provide adequate with lead or asbestos, other employees can also be employee protection. Similarly, although process exposed just by handling, or shaking, the contaminated emissions under non-peak conditions will obviously equipment. be less than at peak conditions, a respirator selected Biological hazards include living organisms such as on the basis of a reading obtained from a spot sam - bacteria (e.g., Legionella pneumophila which causes ple taken when the emissions are highest (when the Legionnaires’ Disease), viruses (e.g., coronavirus which process is operating at peak conditions) is more causes severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), likely to provide sufficient protection. fungi, and other organisms, as well as dead organisms • Data may be available from previous exposure or parts of organisms. Examples of the latter include measurements. For example, studies may have ground parts of plants (e.g., flour) and parts of animals been conducted in your industry. Your trade (e.g., dead skin cells/dander). association may have data, or manufacturers of are solid particles that are formed when a metal Fumes products or materials used in your workplace may or other solid vaporizes and the molecules condense (or have conducted laboratory tests that provide solidify) in cool air. Examples are metal fumes from employee exposure data. To generalize from data smelting or welding. Fumes also may be formed from obtained from these sources or an industry-wide processes such as plastic injection or extrusion molding. survey, however, you must show that the conditions SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 17 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

20 that existed in the survey, such as the processes, (d)(2) Respirators for IDLH atmospheres types of materials, control methods, work practices, (d)(2)(i) Ty p e s o f r e s p i r a t o r s and environmental conditions, are similar to those in your own workplace. Atmospheres that are immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) require the highest level of respiratory • Yo u s h o u l d b e a w a r e t h a t e x p o s u r e s c a n b e q u i t e protection and reliability. You must provide either of the variable from day to day and from employee to following for use in IDLH environments: employee. It is, therefore, important always to err on the side of over- rather than under-protection. - Full-facepiece pressure-demand SCBAs that are cer • tified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of 30 • Yo u m a y w i s h t o c o n s u l t w i t h h e a l t h a n d s a f e t y minutes. professionals in evaluating exposures. However, consultation is not mandatory. The respiratory Combination full-facepiece pressure-demand sup - • protection program administrator should have the plied-air respirators with auxiliary self-contained air - necessary qualifications. You can often obtain assis supply. tance through the OSHA Consultation Program. A - (d)(2)(ii) Respirators for escape from IDLH atmos list of Consultation Programs is included under pheres must be NIOSH-certified for escape from the Attachment 2. An additional source of assistance atmosphere in which they will be used might be your insurance carrier. For example, for formaldehyde exposures, escape Yo u m a y b e a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e , t h r o u g h i n f o r m a • - respirators may be full-facepiece with chin style, front, tion on processes and reasonable assumptions or back-mounted industrial-size canister approved for about potential maximum use concentrations protection against formaldehyde (29 CFR 1910.1048 at: (MUCs), that IDLH conditions would not occur. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_ Under such a scenario, after a thorough review of document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10075). relevant information, you may be able to place values on the unknown exposures. That is, you (d)(2)(iii) You must consider all oxygen deficient may be able to reduce, delineate, or eliminate the atmospheres to be IDLH unknown exposures. After review of all available Atmosphere-supplying respirators must be used in material, you need to make reasonable assumptions oxygen deficient atmospheres (where oxygen is less and develop conservative estimates. The material than 19.5%). Employers must provide employees with you used and the assumptions and findings you full-facepiece pressure demand SCBAs or combination relied upon in place of a measurement of an full-facepiece pressure demand supplied-air respirators employee’s exposures should be in your written with auxiliary self-contained air supply. There is an - program. If new materials and sources of informa exception that applies to well-controlled atmospheres, tion are generated or conditions or processes or where the reason for the oxygen levels being reduced types of materials used in your processes change, or below 19.5% is known and the reduced oxygen level if new cases of airborne illness occur, you need to - is stable and not changing. (You may use any atmos review and possibly update your written program. phere-supplying respirator if you can demonstrate that, If you do not know your employees’ exposure levels under all reasonably foreseeable conditions, the oxygen concentration in the work area can be maintained - Yo u m u s t c o n s i d e r t h e w o r k s i t e a t m o s p h e r e I m m e d i within the ranges specified in Ta b l e I I o f 2 9 C F R ately Dangerous to Life or Health, (IDLH), and select 1910.134.) (See also Table II.) respirators on that basis. IDLH means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause Work operations being conducted in well-controlled irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an atmospheres where oxygen levels are deficient (below individual’s ability to escape from a dangerous 19.5 percent) are typically permit-required confined . (29 CFR 1910.134, paragraph d) atmosphere See OSHA’s Permit-Required Confined Space spaces. ( http://www.osha.gov/ standard, 29 CFR 1910.146 at: (d)(1)(iv) Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r o f pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= respirators to correctly fit the user STANDARDS&p_id=9797.) A sufficient number of respirator models and sizes must (d)(3) Respirators for non-IDLH atmospheres be available to employees so that they can find the respirator that is acceptable to, and correctly fits, them. (d)(3)(i) Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e r e s p i r a t o r s t h a t a r e adequate to protect employee health and ensure 18 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

21 air-purifying filter), employers must ensure that the APF compliance with all other OSHA requirements under is appropriate to the mode of operation in which the routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency respirator is being used. situations A copy of the new APF table is provided below, at page The General Duty Clause of the OSH Act requires you to Ta b l e I 24, in section (d) of this guide. Footnote 4 of protect your employees from all hazardous substances, - relates to the testing of Powered Air-Purifying Respira even those not regulated by OSHA. Consult the Mate- tors (PAPRs) and Supplied-air Respirators (SAR) with rial Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) sent by your supplier if helmets or hoods to demonstrate that these respirators you have questions about the toxicity of a particular can perform at the higher APF of 1,000 instead of the substance. For further assistance in ascertaining overall APF of 25 for this class. As a result of OSHA’s whether substances used in your workplace that are not rulemaking, the 25/1000 APF is given to some hood/ regulated by OSHA are hazardous, you may contact helmet PAPRs and supplied-air respirators (SARs). See list of OSHA Offices at page 118. OSHA. ( ) Other OSHA regulations that might apply include the Air Contaminants standard, 29 CFR 1910.1000, the Yo u m u s t s e l e c t r e s p i r a t o r s a f t e r (d)(3)(i)(B) substance-specific standards, appropriate safety considering the Maximum Use Concentrations in regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Operations your workplace under which respirators are used and Emergency Response standard, 29 CFR 1910.120, Maximum use concentration (MUC) means the paragraph (g)(2), and many construction and maritime maximum atmospheric concentration of a hazardous standards. substance from which an employee can be expected What is a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)? to be protected when wearing a respirator, and is determined by the assigned protection factor of the Employee exposure means exposure to a concentration respirator or class of respirators and the exposure limit of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the of the hazardous substance. The MUC usually can be employee were not using respiratory protection. OSHA determined mathematically by multiplying the assigned permissible exposure limits (PELs) establish the protection factor specified for a respirator by the maximum level of a specific airborne hazard that an permissible exposure limit, short-term exposure limit, employee can be exposed to, averaged over an 8-hour ceiling limit, peak limit, or any other exposure limit workday (8-hour time-weighted average, or TWA) or used for the hazardous substance. Basically, under the over a specified portion of a workday (e.g., a 15-minute MUC, employers must: (1) select a respirator for short-term exposure limit, or STEL). Likewise, the action employee use that maintains the employee’s exposure level (AL), which is one-half the PEL, is calculated in the to the hazardous substance, when measured outside same manner as the PEL, and is the level at or above the respirator, at or below the MUC; (2) not apply MUCs which provisions of substance-specific standards can to conditions that are immediately dangerous to life or be triggered. (PELs are listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000, and health (IDLH); instead, they must use respirators listed 1926.55. See also the substance-specific standards paragraph (d)(2) of the Respira- for IDLH conditions in for general industry, maritime, longshoring, and tory Protection standard; and, (3) set the maximum .) construction MUC at that lower limit when the calculated MUC Yo u m u s t s e l e c t r e s p i r a t o r s a c c o r d i n g t o (d)(3)(i)(A) exceeds the IDLH level for a hazardous substance, or Assigned Protection Factors (APF) the performance limits of the cartridge or canister. Selection of respirators must be made in accordance How to use APFs and MUCs with the assigned protection factor (APF) of the - APFs are used to select the appropriate class of respira respirator, as well as the workplace and exposure tors that will provide the necessary level of protection factors. ( ) See final APF standard; 71 FR 50122. under routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency APF means the workplace level of respiratory protec- situations. The airborne hazardous exposure can be tion that a respirator or class of respirators is expected from a particulate or a gas or vapor. The APF for the to provide to employees when the employer imple- class of respirators will remain the same. The APF value ments a continuing, effective respiratory protection can only be applied to a class of respirators when the . 29 CFR 1910.134 program as specified by - respirators are properly selected and used in compli ance with the Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR Employers must use the APFs listed in Table I, at page - 1910.134). Also, for gases and vapors, additional car 24, to select a respirator that meets or exceeds the see paragraph tridges and canisters may by needed. ( required level of employee protection. When using a (d)(3)(iii); see change schedules of this guide.) combination respirator (e.g., airline respirators with an SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 19 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

22 OSHA PELs (permissible exposure limits) establish the Yo u m u s t s e l e c t r e s p i r a t o r s t h a t a r e (d)(3)(ii) maximum level of a specific airborne hazard that an appropriate for the chemical state and physical employee can be exposed to, averaged over an 8-hour form of the contaminant workday (8-hour time-weighted average, or TWA) or Yo u n e e d d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f i l t e r s , c a r t r i d g e s , a n d over a specified portion of a workday (for example, a canisters depending on whether dusts, fumes, mists, 15-minute short-term exposure limit, or STEL). (PELs vapors, or gases are present in your workplace and are listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000, and 1926.55. Also see depending on the kinds and concentrations of sub- the substance-specific standards for general industry stances present. (See paragraph (d)(1)(iii).) and construction.) Respiratory protection for gases and (d)(3)(iii) The MUC for respirators is calculated by multiplying the vapors APF for the respirator by the PEL. The MUC is the upper exposure limit at which the class of respirator is For protection against gases and vapors, employers expected to provide protection. Whenever the expo- must provide: sures approach the MUC, then the employer should A. an atmosphere-supplying respirator, or consider selecting the next higher class of respirators B. an air-purifying respirator that: for the employees. 1) has an NIOSH-certified end-of-service-life indica- MUCs for mixtures must satisfy the following equation: tor (ESLI), or ) +...(C + C divided by L divided by L divided = (C E 2 2 1 n m 1 2) if there is no ESLI, employers must calculate the ) by L n service life of canisters and cartridges for employees Where: who are wearing respirators. is the equivalent exposure for the mixture E m Yo u d o n o t w a n t t o h a v e s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e t h e C is the concentration of a particulate contaminant canisters or cartridges become saturated and the gases L is the exposure limit for that substance or vapors break through, allowing the contaminants shall not exceed unity (1). The value of E m to get inside the respirator and into your workers’ There are exceptions to this equation, or situations breathing zones. in which it is inappropriate to use this equation. What is an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI)? Examples of such situations are: An ESLI is a mechanism for warning the user that a Whenever an APF=10 times the PEL puts the • respirator is approaching the end of its ability to employee into an IDLH atmosphere or puts them provide protection. The warning appears on the into a lower explosive limit (LEL) situation, then a cartridge itself. For example, after a period of use, an negative pressure respirator must not be used. indicator on a cartridge with sorbent material will signal • OSHA does not allow negative pressure respirators that protection against organic vapors is approaching to be used for methylene chloride (except for saturation or is no longer effective. (The ESLI for a emergency escape), so if employees are exposed carbon-monoxide canister involves a color change above the PEL they are already in violation of the when the sorbent material is exhausted.) methylene chloride standard [(29 CFR 1910.1052(g)(2) The final standard requires the use of ESLIs where they rather than 1910.134(d)(3)(B)]. Using the MUC - are available and appropriate for the employer’s work calculation for a half facepiece negative pressure place, whether or not warning properties exist for a respirator used for MeCl would be an example an contaminant. If there is no ESLI available, the employer inappropriate use of the MUC. is required to develop a cartridge/canister change For a mixture of toluene and xylene, a half facepiece • schedule based on available information and data that respirator should be allowed to be used in a mixture describe the service life of the sorbent elements against situation as long as C1/L1 + C2/L2 was less than E the contaminant present in the employer’s workplace times the APF (10), e.g., 300ppm Toluene /100ppm and that will ensure that sorbent elements are replaced PEL + 650ppm Xylene/100ppm PEL = 9.5, so the before they are exhausted. Reliance on odor thresholds respirator could be used “according to the MUC and other warning properties is not permitted in the calculation.” However, this concentration would be final rule as the sole basis for determining that an air- extremely irritating to the eyes, and a full facepiece purifying respirator will afford adequate protection would be more appropriate. against exposure to gas and vapor contaminants. To t h e e x t e n t t h a t N I O S H - c e r t i f i e d e n d o f - s e r v i c e - l i f e indicators are available, OSHA finds that there are 20 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

23 considerable benefits to their use. Thus far, however, q Te m p e r a t u r e , h u m i d i t y a n d a i r f l o w t h r o u g h t h e NIOSH has only certified ESLIs for a few cartridges or cartridge or canister. - canisters (for example, mercury vapor, carbon monox q Employees’ work rates. ide, ethylene oxide and hydrogen sulfide). Therefore, employers are more likely to have to establish change The presence of other potentially interfering q schedules to ensure that cartridges and canisters are substances. changed before their end-of-service-life. Yo u s h o u l d a s s u m e w o r s t - c a s e c o n d i t i o n s t o a v o i d Why not just rely on the worker’s ability to detect the breakthrough earlier than anticipated. odor of the substance when the gas or vapor breaks Yo u s h o u l d d o c u m e n t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l i e d u p o n through? and the basis for the change schedules you use in your Yo u m a y n o t r e l y o n t h e d e t e c t i o n o f o d o r a s p r o t e c t i o n written respiratory protection program. against respiratory hazards posed by gases and vapors Where can I get help for developing change schedules? because: Yo u n e e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h y o u r r e s p i r a t o r s u p p l i e r o r • Most toxic substances do not have appropriate manufacturer for guidance on developing change sensory (odor or irritant) warning properties. schedules specific to your work conditions. Some • Some chemicals have odors that are only detectable suppliers have prepared materials that may assist you above their established exposure limits, meaning with developing change schedules for your worksite. that the employees will smell the chemical only after Other possible sources of help include your trade they have already been exposed to unsafe levels of - associations, which may be gathering published infor the contaminant. mation, such as breakthrough test data (i.e., how long it An individual’s ability to perceive particular odors • takes a substance to break through the cartridge or can- may differ quite markedly from the population ister and get into the facepiece). There is a model (the average due to any of a variety of innate, chronic, or MultiVapor model) for estimating cartridge and canister acute physiological conditions. For example, about breakthrough periods for gases and/or vapors. The 10 percent of people have a markedly impaired See information software is available from NIOSH. ( sense of smell. from NIOSH on the MultiVapor model at Attachment 5 in this guide. ) There is no good screening mechanism to identify • persons with sensory-receptor problems. Furthermore, a specific rule of thumb also will help Continuing exposure to the odor usually results in employers determine cartridge and canister schedules. diminution or even disappearance of the smell These are as follows: sensation. This phenomenon is known as olfactory fatigue. When this happens, the employee unknow- Thumb Rule of ingly gets used to the contaminant breaking through Experimental work can allow for a generalization the cartridge/canister and loses the ability to detect or “rule of thumb” that broadly covers service life of its smell. cartridges exposed to chemicals. One such Rule of What must be considered when developing change Thumb for estimating vapor cartridge service life schedules? is found in chapter 36 of the American Industrial Hygiene Association publication “The Occupational Employers must develop cartridge-change schedules Environment – Its Evaluation and Control.” based on available data or information that can be relied upon to ensure that cartridges are changed before the end of their useful service life. It suggests that: - Yo u n e e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s i n d e v e l o p If the chemical’s boiling point is > 70° C and • ing change schedules: the concentration is less than 200 ppm you can expect a service life of 8 hours at a normal work The contaminants the respirator is to protect q rate. against. • Service life is inversely proportional to work rate. The concentrations of contaminants in the work q • Reducing concentration by a factor of 10 will area. increase service life by a factor of 5. Frequency of use (e.g., is the respirator used q continuously or intermittently throughout the shift); SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 21 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

24 as high efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), or • Humidity above 85% will reduce service life by - filters certified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84. 50%. • Air-purifying respirators with any filter certified for These generalizations can be used in concert with particulates by NIOSH for protection against other methods of predicting service life for specific contaminants consisting primarily of particles with contaminants. mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of at least two micrometers (μm). Whenever a cartridge has become saturated or a Local OSHA offices can help to determine whether contaminant has broken through the cartridge, the or not contaminants in your workplace consist primarily respirator must be taken out of service so that the of particles of two micrometers or more. cartridge can be replaced. What types of particulate filters are available for air- In general, The MultiVapor model (Attachment 5) purifying respirators (APRs)? and The Rule of Thumb can be used to calculate the Particulate-removing filters are used to protect employ- service life of a respirator cartridge or canister, when ees from toxic dusts and fibers, such as lead and the calculations are made using information about the asbestos, fumes, mists, and radioactive and biological canisters or cartridges themselves in combination with materials (such as grain dusts, bacteria, and viruses). additional information about the workplace conditions. Powered and non-powered APRs require different The information about the canisters or cartridges may particulate filters. Appropriate protection against partic - be obtained from the respirator manufacturers. Calcula- ulates for powered APRs is provided by HEPA filters. tions for either the MultiVapor model or the Rule of Thumb require information about the workplace, as There are nine filter types for use with non-powered well. The Rule of Thumb provides a rough estimate APRs approved by NIOSH, and they are based on three of the service life. Attachment 5 is a NIOSH table of levels of filter efficiency and three levels of resistance to cartridges and canisters by APFs that may provide degradation by oil. The three levels of filter efficiency assistance as well. are 95, 99, and 99.97 percent and are referred to as 95, 99 and 100 filters, respectively. The efficiency of a filter (d)(3)(iv) Respiratory protection for particulates is based upon the percent of the most penetrating size What are my options for protection against particle (0.3 micrometers in diameter) that it can particulates? exclude (e.g., a 95 filter can exclude 95% of particles of this size). Yo u h a v e t h r e e o p t i o n s : The three levels of oil resistance are N (not oil • Atmosphere-supplying respirators. resistant), R (oil resistant) and P (oilproof). The most Air-purifying respirators (including filtering face - • common commercially available cartridges are the pieces) “N95” (not oil resistant and 95 percent efficient) and - with filters certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 “P100” (oilproof and 99.97 percent efficient). N-series Somewhat Percentage (%) of Particulate Strongly Not resistant Respirator ne to oil resistant to oil resistant to oil 0.3 μm airbor Filter Type particles filtered out (oilproof) N95 95 X N99 99 X N100 99.97 X R95 X 95 R99 99 X R100 99.97 X P95 95 X P99 99 X 99.97 X P100 The P100 is comparable to the HEPA filter that is used with PAPRs. 22 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

25 filters are not required to demonstrate resistance to the • Yo u c a n a l s o c o n t a c t t h e A m e r i c a n I n d u s t r i a l Hygiene Association (AIHA), 2700 Prosperity Ave., potentially “degrading” effects of oils and are, there- Suite 250, Fairfax, Virginia, 22031, for advice and fore, not intended for use in workplace atmospheres information on exposure measurement and estima- that contain oily aerosols. In this context, “degrading” tion. Members of AIHA’s Exposure Assessment - means that exposure to an agent may cause an in Strategies Committee are knowledgeable in crease in filter penetration measured under laboratory worker exposure measurement and estimation. test conditions. R and P series filters must demonstrate ) ( See: http://www.aiha.org/Content. oil resistance when tested with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), • The National Library of Medicine provides free which is described as a “highly degrading” oil aerosol. online help about chemical hazards. Through TOXNET, located at: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov, you As a result, both R and P filters can be used in work- can search a number of databases on toxicology, place atmospheres that contain oily aerosols, as well as - hazardous chemicals, hazardous biological atmos those that do not. pheres, and other related subjects for information The nine different types of particulate respirator on respiratory hazards. filter types are listed in the table on page 22. CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATOR SELECTION Do I need to use particulate filters with ESLI? √ Check that the following has been done at your facility: There are no ESLI for particulate-removing filters. Work - ers should be trained to change the filters when they Respiratory hazards in your workplace have been q experience difficulty breathing through the filter. This is identified and evaluated. usually an indication that the filter has become loaded q Employee exposures that have not been, or with particulate. cannot be, evaluated must be considered IDLH. q Respirators are NIOSH-certified, and used under Where can I go for help? the conditions of certification. Sources of help include: q Respirators are selected based on the workplace NIOSH Respirator Selection Logic. U.S. Department • hazards evaluated and workplace and user factors of Health and Human Services, Public Health Serv- affecting respirator performance and reliability. ice, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute q Respirators are selected based on the APFs and for Occupational Safety and Health. Request DHHS calculated MUCs. (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-100. NIOSH also has q A sufficient number of respirator sizes and models a help line. The telephone number is 1-800-35 are provided for selection purposes. NIOSH or http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005- 100/default.html For IDLH atmospheres: • American National Standard for Respiratory Full facepiece pressure demand SARs with q Protection (ANSI Z88.2). American National auxiliary SCBA unit or full facepiece pressure Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, demand SCBAs, with a minimum service life of New York, 10036. See: global.ihs.ANSI Z88.2 30 minutes, are provided. • Respirator manufacturers provide advice through Respirators used for escape only are NIOSH- q product literature, sales staff, and telephone help certified for the atmosphere in which they will lines. The Industrial Safety Equipment Association be used. (ISEA) has contact information. ISEA can be reached at: 1901 N. Moore Street, Suite 808, q Oxygen deficient atmospheres must be Arlington, Virginia, 22209, or (703) 525-1695. considered IDLH (d)(2)(B)(iii). • Chemical manufacturers may provide information For Non-IDLH atmospheres: on the nature and properties of substances to which your employees may be exposed. You q Respirators selected are appropriate for the APFs should be able to obtain information from the and MUCs. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) provided by q Respirators selected are appropriate for the the supplier of the substance. chemical nature and physical form of the • Yo u c a n c o n t a c t t h e A m e r i c a n C o n f e r e n c e o f contaminant. Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 6500 Air-purifying respirators used for protection q Glenway Ave., Bldg. D-7, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45211- against gases and vapors are equipped with ESLIs 4438, for advice and information on exposure or a change schedule has been implemented. measurement and estimation and other related industrial hygiene subjects. ACGIH has published q Air-purifying respirators used for protection the ACGIH Ventilation Manual, which contains against particulates are equipped with NIOSH- calculations applied to certain situations to estimate certified HEPA filters or other filters certified by employee exposures. NIOSH for particulates under 42 CFR part 84. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 23 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

26 5 Ta b l e I : A s s i g n e d P r o t e c t i o n F a c t o r s 1, 2 Half Mask Full Facepiece Helmet/Hood Loose-Fitting Facepiece Ty p e o f R e s p i r a t o r Quarter Mask 3 5 10 1. Air-Purifying Respirator 50 — — 4 Powered Air-Purifying — 50 2. 25/1,000 1,000 25 Respirator (PAPR) 3. Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) or Airline Respirator — Demand mode — 10 50 — • 4 • Continuous flow mode — 50 1,000 25/1,000 25 • — — Pressure-demand or — 50 1,000 other positive pressure mode 4. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) • Demand mode — 10 50 50 — • Pressure-demand or — — 10,000 10,000 — other positive pressure mode (e.g., open/closed circuit) Notes: 1 Employers may select respirators assigned for use in higher workplace concentrations of a hazardous substance for use at lower concentrations of that substance, or when required respirator use is independent of concentration. 2 The assigned protection factors in Table I are only effective when the employer implements a continuing, effective respirator program as required by this section (29 CFR 1910.134), including training, fit testing, maintenance, and use requirements. 3 This APF category includes filtering facepieces, and half masks with elastomeric facepieces. 4 The employer must have evidence provided by the respirator manufacturer that testing of these respirators demon - strates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater to receive an APF of 1,000. This level of performance can best be demonstrated by performing a WPF or SWPF study or equivalent testing. Absent such testing, all other PAPRs and SARs with helmets/hoods are to be treated as loose-fitting facepiece respirators, and receive an APF of 25. 5 These APFs do not apply to respirators used solely for escape. For escape respirators used in association with specific substances covered by 29 CFR 1910 subpart Z, employers must refer to the appropriate substance-specific standards in that subpart. Escape respirators for other IDLH atmospheres are specified by 29 CFR 1910.134(d)(2)(ii). 24 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

27 Air-purifying respirators Air-purifying respirators, which remove contaminants from the air. Original Illustrations created by Attiliis & Associates Half mask Filtering Facepiece Full Facepiece Elastomeric Respirator Half mask Elastomeric Respirator Dust mask APF=50 APF=10 APF=10 Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested Tight-Fitting Full Facepiece Tight-Fitting Half Facepiece Powered Air-Purifying Respirator Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) (PAPR) APF=1,000 APF=50 Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 25 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

28 Examples of Air-purifying respirators that can not be fit tested because they are loose-fitting Loose-Fitting Powered Hooded Powered Air-Purifying Air-Purifying Respirator Respirator (PAPR) (PAPR) APF=25 APF=25 (1,000)* Atmosphere-supplying respirators Atmosphere-supplying respirators, which provide clean air from an uncontaminated source Tight-fitting Atmosphere-Supplying Tight-fitting Self-Contained Tight-fitting Abrasive Blasting Respirator with an auxiliary escape Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Respirator Continuous flow bottle pressure-demand mode APF=25/1,000* APF=10,000 in escape mode only; APF=10,000 SAR Full Facepiece otherwise APF=1,000 Demand mode Needs to be fit tested** APF=50 Full facepiece Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested * APF=25/1,000; Footnote 4 in the APF Table. ** One type of SAR Hood (not depicted) is a SAR with a loose hood; a loose-fitting SAR Hood looks much like this example, but without the tight-fitting facepiece, and does not need to be fit tested. For a loose-fitting facepiece SAR Hood the APF=25 unless the respirator qualifies for a higher APF under Footnote 4. 26 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

29 evaluated for the use of a respirator, he or she cannot Ta b l e I I : O x y g e n D e f i c i e n t A t m o s p h e r e s be assigned to a job that requires a respirator. Altitude (ft) Oxygen deficient atmospheres When do I need to provide an employee with a medical ) for which the employer (% O 2 evaluation? may rely on any atmosphere- supplying respirator before The medical evaluation must be provided the employee is fit tested and uses the respirator in your 16.0-19.5 Less than 3001 workplace for the first time. 3001-4000 16.4-19.5 Are medical evaluations required for all types of 4001-5000 17.1-19.5 respirators? 5001-6000 17.8-19.5 Medical evaluations are required for both positive 6001-7000 18.5-19.5 pressure and negative pressure respirators. When 1 elastomeric or supplied-air respirators are worn 19.3-19.5 7001-8000 voluntarily by employees (not required by you or 1 Above 8,000 feet the exception does not apply. Oxygen-enriched OSHA), you must ensure that the employees are breathing air must be supplied above 14,000 feet. medically able to wear the respirators and that they are provided with the necessary information as required in Section (e): Medical evaluation standard . ( See Attachment 2 at page 61. the ) The procedures for making this medical determination must This section of the Respiratory Protection standard be part of your written respiratory protection program. requires employers to implement medical evaluations When your employees voluntarily wear dust masks to determine an employee’s ability to use a respirator. (filtering facepiece respirators), no medical examination This requirement is necessary because using a is required. respirator may place a burden on an employee’s health. This burden varies according to a number of factors, Do I need to provide medical evaluations for seasonal such as the weight and breathing resistance of the and temporary employees? respirator and the workplace conditions under which If seasonal or temporary employees are required to the respirator is worn. wear a respirator, you must provide them with medical Examples of some medical conditions that may be evaluations. The frequency or length of an employee’s associated with sudden incapacitation, or may interfere term of employment does not affect the requirement with safe use of a respirator or specific type of for medical evaluations. respirator, include: (e)(2) Medical evaluation procedures • Cardiovascular and respiratory disease, such as high blood pressure, angina, asthma, chronic bronchitis, This portion of the standard specifies that the medical or emphysema. evaluation can be performed by using the mandatory portions of the medical questionnaire found in Cardiovascular damage caused by heart attack or • of the Respiratory Protection standard. Appendix C stroke. The mandatory portions of this Appendix in the final Reduced lung function caused by factors such as • standard are under: smoking or prior exposure to respiratory hazards. Appendix C to § 1910.134: OSHA Respirator Medical Neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. • Evaluation Questionnaire (Mandatory) Musculoskeletal disorders, such as lower back pain. • Appendix C - Part A. Section 1. (Mandatory) - every Psychological conditions, such as claustrophobia • employee who has been selected to use any type of and severe anxiety. respirator must answer all 12 questions. some medical This list provides examples of only Appendix C - Part A. Section 2. (Mandatory) - Questions may conditions that interfere with safe use of a respira- 1 through 9 must be answered by every employee tor, or specific type of respirator. In addition, certain who has been selected to use any type of respirator. medications may interfere with safe use of a respirator. Questions 10 to 15 must also be answered by every employee who has been selected to use either a full- (e)(1) Employer provided medical evaluations facepiece respirator or a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). For employees who have been The employer must provide an employee with a selected to use other types of respirators, answering medical evaluation to determine his or her ability to use questions 10 - 15 is optional. a respirator. If an employee refuses to be medically SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 27 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

30 All medical evaluations can be performed using the The Medical Questionnaire: The medical question- medical questionnaire of the standard, in Appendix C , naire is designed to identify general medical conditions or by a medical examination that obtains the same that could place employees who use respirators at risk information as the medical questionnaire. of serious medical consequences. If you choose to use the medical questionnaire to conduct the medical Question number 1 in Part A. Section 1 , and question evaluation, you must use the questionnaire contained collect personal historic number 9 in Part A. Section 2 in Appendix C to § 1910.134: OSHA Respirator data. of Medical Evaluation Questionnaire (Mandatory) If an employee gives a positive answer to question the Respiratory Protection standard. A copy of the , the employer must allow number 9 in Part A. Section 2 standard is in Attachment 3 of this guide. the employee to contact the physician or other licensed Yo u m a y c h o o s e t o u s e m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s i n healthcare professional (PLHCP). place of the questionnaire, but you are not required to There is a non-mandatory section of the medical do so. Although the questionnaire does not have to be of the standard. Part B of Appendix C questionnaire, administered during the medical examination, the PLHCP must obtain the same information from the Identification of a Medical Professional employee that is contained in the questionnaire. Employers must identify a physician or another (e)(3) Follow-up medical examinations licensed health care professional (PLHCP) to perform the medical evaluations. Employers must provide follow-up examinations for employees who give positive answers to any of the Who can perform a medical evaluation? 1 through 8 in Part A. Section 2, questions numbered Physicians are not the only health care professionals Appendix C to § 1910.134. Employees who will be allowed to perform medical evaluations for respirator using SCBAs or full-face respirators will be asked use. The Respiratory Protection standard allows any questions 10 through 15 in this same section. Also, PLHCP to administer the medical questionnaire employers must provide a follow-up examination if the (described below) or to conduct the medical examina- medical examination indicates that one is necessary for tion if doing so is within the scope of the PLHCP’s any other reason specified by the examining PLHCP. license. You must check with PLHCPs in your local area As part of any medical examination, the PLHCP to see if performing the medical evaluation is within the may include any tests, consultations, or diagnostic scope of their professional license. Or you may check procedures that, in the opinion of the examining PLHCP, with your state licensing board. are necessary to make a final determination about an Can a nurse perform a medical evaluation? employee’s ability to use a respirator. In some cases, all that might be needed is a phone call to the employee Any health care professional, including a nurse, who from the PLHCP to clarify an issue from the questionnaire. qualifies as a PLHCP can perform a medical evaluation. If a nurse does not qualify as a PLHCP, he or she may If the PLHCP is not a physician, some medical issues still be able to perform a medical evaluation if he or may arise during follow-up examinations that may be she is doing so under the supervision of a physician, outside the scope of the PLHCP’s license. In such cases, and the physician performs the final review of the a qualified physician or other licensed healthcare assessment. provider with appropriate licensure must be involved. Can an employee request to see his or her own (e)(4) Administration of questionnaires and physician for a medical evaluation? examinations Ye s , h o w e v e r, y o u a r e n o t r e q u i r e d b y t h e s t a n d a r d t o What procedures exist for administering the medical comply with this request. If employees select their own evaluation? physicians, you will need to maintain contact with each When you provide a medical evaluation program: physician, and you will need to send each physician the • Yo u m u s t p r o t e c t t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e e m p l o y e e supplemental information described in paragraph (e)(5) who is being evaluated. of the standard. You must allow the employee to be evaluated during the employee’s normal working hours • The medical evaluation must be given during an or at a time that is convenient to the employee, and you employee’s normal work hours or at a time and also are responsible for paying for this service (even if place convenient to the employee. the employee has coverage under an insurance plan). • The employee must understand the questions on the medical questionnaire. 28 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

31 Who pays for the medical evaluation? This information includes: Yo u m u s t p a y f o r t h e m e d i c a l e v a l u a t i o n a n d a n y • The type and weight of the respirator to be worn by related expenses, including travel costs, incurred by the worker. your employee during the evaluation. • The duration and frequency of respirator use (in- cluding use for rescue and escape). How can I ensure that a employee’s medical evaluation remains confidential? The level of physical effort that the employee would • be expending while wearing a respirator. Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e y o u r e m p l o y e e s w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s o n how to deliver or send the completed questionnaire to - • Additional personal protective clothing and equip the PLHCP who will review it. This can be done, for ment that the employee would wear. example, by supplying them with stamped, pre- The temperature and humidity extremes that may • addressed envelopes for mailing their completed be encountered in the work environment where questionnaires to the PLHCP. respirator use is required. If an employee does not speak English or cannot read, In addition, you must provide the PLHCP with the • how can I make sure that he or she understands the following: questions on the medical questionnaire? - A copy of your written respiratory protection Yo u c a n s e n d t h e e m p l o y e e d i r e c t l y t o a P L H C P w h o program. is able to help the employee fill out the questionnaire. - A copy of the Respiratory Protection standard. For non-English speakers, you may want to consider supplying an interpreter to help the PLHCP interpret the Why do I need to provide the PLHCP with a copy of questionnaire for your employee. The standard does the written respiratory protection program and the not require you to hire a professional interpreter; Respiratory Protection standard? instead, you may use an English-speaking family This requirement helps ensure that PLHCPs have a member or friend of the employee, or another thorough understanding of their duties and responsibil- employee who speaks both English and the employee’s ities in the medical evaluation process. Your written language, who can help the employee fill out the respiratory protection program will provide the PLHCP questionnaire. with critical information about the working conditions Employee’s Right to Contact the PLHCP that could increase the burden placed on the employee’s health during respirator use. The standard requires you to inform employees that a PLHCP is available to discuss the medical questionnaire Does the PLHCP need to visit the worksite to perform a with them, and to allow employees to discuss the medical evaluation? This results of their questionnaire with the PLHCP. No, the supplemental information required in this discussion will enable employees and PLHCPs to clarify portion of the standard should be sufficient for the questions that were asked on the questionnaire, and for PLHCP to make a valid recommendation on the employees to explain answers that they provided. employee’s ability to wear a respirator. OSHA, however, How can I notify employees about how to contact the encourages PLHCPs to visit the worksite if they believe PLHCP? the information obtained there would be useful to them. Yo u c o u l d p o s t t h e P L H C P ’s n a m e a n d t e l e p h o n e If I select a new PLHCP, do I need to have my employees number in a location that is easily accessible to all reevaluated? employees (such as a lunchroom or break area). You No, but you must make sure that the new PLHCP has could also include the information in a separate sheet the information required in this section. You must either with the medical questionnaire. provide the information directly to the new PLHCP, or you must make sure that the information is transferred (e)(5) Supplemental information for the PLHCP from the former PLHCP to the new PLHCP. This portion of the Respiratory Protection standard requires you to provide the PLHCP with specific How often do I need to provide the PLHCP with information to be used to make the determination supplemental information? about an employee’s ability to use a respirator. Yo u n e e d t o s u p p l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e P L H C P o n l y when the conditions of respirator use change. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 29 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

32 (e)(7) Additional medical evaluations (e)(6) Medical determination This portion of the standard requires you to obtain a This portion of the standard requires you to provide recommendation from the PLHCP about the employee’s an employee with additional medical evaluations ability to use a respirator. The PLHCP’s recommenda- whenever the following events occur: tion must be in writing, and it must provide only the • The employee reports symptoms related to his or following information: her ability to use a respirator. A determination of whether or not the employee is • The PLHCP, respiratory protection program • medically able to use a respirator. administrator, or supervisor, determines that a • Any limitations on respirator use related to the medical reevaluation is necessary. medical condition of the employee or to the work- • Information from the respiratory protection program place conditions in which the respirator will be used. suggests a need for reevaluation. The need, if any, for follow-up medical evaluations. • • Workplace conditions (such as protective clothing, A statement that the PLHCP has provided the temperature, or level of work effort) have changed • employee with a copy of the PLHCP’s written so that an increased physiological burden is placed on the employee. recommendation. • Note that you are required to have the PLHCP provide a The results of the medical examination reveal that additional medical evaluations are necessary. copy of the written recommendation to each employee. The results of the medical examination reveal that Who is responsible for making the final decision about an employee’s ability to wear a respirator? additional medical evaluations are necessary. Do I need to provide my employees with a medical reevaluation Yo u a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g t h e f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n . annually or according to some other fixed schedule? The PLHCP’s opinion is an important factor that you must consider in making this determination. No, however, you must provide medical reevaluations in accordance with the PLHCP’s recommendation. Is the information from the medical evaluation Do I need to provide an employee who is unable to use confidential, or can the PLHCP share this information a respirator with an alternative job at no loss of pay with me? and other benefits? The PLHCP must keep strictly confidential any informa - The Respiratory Protection standard does not require tion revealed during the medical evaluation; your that workers receive such benefits; however, other access is limited to the information contained in the OSHA substance-specific standards may contain such PLHCP’s written recommendation. a requirement. Can I receive a copy of the employee’s completed medical questionnaire? No, the completed questionnaire is a medical record and must be kept confidential. Negative Pressure Respirators and Powered Air- If the PLHCP determines ): Purifying Respirators (PAPR that an employee is unable to wear a negative pressure respirator, perhaps because of a breathing problem such as asthma or bronchitis, but would be able to wear a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), you must provide the employee with a PAPR. If, however, the PLHCP determines in a subsequent medical evaluation that the employee can wear a negative pressure respirator, you no longer need to provide the employee (See 29 CFR 1910.1034(e)(6)(ii).) with a PAPR. 30 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

33 Section (f): Fit testing CHECKLIST FOR MEDICAL EVALUATION This section of the Respiratory Protection standard √ Check that the following has been done at your requires you to conduct fit testing on all employees facility: who are required to wear a respirator that includes a q All employees have been evaluated to determine tight-fitting facepiece. Fit testing is a procedure used to their ability to wear a respirator prior to being fit determine how well a respirator “fits”—that is, whether tested for or wearing a respirator for the first time in your workplace. the respirator forms a seal on the user’s face. If a good facepiece-to-face seal is not achieved, the respirator will A physician or other licensed healthcare profes- q sional (PLHCP) has been identified to perform the provide a lower level of protection than it was designed medical evaluations. to provide. For example, without a good seal, the q The medical evaluations obtain the information respirator can allow contaminants to leak into the user’s Sections 1 and 2, Part A of requested in breathing air. The APFs for the specific classes of . Appendix C of the standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 respirators in the final Respiratory Protection standard (See Attachment 3 at page 67) ( Ta b l e I : A s s i g n e d P r o t e c t i o n F a c t o r s ) only apply if the q Employees are provided follow-up medical exams - respirators are properly selected and used in compli questions 1 if they answer positively to any of ance with the full respirator program, including initial fit of the through 8 in Section 2, Part A of Appendix C testing when necessary. Fit testing must be performed standard, or if their medical examination reveals before initial use and at least annually thereafter. that a follow-up exam is needed. q Medical evaluations are administered confiden- This section also describes: tially during normal work hours, and in a manner • What types of respirators must be fit tested. that is understandable to employees. • How often fit testing must be conducted. q are provided the opportunity to discuss Employees the medical evaluation results with the PLHCP. What procedures must be used. • q The following supplemental information is • How the results of fit testing should be used to provided to the PLHCP before he or she makes a guide respirator selection. decision about respirator use: • Type and weight of the respirator. Examples of respirators that need to be fit tested • Duration and frequency of respirator use. (tight-fitting facepieces) • Expected physical work effort. Air-purifying respirators remove contaminants from the air • Additional protective clothing to be worn. • Potential temperature and humidity extremes. • Written copies of the respiratory protection Half mask Filtering Facepiece program and the Respiratory Protection Dust mask standard are provided to the PLHCP. APF=10 Written recommendations are obtained from the q Needs to be fit tested PLHCP regarding each employee’s ability to wear a respirator, and that the PLHCP has given the worker a copy of these recommendations. q Employees who are medically unable to wear a negative pressure respirator are provided with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) if they are found by the PLHCP to be medically able to use a PAPR. .) (29 CFR 1910.1034(e)(6)(ii) Employees are given additional medical evaluations Half mask Elastomeric when: Respirator q The employee reports symptoms related to his or APF=10 her ability to use a respirator. Needs to be fit tested q The PLHCP, respiratory protection program administrator, or supervisor determines that a medical reevaluation is necessary. q Information from the respiratory protection program suggests a need for reevaluation. Workplace conditions have changed in a way that q could potentially place an increased physiological burden on the employee. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 31 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

34 Examples of air-purifying respirators that can not Examples of respirators that need to be fit tested be fit tested because they are loose-fitting (tight-fitting facepieces) continued) ( Loose-Fitting Powered Full Facepiece Elastomeric Air-Purifying Respirator Respirator (PAPR) APF=50 APF=25 Needs to be fit tested Tight-Fitting Full Facepiece Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) APF=1,000 Hooded Powered Air-Purifying Needs to be fit tested Respirator (PAPR) APF=25 1,000* Tight-Fitting Half Facepiece Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) APF=50 * Footnote 4 of the APF Table Needs to be fit tested What is a tight-fitting facepiece? A tight-fitting facepiece is intended to form a complete seal with the respirator wearer’s face. This seal must be Atmosphere-supplied respira- sufficiently tight to prevent any contaminants in the tor Full Facepiece Elastomeric work environment from leaking around the edges of the with an auxiliary escape facepiece into the user’s breathing air. bottle In contrast, a loose-fitting facepiece is specifically APF=10,000 in escape mode designed to form a partial seal with the user’s face. only; otherwise APF=1,000 Such a facepiece typically covers at least the head and Needs to be fit tested includes a system through which clean air is distributed into the breathing zone. For example, hoods and helmets are loose-fitting facepieces. Such equipment does not rely on a tight facepiece-to-face seal to protect Abrasive Blasting Respirator; the employee, and is useful for employees with facial Atmosphere-supplying hair or other physical characteristics that make it respirator Full Facepiece difficult to wear a tight-fitting facepiece. Elastomeric APF=25/1,000* Needs to be fit tested; Continuous flow * Footnote 4 of the APF Table 32 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

35 Examples of tight-fitting facepieces Examples of the two major types of respirators that require fit testing, negative pressure (air-purifying) and positive pressure (atmosphere-supplying) Half mask Filtering Facepiece Dust mask APF=10 Air-purifying respirator, which removes contaminants from the air Half mask Filtering Facepiece; Dust mask Needs to be fit tested APF=10 Half mask Elastomeric Respirator APF=10 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Atmosphere-supplying, or Supplied-air respirator (SAR), which provides clean air from an uncontaminated source Needs to be fit tested APF=10,000 Full Facepiece Elastomeric Respirator APF=50 What is quantitative fit testing (QNFT)? Quantitative fit testing is a method of measuring the amount of leakage into a respirator. It is a numeric assessment of how well a respirator fits a particular individual. To quantitatively fit test a respirator, sampling probes or other measuring devices must be placed to measure aerosol concentrations both outside and on the inside of the respirator facepiece. What are positive pressure and negative pressure respirators? The respirator wearer then performs the user seal checks followed by the selected QNFT. Basically, a user Positive pressure respirators maintain positive air seal check is a quick and easy way for employees to pressure inside the facepiece throughout the user’s verify that they have put on their respirators correctly breathing cycle. That is, the air pressure inside the and that the respirators are working properly. More facepiece remains greater than the air pressure outside detailed information on the user seal check is provided the facepiece. Thus, any leakage around the facepiece in Section (g): Use of Respirators, at page 41. seal should result in air escaping from inside the facepiece to the outside environment rather than For the generated aerosol QNFT, the respirator • worksite contaminants leaking into the facepiece and wearer stands inside a “test chamber” (booth or breathing air. hood), where a nontoxic aerosol is introduced into the air. Measurements are then taken of the aerosol In contrast, a negative pressure respirator will have concentration both inside the test chamber and a lower air pressure inside the facepiece than outside inside the respirator. An assessment of the during inhalation. If the facepiece-to-face seal leaks on quantitative fit is made based on the ratio of the these types of respirators, air contaminants will be aerosol concentration inside the test chamber to the drawn into the breathing air. concentration inside the facepiece. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 33 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

36 For the condensation nuclei counter QNFT, ambient • Fit factors are obtained from quantitative fit testing. - air particles are used as the test aerosol with meas For example, if an employee was in a test chamber that urements made of their concentration outside and contained 300 ppm of aerosol and 3 ppm of the test inside the facepiece, and an assessment is made of agent was found inside the mask, the fit factor would be the quantitative fit of the facepiece. equal to 100. • The controlled negative pressure QNFT method Te s t i n g a n d U s e r Se a l C h e ck i n g Qualitative Fit uses an instrument to exhaust air from inside the Te s t Qualitative Fit respirator facepiece to maintain a constant negative pressure. The measurement of the exhaust stream required to maintain a constant negative pressure yields a measure of leakage into the facepiece. • Detailed protocols for quantitative fit testing are (See provided under Appendix A of the standard. Attachment 3 at page 67.) What is qualitative fit testing (QLFT)? Qualitative fit testing is a non-numeric pass/fail test that relies on the respirator wearer’s response to a substance (“test agent”) used in the test to determine respirator fit. In qualitative fit testing, after performing user seal checks, the respirator wearer stands in an enclosure and a test agent is introduced. Such test agents are: • Banana oil (Isoamyl acetate) User seal check (paragraph (g)) • Saccharin • Bitrex • Irritant smoke (no enclosure) In qualitative fit testing, using irritant smoke as the test agent, there is no enclosure. If the individual can detect the test agent, this indi- cates that the agent leaked into the facepiece and that the respirator has failed the test because a good facepiece- to-face seal has not been achieved. If the employee cannot successfully complete the qualitative test with a particular respirator, the employee must then be tested with another make, size, or model of respirator. Detailed protocols for qualitative fit testing are in A user seal check is not a fit test. The user seal Appendix A of the standard. (See Attachment 3 at page check is one step an employee must take before any 67.) fit testing is performed and before the employee uses the respirator in the workplace. What is the fit factor? The fit factor is a quantitative measure of how well a particular respirator fits (or provides protection to) an individual. It is the ratio of the concentration of a contaminant in the environment to the concentration inside the mask. 34 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

37 After another respirator is selected, you must (f)(1) Respirators that require fit testing conduct a new fit test on the employee’s replacement Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e o r q u a l i t a t i v e f i t equipment. testing is conducted for all employees required to wear An employee might determine that the facepiece either positive or negative pressure tight-fitting face- does not establish an effective facepiece-to-face seal, piece respirators. This includes both air-purifying and for example, upon detecting a worksite contaminant atmosphere-supplying respirators operating in either a while wearing the respirator with new cartridges, or an positive or negative pressure mode, but does not employee might hear or feel air leaking around the include any loose-fitting facepieces. facepiece-to-face seal. The employee’s determination Must I perform fit testing for workers who voluntarily also can be based on factors unrelated to the particular wear tight-fitting facepiece respirators? worksite. For example, the employee might find that he No. If an employee chooses to wear a tight-fitting or she can not wear the respirator for extended periods facepiece respirator (including a negative pressure air- without experiencing irritation or pain. purifying respirator or a filtering facepiece (dust mask)) (f)(5) Fit testing procedures: general fit testing in a worksite environment where such equipment is not procedures required, you are not required to conduct fit testing. Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t a l l f i t t e s t i n g c o n d u c t e d f o r (f)(2) When fit testing must be conducted: general employees required to wear tight-fitting facepiece requirements respirators follows the OSHA-approved protocols. Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t f i t t e s t i n g i s c o n d u c t e d f o r a l l Detailed protocols for qualitative and quantitative fit employees required to wear tight-fitting facepiece testing are provided as part of the standard at Appendix respirators as follows: A . Attachment 3 provides a copy of the standard. These protocols specify that you must have on hand during • Prior to initial use. fit testing all types and sizes of respirators that are • Whenever an employee switches to a different tight- available for use at the worksite. This allows you to fitting facepiece respirator (for example, a different ensure that each employee is tested with the same type size, make or model). of respirator (make, model, style, and size) that he or At least annually. • she will wear at the worksite. (f)(3) When fit testing must be conducted: changes (f)(6) Limitation on use of qualitative fit testing in the respirator wearer’s physical condition The table at the end of this chapter summarizes accept- Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t a n a d d i t i o n a l f i t t e s t i s c o n d u c t e d able means of fit testing (QLFT and QNFT) for different if an employee experiences a change in physical types of respirators. For more information, consult condition that could affect the seal on a tight-fitting OSHA’s website at http://www.osha.gov. facepiece respirator. This requirement is triggered by a Qualitative fit tests (QLFT) are those using Bitrex, physical change: Saccharin, Irritant smoke, or Isoamyl acetate as Reported by the respirator user. • challenge agents. • Observed by you, a physician or other licensed QLFT may be used to fit test all positive pressure healthcare professional, the supervisor, or the respirators (air-supplying and PAPRs). Your use of program administrator. qualitative fit testing on negative pressure air-purifying respirators is limited to those that must achieve a fit Physical changes in the employee that might affect factor of 100 or less. Dividing the fit factor of 100 by a the facepiece-to-face seal could include, for example, standard safety factor of 10 indicates that the negative an obvious change in body weight, facial scarring, pressure air-purifying respirators that have successfully extensive dental work, or cosmetic surgery. completed a qualitative fit test can be relied on to reduce (f)(4) When fit testing must be conducted: an employee’s exposure by a protection factor of 10. The unacceptable fit as determined by an employee safety factor of 10 is used because protection factors that after fit testing employees achieve at work sites tend to be much lower than the fit factors achieved during fit testing. If, after fit testing, an employee reports that his or her respirator does not fit properly, you must allow the In practice, this means that any negative pressure employee a reasonable opportunity to select a different air-purifying respirator (APR) may be qualitatively fit tight-fitting facepiece respirator. tested if the APR is to be used in workplace atmos - pheres where the level of the hazardous contaminant is SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 35 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

38 10 times or less than the permissible exposure limit respirator will become a negative pressure respirator. (PEL) and lower than the level that is immediately Also, powered air-purifying respirators and self- dangerous to life or health (IDLH). For example, if the contained breathing apparatus units can perform like PEL for a specific workplace contaminant is 5 ppm, you negative pressure respirators when the user increases could use a qualitative fit test to fit test a negative his or her inhalation rate during heavy work. The pressure APR to be used in the workplace at exposure increased inhalation rate can result in negative pressure levels up to 50 ppm (ten times the PEL or less). Both spikes inside the facepiece that are greater than the half facepiece APRs and full facepiece APRs may be positive pressure of the air being supplied. This is called qualitatively fit tested if they are to be worn in work “overbreathing the respirator.” Therefore, positive air areas where the concentration of contaminant is no flow alone cannot be counted on to prevent the leakage more than ten times the PEL. If a full facepiece APR is to that can occur with a poorly fitting facepiece. be used in atmospheres with levels of contamination Yo u c a n c o n d u c t q u a l i t a t i v e o r q u a n t i t a t i v e f i t t e s t i n g greater than ten (10) times the PEL, a quantitative fit test of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and (See section (f)(7).) must be used. powered air-purifying respirators according to the The quantitative fit tests are: following requirements. The Portacount • Qualitative fit testing. - To c o n d u c t q u a l i t a t i v e f i t t e s t CNP • ing on an atmosphere-supplying respirator, you must do one of the following: CNP REDON • Te m p o r a r i l y c o n v e r t t h e u s e r ’s a c t u a l f a c e p i e c e • (f)(7) Use of quantitative fit testing into a negative pressure respirator by installing the If quantitative testing is used to fit test a tight-fitting appropriate filters. If you are not sure how to do facepiece respirator, respirator fit is not acceptable this, check with the respirator manufacturer or your unless: supplier; For a half or quarter facepiece: The fit factor • Use an identical negative pressure facepiece (size, • achieved in the test is greater than or equal to 100. make, model); or For a full facepiece: The fit factor achieved in the test • • Yo u c a n c o n d u c t q u a l i t a t i v e f i t t e s t i n g o n a p o w e r e d is greater than or equal to 500. air-purifying respirator by simply turning off the blower. The following quantitative fit testing procedures - (QNFT) have been demonstrated to be acceptable: Por tacount, Controlled Negative Pressure (CNP), and Con- trolled Negative Pressure REDON (CNP REDON). When using a QNFT, a non-hazardous test aerosol is generated and appropriate instrumentation measures the respirator fit. (f)(8) Fit testing for atmosphere-supplying and powered air-purifying respirators Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t a l l f i t t e s t i n g c o n d u c t e d f o r employees issued tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and powered air-purifying respirators is conducted in the negative pressure mode, even if the respirator will be used with positive pressure. This is because it is difficult outside of a laboratory test situation to accurately perform fit testing on positive pressure respirators. To c o n d u c t q u a n t i t a t i v e f i t Quantitative fit testing. testing on an atmosphere-supplying respirator, you In what circumstances might an atmosphere-supplying must temporarily or permanently install a sampling or powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) perform like a probe or adaptor inside the facepiece. negative pressure respirator? In preparation for testing, you should contact the If the blower component of a PAPR loses power respirator manufacturer or supplier for information on because it is turned off or the batteries run out, the 36 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

39 whether a sampling adapter can be temporarily journal describing the protocol, and explaining how test installed in the facepiece. data support the accuracy and reliability of the protocol. When a protocol meets one of these criteria, the Any modifications made to a respirator for testing Agency conducts a notice-and-comment rulemaking purposes must be removed before use. under Section 6(b)(7) of the OSH Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. If temporary modifications cannot be made, you will . The purpose of this provision was to allow for the 655) need to permanently convert the facepiece to allow for development of new technology for fit tests, allowing for testing. If you permanently convert the facepiece – for faster and better fit test methods, as well as new fit example, by drilling a hole in the respirator facepiece to test choices for employers. As OSHA noted in the insert the probe – you cannot repair the hole and put proposal, the CNP REDON protocol met the second of the respirator back in service. Once a hole is drilled in these criteria (68 FR 33887; June 6, 2003). the facepiece, the respirator can only be used for fit Te s t i n g M e t h o d s Acceptable Fit testing purposes. It is no longer approved for workplace use. QNFT QLFT Respirator What is the CNP REDON Fit Te s t ? Half Face, Negative Pressure, Ye s Ye s APR (<100 fit factor) The CNP REDON protocol requires the performance of three different test exercises followed by two Full face, Negative Pressure, redonnings of the respirator, while the CNP protocol APR (<100 fit factor) used in approved previously by OSHA specifies eight test Ye s atmospheres up to 10 times the PEL Ye s exercises, including one redonning of the respirator. In Full face, Negative Pressure, addition to amending the standard to include the CNP Ye s APR (>100 fit factor) No REDON protocol, this rulemaking made several editorial and non-substantive technical revisions to the Standard Ye s PAPR Ye s associated with the CNP REDON protocol and the Supplied-Air Respirators (SAR), or previously approved CNP protocol. SCBA used in Negative Pressure This additional quantitative fit testing protocol, the Ye s (Demand Mode) (>100 fit factor) No controlled negative pressure (CNP) REDON fit testing SCBA - Structural Fire Fighting, Appendix A of the final protocol, is now included in Ye s Positive Pressure Ye s Respiratory Protection standard. (See Attachment 3 at Ye s Ye s SCBA/SAR - IDLH, Positive Pressure page 67.) The protocol affects, in addition to general industry, OSHA respiratory protection standards for Fit Testing Mouthbit Respirators shipyard employment and construction. Not Required Fit Testing Loose-fitting Respirators Are any new fit test methods being developed? (e.g., hoods, helmets) Not Required Ye s , O S H A a p p r o v e d a n e w f i t t e s t , s e e A t t a c h m e n t 3 a t page 67 of the guide. Examples of respirators that require fit testing The Respiratory Protection standard included a (tight-fitting) are depicted on following pages. In cases provision for the development of new, faster, less costly in which elastomeric facepieces are used, remember Part II of Appendix A of the Respiratory fit tests. that elastomeric facepieces are made from natural or at Attachment 3 of this guide, Protection standard, synthetic rubber or silicone; EPDM is an acronym for a specifies, in part, the procedure individuals must follow specific type of rubber, that is, Ethylene propylene diene to submit new fit testing protocols for the Agency’s M-class rubber. consideration. The criteria OSHA uses for determining whether to propose adding a fit testing protocol to the Respiratory Protection standard include: (1) A test report prepared by an independent government research laboratory (e.g., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the National Institute for Standards and Te c h n o l o g y ) s t a t i n g t h a t t h e l a b o r a t o r y t e s t e d t h e protocol and found it to be accurate and reliable; (2) an article published in a peer-reviewed industrial hygiene SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 37 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

40 Air-purifying respirators Air-purifying respirators, which remove contaminants from the air. Half mask Filtering Facepiece Full Facepiece Elastomeric Respirator Half mask Elastomeric Respirator Dust mask APF=50 APF=10 APF=10 Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested Loose-Fitting Powered Hooded Powered Air-Purifying Air-Purifying Respirator Respirator (PAPR) (PAPR) APF=25 APF=25 (1,000)* * Footnote 4 of the APF Table. 38 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

41 Tight-Fitting Full Facepiece Tight-Fitting Half Facepiece Powered Air-Purifying Respirator Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) (PAPR) APF= 1,000 APF= 50 Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested Atmosphere-supplying respirators Atmosphere-supplying respirators, which provide clean air from an uncontaminated source. Tight-fitting Self-Contained Tight-fitting Atmosphere-Supplying Tight-fitting Abrasive Blasting Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Respirator with an auxiliary escape Respirator Continuous flow bottle pressure-demand mode APF=25/1,000* APF=10,000 in escape mode only; APF=10,000 SAR Full Facepiece otherwise APF=1,000 demand mode Needs to be fit tested* APF=50 Full facepiece Needs to be fit tested Needs to be fit tested * Footnote 4 of the APF Table. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 39 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

42 Filtering facepiece (N95) respirators, surgical (N95) respirators, and surgical masks Filtering facepiece (N95) Surgical mask Surgical (N95) respirator surgical mask Surgical masks and surgical (N95) respirators are used Respirators are designed to reduce a worker’s exposure as a physical barrier to protect the user from hazards, to airborne contaminants. Respirators come in various such as large droplets of: splashes or sprays of human sizes and must be individually selected to fit the and animal blood; any unfixed tissue, organs, tissue wearer’s face and to provide a tight seal. A proper seal and organ cultures (including those from experimental between the user’s face and the respirator forces the animals); other secretions that are visibly contaminated inhaled air through the respirator’s filter material and with blood; and, all body fluids in situations where it is not through gaps between the face and the respirator. difficult or impossible to differentiate between body Both the filtering facepiece (N95) respirators and the fluids. Surgical masks, by themselves, are not designed surgical (N95) respirators must be fit tested to ensure to seal tightly against the user’s face and are not subject that a proper seal exists between the employee’s face to fit testing. Surgical masks are not designed or and the respirator. Both of the respirators provide certified to prevent the inhalation of small airborne protection from exposures to airborne influenza flu particles that are not visible to the naked eye but may viruses. Whenever respirators are required by still be capable of causing infection. employees (e.g., N95 and Surgical N95 respirators), they must be NIOSH-certified and selected and used in compliance with OSHA’s Respiratory Protection standard. 40 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

43 Section (g): Use of respirators CHECKLIST FOR FIT TESTING As part of your written program, you must establish √ Check all the fit tests listed below that are used at and implement procedures for the proper use of your facility: respirators in both routine jobs and emergencies. Employees who are using tight-fitting respirator q Specific procedures are required to: facepieces have passed an appropriate fit test prior to being required to use a respirator. Prevent leaks in the respirator facepiece seal. • Fit testing is conducted with the same make, q • Prevent employees from removing respirators in model, style and size that the employee will be hazardous environments. expected to use at the worksite. • Ensure that respirators operate effectively through- Fit tests are conducted annually and when q out the work shift. different respirator facepieces are to be used. • Protect employees entering IDLH atmospheres and Provisions are made to conduct additional fit tests q interior structural firefighting situations. in the event of physical changes in the employee that may affect respirator fit. (g)(1) Preventing leaks in the facepiece seal Employees are given the opportunity to select a q Facepiece seals and valves are important in tight-fitting different respirator facepiece, and be retested if respirators. Tight-fitting respirators should be able to their respirator fit is unacceptable to them. provide a complete seal to the face. If there is a leak in q Fit tests are administered using OSHA-accepted the seal of a tight-fitting respirator or valve, then the QNFT or QLFT protocols. respirator cannot effectively reduce the wearer’s QLFT is only used to fit test either PAPRs, SCBAs, q exposures to respiratory hazards. You must be sure that or negative pressure APRs that must achieve a fit nothing interferes with the seal of the respirator to the factor of 100 or less. employee’s face or with the valves. You must also QNFT is used in all situations where a negative q ensure that employees check the seal of a tight-fitting pressure respirator is intended to protect respirator by conducting a user seal check each time workers from contaminant concentrations the employee dons the respirator. greater than 10 times the PEL. Conditions that can interfere with the seal or valve q When QNFT is used to fit negative pressure are specified in the standard and include: respirators, a minimum fit factor of 100 is achieved for tight-fitting half facepieces and 500 • Facial hair; for full facepieces. • Facial scars; For tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators Jewelry or headgear that projects under the face- • and powered air-purifying respirators: piece seal; q Fit tests are conducted in the negative pressure mode. • Missing dentures; and q QLFT is achieved by temporarily converting the • Corrective glasses or goggles or other protective facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with equipment such as: appropriate filters, or by using an identical - Face shields negative pressure APR. QNFT is achieved by modifying the facepiece to q - Protective clothing allow for sampling inside the mask midway - Helmets between the nose and mouth. If the facepiece is permanently converted during fit testing, the - Eyeglass insert or spectacle kits respirator is no longer approved for workplace Employees may use this equipment with tight-fitting use. respirators if you ensure that the equipment is worn in a way that: • Does not interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal. • Does not distort the employee’s vision. • Does not cause physical harm to the employee (e.g., if the eyeglass insert did not fit properly so that the tight fit of the respirator caused the insert to press against his or her forehead, eyes, or temples). SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 41 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

44 Yo u m u s t m a k e s u r e t h a t t h e e m p l o y e e ’s e y e w e a r The facepiece should hold the positive pressure for does not interfere with the respirator seal, or that the a few seconds. During this time, the employee should worker has to remove the eyewear altogether. not hear or feel the air leaking out of the face-to-face- Appendix B-1 of the Respiratory Protection piece seal. What if an employee has a condition that does not provides detailed instructions on how to con- standard interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal? duct the user seal check. Attachment 3 of this guide As long as the condition does not interfere with the provides a copy of the standard. function of the respirator valves, then the employee The manufacturer’s recommended procedures can wear a tight-fitting respirator, provided that the for checking the facepiece seal may be used if the employee has no other conditions that interfere with employer demonstrates that the manufacturer’s the face-to-facepiece seal or valve. For example, a procedures are as effective as those described in mustache may not interfere with the facepiece seal but Appendix B-1 of the Respiratory Protection standard may interfere with the valve function. (i.e., these procedures are effective in identifying respirators that fit poorly when put on or adjusted). Do these restrictions apply to all types of respirators? The restrictions for facial hair and other conditions Can a user seal check be used as a substitute for a apply ONLY to tight-fitting respirators. Several respira- qualitative fit test? tory protection alternatives, such as loose-fitting hoods not No, a user seal check is a substitute for a qualitative or helmets, are available to accommodate employees fit test. Fit testing is a more rigorous procedure that is with facial hair or with other conditions that might inter - used to determine whether the respirator fits the face fere with the seal of the facepiece to the face of the user. of the employee. Section (f) of this Compliance Guide contains a complete discussion on respirator fit testing. Can employeess wear contact lenses? (See fit testing in Appendix A of the standard; See user Ye s , c o n t a c t l e n s e s c a n b e s a f e l y w o r n w i t h r e s p i r a t o r s . seal check in Appendix B-1 of the standard.) A copy of What is a user seal check? the standard is provided in Attachment 3 of this guide. Yo u m u s t b e s u r e t h a t e m p l o y e e s p e r f o r m u s e r s e a l How can employers ensure that workers perform user checks each time they put on a tight-fitting respirator. seal checks? User seal checks are a quick and easy way for employ- A major purpose of the standard is to make sure that ees to verify that they have put on their respirators the fit and performance of the respirator is not compro- correctly and that the respirators are working properly. mised. You must take actions that will result in safe To c o n d u c t a u s e r s e a l c h e c k , t h e e m p l o y e e m u s t work practices. Examples of these actions include: follow either the procedures for a user seal check that Providing training to workers • are contained in Appendix B-1 to § 1910.134: User Seal Routinely observing work practices • , or equally effective Check Procedures (Mandatory) procedures that the respirator manufacturer • Routinely monitoring site conditions recommends for conducting a user seal check. A copy • Consulting workers of the standard is in Attachment 3 of this guide. Example of a worker performing a user seal check on How are user seal checks conducted? a half mask elastomeric air-purifying respirator To c o n d u c t a u s e r s e a l c h e c k , t h e e m p l o y e e p e r f o r m s a negative or positive pressure fit check. For the negative pressure check, the employee: covers the respirator inlets (cartridges, canisters, or • seals) gently inhales, and • holds breath for 10 seconds. • The facepiece should collapse on the worker’s face and remain collapsed. For the positive pressure check, the worker: covers the respirator exhalation valve(s), and • exhales. • 42 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

45 employees – to ensure that employees continue to (g)(2) Continuing respirator effectiveness receive adequate respiratory protection. Yo u m u s t b e a w a r e o f c o n d i t i o n s i n w o r k a r e a s w h e r e employees are using respirators. You must also allow When must employees leave the exposure areas to employees to leave the respirator use area to perform maintain the integrity of their respirators? any activity that involves removing or adjusting a To m a i n t a i n t h e i r r e s p i r a t o r s , e m p l o y e e s m a y, f r o m respirator facepiece, or if there is any indication that a time to time, need to leave the area where respirator respirator may not be fully effective. If there is any use is required and go to a safe area free of respiratory indication that they are not functioning properly, you hazards and contaminants. must repair or discard and replace respirators before Employees must leave the respirator use area: allowing employees to return to an area in which respirator use is required. If the employee needs to wash his or her face or the • respirator facepiece to prevent eye or skin irritation Workplace conditions include the following: associated with respirator use. The level of the contaminant in relation to the APF • If the employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough • • The size and configuration of the workspace (that is, the cartridge or canister is saturated with • Ease of employee communication contaminant and needs to be changed). • Ease or difficulty of the work or rate of activity If the employee notices that the facepiece is leaking. • The type of workplace tasks and proximity to the • If the employee observes a change in breathing • source of contamination, e.g., cutting wood on a resistance (that is, the filter is full of dust or other band saw would differ from hand polishing a wood particles and needs to be changed). veneer on furniture. • If the respirator or parts of the respirator, such as • Workplace conditions such as temperature and valves or straps, are not working properly and need humidity or the location and movement of other to be replaced. personnel and equipment. Employees need a “safe area” in the workplace where they can safely remove their respirators to wash How can I conduct appropriate surveillance? or conduct the maintenance necessary to ensure the “Appropriate surveillance” means that you must respirator’s adequate operation. Through training and routinely look for any changes that may affect the supervision, employees must know the conditions of effectiveness of a respirator. You must look for changes respirator use that require them to leave the exposure in the work area, such as changes in work tasks or areas and go to a safe area. processes, that can result in changes in the hazard or the time period of exposure, or that put the employee in Where does the safe area need to be located? closer proximity to the hazard. Another change might The safe area must be located in a place that is free of be the addition of new machinery that would cause an respiratory hazards or contamination. As long as these employee to exert more energy and breathe harder. conditions are met, the safe area can be in a location By “appropriate surveillance” OSHA means that you that minimizes interruptions to work flow. must routinely observe employees as they work while How often do respirators need to be replaced or wearing respirators. By observing respirator use under repaired? actual workplace conditions, you can determine: There is no required replacement schedule for Whether other protective equipment is interfering • respirators in general. However, damaged respirators with respirator use. cannot properly protect workers. Respirators need to be Whether a change in working conditions may result • replaced or repaired when one or more of their compo - in exposure to new contaminants or an increase in nents is missing, damaged, or visibly deteriorated. contaminant exposure. (g)(3) Procedures for Immediately Dangerous to Life • Whether employees are experiencing discomfort, or Health atmospheres and for interior structural - such as skin irritation or breakthrough of contami firefighting nants through cartridges and canisters. This section of the Respiratory Protection standard If any of these conditions exist, you must make contains requirements for respirator use in IDLH such as providing a more protective adjustments – environments. The standard defines IDLH as “an respirator or a different size or style of respirator, or atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, altering work practices to reduce the stress on SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 43 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

46 would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or Often, only one respirator user at a time is exposed would impair an individual’s ability to escape from a to an IDLH atmosphere, and a single standby person dangerous atmosphere.” (See Section (d) of this guide can easily monitor that employee’s status. Even in paragraphs (g)(3)-(4) of the standard.) or situations where more than one respirator user is inside an IDLH environment, a single standby person can of the Respiratory The provisions of paragraph (g)(3) often provide adequate communication and support. Protection standard are requirements for respirator use For example, one standby person can easily communi- Paragraph (g)(4) contains in all IDLH atmospheres. cate with more than one employee working inside a additional requirements applicable only to the extra- small pump room or shed. hazardous environments encountered during “interior structural fire fighting.” Information about “interior More than one standby person may be required for structural fire fighting” is explained further in section other situations. For example, to clean and paint the (g)(4) of the guide. OSHA considers interior structural inside of a multi-level, multi-portal water tower, a firefighting environments to be IDLH environments. process that often generates a deadly atmosphere as a , deal with ((g)(3) and (g)(4)) These two paragraphs, result of cleaning solutions and paint-solvent vapors, requirements for standby personnel and the respirator employees often enter the tower through different por - users inside the IDLH atmosphere. The standard tals to work on different levels. In such a situation, there requires standby personnel when employees use will be a need for good communication at each entry respirators in IDLH environments. These two provisions portal, and more than one standby person would be ensure that adequate rescue capability exists in case of - needed to maintain adequate communication and ac respirator failure or some other emergency inside the cessibility (See also 29 CFR 1910.146, Confined Spaces). IDLH environment. When must standby personnel maintain communica - Who are standby personnel? tion with employees in the IDLH atmosphere? Standby personnel are firefighters who remain outside Standby personnel must maintain communication with the IDLH atmosphere. They must be available, trained, employees in the IDLH atmosphere at all times. Voice, and equipped to assist respirator users inside the IDLH visual, or hand signal line communication must be - atmosphere, and to provide effective emergency res continuously maintained between the employee(s) in cue, when needed. the IDLH environment and the standby person. Because IDLH conditions present the potential for serious injury Yo u m u s t b e s u r e t h a t s t a n d b y p e r s o n n e l m a i n t a i n or death, there is little margin for error in an IDLH visual, voice, or signal line communication with the environment. Equipment malfunction in an IDLH - employees in the IDLH environment. Standby person environment can swiftly disable employees, prevent nel may use radios to communicate with workers inside them from leaving the environment, and lead to severe the IDLH environment. You must be sure that standby injury or death. For this reason, close communication personnel notify you or your designated representative between standby personnel and respirator users in the before entering the IDLH atmosphere. Once notified, IDLH environment is critical. you must provide necessary assistance appropriate to the situation. When is radio communication acceptable? When do I need to have more than one standby person Standby personnel must be in visual, voice, or signal- located outside the IDLH environment? line communication with the employees inside the IDLH environment. However, standby personnel may com - A single standby person is adequate if an IDLH environ - municate by two-way radio (intrinsically safe) with em- ment is well characterized and controlled, and if one ployees inside the IDLH environment, if use of visual, person can easily maintain communication with all voice, or signal-line communication is not feasible. A employees in the IDLH environment. Two stand-by standby employee should have a telephone or radio to personnel are required for interior structural firefight- summon additional help, and should not enter an IDLH ing. An IDLH atmosphere is “well characterized” if it environment for rescue until help arrives. The standby has been monitored and the results of the monitoring person also must be able to assist in providing or have been analyzed, or if it has been through a process- obtaining effective emergency assistance to employees hazard analysis. (Chemical plants conduct comprehen- inside the IDLH environment. In interior structural sive process-hazard analyses as required by OSHA’s firefighting situations, firefighters inside the burning Process Safety Management standard [29 CFR structure may communicate with one another by two- 1910.119] to determine which process units pose IDLH way radio, but they must also remain in visual or voice hazards.) contact with each other. 44 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

47 Is voice communication the only acceptable method designated representative may be a properly trained for employees in the IDLH environment and standby employee or response team, or local firefighting and personnel to communicate with one another? emergency rescue personnel. In any case, proper arrangements and procedures must be in place before No, communication can be in the form of signal lines. It you can allow your employees to enter an IDLH envi- is advisable to have several means of communication ronment. Once notified, you must provide necessary systems available, in the event that one form of com- assistance appropriate to the situation. munication fails. This provision of the standard ensures that you What is appropriate training and equipment for the know when an emergency has occurred so that you or standby personnel? your designated representative can send in immediate Yo u m u s t t r a i n t h e s t a n d b y p e r s o n n e l t o : additional assistance to help in the rescue. • Provide effective emergency rescue; and When should standby personnel enter the IDLH environment? • Notify you or your designated representative before the standby personnel enter the IDLH atmosphere to Under most circumstances, standby personnel should attempt an emergency rescue. not enter the IDLH environment until you or your desig- nated representative has responded to the notification Yo u m u s t e q u i p y o u r s t a n d b y p e r s o n n e l w i t h t h e acknowledging that an emergency exists, that rescue following: personnel are entering the IDLH environment, and that Pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBAs, • emergency response units are on their way to provide or a pressure demand or other positive pressure additional assistance. You must provide standby supplied-air respirator with auxiliary SCBA; and personnel (rescuers) with proper respiratory equip- Either appropriate retrieval equipment for removing • ment, and you must train and prepare your standby the employees inside the IDLH atmosphere where personnel to facilitate rescue attempts. retrieval equipment would contribute to the rescue This notification provision does not require that of the employees inside the IDLH atmosphere and standby employees should wait indefinitely for you or would not increase the overall risk resulting from your authorized designee to respond to notification entry; or before entering the IDLH atmosphere when your • Equivalent means for rescue where retrieval equip- employees inside are in danger and standby personnel ment could increase the overall risk resulting from are appropriately trained and equipped to provide entry. assistance. In the majority of cases, however, rescuers should not enter the IDLH environment until receiving For employees involved in interior structural fire- • some response from you (i.e., you or your designated fighting, standby personnel must be equipped with representative should know that the rescuers are SCBAs. entering and emergency response units should be on Rescue personnel must be properly trained and their way to the incident). protected before they enter the IDLH environment. The Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response How must I provide appropriate assistance in standard (29 CFR 1910.120) and the Permit-Required emergencies? Confined Spaces standard (29 CFR 1910.146) provide Once you or your designated representative has been guidance on the training and protective equipment that notified, you or your representative must provide the is required. Situations exist in which retrieval lines necessary assistance appropriate for the situation. You (harnesses, wristlets, anklets) may pose an entangle- must make sure that: ment problem, especially in areas in which air lines or Rescue operations are carried out appropriately • electrical cords are present in the work areas in which the IDLH atmosphere occurs. Most of the time, • Rescuers are provided with proper respiratory however, rescue with retrieval equipment is effective, equipment and much safer for the rescuers because the standby • Designated employees are adequately prepared to personnel do not have to enter the IDLH atmosphere. conduct rescue attempts If there is an emergency, can the standby provide Yo u m a y n o t a l w a y s n e e d t o s e n d s t a n d b y p e r s o n - immediate rescue assistance? nel into the hazardous atmosphere. In some cases, the employee within the IDLH environment will be able to Yo u r s t a n d b y p e r s o n n e l m u s t i n f o r m e i t h e r y o u o r get out on his or her own, or retrieval equipment may your designated representative before attempting emergency rescue within an IDLH environment. Your SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 45 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

48 - enable rescuers to retrieve the employee without enter firefighters, who are not otherwise covered by Federal ing the hazardous atmosphere. In these instances, you OSHA. The states and territories operating OSHA- must be prepared to provide employees inside IDLH approved state plans are: Alaska, Arizona, California, atmospheres and standby personnel employees with Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, emergency medical treatment. Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Yo u s h o u l d c o n s u l t O S H A’s r u l e s o n c o n f i n e d s p a c e s Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. (29 CFR 1910.146) and on hazardous waste operations Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, and the Virgin and emergency response (29 CFR 1910.120) for other Islands operate OSHA-approved state plans that apply provisions that may apply to IDLH environments. to state and local government employees only. (g)(4) Procedures for interior structural firefighting Coverage of volunteer firefighters varies by State This portion of the standard applies to employees and depends on State law. State and local government engaged in interior structural firefighting only. Federal employees in states that do not operate OSHA- OSHA does not cover public employees such as fire- approved state plans are not covered by these fighters. However, public employees are covered by the requirements, unless the requirements are voluntarily State OSHA programs in the 27 states that operate their adopted for local applicability. own state programs. What additional requirements apply to interior structural firefighting? What is interior structural firefighting? - In addition to the requirements for all IDLH atmos Interior structural firefighting is firefighting to control or pheres, if your employees are involved in interior extinguish a fire in an advanced stage of burning inside structural firefighting, you must be certain that: a building. Because the fire is producing large amounts of smoke, heat, and toxic products of combustion, At least two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere • exposure of firefighters is extremely hazardous and the and remain in visual or voice contact with one environment is considered IDLH. another at all times and at least two employees are located outside the IDLH atmosphere, namely the For interior structural firefighting, you must have “two in, two out” policy. two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere and remain in visual or voice contact with one another at all times. - All employees engaged in interior structural fire • Yo u m u s t a l s o h a v e t w o s t a n d b y p e r s o n n e l l o c a t e d fighting use SCBAs. outside the IDLH atmosphere (two-in, two-out); all • Although two individuals must always be located employees engaged in interior structural firefighting outside the IDLH atmosphere, one may be assigned must use SCBAs. to an additional role, such as incident command, Are all firefighters engaged in interior structural pump operations, or operator of the fire apparatus – firefighting covered by the standard? so long as this individual is able to perform assistance or rescue activities without jeopardizing Ye s , w h e n O S H A’s R e s p i r a t o r y P r o t e c t i o n s t a n d a r d i s the safety or health of any firefighter working at the applied to private-sector employees engaged in fire- incident. Any assignment of additional duties to fighting covered under Section 19 of the Occupational the second firefighter must be weighed against the Safety and Health Act. These employees include those potential for the additional duties to interfere with - working in industrial fire brigades and private incorpo assistance or rescue activities. rated fire companies. Federal agencies must comply with the Respiratory Protection standard or an equally Must firefighters wait until four employees are stringent standard, pursuant to Executive Order 12196 assembled before attempting to rescue victims inside and 29 CFR 1960.17, covered under Section 6 of the the burning structure? Occupational Safety and Health Act (with a general No, there is an explicit exemption in the Respiratory exemption for military personnel and operations). Protection standard that states that if life is in jeopardy There are 27 states and territories that enforce the “two-in, two-out” requirement is waived. The occupational safety and health requirements. In these incident commander and the firefighters at the scene states and territories, enforcement of occupational must decide whether the risks posed by entering the safety and health requirements is by the State agency interior structural fire before at least four firefighters responsible for the OSHA-approved state plan. These have assembled is outweighed by the need to rescue a states are required to extend their coverage to state and victim whose life may be at risk. local government employees, including public sector 46 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

49 accomplish this you must have a system of respirator Section (h): Maintenance and care care and maintenance as a component of your respira - of respirators tory protection program. Regular care and maintenance Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e r e s p i r a t o r u s e r s w i t h e q u i p m e n t is important to ensure that the equipment functions as that is clean, sanitary, and in good working order. To designed and protects the user from the threat of illness or death. CHECKLIST FOR PROPER USE OF Yo u r s y s t e m o f r e s p i r a t o r c a r e a n d m a i n t e n a n c e RESPIRATORS must provide for: Check your facility to be certain that: √ • cleaning and disinfection procedures Employees using tight-fitting respirators have no q proper storage • conditions, such as facial hair, that would interfere with a face-to-facepiece seal or valve function. • regular inspections Employees wear corrective glasses, goggles, or q • repair methods other protective equipment in a manner that does not interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal or (h)(1) Cleaning and disinfecting valve function. Respirator equipment must be regularly cleaned and q Employees perform user seal checks prior to each See disinfected according to specified procedures ( use of a tight-fitting respirator. of the standard; a copy of the standard is Appendix B-2 There are procedures for conducting ongoing q provided at Attachment 3 of this guide) or according surveillance of the work area for conditions that to manufacturer specifications that are of equivalent affect respirator effectiveness, and that, when effectiveness. such conditions exist, you take steps to address those situations. Cleaning and disinfection procedures are divided into Employees are permitted to leave their work area q the following: to conduct respirator maintenance, such as Disassembly of components • washing the facepiece, or to replace respirator parts. Cleaning and disinfecting • Employees do not return to their work area until q • Rinsing, drying and reassembly their respirator has been repaired or replaced in • Te s t i n g the event of a breakthrough, a leak in the face- piece, or a change in breathing resistance. How often must respirators be cleaned and disinfected? q There are procedures for respirator use in IDLH The frequency of cleaning and disinfecting or sanitizing atmospheres and during interior structural respirators will depend in part on whether your em- firefighting to ensure that: the appropriate number ployees share the equipment or are issued respirators of standby personnel are deployed; standby for their exclusive use. Worksite conditions also dictate personnel and workers in the IDLH environ- ment maintain communication; standby personnel cleaning frequency; e.g., working in a dirty environment are properly trained, equipped, and prepared; you will require that the respirator facepiece, in particular, will be notified when standby personnel enter an be cleaned more frequently. The frequency must be IDLH atmosphere; and you will respond appropri- noted in your written respiratory protection plan. ately to this notification. At a minimum: Standby personnel are equipped with a pressure q demand or other positive pressure SCBA, or a If a respirator is... positive pressure supplied-air respirator with an issued for the exclusive use of an individual • escape SCBA, and appropriate retrieval equipment employee, the equipment must be cleaned and or other means for rescue. disinfected as often as necessary to be maintained q Procedures for interior structural firefighting in clean and sanitary condition. require that: at least two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere and remain in contact with one used by more than one employee, the equipment • another at all times; at least two standby person- must be cleaned and disinfected before being used nel are used; and all firefighting employees use by different individuals. SCBAs. • maintained for use in emergencies, testing, and training exercises, the equipment must be cleaned and disinfected after each use. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 47 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

50 Who is responsible for cleaning and disinfecting A check of elastomeric (rubber) parts for pliability • respirators? and deterioration. Yo u m a y c h o o s e t h e p r o g r a m t h a t b e s t m e e t s t h e n e e d s In addition, inspect: of your workplace. For example, you may use a central- Non-emergency use equipment. • each use Before ized operation where employees receive respirators and cleaning and disinfection. during that have been cleaned, disinfected and repaired by Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). • employees assigned to this task. You also may require Monthly , making sure the air and oxygen cylinders that each respirator wearer be responsible for cleaning that are available for immediate use are maintained and maintaining his or her own equipment. In either in a fully charged state (i.e., pressure is not below case, you must provide the necessary equipment and 90% of manufacturer’s recommended level). You supplies and, in addition, you must provide appropriate must also activate the regulator and low pressure training and allow on-the-job time for the training and warning devices to ensure that they function for the cleaning and maintenance of respirators. properly. (h)(2) Storage • At least monthly Emergency use respirators. , before and after checking for proper functioning What are the proper storage procedures for respirators? each use . When inspecting these types of respirators Yo u m u s t s t o r e r e s p i r a t o r s i n a m a n n e r t h a t : you must: • Protects them from contamination, dust, sunlight, - Document the date of inspection, name or extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, damag- signature of inspector, inspection findings, any ing chemicals, or other destructive conditions. remedial action required, and serial number or Prevents the facepiece or valves from becoming • other identification of the respirator. deformed. - Retain this information with the respirator, in the Follows all storage precautions issued by the • storage compartment or inspection report until respirator manufacturer. the next certification. You may use tags or labels to document the inspections. In addition, if a respirator is for emergency use, it must be: Before being • Emergency escape-only equipment. carried into the workplace for use. Kept accessible to the work area, but not in an area • that may itself become involved in an emergency The frequency must be noted in your written and become contaminated or inaccessible. respiratory protection plan. Stored in a compartment or cover (e.g., on a fire • (h)(4) Repairs truck) that is clearly identified as containing What do I do if a respirator fails to pass inspection? emergency equipment. If a respirator does not pass inspection, you must • Stored according to the manufacturer’s instructions. remove the respirator from service and discard, repair, (h)(3) Inspection or adjust it. Tagging out-of-service respirators is a good means for ensuring that defective respirators are not How often must respirators be inspected, and what inadvertently used. procedures do I follow? When must I replace or repair respirators? The frequency of and procedures for inspections depend on whether the respirator is designed for Yo u m u s t r e p l a c e o r r e p a i r r e s p i r a t o r s t h a t a r e n o t non-emergency, emergency, or escape-only use. working properly. Respirators should not be used if they are defective in any way. You must replace or All respirator inspections must include: repair a defective respirator whenever the employee A check of respirator function, tightness of connec- • detects vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in tions, and the condition of the various parts, includ- breathing resistance, or facepiece leakage, and before ing, but not limited to the facepiece, head straps, allowing the employee to return to the work area where valves, connecting tubes, and cartridges, canisters, respirator use is required. or filters. A visual inspection of the respirator may Who performs the repair work? identify parts that may be missing, distorted, blocked, loose, deteriorated, or otherwise interfere Respirators may be repaired only by an appropriately (See (g)(2) of the with proper performance. trained person who must use NIOSH-certified parts standard.) 48 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

51 that are designed for the particular respirator being SCBAs and emergency respirators are inspected q repaired. monthly and checked for proper functioning Valves, regulators, and alarms must be adjusted before and after each use. and repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician Emergency escape-only respirators are inspected q trained by the manufacturer. before being carried into the workplace for use. What are some examples of when a respirator should Inspections include: be removed from service? Check of respirator function. q An alarm system is not functioning on an SCBA. • q Tightness of connections. A respirator strap, buckle, or connection is damaged • q Condition of the facepiece, head straps, valves, or missing. cartridges, and other parts. • The mask portion of a respirator is misshapen or de- q Condition of elastomeric parts. graded and can no longer form a good seal around For SCBAs, inspections include: the user’s face. Check that cylinders are fully charged. q q Check that regulators function properly. CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATOR MAINTENANCE Check that warning devices function properly. q AND CARE For emergency use respirators, inspections include: √ Check to make sure that your facility has met the q Certification by documenting the inspection, and following requirements: by tagging the information either to the respirator Cleaning and disinfecting: or its compartment, or storing it with inspection reports. Respirators are provided that are clean, sanitary, q and in good working order. Repairs: Respirators are cleaned and disinfected using the q q Respirators that have failed inspection are taken Appendix B-2 of the procedures specified in out of service. . standard Repairs are made only by trained personnel. q Respirators are cleaned and disinfected: Only NIOSH-certified parts are used. q As often as necessary when issued for the q Reducing and admission valves, regulators and q exclusive use of one employee. alarms are adjusted or repaired only by the Before being worn by different individuals. q manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer. After each use for emergency use respirators. q After each use for respirators used for fit testing q and training. Section (i): Breathing air quality Storage: and use Respirators are stored to protect them from q This section of the Respiratory Protection standard damage from the elements, and from becoming requires you to provide employees who are wearing deformed. atmosphere-supplying respirators with breathing air of Emergency respirators are stored: high purity. Respirators that supply breathing air are To b e a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e w o r k a r e a . q generally used in highly hazardous work environments. In compartments marked as such. q It is critical that such respirator systems provide quality breathing air and that the equipment operates reliably. In accord with manufacturer’s instructions. q - More broadly, you are required to establish or con Inspections: tinue a respiratory protection program that follows per - q Routine-use respirators are inspected before each formance standards for the operation and maintenance use and during cleaning. of breathing air compressors, methods for ensuring breathing air quality, and requirements for the quality of purchased breathing air. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 49 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

52 The requirements detailed in this section are critical pressure recommended by the respirator manufacturer. for ensuring the integrity of high purity breathing air Air cascading simply means equalizing the pressure for use with respirators, whether the air is delivered between the cylinder to be refilled and the next lowest in tanks by a supplier or produced on site using a supply cylinder. If this process does not get the desired compressor. Also, it is your responsibility to ensure that pressure in the small cylinder, the supply cylinder is practices are in place for protecting the quality of turned off and the next highest supply cylinder is breathing air while stored in containers and when being opened and the pressure allowed to equalize between used by employees. These requirements are essential the two cylinders. A low pressure warning whistle, or for protecting respirator-wearing employees from bell, is supplied to notify the user that the cascade exposure to airborne contaminants. system has dropped below specified levels. Check valves are installed on each cylinder stem to prevent As detailed below, when using atmosphere- pressure equalization. These valves also allow the user supplying respirators you must: to independently change cylinders without depressuriz - Provide breathing air that meets certain specifica- • ing the complete system. tions. (i)(1) Specifications for breathing air Develop procedures to ensure the proper use of • Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t c o m p r e s s e d a i r, c o m p r e s s e d compressed gas cylinders and air compressors. oxygen, liquid air, and liquid oxygen meet certain Implement certain precautions to avoid improper • specifications as outlined below for breathing by use of couplings on airline systems and confusion employees wearing atmosphere-supplying respirators. about breathing air containers. Unless you produce your own breathing air from a • Implement certain precautions to prevent exposure compressor, you can rely on certificates of analysis to carbon monoxide when using air compressors. from air suppliers to ensure that breathing air meets the required specifications. How is breathing air delivered to the respirator user? Ty p e s o f B r e a t h i n g A i r - Air compressors capture air from the surrounding envi ronment, filter it, remove oil (if necessary), compress it Compressed air is the most common type of breathing- - to increase its density, and deliver the air through a sys air system used in worksite applications because it is tem of regulators that brings the air back down to a the most convenient and least expensive. Compressed breathable pressure for the respirator user. air is provided either through compressed air cylinders or air compressors at relatively high pressures. With SCBA units, the pressurized breathing air is Regulators are used to ensure that breathing air transferred from the tank to the respirator user through supplied to respirators is provided at pressures that regulators that decrease the pressure to a level that a are safe for employees to breathe. human can breathe. Because there is a fixed amount of air in the tank, the user can only rely on it for a given Other types of breathing air systems include liquid period of time. That time varies based on the size of air, compressed oxygen, and liquid oxygen. Liquid air the tank, the amount of pressure in the tank, and the is air that exists in a liquid state, which is achieved by physical effort required by the respirator user. Use compressing purified air and chilling it to a temperature times range from 20 minutes for low pressure tanks below the boiling point of its principal components (i.e., (2,500 psi) to 45 minutes for high pressure tanks (4,500 nitrogen and oxygen). Compressed oxygen systems are psi) with moderate physical effort. used in limited applications because they present a significant fire hazard. Liquid oxygen is quite expensive The air delivered by both types of systems is at and also presents a significant fire hazard. It is generally slightly greater than atmospheric pressure, which as- used only in very specialized applications. sists in preventing contaminated air from seeping through gaps in the facepiece. (i)(1)(i) Compressed and liquid oxygen Breathing air that is supplied "on demand" rather Such forms of compressed oxygen must meet the U.S. than provided constantly to the user, as in a constant Pharmacopeia requirements for medical or breathing flow type device, is able to be used with a large, oxygen. compressed air cylinder of breathable air or a bank of cylinders set up in cascading fashion. Cascading (i)(1)(ii) Compressed breathing air breathing air assemblies can be designed to provide Any compressed breathing air must meet at least breathing air from several assemblies. A pressure the requirements for Grade D breathing air described reducing regulator is supplied to deliver the correct in “Compressed Gas Association Commodity 50 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

53 Specification for Air” (CGA G-7.1-1989). This specifica - D breathing air. This certification will provide you tion requires that: with a reasonable assurance that the breathing air supplied to your employees is safe. (A) Oxygen content in compressed breathing air must be 19.5 to 23.5 percent of the total volume of air. • Cylinder contents must have a moisture level that does not exceed a dew point of minus 50° Fahren- (B) Condensed hydrocarbon content in compressed heit (F) (minus 45.6° Celsius [C]) at 1 atmosphere breathing air must be 5 milligrams (mg) per each cubic pressure. (Dew point refers to the temperature at 3 ) of air or less. meter (m which the air is saturated with moisture.) This (C) Carbon monoxide content in compressed breathing requirement prevents respirator valves from air must be 10 parts per million (ppm) or less. freezing when excess moisture accumulates on the valves, which can cause blockages in the flow of (D) Carbon dioxide content in compressed breathing air breathing air. You should verify with the supplier must be 1,000 ppm or less. that the breathing air meets this requirement. (E) There must be a lack of any noticeable odor from the compressed breathing air. (i)(5)-(7) Compressor use Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t c o m p r e s s o r s u s e d w i t h (i)(2)&(3) Oxygen use atmosphere-supplying respirators provide breathing Explosion/fire hazard from compressor oil and grease. air according to the following requirements: Yo u m u s t p r o h i b i t e m p l o y e e s f r o m u s i n g c o m p r e s s e d oxygen in respirators that have previously been used (i)(5)(i) Location of compressor during use with compressed air. The reason for this prohibition is The location of an air compressor during use is very that oil and grease can be introduced into respirator important to maintain the purity of the supplied breath- airlines used for compressed air, posing a danger of fire ing air. For this reason, an air compressor in use must or explosion from the high pressure oxygen coming in be located so that the air intake component is not contact with the oil or grease. Airline systems contain drawing from areas that contain: inline filters for capturing impurities so that the • Combustion exhaust from vehicles or the respirator user will not inhale the oil or grease. compressor itself. Explosion/fire hazard from high concentration oxygen. Plant process exhaust, which should be exhausted • Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t e m p l o y e e s u s e o x y g e n to the outside by the facility’s ventilation system. concentrations greater than 23.5 percent only with equipment designed specifically for oxygen service and Contaminated air from hazardous work areas. • distribution. Such equipment is specifically designed to minimize the risk of fire or explosion posed by the high (i)(5)(ii) Low moisture content of ambient air concentration of oxygen. The moisture content of compressed air must be kept to a minimum to prevent freezing of respirator valves at cold (i)(4) Cylinder use temperatures, which can cause blockages in the flow of Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t c y l i n d e r s u s e d w i t h a t m o s p h e r e - To e n s u r e a l o w m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t , t h e d e w breathing air. supplying respirators meet the following requirements: point at 1 atmosphere must be 10° F (5.56° C) below the • Cylinders of breathing air must be tested and main - ambient temperature (e.g., in plant). tained according to Department of Transportation Are there any systems for keeping moisture from (DOT) Shipping Container Specification Regulations getting into a compressor? (49 CFR Parts 173 and 178), which include provisions Water traps or desiccators can keep moisture out of a for the construction, testing, and maintenance of These systems remove the water from the compressor. cylinders. These steps are necessary to prevent - air as it is run through the compressor, ensuring a cer explosions that can result from a rupture in a breath- tain level of dryness when it comes out. Such systems, ing air cylinder under high pressure. (Additional like all other parts of a compressor, must be maintained guidance is available in 29 CFR 1910.101(b), which in accord with the manufacturer’s instructions to prop- includes provisions for in-plant handling and erly remove the moisture. storage of compressed gas cylinders.) • Cylinders of purchased breathing air must be (i)(5)(iii) Inline air purification accompanied by a certificate from the supplier Suitable air-purifying beds and filters must be used in indicating that the contents of each cylinder have the supply lines to ensure delivery of a continuous flow been tested and found to meet the criteria for Grade of Grade D breathing air to the respirator user. (A SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 51 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

54 sorbent bed is a filter designed to capture impurities in chamber, and not carbon monoxide resulting from a the air.) You must maintain, refurbish, or replace inline poorly located compressor intake. Furthermore, high sorbent beds and filters as specified by the equipment temperature alarms are installed more for the purpose manufacturer. of protecting the compressor from damage than for guarding employees from exposure to carbon (i)(5)(iv) Tr a c k i n g o f b e d a n d f i l t e r c h a n g e s monoxide. Because of this, the alarm component of the system is often located with the alarm sensor Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t a t a g i s m a i n t a i n e d a t / o n t h e where it may not be heard by the respirator users. compressor with a note indicating when the sorbent Consequently, if the compressor has only a high- beds and filters were last changed. The notation must temperature alarm, you must ensure that air quality is include the signature of the person you have authorized frequently monitored to confirm that carbon monoxide to perform the bed and filter maintenance. Only a tag levels stay below 10 ppm. indicating the most recent filter and bed changes needs to be retained at/on the compressor. How often should I check on carbon monoxide levels? Requirements Regarding Carbon Monoxide Periodic monitoring for carbon monoxide is acceptable when using newer, well-maintained compressors. Yo u m u s t t a k e c e r t a i n p r e c a u t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o c a r b o n Continuous monitoring, however, is recommended for monoxide when using compressors with atmosphere- older compressors. In older equipment, oil may enter supplying respirators. the air supply more readily due to piston ring or These precautions are required because: cylinder wear. Continuous monitoring also should be • Exposure to carbon monoxide above certain levels conducted for rented or second-hand compressors can be fatal. because the maintenance history is likely to be unknown or uncertain. • Sources of this potentially lethal gas are fairly common in many worksites. (In fact, one source How do I check carbon monoxide levels? of carbon monoxide is the exhaust from the Carbon monoxide levels can be tested with two general compressor itself.) types of devices: • Yo u w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o d e t e c t t h e p r e s e n c e o f c a r b o n Direct reading instruments that use electrochemical • monoxide because it is an odorless gas. sensors • The types of precautions you will need to take Chemical detector tubes • depend on the type of compressor you use. Although the electrochemical devices tend to be (i)(6 ) Compressors that are not oil lubricated more expensive, they are also more accurate (i.e., they With this type of compressor, you must ensure that have a 5 percent error rate). Also, such devices must be carbon monoxide in the breathing air is less than or calibrated periodically (usually monthly) to achieve ac- equal to 10 ppm. This can be achieved by: curate readings. Calibration services provide traceable calibrations using a wide variety of multimeter devices. • Locating the compressor’s air intake component in an area free of contaminants Newer generations of electrochemical sensors use a meter with built-in advanced features that enhance Conducting continuous or frequent monitoring of • reliability and repeatability. These may also have the breathing air supply auto-zero features to eliminate manual calibration. The • Using inline carbon monoxide filters carbon monoxide meter shows carbon monoxide levels Using high-temperature alarms or shut-off devices • (0–1000 ppm) on a large, backlit liquid crystal display (LCD) and have hold functions to store and display the ) Compressors that are oil lubricated (i)(7 maximum carbon monoxide level. With this type of compressor, carbon monoxide can be Chemical detector tubes have an error rate of 10 generated when oil enters the combustion chamber to 15 percent. Carbon monoxide filters (i.e., filters that and is partially combusted. Therefore, you must ensure convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide) with that the compressor operates with a carbon monoxide color-change indicators may not be used as carbon alarm or a high-temperature alarm. Carbon monoxide monoxide monitors because the color change indicates alarms provide better protection than high-temperature the presence of moisture, not carbon monoxide. alarms because the high-temperature alarms only Other devices, such as carbon monoxide probes and detect carbon monoxide generated in the combustion aspirator kits provide additional functions. Probes have 52 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

55 both light-emitting diodes (LED) that provide backlight- CHECKLIST FOR BREATHING AIR QUALITY ing for indicators and beepers that trigger with AND USE increasing frequency as carbon monoxide levels rise. Check that at your facility: √ Optional aspirator kits let the user draw flue gas samples up to 370 degrees C (700 degrees F). General q Compressed breathing air meets the requirements Must each of these methods be used for compressors for Grade D breathing air. that are not oil lubricated? Compressed oxygen is not used in respirators that q No, you must use whichever of the above methods are have previously used compressed air. necessary to ensure that carbon monoxide does not q Oxygen concentrations greater than 23.5 percent contaminate the breathing air. In some cases, one are used only in equipment designed for oxygen method may be all that is needed. In other cases, you service or distribution. may be required to use more than one of these q Breathing air couplings are incompatible with methods. outlets for other gas systems. Yo u m u s t e v a l u a t e y o u r o w n w o r k s i t e c o n d i t i o n s Breathing gas containers are marked in q to determine which measures are needed to prevent accord with the NIOSH certification standard. carbon monoxide from contaminating breathing air. Carbon monoxide levels are monitored for both q (i)(8 ) Precautions regarding couplings oil and gas compressors. Breathing Air Cylinders Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t c o u p l i n g s u s e d o n a i r l i n e s f o r incompatible atmosphere-supplying respirators are Cylinders are tested and maintained according to q with outlets for nonbreathable worksite air or other gas DOT 49 CFR Parts 173 and 178. systems. This precaution must be taken to avoid the A certificate of analysis for breathing air has been q chance of inadvertently connecting a respirator to a obtained from the supplier. source other than the breathing air. Such a mistake q Moisture content in the cylinder does not exceed could result in serious illness or death. Also, you must a dew point of -50°F at 1 atmosphere pressure. ensure that at no time is an asphyxiating substance Compressors introduced into a respirator’s airlines. For example, an inert gas such as nitrogen must not be used to purge or Are constructed and situated to prevent contami- q nated air from getting into the system. clean breathing airlines. Are set up to minimize the moisture content. q (i)(9 ) Labeling of breathing gas containers Are equipped with in-line air-purifying sorbent q Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t b r e a t h i n g a i r c o n t a i n e r s a r e beds and filters that are maintained or replaced - labeled in keeping with the NIOSH respirator certifica following manufacturer’s instructions. The NIOSH standard incorpo - tion standard (42 CFR 84). q Are tagged with information on the most recent rates ANSI’s Method of Marking Portable Compressed change date of the filter and an authorizing Gas Containers to Identify Material Contained (Z48.1- signature. 1971). Proper labeling of containers will avoid the possi- q Carbon monoxide does not exceed 10 ppm in the bility of confusion when connecting the breathing air breathing air from compressors that are not oil- source to the respirator. lubricated. q High-temperature or carbon monoxide alarms are used on oil-lubricated compressors; monitor the air often enough to ensure that carbon monoxide does not exceed 10 ppm if only a high-tempera- ture alarm is used. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 53 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

56 successful respiratory protection program and is Section (j): Identification of filters, essential for correct respirator use. You must provide cartridges and canisters training to your employees who are required to wear This section of the standard requires you to ensure that respirators. all filters, cartridges and canisters used are labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label. You must (k)(1) Content of training also ensure that the label is not removed and remains Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t e a c h w o r k e r c a n d e m o n s t r a t e legible. knowledge of at least the following: - To f u l f i l l t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , y o u s h o u l d a d o p t a p p r o Why the respirator is necessary and how improper • priate procedures for ensuring that: fit, usage and maintenance can make the respirator Only NIOSH-certified filters, cartridges and canisters • ineffective. are used - Tr a i n i n g m u s t i n c l u d e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f h a z a r d s , • Labels are not removed, defaced, or obscured the extent of employee exposure to those hazards, during respirator usage and the potential health effects of exposure. The training that is required under the Hazard Yo u r w r i t t e n r e s p i r a t o r y p r o t e c t i o n p r o g r a m m u s t i n - Communication standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) can clude these provisions. satisfy this requirement for chemical hazards. What is included on the NIOSH label? Employees must understand that proper fit, usage, and maintenance of respirators is critical The label clearly states the class of contaminants for to ensure that they can perform their protective which the filter, cartridge, or canister may be used (e.g., function. permissible particulate respirator filter for dusts, fumes and mists, including asbestos-containing dusts and The limitations and capabilities of the selected • mists and radionuclides). The NIOSH certification respirator. number and any limitations or precautions are also - Tr a i n i n g m u s t a d d r e s s h o w t h e r e s p i r a t o r o p e r - included on the label. ates. Included must be an explanation of how the What is the purpose of the label? respirator provides protection by filtering the air, absorbing the gas or vapor, or by supplying a The NIOSH label serves several purposes. It ensures clean source of air. Limitations on the use of the selection of the appropriate cartridge/canister for the equipment, such as prohibitions against using an contaminants found in the workplace. Also, it permits air-purifying respirator in an IDLH atmosphere, the employee using the respirator to check and confirm and why not, must also be explained. that the respirator has the appropriate filters before the respirator is used. Further, the color coding scheme - Tr a i n i n g m u s t a d d r e s s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s p i r a t o r allows fellow employees, supervisors and the respira- malfunction and the development of emergency tory protection program administrator to readily deter - situations specific to the worksite. Employees mine that the worker is using the appropriate filter. must understand what procedures are to be followed in such circumstances, and which Can I write the date of initial use on the label? procedures require use of a different respirator. Ye s , m a r k i n g t h e i n i t i a l u s e d a t e o n t h e l a b e l c a n b e • How to properly select cartridges and canisters and done if it does not obscure the information on the label. know the assigned cartridge and canister change schedules for the devices selected. Section (k): Tr a i n i n g a n d i n fo r m a t i o n - Tr a i n i n g m u s t a d d r e s s h o w t o u s e t h e r e s p i r a t o r This section of the Respiratory Protection standard effectively in terms of the use of cartridges and requires you to train your employees on all the essen - canisters, the exposures the cartridges are tial elements that help protect the employees while they designed to address, and knowledge of the use respirators. Some of these components answer the estimated service life of cartridges. following questions, among others: why the respirator is needed; how must the respirator be maintained; and, How to use the respirator effectively in emergency • what steps should the employee take when respirators situations. fail to function or in emergency situations. Training on - Tr a i n i n g m u s t a d d r e s s h o w t o u s e a r e s p i r a t o r fit testing for negative pressure respirators and the effectively in emergency situations, which are need for user seal checks after donning respirators is occurrences such as, but not limited to, respirator important for the employee to determine how well a malfunctions or failures, rupture of containers, or respirator fits. Employee training is a critical part of a failure of control equipment that may or does 54 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

57 result in an uncontrolled substantial release of an deficiencies in respirator use, conduct medical airborne contaminant. Respirators malfunction on evaluations, provide for the maintenance, storage occasion, work routines change, and emergency and cleaning of respirators, and retain and provide situations occur that require a different respirator. access to specific records. The training program must discuss these Do I need to follow a particular format? possibilities and the procedures the employer has No. As long as the required topics are addressed, you established to deal with them. Such training is can use whatever training method is effective. Prepared necessary when respirators are to be used in IDLH materials, such as audiovisual and slide presentations, situations, including oxygen-deficient atmos- - formal classroom instruction, informal discussions dur pheres, such as those that occur in firefighting, ing safety meetings, training programs developed or rescue operations and confined area entry. conducted by unions or respirator manufacturers, or a How to inspect, put on and remove, use and check • combination of these methods may be used. the seals of the respirator. In what sense are employees expected to be able to - Yo u m u s t t r a i n e m p l o y e e s h o w t o r e c o g n i z e “demonstrate knowledge” of proper respirator use problems that may decrease the effectiveness based on the training? of the respirator and what steps to follow if a Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t , b e f o r e a n e m p l o y e e i s r e q u i r e d problem is detected, such as the person to - to use a respirator in the workplace, he or she under whom problems should be reported and where stands the information provided and can use the replacement equipment can be obtained if respirator properly. This can be done by reviewing the needed. If specialized personnel conduct inspec - training with the employee either orally or in writing, tions, individual respirator wearers only need to and by reviewing the employee’s hands-on use of be taught about the portions of the inspection respirators. process that are their responsibility. You must also cover how to properly put on and remove the (k)(2) Comprehension of training respirator to ensure that respirator fit in the work- Tr a i n i n g m u s t b e c o n d u c t e d i n a m a n n e r t h a t i s place is as close as possible to the fit obtained understandable to your employees. This means that during fit testing. Employees must be trained to your program should be tailored to your employees’ (See Appendix B-1 of perform user seal checks. education level and language background. the standard.) The respirator maintenance and storage procedures. • (k)(3) Timing of training - The extent of training required may vary Yo u m u s t p r o v i d e t h e r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g p r i o r t o h a v i n g according to workplace conditions. If employees an employee use a respirator in the workplace. are individually responsible for storing and (k)(4) Portability of training maintaining respirators, detailed training may be necessary. If specialized personnel perform these If you can demonstrate that a new employee has functions, employees only need to be informed of received training within the last 12 months and can the general maintenance and storage procedures. demonstrate the necessary knowledge, you are not required to repeat this training. In cases where training • How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that in some elements is lacking or inadequate, you are may limit or prevent effective use of the respirator. required to provide training in those elements. Previous - Yo u m u s t i n s t r u c t e m p l o y e e s t o r e c o g n i z e m e d i c a l training that has been transported with the employee signs and symptoms, such as shortness of breath (i.e., not repeated initially) must be provided no later or dizziness that may limit or prevent effective use than 12 months from the date of the previous training. of respirators. (k)(5) Retraining • The general requirements of the Respiratory Protec - tion standard. Yo u m u s t r e t r a i n e m p l o y e e s i n t h e p r o p e r u s e o f r e s p i - rators annually. You must also retrain employees when: - Yo u m u s t e n s u r e t h a t e m p l o y e e s a r e a w a r e , i n general, of your obligations under the standard. • Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator This discussion need not focus on the standard’s make previous training obsolete. provisions but could, for example, simply inform The knowledge and skill necessary to use the respira- • employees that employers are obligated to tor properly has not been retained by the employee. develop a written program, properly select Any other situation arises in which retraining • respirators, evaluate respirator use, correct SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 55 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

58 appears necessary to ensure safe respirator use. Program Evaluation Section (l): (k)(6) Information for voluntary respirator users (l)(1) Conducting program evaluations For employees who choose to wear a respirator but are Yo u m u s t p e r f o r m e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e w o r k p l a c e a s not required to do so, you are required to provide the necessary to make sure that your written respiratory of the standard. A advisory information in Appendix D protection program is working effectively. copy of the standard is provided in Attachment 3 of this How often do I need to evaluate my written respiratory guide. This basic information on the proper use of protection program? respirators can be presented to the employee either verbally or in written form. Training is usually not Yo u d o n o t n e e d t o r e v i e w y o u r r e s p i r a t o r y p r o t e c t i o n required for employees who are not required to wear program according to any fixed schedule. The respirators, i.e., for employees who are wearing frequency with which you need to evaluate your respirators voluntarily. respiratory protection program will depend on the complexity and/or variability of the program and factors such as: • The type and extent of hazards in your workplace. TRAINING AND INFORMATION CHECKLIST FOR • The types of respirators used by your employees. √ Check that your facility provides the following: The number of your employees who use respirators. • Demonstration of employees’ knowledge of: The amount of experience your respirator-wearing • Why the respirator is necessary and the conse- q employeess have in using respirators. quences of improper fit, use, or maintenance. Yo u m u s t e v a l u a t e r e s p i r a t o r u s e w i t h s u f f i c i e n t f r e - The limitations and capabilities of the respirator. q quency to ensure that all elements of the respiratory q How to effectively use the respirator in emergency protection program are being effectively implemented. situations, including respirator malfunction. (l)(2) Consulting with employees How to inspect, put on, remove, use and check q Yo u m u s t r e g u l a r l y c o n s u l t w i t h e m p l o y e e s r e q u i r e d the seals of the respirator. to wear respirators to assess their views on the q Maintenance and storage procedures. effectiveness of the respiratory protection program and q The general requirements of the Respiratory to identify any problems that they may be encountering Protection standard. with the use of respirators. You must correct any problems that are identified. q How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent effective use of the At a minimum, you must assess: respirator. Whether proper fit of respirators is being achieved, • Check that your facility satisfies the general √ and whether respirator use is interfering with requirements of the respirator standard by providing effective work performance. the following: Whether appropriate respirators have been selected. • q Tr a i n i n g t h a t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o e m p l o y e e s . Whether respirators are being properly used. • Tr a i n i n g p r i o r t o e m p l o y e e u s e o f a r e s p i r a t o r. q Whether respirators are being properly maintained. • Retraining as specified below: q When I consult with my employees, what should I ask • Annually. them? • Upon changes in workplace conditions that Yo u m a y w a n t t o a s k y o u r w o r k e r s q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s : affect respirator use. Does your respirator interfere with your hearing or • • When knowledge and skills for respirator use vision? are not retained by the employee. • Do you experience fatigue or have difficulty breath - • Whenever retraining appears necessary to ing during respirator use? ensure safe respirator use. • Does your respirator restrict your movements or Appendix D of the standard q to voluntary users. interfere with your job performance in any way? Is your respirator uncomfortable? • 56 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

59 How long do I need to retain fit test records? • Are you confident that you are using your respirator correctly? Fit test records must be retained for respirator users until the next fit test is administered. • Are you confident that your respirator is performing adequately? Do I need to retain records of fit tests for employees who are no longer using respirators? No, fit test records do not need to be retained for these CHECKLIST FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION employees. √ Check that your facility: (m)(3) Written respiratory protection program Conducts workplace evaluations as necessary to q ensure that the written respiratory protection Yo u m u s t r e t a i n a w r i t t e n c o p y o f y o u r c u r r e n t program is being effectively implemented. respiratory protection program. Regularly consults with employees required to q (m)(4) Access to records on the wear respirators to assess their views respiratory protection program and to identify Written materials required to be retained must be made problems with respirator fit, selection, use and available upon request to the affected employees, their maintenance. designated representatives (29 CFR 1910.1020), and to OSHA. (See also 29 CFR 1910.1020 at: http://www.osha. q Corrects any problems identified during assess- gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= ments. STANDARDS&p_id=10027.) Do I need to allow employees and OSHA to make copies of these materials? Section (m): Recordkeeping Ye s , y o u n e e d t o m a k e t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e f o r Yo u m u s t r e t a i n c e r t a i n r e c o r d s t o : inspection and for copying. assist you in auditing the adequacy of your respira- • Must employees be allowed access to the records of tory protection program other employees? facilitate employee involvement • No, each affected employe can have access to his or her allow OSHA to inspect your records and make • records only. compliance determinations (m)(1) Medical evaluation records CHECKLIST FOR RECORDKEEPING Records of medical evaluations required by paragraph Check that your facility does the following: √ (e) of the standard must be retained and made available to the employees in accord with OSHA’s Access to Retains records of medical evaluations. q Employee Exposure and Medical Records standard Retains fit testing records. q (29 CFR 1910.1020). Retains a copy of the current respiratory q (m)(2) Respirator fit testing records protection program. Yo u a r e r e q u i r e d t o r e t a i n w r i t t e n r e c o r d s o f t h e Provides access to the above records by affected q qualitative and quantitative fit tests administered to employees and OSHA. your employees. These records need to include: • The name or identification of the worker tested. The type of fit test performed. • • The make, model and size of the respirator tested. The date of the fit test. • Pass/fail results if a qualitative fit test (QLFT) is used, • or the fit factor and strip chart recording or other record of the test results if a quantitative fit test (QNFT) is used. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 57 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

60 LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Attachment 1: APF Glossary and definitions Mine Safety and Health Administration MSHA The preamble to the final rule for Assigned Protection MUC Maximum Use Concentration (see Factors (APF) includes a glossary (see 71 FR 50122; definition) August 24, 2006) that provides an auxiliary list of terms National Fire Protection Association NFPA used in the APF rulemaking and throughout the pream - NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety ble to the APF final rule. In the glossary portion, there is and Health both a list of acronyms used in the APF rule and a list of definitions, in addition to the definitions in the APF rule- Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC making for Assigned Protection Factor and Maximum Occupational Safety and Health OSHA Use Concentration (MUC). The glossary contains Administration - acronyms and terms from the final Respiratory Protec OSH Act The Occupational Safety and Health Act of tion standard (29 CFR 1910.134) each of which is printed 1970 (29 U.S.C. 655, 657, 665). in brown italics and is highlighted with an asterisk (*). The purpose of this glossary in this Small Entity Com - PAPR Powered air-purifying respirator (see pliance Guide, is to provide those same acronyms and definition) terms from the final Respiratory Protection standard, PEL Permissible Exposure Limit (see definition) and to provide the new definitions for APFs and MUCs Program Protection Factor (see definition PPF from the APF rulemaking in one place for ease of below under “Protection factor study”) review. A copy of the Respiratory Protection standard is (See 71 FR 50122, provided in Attachment 3. QLFT Qualitative fit test (see definition) August 24, 2006, for a copy of the APF standard.) Quantitative fit test (see definition) QNFT This glossary specifies the terms represented by RDL Respirator Decision Logic acronyms and provides definitions of other terms used (see definition) frequently in the preamble to the final rule. This glos - REL Recommended Exposure Limit (see sary does not change the legal requirements in this definition) final rule, nor is it intended to impose new regulatory Supplied-air (or airline) respirator (see SAR requirements on the regulated community. definition) Acronyms Self-contained breathing apparatus (see SCBA ACGIH American Conference of Governmental definition) Industrial Hygienists Simulated Workplace Protection Factor SWPF AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association (see definition below under “Protection factor study”) ANSI American National Standards Institute Threshold Limit Value (see definition) TLV APF Assigned Protection Factor (see definition) Workplace Protection Factor (see definition WPF Air-purifying respirator (see definition) APR below under “Protection factor study”) Ci Concentration measured inside the respirator facepiece Definitions Co Concentration measured outside the Te r m s p r e c e d e d b y a n a s t e r i s k ( * ) r e f e r t o d e f i n i t i o n s respirator that can be found in paragraph (b) (“Definitions”) of OSHA’s Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR Dust, fume, and mist filter DFM 1910.134). Dioctylphthalate (see definition) DOP - *Air-purifying respirator: A respirator with an air-purify Effective Protection Factor (see definition EPF ing filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air below under “Protection factor study”) contaminants by passing ambient air through the air- High efficiency particulate air filter (see HEPA purifying element. definition) means the workplace *Assigned protection factor (APF): Immediately dangerous to life or health IDLH level of respiratory protection that a respirator or class (see definition) of respirators is expected to provide to employees when the employer implements a continuing, effective respi- Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL ratory protection program as specified by this section. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory LASL 58 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

61 A respirator that *Atmosphere-supplying respirator: *High-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA): A filter that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a is at least 99.97% efficient in removing monodispersed source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. The equivalent includes SARs and SCBA units. NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate filters are the N100, R100, and P100 filters. *Canister or cartridge: A container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which A respiratory inlet covering that completely *Hood: removes specific contaminants from the air passed covers the head and neck and may also cover portions through the container. of the shoulders and torso. Continuous flow respirator: An atmosphere-supplying An *Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH): respirator that provides a continuous flow of breathable atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, air to the respirator facepiece. would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual’s ability to escape from a An atmosphere-supplying *Demand respirator: dangerous atmosphere. respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the *Interior structural firefighting: The physical activity of facepiece by inhalation. fire suppression, rescue or both, inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situa- Dioctylphthalate (DOP): An aerosolized agent used for tion beyond the incipient stage. (See 29 CFR 1910.155). quantitative fit testing. *Loose-fitting facepiece: A respiratory inlet covering A respirator facepiece made of a natural Elastomeric: that is designed to form a partial seal with the face. or synthetic elastic material such as natural rubber, silicone, or synthetic rubber. The maximum *Maximum use concentration (MUC): atmospheric concentration of a hazardous substance Any occurrence such as, but not *Emergency situation: from which an employee can be expected to be limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or protected when wearing a respirator, and is determined failure of control equipment that may or does result in by the assigned protection factor of the respirator or an uncontrolled significant release of an airborne class of respirators and the exposure limit of the contaminant. hazardous substance. The MUC can be determined *Employee exposure: Exposure to a concentration mathematically by multiplying the assigned protection of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the factor specified for a respirator by the required OSHA employee were not using respiratory protection. permissible exposure limit, short-term exposure limit, or ceiling limit. When no OSHA exposure limit is A system that *End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI): available for a hazardous substance, an employer must warns the respirator user of the approach of the end of determine an MUC on the basis of relevant available adequate respiratory protection, for example, that the information and informed professional judgment. sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective. A *Negative pressure respirator (tight-fitting): respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece *Escape-only respirator: A respirator intended to be is negative during inhalation with respect to the used only for emergency exit. ambient air pressure outside the respirator. A component used in *Filter or air-purifying element: An atmosphere with an *Oxygen deficient atmosphere: respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the oxygen content below 19.5% by volume. inspired air. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): An occupational A negative *Filtering facepiece (or dust mask): exposure limit specified by OSHA. pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece *Physician or other licensed healthcare professional composed of the filtering medium. (PLHCP): An individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) A quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular *Fit factor: allows him or her to independently provide, or be respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient the healthcare services required by paragraph (e) of air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn. this section. The use of a protocol to qualitatively or quan- *Fit test: *Positive pressure respirator: A respirator in which the titatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual. pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds - A rigid respiratory inlet covering that also pro *Helmet: the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. vides head protection against impact and penetration. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 59 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

62 An air-purify - *Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR): worn during performance of normal work tasks (i.e., ing respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient samples are not collected when the respirator is not air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering. being worn). As the degree of protection afforded by the respirator increases, the WPF increases. A positive pressure *Pressure demand respirator: atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) study Simulated air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is - a study, conducted in a controlled laboratory setting reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation. and in which Co and Ci sampling is performed while the respirator user performs a series of set exercises. A study that determines the Protection factor study: The laboratory setting is used to control many of the protection provided by a respirator during use. This - variables found in workplace studies, while the exer determination generally is accomplished by measuring cises simulate the work activities of respirator users. the ratio of the concentration of an airborne contami- This type of study is designed to determine the nant (e.g., hazardous substance) outside the respirator optimum performance of respirators by reducing the (Co) to the concentration inside the respirator (Ci) (i.e., impact of sources of variability through maintenance Co/Ci). Therefore, as the ratio between Co and Ci of tightly controlled study conditions. increases, the protection factor increases, indicating an increase in the level of protection provided to *Qualitative fit test (QLFT): A pass/fail fit test to employees by the respirator. Four types of protection assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the factor studies are: individual’s response to the test agent. - a study, Effective Protection Factor (EPF) study *Quantitative fit test (QNFT): An assessment of the conducted in the workplace, that measures the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the protection provided by a properly selected, fit-tested, amount of leakage into the respirator. and functioning respirator when used intermittently Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): An occupational for only some fraction of the total workplace expo- exposure level recommended by NIOSH. sure time (i.e., sampling is conducted during periods Respirator selection Respirator Decision Logic (RDL): when respirators are worn and not worn). EPFs are guidance developed by NIOSH that contains a set of not directly comparable to Workplace Protection Fac - respirator protection factors. tor (WPF) values because the determinations include both the time spent in contaminated atmospheres *Respiratory inlet covering: That portion of a respirator with and without respiratory protection; therefore, that forms the protective barrier between the user’s EPFs usually underestimate the protection afforded - respiratory tract and an air-purifying device or breath - by a respirator that is used continuously in the work ing air source, or both. It may be a facepiece, helmet, place. hood, suit, or a mouthpiece respirator with nose clamp. - a study that Program Protection Factor (PPF) study *Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA): - An at estimates the protection provided by a respirator mosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing within a specific respirator program. Like the EPF, it air source is designed to be carried by the user. is focused not only on the respirator’s performance, *Supplied-air respirator (or airline) respirator (SAR): An but also the effectiveness of the complete respirator atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source program. PPFs are affected by all factors of the of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the program, including respirator selection and mainte- user. nance, user training and motivation, work activities Threshold Limit An occupational exposure Va l u e ( T LV ) : and program administration. level recommended by ACGIH. - a study, Workplace Protection Factor (WPF) study *Tight-fitting facepiece: A respiratory inlet covering conducted under actual conditions of use in the that forms a complete seal with the face. workplace, that measures the protection provided by a properly selected, fit-tested, and functioning respi- An action conducted by the *User seal check: rator, when the respirator is worn correctly and used respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly as part of a comprehensive respirator program that is seated to the face. in compliance with OSHA’s Respiratory Protection standard at 29 CFR 1910.134. Measurements of Co and Ci are obtained only while the respirator is being 60 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

63 Attachment 2: Checklists CHECKLIST FOR PERMISSIBLE PRACTICE CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAMS √ Check all that apply: √ Does your program contain written procedures for Hazard Determination (check all that apply): Is there a hazardous atmosphere in your workplace, Yo u r s p e c i f i c w o r k p l a c e q which has (check all that apply): q Selecting respirators q Insufficient oxygen q Harmful levels of chemical, biological, or q Medical evaluations of employees required to radiological contaminants wear respirators q Known and reasonably foreseeable emergencies q Fit testing related to... Routine and emergency respirator use q Unknown exposure levels or exposures to q Schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, q substances without an OSHA PEL inspecting, repairing, discarding, and maintaining If you did not check any of the boxes above, the respirators apply to Respiratory Protection standard does not Ensuring adequate air quality for supplied-air q your workplace. respirators If you checked any of the boxes above, the Respira- tory Protection standard - apply to your work may q Tr a i n i n g i n r e s p i r a t o r y h a z a r d s place. q Tr a i n i n g i n p r o p e r u s e a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f respirators OSHA requires use of the following methods to con- trol the hazardous atmosphere(s) in your workplace: q Program evaluation q Engineering controls, such as ventilation, isolation Ensuring that employees who voluntarily wear q or enclosure of the work process, or substitution of respirators (excluding filtering facepieces) comply non-hazardous materials for the materials that pose with the medical evaluation and cleaning, storing respiratory hazards; and and maintenance requirements of the standard rotation, q Administrative controls, such as worker A designated program administrator who is q or scheduling major maintenance for weekends or qualified to administer the program are present. times when few workers q Updating the written program as necessary to When engineering controls are not feasible, or account for changes in the workplace affecting while engineering controls are being installed or respirator use maintained, or whenever there is an emergency, q Providing equipment, training and medical be used. must appropriate respirators evaluations at no cost to employees Does your workplace have (check the box to indicate yes, and check all that apply): If you did not check all of the boxes above, your does not respiratory protection program meet OSHA q Sufficient engineering controls to prevent illness standards. or diseases caused by breathing hazardous air in the workplace Sufficient administrative controls to prevent illness q both of the boxes above, If you did not check to does apply the Respiratory Protection standard your workplace, and you must develop a written respiratory protection program that is specific to your workplace. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 61 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

64 CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATOR SELECTION CHECKLIST FOR MEDICAL EVALUATION Check that the following has been done at your √ Check that the following has been done at your √ facility: facility: q All employees have been evaluated to determine Respiratory hazards in your workplace have been q their ability to wear a respirator prior to being fit identified and evaluated. tested for or wearing a respirator for the first time Employee exposures that have not been, or q in your workplace. cannot be, evaluated must be considered IDLH. q A physician or other licensed healthcare profes- q Respirators are NIOSH-certified, and used under sional (PLHCP) has been identified to perform the the conditions of certification. medical evaluations. The medical evaluations obtain the information q q Respirators are selected based on the workplace Sections 1 and 2, Part A of requested in hazards evaluated and workplace and user factors Appendix C of the standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 . affecting respirator performance and reliability. (See Attachment 3) Respirators are selected based on the APFs and q Employees are provided follow-up medical exams q calculated MUCs. questions 1 if they answer positively to any of q A sufficient number of respirator sizes and models through 8 in Section 2, Part A of Appendix C of the are provided for selection purposes. standard, or if their medical examination reveals that a follow-up exam is needed. For IDLH atmospheres: Medical evaluations are administered confiden- q q Full facepiece pressure demand SARs with tially during normal work hours, and in a manner auxiliary SCBA unit or full facepiece pressure that is understandable to employees. demand SCBAs, with a minimum service life of q Employees are provided the opportunity to discuss 30 minutes, are provided. the medical evaluation results with the PLHCP. Respirators used for escape only are NIOSH- q q The following supplemental information is certified for the atmosphere in which they will provided to the PLHCP before he or she makes a be used. decision about respirator use: • Type and weight of the respirator. q Oxygen deficient atmospheres must be • Duration and frequency of respirator use. considered IDLH (d)(2)(B)(iii). • Expected physical work effort. For Non-IDLH atmospheres: • Additional protective clothing to be worn. • Potential temperature and humidity extremes. q Respirators selected are appropriate for the APFs and MUCs. • Written copies of the respiratory protection program and the Respiratory Protection Respirators selected are appropriate for the q standard are provided to the PLHCP. chemical nature and physical form of the q Written recommendations are obtained from the contaminant. PLHCP regarding each employee’s ability to wear Air-purifying respirators used for protection q a respirator, and that the PLHCP has given the against gases and vapors are equipped with ESLIs worker a copy of these recommendations. or a change schedule has been implemented. Employees who are medically unable to wear a q negative pressure respirator are provided with a Air-purifying respirators used for protection q powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) if they are against particulates are equipped with NIOSH- found by the PLHCP to be medically able to use a certified HEPA filters or other filters certified by PAPR. (29 CFR 1910.1034(e)(6)(ii) .) NIOSH for particulates under 42 CFR part 84. Employees are given additional medical evaluations when: q The employee reports symptoms related to his or her ability to use a respirator. q The PLHCP, respiratory protection program administrator, or supervisor determines that a medical reevaluation is necessary. q Information from the respiratory protection program suggests a need for reevaluation. q Workplace conditions have changed in a way that could potentially place an increased physiological burden on the employee. 62 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

65 CHECKLIST FOR PROPER USE OF TESTING CHECKLIST FOR FIT RESPIRATORS Check all the fit tests listed below that are used at √ your facility: √ Check your facility to be certain that: q Employees who are using tight-fitting respirator Employees using tight-fitting respirators have no q facepieces have passed an appropriate fit test conditions, such as facial hair, that would interfere prior to being required to use a respirator. with a face-to-facepiece seal or valve function. q Fit testing is conducted with the same make, Employees wear corrective glasses, goggles, or q model, style and size that the employee will be other protective equipment in a manner that does expected to use at the worksite. not interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function. q Fit tests are conducted annually and when different respirator facepieces are to be used. q Employees perform user seal checks prior to each use of a tight-fitting respirator. q Provisions are made to conduct additional fit tests in the event of physical changes in the employee There are procedures for conducting ongoing q that may affect respirator fit. surveillance of the work area for conditions that affect respirator effectiveness, and that, when Employees are given the opportunity to select a q such conditions exist, you take steps to address different respirator facepiece, and be retested if those situations. their respirator fit is unacceptable to them. q Employees are permitted to leave their work area q Fit tests are administered using OSHA-accepted to conduct respirator maintenance, such as QNFT or QLFT protocols. washing the facepiece, or to replace respirator QLFT is only used to fit test either PAPRs, SCBAs, q parts. or negative pressure APRs that must achieve a fit q Employees do not return to their work area until factor of 100 or less. their respirator has been repaired or replaced in QNFT is used in all situations where a negative q the event of a breakthrough, a leak in the face- pressure respirator is intended to protect piece, or a change in breathing resistance. workers from contaminant concentrations q There are procedures for respirator use in IDLH greater than 10 times the PEL. atmospheres and during interior structural q When QNFT is used to fit negative pressure firefighting to ensure that: the appropriate number respirators, a minimum fit factor of 100 is of standby personnel are deployed; standby achieved for tight-fitting half facepieces and 500 personnel and workers in the IDLH environ- for full facepieces. ment maintain communication; standby personnel are properly trained, equipped, and prepared; you For tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators will be notified when standby personnel enter an and powered air-purifying respirators: IDLH atmosphere; and you will respond appropri- Fit tests are conducted in the negative pressure q ately to this notification. mode. q Standby personnel are equipped with a pressure q QLFT is achieved by temporarily converting the demand or other positive pressure SCBA, or a facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with positive pressure supplied-air respirator with an appropriate filters, or by using an identical escape SCBA, and appropriate retrieval equipment negative pressure APR. or other means for rescue. QNFT is achieved by modifying the facepiece to q Procedures for interior structural firefighting q allow for sampling inside the mask midway require that: at least two employees enter the between the nose and mouth. If the facepiece is IDLH atmosphere and remain in contact with one permanently converted during fit testing, the another at all times; at least two standby person- respirator is no longer approved for workplace nel are used; and all firefighting employees use use. SCBAs. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 63 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

66 For SCBAs, inspections include: CHECKLIST FOR RESPIRATOR MAINTENANCE AND CARE q Check that cylinders are fully charged. √ Check to make sure that your facility has met the q Check that regulators function properly. following requirements: q Check that warning devices function properly. Cleaning and disinfecting: For emergency use respirators, inspections include: q Respirators are provided that are clean, sanitary, q Certification by documenting the inspection, and and in good working order. by tagging the information either to the respirator Respirators are cleaned and disinfected using the q or its compartment, or storing it with inspection procedures specified in Appendix B-2 of the reports. standard . Repairs: Respirators are cleaned and disinfected: Respirators that have failed inspection are taken q q As often as necessary when issued for the out of service. exclusive use of one employee. q Repairs are made only by trained personnel. q Before being worn by different individuals. Only NIOSH-certified parts are used. q q After each use for emergency use respirators. Reducing and admission valves, regulators and q q After each use for respirators used for fit testing alarms are adjusted or repaired only by the and training. manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer. Storage: q Respirators are stored to protect them from damage from the elements, and from becoming deformed. Emergency respirators are stored: To b e a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e w o r k a r e a . q q In compartments marked as such. q In accord with manufacturer’s instructions. Inspections: q Routine-use respirators are inspected before each use and during cleaning. q SCBAs and emergency respirators are inspected monthly and checked for proper functioning before and after each use. q Emergency escape-only respirators are inspected before being carried into the workplace for use. Inspections include: Check of respirator function. q q Tightness of connections. q Condition of the facepiece, head straps, valves, cartridges, and other parts. Condition of elastomeric parts. q 64 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

67 TRAINING AND INFORMATION CHECKLIST FOR BREATHING AIR QUALITY CHECKLIST FOR AND USE Check that your facility provides the following: √ √ Check that at your facility: Demonstration of employees’ knowledge of: General q Why the respirator is necessary and the conse- quences of improper fit, use, or maintenance. Compressed breathing air meets the requirements q for Grade D breathing air. q The limitations and capabilities of the respirator. Compressed oxygen is not used in respirators that q q How to effectively use the respirator in emergency have previously used compressed air. situations, including respirator malfunction. q Oxygen concentrations greater than 23.5 percent How to inspect, put on, remove, use and check q are used only in equipment designed for oxygen the seals of the respirator. service or distribution. Breathing air couplings are incompatible with q q Maintenance and storage procedures. outlets for other gas systems. The general requirements of the Respiratory q Breathing gas containers are marked in q Protection standard. accord with the NIOSH certification standard. How to recognize medical signs and symptoms q q Carbon monoxide levels are monitored for both that may limit or prevent effective use of the oil and gas compressors. respirator. Breathing Air Cylinders √ Check that your facility satisfies the general Cylinders are tested and maintained according to q requirements of the respirator standard by providing DOT 49 CFR Parts 173 and 178. the following: q A certificate of analysis for breathing air has been q Tr a i n i n g t h a t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o e m p l o y e e s . obtained from the supplier. Tr a i n i n g p r i o r t o e m p l o y e e u s e o f a r e s p i r a t o r. q Moisture content in the cylinder does not exceed q a dew point of -50°F at 1 atmosphere pressure. Retraining as specified below: q Compressors • Annually. q Are constructed and situated to prevent contami- • Upon changes in workplace conditions that nated air from getting into the system. affect respirator use. Are set up to minimize the moisture content. q • When knowledge and skills for respirator use Are equipped with in-line air-purifying sorbent q are not retained by the employee. beds and filters that are maintained or replaced • Whenever retraining appears necessary to following manufacturer’s instructions. ensure safe respirator use. q Are tagged with information on the most recent change date of the filter and an authorizing q Appendix D of the standard to voluntary users. signature. Carbon monoxide does not exceed 10 ppm in the q breathing air from compressors that are not oil- lubricated. High-temperature or carbon monoxide alarms are q used on oil-lubricated compressors; monitor the air often enough to ensure that carbon monoxide does not exceed 10 ppm if only a high-tempera- ture alarm is used. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 65 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

68 CHECKLIST FOR RECORDKEEPING CHECKLIST FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION Check that your facility does the following: Check that your facility: √ √ q Conducts workplace evaluations as necessary to q Retains records of medical evaluations. ensure that the written respiratory protection Retains fit testing records. q program is being effectively implemented. Retains a copy of the current respiratory q Regularly consults with employees required to q protection program. on the wear respirators to assess their views respiratory protection program and to identify q Provides access to the above records by affected problems with respirator fit, selection, use and employees and OSHA. maintenance. Corrects any problems identified during assess- q ments. 66 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

69 Canister or cartridge means a container with a filter, Attachment 3 sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, Respiratory Protection Standard which removes specific contaminants from the air This section applies to General Industry (part 1910), passed through the container. Shipyards (part 1915), Marine Terminals (part 1917), Longshoring (part 1918), and Construction (part means an atmosphere-supplying Demand respirator 1926). respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the 1910.134(a) facepiece by inhalation. Permissible practice. means any occurrence such as, Emergency situation 1910.134(a)(1) but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of con- In the control of those occupational diseases caused tainers, or failure of control equipment that may or by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, does result in an uncontrolled significant release of fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors, an airborne contaminant. the primary objective shall be to prevent atmos - pheric contamination. This shall be accomplished as - means exposure to a concentra Employee exposure far as feasible by accepted engineering control tion of an airborne contaminant that would occur if measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the employee were not using respiratory protection. the operation, general and local ventilation, and sub- stitution of less toxic materials). When effective engi - means a system End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) neering controls are not feasible, or while they are that warns the respirator user of the approach of the being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be end of adequate respiratory protection, for example, used pursuant to this section. that the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective. 1910.134(a)(2) Respirators shall be provided by the employer when Escape-only respirator means a respirator intended such equipment is necessary to protect the health of to be used only for emergency exit. the employee. The employer shall provide the respi- rators which are applicable and suitable for the pur - means a component Filter or air purifying element pose intended. The employer shall be responsible for used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols the establishment and maintenance of a respiratory from the inspired air. protection program which shall include the require- ments outlined in paragraph (c) of this section. Filtering facepiece (dust mask) means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an inte- 1910.134(b) gral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece Definitions. composed of the filtering medium. The following definitions are important terms used in the respiratory protection standard in this section. Fit factor means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typi- means a respirator with an Air-purifying respirator cally estimates the ratio of the concentration of a air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes substance in ambient air to its concentration inside specific air contaminants by passing ambient air the respirator when worn. through the air-purifying element. means the use of a protocol to qualitatively Fit test Assigned protection factor (APF) means the work- or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an place level of respiratory protection that a respirator individual. (See also Qualitative fit test QLFT and or class of respirators is expected to provide to em - Quantitative fit test QNFT.) ployees when the employer implements a continu- ing, effective respiratory protection program as means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that Helmet specified by this section. also provides head protection against impact and penetration. means a respirator Atmosphere-supplying respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air - from a source independent of the ambient atmos phere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 67 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

70 High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a some or all of the healthcare services required by paragraph (e) of this section. filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing monodisperse particles of 0.3 micrometers in diame - ter. The equivalent NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate fil- means a respirator in Positive pressure respirator - ters are the N100, R100, and P100 filters. which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet cover ing exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the res - means a respiratory inlet covering that com- Hood pirator. pletely covers the head and neck and may also cover Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) means an portions of the shoulders and torso. air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) inlet covering. means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health Pressure demand respirator means a positive pres- effects, or would impair an individual’s ability to es - cape from a dangerous atmosphere. sure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pres - Interior structural firefighting sure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation. means the physical activity of fire suppression, rescue or both, inside of Qualitative fit test (QLFT) means a pass/fail fit test to buildings or enclosed structures which are involved assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage. (See 29 CFR 1910.155) the individual’s response to the test agent. Loose-fitting facepiece Quantitative fit test (QNFT) means an assessment of means a respiratory inlet - the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measur cov ering that is designed to form a partial seal with ing the amount of leakage into the respirator. the face. - means that portion of a Respiratory inlet covering Maximum use concentration (MUC) means the max imum atmospheric concentration of a hazardous respirator that forms the protective barrier between the user’s respiratory tract and an air-purifying de- substance from which an employee can be expected to be protected when wearing a respirator, and is de- vice or breathing air source, or both. It may be a facepiece, helmet, hood, suit, or a mouthpiece respi- termined by the assigned protection factor of the res - pirator or class of respirators and the exposure limit rator with nose clamp. of the hazardous substance. The MUC can be deter - mined mathematically by multiplying the assigned Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) means protection factor specified for a respirator by the re- an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the quired OSHA permissible exposure limit, short-term breathing air source is designed to be carried by the exposure limit, or ceiling limit. When no OSHA expo- user. sure limit is available for a hazardous substance, an employer must determine an MUC on the basis of means the period of time that a respira - Service life tor, filter or sorbent, or other respiratory equipment relevant available information and informed profes- provides adequate protection to the wearer. sional judgment. means a Negative pressure respirator (tight fitting) Supplied-air respirator (SAR) or airline respirator means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for respirator in which the air pressure inside the face - piece is negative during inhalation with respect to which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user. the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. Oxygen deficient atmosphere means an atmosphere This section means this Respiratory Protection stan - with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume. dard. - means a respiratory inlet cov Physician or other licensed healthcare professional Tight-fitting facepiece - (PLHCP) means an individual whose legally permit ering that forms a complete seal with the face. ted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or means an action conducted by the User seal check certification) allows him or her to independently pro- vide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, respirator user to determine if the respirator is prop - erly seated to the face. 68 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

71 1910.134(c)(1)(vii) 1910.134(c) Tr a i n i n g o f e m p l o y e e s i n t h e r e s p i r a t o r y h a z a r d s t o Respiratory protection program. which they are potentially exposed during routine This paragraph requires the employer to develop and emergency situations; and implement a written respiratory protection pro- gram with required worksite-specific procedures and 1910.134(c)(1)(viii) elements for required respirator use. The program Tr a i n i n g o f e m p l o y e e s i n t h e p r o p e r u s e o f r e s p i r a - must be administered by a suitably trained program tors, including putting on and removing them, any administrator. In addition, certain program elements limitations on their use, and their maintenance; and may be required for voluntary use to prevent poten - tial hazards associated with the use of the respirator. 1910.134(c)(1)(ix) Procedures for regularly evaluating the effectiveness Small Entity Compliance Guide Note: The of the program. contains criteria for the selection of a program administrator and a sample program that meets 1910.134(c)(2) the requirements of this paragraph. Where respirator use is not required: 1910.134(c)(1) 1910.134(c)(2)(i) In any workplace where respirators are necessary to An employer may provide respirators at the request protect the health of the employee or whenever res - of employees or permit employees to use their own pirators are required by the employer, the employer respirators, if the employer determines that such res- shall establish and implement a written respiratory - pirator use will not in itself create a hazard. If the em protection program with worksite-specific proce- ployer determines that any voluntary respirator use dures. The program shall be updated as necessary to is permissible, the employer shall provide the respi- reflect those changes in workplace conditions that af - - rator users with the information contained in Appen fect respirator use. The employer shall include in the dix D to this section (“Information for Employees program the following provisions of this section, as Using Respirators When Not Required Under the applicable: Standard”); and 1910.134(c)(1)(i) 1910.134(c)(2)(ii) Procedures for selecting respirators for use in the In addition, the employer must establish and imple- workplace; ment those elements of a written respiratory protec- tion program necessary to ensure that any employee 1910.134(c)(1)(ii) using a respirator voluntarily is medically able to use Medical evaluations of employees required to use that respirator, and that the respirator is cleaned, respirators; stored, and maintained so that its use does not pres- ent a health hazard to the user. Exception: Employers 1910.134(c)(1)(iii) are not required to include in a written respiratory Fit testing procedures for tight-fitting respirators; protection program those employees whose only use of respirators involves the voluntary use of filter - 1910.134(c)(1)(iv) ing facepieces (dust masks). Procedures for proper use of respirators in routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations; 1910.134(c)(3) The employer shall designate a program administra- 1910.134(c)(1)(v) tor who is qualified by appropriate training or experi- Procedures and schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, ence that is commensurate with the complexity of - storing, inspecting, repairing, discarding, and other the program to administer or oversee the respiratory wise maintaining respirators; protection program and conduct the required evalua- tions of program effectiveness. 1910.134(c)(1)(vi) Procedures to ensure adequate air quality, quantity, 1910.134(c)(4) and flow of breathing air for atmosphere-supplying The employer shall provide respirators, training, and respirators; medical evaluations at no cost to the employee. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 69 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

72 1910.134(d)(2)(i)(A) 1910.134(d ) A full facepiece pressure demand SCBA certified by Selection of respirators. NIOSH for a minimum service life of thirty minutes, This paragraph requires the employer to evaluate or - respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace, identify rele vant workplace and user factors, and base respirator 1910.134(d)(2)(i)(B) selection on these factors. The paragraph also speci - - A combination full facepiece pressure demand sup fies appropriately protective respirators for use in plied-air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-con- IDLH atmospheres, and limits the selection and use tained air supply. of air-purifying respirators. 1910.134(d)(2)(ii) 1910.134(d)(1 - Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH at General requirements. mospheres shall be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used. 1910.134(d)(1)(i) The employer shall select and provide an appropri- 1910.134(d)(2)(iii) ate respirator based on the respiratory hazard(s) to All oxygen-deficient atmospheres shall be consid - which the worker is exposed and workplace and user ered IDLH. Exception: If the employer demonstrates factors that affect respirator performance and relia- that, under all foreseeable conditions, the oxygen bility. concentration can be maintained within the ranges - specified in Table II of this section (i.e., for the alti 1910.134(d)(1)(ii) tudes set out in the table), then any atmosphere-sup- The employer shall select a NIOSH-certified respira- plying respirator may be used. tor. The respirator shall be used in compliance with the conditions of its certification. 1910.134(d)(3) Respirators for atmospheres that are not IDLH. 1910.134(d)(1)(iii) The employer shall identify and evaluate the respira- 1910.134(d)(3)(i) tory hazard(s) in the workplace; this evaluation shall The employer shall provide a respirator that is ade- include a reasonable estimate of employee expo- quate to protect the health of the employee and en- sures to respiratory hazard(s) and an identification of sure compliance with all other OSHA statutory and the contaminant’s chemical state and physical form. regulatory requirements, under routine and reason - Where the employer cannot identify or reasonably ably foreseeable emergency situations. estimate the employee exposure, the employer shall consider the atmosphere to be IDLH. 1910.134(d)(3)(i)(A) Employers must Assigned Protection Factors (APFs) 1910.134(d)(1)(iv) use the assigned protection factors listed in Table I to The employer shall select respirators from a suffi- select a respirator that meets or exceeds the required cient number of respirator models and sizes so that level of employee protection. When using a combi- the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the nation respirator (e.g., airline respirators with an air- user. purifying filter), employers must ensure that the assigned protection factor is appropriate to the mode 1910.134(d)(2) of operation in which the respirator is being used. Respirators for IDLH atmospheres. 1910.134(d)(2)(i) The employer shall provide the following respirators for employee use in IDLH atmospheres: 70 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

73 5 Table I: Assigned Protection Factors 1, 2 Type of Respirator Quarter Half Full Helmet/Hood Loose-fitting mask facepiece facepiece mask 3 — 1. Air-Purifying Respirator 5 10 50 — 4 50 25/1,000 1,000 — 2. Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) 25 3. Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) or Airline Respirator — • Demand mode — 10 50 — 4 25 25/1,000 1,000 50 — • Continuous flow mode — 1,000 50 • Pressure-demand or other — — positive-pressure mode 4. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) — • Demand mode — 10 50 50 — — — 10,000 10,000 • Pressure-demand or other positive- pressure mode (e.g., open/closed circuit) Notes: 1 Employers may select respirators assigned for use in higher workplace concentrations of a hazardous substance for use at lower concentrations of that substance, or when required respirator use is independent of concentration. 2 The assigned protection factors in Table I are only effective when the employer implements a continuing, effective respirator program as required by this section (29 CFR 1910.134), including training, fit testing, maintenance, and use requirements. 3 This APF category includes filtering facepieces, and half masks with elastomeric facepieces. 4 The employer must have evidence provided by the respirator manufacturer that testing of these respirators demon strates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater to receive an APF of 1,000. This level of performance can best be demonstrated by performing a WPF or SWPF study or equivalent testing. Absent such testing, all other PAPRs and SARs with helmets/hoods are to be treated as loose-fitting facepiece respirators, and receive an APF of 25. 5 These APFs do not apply to respirators used solely for escape. For escape respirators used in association with specific substances covered by 29 CFR 1910 subpart Z, employers must refer to the appropriate substance-specific standards in that subpart. Escape respirators for other IDLH atmospheres are specified by 29 CFR 1910.134(d)(2)(ii). 1910.134(d)(3)(iii) 1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B) For protection against gases and vapors, the em - Maximum Use Concentration (MUC) ployer shall provide: 1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B)(1) 1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(A) The employer must select a respirator for employee An atmosphere-supplying respirator, or use that maintains the employee’s exposure to the hazardous substance, when measured outside the 1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(B) respirator, at or below the MUC. An air-purifying respirator, provided that: ) 1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B)(2 1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) Employers must not apply MUCs to conditions that The respirator is equipped with an end-of-service-life are immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH); indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for the contami- instead, they must use respirators listed for IDLH nant; or conditions in paragraph (d)(2) of this standard. 1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(B)(2) 1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B)(3) If there is no ESLI appropriate for conditions in the When the calculated MUC exceeds the IDLH level for employer’s workplace, the employer implements a a hazardous substance, or the performance limits of change schedule for canisters and cartridges that is the cartridge or canister, then employers must set based on objective information or data that will en- the maximum MUC at that lower limit. sure that canisters and cartridges are changed before the end of their service life. The employer shall de- 1910.134(d)(3)(ii) scribe in the respirator program the information and The respirator selected shall be appropriate for the data relied upon and the basis for the canister and chemical state and physical form of the contaminant. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 71 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

74 cartridge change schedule and the basis for reliance - respirator, before the employee is fit tested or re on the data. quired to use the respirator in the workplace. The employer may discontinue an employee’s medical evaluations when the employee is no longer re- 1910.134(d)(3)(iv) For protection against particulates, the employer quired to use a respirator. shall provide: 1910.134(e)(2) 1910.134(d)(3)(iv)(A) Medical evaluation procedures. An atmosphere-supplying respirator; or 1910.134(e)(2)(i) 1910.134(d)(3)(iv)(B) The employer shall identify a physician or other li- - An air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter cer censed health care professional (PLHCP) to perform medical evaluations using a medical questionnaire tified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 as a high effi- ciency particulate air (HEPA) filter, or an air-purifying or an initial medical examination that obtains the - respirator equipped with a filter certified for particu same information as the medical questionnaire. lates by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84; or 1910.134(e)(2)(ii) The medical evaluation shall obtain the information 1910.134(d)(3)(iv)(C) For contaminants consisting primarily of particles requested by the questionnaire in Sections 1 and 2, with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) Part A of Appendix C of this section. of at least 2 micrometers, an air-purifying respirator 1910.134(e)(3) equipped with any filter certified for particulates by Follow-up medical examination. NIOSH. 1910.134(e)(3)(i) Ta b l e I I : O x yg e n D e f i c i e n t A t m o s p h e r e s The employer shall ensure that a follow-up medical examination is provided for an employee who gives Oxygen deficient atmospheres Altitude (ft.) - a positive response to any question among ques ) for which the employer (% O 2 tions 1 through 8 in Section 2, Part A of Appendix C may rely on atmosphere- or whose initial medical examination demonstrates supplying respirators the need for a follow-up medical examination. Less than 3,001 16.0-19.5 1910.134(e)(3)(ii) 3,001-4,000 16.4-19.5 The follow-up medical examination shall include any 4,001-5,000 17.1-19.5 medical tests, consultations, or diagnostic proce - 17.8-19.5 5,001-6,000 dures that the PLHCP deems necessary to make a 18.5-19.5 6,001-7,000 final determination. 1 19.3-19.5 7,001-8,000 1910.134(e)(4) 1 Above 8,000 feet the exception does not apply. Oxygen- Administration of the medical questionnaire and enriched breathing air must be supplied above 14,000 feet. examinations. 1910.134(e) 1910.134(e)(4)(i) The medical questionnaire and examinations shall Medical evaluation. Using a respirator may place a physiological burden be administered confidentially during the employee’s on employees that varies with the type of respirator normal working hours or at a time and place conven- worn, the job and workplace conditions in which the ient to the employee. The medical questionnaire shall be administered in a manner that ensures that respirator is used, and the medical status of the em- the employee understands its content. ployee. Accordingly, this paragraph specifies the minimum requirements for medical evaluation that - employers must implement to determine the em 1910.134(e)(4)(ii) The employer shall provide the employee with an ployee’s ability to use a respirator. opportunity to discuss the questionnaire and exami- 1910.134(e)(1) nation results with the PLHCP. General. The employer shall provide a medical eval- uation to determine the employee’s ability to use a 72 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

75 1910.134(e)(5) The recommendation shall provide only the follow- Supplemental information for the PLHCP. ing information: 1910.134(e)(5)(i) 1910.134(e)(6)(i)(A) The following information must be provided to the Any limitations on respirator use related to the med - PLHCP before the PLHCP makes a recommendation ical condition of the employee, or relating to the concerning an employee’s ability to use a respirator: workplace conditions in which the respirator will be used, including whether or not the employee is med- 1910.134(e)(5)(i)(A) ically able to use the respirator; (A) The type and weight of the respirator to be used by the employee; 1910.134(e)(6)(i)(B) The need, if any, for follow-up medical evaluations; 1910.134(e)(5)(i)(B ) and The duration and frequency of respirator use (includ- ing use for rescue and escape); 1910.134(e)(6)(i)(C) A statement that the PLHCP has provided the em- 1910.134(e)(5)(i)(C) ployee with a copy of the PLHCP’s written recom - The expected physical work effort; mendation. 1910.134(e)(5)(i)(D) 1910.134(e)(6)(ii) Additional protective clothing and equipment to be If the respirator is a negative pressure respirator and worn; and the PLHCP finds a medical condition that may place the employee’s health at increased risk if the respira- 1910.134(e)(5)(i)(E) tor is used, the employer shall provide a PAPR if the - Te m p e r a t u r e a n d h u m i d i t y e x t r e m e s t h a t m a y b e e n PLHCP’s medical evaluation finds that the employee countered. can use such a respirator; if a subsequent medical evaluation finds that the employee is medically able 1910.134(e)(5)(ii) - to use a negative pressure respirator, then the em Any supplemental information provided previously ployer is no longer required to provide a PAPR. to the PLHCP regarding an employee need not be provided for a subsequent medical evaluation if the 1910.134(e)(7) information and the PLHCP remain the same. At a minimum, the Additional medical evaluations. employer shall provide additional medical evalua- 1910.134(e)(5)(iii ) tions that comply with the requirements of this sec - The employer shall provide the PLHCP with a copy of tion if: the written respiratory protection program and a copy of this section. 1910.134(e)(7)(i) An employee reports medical signs or symptoms - Note to Paragraph (e)(5)(iii): When the employer re that are related to ability to use a respirator; places a PLHCP, the employer must ensure that the new PLHCP obtains this information, either by pro- 1910.134(e)(7)(ii) viding the documents directly to the PLHCP or hav- A PLHCP, supervisor, or the respirator program ad - ing the documents transferred from the former ministrator informs the employer that an employee PLHCP to the new PLHCP. However, OSHA does not needs to be reevaluated; expect employers to have employees medically reevaluated solely because a new PLHCP has been 1910.134(e)(7)(iii) selected. Information from the respiratory protection program, including observations made during fit testing and 1910.134(e)(6) program evaluation, indicates a need for employee Medical determination. In determining the em- reevaluation; or ployee’s ability to use a respirator, the employer shall: 1910.134(e)(7)(iv) A change occurs in workplace conditions (e.g., physi - 1910.134(e)(6)(i) cal work effort, protective clothing, temperature) that - Obtain a written recommendation regarding the em may result in a substantial increase in the physiologi - ployee’s ability to use the respirator from the PLHCP. cal burden placed on an employee. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 73 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

76 1910.134(f) than 500 for tight-fitting full facepieces, the QNFT has Fit testing. been passed with that respirator. This paragraph requires that, before an employee - may be required to use any respirator with a nega 1910.134(f)(8) tive or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying res - employee must be fit tested with the same make, pirators and tight-fitting powered air-purifying respi - model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. rators shall be accomplished by performing This paragraph specifies the kinds of fit tests al- quantitative or qualitative fit testing in the negative lowed, the procedures for conducting them, and how pressure mode, regardless of the mode of operation the results of the fit tests must be used. (negative or positive pressure) that is used for respi- ratory protection. 1910.134(f)(1) The employer shall ensure that employees using a 1910.134(f)(8)(i) tight-fitting facepiece respirator pass an appropriate Qualitative fit testing of these respirators shall be qualitative fit test (QLFT) or quantitative fit test accomplished by temporarily converting the respi - (QNFT) as stated in this paragraph. rator user’s actual facepiece into a negative pres- sure respirator with appropriate filters, or by using 1910.134(f)(2) an identical negative pressure air-purifying respira - The employer shall ensure that an employee using a - tor facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a sur tight-fitting facepiece respirator is fit tested prior to rogate for the atmosphere-supplying or powered initial use of the respirator, whenever a different res - air-purifying respirator facepiece. pirator facepiece (size, style, model or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter. 1910.134(f)(8)(ii) Quantitative fit testing of these respirators shall be 1910.134(f)(3) accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow The employer shall conduct an additional fit test sampling inside the facepiece in the breathing zone whenever the employee reports, or the employer, of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator makes This requirement shall be accomplished by installing visual observations of, changes in the employee’s a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate face- physical condition that could affect respirator fit. piece, or by using a sampling adapter designed to Such conditions include, but are not limited to, facial temporarily provide a means of sampling air from in- scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an ob - side the facepiece. vious change in body weight. 1910.134(f)(8)(iii) 1910.134(f)(4) Any modifications to the respirator facepiece for fit If after passing a QLFT or QNFT, the employee sub - testing shall be completely removed, and the face- sequently notifies the employer, program adminis- piece restored to NIOSH-approved configuration, be- trator, supervisor, or PLHCP that the fit of the fore that facepiece can be used in the workplace. respirator is unacceptable, the employee shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different 1910.134(g) respirator facepiece and to be retested. Use of respirators. This paragraph requires employers to establish and 1910.134(f)(5) implement procedures for the proper use of respira- - The fit test shall be administered using an OSHA-ac tors. These requirements include prohibiting condi- cepted QLFT or QNFT protocol. The OSHA-accepted tions that may result in facepiece seal leakage, QLFT and QNFT protocols and procedures are con- preventing employees from removing respirators in tained in Appendix A of this section. hazardous environments, taking actions to ensure continued effective respirator operation throughout 1910.134(f)(6) the work shift, and establishing procedures for the QLFT may only be used to fit test negative pressure use of respirators in IDLH atmospheres or in interior air-purifying respirators that must achieve a fit factor structural firefighting situations. of 100 or less. 1910.134(g)(1) 1910.134(f)(7) Facepiece seal protection. - If the fit factor, as determined through an OSHA-ac 1910.134(g)(1)(i) cepted QNFT protocol, is equal to or greater than 100 The employer shall not permit respirators with tight- for tight-fitting half facepieces, or equal to or greater fitting facepieces to be worn by employees who have: 74 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

77 1910.134(g)(1)(i)(A) respirator before allowing the employee to return to Facial hair that comes between the sealing surface of the work area. the facepiece and the face or that interferes with valve function; or 1910.134(g)(3) Procedures for IDLH atmospheres. For all IDLH at- 1910.134(g)(1)(i)(B) mospheres, the employer shall ensure that: Any condition that interferes with the face-to-face - piece seal or valve function. 1910.134(g)(3)(i) One employee or, when needed, more than one em - 1910.134(g)(1)(ii) ployee is located outside the IDLH atmosphere; If an employee wears corrective glasses or goggles or other personal protective equipment, the em - 1910.134(g)(3)(ii) ployer shall ensure that such equipment is worn in a Visual, voice, or signal line communication is main - manner that does not interfere with the seal of the tained between the employee(s) in the IDLH atmos - facepiece to the face of the user. phere and the employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere; 1910.134(g)(1)(iii) For all tight-fitting respirators, the employer shall en- 1910.134(g)(3)(iii) sure that employees perform a user seal check each The employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmos - time they put on the respirator using the procedures phere are trained and equipped to provide effective in Appendix B-1 or procedures recommended by the emergency rescue; - respirator manufacturer that the employer demon strates are as effective as those in Appendix B-1 of 1910.134(g)(3)(iv) this section. - The employer or designee is notified before the em ployee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere enter 1910.134(g)(2) the IDLH atmosphere to provide emergency rescue; Continuing respirator effectiveness. 1910.134(g)(2)(i) 1910.134(g)(3)(v) Appropriate surveillance shall be maintained of work The employer or designee authorized to do so by the area conditions and degree of employee exposure or employer, once notified, provides necessary assis - stress. When there is a change in work area condi - tance appropriate to the situation; tions or degree of employee exposure or stress that may affect respirator effectiveness, the employer 1910.134(g)(3)(vi) shall reevaluate the continued effectiveness of the Employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmospheres respirator. are equipped with: 1910.134(g)(2)(ii) 1910.134(g)(3)(vi)(A) The employer shall ensure that employees leave the Pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBAs, respirator use area: or a pressure demand or other positive pressure sup - plied-air respirator with auxiliary SCBA; and either 1910.134(g)(2)(ii)(A) To w a s h t h e i r f a c e s a n d r e s p i r a t o r f a c e p i e c e s a s n e c - 1910.134(g)(3)(vi)(B) essary to prevent eye or skin irritation associated Appropriate retrieval equipment for removing the with respirator use; or employee(s) who enter(s) these hazardous atmos - pheres where retrieval equipment would contribute 1910.134(g)(2)(ii)(B) to the rescue of the employee(s) and would not in- If they detect vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in crease the overall risk resulting from entry; or breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece; or 1910.134(g)(3)(vi)(C) 1910.134(g)(2)(ii)(C) Equivalent means for rescue where retrieval equip- To r e p l a c e t h e r e s p i r a t o r o r t h e f i l t e r, c a r t r i d g e , o r ment is not required under paragraph (g)(3)(vi)(B). canister elements. 1910.134(g)(4) 1910.134(g)(2)(iii) In addi- Procedures for interior structural firefighting. If the employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough, tion to the requirements set forth under paragraph changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the (g)(3), in interior structural fires, the employer shall facepiece, the employer must replace or repair the ensure that: SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 75 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

78 1910.134(g)(4)(i) 1910.134(h)(1)(iv) Respirators used in fit testing and training shall be At least two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere cleaned and disinfected after each use. and remain in visual or voice contact with one an- other at all times; 1910.134(h)(2) 1910.134(g)(4)(ii) Storage. The employer shall ensure that respirators are stored as follows: At least two employees are located outside the IDLH atmosphere; and 1910.134(h)(2)(i) All respirators shall be stored to protect them from 1910.134(g)(4)(iii) - - damage, contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme tem All employees engaged in interior structural firefight ing use SCBAs. peratures, excessive moisture, and damaging chemi- cals, and they shall be packed or stored to prevent One of the two individuals Note 1 to paragraph (g): deformation of the facepiece and exhalation valve. - located outside the IDLH atmosphere may be as signed to an additional role, such as incident com- 1910.134(h)(2)(ii) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (h)(2)(i) mander in charge of the emergency or safety officer, of this section, emergency respirators shall be: so long as this individual is able to perform assis- tance or rescue activities without jeopardizing the 1910.134(h)(2)(ii)(A) safety or health of any firefighter working at the inci - Kept accessible to the work area; dent. 1910.134(h)(2)(ii)(B) Nothing in this section is Note 2 to paragraph (g): Stored in compartments or in covers that are clearly meant to preclude firefighters from performing marked as containing emergency respirators; and emergency rescue activities before an entire team has assembled. 1910.134(h)(2)(ii)(C) Stored in accordance with any applicable manufac- 1910.134(h) turer instructions. Maintenance and care of respirators. This paragraph requires the employer to provide for 1910.134(h)(3) the cleaning and disinfecting, storage, inspection, and repair of respirators used by employees. Inspection. 1910.134(h)(3)(i) 1910.134(h)(1) The employer shall pro- Cleaning and disinfecting. The employer shall ensure that respirators are in- vide each respirator user with a respirator that is spected as follows: clean, sanitary, and in good working order. The em- ployer shall ensure that respirators are cleaned and 1910.134(h)(3)(i)(A) disinfected using the procedures in Appendix B-2 of - All respirators used in routine situations shall be in spected before each use and during cleaning; - this section, or procedures recommended by the res pirator manufacturer, provided that such procedures 1910.134(h)(3)(i)(B ) are of equivalent effectiveness. The respirators shall All respirators maintained for use in emergency situ - be cleaned and disinfected at the following intervals: - ations shall be inspected at least monthly and in ac cordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, 1910.134(h)(1)(i) Respirators issued for the exclusive use of an em- and shall be checked for proper function before and after each use; and ployee shall be cleaned and disinfected as often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition; 1910.134(h)(3)(i)(C) Emergency escape-only respirators shall be in- 1910.134(h)(1)(ii) spected before being carried into the workplace for Respirators issued to more than one employee shall use. be cleaned and disinfected before being worn by dif- ferent individuals; 1910.134(h)(3)(ii) 1910.134(h)(1)(iii) The employer shall ensure that respirator inspec - Respirators maintained for emergency use shall be tions include the following: cleaned and disinfected after each use; and 76 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

79 1910.134(h)(4)(ii) 1910.134(h)(3)(ii)(A ) Repairs shall be made according to the manufac- A check of respirator function, tightness of connec- turer’s recommendations and specifications for the tions, and the condition of the various parts includ- type and extent of repairs to be performed; and ing, but not limited to, the facepiece, head straps, valves, connecting tube, and cartridges, canisters or 1910.134(h)(4)(iii) filters; and Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms shall be adjusted or repaired only by the 1910.134(h)(3)(ii)(B) - manufacturer or a technician trained by the manu A check of elastomeric parts for pliability and signs facturer. of deterioration. 1910.134(i) 1910.134(h)(3)(iii) Breathing air quality and use. In addition to the requirements of paragraphs This paragraph requires the employer to provide (h)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, self-contained breath- ployees using atmosphere-supplying respirators em ing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air and (supplied-air and SCBA) with breathing gases of high oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully purity. charged state and shall be recharged when the pres- sure falls to 90% of the manufacturer’s recom- 1910.134(i)(1) mended pressure level. The employer shall - The employer shall ensure that compressed air, com determine that the regulator and warning devices pressed oxygen, liquid air, and liquid oxygen used function properly. for respiration accords with the following specifica- tions: 1910.134(h)(3)(iv) For respirators maintained for emergency use, the 1910.134(i)(1)(i) employer shall: Compressed and liquid oxygen shall meet the United States Pharmacopoeia requirements for medical or 1910.134(h)(3)(iv)(A) breathing oxygen; and - Certify the respirator by documenting the date the in spection was performed, the name (or signature) of 1910.134(i)(1)(ii) the person who made the inspection, the findings, - Compressed breathing air shall meet at least the re required remedial action, and a serial number or quirements for Grade D breathing air described in other means of identifying the inspected respirator; ANSI/Compressed Gas Association Commodity and Specification for Air, G-7.1-1989, to include: 1910.134(h)(3)(iv)(B) 1910.134(i)(1)(ii)(A) Provide this information on a tag or label that is at- Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5-23.5%; tached to the storage compartment for the respirator, is kept with the respirator, or is included in inspec - 1910.134(i)(1)(ii)(B) tion reports stored as paper or electronic files. This Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams information shall be maintained until replaced fol- per cubic meter of air or less; lowing a subsequent certification. 1910.134(i)(1)(ii)(C) 1910.134(h)(4) Carbon monoxide (CO) content of 10 ppm or less; The employer shall ensure that respirators Repairs. that fail an inspection or are otherwise found to be 1910.134(i)(1)(ii)(D) defective are removed from service, and are dis - Carbon dioxide content of 1,000 ppm or less; and carded or repaired or adjusted in accordance with the following procedures: 1910.134(i)(1)(ii)(E) Lack of noticeable odor. 1910.134(h)(4)(i) Repairs or adjustments to respirators are to be made 1910.134(i)(2) only by persons appropriately trained to perform The employer shall ensure that compressed oxygen such operations and shall use only the respirator is not used in atmosphere-supplying respirators that manufacturer’s NIOSH-approved parts designed for have previously used compressed air. the respirator; SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 77 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

80 1910.134(i)(3) ployer shall ensure that carbon monoxide levels in The employer shall ensure that oxygen concentra- the breathing air do not exceed 10 ppm. tions greater than 23.5% are used only in equipment designed for oxygen service or distribution. 1910.134(i)(7) For oil-lubricated compressors, the employer shall 1910.134(i)(4) use a high-temperature or carbon monoxide alarm, The employer shall ensure that cylinders used to or both, to monitor carbon monoxide levels. If only - supply breathing air to respirators meet the follow high-temperature alarms are used, the air supply ing requirements: shall be monitored at intervals sufficient to prevent carbon monoxide in the breathing air from exceed - 1910.134(i)(4)(i) ing 10 ppm. Cylinders are tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping Container Specification Regulations of 1910.134(i)(8) the Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173 The employer shall ensure that breathing air cou- and part 178); plings are incompatible with outlets for nonres - pirable worksite air or other gas systems. No 1910.134(i)(4)(ii) asphyxiating substance shall be introduced into Cylinders of purchased breathing air have a certifi - breathing air lines. cate of analysis from the supplier that the breathing air meets the requirements for Grade D breathing air; 1910.134(i)(9) and The employer shall use breathing gas containers - marked in accordance with the NIOSH respirator cer 1910.134(i)(4)(iii) tification standard, 42 CFR part 84. The moisture content in the cylinder does not exceed a dew point of -50 deg.F (-45.6 deg.C) at 1 atmos - 1910.134(j) phere pressure. Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters. 1910.134(i)(5) The employer shall ensure that all filters, cartridges The employer shall ensure that compressors used to and canisters used in the workplace are labeled and supply breathing air to respirators are constructed color coded with the NIOSH approval label and that and situated so as to: the label is not removed and remains legible. 1910.134(i)(5)(i) 1910.134(k) Prevent entry of contaminated air into the air-supply Training and information. system; This paragraph requires the employer to provide ef- fective training to employees who are required to 1910.134(i)(5)(ii) use respirators. The training must be comprehen- Minimize moisture content so that the dew point at 1 sive, understandable, and recur annually, and more atmosphere pressure is 10 degrees F (5.56 deg.C) often if necessary. This paragraph also requires the below the ambient temperature; employer to provide the basic information on respi- rators in Appendix D of this section to employees 1910.134(i)(5)(iii) - who wear respirators when not required by this sec Have suitable in-line air-purifying sorbent beds and tion or by the employer to do so. filters to further ensure breathing air quality. Sorbent beds and filters shall be maintained and replaced or 1910.134(k)(1) refurbished periodically following the manufacturer’s The employer shall ensure that each employee can instructions. demonstrate knowledge of at least the following: 1910.134(i)(5)(iv) 1910.134(k)(1)(i) Have a tag containing the most recent change date Why the respirator is necessary and how improper and the signature of the person authorized by the fit, usage, or maintenance can compromise the pro- employer to perform the change. The tag shall be tective effect of the respirator; maintained at the compressor. 1910.134(k)(1)(ii) 1910.134(i)(6) What the limitations and capabilities of the respirator - For compressors that are not oil-lubricated, the em are; 78 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

81 1910.134(k)(1)(iii) 1910.134(k)(5)(iii) How to use the respirator effectively in emergency - Any other situation arises in which retraining ap situations, including situations in which the respira - pears necessary to ensure safe respirator use. tor malfunctions; 1910.134(k)(6) The basic advisory information on respirators, as 1910.134(k)(1)(iv) presented in Appendix D of this section, shall be pro- How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check vided by the employer in any written or oral format, the seals of the respirator; to employees who wear respirators when such use is not required by this section or by the employer. 1910.134(k)(1)(v) - What the procedures are for maintenance and stor age of the respirator; 1910.134(l) Program evaluation. 1910.134(k)(1)(vi) This section requires the employer to conduct evalu- How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that ations of the workplace to ensure that the written respiratory protection program is being properly im- may limit or prevent the effective use of respirators; plemented, and to consult employees to ensure that and they are using the respirators properly. 1910.134(k)(1)(vii) 1910.134(l)(1) The general requirements of this section. The employer shall conduct evaluations of the work - place as necessary to ensure that the provisions of 1910.134(k)(2) The training shall be conducted in a manner that is - the current written program are being effectively im plemented and that it continues to be effective. understandable to the employee. 1910.134(l)(2) 1910.134(k)(3) The employer shall regularly consult employees re- The employer shall provide the training prior to re- quired to use respirators to assess the employees’ quiring the employee to use a respirator in the work - place. views on program effectiveness and to identify any problems. Any problems that are identified during this assessment shall be corrected. Factors to be as - 1910.134(k)(4) sessed include, but are not limited to: An employer who is able to demonstrate that a new employee has received training within the last 12 1910.134(l)(2)(i) months that addresses the elements specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) through (vii) is not required to - Respirator fit (including the ability to use the respira repeat such training provided that, as required by tor without interfering with effective workplace per - formance); paragraph (k)(1), the employee can demonstrate knowledge of those element(s). Previous training not 1910.134(l)(2)(ii) repeated initially by the employer must be provided Appropriate respirator selection for the hazards to no later than 12 months from the date of the previ- which the employee is exposed; ous training. 1910.134(k)(5) 1910.134(l)(2)(iii) Proper respirator use under the workplace conditions Retraining shall be administered annually, and when the employee encounters; and the following situations occur: 1910.134(k)(5)(i) 1910.134(l)(2)(iv) Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator Proper respirator maintenance. render previous training obsolete; 1910.134(m) 1910.134(k)(5)(ii) Recordkeeping. This section requires the employer to establish and Inadequacies in the employee’s knowledge or use of the respirator indicate that the employee has not re- retain written information regarding medical evalua - tained the requisite understanding or skill; or tions, fit testing, and the respirator program. This in- SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 79 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

82 1910.134(m)(2)(ii) formation will facilitate employee involvement in the Fit test records shall be retained for respirator users respirator program, assist the employer in auditing until the next fit test is administered. the adequacy of the program, and provide a record for compliance determinations by OSHA. 1910.134(m)(3) A written copy of the current respirator program 1910.134(m)(1) shall be retained by the employer. Medical evaluation. Records of medical evaluations required by this section must be retained and made 1910.134(m)(4) available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020. Written materials required to be retained under this paragraph shall be made available upon request to 1910.134(m)(2) affected employees and to the Assistant Secretary or Fit testing. designee for examination and copying. 1910.134(m)(2)(i) 1910.134(n) The employer shall establish a record of the qualita- Effective date. - tive and quantitative fit tests administered to an em Paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(A) and (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section ployee including: become effective November 22, 2006. 1910.134(m)(2)(i)(A) 1910.134(o) The name or identification of the employee tested; Appendices. 1910.134(m)(2)(i)(B) 1910.134(o)(1) Type of fit test performed; - Compliance with Appendix A, Appendix B-1, Appen dix B-2, and Appendix C of this section is mandatory. 1910.134(m)(2)(i)(C) Specific make, model, style, and size of respirator 1910.134(o)(2) tested; Appendix D of this section is non-mandatory and is not intended to create any additional obligations not 1910.134(m)(2)(i)(D) otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing Date of test; and obligations. 1910.134(m)(2)(i)(E) [63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 20098, April 23, 1998; The pass/fail results for QLFTs or the fit factor and 71 FR 16672, April 3, 2006; 71 FR 50187, August 24, - strip chart recording or other recording of the test re 2006] sults for QNFTs. 80 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

83 - 7. The following criteria shall be used to help deter Appendix A to §1910.134: mine the adequacy of the respirator fit: Te s t i n g Pro c e d u r e s ( M a n d a t o ry ) Fit (a) Chin properly placed; (b) Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened; Part I. OSHA-Accepted Fit Test Protocols (c) Fit across nose bridge; (d) Respirator of proper size to span distance from A. Fit Testing Procedures -- General Requirements nose to chin; (e) Tendency of respirator to slip; The employer shall conduct fit testing using the fol- (f) Self-observation in mirror to evaluate fit and lowing procedures. The requirements in this appen- respirator position. dix apply to all OSHA-accepted fit test methods, both QLFT and QNFT. 8. The test subject shall conduct a user seal check, ei- ther the negative and positive pressure seal checks 1. The test subject shall be allowed to pick the most described in Appendix B-1 of this section or those acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of recommended by the respirator manufacturer which respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is provide equivalent protection to the procedures in acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user. Appendix B-1. Before conducting the negative and positive pressure checks, the subject shall be told to 2. Prior to the selection process, the test subject shall seat the mask on the face by moving the head from be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should side-to-side and up and down slowly while taking in be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension a few slow deep breaths. Another facepiece shall be and how to determine an acceptable fit. A mirror selected and retested if the test subject fails the user shall be available to assist the subject in evaluating seal check tests. the fit and positioning of the respirator. This instruc - tion may not constitute the subject’s formal training 9. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair on respirator use, because it is only a review. growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface, such as stubble beard growth, beard, mus- 3. The test subject shall be informed that he/she is tache or sideburns which cross the respirator sealing being asked to select the respirator that provides the surface. Any type of apparel which interferes with a most acceptable fit. Each respirator represents a dif - satisfactory fit shall be altered or removed. ferent size and shape, and if fitted and used properly, will provide adequate protection. 10. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a 4. The test subject shall be instructed to hold each physician or other licensed health care professional, chosen facepiece up to the face and eliminate those as appropriate, to determine whether the test subject that obviously do not give an acceptable fit. can wear a respirator while performing her or his du - ties. 5. The more acceptable facepieces are noted in case the one selected proves unacceptable; the most 11. If the employee finds the fit of the respirator un- comfortable mask is donned and worn at least five - acceptable, the test subject shall be given the oppor minutes to assess comfort. Assistance in assessing tunity to select a different respirator and to be comfort can be given by discussing the points in the retested. following item A.6. If the test subject is not familiar with using a particular respirator, the test subject 12. Exercise regimen. Prior to the commencement of shall be directed to don the mask several times and the fit test, the test subject shall be given a descrip- to adjust the straps each time to become adept at tion of the fit test and the test subject’s responsibili- setting proper tension on the straps. ties during the test procedure. The description of the process shall include a description of the test exer - 6. Assessment of comfort shall include a review of cises that the subject will be performing. The respira - the following points with the test subject and allow- tor to be tested shall be worn for at least 5 minutes ing the test subject adequate time to determine the before the start of the fit test. comfort of the respirator: (a) Position of the mask on the nose 13. The fit test shall be performed while the test sub- (b) Room for eye protection ject is wearing any applicable safety equipment that (c) Room to talk may be worn during actual respirator use which (d) Position of mask on face and cheeks could interfere with respirator fit. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 81 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

84 14. Test Exercises. friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. (a) Employers must perform the following test ex- ercises for all fit testing methods prescribed in this (6) Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by appendix, except for the CNP quantitative fit test- smiling or frowning. (This applies only to QNFT ing protocol and the CNP REDON quantitative fit testing; it is not performed for QLFT) testing protocol. For these two protocols, employ- ers must ensure that the test subjects (i.e., em - ployees) perform the exercise procedure specified (7) Bending over. The test subject shall bend at in Part I.C.4(b) of this appendix for the CNP quanti- the waist as if he/she were to touch his/her toes. Jogging in place shall be substituted for this ex- tative fit testing protocol, or the exercise proce- ercise in those test environments such as dure described in Part I.C.5(b) of this appendix for shroud type QNFT or QLFT units that do not per - the CNP REDON quantitative fit-testing protocol. mit bending over at the waist. For the remaining fit testing methods, employers - must ensure that employees perform the test exer (8) Normal breathing. Same as exercise (1). cises in the appropriate test environment in the following manner: (b) Each test exercise shall be performed for one (1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing posi- minute except for the grimace exercise which shall tion, without talking, the subject shall breathe be performed for 15 seconds. The test subject - normally. shall be questioned by the test conductor regard ing the comfort of the respirator upon completion (2) Deep breathing. In a normal standing posi- of the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, an- other model of respirator shall be tried. The respi- tion, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply, taking caution so as not to hyperventi rator shall not be adjusted once the fit test - exercises begin. Any adjustment voids the test, late. and the fit test must be repeated. (3) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from B. Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT) Protocols side to side between the extreme positions on 1. General each side. The head shall be held at each ex- (a) The employer shall ensure that persons admin- treme momentarily so the subject can inhale at istering QLFT are able to prepare test solutions, each side. calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, (4) Moving head up and down. Standing in - recognize invalid tests, and ensure that test equip ment is in proper working order. place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down. The subject shall be in- (b) The employer shall ensure that QLFT equip- structed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when ment is kept clean and well maintained so as to looking toward the ceiling). operate within the parameters for which it was de- (5) Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly signed. and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The subject can read from a 2. Isoamyl Acetate Protocol prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, Note: This protocol is not appropriate to use for the count backward from 100, or recite a memorized fit testing of particulate respirators. If used to fit test poem or song. particulate respirators, the respirator must be equipped with an organic vapor filter. Rainbow Passage When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, (a) Odor Threshold Screening they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The Odor threshold screening, performed without rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long wearing a respirator, is intended to determine if round arch, with its path high above, and its two the individual tested can detect the odor of ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, isoamyl acetate at low levels. according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When (1) Three 1 liter glass jars with metal lids are a man looks for something beyond reach, his required. 82 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

85 (2) Odor-free water (e.g., distilled or spring (11) If the test subject correctly identifies the jar water) at approximately 25 deg. C (77 deg. F) containing the odor test solution, the test sub - ject may proceed to respirator selection and fit shall be used for the solutions. testing. (3) The isoamyl acetate (IAA) (also known a3 (b) Isoamyl Acetate Fit Test isopentyl acetate) stock solution is prepared by adding 1 ml of pure IAA to 800 ml of odor-free (1) The fit test chamber shall be a clear 55-gallon water in a 1 liter jar, closing the lid and shaking for 30 seconds. A new solution shall be pre- drum liner suspended inverted over a 2-foot di- pared at least weekly. ameter frame so that the top of the chamber is about 6 inches above the test subject’s head. If no drum liner is available, a similar chamber (4) The screening test shall be conducted in a shall be constructed using plastic sheeting. The room separate from the room used for actual fit inside top center of the chamber shall have a testing. The two rooms shall be well-ventilated to prevent the odor of IAA from becoming evi- small hook attached. dent in the general room air where testing takes place. (2) Each respirator used for the fitting and fit testing shall be equipped with organic vapor (5) The odor test solution is prepared in a sec cartridges or offer protection against organic va - - pors. ond jar by placing 0.4 ml of the stock solution into 500 ml of odor-free water using a clean dropper or pipette. The solution shall be shaken (3) After selecting, donning, and properly adjust- ing a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to for 30 seconds and allowed to stand for two to three minutes so that the IAA concentration the fit testing room. This room shall be separate from the room used for odor threshold screen- above the liquid may reach equilibrium. This so- ing and respirator selection, and shall be well- lution shall be used for only one day. ventilated, as by an exhaust fan or lab hood, to prevent general room contamination. (6) A test blank shall be prepared in a third jar by adding 500 cc of odor-free water. (4) A copy of the test exercises and any pre- pared text from which the subject is to read (7) The odor test and test blank jar lids shall be shall be taped to the inside of the test chamber. labeled (e.g., 1 and 2) for jar identification. La- bels shall be placed on the lids so that they can (5) Upon entering the test chamber, the test sub- be peeled off periodically and switched to main- ject shall be given a 6-inch by 5-inch piece of tain the integrity of the test. paper towel, or other porous, absorbent, single- ply material, folded in half and wetted with 0.75 (8) The following instruction shall be typed on a card and placed on the table in front of the two ml of pure IAA. The test subject shall hang the wet towel on the hook at the top of the chamber. test jars (i.e., 1 and 2): “The purpose of this test An IAA test swab or ampule may be substituted is to determine if you can smell banana oil at a for the IAA wetted paper towel provided it has low concentration. The two bottles in front of been demonstrated that the alternative IAA you contain water. One of these bottles also source will generate an IAA test atmosphere contains a small amount of banana oil. Be sure - with a concentration equivalent to that gener the covers are on tight, then shake each bottle ated by the paper towel method. for two seconds. Unscrew the lid of each bottle, one at a time, and sniff at the mouth of the bot- tle. Indicate to the test conductor which bottle (6) Allow two minutes for the IAA test concen- tration to stabilize before starting the fit test ex- contains banana oil.” ercises. This would be an appropriate time to (9) The mixtures used in the IAA odor detection talk with the test subject; to explain the fit test, test shall be prepared in an area separate from the importance of his/her cooperation, and the where the test is performed, in order to prevent purpose for the test exercises; or to demon- strate some of the exercises. olfactory fatigue in the subject. (10) If the test subject is unable to correctly iden- (7) If at any time during the test, the subject de- tify the jar containing the odor test solution, the tects the banana-like odor of IAA, the test is IAA qualitative fit test shall not be performed. failed. The subject shall quickly exit from the SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 83 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

86 test chamber and leave the test area to avoid ol- test subject shall breathe through his/her factory fatigue. slightly open mouth with tongue extended. The - subject is instructed to report when he/she de (8) If the test is failed, the subject shall return to tects a sweet taste. the selection room and remove the respirator. (4) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Med- The test subject shall repeat the odor sensitivity - ication Nebulizer or equivalent, the test conduc test, select and put on another respirator, return tor shall spray the threshold check solution into to the test area and again begin the fit test pro- the enclosure. The nozzle is directed away from cedure described in (b) (1) through (7) above. the nose and mouth of the person. This nebu- The process continues until a respirator that fits well has been found. Should the odor sensitivity lizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it test be failed, the subject shall wait at least 5 from the fit test solution nebulizer. minutes before retesting. Odor sensitivity will usually have returned by this time. (5) The threshold check solution is prepared by dissolving 0.83 gram of sodium saccharin USP (9) If the subject passes the test, the efficiency of in 100 ml of warm water. It can be prepared by the test procedure shall be demonstrated by putting 1 ml of the fit test solution (see (b)(5) below) in 100 ml of distilled water. having the subject break the respirator face seal and take a breath before exiting the chamber. (6) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that it collapses completely, (10) When the test subject leaves the chamber, then released and allowed to fully expand. the subject shall remove the saturated towel and return it to the person conducting the test, so that there is no significant IAA concentration (7) Ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the saccharin buildup in the chamber during subsequent can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting tests. The used towels shall be kept in a self- the sweet taste during the ten squeezes, the sealing plastic bag to keep the test area from being contaminated. screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of 3. Saccharin Solution Aerosol Protocol squeezes actually completed. (8) If the first response is negative, ten more The entire screening and testing procedure shall be - squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test sub explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of ject is again asked whether the saccharin is the screening test. tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the (a) Taste threshold screening. The saccharin taste sweet taste during the second ten squeezes, the threshold screening, performed without wearing a screening test is completed. The taste threshold respirator, is intended to determine whether the is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. individual being tested can detect the taste of sac - charin. (9) If the second response is negative, ten more - (1) During threshold screening as well as during squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test sub fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure ject is again asked whether the saccharin is about the head and shoulders that is approxi- tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the third set of ten squeezes, mately 12 inches in diameter by 14 inches tall with at least the front portion clear and that al- the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the lows free movements of the head when a respi- rator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar number of squeezes actually completed. to the 3M hood assembly, parts # FT 14 and # FT (10) The test conductor will take note of the 15 combined, is adequate. number of squeezes required to solicit a taste (2) The test enclosure shall have a 3/4-inch (1.9 response. cm) hole in front of the test subject’s nose and (11) If the saccharin is not tasted after 30 mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle. squeezes (step 10), the test subject is unable to (3) The test subject shall don the test enclosure. taste saccharin and may not perform the sac - Throughout the threshold screening test, the charin fit test. 84 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

87 Note to paragraph 3. (a): If the test subject eats (8) After generating the aerosol, the test subject or drinks something sweet before the screening shall be instructed to perform the exercises in test, he/she may be unable to taste the weak section I. A. 14. of this appendix. saccharin solution. (9) Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one half the original (12) If a taste response is elicited, the test sub- number of squeezes used initially (e.g., 5, 10 or ject shall be asked to take note of the taste for 15). reference in the fit test. (10) The test subject shall indicate to the test (13) Correct use of the nebulizer means that ap- conductor if at any time during the fit test the proximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in taste of saccharin is detected. If the test subject the nebulizer body. does not report tasting the saccharin, the test is (14) The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in passed. water, shaken dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four (11) If the taste of saccharin is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A hours. different respirator shall be tried and the entire test procedure is repeated (taste threshold (b) Saccharin solution aerosol fit test procedure. screening and fit testing). (1) The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 min- (12) Since the nebulizer has a tendency to clog utes before the test. during use, the test operator must make peri- odic checks of the nebulizer to ensure that it is not clogged. If clogging is found at the end of (2) The fit test uses the same enclosure de- the test session, the test is invalid. scribed in 3. (a) above. 4. BitrexTM (Denatonium Benzoate) Solution Aerosol (3) The test subject shall don the enclosure Qualitative Fit Test Protocol while wearing the respirator selected in section I. A. of this appendix. The respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with a particu - The BitrexTM (Denatonium benzoate) solution late filter(s). aerosol QLFT protocol uses the published saccharin test protocol because that protocol is widely ac - cepted. Bitrex is routinely used as a taste aversion (4) A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to agent in household liquids which children should not be drinking and is endorsed by the American Med- spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distin- ical Association, the National Safety Council, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The guish it from the screening test solution nebu- lizer. entire screening and testing procedure shall be ex- plained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test. (5) The fit test solution is prepared by adding 83 grams of sodium saccharin to 100 ml of warm (a) Taste Threshold Screening. water. The Bitrex taste threshold screening, performed (6) As before, the test subject shall breathe - without wearing a respirator, is intended to deter through the slightly open mouth with tongue mine whether the individual being tested can de extended, and report if he/she tastes the sweet - tect the taste of Bitrex. taste of saccharin. (7) The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the (1) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure front of the enclosure and an initial concentra- tion of saccharin fit test solution is sprayed into about the head and shoulders that is approxi- mately 12 inches (30.5 cm) in diameter by 14 the enclosure using the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on inches (35.6 cm) tall. The front portion of the en- the number of squeezes required to elicit a taste closure shall be clear from the respirator and response as noted during the screening test. A allow free movement of the head when a respi- minimum of 10 squeezes is required. rator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 85 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

88 to the 3M hood assembly, parts # FT 14 and # FT (10) The test conductor will take note of the 15 combined, is adequate. number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response. (2) The test enclosure shall have a 3/4 inch (1.9 cm) hole in front of the test subject’s nose and (11) If the Bitrex is not tasted after 30 squeezes mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer noz- (step 10), the test subject is unable to taste Bi- zle. trex and may not perform the Bitrex fit test. (12) If a taste response is elicited, the test sub- (3) The test subject shall don the test enclosure. Throughout the threshold screening test, the ject shall be asked to take note of the taste for test subject shall breathe through his or her reference in the fit test. slightly open mouth with tongue extended. The - subject is instructed to report when he/she de (13) Correct use of the nebulizer means that ap- tects a bitter taste proximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body. (4) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Med- ication Nebulizer or equivalent, the test conduc - (14) The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in tor shall spray the Threshold Check Solution water, shaken to dry, and refilled at least each into the enclosure. This Nebulizer shall be morning and afternoon or at least every four hours. clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer. (b) Bitrex Solution Aerosol Fit Test Procedure. (5) The Threshold Check Solution is prepared by (1) The test subject may not eat, drink (except adding 13.5 milligrams of Bitrex to 100 ml of 5% plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 min- salt (NaCl) solution in distilled water. utes before the test. (6) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is (2) The fit test uses the same enclosure as that - firmly squeezed so that the bulb collapses com described in 4. (a) above. pletely, and is then released and allowed to fully expand. (3) The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected according (7) An initial ten squeezes are repeated rapidly to section I. A. of this appendix. The respirator and then the test subject is asked whether the shall be properly adjusted and equipped with Bitrex can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the ten squeezes, any type particulate filter(s). the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the num - (4) A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to ber of squeezes actually completed. spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. (8) If the first response is negative, ten more This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distin- guish it from the screening test solution nebu- - squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test sub lizer. ject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste (5) The fit test solution is prepared by adding during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted 337.5 mg of Bitrex to 200 ml of a 5% salt (NaCl) solution in warm water. as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. (6) As before, the test subject shall breathe through his or her slightly open mouth with (9) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test sub - tongue extended, and be instructed to report if ject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If he/she tastes the bitter taste of Bitrex. the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste (7) The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the during the third set of ten squeezes, the screen- front of the enclosure and an initial concentra- ing test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of tion of the fit test solution is sprayed into the en- squeezes actually completed. closure using the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on the num - 86 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

89 ber of squeezes required to elicit a taste re- irritant smoke in the general atmosphere. sponse as noted during the screening test. (b) Sensitivity Screening Check (8) After generating the aerosol, the test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in The person to be tested must demonstrate his or her ability to detect a weak concentration of section I. A. 14. of this appendix. the irritant smoke. (9) Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration (1) The test operator shall break both ends of a shall be replenished using one half the number ventilation smoke tube containing stannic chlo- of squeezes used initially (e.g., 5, 10 or 15). ride, and attach one end of the smoke tube to a low flow air pump set to deliver 200 milliliters (10) The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the per minute, or an aspirator squeeze bulb. The test operator shall cover the other end of the taste of Bitrex is detected. If the test subject does not report tasting the Bitrex, the test is smoke tube with a short piece of tubing to pre - passed. vent potential injury from the jagged end of the smoke tube. (11) If the taste of Bitrex is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A (2) The test operator shall advise the test subject that the smoke can be irritating to the eyes, different respirator shall be tried and the entire lungs, and nasal passages and instruct the sub- test procedure is repeated (taste threshold ject to keep his/her eyes closed while the test is screening and fit testing). performed. 5. Irritant Smoke (Stannic Chloride) Protocol (3) The test subject shall be allowed to smell a weak concentration of the irritant smoke before This qualitative fit test uses a person’s response to the respirator is donned to become familiar with the irritating chemicals released in the “smoke” pro- its irritating properties and to determine if duced by a stannic chloride ventilation smoke tube he/she can detect the irritating properties of the to detect leakage into the respirator. smoke. The test operator shall carefully direct a (a) General Requirements and Precautions small amount of the irritant smoke in the test subject’s direction to determine that he/she can (1) The respirator to be tested shall be equipped detect it. with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or P100 series filter(s). (c) Irritant Smoke Fit Test Procedure - (1) The person being fit tested shall don the res (2) Only stannic chloride smoke tubes shall be pirator without assistance, and perform the re- used for this protocol. quired user seal check(s). (3) No form of test enclosure or hood for the test (2) The test subject shall be instructed to keep subject shall be used. his/her eyes closed. (4) The smoke can be irritating to the eyes, (3) The test operator shall direct the stream of ir - lungs, and nasal passages. The test conductor shall take precautions to minimize the test sub - ritant smoke from the smoke tube toward the faceseal area of the test subject, using the low ject’s exposure to irritant smoke. Sensitivity varies, and certain individuals may respond to a flow pump or the squeeze bulb. The test opera - greater degree to irritant smoke. Care shall be tor shall begin at least 12 inches from the face- piece and move the smoke stream around the taken when performing the sensitivity screening checks that determine whether the test subject whole perimeter of the mask. The operator shall - can detect irritant smoke to use only the mini gradually make two more passes around the - mum amount of smoke necessary to elicit a re perimeter of the mask, moving to within six sponse from the test subject. inches of the respirator. (5) The fit test shall be performed in an area with (4) If the person being tested has not had an in- adequate ventilation to prevent exposure of the voluntary response and/or detected the irritant person conducting the fit test or the build-up of smoke, proceed with the test exercises. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 87 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

90 (5) The exercises identified in section I.A. 14. of 2. Generated Aerosol Quantitative Fit Testing Protocol this appendix shall be performed by the test subject while the respirator seal is being contin - (a) Apparatus. ually challenged by the smoke, directed around the perimeter of the respirator at a distance of (1) Instrumentation. Aerosol generation, dilu- six inches. - tion, and measurement systems using particu lates (corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS] or (6) If the person being fit tested reports detect- sodium chloride) as test aerosols shall be used ing the irritant smoke at any time, the test is for quantitative fit testing. failed. The person being retested must repeat the entire sensitivity check and fit test proce- (2) Test chamber. The test chamber shall be dure. - large enough to permit all test subjects to per form freely all required exercises without dis (7) Each test subject passing the irritant smoke - test without evidence of a response (involuntary turbing the test agent concentration or the cough, irritation) shall be given a second sensi - measurement apparatus. The test chamber shall tivity screening check, with the smoke from the be equipped and constructed so that the test same smoke tube used during the fit test, once agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air, yet uniform in concentration throughout the the respirator has been removed, to determine chamber. whether he/she still reacts to the smoke. Failure to evoke a response shall void the fit test. (3) When testing air-purifying respirators, the normal filter or cartridge element shall be re- (8) If a response is produced during this second placed with a high efficiency particulate air sensitivity check, then the fit test is passed. (HEPA) or P100 series filter supplied by the same manufacturer. C. Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT) Protocols The following quantitative fit testing procedures (4) The sampling instrument shall be selected so that a computer record or strip chart record may have been demonstrated to be acceptable: Quantita- be made of the test showing the rise and fall of tive fit testing using a non-hazardous test aerosol the test agent concentration with each inspira- (such as corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], tion and expiration at fit factors of at least 2,000. di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS], or sodium chlo- Integrators or computers that integrate the ride) generated in a test chamber, and employing in - strumentation to quantify the fit of the respirator; amount of test agent penetration leakage into the respirator for each exercise may be used Quantitative fit testing using ambient aerosol as the test agent and appropriate instrumentation (conden- provided a record of the readings is made. sation nuclei counter) to quantify the respirator fit; (5) The combination of substitute air-purifying Quantitative fit testing using controlled negative elements, test agent and test agent concentra- - pressure and appropriate instrumentation to meas ure the volumetric leak rate of a facepiece to quantify tion shall be such that the test subject is not ex- posed in excess of an established exposure limit the respirator fit. for the test agent at any time during the testing process, based upon the length of the exposure 1. General and the exposure limit duration. (a) The employer shall ensure that persons admin- (6) The sampling port on the test specimen res istering QNFT are able to calibrate equipment and - perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, pirator shall be placed and constructed so that no leakage occurs around the port (e.g., where calculate fit factors properly and ensure that test equipment is in proper working order. the respirator is probed), a free air flow is al- lowed into the sampling line at all times, and (b) The employer shall ensure that QNFT equip- there is no interference with the fit or perform - - ance of the respirator. The in-mask sampling de- ment is kept clean, and is maintained and cali brated according to the manufacturer’s vice (probe) shall be designed and used so that instructions so as to operate at the parameters for the air sample is drawn from the breathing zone which it was designed. of the test subject, midway between the nose and mouth and with the probe extending into the facepiece cavity at least 1/4 inch. 88 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

91 (7) The test setup shall permit the person ad- (3) A reasonably stable test agent concentration ministering the test to observe the test subject shall be measured in the test chamber prior to testing. For canopy or shower curtain types of inside the chamber during the test. test units, the determination of the test agent’s stability may be established after the test sub - - (8) The equipment generating the test atmos ject has entered the test environment. phere shall maintain the concentration of test agent constant to within a 10 percent variation (4) Immediately after the subject enters the test for the duration of the test. chamber, the test agent concentration inside the respirator shall be measured to ensure that the (9) The time lag (interval between an event and peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for the recording of the event on the strip chart or - - a half mask or 1 percent for a full facepiece res computer or integrator) shall be kept to a mini pirator. mum. There shall be a clear association be - tween the occurrence of an event and its being (5) A stable test agent concentration shall be ob- recorded. tained prior to the actual start of testing. (10) The sampling line tubing for the test cham - (6) Respirator restraining straps shall not be ber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port shall be of equal diameter and of the same over-tightened for testing. The straps shall be material. The length of the two lines shall be adjusted by the wearer without assistance from other persons to give a reasonably comfortable equal. fit typical of normal use. The respirator shall not be adjusted once the fit test exercises begin. (11) The exhaust flow from the test chamber shall pass through an appropriate filter (i.e., (7) The test shall be terminated whenever any high efficiency particulate filter) before release. single peak penetration exceeds 5 percent for half masks and 1 percent for full facepiece respi- (12) When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the rators. The test subject shall be refitted and relative humidity inside the test chamber shall not exceed 50 percent. retested. (13) The limitations of instrument detection shall (8) Calculation of fit factors. be taken into account when determining the fit (i) The fit factor shall be determined for the factor. quantitative fit test by taking the ratio of the average chamber concentration to the con- (14) Test respirators shall be maintained in centration measured inside the respirator for proper working order and be inspected regu- - each test exercise except the grimace exer larly for deficiencies such as cracks or missing cise. valves and gaskets. (b) Procedural Requirements. (ii) The average test chamber concentration shall be calculated as the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and (1) When performing the initial user seal check using a positive or negative pressure check, the after each test (i.e., 7 exercises) or the arith- metic average of the concentration measured sampling line shall be crimped closed in order to avoid air pressure leakage during either of before and after each exercise or the true av- - these pressure checks. erage measured continuously during the res pirator sample. (2) The use of an abbreviated screening QLFT (iii) The concentration of the challenge agent test is optional. Such a test may be utilized in order to quickly identify poor fitting respirators inside the respirator shall be determined by - that passed the positive and/or negative pres one of the following methods: sure test and reduce the amount of QNFT time. (A) The use of the CNC QNFT instrument in the Average peak penetration method means - count mode is another optional method to ob the method of determining test agent pene- tain a quick estimate of fit and eliminate poor fit- tration into the respirator utilizing a strip chart ting respirators before going on to perform a recorder, integrator, or computer. The agent full QNFT. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 89 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

92 probed respirator is required for each make, style, penetration is determined by an average of model, and size that the employer uses and can be the peak heights on the graph or by computer obtained from the respirator manufacturer or distrib- integration, for each exercise except the gri- utor. The CNC instrument manufacturer, TSI Inc., also mace exercise. Integrators or computers that provides probe attachments (TSI sampling adapters) calculate the actual test agent penetration into that permit fit testing in an employee’s own respira- the respirator for each exercise will also be tor. A minimum fit factor pass level of at least 100 is considered to meet the requirements of the necessary for a half-mask respirator and a minimum average peak penetration method. fit factor pass level of at least 500 is required for a full Maximum peak penetration method facepiece negative pressure respirator. The entire (B) screening and testing procedure shall be explained means the method of determining test agent to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screen- penetration in the respirator as determined by ing test. strip chart recordings of the test. The highest peak penetration for a given exercise is taken to be representative of average penetration (a) Portacount Fit Test Requirements. into the respirator for that exercise. (1) Check the respirator to make sure the sam - Integration by calculation of the area (C) pling probe and line are properly attached to the facepiece and that the respirator is fitted with a under the individual peak for each exercise particulate filter capable of preventing signifi- except the grimace exercise. This includes cant penetration by the ambient particles used computerized integration. for the fit test (e.g., NIOSH 42 CFR 84 series 100, The calculation of the overall fit factor - series 99, or series 95 particulate filter) per man (D) ufacturer’s instruction. using individual exercise fit factors involves first converting the exercise fit factors to pen- (2) Instruct the person to be tested to don the etration values, determining the average, and respirator for five minutes before the fit test then converting that result back to a fit factor. This procedure is described in the following starts. This purges the ambient particles trapped equation: inside the respirator and permits the wearer to make certain the respirator is comfortable. This individual shall already have been trained on how to wear the respirator properly. , etc. are the fit factors for , ff (3) Check the following conditions for the ade- , ff Where ff 2 3 1 exercises 1, 2, 3, etc. quacy of the respirator fit: Chin properly placed; Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened; Fit across nose bridge; Respirator of proper size to (9) The test subject shall not be permitted to wear a half mask or quarter facepiece respirator span distance from nose to chin; Tendency of unless a minimum fit factor of 100 is obtained, - the respirator to slip; Self-observation in a mir ror to evaluate fit and respirator position. or a full facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 500 is obtained. (4) Have the person wearing the respirator do a (10) Filters used for quantitative fit testing shall user seal check. If leakage is detected, deter - mine the cause. If leakage is from a poorly fit - be replaced whenever increased breathing re- sistance is encountered, or when the test agent ting facepiece, try another size of the same model respirator, or another model of respirator. has altered the integrity of the filter media. (5) Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for 3. Ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter operating the Portacount and proceed with the (CNC) quantitative fit testing protocol. test. The ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter TM (6) The test subject shall be instructed to per ) protocol (CNC) quantitative fit testing (Portacount - quantitatively fit tests respirators with the use of a form the exercises in section I. A. 14. of this ap- probe. The probed respirator is only used for quanti- pendix. - tative fit tests. A probed respirator has a special sam pling device, installed on the respirator, that allows (7) After the test exercises, the test subject shall the probe to sample the air from inside the mask. A be questioned by the test conductor regarding 90 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

93 lidity of the CNP fit tests are determined by the de- the comfort of the respirator upon completion of gree to which the in-mask pressure tracks the test the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, an- pressure during the system measurement time of other model of respirator shall be tried. approximately five seconds. Instantaneous feedback in the form of a real-time pressure trace of the in- (b) Portacount Test Instrument. mask pressure is provided and used to determine test validity and quality. A minimum fit factor pass (1) The Portacount will automatically stop and level of 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator calculate the overall fit factor for the entire set of and a minimum fit factor of at least 500 is required exercises. The overall fit factor is what counts. The Pass or Fail message will indicate whether for a full facepiece respirator. The entire screening or not the test was successful. If the test was a and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test. Pass, the fit test is over. (a) CNP Fit Test Requirements. (2) Since the pass or fail criterion of the Porta - count is user programmable, the test operator (1) The instrument shall have a non-adjustable shall ensure that the pass or fail criterion meet test pressure of 15.0 mm water pressure. the requirements for minimum respirator per - formance in this Appendix. (2) The CNP system defaults selected for test pressure shall be set at -- 15 mm of water (-0.58 (3) A record of the test needs to be kept on file, assuming the fit test was successful. The record inches of water) and the modeled inspiratory must contain the test subject’s name; overall fit flow rate shall be 53.8 liters per minute for per - forming fit tests. factor; make, model, style, and size of respirator used; and date tested. CNP systems have built-in capability to ( Note: conduct fit testing that is specific to unique work 4. Controlled negative pressure (CNP) quantitative fit rate, mask, and gender situations that might testing protocol. apply in a specific workplace. Use of system de- fault values, which were selected to represent The CNP protocol provides an alternative to aerosol respirator wear with medium cartridge resist - fit test methods. The CNP fit test method technology is based on exhausting air from a temporarily sealed ance at a low-moderate work rate, will allow respirator facepiece to generate and then maintain a inter-test comparison of the respirator fit.) constant negative pressure inside the facepiece. The rate of air exhaust is controlled so that a constant (3) The individual who conducts the CNP fit test- negative pressure is maintained in the respirator dur - ing shall be thoroughly trained to perform the test. ing the fit test. The level of pressure is selected to replicate the mean inspiratory pressure that causes leakage into the respirator under normal use condi- (4) The respirator filter or cartridge needs to be replaced with the CNP test manifold. The inhala tions. With pressure held constant, air flow out of the - respirator is equal to air flow into the respirator. tion valve downstream from the manifold either needs to be temporarily removed or propped Therefore, measurement of the exhaust stream that open. is required to hold the pressure in the temporarily sealed respirator constant yields a direct measure of (5) The employer must train the test subject to leakage air flow into the respirator. The CNP fit test hold his or her breath for at least 10 seconds. method measures leak rates through the facepiece as a method for determining the facepiece fit for negative pressure respirators. The CNP instrument (6) The test subject must don the test respirator without any assistance from the test administra- manufacturer Occupational Health Dynamics of tor who is conducting the CNP fit test. The respi- Birmingham, Alabama also provides attachments (sampling manifolds) that replace the filter cartridges rator must not be adjusted once the fit-test to permit fit testing in an employee’s own respirator. exercises begin. Any adjustment voids the test, and the test subject must repeat the fit test. To p e r f o r m t h e t e s t , t h e t e s t s u b j e c t c l o s e s h i s o r h e r mouth and holds his/her breath, after which an air (7) The QNFT protocol shall be followed accord- pump removes air from the respirator facepiece at a pre-selected constant pressure. The facepiece fit is ing to section I. C. 1. of this appendix with an ex- expressed as the leak rate through the facepiece, ex- ception for the CNP test exercises. pressed as milliliters per minute. The quality and va- SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 91 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

94 - stituted for this exercise in those test environ (b) CNP Test Exercises. - ments such as shroud-type QNFT units that pro hibit bending at the waist. After the bending (1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing posi- over exercise, the subject shall hold his or her tion, without talking, the subject shall breathe head straight ahead and hold his or her breath normally for 1 minute. After the normal breath- for 10 seconds during the test measurement. ing exercise, the subject needs to hold head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 (8) Normal Breathing. The test subject shall re- seconds during the test measurement. move and re-don the respirator within a one- minute period. Then, in a normal standing (2) Deep breathing. In a normal standing posi- position, without talking, the subject shall tion, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply breathe normally for 1 minute. After the normal for 1 minute, being careful not to hyperventilate. breathing exercise, the subject shall hold his or After the deep breathing exercise, the subject her head straight ahead and hold his or her shall hold his or her head straight ahead and breath for 10 seconds during the test measure- hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test ment. After the test exercises, the test subject measurement. shall be questioned by the test conductor re - garding the comfort of the respirator upon com - (3) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, pletion of the protocol. If it has become the subject shall slowly turn his or her head unacceptable, another model of a respirator from side to side between the extreme positions shall be tried. on each side for 1 minute. The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the sub- (c) CNP Test Instrument. ject can inhale at each side. After the turning head side to side exercise, the subject needs to (1) The test instrument must have an effective hold head full left and hold his or her breath for audio-warning device, or a visual-warning de- 10 seconds during test measurement. Next, the vice in the form of a screen tracing, that indi- subject needs to hold head full right and hold cates when the test subject fails to hold his or his or her breath for 10 seconds during test - her breath during the test. The test must be ter measurement. minated and restarted from the beginning when the test subject fails to hold his or her breath (4) Moving head up and down. Standing in during the test. The test subject then may be re- place, the subject shall slowly move his or her fitted and retested. head up and down for 1 minute. The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (2) A record of the test shall be kept on file, as - (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling). After the suming the fit test was successful. The record moving head up and down exercise, the subject must contain the test subject’s name; overall fit shall hold his or her head full up and hold his or factor; make, model, style and size of respirator her breath for 10 seconds during test measure- used; and date tested. ment. Next, the subject shall hold his or her head full down and hold his or her breath for 10 5. Controlled negative pressure (CNP) REDON quan- seconds during test measurement. titative fit testing protocol. (5) Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly (a) When administering this protocol to test sub- and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by jects, employers must comply with the require- the test conductor. The subject can read from a ments specified in paragraphs (a) and (c) of Part prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, - I.C.4 of this appendix (“Controlled negative pres count backward from 100, or recite a memorized sure (CNP) quantitative fit testing protocol”), as poem or song for 1 minute. After the talking ex- well as use the test exercises described below in ercise, the subject shall hold his or her head paragraph (b) of this protocol instead of the test straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 exercises specified in paragraph (b) of Part I.C.4 of seconds during the test measurement. this appendix. (6) Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by (b) Employers must ensure that each test subject smiling or frowning for 15 seconds. being fit tested using this protocol follows the ex- ercise and measurement procedures, including the (7) Bending Over. The test subject shall bend at order of administration, described below in Table the waist as if he or she were to touch his or her A-1 of this appendix. toes for 1 minute. Jogging in place shall be sub- 92 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

95 Te s t i n g Pro t o c o l Ta b l e A- 1. C N P R E D O N Q u a n t i t a t i ve F i t Measurement procedure Exercises(1) Exercise procedure Face forward, while holding breath Stand and breathe normally, Facing Forward for 10 seconds. without talking, for 30 seconds. Bending Over Face parallel to the floor, while Bend at the waist, as if going to touch his or her toes, for 30 seconds. holding breath for 10 seconds Head Shaking Face forward, while holding breath For about three seconds, shake head back and forth vigorously several times for 10 seconds. while shouting. REDON 1 Remove the respirator mask, loosen all Face forward, while holding breath facepiece straps, and then redon the for 10 seconds. respirator mask. REDON 2 Remove the respirator mask, loosen all Face forward, while holding breath for 10 seconds. facepiece straps, and then redon the respirator mask again. 1 Exercises are listed in the order in which they are to be administered. B. The application must include a detailed descrip- (c) After completing the test exercises, the test ad- tion of the proposed new fit test protocol. This appli- - ministrator must question each test subject regard cation must be supported by either: ing the comfort of the respirator. When a test subject states that the respirator is unacceptable, the em- ployer must ensure that the test administrator re- 1. A test report prepared by an independent govern- ment research laboratory (e.g., Lawrence Livermore peats the protocol using another respirator model. National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Labora- - tory, the National Institute for Standards and Tech (d) Employers must determine the overall fit factor for each test subject by calculating the harmonic nology) stating that the laboratory has tested the protocol and had found it to be accurate and reliable; mean of the fit testing exercises as follows: or 2. An article that has been published in a peer- reviewed industrial hygiene journal describing the Where: protocol and explaining how test data support the N = The number of exercises; protocol’s accuracy and reliability. = The fit factor for the first exercise; FF 1 FF If OSHA determines that additional information is = The fit factor for the second exercise; and C. 2 FF = The fit factor for the nth exercise. required before the Agency commences a rulemak- N ing proceeding under this section, OSHA will so notify the applicant and afford the applicant the op- Part II. New Fit Test Protocols portunity to submit the supplemental information. Initiation of a rulemaking proceeding will be deferred Any person may submit to OSHA an application A. until OSHA has received and evaluated the supple- for approval of a new fit test protocol. If the applica- tion meets the following criteria, OSHA will initiate a mental information. rulemaking proceeding under section 6(b)(7) of the OSH Act to determine whether to list the new proto- col as an approved protocol in this Appendix A. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 93 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

96 Close off the inlet open - B. Negative pressure check. Appendix B-1 to §1910.134: ing of the canister or cartridge(s) by covering with User Seal Check Procedures the palm of the hand(s) or by replacing the filter (Mandatory) seal(s), inhale gently so that the facepiece collapses - slightly, and hold the breath for ten seconds. The de The individual who uses a tight-fitting respirator is to sign of the inlet opening of some cartridges cannot perform a user seal check to ensure that an adequate be effectively covered with the palm of the hand. The - seal is achieved each time the respirator is put on. Ei test can be performed by covering the inlet opening ther the positive and negative pressure checks listed of the cartridge with a thin latex or nitrile glove. If the in this appendix, or the respirator manufacturer’s facepiece remains in its slightly collapsed condition recommended user seal check method shall be used. and no inward leakage of air is detected, the tight- User seal checks are not substitutes for qualitative or ness of the respirator is considered satisfactory. quantitative fit tests. II. Manufacturer’s Recommended User Seal I. Facepiece Positive and/or Negative Pressure Check Procedures Checks The respirator manufacturer’s recommended pro - Close off the exhalation A. Positive pressure check. cedures for performing a user seal check may be valve and exhale gently into the facepiece. The face used instead of the positive and/or negative pres- - fit is considered satisfactory if a slight positive pres sure check procedures provided that the employer sure can be built up inside the facepiece without any demonstrates that the manufacturer’s procedures are evidence of outward leakage of air at the seal. For equally effective. most respirators this method of leak testing requires the wearer to first remove the exhalation valve cover before closing off the exhalation valve and then care- fully replacing it after the test. 94 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

97 1. Hypochlorite solution (50 ppm of chlorine) made Appendix B-2 to §1910.134: by adding approximately one milliliter of laundry Respirator Cleaning Procedures bleach to one liter of water at 43 deg. C (110 deg. F); (Mandatory) or, These procedures are provided for employer use 2. Aqueous solution of iodine (50 ppm iodine) made when cleaning respirators. They are general in na- by adding approximately 0.8 milliliters of tincture of ture, and the employer as an alternative may use the iodine (6-8 grams ammonium and/or potassium io- cleaning recommendations provided by the manu - dide/100 cc of 45% alcohol) to one liter of water at 43 facturer of the respirators used by their employees, deg. C (110 deg. F); or, provided such procedures are as effective as those listed here in Appendix B- 2. Equivalent effectiveness 3. Other commercially available cleansers of equiva- simply means that the procedures used must accom- lent disinfectant quality when used as directed, if plish the objectives set forth in Appendix B-2, i.e., their use is recommended or approved by the respi- must ensure that the respirator is properly cleaned rator manufacturer. and disinfected in a manner that prevents damage to the respirator and does not cause harm to the user. E. Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum), preferably running I. Procedures for Cleaning Respirators water. Drain. The importance of thorough rinsing cannot be overemphasized. Detergents or disinfec- A. Remove filters, cartridges, or canisters. Disassem- tants that dry on facepieces may result in dermatitis. ble facepieces by removing speaking diaphragms, In addition, some disinfectants may cause deteriora- demand and pressure-demand valve assemblies, - tion of rubber or corrosion of metal parts if not com hoses, or any components recommended by the pletely removed. manufacturer. Discard or repair any defective parts. Components should be hand-dried with a clean F. B. Wash components in warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] lint-free cloth or air-dried. maximum) water with a mild detergent or with a cleaner recommended by the manufacturer. A stiff G. Reassemble facepiece, replacing filters, car - bristle (not wire) brush may be used to facilitate the tridges, and canisters where necessary. removal of dirt. Te s t t h e r e s p i r a t o r t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l c o m p o n e n t s H. Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43 C. work properly. deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum), preferably running water. Drain. When the cleaner used does not contain a disin D. - - fecting agent, respirator components should be im mersed for two minutes in one of the following: SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 95 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

98 11. Check the type of respirator you will use (you can Appendix C to §1910.134: check more than one category): OSHA Respirator Medical a. ______ N, R, or P disposable respirator (filter- Evaluation Questionnaire mask, non-cartridge type only). (Mandatory) b. ______ Other type (for example, half- or full-face- piece type, powered-air purifying, supplied-air, self- To t h e e m p l o y e r : A n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s i n S e c t i o n 1 , contained breathing apparatus). and to question 9 in Section 2 of Part A, do not re- quire a medical examination. 12. Have you worn a respirator (circle one): Yes/No To t h e e m p l o y e e : If “yes,” what type(s):_________________________________________ Can you read (circle one): Yes/No ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Yo u r e m p l o y e r m u s t a l l o w y o u t o a n s w e r t h i s q u e s - tionnaire during normal working hours, or at a time Part A. Section 2. (Mandatory) and place that is convenient to you. To maintain your confidentiality, your employer or supervisor must Questions 1 through 9 below must be answered by - not look at or review your answers, and your em every employee who has been selected to use any ployer must tell you how to deliver or send this type of respirator (please circle “yes” or “no”). questionnaire to the health care professional who will review it. smoke tobacco, or have you 1. Do you currently smoked tobacco in the last month: Yes/No Part A. Section 1. (Mandatory) 2. Have you ever had any of the following condi- The following information must be provided by tions? every employee who has been selected to use any Seizures (fits): Yes/No type of respirator (please print). Diabetes (sugar disease): Yes/No Allergic reactions that interfere with your 1. Today’s date:___________________________________ breathing: Yes/No 2. Your name:____________________________________ Claustrophobia (fear of closed-in places): Yes/No Tr o u b l e s m e l l i n g o d o r s : Ye s / N o 3. Your age (to nearest year):______________________ any of the following pulmonary ever had 3. Have you 4. Sex (circle one): Male/Female or lung problems? Asbestosis: Yes/No 5. Your height: __________ ft. __________ in. Asthma: Yes/No Chronic bronchitis: Yes/No 6. Your weight: ____________ lbs. Emphysema: Yes/No 7. Your job title:___________________________________ Pneumonia: Yes/No Tu b e r c u l o s i s : Ye s / N o 8. A phone number where you can be reached by the Silicosis: Yes/No health care professional who reviews this question- Pneumothorax (collapsed lung): Yes/No naire (include the Area Code): ____________________ Lung cancer: Yes/No 9. The best time to phone you at this number: Broken ribs: Yes/No ___________________________ Any chest injuries or surgeries: Yes/No Any other lung problem that you’ve been told 10. Has your employer told you how to contact the about: Yes/No health care professional who will review this ques - tionnaire (circle one): Yes/No 4. Do you currently have any of the following symp- toms of pulmonary or lung illness? 96 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

99 Shortness of breath: Yes/No 7. Do you currently take medication for any of the following problems? Shortness of breath when walking fast on level ground or walking up a slight hill or incline: Breathing or lung problems: Yes/No Ye s / N o Heart trouble: Yes/No Shortness of breath when walking with other Blood pressure: Yes/No people at an ordinary pace on level ground: Seizures (fits): Yes/No Ye s / N o Have to stop for breath when walking at your own any ever had 8. If you’ve used a respirator, have you pace on level ground: Yes/No of the following problems? (If you’ve never used a Shortness of breath when washing or dressing respirator, check the following space and go to ques- yourself: Yes/No tion 9:) Shortness of breath that interferes with your job: Eye irritation: Yes/No Ye s / N o Skin allergies or rashes: Yes/No Coughing that produces phlegm (thick sputum): Anxiety: Yes/No Ye s / N o General weakness or fatigue: Yes/No Coughing that wakes you early in the morning: Any other problem that interferes with your use of Ye s / N o a respirator: Yes/No Coughing that occurs mostly when you are lying down: Yes/No - 9. Would you like to talk to the health care profes sional who will review this questionnaire about your Coughing up blood in the last month: Yes/No answers to this questionnaire: Yes/No Wheezing: Yes/No Wheezing that interferes with your job: Yes/No Questions 10 to 15 below must be answered by Chest pain when you breathe deeply: Yes/No every employee who has been selected to use either Any other symptoms that you think may be related - a full-facepiece respirator or a self-contained breath to lung problems: Yes/No ing apparatus (SCBA). For employees who have been selected to use other types of respirators, an- - any of the following cardiovas ever had 5. Have you swering these questions is voluntary. cular or heart problems? Heart attack: Yes/No - vision in either eye (temporar ever lost 10. Have you ily or permanently): Yes/No Stroke: Yes/No Angina: Yes/No 11. Do you have any of the following vision currently Heart failure: Yes/No problems? Swelling in your legs or feet (not caused by Wear contact lenses: Yes/No walking): Yes/No Wear glasses: Yes/No Heart arrhythmia (heart beating irregularly): Yes/No Color blind: Yes/No High blood pressure: Yes/No Any other eye or vision problem: Yes/No Any other heart problem that you’ve been told about: Yes/No an injury to your ears, includ- ever had 12. Have you ing a broken ear drum: Yes/No - 6. Have you ever had any of the following cardiovas cular or heart symptoms? - have any of the following hear currently 13. Do you Frequent pain or tightness in your chest: Yes/No ing problems? Pain or tightness in your chest during physical Difficulty hearing: Yes/No activity: Yes/No Wear a hearing aid: Yes/No Pain or tightness in your chest that interferes with Any other hearing or ear problem: Yes/No your job: Yes/No In the past two years, have you noticed your heart 14. Have you a back injury: Yes/No ever had skipping or missing a beat: Yes/No Heartburn or indigestion that is not related to 15. Do you currently have any of the following mus - eating: Yes/ No culoskeletal problems? Any other symptoms that you think may be related Weakness in any of your arms, hands, legs, or feet: to heart or circulation problems: Yes/No Ye s / N o SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 97 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

100 Back pain: Yes/No If “yes,” describe these exposures:_______________ ________________________________________________ Difficulty fully moving your arms and legs: Yes/No ________________________________________________ Pain or stiffness when you lean forward or back - ________________________________________________ ward at the waist: Yes/No Difficulty fully moving your head up or down: 4. List any second jobs or side businesses you Ye s / N o have:_____________________________________________ Difficulty fully moving your head side to side: __________________________________________________ Ye s / N o Difficulty bending at your knees: Yes/No 5. List your previous occupations:__________________ __________________________________________________ Difficulty squatting to the ground: Yes/No __________________________________________________ Climbing a flight of stairs or a ladder carrying more than 25 lbs: Yes/No 6. List your current and previous hobbies:___________ Any other muscle or skeletal problem that inter - __________________________________________________ feres with using a respirator: Yes/No __________________________________________________ Part B 7. Have you been in the military services? Yes/No If “yes,” were you exposed to biological or chemi- Any of the following questions, and other questions cal agents (either in training or combat): Yes/No not listed, may be added to the questionnaire at the discretion of the health care professional who will 8. Have you ever worked on a HAZMAT team? review the questionnaire. Ye s / N o 1. In your present job, are you working at high alti- 9. Other than medications for breathing and lung tudes (over 5,000 feet) or in a place that has lower problems, heart trouble, blood pressure, and than normal amounts of oxygen: Yes/No seizures mentioned earlier in this questionnaire, are If “yes,” do you have feelings of dizziness, short- you taking any other medications for any reason (in- ness of breath, pounding in your chest, or other cluding over-the-counter medications): Yes/No symptoms when you’re working under these con - If “yes,” name the medications if you know ditions: Yes/No them:__________________________________________ 2. At work or at home, have you ever been exposed 10. Will you be using any of the following items with to hazardous solvents, hazardous airborne chemicals your respirator(s)? (e.g., gases, fumes, or dust), or have you come into HEPA Filters: Yes/No skin contact with hazardous chemicals: Yes/No Canisters (for example, gas masks): Yes/No If “yes,” name the chemicals if you know Cartridges: Yes/No them:__________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 11. How often are you expected to use the respira- ________________________________________________ tor(s) (circle “yes” or “no” for all answers that apply ________________________________________________ to you)?: Escape only (no rescue): Yes/No 3. Have you ever worked with any of the materials, Emergency rescue only: Yes/No or under any of the conditions, listed below: : Yes/No Less than 5 hours per week Asbestos: Yes/No : Yes/No per day Less than 2 hours Silica (e.g., in sandblasting): Yes/No 2 to 4 hours per day: Yes/No Tu n g s t e n / c o b a l t ( e . g . , g r i n d i n g o r w e l d i n g t h i s material): Yes/No Over 4 hours per day: Yes/No Beryllium: Yes/No 12. During the period you are using the respirator(s), Aluminum: Yes/No is your work effort: Coal (for example, mining): Yes/No (less than 200 kcal per hour): Yes/No Light Iron: Yes/No If “yes,” how long does this period last during the Tin: Yes/No average shift:____________hrs.____________mins. Dusty environments: Yes/No Examples of a light work effort are sitting while Any other hazardous exposures: Yes/No 98 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

101 writing, typing, drafting, or performing light as - 18. Provide the following information, if you know it, sembly work; or standing while operating a drill for each toxic substance that you’ll be exposed to press (1-3 lbs.) or controlling machines. when you’re using your respirator(s): Moderate (200 to 350 kcal per hour): Yes/No Name of the first toxic sustance:_________________ If “yes,” how long does this period last during the ________________________________________________ average shift:____________hrs.____________mins. Estimated maximum exposure level per while sitting Examples of moderate work effort are shift:___________________________________________ a truck or bus in urban traf- driving nailing or filing; Duration of exposure per - fic; standing while drilling, nailing, performing as shift:___________________________________________ sembly work, or transferring a moderate load Name of the second toxic sub- - walking (about 35 lbs.) at trunk level; on a level sur stance:_________________________________________ face about 2 mph or down a 5-degree grade about 3 mph; or pushing a wheelbarrow with a heavy Estimated maximum exposure level per load (about 100 lbs.) on a level surface. shift:___________________________________________ Duration of exposure per (above 350 kcal per hour): Yes/No Heavy shift:___________________________________________ If “yes,” how long does this period last during the Name of the third toxic sub- average shift:____________hrs.____________mins. stance:_________________________________________ lifting Examples of heavy work are a heavy load Estimated maximum exposure level per (about 50 lbs.) from the floor to your waist or shift:___________________________________________ ; shoveling shoulder; working on a loading dock; Duration of exposure per while bricklaying or chipping castings; standing shift:___________________________________________ walking up an 8-degree grade about 2 mph; climb- The name of any other toxic substances that you’ll ing stairs with a heavy load (about 50 lbs.). be exposed to while using your respirator: ________________________________________________ 13. Will you be wearing protective clothing and/or ________________________________________________ equipment (other than the respirator) when you’re ________________________________________________ using your respirator: Yes/No ________________________________________________ If “yes,” describe this protective clothing and/or ________________________________________________ equipment:_____________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 19. Describe any special responsibilities you’ll have 14. Will you be working under hot conditions (tem - while using your respirator(s) that may affect the perature exceeding 77 deg. F): Yes/No safety and well-being of others (for example, rescue, security): 15. Will you be working under humid conditions: __________________________________________________ Ye s / N o __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 16. Describe the work you’ll be doing while you’re __________________________________________________ using your respirator(s)____________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 17. Describe any special or hazardous conditions you might encounter when you’re using your respirator(s) (for example, confined spaces, life- threatening gases):________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 99 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

102 2. Choose respirators certified for use to protect Appendix D to §1910.134: against the contaminant of concern. NIOSH, the Na- Information for Employees Using tional Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of Respirators When Not Required the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Under the Standard (Mandatory) - certifies respirators. A label or statement of certifica tion should appear on the respirator or respirator Respirators are an effective method of protection packaging. It will tell you what the respirator is de- against designated hazards when properly selected signed for and how much it will protect you. and worn. Respirator use is encouraged, even when exposures are below the exposure limit, to provide 3. Do not wear your respirator into atmospheres con- an additional level of comfort and protection for taining contaminants for which your respirator is not workers. However, if a respirator is used improperly designed to protect against. For example, a respira- or not kept clean, the respirator itself can become a tor designed to filter dust particles will not protect hazard to the worker. Sometimes, workers may wear you against gases, vapors, or very small solid parti - respirators to avoid exposures to hazards, even if the cles of fumes or smoke. amount of hazardous substance does not exceed the limits set by OSHA standards. If your employer pro- 4. Keep track of your respirator so that you do not vides respirators for your voluntary use, or if you mistakenly use someone else's respirator. provide your own respirator, you need to take certain precautions to be sure that the respirator itself does not present a hazard. [63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 20098, 20099, April 23, 1998; assembled at 69 FR 46993, Aug. 4, 2004, 71 Yo u s h o u l d d o t h e f o l l o w i n g : FR 16672, April 3, 2006; 71 FR 50187, August 24, 2006] 1. Read and heed all instructions provided by the manufacturer on use, maintenance, cleaning and - care, and warnings regarding the respirators limita tions. 100 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

103 1. P u r p o s e Attachment 4: Sample Program ____________________________ has determined that employees in the Prep, Coating, Assembly, and Mainte- Small Entity Compliance Guide: Sample Respiratory nance departments are exposed to respiratory hazards Protection Program (fill in blanks with your company’s/ during routine operations. These hazards include wood facility’s information). dust, particulates, and vapors, and in some cases repre- TABLE OF CONTENTS sent Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) 1. Purpose conditions. The purpose of this program is to ensure 2. Scope and Application that all ____________________________ employees are protected from exposure to these respiratory hazards. 3. Responsibilities • Program Administrator Engineering controls, such as ventilation and substitu- • Supervisors tion of less toxic materials, are the first line of defense • Workers at ____________________________; however, engineering 4. Program Elements controls have not always been feasible for some of our • Selection Procedures: Program Administration, operations, or have not always completely controlled Change Schedules the identified hazards. In these situations, respirators • Medical Evaluation and other protective equipment must be used. Respira- • Fit Testing tors are also needed to protect employees’ health • Respirator Use - during emergencies. The work processes requiring res • Air Quality pirator use at ____________________________ are outlined • Cleaning, Maintenance, Change Schedules, and in Table 1 in the Scope and Application section of this Storage pro gram. • Tr a i n i n g 5. Program Evaluation In addition, some employees have expressed a desire to wear respirators during certain operations that do 6. Documentation and Recordkeeping not require respiratory protection. As a general policy ____________________________ will review each of these - requests on a case-by-case basis. If the use of respira tory protection in a specific case will not jeopardize the health or safety of the employee(s), ___________________ _________________ will provide respirators for voluntary use. As outlined in the Scope and Application section of this program, voluntary respirator use is subject to cer - tain requirements of this program. 2. Scope and Application This program applies to all employees who are required to wear respirators during normal work opera - - tions, and during some non-routine or emergency oper ations such as a spill of a hazardous substance. This includes workers in the Prep, Coating (Spray Booth), - Assembly, and Maintenance departments. All employ ees working in these areas and engaged in certain processes or tasks (as outlined in the table below) must be enrolled in the company’s respiratory protection program. In addition, any employee who voluntarily wears a res - pirator when a respirator is not required (i.e., in certain maintenance and coating operations) is subject to the medical evaluation, cleaning, maintenance, and storage elements of this program, and must be provided with certain information specified in this section of the program. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 101 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

104 Ta b l e 1 : Vo l u n t a r y a n d R e q u i r e d R e s p i r a t o r U s e a t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Ty p e o f R e s p i r a t o r Employee Work Area Conditions of Use Voluntary Warehouse workers Filtering facepiece (dust mask) Voluntary Maintenance workers when Filtering facepiece cleaning spray booth walls or changing spray booth filter PAPR with P100 filter Preparation and Assembly Mandatory Maintenance - dip Mandatory SAR, pressure demand, with auxiliary SCBA coat tank cleaning Spray booth operations Continuous flow SAR Mandatory with hood (prep and cleaning) Dip Coat Tenders, Spray Half facepiece APR, Voluntary with organic vapor Maintenance workers cartridge and loading coating agents into supply system Escape SCBA Dip Coat, Coatings Mandatory Storage Area, Spray Booth Cleaning Area until ventilation is installed 3. Responsibilities Supervisors: supervisors are responsible for ensuring the Program Administrator Program Administrator: that the respiratory protection program is implemented - is responsible for administering the respiratory protec in their particular areas. In addition to being knowledge- tion program. Duties of the program administrator in- able about the program requirements for their own pro- clude: tection, supervisors must also ensure that the program Identifying work areas, processes or tasks that re- • is understood and followed by the workers under their quire workers to wear respirators, and evaluating charge. Note: Workers participating in the respiratory hazards. protection program do so at no cost to themselves. Ensuring adequate air quantity, quality, and flow of • Duties of the supervisor include: breathing air for atmosphere-supplying respirators. Ensuring that employees under their supervision (in- • (See (c)(1) of the standard.) cluding new hires) have received appropriate train - • Selection of respiratory protection options. ing, fit testing, and annual medical evaluation. Monitoring respirator use to ensure that respirators • • Ensuring the availability of appropriate respirators are used in accord with their certifications. and accessories. • Arranging for and/or conducting training. Being aware of tasks requiring the use of respiratory • protection. Ensuring proper storage, cleaning, inspections, and • maintenance of respiratory protection equipment. • Enforcing the proper use of respiratory protection when necessary. • Conducting qualitative fit testing with Bitrex. Ensuring that respirators are properly cleaned, • • Administering the medical surveillance program. maintained, inspected, and stored according to the • Maintaining records required by the program. respiratory protection plan. • Evaluating the program. • Ensuring that respirators fit well and do not cause • Updating written program, as needed. discomfort. The Program Administrator for____________________ • is ________________________. 102 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

105 Continually monitoring work areas and operations • - Respirators are selected based on the workplace to identify respiratory hazards. hazards evaluated, and workplace and user factors affecting respirator performance and reliability. Coordinating with the Program Administrator on • how to address respiratory hazards or other con- - Respirators are selected based on the Assigned Pro • cerns regarding the program. tection Factors (APFs) and calculated Maximum Use Concentrations (MUCs). Ensuring adequate air quantity, quality, and flow of • breathing air for atmosphere-supplying respirators. A sufficient number of respirator sizes and models • (See (c)(1) of the standard.) must be provided to the employee during fit testing to identify the acceptable respirator that correctly fits the users. each employee has the responsibility: Employees: For IDLH atmospheres: • • To w e a r h i s o r h e r r e s p i r a t o r w h e n a n d w h e r e required and in the manner in which they were - Full facepiece pressure demand SARs with auxil- trained. iary SCBA unit or full facepiece pressure demand SCBAs, with a minimum service life of 30 minutes, Care for and maintain their respirators as instructed, • must be provided. and store them in a clean, sanitary location. - Respirators used for escape only are NIOSH-certi - • Inform their supervisor if the respirator no longer fits fied for the atmosphere in which they will be used. well, and request a new one that fits properly. - Oxygen deficient atmospheres are considered • Inform their supervisor or the Program Administra- IDLH. tor of any respiratory hazards that they feel are not adequately addressed in the workplace and of any For Non-IDLH atmospheres, respirators are: • other concerns that they have regarding the program. - Selected as appropriate for the APFs and MUCs. • Inform their supervisor of need for a medical - Selected as appropriate for the chemical nature reevaluation. and physical form of the contaminant. - Equipped with end-of-service-life indicators 4. Program Elements (ESLIs) if the respirators (APRs) are used for Selection Procedures – The Program protection against gases and vapors. If there is Administrator: no ESLI, then a change schedule must be implemented. Will select respirators to be used on site, based on • - the hazards to which workers are exposed and in ac - Equipped with NIOSH-certified HEPA filters (or cord with all applicable OSHA standards. other filters certified by NIOSH for particulates under 42 CFR part 84) if the respirators (APRs) are • Will conduct a hazard evaluation for each operation, to be used for protection against particulates. process, or work area where airborne contaminants may be present in routine operations or during an • When monitoring is contracted out, an example of emergency. the type of statement needed in the respirator pro- gram is: _________________________________________ • Monitoring can be contracted out. currently has a contract with ______________________ The hazard evaluation will include: • to provide monitoring when needed. - Identification and development of a list of Note: Ta b l e 2 a t t h e e n d o f t h i s p r o g r a m c o n t a i n s hazardous substances used in the workplace, by the sampling data on which this section was based. department or work process. The results of the current hazard evaluation are the following: - - Review of work processes to determine where po tential exposures to these hazardous substances - Prep-sanding: Ventilation controls on some - may occur. This review is to be conducted by sur sanders are in place, but employees continue to veying the workplace, reviewing process records, be exposed to respirable wood dust at 2.5 - 7.0 and talking with employees and supervisors. 3 (8-hour time-weighted average, or TWA). mg/m Half facepiece APRs with P100 filters and goggles - Exposure monitoring to quantify potential are required for employees sanding wood pieces. hazardous exposures. PAPRs will be available for employees who are - If worker exposures have not been, or cannot be, unable to wear an APR. evaluated they must be considered IDLH. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 103 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

106 - Prep-cleaning: Average methylene chloride expo- tion is required according to the Formaldehyde sures measured at 70 ppm based on 8-hour TWA and Methylene Chloride standards, and the exposure results for workers cleaning/stripping cartridge, filter, and canister requirements of the furniture pieces. Ventilation controls are planned Respiratory Protection standard at paragraph but will not be implemented until designs are . (d)(3)(ii) completed and a contract has been let for installa - - - Maintenance: Because of potential IDLH condi tion of the controls. In the meantime, workers tions, employees cleaning dip coat tanks must must wear supplied-air hoods with continuous air wear a pressure demand SAR during the perform - flow, as required by the Methylene Chloride stan- ance of this task. Employees may voluntarily wear dard at 29 CFR 1910.1052. half facepiece APRs with P100 cartridges when - Coating-spray booth: ___________________________ - cleaning spray booth walls or changing booth fil has decided to take a conservative approach and ters, and half facepiece APRs with organic vapor - require all employees to wear supplied-air respira - cartridges when loading coating agents into sup tors when working inside the spray booth. Based ply systems. Although exposure monitoring has on exposure data in published reports on the shown that exposures are kept within PELs during same type of spray booth operations, the Program these procedures, _____________________________ has determined that a SAR in the Administrator will provide respirators to workers who are con- continuous flow mode will provide sufficient pro - cerned about potential exposures. tection. Spray booth employees may opt to wear half facepiece APRs with organic vapor cartridges when cleaning spray guns. - Coating-dip coat and drying: Exposures are kept within PELs by ventilation, and employees gener - ally enter the dip coat area for short time periods (up to one hour). Vapors could leak into the dip coat and drying areas if the ventilation system is not running at peak efficiency. Odors in this area are often unpleasant even at the levels maintained by the ventilation system. While ___________________ notes that respiratory protec- - tion is not required in this area, the company rec ognizes employee concern about breathing vapors and about having to work in an unpleasant environment. Accordingly, employees may volun- tarily choose to wear a half facepiece APR with or - ganic vapor cartridges when working in this area. - Assembly: Ventilation controls on sanders are in place, but employees continue to be exposed to 3 (8-hour respirable wood dust at 2.5 - 6.0 mg/m TWA); half facepiece APRs with P100 filters and goggles are required for employees sanding wood pieces in the assembly department. PAPRs will be available for employees who are unable to wear an APR. The planned substitution for aque- ous-based glues will eliminate exposures to formaldehyde, methylene chloride, and epoxy resins. Until then, appropriate respiratory protec- 104 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

107 Ta b l e 2 : H a z a r d A s s e s s m e n t ( S a m p l e P r o g r a m ) - D a t e o f A s s e s s m e n t Contaminants Department PEL Exposure Level Controls (8-hr TWA) Possible emergency Spray Booth Alarms; escape respirators located spills of hazardous Cleaning Area in Locker #1 in Spray Booth substances Potentially Dip Coat/ Alarms; escape respirators located malfunctioning Drying Area in Storage Area #3 in the Dip ventilation system; Coat/Drying Area leak in supply Leaks/spills Coatings Alarms; escape respirators located in Storage Area locker #4 in the Coating Storage Area Possible IDLH Dip Coat Tank IDLH Pressure demand SAR; confined Cleaner space entry procedures as specified in the Confined Space Program for this workplace Respirable wood dust, Preparation Can be IDLH Pressure demand SAR other particulates, Coat/Assembly vapors; can be IDLH Area/Maintenance 3 3 Respirable wood dust Preparation 15 mg/m 2.5 - 7.0 mg/m Half facepiece APRs with P100 filters Sanding and goggles Methylene Chloride Preparation 25 ppm PEL - Awaiting the installation of ventila 70 ppm cleaning/clean 12.5 ppm AL tion; until then, SAR hood with con- and strip 125 ppm STEL tinuous flow Coat/Spray Booth At Program Administrator’s discre - tion: SAR Hood with continuous flow Coat When cleaning spray guns only , Spray/Cleaning employees may opt for APRs with Spray Gun organic vapor cartridges Coating/Dip Ventilation; employees work in this Ta n k / D r y i n g area for short periods of time only (an hour); due to the presence of smells - and vapors, employees may voluntar ily choose to wear half mask APRs with organic vapor filters 3 3 Respirable wood dust Assembly Although ventilation has been pro - 15 mg/m 2.5 - 6.0 mg/m - vided, employees still experience res IDLH pirable dust; half facepiece APRs with P100 filters and goggles; PAPRs can be made available to workers who cannot wear half mask APRs; substi - tution of aqueous-based glues will eliminate exposures to formalde- hyde, methylene chloride, and epoxy resins Maintenance: - Pressure demand SAR while per cleaning dip forming this task coat tanks SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 105 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

108 Updating the Hazard Assessment – The Program and cleaning, maintenance and storage. Administrator: Authorize voluntary use of respiratory protective • • Must revise and update the hazard assessment as equipment as requested by all other workers on a needed (i.e., any time work process changes may case-by-case basis, depending on specific workplace potentially affect exposure). If an employee feels conditions and the results of the medical evalua - - that respiratory protection is needed during a partic tions. Voluntary use does not require compliance - ular activity, he/she is to contact his or her supervi with these specific provisions of the standard. . The Program Program Administrator sor or the Administrator then: Medical Evaluation: Employees who are either • Will evaluate the potential hazard, arranging for out - required to wear respirators, or who choose to wear side assistance as necessary. an APR voluntarily, must pass a medical exam before being permitted to wear a respirator on the Will then communicate the results of that assess- • job. Employees are not permitted to wear respira- ment back to the employees. If it is determined that tors until a PLHCP has determined that they are - respiratory protection is necessary, all other ele medically able to do so. Any employee refusing ments of this program will be in effect for those the medical evaluation will not be allowed to work tasks, and this program will be updated accordingly. in an area requiring respirator use. A PLHCP Will ensure that all respirators are certified by the • _______________________________, where all National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health company medical services are provided, will provide (NIOSH) and are used in accord with the terms of the medical evaluations. that certification. Will also ensure that all filters, cartridges, and canis- • Medical evaluation procedures are as follows: ters must be labeled with the appropriate NIOSH The medical evaluation will be conducted using the • certification label. The label must not be removed or questionnaire provided in of the Respi- Appendix C defaced while it is in use. ratory Protection standard. • Regarding Vo l u n t a r y R e s p i ra to r U s e , the following The will provide a copy of • Program Administrator statement is needed: ___________________________ this questionnaire to all employees requiring will provide respirators at no charge to employees medical evaluations. for voluntary use for the following work processes/ areas: - To t h e e x t e n t f e a s i b l e , t h e c o m p a n y w i l l a s s i s t e m • ployees who are unable to read the questionnaire Employees may wear half facepiece APRs with (by providing help in reading the questionnaire). organic vapor cartridges while working in the dip When this is not possible, the employee will be sent coat area. directly to the physician for medical evaluation. Warehouse workers may wear filtering facepieces. • All affected employees will be given a copy of the Spray Booth Operators may wear half facepiece medical questionnaire to fill out, along with a APRs with organic vapor cartridges while cleaning stamped and addressed envelope for mailing the spray guns. questionnaire to the company physician. Maintenance personnel may wear half facepiece APRs with P100 cartridges while cleaning spray Employees will: booth walls, and organic vapor cartridges while Be permitted to fill out the questionnaire on com- • loading spray guns. pany time. • Be granted follow-up medical exams as required by The Program Administrator will also: the Respiratory Protection standard, and/or as deemed necessary by __________________________ • Provide all employees who voluntarily choose to the PLHCP. wear either of the above respirators with a copy Appendix D of the standard specified by the of • Be granted the opportunity to speak with the Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134). physician about their medical evaluation, if they so (Appendix D details the requirements for voluntary request. use of respirators by workers.) Workers choosing to The Program Administrator has provided __________ wear a half facepiece APR must comply with the ____________________________ the physician with: procedures for medical evaluation, respirator use, 106 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

109 A copy of this program, and a copy of the Respira - • - Prior to being allowed to wear any respirator with tory Protection standard. a tight fitting facepiece. The list of hazardous substances by work area, and • - Annually. for each employee requiring evaluation, his or her - When there are changes in the employee’s physi - work area or job. cal condition that could affect respiratory fit (e.g., The employee’s title, proposed respirator type and • obvious change in body weight, facial scarring, weight, length of time required to wear the respira- etc.). tor, expected physical work load (light, moderate, • Employees will be fit tested with the make, model, or heavy), potential temperature and humidity and size of respirator that they will actually wear. extremes, and any additional protective clothing • Employees will be provided with several models required. and sizes of respirators so that they may find an optimal fit. Any employee required for medical reasons to wear a positive pressure air purifying respirator will be • Fit testing of PAPRs is to be conducted in the nega- provided with a powered air purifying respirator. Program Administrator tive pressure mode. The will conduct fit tests following the OSHA approved Bi - After an employee has received clearance and begun to trex Solution Aerosol QLFT Protocol in Appendix A wear his or her respirator, additional medical evalua- . The Program of the Respiratory Protection standard tions will be provided if: has determined that QNFT is not re- Administrator The employee reports signs and/or symptoms • quired for the respirators used under current condi- related to their ability to use a respirator, such as tions at ____________________________. If conditions shortness of breath, dizziness, chest pains, or Program Admin affecting respirator use change, the - wheezing. istrator will evaluate on a case-by-case basis The PLHCP _________or supervisor informs the • whether QNFT is required. Program Administrator that the employee needs to be reevaluated, additional medical evaluation will be Employees Respirator Use - Responsibilities for are provided. that they: • Information from this program, including observa - Will use their respirators under conditions specified • tions made during fit testing and program evalua- by this program, and in accord with the training they tion, indicates a need for reevaluation. - receive on the use of each particular model. In addi • An example of the PLHCP’s or the supervisor’s tion, the respirator must not be used in a manner for observations that additional medical evaluation is - which it is not certified by NIOSH or by its manufac needed could be that there has been a change in turer. workplace conditions that may result in an increased Must conduct user seal checks each time that they • physiological burden on the employee. wear their respirator. • Must use either the positive or negative pressure - A list of ____________________________ employees cur check (depending on which test works best for rently included in medical surveillance is provided in Appendix B-1 of the Respiratory them) specified in Ta b l e 3 o f t h i s p r o g r a m . A l l e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d q u e s t i o n - Protection standard . naires are to remain confidential between the employee • Must leave the work area to go to the locker room to and the physician. maintain their respirator for the following reasons: - to clean their respirator if the respirator is imped- Fit Te s t i n g : ing their ability to work; Fit testing is required for employees wearing half • - to change filters or cartridges, or replace parts; or facepiece APRs for exposure to wood dust in Prep and Assembly, and maintenance workers who wear - to inspect the respirator if it stops functioning as a tight-fitting SAR for dip tank cleaning. intended. Employees voluntarily wearing half facepiece APRs • • Should notify their supervisor before leaving the area. may also be fit tested upon request. • Not wear tight-fitting respirators if they have any Employees who are required to wear half facepiece • condition, such as facial scars, facial hair, or missing APRs will be fit tested: dentures, that prevents them from achieving a good seal. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 107 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

110 • Not wear headphones, jewelry, or other articles that buddy that he or she has had a respirator mal- may interfere with the facepiece-to-face seal. - function. The buddy shall don an emergency es cape respirator and aid the worker in immediately exiting the spray booth. Emergency Procedures: - Workers cleaning wood pieces or assembled fur - The following work areas have been identified as • niture in the Prep department will work with a having foreseeable emergencies: buddy. If one of the workers experiences a respira- - Spray Booth Cleaning Area - spill of hazardous tor malfunction, he/she shall signal this to their waste buddy. The buddy must immediately stop what he or she is doing to escort the worker to the Prep - Dip Coat Area - malfunction of ventilation system, staging area where the worker can safely remove leak in supply system the SAR. - Coatings Storage Area - spill or leak of hazardous substances IDLH Procedures When the alarm sounds, employees in the affected • • The Program Administrator has identified the fol- department must immediately don their emergency lowing area as presenting the potential for IDLH escape respirator, shut down their process equip- conditions: ment, and exit the work area. Ta n k C l e a n i n g : • Dip Coat • All other employees must immediately evacuate the building. ____________________________‘s Emergency - Maintenance workers will be periodically required Action Plan describes these procedures (including to enter the dip tank to perform scheduled or proper evacuation routes and rally points) in greater unscheduled maintenance. detail. - In such cases, workers will follow the permit- Emergency escape respirators are located in: • required confined space entry procedures specified in the ____________________________ - Locker #1 in the Spray Booth Area Confined Space Program. - Storage cabinet #3 in the Dip Coat/Drying Area Program Administrator - As specified above, the - Locker #4 in the Coatings Storage Area has determined that workers entering this area • Respiratory protection in these instances is for es- must wear a pressure demand SAR. cape purposes only. ____________________________ - In addition, an appropriately trained and equipped employees are not trained as emergency respon- standby person must remain outside the dip tank ders, and are not authorized to act in such a manner. and maintain constant voice and visual communi- cation with the worker. Respirator Malfunction - In the event of an emergency requiring the 1. APR Respirator Malfunction: standby person to enter the IDLH environment, the standby person must immediately notify the For any malfunction of an APR (e.g., breakthrough, • Program Administrator - and will proceed with res facepiece leakage, or improperly working valve), the cue operations in accord with rescue procedures respirator wearer must inform his or her supervisor outlined in the ____________________________ that the respirator no longer functions, and go to the Confined Space Program. designated safe area to maintain the respirator. The supervisor must ensure that the employee receives the needed parts to repair the respirator, or is pro- Air Quality vided with a new respirator. For supplied-air respirators, only Grade D breathing • Atmosphere-Supplying Respirator Malfunction: 2. air is to be used in the cylinders. - All workers wearing atmosphere-supplying respira • • - Program Administrator will coordinate deliver The tors will work with a buddy. ies of compressed air with the company’s vendor, Compressed Air Inc., and require Compressed Air • Buddies should assist workers who experience an Inc. to certify that the air in the cylinders meets the SAR malfunction as follows: specifications of Grade D breathing air. - If a worker in the spray booth experiences a mal- Program Administrator will maintain a mini- • The function of an SAR, he or she should signal to the mum air supply of one fully charged replacement 108 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

111 cylinder for each SAR unit. In addition, cylinders • Worn or deteriorated parts will be replaced prior to may be recharged as necessary from the breathing use. air cascade system located near the respirator stor - No components will be replaced or repairs made be- • age area. yond those recommended by the manufacturer. • The air for this system is provided by ____________’s Repairs to regulators or alarms of atmosphere- • supplier, and deliveries of new air are coordinated supplying respirators will be conducted by the . by the Program Administrator manufacturer. The following checklist will be used when inspecting • Cleaning, Maintenance and Change Schedules respirators: and Storage - Facepiece: Cleaning n cracks, tears, or holes - Respirators are to be regularly cleaned and disin - n facemask distortion fected at the designated respirator cleaning sta- n tion located in the employee locker room. cracked or loose lenses/faceshield - Respirators issued for the exclusive use of a em- - Valves: ployee are to be cleaned as often as necessary, n Residue or dirt but at least once a day for workers in the Prep and n Cracks or tears in valve material Assembly departments. - Headstraps: - - Atmosphere-supplying and emergency use respi rators are to be cleaned and disinfected after each n breaks or tears use. n broken buckles The following procedure is to be used when clean- • - Filters/Cartridges: ing and disinfecting respirators: n approval designation - - Disassemble respirator, removing any filters, can n gaskets isters, or cartridges. n cracks or dents in housing - Wash the facepiece and associated parts in a mild detergent with warm water. Do not use organic n proper cartridge for hazard solvents. - Air Supply Systems: - Rinse completely in clean warm water. n breathing air quality/grade - Wipe the respirator with disinfectant wipes (70% n condition of supply hoses Isopropyl Alcohol) to kill germs. n hose connections - Air dry in a clean area. n settings on regulators and valves - Reassemble the respirator and replace any defec- Employees are permitted to leave their work area • tive parts. and go to a designated area that is free of respira- - Place in a clean, dry plastic bag or other airtight tory hazards when they need to wash their face and container. - respirator facepiece to prevent any eye or skin irrita • Note: The Program Administrator will ensure an ad- tion, or to replace the filter, cartridge or canister, or equate supply of appropriate cleaning and disinfec - when they detect vapor or gas breakthrough or tion material at the cleaning station. If supplies are leakage in the facepiece or detect any other damage low, employees should contact their supervisor, who to the respirator or its components. will inform the . Program Administrator Change Schedules Maintenance - Employees wearing APRs or PAPRs with P100 fil- ters for protection against wood dust and other • Respirators are to be properly maintained at all particulates need to change the cartridges on their times to ensure that they function properly and ade- respirators when they first begin to experience dif - quately protect the employee. ficulty breathing (i.e., resistance) while wearing Maintenance involves a thorough visual inspection • their masks. for cleanliness and defects. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 109 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

112 - - Based on discussions with our respirator distribu • All tagged out-of-service respirators will be kept in - tor about ____________________________’s work Program Administra - the storage cabinet inside the place exposure conditions, employees voluntarily office. tor’s wearing APRs with organic vapor cartridges must change the cartridges on their respirators at the Tr a i n i n g end of each work week to ensure the continued will provide training to • The Program Administrator effectiveness of the respirators. respirator users and their supervisors on the con - Storage tents of the ____________________________ Respira- Respirators must be stored in a clean, dry area, and • tory Protection Program and their responsibilities in accord with the manufacturer’s recommenda- under it, and on the OSHA Respiratory Protection tions. standard. • Each employee will clean and inspect their own air- • Workers will be trained prior to using a respirator in purifying respirator in accord with the provisions of the workplace. this program, and will store their respirator in a plas - The training must be comprehensive, understand - • tic bag in their own locker. able and recur annually, and more often if necessary. • Each employee will have his/her name on the bag, • As with any employee, supervisors must be trained and that bag will only be used to store that em - prior to using a respirator in the workplace; they ployee’s respirator. also should be trained prior to supervising workers • Atmosphere-supplying respirators will be stored in - who must wear respirators if the supervisors them the storage cabinet outside of the Program Adminis - selves do not use a respirator. trator’s office. • Supervisors will provide the basic information on • Program Administrator will store _____________ The respirators in Appendix D of the Respiratory Protec- __________________’s supply of respirators and respi - tion standard to employees who wear respirators rator components in their original manufacturer’s when not required by the employer to do so. packaging in the equipment storage room. Supervisors will ensure that each employee can • Defective Respirators demonstrate knowledge of at least the following: Respirators that are defective or have defective parts • Why the respirator is necessary and how improper must be taken out of service immediately. fit, usage, or maintenance can compromise the pro- tective effect of the respirator; If, during an inspection, an employee discovers a • defect in a respirator, he/she is to bring the defect to - What the limitations and capabilities of the respira the attention of his or her supervisor. tor are; • Supervisors will give all defective respirators to the How to use the respirator effectively in emergency . Program Administrator - situations, including situations in which the respira tor malfunctions; • Program Administrator will decide whether to: The How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check - Te m p o r a r i l y t a k e t h e r e s p i r a t o r o u t o f s e r v i c e u n t i l the seals of the respirator; it can be repaired. What the procedures are for maintenance and stor - - Perform a simple fix on the spot such as replacing age of the respirator; a headstrap. How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that - Dispose of the respirator due to an irreparable may limit or prevent the effective use of respirators; problem or defect. and When a respirator is taken out of service, the respi - • The general requirements of the Respiratory Protec - rator will be tagged out of service, and the employee tion standard. will be given a replacement of the same make, model and size. • Supervisors will ensure that employees will be re - trained annually or as needed (e.g., if they change • If the employee is not given a replacement of the departments and need to use a different respirator). same make, model and size, then the employee must be fit tested. An employer who is able to demonstrate that a new employee has received training within the last 12 months that addresses the elements specified in 110 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

113 paragraph (k)(1)(i) through (vii) is not required to re- List factors to be evaluated (see (l)(2).) • peat such training provided that, as required by • Problems identified will be noted in an inspection paragraph (k)(1) , the employee can demonstrate log and corrected by the . Program Administrator knowledge of those element(s). These findings will be reported to _________________ • - Previous training not repeated initially by the em management, and the report will list plans to correct ployer must be provided no later than 12 months deficiencies in the respirator program and target from the date of the previous training. dates for implementing those corrections. Retraining shall be administered annually, and when the following situations occur: 6. Documentation and Recordkeeping Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator • A written copy of this program and the OSHA render previous training obsolete; standard is kept in the Program Administrator’s Inadequacies in the employee’s knowledge or use office and is available to all employees who wish to of the respirator indicate that the worker has not review it. retained the requisite understanding or skill; or Also maintained in the • Program Administrator’s - Any other situation arises in which retraining ap office are copies of training materials. pears necessary to ensure safe respirator use. (see (m)(2) of the Copies of fit test records • The basic advisory information on respirators, as . These records will be updated as new fit standard) - presented in Appendix D of the Respiratory Protec tests are conducted. tion standard, shall be provided by the employer in • These records will be updated as new employees any written or oral format to employees who wear are trained and as existing employees receive respirators when such use is not required by this refresher training. section or by the employer. Program Administrator will also maintain copies • The of the records for all employees covered under the 5. Program Evaluation respirator program (except medical records). Program Administrator will conduct periodic • The • The completed medical questionnaire and the evaluations of the workplace to ensure that the pro- PLHCP's documented findings are confidential and visions of this program are being implemented. will remain at ____________________________. The The evaluations will include regular consultations • company will only retain the physician’s written with employees who use respirators and their su- recommendation regarding each employee’s ability pervisors, site inspections, air monitoring and a re- to wear a respirator. view of records. Ta b l e 3 : A l i s t o f _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e m p l o y e e s c u r r e n t l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e m e d i c a l s u r v e i l l a n c e p r o g r a m . Date of Listing. Name of first employee _________________________________________________ Date___________________ Second name Date___________________ __________________________________________________________ Next name_____________________________________________________________ Date___________________ Next name_____________________________________________________________ Date___________________ Next name_____________________________________________________________ Date___________________ Next name_____________________________________________________________ Date___________________ Next name_____________________________________________________________ Date___________________ Next name_____________________________________________________________ Date___________________ Date___________________ Last nam e _____________________________________________________________ SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 111 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

114 the end of its service life or effectiveness; this is the Attachment 5: point at which “breakthrough” is likely to occur as the NIOSH MultiVapor Information sorbent no longer is able to collect organic vapors at The National Institute for Occupational Safety and the needed capacity. With that information, the admin- Health (NIOSH) announced new computer software that istrator will know when to schedule a replacement of enables administrators of workplace respiratory protec - the cartridge. tion programs to consider the effects of relative humid- “Especially in situations when the use of air-purifying ity on the service life of NIOSH-approved organic vapor respirators may be necessary for hours, knowing when (OV) chemical cartridges. This software assists program to change the organic vapor cartridge is critical for administrators, in workplaces where air-purifying respi- keeping the user safe and healthy,” said NIOSH Director rators are used, in reducing on-the-job respiratory ex - John Howard, M.D. “By adding in a key factor that was posures to potentially harmful organic vapors from a not included in previous government software, pro- - single volatile source, such as an individual paint, thin gram administrators can feel more confident in the ner, or solvent. schedules they set for changing cartridges.” The ambient relative humidity in the environment in The new computer software reflects the concept of gov- which an air-purifying respirator is used or stored is one ernment leadership through collaboration with diverse of the factors that, over time, can cause the sorbent in a technical organizations. The software resulted from re- cartridge to lose its ability to collect organic vapors search conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory from the air breathed in through the cartridge. Collect- (LANL), in conjunction with a partnership by NIOSH, - ing the vapors removes them from the air that the res LANL, the Occupational Safety and Health Administra- pirator user breathes into his or her body. Advances in tion (OSHA), the International Safety Equipment Associ- computational capabilities of personal computers, and ation (ISEA), the American Chemistry Council (ACC), the verification of the mathematical model through recent Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association research, made possible the addition of this critical fac- (SOCMA), the National Paint and Coatings Association tor to the software program that was not included in (NPCA), and the American Petroleum Institute (API), or - previous government versions. ganized and led by ORC Worldwide. The consortium The new software program also incorporates factors provided funding for the initial research and then joined that were used in previous computer software available with NIOSH, which provided funding necessary to - from the government. Those factors include, for exam complete the work. ple, the type of air contaminant against which the The NIOSH website for calculating end of service - chemical cartridge will protect the user, the concentra indicators for organics, called “MultiVapor,”can be ac- tion of the contaminant, the parameters of the cartridge cessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/multivapor/ and the rate at which the user is working. multivapor.html. - By using the software, a respirator program administra tor can determine when the cartridge is likely to reach 112 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

115 Attachment 6: NIOSH Tables of Cartridges and Canisters by APFs (Modified to OSHA APFs) Ta b l e 1 : P a r t i c u l a t e R e s p i r a t o r s 1 Assigned protection factor Ty p e o f Re s p i r a t o r 5 Quarter mask respirator Any air-purifying elastomeric half mask respirator equipped 10 2 with appropriate type of particulate filter. 2,3 Appropriate filtering facepiece respirator. Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with 2 appropriate type of particulate filter. Any negative pressure (demand) supplied-air respirator equipped with a half mask. 25 Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with a loose-fitting hood or helmet and a high efficiency (HEPA) filter. Any continuous flow supplied-air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet. 50 Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with 4 N-100, R-100, or P-100 filter(s). Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece (half or full facepiece) and a high-efficiency filter. Any negative pressure (demand) supplied-air respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Any continuous flow supplied-air respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece (half or full facepiece). Any negative pressure (pressure demand) self-contained respirator equipped with a half or full facepiece. Any pressure-demand, or other positive pressure mode, 1,000 supplied-air respirator equipped with a full facepiece Any powered air-purifying respirator with helmet or hood for which the employer has provided evidence provided by the respirator manufacturer that testing of these respirators demonstrates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater. Any pressure-demand, or other positive pressure mode self- 10,000 contained respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Any pressure-demand self contained breathing apparatus respirator equipped with a full facepiece helmet or hood. 1 The protection offered by a given respirator is contingent upon (1) the respirator user adhering to complete program requirements (such as the ones required by OSHA in 29 CFR 1910.134), (2) the use of NIOSH-certified respirators in their approved configuration, and (3) individual fit testing to rule out those respirators that cannot achieve a good fit on individual workers. 2 “Appropriate” means that the filter medium will provide protection against the particulate in question. See step 4.0 for information on the presence or absence of oil particulates. 3 An APF of 10 can only be achieved if the respirator is qualitatively or quantitatively fit tested on individual workers. 4 N, P, and R series: Since 1995, NIOSH has been approving three series of particle-filtering respirators, designated N, R and P. Within each series, three levels of efficiency in removing the laboratory test aerosols are certified: 95%, 99% and 99.97%. N-series filters are not required to demonstrate resistance to the potentially “degrading” effects of oils, and are, therefore, not intended for use in workplace atmospheres that contain oily aerosols. In this context, “degrading” means that exposure to an agent may cause an increase in filter penetration measured under laboratory test conditions. R and P series filters must demonstrate oil resistance when tested with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which is described as a “highly degrading” oil aerosol. As a result both R and P filters can be used in workplace atmospheres that contain oily aerosols, as well as those that do not. In other cases, NIOSH-certified electret filters are necessary since the filtering efficiency of respiratory protection may be degraded by electrical charges. Electret filters consist of electrically charged fibers, such as polymer fibers, and they are widely used in particulate respirators. The charges enhance their filtration efficiency, particularly for submicrometer aerosols, without a corresponding increase in pressure drop across the filter. Electret filters can be N, P, R f i l t e r s a c r o s s a l l o f t h e f i l t e r i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s o f 9 5 % t h r o u g h 9 9 . 9 7 % . SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 113 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

116 Ta b l e 2 : G a s / Va p o r R e s p i r a t o r s 1 factor Ty p e o f Re s p i r a t o r Assigned protection 10 Any air-purifying half mask respirator equipped with appropriate 2 gas/vapor cartridges. Any negative pressure (demand) supplied-air respirator equipped with a half mask. 25 Any powered air-purifying respirator with a loose-fitting hood or 2 helmet equipped with appropriate gas/vapor cartridges. Any continuous flow supplied-air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet. 50 Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with appropriate 2 2 gas/vapor cartridges or gas mask (canister respirator). Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece (half facepiece) and appropriate gas/vapor cartridges or 2 canisters. Any negative pressure (demand) supplied-air respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Any continuous flow supplied-air respirator equipped with a tight- fitting facepiece (half facepiece). Any negative pressure (pressure demand) self-contained respirator equipped with a half facepiece. 1,000 Any pressure-demand supplied-air respirator equipped with a half or full facepiece. 10,000 Any pressure-demand self-contained respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Any pressure-demand supplied-air respirator equipped with a full facepiece in combination with an auxiliary pressure-demand self- contained breathing apparatus. 1 The protection offered by a given respirator is contingent upon (1) the respirator user adhering to complete program requirements (such as the ones required by OSHA in 29 CFR 1910.134), (2) the use of NIOSH-certified respirators in their approved configuration, and (3) individual fit testing to rule out those respirators that cannot achieve a good fit on individual workers. 2 Select a cartridge/canister certified to be used for the specific class of chemicals or the specific gas/vapor found in your workplace. 114 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

117 Ta b l e 3 : C o m b i n a t i o n G a s / Va p o r a n d P a r t i c u l a t e R e s p i r a t o r s 1 factor Ty p e o f Re s p i r a t o r Assigned protection Any air-purifying half mask respirator equipped with appropriate 10 2 gas/vapor cartridges in combination with appropriate type of 3 particulate filter. 2 Any full facepiece respirator with appropriate gas/vapor cartridges 3 in combination with appropriate type of particulate filter. Any negative pressure (demand) supplied-air respirator equipped with a half mask. 25 Any powered air-purifying respirator with a loose-fitting hood or 2 helmet that is equipped with an appropriate gas/vapor cartridge in combination with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any continuous flow supplied-air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet. 50 Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with appropriate 2 gas/vapor cartridges in combination with an N-100, R-100 or P-100 2 filter or an appropriate canister incorporating an N-100, P-100 or R-100 filter. Any powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece (half or full facepiece) equipped with appropriate gas/vapor 2 cartridges in combination with a high-efficiency filter or an 2 appropriate canister incorporating a high-efficiency filter. Any negative pressure (demand) supplied-air respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Any continuous flow supplied-air respirator equipped with a tight- fitting facepiece (half or full facepiece). Any negative pressure (demand) self-contained respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Any pressure-demand supplied-air respirator equipped with a half 1,000 or full mask. 10,000 Any pressure-demand self-contained respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Any pressure-demand supplied-air respirator equipped with a full facepiece in combination with an auxiliary pressure-demand self- contained breathing apparatus. 1 The protection offered by a given respirator is contingent upon (1) the respirator user adhering to complete program requirements (such as the ones required by OSHA in 29 CFR 1910.134), (2) the use of NIOSH-certified respirators in their approved configuration, and (3) individual fit testing to rule out those respirators that cannot achieve a good fit on individual workers. 2 Select a cartridge/canister certified to be used for the specific class of chemicals or the specific gas/vapor found in your workplace. 3 “Appropriate” means that the filter medium will provide protection against the particulate in question. NIOSH publication 2005-100, Respirator Selection. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 115 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

118 have requirements or voluntary guidelines for Complaints, Emergencies workplace injury and illness prevention programs. In and Further Assistance addition, numerous employers in the United States already manage safety using injury and illness prevention programs, and we believe that all Workers have the right to a safe workplace. The employers can and should do the same. Employers Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH in the construction industry are already required to Act) was passed to prevent workers from being killed have a health and safety program. Most successful or seriously harmed at work. The law requires injury and illness prevention programs are based employers to provide their employees with working on a common set of key elements. These include conditions that are free of known dangers. Workers management leadership, worker participation, may file a complaint to have OSHA inspect their hazard identification, hazard prevention and control, workplace if they believe that their employer is not education and training, and program evaluation following OSHA standards or that there are serious and improvement. Visit OSHA’s website at hazards. Further, the Act gives complainants the right http://www.osha.gov/dsg/topics/safetyhealth/index. to request that their names not be revealed to their html for more information and guidance on employers. It is also against the law for an employer establishing effective injury and illness prevention to fire, demote, transfer, or discriminate in any way programs in the workplace. against a worker for filing a complaint or using other OSHA rights. Compliance Assistance Specialists To r e p o r t a n e m e r g e n c y, f i l e a c o m p l a i n t , o r s e e k OSHA has compliance assistance specialists OSHA advice, assistance, or products, call (800) throughout the nation who can provide information 321-OSHA (6742) or contact your nearest OSHA to employers and workers about OSHA standards, regional, area, or state plan office listed or linked short educational programs on specific hazards or to at the end of this publication. The teletypewriter OSHA rights and responsibilities, and information on (TTY) number is (877) 889-5627. You can also file additional compliance assistance resources. Contact a complaint online by visiting OSHA’s website at your local OSHA office for more information. www.osha.gov. Most complaints submitted online may be resolved informally over the phone or by OSHA Consultation Service for fax with your employer. Written complaints, that Small Employers are signed by a worker or their representative and The OSHA Consultation Service provides free submitted to the closest OSHA office, are more to small employers to help them identify assistance likely to result in an on-site OSHA inspection. and correct hazards, and to improve their injury and s. Most of these services illness prevention program Compliance Assistance Resources are delivered on site by state government agencies OSHA can provide extensive help through a or universities using well-trained professional staff. variety of programs, including free workplace consultations, compliance assistance, voluntary Consultation services are available to private sector protection programs, strategic partnerships, employers. Priority is given to small employers alliances, and training and education. For more with the most hazardous operations or in the most information on any of the programs listed below, high-hazard industries. These programs are largely visit OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov or call funded by OSHA and are delivered at no cost to 1-800-321-OSHA (6742). employers who request help. Consultation services are separate from enforcement activities. To request such services, an employer can phone or write to the Establishing an Injury and Illness OSHA Consultation Program. See the Small Prevention Program Business section of OSHA’s website for contact The key to a safe and healthful work environment information for the consultation offices in every is a comprehensive injury and illness prevention state. program. n Safety and Health Achievement Injury and illness prevention programs, known by Recognition Program a variety of names, are universal interventions that Under the consultation program, certain can substantially reduce the number and severity exemplary employers may request participation of workplace injuries and alleviate the associated in OSHA's Safety and Health Achievement financial burdens on U.S. workplaces. Many states 116 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

119 Recognition Program (SHARP). Eligibility for Susan Harwood Tr a i n i n g a n d participation includes, but is not limited to, Education Grants receiving a full-service, comprehensive OSHA provides grants to nonprofit organizations to consultation visit, correcting all identified hazards, provide worker education and training on serious and developing an effective injury and illness job hazards and avoidance/prevention strategies. prevention program. Information and Publications Cooperative Programs OSHA has a variety of educational materials OSHA offers cooperative programs to help prevent and electronic tools available on its website at fatalities, injuries and illnesses in the workplace. www.osha.gov. These include Safety and Health To p i c s P a g e s , S a f e t y F a c t S h e e t s , E x p e r t A d v i s o r n OSHA’s Alliance Program software, copies of regulations and compliance Through the Alliance Program, OSHA works with directives, videos and other information for groups committed to worker safety and health employers and workers. OSHA’s software programs to prevent workplace fatalities, injuries, and and eTools walk you through safety and health illnesses. These groups include businesses, trade issues and common problems to find the best or professional organizations, unions, consulates, solutions for your workplace. faith- and community-based organizations, and educational institutions. OSHA and the groups OSHA’s extensive publications help explain OSHA work together to develop compliance assistance standards, job hazards, and mitigation strategies tools and resources, share information with and provide assistance in developing effective injury workers and employers, and educate workers and and illness prevention programs. employers about their rights and responsibilities. For a listing of free publications, visit OSHA’s n Challenge Program website at www.osha.gov or call 1-800-321-OSHA This program helps employers and workers (6742). improve their injury and illness prevention programs and implement an effective system to QuickTakes prevent fatalities, injuries and illnesses. OSHA’s free, twice-monthly online newsletter, n OSHA Strategic Partnership Program (OSPP) QuickTakes , offers the latest news about OSHA Partnerships are formalized through tailored initiatives and products to assist employers and agreements designed to encourage, assist and workers in finding and preventing workplace recognize partner efforts to eliminate serious QuickTakes hazards. To sign up for , visit OSHA’s hazards and achieve model workplace safety and website at www.osha.gov and click on QuickTakes health practices. at the top of the page. n Vo l u n t a r y P ro te c t i o n P ro g ra m s ( V P P ) Contacting OSHA The VPP recognize employers and workers in private industry and federal agencies who To o r d e r a d d i t i o n a l c o p i e s o f t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , t o g e t have implemented effective injury and illness a list of other OSHA publications, to ask questions prevention programs and maintain injury and or to get more information, to contact OSHA’s illness rates below national Bureau of Labor free consultation service, or to file a confidential Statistics averages for their respective industries. complaint, contact OSHA at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742), In VPP, management, labor, and OSHA work (TTY) 1-877-889-5627 or visit www.osha.gov. cooperatively and proactively to prevent fatalities, injuries, and illnesses. For assistance, contact us. We are OSHA. We can help. Tr a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e OSHA It’s confidential. Education Centers The OSHA Training Institute (OTI) Education Centers are a national network of nonprofit organizations authorized by OSHA to conduct occupational safety and health training to private sector workers, supervisors and employers. SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 117 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

120 Region VII OSHA Regional Offices Kansas City Regional Office (IA*, KS, MO, NE) Region I Tw o P e r s h i n g S q u a r e B u i l d i n g Boston Regional Office 2300 Main Street, Suite 1010 (CT*, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT*) Kansas City, MO 64108-2416 JFK Federal Building, Room E340 (816) 283-8745 (816) 283-0547 Fax Boston, MA 02203 (617) 565-9860 (617) 565-9827 Fax Region VIII Denver Regional Office Region II (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT*, WY*) New York Regional Office 1999 Broadway, Suite 1690 (NJ*, NY*, PR*, VI*) Denver, CO 80202-5716 201 Varick Street, Room 670 (720) 264-6550 (720) 264-6585 Fax New York, NY 10014 (212) 337-2378 (212) 337-2371 Fax Region IX San Francisco Regional Office Region III (AZ*, CA*, HI*, NV*, and American Samoa, Philadelphia Regional Office Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands) (DE, DC, MD*, PA , VA * , W V ) 90 7th Street, Suite 18100 The Curtis Center San Francisco, CA 94103 170 S. Independence Mall West (415) 625-2547 (415) 625-2534 Fax Suite 740 West Philadelphia, PA 19106-3309 Region X (215) 861-4900 (215) 861-4904 Fax Seattle Regional Office (AK*, ID, OR*, WA*) Region IV 1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715 Atlanta Regional Office Seattle, WA 98101-3212 (AL, FL, GA, KY*, MS, NC*, SC*, TN*) (206) 553-5930 (206) 553-6499 Fax 61 Forsyth Street, SW, Room 6T50 *These states and territories operate their own Atlanta, GA 30303 OSHA-approved job safety and health plans and (678) 237-0400 (678) 237-0447 Fax cover state and local government employees as well as private sector employees. The Connecticut, Region V Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Virgin Islands Chicago Regional Office programs cover public employees only. (Private (IL*, IN*, MI*, MN*, OH, WI) sector workers in these states are covered by Federal 230 South Dearborn Street OSHA). States with approved programs must have Room 3244 standards that are identical to, or at least as effective Chicago, IL 60604 as, the Federal OSHA standards. (312) 353-2220 (312) 353-7774 Fax Note: To get contact information for OSHA area Region VI offices, OSHA-approved state plan offices and OSHA Dallas Regional Office consultation projects, please visit us online at (AR, LA, NM*, OK, TX) www.osha.gov or call us at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742). 525 Griffin Street, Room 602 Dallas, TX 75202 (972) 850-4145 (972) 850-4149 Fax (972) 850-4150 FSO Fax 118 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

121 Notes SMALL ENTITY COMPLIANCE GUIDE FOR THE 119 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION STANDARD

122 Notes

123 (800) 321-OSHA (6742)

124 For more information: Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor www.osha.gov (800) 321-OSHA (6742)

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