The Mastering of a Music City


1 The Mastering of a Music City THE MASTERING OF A MUSIC CITY I E S K E Y E L E M E N T S , E F F E C T I V E S T R A T E G R T H P U R S U I N G A N D W H Y I T ’ S W O {1}

2 Presented by: In association with:

3 Air Canada Centre, Toronto, Billy Talent, Photo Credit: Dustin Rabin

4 Fun Fun Fun Fest, Austin, Texas, Photo Credit: Jackie Lee Young

5 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing We are delighted to present this report to you, our colleagues in music, government and business worldwide, on behalf of IFPI and Music Canada. A Music City, by its simplest definition, is a place with a vibrant music economy. There is growing recognition among governments and other stakeholders that Music Cities can deliver significant economic, employment, cultural and social benefits. While music takes centre stage in this study, the findings and recommendations are relevant to almost anyone in the broader community. Are you looking to draw tourists to your city? Attract tech firms and the bright, young people they employ? Build your city’s brand? Think music! This report is intended as a “roadmap” to help you tap into the power of music. It applies to communities of all sizes, no matter how far along the path they are to realizing their full potential as a Music City. The findings draw upon an exhaustive review of existing information and research, more than 40 interviews with a wide array of experts in music and government on all continents, and two international focus groups. We are grateful to the many people who gave willingly of their time and ideas in the research for this report. It is our hope that this report inspires you to build a Music City in your community or to make your Music City stronger than ever. We are confident that the information and recommendations in this report will help you get there. Yours in Music, Frances Moore Graham Henderson President & CEO , Music Canada Chief Executive Officer, IFPI {5}

6 Table of Contents The Mastering of a Music City 12 09 SECTION II: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SECTION I: INTRODUCTION |||||||||| Methodology 11 |||||||||| |||||||||| Music City Key Elements13 |||||||||| |||||||||| Music City Benefits13 |||||||||| |||||||||| Music City Strategies13 |||||||||| 16 21 SECTION IV – MUSIC CITIES: SECTION III: KEY ELEMENTS OF A A HIT PARADE OF BENEFITS MUSIC CITY: THE FULL SCORE |||||||||| The Essential Elements18 |||||||||| |||||||||| The Important Elements19 |||||||||| 31 33 SECTION V: EFFECTIVE MUSIC CITY SECTION V. 1 SUPPORTIVE POLICY FRAMEWORK: KEEPING CITIES ON PITCH STRATEGIES: STRIKING THE RIGHT CHORDS |||||||||| Music-friendly policies 34 |||||||||| |||||||||| Recommendations 43 |||||||||| |||||||||| Musician-friendly policies 44 |||||||||| |||||||||| Recommendations 48 |||||||||| 49 56 SECTION V. 2 CITY MUSIC OFFICE: SECTION V. 3 MUSIC ADVISORY BOARDS: LAYING DOWN THE TRACKS MAKING A POWERFUL ENSEMBLE |||||||||| Key Functions 50 |||||||||| |||||||||| Core Functions 57 |||||||||| |||||||||| Organization and Reporting |||||||||| Structure 58 |||||||||| Structure 53 |||||||||| |||||||||| Opportunities 59 |||||||||| |||||||||| Recommendations 55 |||||||||| |||||||||| Recommendations 59 |||||||||| {6}

7 The Mastering of a Music City 60 67 SECTION V. 4 ENGAGING THE SECTION V. 5 SPACES AND PLACES: BROADER COMMUNITY: WHERE THE MUSIC HAPPENS PUTTING THE BAND TOGETHER |||||||||| Taking Stock 68 |||||||||| |||||||||| Music Hubs and Accelerators 72 |||||||||| |||||||||| Defining the Broader |||||||||| Music Education Institutions Music Community 61 |||||||||| and Programming 74 |||||||||| |||||||||| Barriers to Collaboration 61 |||||||||| |||||||||| Recommendations 74 |||||||||| |||||||||| Effective Collaboration Delivers Results 65 |||||||||| |||||||||| Recommendations 66 |||||||||| 82 75 SECTION V.6 AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT: SECTION V.7 MUSIC TOURISM: BUILDING THE FAN BASE CREATES BONUS TRACKS |||||||||| Access 77 |||||||||| |||||||||| Inventory of a City’s Music |||||||||| Recommendations 81 |||||||||| Tourism Assets 83 |||||||||| |||||||||| Challenges to Developing Music Tourism 83 |||||||||| |||||||||| Music Tourism Opportunities 84 |||||||||| |||||||||| Recommendations 87 |||||||||| 88 92 SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS SECTION VI CONCLUSIONS 94 SECTION VII CREDITS |||||||||| About the Authors 94 |||||||||| Table of Contents Photo Credit: Suzie Lopez {7}

8 Foals, Photo Credit: Paul Tipping and Nightshift

9 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing SECTION I: Introduction {9}

10 The Mastering of a Music City his report is intended as a uni- Tempere, Finland. There was clearly a desire for versal “roadmap” to create and effective Music City strategies and best practices develop Music Cities anywhere in that could be applied to any community, anywhere in the world. The strategies and rec - the world. ommendations outlined here are What follows is a report written principally for music designed to be flexible in recog - T community experts as well as political leaders and nition of local variations in music, government officials. While it is envisioned as a culture, economies and political structures. They can source of inspiration and information for almost be applied equally to well-established Music Cities anyone interested in building a stronger, more vibrant seeking to further enhance their music economies community, the findings will be of most practical use and to nascent, aspiring Music Cities. They are rele- to: (i) professionals in the music industry including vant to communities both large and small. venue owners, concert promoters, music festival The term “Music City” is becoming widely used in organizers, music managers and agents, record label cultural communities and has penetrated the political executives, artists and music industry associations; vernacular in many cities around the world. Once (ii) politicians at the local level, but also at the regional identified solely with Tennessee’s storied capital of and national levels; (iii) government officials involved songwriting and music business, Nashville, Music in economic and/or cultural development at the local City now also describes communities of various level, but also at the regional and national levels; and sizes that have a vibrant music economy which they (iv) tourism and business leaders looking for ways to actively promote. Alliances are being formed among enhance local economies. cities that see value in partnering to enhance their How each city defines success will vary. Some cities music success, Music City accreditations are being have set very ambitious goals for the delivery of discussed and defined, and Music City panels are economic, cultural and other benefits. For others, it - popping up at conferences around the globe. Out comes down to creating a sustainable environment side the cultural community, there is growing recog- for music creation, for the sake of music, pure and nition among governments and other stakeholders simple. “One of the things that would be a really good that Music Cities can deliver significant economic measure,” says David Grice, Managing Director of - and employment benefits beyond the long-acknowl Musitec, a music, technology and creative industry edged cultural and social benefits. Quite suddenly cluster in Adelaide, South Australia, “is listening to a there is a lot of interest in becoming a Music City, and child telling their mom and dad that they want to be how to make one succeed. in the music industry and parents not saying, ‘you Following the 2012 publication of a report by Music need to get a real job.’ That would be a great sign of Canada, “Accelerating Toronto’s Music Industry success.” Growth: Leveraging Best Practices from Austin, 1 leaders in other cities began asking for their In a similar spirit, this report does not attempt to Texas,” own “roadmap” so that they too could tap into the establish a benchmark for Music Cities or otherwise power of music. The curiosity spread to IFPI, Music codify success. Rather, it provides a comprehensive Canada’s international counterpart, and to diverse framework of best practices to help you achieve your communities such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Music City goals, however you may define them. The {10}

11 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing best practices are outlined in detail in section V along elements, benefits and strategies. with specific, practical recommendations that can be We are grateful to the many people who gave put to use by readers. willingly of their time and ideas in the research for this report. The enthusiasm of the focus group This report has been prepared principally with the participants, in particular, suggests that there is a commercial music sector in mind. While many of the great deal of interest in further exchanges of ideas cities researched for the report have strong traditions and best practices among Music Cities around the of classical, choral and other non-commercial music world. that deliver great benefits, we have not investigated those segments in depth. However, many of the strategies recommended will also benefit these seg - ments of the music community. METHODOLOGY Much has been written about individual Music Cities, providing a great deal of thoughtful material for the research team’s initial global scan. This preliminary research helped us develop a larger list of cities to investigate beyond “the usual suspects.” We sought to include both well known Music Cities as well as cities that are aspiring to advance their music economies. It was also vital to present a diversity of locations spanning the globe. To obtain first hand accounts from these cities, we conducted more than 40 in-depth, one-on-one interviews with music association leaders, music entrepreneurs including publishers, promoters and artists, municipal employees from music offices and cultural departments, tourism promotion experts and investment and economic development spe- cialists. Each individual responded to wide-ranging questions about the key challenges and opportuni- ties in their cities. This provided a framework for the third phase of our research – two international focus group sessions. The focus groups were led by Erik Lockhart of the Queen’s Executive Decision Centre - at Queen’s University in Kingston, Canada. Partic ipants joined both by phone and online. The focus groups helped verify and expand upon the initial findings and identify the most important Music City {11}

12 The Mastering of a Music City SECTION II Executive Summary {12}

13 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing here is nothing like music as a support for music, a broader city infrastructure means to connect people, bridge conducive to the sector, and music education pro- linguistic and cultural divides and - grams. Many other beneficial elements were iden provide an avenue for identity tified in the research for this report including music and expression. Music is a trans - history and identity. However, the above-noted formative experience. components received a higher ranking by the focus T groups conducted for this study. Collectively, the music ecosystem generates rich MUSIC CITY social, cultural and economic benefits. BENEFITS Cities are increasingly assigning importance to these advantages and working with their music communi- A vibrant music economy drives value for cities in ties to accelerate the growth of the music economy, several important ways: job creation, economic and identify and eliminate barriers. Small or large, growth, tourism development, city brand building and they have the potential to become Music Cities. artistic growth. A strong music community has also been proven to attract other industrial investment, This report identifies the essential elements of along with talented young workers who put a high Music Cities, details the benefits they generate, and value on quality of life, no matter their profession. describes the most effective strategies Music Cities employ to enhance their music economies. It pro- MUSIC CITY vides a “roadmap” for music community leaders, as well as officials and elected office holders to develop STRATEGIES a comprehensive music strategy for their munici- pality. These recommendations can be scaled to The strategies offered in this report are based on communities of any size; however, for the purpose of research gathered from dozens of cities around the this report we will use the term “Music City.” - world. The following strategies are the ones most of ten cited as an effective means to grow and strength - MUSIC CITY KEY en the music economy. ELEMENTS Key Strategies: The essential elements of Music Cities are: 1. Music-friendly and musician-friendly policies • Artists and musicians; Government policies have a direct impact on the A thriving music scene; • ability of music businesses such as live performance • Access to spaces and places; venues, recording studios and rehearsal spaces A receptive and engaged audience; and • to operate sustainably. Business licensing, liquor Record labels and other music-related busi- • licensing, transportation planning and parking, as well nesses. as land-use planning all have an impact on the health of the music economy. Compliance requirements It is also important to have multi-level government {13}

14 The Mastering of a Music City should be appropriate without becoming a barrier to economic development. They are also an ideal forum doing business. Many communities face challenging for the music community to develop internal consen- decisions regarding land-use planning as a result sus on issues, and provide advice on the legislative of gentrification and urban growth. In some cities, and regulatory environment. - historically significant music properties are threat ened or have already been lost. Solutions to these 4. Engaging the broader music community to get challenges include heritage designations, cultural their buy-in and support zones and policies based on the “agent of change” principle. The involvement of the people most affected by music strategies is critical to the success of a Music - Similarly, musicians, singers, songwriters and produc City. Collaboration across the different segments of ers can be helped or hindered by the government the music community doesn’t always come naturally policy environment. Successful Music Cities create as the sector is composed primarily of small and a supportive environment for artists so that they can medium-sized businesses. Many operators of these focus on doing what they do best: making music. businesses wear various hats, work only part-time in Support can be in the form of training and education music, and struggle just to make a living. However, programs, mentoring, access to hubs or incubators evidence shows that cooperation and collaboration and affordable housing. - across the sector can lead to significant improve ments to the regulatory and business environments, 2. A Music Office or Officer and are also the most effective means of gaining support from political leaders. Navigating the broad range of government policies and regulations that impact music can pose signifi - 5. Access to spaces and places cant challenges for music communities. Cities that have established a single point of contact for the mu- Music needs a home; in fact, it needs many homes. sic community, in the form of a music office or officer, - From education to rehearsal to recording to per are better positioned to build their music economy formance, Music Cities require a variety of quality and develop effective policies. Music offices typically spaces and places to succeed. To meet this need, lead city music strategy development and mediate the first step is to take inventory so that gaps can be conflicts that arise between music businesses and identified. For live performances, a full range of ven - the larger community. Music officers most often ues is essential to support artists as they advance have prior experience in music or another creative through their careers – everything from small base- sector that gives them invaluable sector knowledge. ment venues to stadiums and all points in between. Frequently, venues and other music businesses 3. A Music Advisory Board cluster together, enhancing their success. Hubs and accelerators are also proving to be very effective in Music Advisory Boards or Commissions provide an different cities around the globe. invaluable link between the music community and City Hall. Advisory Boards are typically composed 6. Audience development of representatives from a broad cross-section of the music community, but also often include profession- Demographics play an important role in audience als engaged in related industries such as tourism and development; in particular, large student populations {14}

15 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing are identified as an advantage in many Music Cities. - All-ages events can help engage younger audienc es, thereby encouraging youth to develop a lifelong relationship with music. Factors like a community’s proximity to other music markets, transportation links - and promotion of live music events influence audi ence development. A common challenge is building an audience for local performers, who often fall under the shadow of high profile global stars. 7. Music tourism Music tourism benefits cities to the tune of billions of dollars each year. Tourism assets include a city’s year-round live music scene, music festivals and his - torical music landmarks. A few cities have developed comprehensive music tourism strategies that involve music-based branding, promotional campaigns, wayfinding apps and other social media strategies, investment in music infrastructure and signage, and programming. Accurate measurement of music tourism is a common gap since it is normally grouped with cultural tourism. {15}

16 SECTION III Key Elements of a Music City : the Full Score

17 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing WHAT MAKES A MUSIC CITY? “Each city and town is “The combination of different. A successful having an active, thriving Music City contributes music scene with strongly to the artists, bands, venues, grassroots music scene, education, etc. and and generates value to support from the public, the local economy and media, government and community as a whole.” business.” – Michael Blair, The House of Songs and – Tom Kiehl, UK Music, London Scorpio Music Production, Stockholm - There is no strict definition of a Music City. Nev Multi-level government support for music; • ertheless, the most successful Music Cities have Broader city infrastructure; and • certain elements in common. Participants in two Music education. • focus groups conducted for this study identified essential the following five elements as the most They also named elements that are often found in components of a true Music City: Music Cities, including: • Artists and musicians; Music history and identity; • • A thriving music scene; • Music tourism; • Access to spaces and places; Recognition of music as an economic driver; • • A receptive and engaged audience; and Strong community radio supporting local inde- • • Record labels and other music-related businesses. pendent music; and • A distinct local sound or sounds. Focus group participants identified three other : elements as important {17}

18 The Mastering of a Music City The principal elements are explored below. is embraced in Austin on an unparalleled level. An astonishing 250 or so places present live Virtually every city, no matter how thriving its music music here, and every style is represented.” community, has areas of strength and weakness. – Don Pitts, Music Program Manager, City of Austin Austin, Texas, the “Live Music Capital of the World,” A Music City is invariably built on a thriving live has virtually no representation from major music music scene. This means more than just having a labels. London, UK is a hotbed of live music, but has large number of live performances. It means having failed to prevent the loss of iconic venues. Kuala a diversity of music offerings, as well as support for Lumpur, Malaysia and Johannesburg, South Africa local and indigenous cultural expression, in addition can fill stadiums for international superstars, yet to support for larger touring acts. Ideally, there is struggle to draw smaller audiences to see local a balance between local artistic expression and artists. international content. What is most important is to accumulate a critical Spaces and Places mass of essential and important elements, and to continually advance them. Current and aspiring Mu- Spaces and places for live music performance and sic Cities leverage their music strengths and pursue other activities such as rehearsing, recording and opportunities to develop others. music education are integral to the success of a Music City. The range of music venues should span THE ESSENTIAL informal to formal, indoor to outdoor, and all sizes in order to meet the needs of artists at every point ELEMENTS of their career. Quality is important, though, as Mark Artists and Musicians Davyd, CEO of Music Venue Trust in the UK points out: “If a 16 year old goes into a venue with terrible It might seem obvious, but a Music City needs sound and lighting, does it motivate them to make it people who make music. Musicians, singers, song- a career? Not likely.” writers and producers are a necessary foundation. Many cities report that artists congregate “organ- A Receptive and Engaged Audience ically.” In other words, a strong gathering of artists cannot be manufactured, though implementing “Music fans here are assertive, informed, “musician-friendly” policies, as outlined in section dedicated, passionate about music, and V.1, is important to attracting and retaining them. support artists in a big way. We have an informed, dedicated, passionate media, and a A Thriving Music Scene city that recognizes the importance of these things.” “Austin assumed the self-proclaimed title of – Mike Tanner, Music Sector Development Officer, City of Live Music Capital of The World in 1991. Live Toronto music is available for consumption at any time, any day of the week. From the airport, to An informed and passionate audience is critical for grocery stores, to City Council meetings, music a successful Music City. Ideally, audience support {18}

19 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing extends to local musicians as well as touring artists, special licence needed by venues to host live music 3 . This significantly reduced red tape, which and fans are willing to pay for performances by in 2009 laid the foundation for the development of four artists at all levels in their careers, and representing local council music action plans including the most a diverse range of influences. Attention should be recent which was endorsed by Wollongong City paid to growing an audience of younger music fans. 4 . The National Live Music Office, established Council in 2013, supports the development of local govern- Music-Related Businesses ment policies pertaining to live music, live venues “The music industry starts with the artist but and audience development at the local level as well is not only about the artist. An infrastructure as advocating for additional improvements at the and network of people grows around an artist state level. and furthers their career... A robust industry - Political support is particularly important. The strat creates employment in all areas of music from egies described in Chapter V, without exception, its creation, to performance, to distribution require a commitment from elected representatives and promotion.” – Martin Elbourne, UK music promote r to allocate the needed financial or human resources or enact the required policy and regulatory chang- A critical mass of music-related businesses and es. Communicating the extensive benefits listed professionals is essential to the success of a Music in Chapter IV will help to convince politicians of the City, but it is not uncommon to have gaps within this value of these initiatives. category and still succeed overall. Nashville proudly describes itself as a “self-sustaining music centre” Broader City Infrastructure where it “is entirely possible to write, produce, re- cord, release and promote an album without looking Many of the cities cited in this report have explicitly 2 In contrast, other outside the Nashville region.” recognized the importance of city infrastructure. cities have identified gaps in their inventory that A baseline level of transportation infrastructure, they are working to address. including public transit and parking near venues, is necessary to connect audiences with artists and venues, and thereby facilitate the growth of music OTHER IMPORTANT - scenes. Affordable housing is necessary to at tract and retain artists, many of whom earn limited ELEMENTS incomes. Multi-Level Government Support for Music Music Education The most successful Music Cities benefit from cooperative efforts by all levels of government, with Music education is present in successful Music engaged and supportive political representatives. Cities. Generally, it is understood to include formal - The best example of this is in Australia, where coor music training in the education system, as well as dinated action at the federal, state and local levels specialized programs at colleges and universities. supports and grows the music industry. The State Not only do these programs help develop future of New South Wales, for example, eliminated the musicians, but they develop appreciation for music {19}

20 The Mastering of a Music City at a young age, seeding future audiences. The many other benefits of learning and playing music are well documented and wide-ranging. These include en- hancing children’s neural activity, language develop- 5 ment, test scores, IQ and learning abilities. It is interesting to note that local music history and identity did not receive as high a ranking as might have been expected from the focus groups convened for this report. This is despite the fact that many Music Cities are steeped in music history. Liverpool, New Orleans, Memphis, Nashville and London spring to mind. For cities like this, music his - tory is leveraged for economic and cultural gains. It is an asset that warrants protecting, celebrating and building upon. As Graham Henderson, President of Music Canada, notes, “A great Music City knows its music history – you need to know your own story.” {20}

21 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing SECTION IV Music Cities : A Hit Parade of Benefits {21}

22 The Mastering of a Music City - thriving music scene gener almost 68,000 are musicians, composers, songwrit - 6 ates a wide array of benefits for ers and lyricists. cities, from economic impacts to cultural development. Key The impacts of Nashville’s music cluster were benefits include: thoroughly examined in the 2013 “Nashville Music Industry” report, which found that the music indus - A try helps to create and sustain more than 56,000 jobs within the Nashville area, supports more than Economic impact; • US$3.2bn of annual labour income, and contributes • Music tourism; US $5.5bn to the local economy for a total output of 7 • City brand building; US$9.7bn. • Cultural development and artistic growth; • Attracting and retaining talent and investment In Melbourne, Australia, a 2012 census found that outside of the music industry; live music alone generated more than A$1bn in • Strengthening the social fabric; and spending at small venues, concerts and festivals, Validating music as a respected and legitimate • supported 116,000 annual full-time equivalent industry. jobs, and produced significant spin-off benefits to restaurants, hotels, transportation companies 8 These benefits are highlighted below. In 2009-2010, an estimated and other providers. 5.4mn people attended live music performances in Economic Impact the city. This puts music in the top ranks of the city’s economic drivers. Music can be a significant driver of economic ac - tivity, employment, exports and tax revenue. These Music Tourism impacts derive mainly from direct spending on the production of live music and ticket purchases by For cities looking to generate economic benefits local residents and tourists, as well as music-related from live music, tourist spending is a key part of the spending on such things as food, drink, accommo- equation. Not only does tourist spending represent dation and transport. Significant economic activity “new” money to a city, but it also generates addi- is also created in recorded music, publishing, music tional spending beyond music. When tourists travel management and other related activities. Beyond to experience live music, whether a concert, music these, music generates indirect economic benefits festival or a favourite band in a basement venue, through spending in such areas as promotion and - they will spend significantly more on hotels, restau graphic arts. rant meals, bars and other local attractions. A study by the music industry organization UK As Lutz Leichsenring of Clubcommission Berlin e.V. Music measured the contribution of music to the notes, “Tourists aren’t coming (to Berlin) because British economy at £3.8bn in 2013, with a full £2.2bn there are hotels and hostels, but because there is attributed to music exports. The organization’s content.” “Measuring Music” report pegs the number of people working in the industry at 111,000, of which The economic impact of music tourism is well {22}

23 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing documented in Austin, Texas. Music tourism accounted for almost half of the US$1.6bn of economic output and US$38bn in tax revenue attributed to 9 SXSW, music there in 2010. the city’s iconic annual music festival, is a magnet for tourists and music industry profes - sionals from all over the world. A study commissioned by the festival found that its economic impact in 2014 was an impres - 10 sive US$315mn. As reported by Texas Monthly, “To put it in perspective, SXSW Interactive director Hugh For - rest told the Austin Business Journal that the figure is roughly 65 per cent of the impact that a city like New Orleans sees from hosting the Super Bowl. It’s nearly a third of the net impact that the 2012 Olympics had on London. And, as the report is keen to point out, those events are fleeting: the Super Bowl isn’t in New Orleans every year , and the Olympics move on pretty quickly, too. SXSW happens in Austin every year, which means that both the economic impact and the cultural cachet that the festival brings to the city are 11 permanent fixtures.” Austin’s music scene draws tourists in other ways as well. The city’s successful drive to host Formula 1 racing, which Photo Credit: Nashville Convention & Visitors Corporation {23}

24 The Mastering of a Music City in itself attracts thousands of tourists, has been In Music City, the Nashville Convention & Visitors attributed directly to its strong music scene. Corporation puts music at the core of its brand promise (see case study in Tourism Strategy Music tourism is big business in the UK. According section). According to Butch Spyridon, President - to the UK study “Wish You Were Here: Music Tour and CEO of the Nashville Convention and Visitors ism’s Contribution to the UK Economy,” approxi- Corporation, “Nashville is a city with great musi- mately £2.2bn in direct and indirect spending was cal offerings, a plethora of talent where songs are generated by 6.5mn music tourists across the UK written and recorded, and an infrastructure of talent 12 in 2012, generating the equivalent of 24,251 jobs. liaising with businesses and creatives. Music IS the The study found that 41 per cent of live music audi- brand; Music City is the brand name.” ences are music tourists, and that overseas music tourists spent an average of £657 while visiting the Also in Tennessee, Memphis draws more than 10mn UK. London, identified as the UK’s music tourism visitors per year and tourism spending of US$3.1bn capital, attracted one million music tourists during annually. As the home of music heritage sites such 2012. Manchester and Scotland were also popular as Beale Street and Graceland, Memphis’s rich with overseas fans: concerts and festivals in those music history is its biggest tourism draw. Graceland 17 and places attracted 45,000 and 26,000 overseas visi- attracts more than 500,000 visitors per year 13 generates more than US$32mn in annual revenues tors respectively. 18 Sun Studio, from visits, merchandise and branding. Just about everyone knows that The Beatles hail famous as the recording studio of Elvis, Johnny from Liverpool. Unsurprisingly, the Fab Four are the Cash and other iconic artists, attracts 200,000 city’s number one tourist attraction, contributing visitors annually. more than £70mn to the local economy. Liverpool is Of the approximately 9mn tourists who visited Mel- the fifth most visited city in the UK. In 2013, tourists bourne, Australia in 2013, nearly 2mn of them were spent £3.64bn there, generating 49,000 jobs. Visi- 19 International tourist spend- international tourists. tors cite The Beatles as one of the main reasons for 14 ing was estimated at A$4.5bn in a city where music visiting the city. is a top attraction. Nashville, famous as “Music City”, in 2014 wel- comed approximately 13 million visitors who con- Major music festivals draw large numbers of tourists tributed over US$5bn in revenue, creating 50,000 to the cities that host them. The numbers are im- 15 While the contribution of music to that figure pressive: jobs. is not broken down, attractions like the Grand Ole • Rock al Parque (Bogotá) - approximately Opry almost certainly make music the city’s main 400,000 attendees in 2014; 87 bands per - tourist draw. Hundreds of thousands of people visit 20 “Rock al Parque” is one of the world’s formed. the iconic venue every year for live performances, largest music festivals in South America, backstage tours and as part of music tourism pack - 16 On top of this, over 900K people visited the attracting more than 3.8mn attendees since its ages. Country Music Hall of Fame and many more attend- inauguration in 1995. Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival • ed other music attractions including the Musicians (Coachella Valley, California) - US$47mn in Hall of Fame and the Johnny Cash Museum. {24}

25 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing since. From the moment one lands at the city’s revenue (2012 and 2013); more than 158,000 airport, the tagline is front and centre on promo- attendees; US$254mn estimated economic tional posters. The airport itself lives up to the brand impact on the surrounding community. promise by hosting 20-30 live music shows each - • Lollapalooza (Chicago) – US$140mn estimat week. The city interweaves music into its tourism ed economic impact; approximately 220,000 21 outreach, and aggressively leverages the brand. attendees in 2014. Jennifer Houlihan, Executive Director, Austin Music Reeperbahn Festival (Hamburg) - 30,000 • People, remarks that for residents of the city, its mu- attendees from approximately 40 countries, sic brand “is a big part of how people define Austin including more than 3,500 music and digital and how they define themselves.” She adds, “People industry professionals and media representa- took it to heart as something they could count on tives; 600 events, including about 400 concerts 22 in their community. People here have a personal Reeperbahn is and 150 conference events. pride in Austin’s music positioning, even those not Germany’s largest club festival. connected to the industry.” City Brand Building South Korea’s upbeat style of pop music, “K-Pop” (known as “Hallyu” in Korean), has developed a Music can play a powerful role in building a city’s global brand identity of its own. The international brand. For a select group of cities with the strongest megahit “Gangnam Style” helped push K-Pop – and music scenes or deep music heritage, music is a along with it, South Korea’s brand – further to global big part of who they are. Think “Liverpool,” and most prominence. This, in turn, has been credited for people think “The Beatles.” Think “Memphis,” and 23, 24 – up strong growth in tourism to South Korea music icons like Elvis and Johnny Cash come to 13.4 percent in 2012 from the year before. In an mind. Austin’s familiar tagline is “Live Music Capi- interview with Mail Online Travel, Ramy Salameh, tal of the World.” Nashville is, simply, “Music City.” spokesperson for the Korean Tourism Organization Other cities are well known as major music centres, in London, said that Gangnam Style and K-Pop had though music may not be at the forefront of their attracted a new audience to the country. “A 10.6 brand identity. London, Melbourne, Montreal, New per cent increase in arrivals from the UK to Korea York, Berlin, Bogotá and Toronto are among these is a clear reflection on the growing popularity of ranks. the destination, helped in no small part by PSY’s Gangnam Style,” he remarked. Music branding not only helps to draw music tourists, but it adds a “cool” factor to a city that can Cultural Development and Artistic Growth accelerate other benefits such as attracting and retaining investment and talent. It also forms an Beyond economic considerations, a successful important part of a Music City’s self-identity. Music City also creates the conditions to support Clubcommission Berlin e.V.’s Lutz Leichsenring re- artists in their career development. Access to the marks, “What makes Berlin cool? Not the shopping various supporting professionals, and the training to malls that every city has. It’s the artists.” improve their craft and knowledge of the business enables more artist entrepreneurs to advance from Austin unveiled its “Live Music Capital of the World” hobby to career. In addition, more live performance tagline in 1991, and has reaped the benefits ever {25}

26 The Mastering of a Music City The Bedford, London, Photo Credit: Shuga Buddha {26}

27 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing opportunities, in high quality venues of the appropri- of Mushroom Music Publishing. “But the important ate size for the stage of their career, and in front of thing is what they inspire in the next generation.” engaged audiences, help artists hone their skills. Attracting and Retaining Talent and Investment David Melo, Marketing Manager of Invest Bogotá, Outside of the Music Industry attributes some of the city’s growth in music cre- ation to open-air festivals, which are part of Bogotá’s Music plays a role in attracting and retaining talent Music City program. These events select artists and investment in a city’s broader economy. Damian through an open call for submissions, and pay Cunningham, Director of Audience and Sector De- them to perform. “This has provided performance velopment in Australia’s National Live Music Office, opportunities and income for emerging artists in six explains: “It is commonly understood that the life genres, creating an incentive for bands and ensem- that the arts brings to a city causes people to move bles to develop.” there and attracts industry. There is an enormous - movement by local and state governments in Aus Katja Lucker, CEO of the Musicboard Berlin GmbH, tralia to enhance the vibrancy of their cities in order points out that Music Cities should aim to go be- to hang onto youth, and attract entrepreneurs and yond creating a receptive local audience. She feels businesses.” that her organization will have achieved success when more local artists are recognized and appreci- In Montreal, whose public policies support and ated not only at home, but abroad as well. which promotes itself as a cultural metropolis and city of festivals, Emmanuelle Hébert, an official with Global success can in turn benefit the city from the city’s Department of Culture, says investment which artists hail. But achieving those benefits attraction really boils down to brand perception. Of is a challenge acknowledged in Austin by Music course, the basic economic factors must be met, Program Manager Don Pitts. “The lack of market but “What is going to make the difference between access in the US and abroad limits the international two cities? Quality of life for your employees. We profile of Austin Music,” he says. Export develop - believe that a thriving cultural scene, including mu- ment in the music industry is supported by many sic, is a key factor.” national governments including in Canada, France, Germany, Australia and the UK. Where export sup- Richard Florida, author of “The Rise of the Creative port is absent, as Pitts can attest, both artists and Class” confirms that a thriving music scene attracts 25 This applies not the Music Cities where they are based, suffer. The talented young people to cities. only to work in music, but also to tech and many Toronto-Austin Music City Alliance, a private-public other fields as well. The world’s top talent is highly partnership involving City Council, City staff and mobile today. For many cities, putting their best foot private industry leaders in both cities, is in large part forward to attract well-educated and talented young a response to this challenge. Trade and export are people is a major challenge in an environment of primary motivators for the Alliance. intense global competition. Music can be a big part of recruitment success. “There are artists that are currently rising up out of Australia – that’s not a bad starting point for our mu- sic strategies,” says Ian James, Managing Director {27}

28 The Mastering of a Music City This is not lost on the industrial companies based in between cultures and languages, connecting peo- Gothenburg, Sweden, according to Fredrik Sand- ple within a city, a region and across borders. David Grice, Managing Director of South Australia’s sten, Event Manager Music at the public tourism Musitec, an organization that works to foster the agency. “We have a very industrial city with huge industrial companies,” he says. “They want culture state’s music industry, describes the cultural power and music to flourish because they see the link to of Music Cities: “Music is an industry like no other attracting young workers to their companies.” because of the way it touches human beings. It’s an industry that engages people, that builds cultural A study of Nashville’s music cluster identified a expression and community, and adds so much cross-pollination with other parts of the economy, energy to a city.” - be it healthcare or media, that rely heavily on infor mation technology workers. The study notes: “The This can be especially impactful in places where the social fabric is frayed due to income disparity and attractiveness of Nashville as a city and region is other factors. predicated on its superior quality of life, affordability, and, very significantly, its truly unique culture and Andre Le Roux, Managing Director of the SAMRO creativity that are known far and wide. Building the Foundation in Johannesburg, South Africa, seeks base of creative talent needed across industries to develop a stronger music scene there in large becomes a much easier proposition where a leading part to bring people together under a unified cultural business sector like Nashville’s music industry is 26 banner: rich and poor, black and white, and across virtually synonymous with creativity.” linguistic, regional and national divides. South Africa A successful Music City can fuel other creative has one of the biggest income gaps in the world, industries in other ways as well. For example, skills with high levels of crime and unemployment – a developed in many music industry roles, such as situation exacerbated by the lingering effects of sound engineers, video producers and graphic apartheid. Youth unemployment in South Africa was designers, can be applied to other sectors. reported at over 50 per cent in 2013, according to the World Bank. “If you get more people performing Andrea Goetzke, a cultural producer based in Berlin, music and playing instruments, you may get fewer describes the intermingling of music and technolo- gy businesses in the city. “That really happened or - ganically,” Goetzke says, beginning when two large Berlin tech companies grew out of the music scene. “Contemporary music In fact, their CEOs were part of the music scene before moving to tech. Many others have followed in is the way we express their footsteps. Goetzke says it is estimated there are now more than 800 people working in music ourselves and who we tech in Berlin. are. It’s where young Strengthening the Social Fabric people gather, share Coincident with cultural benefits, vibrant music scenes offer social benefits. Music builds bridges ideas, and spend time together.” Patrick Donovan, Music Victoria, Melbourne {28}

29 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Carrington Heights Primary School in Glenmore, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Photo Credit: Vulane Mthembu people feeling angry, disillusioned and disenfran- Batuta’s philosophy is based on the transformative chised,” Le Roux remarks. power of music, its formative and socializing value, its contribution to welfare and to improving quality of This is a prime inspiration for Concerts SA, an initia- - life. In half of Batuta’s 30 centres in Bogotá, 85 per tive led by Le Roux’s SAMRO Foundation in partner - cent of the youth participants belong to the most 29 ship with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. vulnerable social class. In Venezuela, where more than 7 percent of the The power of music to strengthen the social fabric country’s 30 million inhabitants live in extreme is recognized in developed countries as well. Stuba - poverty, the El Sistema program teaches impov Nikula, Director of the City of Helsinki Cultural Office, erished young people between ages three and 29 notes, “Arts and culture has been seen as a tool for the principles of rhythm, singing, playing musical tourism and city branding. But more and more it is instruments and performing. The program is part of seen as a tool to make a better society in general. A a United Nations Development Programme (UN- lot of art projects here focus on suburbs that aren’t DP)-backed project that has given poor children in doing so well.” Venezuela the opportunity to arm themselves with 27 About 500,000 instruments rather than guns. Validating Music as a Respected and Legitimate students participate in the program, which aims to Industry 28 double that number. A widespread challenge for the music industry is to In Bogotá, Colombia, one of the main social pro- convince policymakers, politicians and other industries grams for children and youth is a music education of the wider economic benefits of music, limiting the program offered by the Fundación Nacional Batuta. industry’s ability to gain a seat at the decision-making The initiative uses symphonic orchestral practice table, and to garner financial and policy support. to enhance both musical and social development. {29}

30 The Mastering of a Music City Occasionally, a single high profile music event can Bobby Garza, General Manager of Austin’s Trans - provide a convincing demonstration of music’s mission Events, describes the challenge as follows: benefits. Hamburg, Germany’s Reeperbahn Festival “Our opportunity is to develop a sector of the draws thousands of music-loving tourists from all economy that is more sustainable in economic over Germany and abroad along with many inter - downturns, that enriches the city’s quality of life. The national music business professionals, artists and challenge is how to articulate that to civic leaders creative industry professionals. Alexander Schulz, who are worried about picking up the trash.” the festival’s General Manager, remarks that this When music stakeholders work together under a success has “dramatically” changed public and - unified Music City umbrella, they gain greater legit politicians’ views on clubs, the music scene and the imacy – and the ears of powerbrokers in business music industry. “That has helped a lot in generating and all levels of government. support for funding, cultural promotion, marketing support, (more favourable) event regulations and Austin, Melbourne, Nashville, South Australia, and more,” he says. more recently Toronto, are witnesses to this phe- nomenon. In all of those places, music stakeholders More commonly, however, individual music busi- have gained a seat at government departments nesses, which are typically small in size, lack the focused on industry or economic development, influence of companies employing thousands of as well as cultural affairs. This gives music a bigger people. Furthermore, any arts industry, especially voice with an arm of government that has greater one with a youth orientation, can be viewed in a policymaking and funding clout. different paradigm to those such as automobile manufacturing or real estate development. Yet in advanced Music Cities, estimated aggregate reve- nue and employment in the music industry can be significant. {30}

31 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing SECTION V Effective Music City Strategies : Striking the Right Chords {31}

32 The Mastering of a Music City Research, such as the studies referenced throughout ne has only to look at some this report, informs Music City strategy development. of the most successful It also helps tell compelling stories to governments Music Cities in the world to and stakeholders inside and outside the music indus - realize that they have many try, to get their attention and compel them to action. approaches, action plans In short, it is a key building block for successful Music and strategies in common. O - Cities. Generally, Music City initiatives should under Yet, it is normally impossi- take research in the following areas: ble to simply transplant a comprehensive music strategy from one city to another. Strategies must • Economic impact studies; take into account local circumstances including • Music tourism impact studies; socio-economic indicators, political priorities, mu- • Business inventories; nicipal structures and jurisdiction, and strengths and • Needs assessments; and weaknesses of the local music community. Resource guides. • Some cities have seen relatively organic devel- opment of their music community, including the gathering of artists and the natural clustering of live music scenes. A few contributors to this report expressed fears that developing a strategy would harm the essence of their existing music scenes. However, if the music community is directly in- volved in the development of the strategy, evidence would overwhelmingly indicate that the scene will be nurtured and strengthened, not weakened or compromised. Based on the findings of our focus groups, the following strategies were identified as the most effective ways to build a Music City: • Developing a supportive policy framework; Establishing a city-run music office or hiring a • music officer; Developing a Music Advisory Board; • Engaging the broader music community; • Ensuring access to spaces and places; • Focusing on audience development; and • Creating a Music tourism plan. • {32}

33 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing SECTION V. 1 Supportive Policy Framework : Keeping Cities on Pitch {33}

34 The Mastering of a Music City overnment policy has a direct such as live music venues, record labels, recording impact on the prospects of studios and promoters receive the message that they any Music City. Whether at the are wanted in a city? Are musicians valued as entre- municipal, state/provincial, or preneurs, and are they respected for both their cultural federal levels, policy influences and economic roles? Is music valued as a creative all five of the essential Music City pursuit? Is it an important cultural component? G elements outlined in this report: There is a range of government policies that, Artists and musicians; • together, can ensure that the answer to these • A thriving music scene; questions is “yes.” Many of them intermingle. They • Spaces and places for instruction, recording, include: rehearsal and performance; Liquor licensing and enforcement; A receptive and engaged audience; and • • • Record labels and other music-related busi- • Venue licensing; • Parking and transportation bylaws; nesses. • Noise bylaws (also called environmental laws in Governments can positively or negatively impact some jurisdictions); Land-use planning; and • Music Cities, depending on the policies and how Tax treatment. • they are enacted. “Music-friendly” and “musi- cian-friendly” policies encourage the growth of Often, a suite of policies – mostly municipal – affects - music creation, performance and recording, and at the broader economy of which music is a part. For tract and retain creative people. On the other hand, example, live music is a major part of a city’s “night obstructive government policies make it difficult economy.” or impossible for music to be created, performed or celebrated, and can lead to an out-migration of “Sometimes licensing is restrictive,” says the SAM- artist entrepreneurs. RO’s Foundation Andre Le Roux, in South Africa. “Compliance should not be so much of a drain that it Berlin is widely known to be a great Music City. But restricts a venue’s ability to do business.” according to Katja Lucker, CEO of the Musicboard Berlin GmbH, the city faces a major challenge. “How Liquor and Business Licensing do we make sure that the creative people working here, and the creative companies that have located The policy area most often under the jurisdiction here, can still be here in a few years? How can we of higher levels of government is liquor licensing, save the creative space for the creative people?” though enforcement of liquor laws is commonly overseen by municipal agencies. Liquor laws also MUSIC-FRIENDLY often overlap with business licensing and licensing to host live music performances. While necessary POLICIES for safety and other reasons, liquor laws and the conditions they contain can, if overly restrictive or Some simple questions can help us judge whether a confusing, threaten the viability of music venues. municipality is music-friendly. Do music businesses {34}

35 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing In South Australia, the Liquor Licensing Act requires frequent confusion as to whether or not live music licensed venues wishing to host live music to obtain venues belong in the tightly regulated “entertain- 30 This requirement an “Entertainment Consent”. ment licence” category, which is intended primarily specifies the type of entertainment that is permitted for nightclubs and restricts their locations to certain 31 within the licence, in part to control noise issues. areas. Live music venues have been fined by city Citing one example – the Oostende Belgian Beer inspectors for failing to obtain an entertainment li- Café in Adelaide – David Grice of Musitec illustrates cence even though they are not explicitly required to 35 While these fines have, in some the constraints this imposes on venues. The Café’s do so in the bylaw. cases, been thrown out in court, there remains an licence restricts it to hiring musicians who play unacceptable level of uncertainty and potential legal didgeridoo, harp, harmonica, violin, flute, recorder or costs for live music venues in the city. an acoustic guitar. Another venue is only permitted to have a 3-, 4- or 5-piece band. Solo artists and In Australia’s state of Victoria, new security require- duos are barred from playing there. Navigating the ments were applied to all entertainment venues narrow conditions of their licences has become a as conditions of their liquor licences, in reaction to barrier to the flexibility needed to operate a suc - violence in nightclubs. For example, a restaurant cessful music venue. The Music Industry Council of with a live band was required to hire two security South Australia has prepared a submission recom- guards. This imposed unnecessarily high costs, mending removal of the Entertainment Consent, - effectively deterring live music in restaurants. Com as well as planning reforms, and Grice expects it to munity activism in response to these restrictions be tabled in Parliament. In any case, there are other culminated in a rally by about 20,000 people in 2010 ways Adelaide can address noise complaints: via called Save Live Australia’s Music (SLAM), which is other provisions within the Liquor Licensing Act and 32 described in section V.4. Ultimately, a relaxation of the Environment Protection (Noise) Policy 2007. the security requirements resolved the issue. In New South Wales, similar licensing requirements were removed in 2009 when live entertainment Live music venues are at the mercy of liquor licens - became defined as “part of the normal activities of ing since revenues from alcohol sales are often a restaurant [or] bar” such that today no additional essential to their profitability. The costs of operating licence is needed to play live music at a restaurant, a venue and producing live music cannot typically 33 bar, or club. be recovered through ticket sales or door proceeds alone. Rules that impede liquor sales, therefore, can On a national level in the UK, the Live Music Act, imperil venues. Cologne, Germany, for example, - which came into effect in 2012, removed the re introduced a new law that banned smoking in clubs, quirement for small licensed venues to purchase an similar to smoking restrictions in many other cities. 34 additional licence to host live music. The new law has had an unintended effect. Because Cologne permits alcohol sales by outdoor carts, In Toronto, provincially obtained liquor licences patrons who go outside for a smoke will also often do not prescribe venue uses such as live music buy drinks. As a result, according to Till Kniola of the performance. Like other businesses, music ven- Cologne Culture Department, the clubs have lost ues are required to obtain a business licence from liquor sales, threatening their viability. the city. The clarity ends there, however. There is {35}

36 Governments, the music community and other stakeholders should work collabora- tively to avoid situations where regulations have unintended consequences or prevent - reasonable commercial activity by assess ing perceived problems and developing ap- propriate, well-crafted regulatory responses. Regulations should be carefully calibrated to respect community standards and the needs of residents and other businesses, but at the same time ensure a vibrant music scene. Parking and Transportation Bylaws Parking and transportation bylaws can also directly impact music businesses. One of the most frequently cited challenges is loading and unloading of equipment. Cities such as Seattle, Melbourne and Austin have created loading and unloading zones near music venues, specifically for musicians. In Austin, 30-minute active loading and unloading zones have been established through a cooperative program between the ATX Music Office and Transportation Department. According to Music Program Manager Don Pitts, this “makes the task of handling musical gear both easier and safer for performers while also restoring mobility and freeing up parking for other downtown traffic.” The same consideration could be given to recording studios and rehearsal spaces in high traffic areas. Land Use Planning Perhaps the most complex municipal policy area affecting music is land use planning. Photo Credit: Seattle Office of Film + Music / Off White Photography

37 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing CHALLENGE: GENTRIFICATION is because they have a cultural history. (But) if by building there, they decimate the cultural activity, no Even the most successful Music Cities around the one will want to live there.” world struggle to address competing demands on land and spaces. Music landmarks all over the According to UK Promoter Martin Elbourne, the key world, many steeped in history like London’s 12 Bar, is that politicians and local councils understand Nashville’s RCA Studio A, The Silver Dollar Room the value of live music venues and the importance in Toronto, Melbourne’s Palace Theatre, and the of protecting them. “Most cities don’t need that childhood homes of John Lennon or Sir Paul McCa- many venues, he argues. But the loss of the one rtney in Liverpool, have been threatened by growth cool place to gather can mean young people aren’t around them. Some have been saved while others attracted to the city. In Adelaide it was the pend- have not. Each situation is different, but in many ing closure of The Jade Monkey (which has since cases the pattern goes like this: reopened) that was the catalyst for my appointment as Thinker in Residence.” At the end of his residen- 1. A low rent area, possibly a bit downtrodden, cy, Elbourne published the Reverb report, containing becomes attractive for music venues, recording 46 recommendations. Twenty-three of those have studios or rehearsal spaces and artists in general been adopted in the Adelaide City Council Live 37 . because it is more affordable; Music Action Plan In Brooklyn, the rezoning of the Williamsburg-Green- 2. Artists and music businesses move in, and over point waterfront to residential use about a decade time make it an attractive, cool area to visit; ago was one of the primary inspirations behind a grassroots music movement called NY is Music, 3. Property values rise and more people and busi- which launched in 2014. For NY is Music co-found- nesses want to move to the area; er Bill Harvey, the initiative is a response to the loss of the multi-faceted, mixed use area that had 4. Landowners see the opportunity to sell their become home to creators of all kinds. Despite a properties to developers who build residential units more recent effort to prioritize “creative economy or condominiums; 38 by New York City Council, Harvey re- districts” mains skeptical of the music community’s ability to 5. Rising costs (sometimes resulting from new re- halt progress. “We aren’t going to stop the upward quirements for noise reduction) and/or higher rents trend in urban real estate. It’s too desirable. That’s cannot be met by music venues, studios or artists, where the high value jobs are. And so the tactic is to forcing them to go elsewhere. build space for generative activity into the new city 36 instead of implanting a suburban model into the city Some say this is inevitable, but is it? where people live here and go to work elsewhere.” Mark Davyd, CEO of Music Venue Trust in London, Harvey hopes that the movement to accommodate UK suggests that even though multi-use buildings the growing numbers of people who want to live can generate more profit than live music venues, we downtown will preserve adequate space for creative need to take a longer-term look at our cities. “The industries to thrive. reason the people want to build in these spaces {37}

38 The Mastering of a Music City CASE STUDY: NASHVILLE – MUSIC ROW Nashville has become one of America’s fastest many others, was slated to make way for condo- growing cities. The region’s population of 1.7 million miniums. A group called the Music Industry Coalition is expected to reach 3 million by 2040. This growth was formed, and it managed to delay the sale until threatens the continued existence of the cluster of - another purchaser could be found. A local preser streets known as Music Row, where music busi- vationist stepped in to purchase the property for nesses have historically been concentrated. Sever - US$5.6mn and the property has since been desig- al businesses have already given way to “progress” nated by the National Trust as a national treasure. over the past few years. A notable exception – the The National Trust has committed to developing a famous RCA Studio B where Elvis Presley laid down strategic plan to ensure the studio’s sustainability. more than 260 songs – was saved and leased to the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum. “I know progress is great,” Pat Holt, a veteran pro- ducer and engineer who has worked with Johnny Emotions rose to a crescendo in 2014 when RCA Cash and George Jones, told the New York Times. Studio A, the lesser known of the RCA Studios “This is my hometown, and I love to see it grow and which played host to Dolly Parton, Loretta Lynn, expand. But I’d sure hate to see Music Row not be 39 B.B. King, the Beach Boys and the Monkees, among Music Row 20 years from now.” 42 A similar situation unfolded in Toronto when the El World Heritage Site designation for Music Row. As Mocambo, a 69 year old club that has played host Bart Herbison, Executive Director of the Nashville to the Rolling Stones, Jimi Hendrix, Blondie and the Songwriters Association International, explains, Ramones, among others, faced the prospect of - “Preserving heritage and cultural identity is import redevelopment under a new owner. Again, a well- ant within a growing city. The path forward is a lot heeled preservationist stepped in to purchase the more productive if you know your history.” building for CDN$3.7mn and maintain it as a music 40 Is Historical Designation an Answer? venue. While it would be nice to think this could be repli- Historical designation of music properties has cated in other cities, in fact, it is very unlikely that been pursued in many jurisdictions. In Liverpool, there are enough wealthy music preservationists to the homes of John Lennon and Sir Paul McCartney save all of the world’s threatened music landmarks. have been purchased by the National Trust and are Therefore, a more policy-driven response is needed. available for tours. Ringo Starr’s childhood home Nashville is addressing the issue of gentrification was in danger of being leveled but will now be saved 43 head on. In February 2015, the Metro Planning as part of a city redevelopment plan. Commission suspended any zoning changes for In Toronto, The Silver Dollar Room, which was built the purpose of redevelopment along Music Row for 41 A study of the in 1958 and has attracted such musicians as Levon a minimum period of 16 months. music cluster recommends the city seek a UNESCO Helm, Bob Dylan, The Barenaked Ladies and Blue {38}

39 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Photo Credit: Herbert Law Rodeo, was recently spared when it received official - ments – the building, interior and exterior architec 44 heritage designation by Toronto City Council. tural details – continue to be what is designated. With music venues, those tangible elements may But even the City of Toronto champion behind this not always be evident. “It’s a lot easier to make a move recognizes that heritage designation has its case for ornate places because they have stature, limits. but heritage doesn’t always have to be pretty,” MacDonald says. “Sometimes the grotty needs to Heritage preservation, says Mary MacDonald of the be protected. Some people think The Silver Dollar City of Toronto’s Heritage Preservation Services, is is a hole.” about protecting something of value. For centuries it was the tangible that drove preservation – the Still, the greatest challenge with heritage designa- bricks and the mortar. But today there is an ongoing tion is that while you can designate a building, and international conversation about the intangible. In perhaps interior elements, you cannot prescribe - Toronto, music landmarks have generated the great how the property is used. You can only encourage est public response. “Memory preservation is most it. MacDonald points out that The Silver Dollar will important – the places that tell the story of the city’s only be saved as a music venue if the people who evolution. Music landmarks connect very personally own it choose to do so. with people. We must understand them in the great - er context of the part they played in the live per - In light of that, is heritage designation still worth formance circuit, who went there, who performed pursuing? MacDonald believes the answer is yes. there, and how the audience reflected the growth or “We can’t presume what will happen. Designation evolution of the city. Music tells an important social could encourage someone to continue to use it as a history,” says MacDonald. venue because it’s a landmark and has more value. It can become a selling feature even for developers But while this intangible element of music landmarks because an historic music venue has meaning for may drive the bid for designation, the tangible ele- the community and in a culture.” {39}

40 The Mastering of a Music City {40} Photo Credit : © Partenariat du Quartier des spectacles, Stéphan Poulin

41 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Cultural District Designation example, has been identified as a strong candidate for a creative industries hub. The proposed Syden- Pre-existing clusters of music venues and busi- ham Station Traditional and Creative Industries Hub nesses, such as Music Row in Nashville, can be would permit uses considered complementary candidates for designation either as entertainment to continued industrial uses, while presenting an or cultural districts. opportunity for revitalization. The hub was proposed following extensive community consultation, in re- 45 is a desig- Montreal’s Quartier des Spectacles sponse to a number of key policy recommendations nated cultural district that recognizes the historic including Sydney’s Live Music and Performance 47 development of a theatre, music and artistic section Action Plan. of downtown Montreal, enhances it through infra- CHALLENGE: THE PERCEPTION THAT MUSIC IS structure and cultural programming investments, INCOMPATIBLE WITH OTHER LAND USES and promotes it. It has 30 venues in one square kilometre and hosts more than 40 festivals. Accord- Beyond the challenge of gentrification, which often ing to Emmanuelle Hébert of the city’s Department drives up property values and rents to an unsus - of Culture, the initiative was sparked by cultural tainable level for music businesses, the music leaders but gained support from governments businesses that initially made an area attractive are at the provincial and federal levels under the city often perceived as unwanted neighbours. leadership. The city has invested CDN$150mn in the project to establish the needed and adapted A recent survey of more than 100 music venues in infrastructure for cultural outdoor events and has the UK has identified the problem as one of noise mandated a non-profit with the management and 48 Music Venue Trust’s Mark Davyd, versus nuisance. cultural programming of the area’s public spaces, explains that in the UK, by consequence of law, besides regular festival programming. “Music is identified as a noise, noise is identified as a nuisance, and nuisance is the responsibility of the - Austin Music People, a music lobby group, success person who created it.” To compound the problem, fully led a campaign to have a four-block area of the music community has not done a good job Austin that includes some of Austin’s most famous explaining the value of small clubs. As a result, many music venues including the Mohawk, Stubb’s and venues are challenged on issues of noise or plan- Elysium, recognized as a live music district. The ning and don’t have the money to mount a proper Red River Cultural District, approved by Austin City defence or to upgrade their facilities in order to Council in October 2013, gives live music venues meet stricter requirements. This, in addition to the more influence over development planning in the challenging economic environment for small clubs, vicinity. The designation was leveraged to speed up has resulted in a significant decline in their numbers. approval of musician loading and unloading zones, In London in 2010 there were 400 small clubs; it is and to create opportunities for cooperative market - 46 estimated that there are 100 fewer today. ing and promotion. Conversely, there are efforts in many cities to create London is not alone. Musicboard in Berlin seeks new arts clusters where they did not previously to find a middle ground between the competing exist. An industrial area of Marrickville, Australia, for interests of investors building new flats and the live {41}

42 The Mastering of a Music City clubs that preceded them in the neighbourhood. Supervisor London Breed, the legislator behind the “A few years ago no one wanted to recognize that proposed law, remarks that, “San Francisco’s night - this is a problem but now everyone recognizes it,” clubs, bars, and theaters attract 16,000,000 cus - says Katja Lucker, CEO, Musicboard. “We need to be tomers each year and generate over $800,000,000 sensitive about this topic.” in spending. But more than that, these venues are an integral part of our culture, of what makes us San The same issues – noise complaints and perceived Francisco. As we build more housing for everyone conflicting interests between new residential who wants to live here, we have to protect the rea- 50 developments and music venues – are behind new sons why they want to live here in the first place.” legislation in San Francisco that would provide legal Specifically, the legislation would: protection for existing venues. The legislation, intro- duced in late 2014 and now under consideration by Prevent venues that are operating within their • city legislators, is designed “to help preserve San permit from being deemed a legal “nuisance”; Francisco’s live music venues during a time of rapid • Require better sound testing before developers new residential construction,” according to a news 49 “The legislation can build near a venue; release announcing the initiative. Oblige developers to work with nearby venues • requires developers to engage with existing venues and the Entertainment Commission well before from the outset, protects venues from unfair com- construction begins; plaints, and ensures residents are informed about a • Ensure that prospective residents of units near nearby venue before they rent or buy.” a venue are informed about the venue before- hand; and The proposed law follows the closure of several • Improve communication among relevant City storied San Francisco venues in the wake of accel- departments and empower the Entertainment erating residential development into traditionally Commission get involved early in the development industrial and commercial areas. Longstanding ven- 51 process. ues there have increasingly faced noise complaints from new residential neighbours. CASE STUDY: AGENT OF CHANGE PRINCIPLE, MELBOURNE In August 2014, the Victoria State Government mitigation measures in situations of mixed land use. introduced a suite of reforms called the Live Music If the “agent of change” is a new apartment building Action Plan in response to a 2012 Industry Position that is being built near a pre-existing music venue, Paper by Music Victoria. Among them, was the - the apartment building is responsible for sound at Agent of Change Principle, which was adopted in tenuation. On the other hand, if the music venue is land use planning and informs decisions by liquor undergoing renovations and therefore is the “agent licensing authorities. The Agent of Change Principle of change” in the neighbourhood, it is responsible determines which party is required to adopt noise for noise mitigation. {42}

43 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing tions put in place by the Agent of Change principles The Victoria Government also announced a half mil- may, in fact, deter or even prevent the establishment - lion dollar fund to assist heritage venues in address of the new venue. ing noise mitigation. For that reason, it may be best to consider agent of The Agent of Change Principle works well where change only in very specific districts of a city. Mon - there is a concentration of established music ven- treal’s Emmanuelle Hébert says the principle was ues that are threatened by encroaching residential adopted in 2014 in Plateau Mont-Royal, a borough developments. An effort is now underway to have of the city that is described as moving “to its own this principle adopted in part of London, UK. funky beat.” Plateau Mont-Royal is a mixed-use neighbourhood, home to many artists, students and However, in areas where there is an effort to in - young families, and brimming with nightlife including crease the number of music venues, the principle theatre and music venues. It has the highest con- may not be the best policy choice. If the “agent of centration of artists and cultural workers in Canada. change” is the music venue itself, then the protec - RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Government departments responsible for liquor licensing, business licensing and other public safety measures, should work with the music community to identify compliance issues that restrict business growth in an effort to identify mutually-beneficial solutions. 2. Transportation planning and parking zones should take into account the needs of existing and developing music business clusters for efficient access. This should include short-term, reserved parking spots for active loading and unloading. 3. Land use planning should take into account culturally significant sites and zones to protect their ongoing viability, recognizing that these are often the assets that make neighbourhoods attractive to additional investment. Developers should be required to take into account these existing sites as part of the planning process, coordinate their activities with all relevant city departments, and inform future purchasers about the presence of music venues and clusters. 4. Music communities should explore the viability of historical designation or cultural zone designation to bring awareness to the value of individual sites and zones. 5. The Agent of Change Principle should be explored in areas where there is already a significant number of live music venues. {43}

44 The Mastering of a Music City MUSICIAN-FRIENDLY POLICIES A critical mass of artists was most commonly cited, where the city said you can do anything you want during interviews for this report, as being essential to build up a new scene, which created a unique for any Music City. culture of creativity in Berlin. That was the reason why I came to Berlin.” “It comes down to the quality of the music,” says Ian James, Managing Director of Mushroom Music While it may be impossible to “manufacture” the Publishing, Australia’s largest music publishing secret something that causes artists and musicians company. “In the end, the great thing is where to gather in a city in the first place, it is possible geniuses live, where magnificent music is made. to create a more sustainable environment for That’s the enduring legacy.” musicians and artists with “musician-friendly” policies and programs, many of which are likely to be Many interviewees describe an organic clustering driven by the public and private sectors. of artists and musicians in their cities: that the musicians were there before the city government, KEY CHALLENGE: AFFORDABILITY associations or agencies became involved – even before music businesses. “Musicians tend to If the goal of musician-friendly policies is to create a congregate around other musicians,” says Austin’s more sustainable and fertile environment for artists Bobby Garza of Transmission Events. “The city so that they can have the freedom to create, then wouldn’t have responded if musicians didn’t flock affordability must be considered. A low cost of living here as they have over the past few decades. You has been identified as one of the motivators for need that organized level of involvement. You can’t artists choosing certain cities or regions. Montreal manufacture that.” continues to press this as an advantage, as does Berlin, though there are concerns that Berlin is not Musicboard’s Katja Lucker describes a similarly as affordable as it was 10 years ago; Tennessee has organic gathering of artists in Berlin: “Berlin is a really the second lowest cost of living of all U.S. states, the special city because of the wall and the times after second lowest state and local tax burden and no the wall came down. It became a really wild place personal income tax on wages. “Musicians are constantly used as a draw to get potential clients into businesses. It would be good to make them feel valued. Small gestures of appreciation go a long way.” Miranda Mulholland, Recording Artist, Toronto {44}

45 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Photo Credit: Berlin Clubcommission As the cost of living increases in many cities, incomes were significantly higher, then affordability musicians’ incomes generally do not keep pace. wouldn’t be an issue. Austin Music People has identified a critical gap However, earning a living as an artist has never been in the rising cost of housing, for instance, and 52 Numerous easy, and according to some, is even harder today. the stagnant incomes of musicians. housing projects have been completed in Austin to Robert Levine, past executive editor of Billboard, provide musicians with affordable apartments and sums it up well: “It has never been easier to distribute communal housing. “Without a doubt, affordable a creative work. At the same time, it’s never been 54 Live performance income housing is an issue that impacts many citizens harder to get paid for it.” is increasingly important for artists, but touring beyond Austin’s musicians and other creatives, but costs are high. And while record companies have the opportunity cost to the city if those who build safeguarded investment in artists as a proportion of our “brand” can no longer afford to live here is a 53 their income as much as possible, their revenues are significant one.” roughly half of what they were before 1999, meaning 55 Moreover, notes Nashville has put a similar focus on affordable there is less money to invest. Patrick Donovan, CEO of Music Victoria, “bands are housing for musicians. In 2013, it completed Ryman Lofts, an affordable housing project with 60 charging the same for their shows at small venues as apartments geared towards artists. they did 25 years ago.” Musician Business Training Asked how he would judge the success of Music City strategies, Musitec’s David Grice responds, Inextricably linked to the issue of affordability is “Just to be able to provide a future that enables a musician’s income. If artists and musicians’ people to make a decent career out of music.” {45}

46 The Mastering of a Music City “We have doctors and lawyers who make a lot of money and we have musicians who have more intellectual property than those guys, who struggle to make minimum wage.” David Grice, Musitec, Adelaide The availability of professional development artists the necessary tools to become the Soul services for musicians is not only an aid music stars of tomorrow.” to furthering their skills as small-business entrepreneurs, but also in making a municipality The future establishment of a new Talent more musician-friendly. Development Center complex in downtown Memphis, will be used to further the goals of artists The Bogotá Chamber of Commerce, which who will have gone through the program. prioritized music and other cultural industries as a key economic sector, is developing 30 different Chicago has adopted a comprehensive music services to support these industries. The services strategy that focuses on leadership and include professional development and training. government support, live music and education. According to Gareth Donal Gordon, the Chamber Retention of the creative class is a key objective. In discovered that few artists and musicians know how consultations and focus groups, creative industry to build their businesses and monetize their work. employees between the ages of 18 and 25 were In Memphis, The Consortium MMT (Memphis Music asked how the city could help them succeed in Town) offers a national mentorship program with Chicago, as a way to dissuade them from moving a six-week intensive process for young artists to to other cities such as Austin. Access to networks enhance and further develop their creative brand. and mentors emerged as a primary need, and the David Porter, Founder and CEO of The Consortium Chicago Track program was created. MMT, explains that the program, “champions the history of Soul music while providing young artists The program provides professional development with backstage access to the music industry with and networking opportunities along with workshops mentorship support by superstar established that often lead to internships in the music industry artists. This unique concept helps to bring back as well. The program has a high level of retention. the credibility of the music-making process, giving {46}

47 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing CASE STUDY: COALITION MUSIC, TORONTO Coalition Music, which started as a music Outside of these programs, space is available for management company in 1991, now supports producers, labels, music publishers, marketing artists’ development at all stages of their careers. services companies and songwriters for short or It is the home of Canada’s Music Incubator (CMI), long-term rental, thereby encouraging collaboration a not-for-profit corporation, and the high school- and cross-pollination of ideas. With state-of-the- focused registered charity, TEMPO (Through art facilities, staff mentors and a vast network of Education Music Provides Opportunity). music professionals, Coalition Music, CMI and TEMPO provide ongoing training and support for Within the renovated walls of a former convent, young people wishing to pursue almost any avenue entrepreneurs Eric Lawrence and Rob Lanni within the music industry. Government funding have built studios, rehearsal spaces, professional and broadcaster support is also utilized in order development and educational programs, and to limit the cost of professional development for performance space, to provide artists with a place participants. In 2013, TEMPO also began taking to create, learn and hone their skills. CMI provides its high school programs on the road to remote professional development in two areas: Artist Aboriginal communities. Entrepreneur and Tour & Tech. Separately, TEMPO offers “The Music Business”, an accredited and free, high school course as a complement to traditional in-school music teaching. Photo Credit : Coalition Music {47}

48 The Mastering of a Music City The Support Team: Music Professionals - these gaps should be a priority for music invest ment and business attraction in Austin. As noted in the Key Elements section, successful Music Cities offer an array of music businesses and Similarly, professional gaps have been identified in music professionals who form larger teams sup- - Adelaide. In his research for the Reverb report, Mar porting artist entrepreneurs. These include labels, tin Elbourne discovered that the city had no artist managers, agents, lawyers and publicists. For high managers. More recently, the city has identified a quality recording studios, experienced recording shortage of high level producers, according to David - engineers and producers are also needed. Identify Grice. To fill the void, Musitec is examining options ing any gaps in this larger group of professionals is for training engineers – of whom there are plenty – a first step for Music Cities to develop ways to train as music producers. and/or attract the talent they need. Numerous government policies have a direct impact Bobby Garza of Transmission Events in Austin on the music economy’s viability and success. believes that filling some of these gaps would help A city’s level of “music-friendliness” and “musi- enable the expansion of his city’s US$2bn music in- cian-friendliness” is closely tied to those policies. dustry to a US$3 or $4bn industry. He explains that Working with the music community is the best way artists in Austin face challenges monetizing their to maximize Music City benefits, resolve issues product. There is a particular need for more labels and avoid unintended consequences of regulation in Austin. Entertainment lawyers are also in short and enforcement. The chapters that follow provide supply there, Garza adds. He believes that filling some models for that engagement. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Conduct a needs assessment of your community of musicians, singers, songwriters and producers in order to identify policies that can help them succeed along with key challenges and obstacles to pursuing music as a vocation. 2. Inventory the music professionals and businesses available to support artists in their careers including managers, agents and labels. 3. Based on these assessments, identify the priority needs and opportunities. These may require financial support, infrastructure spending, training or programs in other areas. 4. Identify key public and private sector players who can help deliver programs to meet the identified needs and priorities. {48}

49 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing SECTION V. 2 City Music Office : : Laying Down the Tracks {49}

50 The Mastering of a Music City usic offices or officers Prior to the creation of the Music Sector Devel- (though not necessarily opment Officer position in Toronto in 2014, music by that name) are present stakeholders found that, “the environment for in one form or another in getting business done with city government is not 56 The city’s many of the cities studied particularly easy for them to navigate.” new Music Officer, Mike Tanner, says he is “aiming for this report. They include M - toward one-stop shopping – as easy and decipher Seattle, Austin, Melbourne, able as possible.” Chicago, Toronto, Hamburg, Berlin, Bogotá, Kitchen- er (Canada), Montreal and Cologne. The larger the The Seattle Office of Film + Music, as the principal office, the greater its scope. In cases where there is body responsible for advancing the goals of Seat - a single officer, the role tends to be more narrowly tle’s City of Music program, is responsible for special defined. Ideally, a well-established music office will events in the city, serving as a one-stop shop for carry out the key functions outlined below. promoters and producers of live events. The office facilitates meetings between city departments KEY FUNCTIONS (fire police, licensing etc.) and promoters and event managers. “We literally put them in the same room,” Navigating City Hall says Director Kate Becker. One of the basic functions of a music office is to be Liaison with Music Commission or Advisory Board the main point of contact at City Hall for music busi- nesses, including live venues. As described in the In cities with a volunteer music advisory board, com- previous chapter, many municipal government poli- mittee or commission, the music officer typically cies and regulations impact music, and hence many acts as the primary city staff support or liaison. city departments have some level of authority over Seattle’s Kate Becker, for example, facilitates the music businesses. In some of the most successful connection between the city’s Music Commission Music Cities, experience has shown that a single of - and the Office of Film + Music as part of her role as fice or point of contact at City Hall is the best way to Director. Her duties include staffing Commission ensure clear communication and direction between meetings and developing meeting agendas. This the municipality and the music community. role helps her support Seattle’s three goals as a Music City: to be a city of live music, musicians and Bill Harvey, co-founder of NY is Music, makes the 57 Similarly, in Melbourne, Toronto music business. comparison between New York’s approach to film and Austin, the music officer leads this activity. and television productions vs. live music: “If I’m a film company and I want to shut down Times Square Lead a City’s Music Strategy during rush hour, I go to one person and I have a permit in three hours. If I’m a musician and I want to Many successful Music Cities have a music strategy plug in an amplifier and play music in the park, I have that has been endorsed by City Council. These are to go to multiple departments to secure permits in multi-year, complex plans that benefit from a single the double digits.” staff or department lead. {50}

51 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing “Experience the City of Music at Sea-Tac Airport” program, Central Terminal, The Side Project performing, Photo Credit: Port of Seattle {51}

52 The Mastering of a Music City Similar to Seattle, in Melbourne, Hannah Brooks’ agency that functions similarly to the Austin Music main job as Business Advisor is implementing the Division, helps to mediate issues that arise between city’s Music Strategy. In Bogotá, the City of Music clubs, residents and city officials. Toronto’s Mike plan, developed following a successful application Tanner sees mediation becoming an important part for a UNESCO designation, falls within the Depart - of his role, using communication as a tool to prevent 58 And in ment of Culture, Recreation and Sport. conflicts. “People don’t like to be surprised,” he Chicago, Dylan Rice is the staff lead for music at says. “There is an opportunity to channel commu- the city’s Department of Cultural Affairs and Special nication through Business Improvement Associa- Events (DCASE). tions, Councillors’ offices and community groups to help smooth the relationships between live music In other cities, including Adelaide, Memphis and venues and their neighbours.” Nashville, where there are music strategies but no music office or officer, the volunteer advisory Education/Networking Programs and Events boards take more of a leadership role. Music offices often host or support programs and Internal Advocacy/Education about Music events that focus on networking or education. For example, Austin’s Music Division funds the Music A music officer who understands the issues and Industry Collaborative (MIC), an applicant-based challenges facing the music community can also mentoring program delivered by the Austin Music serve as an advocate or educator within City Hall. Foundation. “MIC fast-tracks the resources that Don Pitts, Music Program Manager for the City of busy music entrepreneurs most urgently need,” Pitts Austin, explains that his department “serves as a says. “(It provides) meaningful dialogue with real-life resource on live music issues.” Jennifer Houlihan of entrepreneur mentors in a structured small group Austin Music People (AMP) agrees, explaining that setting that also encourages peer-to-peer assis - - the relationship between AMP, the Music Commis tance.” sion and the City Music Division “is powerful when they are working in lockstep on the same agenda Chicago’s DCASE organizes similar programs. After items.” several successful education and networking initia- tives, Dylan Rice says his department is developing In Gothenburg, Sweden, this function is often per - the largest free convergence of professionals from formed by the public tourism agency where Fredrik music and other creative industries. The Lake FX Sandsten describes his role as, “a link between Conference will connect artists with new media to the music businesses and the politicians. It is very help them achieve success. much our job to make things happen quickly if it is something we support and believe in.” - Berlin’s Musicboard provides funding to the Ber lin Clubcommission, which in turn provides basic Mediation support for its member nightclubs to assist with legal, financial, security and health and safety City music officers or offices often serve as media - issues. Clubcommission also recently adopted tors between music stakeholders and other external an educational role with the producers of open-air groups. Berlin’s Musicboard, a government-funded - music parties. The initiative is a response to height {52}

53 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing ened community concern over the parties, which €800,000 for music festivals and other funding for consume a significant amount of police resources. music work spaces, special projects and setting 59 One of At an information session attended by 150 of these standards for disabled access at venues. the key funding priorities is to support innovative impromptu event planners, the Clubcommission and creative projects that help to create a stronger offered to support them, if the organizers made professional music scene in Paris while encouraging efforts to address the concerns raised by the the emergence of new artists, and new forms of cre- broader community. Organizers were asked to sign ation and music distribution, according to Marianne a 10-point agreement that includes a commitment Revoy, Conseillère culture (Cultural advisor) in the to keep noise at a reasonable level, and leave the office of Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo. parks the way they found them before their events. Clubcommission created a starter kit for open air The music branch of Hamburg, Germany’s De- events that includes trash bags, ashtrays and the partment of Culture supports the city’s music agreement, among other helpful items. community through financial support for small labels, venues and other recipients, and by acting Grant or Loan Programs as a hub for other public and private sector orga- Municipal financial support for the music commu - nizations involved in music. These organizations nity, where it exists, can be funneled through music include: “Hamburg Kreativ Gesellschaft” (municipal offices. However, this function is distinct from the institution founded to promote Hamburg’s creative direct funding provided by Arts Councils to artists industries); RockCity Hamburg e. V. (organization for - in a wide range of creative sectors. Berlin’s Music Hamburg-based musicians); LiveKomm (federal Ger - board, which is funded by the City of Berlin, in turn man live music commission); IHM (Hamburg Music distributes funding to Berlin-based music compa- Business Association); Clubkombinat Hamburg e. nies, organizations or artists. Musicians can apply V. (Hamburg music venue and club association); for scholarships and for new projects in Berlin or and VUT-Nord (indie label association). The Depart - abroad. Musicboard also provides financial support ment of Culture’s Johannes Rösing says the music to the Berlin Music Commission, which organizes branch “cannot plainly be called a one-stop-shop networking and conferences for the business side for the music community. To attain the best results of the music community, in addition to the Berlin from our support we work closely with various insti- Clubcommission programs mentioned above. tutions and associations.” The Music Venue Assistance Program in Austin ORGANIZATION AND - provides low interest micro loans to qualifying es REPORTING STRUC - tablishments to enhance the sound quality of indoor TURE and outdoor venues while reducing the sound im- pact on neighbouring uses, according to Don Pitts. The most all-encompassing music offices are stand-alone agencies or departments. Berlin’s In Paris, the city government provides financial Musicboard has three full-time staff and two casual support and other assistance for the broader music employees. Seattle’s Office of Music + Film has community. This includes €8.2mn for facilities and five full-time staff plus a part-time staff person, but venues dedicated to contemporary music, almost {53}

54 The Mastering of a Music City Andrew Vincent, a musician based in Ottawa, is responsible for both film and music. The Austin Music Division has five full-time, music-focused em - Canada and author of Connecting Ottawa Music, ployees and is a department within the Economic notes, “Someone needs to be in the city who has a personal connection to music, who brings that per Growth and Redevelopment Services Department. - spective, who has travelled and seen what others In other cases, cities have a primary music contact have done in other cities.” or a music officer who works within a larger depart - CHALLENGE: CHANGES IN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP ment. Naturally, they cannot be responsible for as wide a scope of activities as an entire music office. Political support is fundamental to maintaining gov - However, often they are able to rely on the support - ernment commitment to a music office, not to men of other colleagues within their department. tion a larger music strategy. Chapter V.4 describes how consensus in the music community is the best Examples where a single music officer is housed in way to develop political support. But political lead- a larger department include Montreal, Gothenburg, ership is prone to change. This can spell uncertainty Toronto and Melbourne: Emmanuelle Hébert is part for music programs. of a 200-person Cultural Department at the City of Montreal; Fredrik Sandsten works in a state- Mayors in Berlin, Chicago, Toronto, Seattle and owned destination company in Gothenburg with Austin have been instrumental in securing budgets 120 employees; Mike Tanner’s music development for music officers and their programs. Three of role is the single music-focused position in a 30-35 those five cities have recently undergone a change member department that includes Tourism and in leadership. Whether or not this will affect those Visitor Services, Film, Television and Digital Media cities’ music programs remains to be seen. and Event Support. Strategies outlined in the next two sections are designed to overcome this potential hurdle: estab- Music Officer Background - lishing a music advisory board, and most impor tantly, fostering an engaged and supportive music In most cases, music officers have previous ex - community. perience in the music industry or another creative industry. In a media interview promoting one of his first major initiatives, Chicago’s Dylan Rice draws the link between his current role and his past work as an artist: “I’ve lived and breathed [this industry],” he told Michigan Avenue magazine. “I’ve worn all the hats, I’ve made some mistakes, and I’ve learned the hard way. I empathize with a lot of artists who are trying to do it. So I’m hoping my experience as an artist is 60 informing my experience in government.” {54}

55 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Establish a single point of contact – whether an individual or team – for the music industry within City Hall mandated to: a. Help the music community navigate relevant city government departments and policies; b. Lead the city’s music strategy or lead the development of a strategy if one does not exist; c. Liaise with the volunteer music advisory board or commission; d. Help other city employees, agencies and elected officials understand the issues facing the music sector; and e. Mediate between the music community and other community groups in order to resolve conflicts. 2. Music should be recognized as a commercial industry, and therefore the officer should be housed in a department focused on economic development. 3. Ensure the person hired as a music officer has direct experience in a creative industry, preferably music. 4. Engage the broader music community as well as political decision-makers to continuously promote the importance of the music officer/office to ensure sustainability and continued funding. {55}

56 The Mastering of a Music City SECTION V. 3 Music Advisory Boards : Making a Powerful Ensemble {56}

57 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing usic Advisory Boards or Research for this report identified music advisory Commissions provide an boards or committes in the following jurisdictions: effective link between a Austin, Nashville, Memphis, Seattle, Bogotá, Paris, city’s music community Berlin, Melbourne, Toronto, Wollongong and South - and local or provincial gov Australia. Some other cities have advisory boards with ernments as well as other a broader cultural mandate, of which music is a part. M city stakeholders. They are a forum to generate dialogue within the music com- CORE FUNCTIONS munity and open lines of communication to others in the private and public sectors. In keeping with Music advisory boards typically fulfill the following their names, they are generally advisory in nature, functions: rather than decision-making bodies. Some boards participate more heavily in the delivery of programs. Create consensus within the music community For instance, the Memphis Music Commission, supported by an Executive Director, provides a legal Music advisory boards most often include music clinic, pre-paid health care plans for musicians, industry leaders representing all segments of the workshops, seminars and other services. music industry. The boards create a forum for discussion of issues affecting the music community The overarching purpose of Music Advisory Boards and a means by which to develop consensus and is to enhance the environment in which music present a unified voice to government. operates within a city. In some cities, this is defined in very broad terms. The Conseil Parisien de la Mu- Provide advice on the regulatory and legislative sique (Paris Music Council), created last year under environment the administration of Mayor Anne Hidalgo, while still in its early stages, seeks to find ways that the public Music advisory boards act in an advisory capacity and private sectors can together support emerging to government on legislation, regulations and pro- artists, enhance venues, improve contemporary grams. This often means that boards have the abili- music education, boost marketing efforts, and en - ty to draft resolutions for a committee of council, full sure that Paris’s music scene offers rich and diverse city council, or for the Mayor or Premier, depending musical offerings at prices that are accessible to on the level of government with which they interact. all. In announcing the Council’s creation last year, Paris Deputy Mayor Bruno Julliard said the initiative Provide opportunities for the music community to will bear fruit only if all the players – both private liaise with key city stakeholders and public sector – agree to share the costs of the 61 proposals it advances. Music advisory boards create opportunities for information exchange and advice between the Depending on the level of government with which music community and other key stakeholders such they interact, resolutions passed by a music advi- as chambers of commerce, tourism and convention sory board will either proceed to a city music office, agencies, neighbourhood associations and govern- committee of city council, full city council, mayor’s ment departments involved in economic develop- office or premier’s/governor’s office. ment or arts and culture. {57}

58 The Mastering of a Music City STRUCTURE unions, music associations, trade unions and music 62 academies. There is no “one size fits all” model when it comes to music advisory boards. Depending on the city, Membership composition is critical as has been there are variances in size, structure, members, discovered in Bogotá, where music is the focus of member selection, and the level of government with one of six councils for the arts. Juan Luis Restrepo which they interact. of the City’s Department of Culture, Recreation and Sport, stops short of calling it a formal music Size advisory board, but many of its functions are similar: it is supposed to “approve, discuss, debate and Berlin’s Music Advisory Board (which advises agree on general public investments in music in Musicboard, the city’s de facto music office), has the city and assess the City of Music program in its only 11 members, whereas Toronto’s Music Industry strategic decisions and long term policies.” How- Advisory Council has 35. Nashville’s Music City Mu- ever, Restrepo notes that the efficacy of the council sic Council started with 40 members, but through is hampered by the lack of participation of “really restructuring the number has been reduced by half. strong actors in the music scene.” Membership Jurisdiction Most music advisory boards are composed pri- Some music advisory boards have been estab- marily of leaders from the music industry, with key lished at the provincial or state level, rather than elected representatives and government staff from the municipal level. These focus on the overarching relevant departments or agencies. Music industry needs of a state/provincial music community and representatives at the municipal level tend to be ap- the impacts of the legislation, regulations and pro- pointed by the mayor, city council or a combination grams overseen at the provincial/state level. of the two, but in some cases are appointed by the city music office or an equivalent body. Committee Structure Some boards contain a broader membership that Several of the larger music advisory boards have incorporates community leaders whose roles have a committee structure that enables more detailed a connection to music – for instance, tourism agen- analysis of specific issues, and task-oriented work. cies, hotel associations, Chambers of Commerce Seattle’s 21-member Music Commission, for exam- and music commissions or officials serving a higher ple, has subcommittees pertaining to policy, youth level of government. The recently established and community, executive operations and social Conseil Parisien de la Musique, for example, brings justice. together officials from three levels of government – municipal, regional and national – to work with music In South Australia, the 12-member music industry stakeholders on policy issues. Those stakehold- council relies on as many as 40 additional music ers include major and independent music labels, community members who participate on issue-spe- 63 venues, music publishers, record shops, artists’ cific subcommittees. {58}

59 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing The new Conseil Parisien de la Musique directs in Wollongong, Australia began its work with a live working groups to focus on different policy areas. music survey that identified the active venues and The entire council, which has neither a budget nor level of music activity, as well as a tour of licensed a president, will meet as seldom as twice a year in a premises for relevant city staff. Advisory boards in plenary session. Austin and Nashville have commissioned economic impact studies. OPPORTUNITIES In Nashville, the report’s findings were used to drive - economic development initiatives, thereby support Music advisory boards present an effective means ing one of the Music City Music Council’s primary to avoid potentially negative impacts of government goals: to attract and recruit entertainment compa- legislation on the music community. Don Pitts, nies to the city. As Hank Locklin, the Senior Advisor Austin’s Music Program Manager, explains that the of the Music and Entertainment Industry for the Austin Music Commission is expected to “study the State of Tennessee, explains, this helps to cement development of the music industry, assist in the Nashville’s image as a “vibrant Music Business City” implementation of programs to meet the needs cre- through its consistent high ranking of music related ated by the development of the industry, and review output and workforce when compared to the rest of matters that may affect the music industry.” the U.S. Austin Music People’s Jennifer Houlihan describes The Council is also involved in partnerships with the process: “We do as much work as possible with the Entrepreneurial Center in projects such as the stakeholders before it gets to the Music Commis - Musicpreneur program, which enlists local music sion, so by the time they get it, they are only passing industry leaders to engage with young entrepre- things to City Council that are as bullet proof as neurs about their involvement in the future of the possible. It gives council cover, so that they don’t 64 In addition, it is involved with an music industry. get a surprise backlash.” Entrepreneur Center initiative called Project Music, a 14-week music tech accelerator program launching Music advisory boards also lead studies on the mu- 65 in 2015. sic industry. The Live Music Taskforce established RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Develop a music advisory board representing a cross-section of the music community and key decision makers in agencies that have an impact on music (e.g. tourism agencies). 2. Enlist the involvement of music industry representatives with larger networks to facilitate two-way commu- nication with government. 3. Governments should utilize the music advisory board as a sounding board for legislation, policies and pro- grams, providing members with ample opportunity to study the issues and engage their networks to provide feedback and ideas. {59}

60 The Mastering of a Music City SECTION V. 4 Engaging the Broader Community : Putting the Band Together {60}

61 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing usic City development BARRIERS TO will, without question, only COLLABORATION be successful with the engagement of the people impacted most – the music community. Whether it M is the private or public “There’s a crab in sector that initiates this engagement appears to be immaterial. In some cases, the music community a bucket infighting has been the initiator, often in response to acute challenges to their livelihood. In other cases, a mentality within the government body has set out to engage the music community in order to grow the sector. Whichever music industry that side gets the ball rolling, the key is that all relevant players are involved. comes from scarcity.” Jennifer Houlihan, Austin Music People, Austin DEFINING THE BROADER MUSIC COMMUNITY A variety of barriers to engagement of the broader music community were identified by music industry Many of the strategies addressed in this report deal experts interviewed for this report: most directly with live music. This should not be - surprising, since live performance is more signifi • The informal, almost cloistered, do-it-yourself cantly impacted by the municipal policies cited nature of most music creation and distribution in section V.1. However, all aspects of the music today; ecosystem are inextricably linked and therefore The involvement in music of many part-time • stand to gain from effective Music City strategies. workers and hobbyists; For that reason, this discussion of music community • The reality that many small and medium-sized engagement includes stakeholders at every step in businesses and artist entrepreneurs are, by the music value chain: necessity, focused exclusively on making ends meet; Retailers Radio Labels Publishers Digital Music Managers Distributors Agents Promoters Venues Musicians Ticketing Recording and Singers Companies Mastering Songwriters Consumers Festivals Engineers Producers Music Fans {61}

62 The Mastering of a Music City • The lack of sufficient professional advisors revellers. It works in collaboration with the newly (managers, lawyers, agents, etc); formed music council to develop solutions and • Competitive issues among key stakeholders; enhance night-time music activity, says Marianne and Revoy of the Paris Mayor’s Office. The absence of an advocacy organization • representing the commercial music sector. There are many other examples: the threat to historic venues and recording studios in Nashville Overcoming a tendency among music community spawned the creation of the Music Industry members to view others as competitors, rather than Coalition; a loss of venues in London led to the collaborators, has been a key priority in Toronto. establishment of the Music Venues Trust; and, burdensome regulatory changes to live music “The local music community supports itself in in Australia inspired Save Live Australia’s Music ways in 2015 that were unheard of in 2011,” says (SLAM), the organization behind the largest cultural Mike Tanner, Music Sector Development Officer protest in the country’s history. at the City of Toronto. “Music Canada helped bring together a lot of disparate voices under Rallying support in times of crisis is always easier one tent, looking for areas of commonality where than in times of peace. they could all benefit and engage different levels of government to get support. Most of the good operators have put most of the squabbling on the back burner. There’s a lot of willingness to collaborate now.” Conflict Serves as a Catalyst for Engagement When the music community overcomes these barriers by pulling together, it is often in response to conflict or crisis. In Paris, conflict between residents and operators of bars, nightclubs and other night-time activities inspired a petition entitled “Paris: When the night dies in silence,” as well as collaboration by affected stakeholders and, ultimately, to a response by the 66 This culminated in the creation city government. by Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo of the Conseil parisien de la nuit (Paris council of the night), in late 2014. The council brings together elected officials from every city district, institutions, associations and others to find sustainable solutions and to help pacify relations between residents and night-time {62}

63 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing CASE STUDY: SLAM RALLY, MELBOURNE Save Live Australia’s Music (SLAM), a national The huge turnout got the attention of politicians. activist group based in Melbourne, Australia, was Ultimately, the restrictive laws were eased and the created in 2010 in response to new liquor licensing live music industry and the State Government of laws that threatened the viability of live music in the Victoria ratified The Live Music Accord 2010. The State of Victoria. The restrictive laws were passed in SLAM Rally also helped expedite government reaction to incidents of violence at some nightclubs. funding for Music Victoria, an umbrella organization for all music groups in the state, which had been SLAM, a volunteer-run group, organized what launched before the rally, in January 2010. became the largest cultural protest in Australia’s history, on February 23, 2010. Musicians and music “There’s a great sense of community in Melbourne lovers were encouraged to march on Parliament between the various elements of the music industry House to protest the “draconian regulations” that that has evolved quite naturally,” says Ian James, 67 “threaten to pull the plug on live music”. Managing Director, Mushroom Music Publishing. He considers this essential for any successful Music The protest organizers predicted that more than City. “It can be encouraged over time, but people 10,000 would join the march. In fact, 20,000 people have to have the will to do it. However, once you’ve took to the streets. got it, it is a very rare and precious commodity.” SLAM Rally 2010 , Photo Credit: Pia Salvatore {63}

64 The Mastering of a Music City Opportunity as a Catalyst for Engagement “city is working to break down barriers between the different components of the industry (recording, live In the absence of a catalytic event, it is still possible performance etc.), and genres of the industry, with to get the broader music community engaged the rationale that a more unified music community in a Music City initiative. This can be led by an will strengthen the city’s efforts to attract business organization within the music community like Austin development and tourism.” Rice’s department does Music People, Music Victoria, UK Music or Music this by hosting events and conferences including Canada, for example. In other cases, governments Lake FX Summit & Expo, Chicago Music Summit, lead this effort as they realize the value of Creative Industries Spotlight, and ChicagoMade at consensus and are driven by goals to increase the SXSW. economic, societal and/or cultural benefits of an In Bogotá, music was identified as a key asset for industry. marketing the city to Latin America and beyond, In cities including Adelaide, Chicago, Bogotá as a destination for tourism, immigration and and Kitchener, Canada, initiatives to bring the investment. Bogotá is brimming with music and community together in order to identify common culture, however the music community itself is very challenges and opportunities have been led by city fragmented. According to Juan Luis Restrepo in officials and elected officeholders. the city’s Department of Culture, Recreation and Sport, when the city applied for UNESCO City of When the Premier of South Australia identified Music designation, it was expected “to get the music as one of the state’s key economic drivers, music sector to work together and to develop a he directed government departments to look at greter appreciation for city projects.” Many private music as an industry for the first time. It was under sector organizations are involved as well in trying to Premier Jay Weatherill’s direction that UK Promoter create greater connections in the music community. Martin Elbourne was engaged to study the industry The Bogotá Chamber of Commerce, for example, and that Musitec was created to build collaboration organizes Bogotá Music Market (BoMM), an annual in the music community in order to increase jobs conference and showcase event. and new economic opportunities. “The problem with South Australian music is that we’ve never In Canada, the City of Kitchener organized a grass- really worked together,” says David Grice, Managing roots facilitation to strengthen the city’s music Director of Musitec. “So we’re running workshops scene. This involved 130 community members, and events to build a sense of community around including general audience members, musicians the musicians because we can’t develop a spirit of and those directly involved in the business of collaboration if people don’t know each other.” making music, and venue owners. Together, they focused on three general outcomes: expanding the In Chicago, one of the key responsibilities of the audience; growing the music business; and enabling 69 The city’s Department of Cultural Affairs and Special live commercial music venues to thrive. resulting strategy, Music Works, continues to drive Events (DCASE) is to “convene the industry” and the city’s music program today. “create forums for industry experts to interact and 68 Dylan Rice, Chicago’s address shared goals.” Director of Creative Industries – Music, says that the {64}

65 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing “We can’t expect government to understand our unique issues... the sector must present a coherent position and message that government can understand.” – Focus group participant EFFECTIVE COLLABORATION DELIVERS RESULTS Building consensus and broad support in the music community can lead to impressive results. “Stuff doesn’t just happen,” says Austin’s Bobby Garza of Transmission Events. “It happens when there’s a groundswell of support,” The results achieved by SLAM in Melbourne, and by the Music Industry Coalition in Nashville demonstrate the power of broad-based support and collaboration (see Chapter V.1). Garza cites music community organization as the catalyst for the creation of Austin’s Music Division, while Austin Music People’s Jennifer Houlihan credits music community engagement in part for the decision to allow Uber to operate its mobile app-driven ride sharing service in Austin in order to provide patrons with another safe way home. In Toronto, notes Music Canada President Graham Henderson, music community collaboration led Photo Credit: Coalition Music {65}

66 The Mastering of a Music City to the creation of the Toronto Music Advisory for the music industry came from a member of Council and the creation of the city’s Music Sector the Green Party. But it was Premier Jay Wilson of Development officer position, as well as a provincial the Labor Party who influenced the more recent Live Music Strategy and an unprecedented changes. CDN$45mn grant program for the music industry called the Ontario Music Fund. Cultivating positive relationships with elected officials is essential if success is to be achieved. In cities where there is resistance to change, political champions – mayors, councillors or leaders On the flip side, if there is no consensus and of higher levels of government – have often been collaboration in the music community, it is inevitably instrumental in creating the impetus for positive harder for governments to understand the unique improvement. challenges faced by the sector, and governments will be far less motivated to make positive changes. Political champions can come from any part of the A divided community discourages political action political spectrum. In South Australia, for example, because policy decisions are unlikely to receive the first effort to increase the long stagnant support clear and broad support from the people affected. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Create opportunities for networking, mentoring and education in order to build relationships and trust within the music community. 2. Seek consensus on common issues that will deliver broad benefits across the sector. 3. Address issues of conflict and competition behind closed doors in order to present a united front. 4. When crisis occurs, use the situation to build support for sustainable music advocacy organizations and sustained engagement. 5. Develop strong relationships with elected officials at all levels of government, and of all political stripes to help overcome bureaucratic inertia. {66}

67 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing SECTION V. 5 Spaces and Places : Where the Music Happens {67}

68 The Mastering of a Music City usic needs a home. Or Municipal government policy steers property in the context of a Music development, land use and bylaws affecting a City, it needs many building’s use. It is also the means used in most homes: rehearsal spaces, cities to make affordable housing available, which recording studios, music can benefit artist entrepreneurs. As such, some education institutions and of the key, policy-related issues identified in this M live performance venues. section are explored in further detail in section V. 1 The latter must span a broad range of types: indoor of this report. and outdoor, small, medium and large; formal and informal. Shabby basements where budding artists TAKING STOCK get a start. Massive concerts halls filled to capacity by international superstars. Parks used to host When considering strategies to enhance and music festivals. These and other places are where expand a Music City’s spaces and places, a logical artists connect with music fans. They are the places first step is to take inventory. How many rehearsal where musical talent is developed and music is spaces are available? Are there enough recording created, perfected and recorded. studios at different price points? Are there record labels, management companies, agencies and Quantity and variety of spaces are important, but other music businesses that are critical parts of so too is quality. The great live music that draws the music economy? How many live venues are audiences requires great sound. This is not to say there? How many are mainly music-focused, and that a venue needs to be an aesthetic showpiece. how many treat music as a secondary concern? Are As Music Canada’s Graham Henderson notes, “For the venues high quality? Do they span a full range of the live artist starting out, you need a place to play – sizes and genres? The need to get answers to these grungy, basement places, and places of ascending questions – to take inventory – was recognized size, creating what I like to call a stairway to heaven.” by the City of Melbourne, Australia in its 2014 But whatever the appearance of a venue, it should Melbourne Music Strategy. The report recommends have good sound. that the city “Conduct an audit that identifies existing and new spaces that support music In the most advanced Music Cities, such spaces performance, collaboration and rehearsal.” and places form a large and complex music ecosystem where music can flourish and artists Beyond Buildings can grow. Often, there is an “organic” aspect to the development of a rich ecosystem. Music venues The Melbourne Music Strategy recognizes that and their patrons tend to cluster on certain streets spaces and places need not be made of bricks and and in specific districts. The infrastructure, expertise mortar, music is also performed in the streets and and artists that nurture one recording studio can parks as a “part of everyday life.” [Melbourne Music spawn others. More importantly, however, are the Strategy] The report elaborates: policies and programs initiated by both the public and private sectors. These policies and programs Music will be a centrepiece of life in Melbourne. are important or even essential to protect existing Musicians of all cultural backgrounds and music spaces and create new ones. genres will be a common sight in the streets {68}

69 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing then shoot for the stars requires a full range of and at outdoor/indoor venues, and people will know where to go to hear live music during live venues, from tiny clubs to large stadiums, and the day and at night. Having ready access everything in-between. This continuum of venues, where artists have a place to play at every stage of to live music will increase community pride their careers, has been called the “venue ladder.” and wellbeing, and make Melbourne a more Ideally, a Music City will have one or more venues for welcoming, vibrant 24 hour city for residents every step up the ladder. and visitors. In Toronto, the head of the city’s Downtown Yonge Andrew Vincent, a singer-songwriter in Canada’s BIA (Business Improvement Area) in Toronto also capital city, Ottawa, describes the benefits of having a range of venues: “It brings a range of views the street as a place for music. The BIA plans artists to the city. There are a lot of touring artists to revitalize the role music plays in this section of that can fill a 500-person general admission room the city through music programming, guided walking but can’t do a 1000. By having that range, it brings tours about music history, and infrastructure and bands at certain levels where they are big enough space development. According to a Nov. 28, 2014 to have generated an audience, but are still at the story in Toronto’s Globe and Mail, BIA Executive development stage, which can be really inspiring for Director Mark Garner sees Yonge Street – a roadway in the heart of the city – as “about both fancy local musicians. It also strengthens connections restaurants and buskers, and populated by social between the local scene and national booking 70 agencies as well as students.” agents.” Noting that some music fans might not go to smaller clubs, Vincent also sees the venue ladder The Venue Ladder as a way for artists to reach a broader audience. To support a thriving music community in which A major challenge for Ottawa’s music community artists can get a start, develop their talent and is gaps in its own venue ladder. Vincent remarks, “Ottawa seems like a great place to get started in music. There are lots of places with open mic nights, small venues where you can get gigs, there are studios where you can record that are affordable, you can get spots opening at some festivals. But “The places are where the city is lacking is in the development potential between the smaller scale and the larger critical. Artists and scale. We don’t have the medium sized venues.” their fans need Gaps like this are not uncommon, even in larger Music Cities. Toronto, for example, lacks a 5,000 easy access to an seat arena – an important stepping stone for artists eyeing the biggest stages. Helsinki is missing a eclectic range of 3,000 seat facility although there are plans for one as part of a proposed new home for the live music sites and venues, association, according to Cultural Director Stuba from intimate to world class.” Graham Henderson, Music Canada, Toronto {69}

70 The Mastering of a Music City Nikula. Other communities invest heavily in large, Emmanuelle Hébert, an official with the City of premium venues that host leading international acts, Montreal’s Department of Culture, says venues but budding local artists have few or no options are beginning to pop up in suburban areas of her where they can cut their teeth. city. She notes that it is getting harder to bring people back downtown in the evening to enjoy live Filling these gaps doesn’t always require completely music. As newer venues in the boroughs are often new builds. Some communities have found programming similar shows, this new dynamic innovative ways to renovate shuttered movie creates new challenges for city-based venues. theatres, churches and other buildings that are no longer active in their original form. Development outside of the central core has been identified in Paris, France as an opportunity to Downtown Clusters and Suburban Hubs revive a once-vibrant nightlife and music scene that has suffered under the weight of restrictive There is wide agreement that, when it comes rules. An article in France 24 listed the reasons to music, there is strength in numbers. for this: “laws restricting opening hours, a lack of Neighbourhoods with a variety of labels, reliable transportation for night-time revellers and, management companies and the like, develop a especially, authorities forcing punitive temporary creative synergy. Clusters of venues along streets closures of venues following complaints by 71 or in districts attract larger audiences. Among other neighbours.” music industry professionals, UK music promoter Some Parisians, the article says, believe that part Martin Elbourne asserts that venues and audiences of the solution lies in drawing more nightlife to should be clustered first and foremost in the the suburbs. Indeed, spreading music activity downtown core. “If you’re trying to create a vibrant throughout Paris is a stated priority of the city city, keep your musicians and your audience in the government’s music policies. Publicist Eric Labbé city,” Elbourne says. “Everyone talks about clusters told France 24, “We can no longer conceive of Paris because they work.” nightlife as exclusively within the city, which is the size of a postage stamp. In order to compete with Elbourne, author of the Reverb Report, which cities like London or Berlin, we need to be the same provided a roadmap for the South Australian size – which means Paris plus its surrounding areas.” Government to better support music development, However, improvements to public transport – a advocates making the centre strong first, and only function of government policy – are needed to make then looking at opportunities to establish music this achievable. venues in the suburbs. CHALLENGE: IS THE ECONOMIC MODEL OF Toronto is fortunate to have strong music clusters in SMALL VENUES BROKEN? its downtown core. As a next step, Mike Tanner, the City of Toronto’s Music Sector Development Officer, The precipitous decline in the number of small eyes the development of suburban music hubs so music venues in London, UK has raised alarm bells that audiences no longer have to travel across the among the city’s music community. As noted in city to enjoy live music. {70}

71 the section V. 1 above, the number of small clubs in London has dropped by one-quarter in just five years, from about 400 in 2010 to 340 today. In response, live music venues have banded together to form the Music Venues Alliance, a new trade body aimed at protecting live music venues in the UK. In a February 2, 2015 announcement, the Music Venues Trust called the Music Venues Alliance “the first significant response to the recent ICMP (Institute of Contemporary Music Performance) summary report ‘Understanding Small Venues’, which painted a picture of a UK live music venue circuit that is in a perilous and precarious state, facing an uncertain future at real risk despite the 72 passion of the people involved in it.” Slumping venue profit is the major reason for the decline, says Music Venue Trust CEO Mark Davyd. Squeezed disposable incomes, expensive noise abatement requirements, rising rents and other factors are behind this. “It’s not likely that we can run a small music venue as profitably as a pizza venue,” Davyd says. Despite this daunting challenge, there is a sense of mission behind the Alliance’s work. In a Jan. 21, 2015 Music Week article on the Alliance, Davyd remarked, “It is important to emphasize the role that these small venues play in the ecosystem of British music, providing the first performance platform for writers and musicians. This is the grassroots and bedrock of the UK music industry which creates thousands of jobs and is one of our biggest export earners. These venues are the research and 73 development department of that success.” The City of London, along with music associations representing live and recorded music, have all voiced support for the Alliance. In March 2015, the Mayor of London’s Music Venues Taskforce was formed, with Mark Davyd as Chair. Photo Credit: Berlin Clubcommission {71}

72 The Mastering of a Music City Chicago’s Fort Knox Studios MUSIC HUBS AND ACCELERATORS Fort Knox is a Chicago recording studio offering shared rehearsal space and 92 recording suites in a While music spaces are struggling in some cities, more than 130,000 square foot facility. The privately in other cities the public and private sectors are owned and operated facility, which first opened in working both separately and together to build new 2009, attracts as many as 200 musicians per day. opportunities for artists and music businesses. Fort Knox is all about collaboration, connecting music The offices of major labels in Toronto, for instance, industry professionals – sound and lighting crews, provide space for some of the independent labels website developers, photographers and others – with which they have distribution and marketing with talent. Just as importantly, it offers relatively low deals, providing an ideal way to share know-how and 75 costs, made possible by sharing space. “apprentice” indie label company executives. Music hubs and accelerators are emerging in a number of The City of Chicago’s Live Music Strategy: forms in cities around the world. Creating Music Hubs Nashville’s Project Music The City of Chicago has developed a live music strategy that focuses on cultivating music hubs and Project Music is a new music tech accelerator districts in different neighbourhoods. The approach created in partnership with the Nashville Entrepreneur identifies specific “scenes” or key venues in target Center and the Country Music Association, in neighbourhoods, and uses them as catalysts to create association with members of the Music City Music a music hub in the area, according to Dylan Rice, Council. The program began in January 2015 with Director of Creative Industries – Music, in Chicago’s eight start-up companies receiving US$30,000 in Department of Cultural Affairs and Special Events. seed money in exchange for 10 percent equity in the company. Google, Digital Entertainment Ventures Each music hub comprises a destination – venues, and other high profile music and entertainment music school, etc. – efficient transportation links and 74 companies are sponsoring the program. features such as restaurants and bars. The destination is mapped out, and tools and resources are provided to Adelaide’s St Paul’s Creative Centre entrepreneurs to show them where the opportunities are, and how to make use of them. For instance, Rice St Paul’s is a creative industries hub in the heart recently drafted the city’s first Venue Licensing Toolkit of Adelaide’s Central Business District. St Paul’s as a centralized roadmap to help start-ups navigate the is a 150 year old church which was also a former licence application process and ultimately streamline it. night club and function centre. This centre is now home to more than 15 music companies, including The approach is based on successful existing hubs, a registered training institute, South Australia’s among them the Old Town School of Folk Music in leading music industry body, Music SA, the state Chicago’s Lincoln Square area, which the city seeks to government’s Music Development Office, and replicate elsewhere. Musitec, which coordinates the centre. Musitec encourages emerging businesses to locate in St Paul’s, occupy “hot desks”, and book shared meeting spaces and function rooms. {72}

73 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing CASE STUDY: MEMPHIS MUSIC MAGNET Memphis Music Magnet is an innovative, arts-based Memphis Slim Collaboratory (commonly referred to neighbourhood revitalization project designed as “Slim House”) with high-quality rehearsal spaces “to make Soulsville USA a community of choice and recording facilities. It is a membership-based for musicians and other creatives,” according to facility designed to incent emerging artists from the Tsedey Betru, Vice President, Community LIFT. As it region to take up residency in the neighbourhood. develops, it aims to provide: For just US$75/year, members are entitled to eight hours of studio time each month with a professional Targeted homeownership incentives and • sound engineer. The initiative includes plans to housing programs; create artist residency opportunities at Slim House • Place-based neighborhood amenities achieved as well. The goal is to secure 50 members by the through the restoration and reuse of empty, but end of this year and 100 by the end of 2016. historically significant, buildings; and Programmatic community enhancements to • “Having strong partnerships with city leaders and attract activity to the neighborhood. other organizations making investments in the neighborhood is a necessary pre-condition to In 2012, Memphis Music Magnet acquired the successful redevelopment,” says Betru, adding birth home of the late, great blues pianist Memphis that once one cultural project is underway, she is Slim. The property has been developed into the confident it will stimulate many others. BEFORE AFTER Photo Credit: Community LIFT {73}

74 The Mastering of a Music City children and young people. Helsinki’s Cultural MUSIC EDUCATION Director, Stuba Nikula, explains that it is “in their INSTITUTIONS AND DNA” to enrol Finnish children in music training, PROGRAMMING mostly in the classical tradition. This musical foundation helps raise the quality of the pop and Music education is an important component of rock scene as well, Nikula says. “The punk bands Music Cities, as noted in the Key Elements section. here don’t sound like shit, because they know how Whether at the primary, secondary or post- to tune their instruments!” he remarks. secondary levels, music education provides a wide range of benefits. For this reason, music education Music education has received renewed focus under spaces are another significant part of a Music City’s the current political leadership in Bogotá. Juan Luis infrastructure. Restrepo explains that 20 years ago, arts education ceased to be a compulsory area in individual Some countries and cities, recognizing the benefits, schools’ curriculum, resulting in the loss of a large place considerable emphasis on music education. number of music and art teachers in public schools. Sweden’s commitment in this area is often held up Mayor Gustavo Francisco Petro Urrego made it as a model for other countries. The city provides a priority to put music and arts back into public music programs to school children of all ages, education. Thanks to this policy, today 100,000 according to Michael Blair of Stockholm’s The students in public schools study music. Post- House of Songs and Scorpio Music Production. secondary music education has also blossomed in the past few decades, from two programs in the Municipalities and states in Finland also have a 1980s to 11 today. strong tradition of funding music education for RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Conduct an inventory of existing rehearsal spaces, recording studios and live music venues, noting their capacity, primary uses, licensing conditions, cost to access, quality of sound and lighting, and accessibility to transportation and parking. 2. Based on the inventory, identify gaps in the venue ladder and other spaces and identify potential public and private partners, as well as underutilized buildings that may be repurposed to fill the gaps identified. 3. Clusters, hubs and accelerators in their many forms can make efficient use of resources and expertise, while establishing an environment where artists are nurtured and respected. Investigate the opportunity for projects in your community. {74}

75 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing SECTION V. 6 Audience Development : Building the Fan Base {75}

76 The Mastering of a Music City receptive and engaged Canada cited the “young, affluent audience” and the audience is essential to a Music “highest per capita cultural spending” in Canada, as 76 City’s success. The audience a key advantage. is inextricably linked to the Audience development must begin long before diversity and depth of the music young people reach university age. Tomorrow’s being created and the quality of A music fans are developing their entertainment the places where it is performed. tastes today. Stuba Nikula, Helsinki’s Cultural Director, remarks on the consequences of the Don Pitts, Austin’s Music Program Manager, gives failure of his country’s music industry to keep the audience equal billing with government and up with young people’s changing entertainment industry for his city’s music success: “Austin’s preferences: “The biggest challenge in Helsinki renown as a Music City can be attributed to the is the lack of teenagers who are interested in efforts of a diligent music industry, a responsive live music. Kids are using their time and money local government and a supportive community of somewhere else.” In Helsinki’s case, Nikula suggests music patrons. All parts have contributed.” that the scarcity of all-ages events is a contributing A variety of factors affect the development of factor. a receptive and engaged audience. Section V. Martin Elbourne confronted this issue in the Reverb 1 addresses some of these factors including Report with a recommendation for the subsidization government policies around hours of operation, of under-age events. He explains that under-age venue licensing, liquor licensing and land use shows are often not profitable for promoters and planning such as, designated cultural zones. Other venues because they don’t generate alcohol sales. key factors are outlined below. Therefore, there is less incentive to produce shows Engaging Youth for a younger audience. Cities such as Toronto, Adelaide, Austin and Berlin The payoff from exposing young people to music point to their large student populations as helpful cannot be underestimated, Elbourne says. “Seeing factors in generating engaged audiences. A great bands ... in a great venue helps get youth recently released strategy for music in Alberta, excited about live music and makes it more likely “Austin is a university town, making the average age in Austin (relatively) low. Those people are more likely to go out and enjoy music.” Jennifer Houlihan, Austin Music People, Austin {76}

77 that they will have a lifetime of engagement with 77 music and potentially the broader industry.” In response to Elbourne’s report, Adelaide’s 2014-16 Live Music Action Plan contains several recommendations aimed at supporting audience development. The recommendations largely focus on featuring South Australian artists at city events and festivals. Although it stops short of advocating the subsidization of all-ages events, the Action Plan recommends tying the Live Music Strategy into funding from sponsorship, grants and community 78 development programs. Music education programs also help to create a lifelong relationship with music, as described in the previous chapter. ACCESS Audiences need easy access to live music events. Beyond the availability of a range of events, which has been addressed previously in this report, music fans must also have access to information on the events taking place, and convenient ways to get to and from them. Promotion Andrew Vincent, a musician in Ottawa and author of Connecting Ottawa Music , points to the absence of a weekly local publication listing music events as a major challenge for his city’s music community. Bogotá faces a similar problem, according to Juan Luis Restrepo of the City’s Department of Culture, Recreation and Sports. “With music, you never know what is happening,” Restrepo says. “You have to swim underwater a little to find information from social networks.” To address this problem, Bogotá’s Arts Institute has developed a website to coordinate online promotion of live music. MTV World Stage, Gothenburg, Photo Credit: Beatrice Tornros {77}

78 The Mastering of a Music City Music Cities are increasingly utilizing social media The benefits of expanding the availability of and mobile apps to connect fans with local music. convenient, accessible transportation alternatives is Cities such as Nashville, Austin and Melbourne why Austin Music People lobbied the city in support provide free mobile apps for accessing live music- of Uber, the fast-growing mobile app-based ride related information including concert calendars, sharing service, as well as other transportation venue locations and in some cases, music-friendly networking companies. Knowing that Uber has accommodations. In Canada, the province of come into conflict with traditional taxi services and Ontario, as part of a Live Music Strategy, has funded existing taxi regulations in many cities, Austin Music 79 and app for all the creation of a live music portal People spoke up to help it gain City Hall’s approval. live music events of every genre. These apps are Live Nation, the world’s largest promoter, has a also promoted by tourism agencies so that music strategic partnership with Uber to provide fast and tourists can plan their visit before leaving home. efficient transportation for concert patrons. As reported in Digital Trends, Uber pick-up and drop-off Attracting the attention of the world’s press is often zones will be available at participating Live Nation 80 identified as key to audience development. In venues. Gothenburg, Sweden, journalists from around the In Australia, Music Victoria includes safe world are invited to attend – and report on – larger transportation in its Best Practice Live Music events and festivals. Stockholm has leveraged the Guidelines. The guidelines provide venue owners Polar Music Prize to gain worldwide media attention and promoters with information about public transit as a leading Music City, according to House of and taxis, and underlines their responsibility for their Songs/Scorpio Music Production’s Michael Blair. 81 patrons’ safety. “The Polar Music Prize ... has grown to become the most prestigious music award in the world. On a larger scale, easy access by air travel is In addition to the main ceremony in Stockholm important to establishing a Music City as a in June, there will be an event soon in New York destination for touring artists as well as music discussing the role of Sweden with international tourists. London’s Heathrow Airport recently music successes. These events have attracted identified the volume of travel by artists, who media around the world and focus on Stockholm’s transport 90% of their equipment on regularly position as a major music city.” scheduled commercial flights, as an argument for 82 airport expansion. Transportation The airports in Austin, Melbourne and Seattle The ease of getting to and from venues is also critical are not only transportation hubs, but are also to audience development. This relates directly to literally music hubs. In each of these airports, the larger infrastructure and transportation issues local musicians perform in front of audiences discussed earlier in this report. In places such as of national and international travellers as they Birmingham, according to Tom Kiehl of UK Music, it is pass through. In Seattle alone, the trial program difficult for the city’s large student population to attend generated US$259,000 for the artists from wages, music events. Getting to the gig at 7 p.m. is easy. tips and merchandise. The program’s success However, buses don’t run late enough for concert- guaranteed its continuation for another three years. goers to return home when the event wraps up. {78}

79 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Seattle’s airport even permitted the opening of an audience support for local artists. It can be hard for 83 independent label-run record store. lesser-known, homegrown talent to get attention in an interconnected, media-saturated world Proximity to Other Markets where global superstars dominate the airwaves. Stockholm’s Michael Blair explains that local Silvia Di Donato, Kitchener’s Manager of Arts and consumers there are “super mega-trend conscious Culture, acknowledges that Kitchener’s close and show a lack of enthusiasm for unknown acts proximity to Toronto, which offers entertainment and artists.” options on an international scale, poses a challenge for her audience development in her city. For local South Africa faces a similar problem, according audiences, those options are easily accessed. The to Andre Le Roux, Managing Director of SAMRO flip side is that a medium-sized city like Kitchener Foundation. “The stadiums are for international offers affordability and a high quality of life to artists artists, and people will pay big money. But for small who are starting and expanding their careers, venues with South African artists, it’s hard to get says Di Donato. The city is taking action to drive people to pay. We need to start building a local its live music sector and support local audience music culture.” development through its “Music Works” strategy, which supports large scale music festivals and In response to these challenges, SAMRO emerging artist events. Foundation has launched Concerts SA in partnership with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Proximity to other Music Cities can also be helpful, Affairs. Concerts SA is an innovative initiative that as it creates the opportunity for a touring circuit. brings music showcases and workshops to schools Helsinki’s Nikula Stuba points out that Helsinki and venues in rural areas, creating opportunities is a three-day detour for touring artists unless for artists and building long-term audience bands stop in Finland on the way to or from Russia. development by focusing on youth. Students in rural However, he expects that current geopolitical South Africa have typically never even seen music events undermining Russia’s attractiveness as a instruments before, says Le Roux. touring destination are likely to have a negative impact on his city. Concerts SA also subsidizes 23 venues in three large cities and smaller centres as part of the CHALLENGE: DEVELOPING AUDIENCE program to develop sustainable performance APPRECIATION FOR LOCAL PERFORMERS spaces, thereby fuelling both audience and artist development. Cities as far afield as Stockholm, Kuala Lumpur, Adelaide and Johannesburg cite challenges gaining Sansikane Primary School, Kwa-Zulu WorldMusic Event, King Kong, Johannesburg, Gauteng. {79} Natal, Photo Credit: Vulane Mthembu Photo Credit: Christine Msibi

80 The Mastering of a Music City CASE STUDY: MALAYSIA While Kuala Lumpur has a strong small club music Inevitably, artists fall into line with audience demand scene featuring local artists, most of the music for the hits. they play is cover tunes of foreign superstars. This reflects the reality that local audiences want to hear Compounding this challenge is religious the familiar songs played on radio and the Internet; conservatism, especially in rural areas, that results in that means top global hits from the U.S., Europe and the barring of a few foreign artists from performing other, mainly Western, nations. in Malaysia. This channels even more audience attention to shows by the big-name foreign artists “For foreign artists, audiences here will pay $300, who are permitted to play. but for local artists they have a problem paying $30,” says Norman Abdul Halim, Executive President, “We have a very open policy on the Internet and KRU Studios, Cyberjaya, Malaysia. Moreover, many people here are exposed to foreign movies, TV and Malaysian artists today produce a limited number of music,” Halim says. “The challenge is to get public singles, and therefore don’t have enough repertoire acceptance for what goes on stage especially in the to put on a show with their own music only – further East Coast of Malaysia.” limiting audience development for local music. AIM21, Malaysia, Performers: Haiza, Ramlah Ram, Sheeda, Photo Credit: Recording Industry Association of Malaysia {80}

81 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Live music strategies should include specific goals to expand access to all ages events and facilities. 2. Joint marketing of live music events should be coordinated by music associations, cities or tourism agencies, to ensure information on the full breadth of available options is available to music fans. 3. Transportation planning must take into account the “night economy” in order to facilitate access both to and from live music events. The importance of international travel should also be considered when planning for airports and routes. 4. Artist mobility should be enhanced in order to expose remote or segregated communities to a variety of music for its social and cultural benefits. Way out West festival, Gothenburg, Photo Credit: Beatrice Tornros {81}

82 The Mastering of a Music City SECTION V. 7 Music Tourism : Creates Bonus Tracks {82}

83 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing he worldwide growth in tourism any given day, says the city’s Cultural Director, has spawned intensified Stuba Nikula. Melbourne, with 370 hotels, bars, competition for tourist dollars. nightclubs and restaurants featuring live music, 84 More and more cities are is a magnet for music fans; Music festivals such as Bogotá, Colombia’s • leveraging their music scene to “Rock al Parque,” Austin, Texas’s SXSW, Indio, draw visitors and the economic T California’s Coachella, Barcelona’s Sonar and benefits they bring. Budapest’s Sziget are go-to events for many thousands of visitors, many from distant The benefits of music tourism are outlined in countries. section IV of this report. In summary, the main benefits are: CHALLENGES TO Revenue from concert and festival tickets, • DEVELOPING MUSIC merchandise, hotels, restaurants, and other TOURISM spinoffs; • Job creation – hotels, restaurants, venues and Measurement other places where tourists spend money need staff to meet the demand; and More needs to be done to carve out the impact of Building a city’s brand by leveraging its musical • commercial music within tourism data. Commercial heritage or music scene. music statistics are typically not distinguished from the general arts, culture and leisure sectors, INVENTORY OF making it difficult to make the case for music A CITY’S MUSIC tourism promotion and to develop well-targeted TOURISM ASSETS strategies. Yet, cultural tourists have been found to stay longer and spend more than other tourists, 85 The first step in developing a music tourism strategy In recent making them a lucrative target group. is to identify a city’s unique music assets. These years, the UK has been at the forefront of reporting the impact of music tourism on its economy. With may include music heritage, a live music scene and/ this data, the UK has been able to identify gaps or festivals: and create opportunities to encourage further Music heritage sites such as Memphis’s Graceland tourism-related economic development. In the UK and The Beatles’ homes in Liverpool can be major Music report, “Imagine”, it was estimated that music tourist draws; heritage alone could be worth more than £4bn if 86 more cities matched Liverpool’s performance. • Live music venues can attract large numbers Both Melbourne and Austin have also measured of visitors throughout the year. Cities with the the tourism impact of commercial music on their most vibrant music scenes, from small local communities and have used this information to clubs to huge concerts, get on the radar of successfully advocate for favourable policy reforms music fans. Helsinki, Finland, for example, for live music venues. offers about 10 different live music events on {83}

84 The Mastering of a Music City Authenticity MUSIC TOURISM OPPORTUNITIES One of the key challenges with music tourism is ensuring that commercial promotion of a city’s Multi-City Alliances musical assets does not devalue those assets by making them appear contrived or inauthentic. Some cities have joined together in strategic Music scenes are rooted in artists, and much of partnerships to create opportunities to promote their attraction stems from that. Inappropriate music tourism. Cologne and Istanbul have had a use of music as a promotional tool can erode longstanding alliance that recently added music to that perception. Conversely, successful tourism its mandate. In 2014, the two cities held electronic strategies build on an authentic product, whether music festivals that featured musicians from both music or otherwise. Lutz Leichsenring of Berlin’s places. A pair of cities steeped in musical heritage, Clubcommission notes that music is one of the Memphis and Liverpool, became sister cities in most important industries in Berlin, in part because 2004. Since then the cities have mounted co- it drives tourism. Yet, until recently there was very curated exhibitions featuring their music icons. little engagement of the music industry by tourism For example, “Elvis and Us” chronicled the impact agencies. “Tourism marketing people were selling of Elvis and The Beatles on contemporary music, the music scene without talking to the people as well as the day the artists met in 1965. The within it,” Leichsenring says. Recently, however, exhibition ran for three years, until August 2014, and representatives from the music industry were invited attracted well over 150,000 visitors. to help influence the direction of a film screening about Berlin’s club scene in São Paulo, Brazil. This Branding Initiatives resulted in a more authentic product, according to Leichsenring. One of the key opportunities for music tourism is the development of an authentic music brand Gentrification that helps put a city on the tourist map. In Bogotá, the City of Music began as a branding exercise, Gentrification is one of the biggest threats to music notes Juan Luis Restrepo of the city’s Department tourism. A growing urban population puts pressure of Culture, Recreation and Sport. This came on land use planning, as has been described in about when the marketing company charged with other chapters. In many areas, redevelopment has identifying Bogotá’s story pointed out that Bogotá is led to the closure of iconic venues – even some a city of music and culture. world famous ones – that draw tourists. This has a two-fold negative impact. First, it threatens to A handful of cities specifically express their music eliminate key differentiators that help a city stand story through a brand. Memphis’s tourism website out. Second, it reduces the spaces available for proclaims the city as “The Home of Rock n’ Roll/ performance, impacting the overall level of live Birthplace of the Blues”; the city is also known music activity. {84}

85 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing as “Soulsville USA,” based on legendary soul producing compilations, and programming music music studio, Stax Records. Music leaders have for conventions. The Bureau produces in-depth 88 87 and Toronto initiated branding in Melbourne information on the city’s music scene with branded with Melbourne Music City and 4479 Toronto radio stations, TV and social media highlighting local respectively. musicians. The city is also well-known among music fans worldwide for producing some of the world’s Few cities have leveraged their music branding to largest and best-known music festivals and offers draw tourists as effectively as Austin, the self- year-round shows in its 270 live music venues. proclaimed “Live Music Capital of the World.” The Austin Convention and Visitor’s Bureau (ACVB) has Melbourne and Seattle, like Austin, have launched consistently marketed the city’s unique cultural music branding strategies in their airports where brand for over 20 years, using innovative programs. local musicians perform in front of national and As an example, the ACVB Music & Film office international visitors. From virtually the moment actively markets Austin as a convention destination visitors step off their plane, music is placed front based on its live music scene, taking musicians and centre before them. on the road to land new convention business, Fun Fun Fun Fest, Austin, Texas, Photo Credit: Jackie Lee Young {85}

86 The Mastering of a Music City CASE STUDY: NASHVILLE In 2014, Nashville – “Music City” – welcomed more, features a radio station with local than 13mn visitors who contributed over US$5bn artists and a wayfinding app for tourists connecting 89 The name in revenue and supported 50,000 jobs. them to the live music scene. The Music City brand “music city” was coined in the 1800s by the Queen has also been featured overseas in a campaign that 91 of England and today is reinforced by the city’s wrapped London taxis with the Music City logo. Brand Promise: “The Promise of Nashville, where the The Music City brand was further enhanced by the music is inspired, created, recorded and performed, Tennessee Department of Tourist Development, is to provide the ultimate musical entertainment which used it in a 2014 campaign to become a experience, celebrated throughout our diverse “Top 10 market among state destinations”. The cultural and entertainment offerings, and presented campaign, called “Made in Tennessee”, featured in an authentic, unique, friendly and unpretentious TV commercials, online and prints ads, social atmosphere.” media and a branded website extolling the “rich musical heritage, history and present day offerings.” The campaign has been strongly supported by the The campaign was also linked to the TV show Convention and Visitors Corporation, which uses “Nashville,” which highlights local music and venues. the city’s music note logo on buildings such as the The show’s popularity has garnered international visitor centre and convention center, souvenir items 90 In addition, coloured interest in the city, with music at the forefront. The and promotional materials. guitar pick signs, which have been featured on Made in Tennessee website leans heavily on music, national television programs such as The Voice and featuring not only Nashville but also the Bonnaroo American Idol, indicate different genres of music music festival and sites made famous by the Blues 92 venues within the city. The city’s tourism website, Trail outside of Memphis. Left: Jack Daniel’s New Year’s Eve Bash on Broadway, Lady Antebellum performing Photos Credit: Nashville Convention & Visitors Corporation {86}

87 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Together, the music community, city and tourism officials should identify the available music tourism assets including music heritage sites, live venues and festivals, and initiate policies and programs that support their continued operation and growth. 2. A Music City brand should be developed with the involvement of tourism experts in conjunction with the local music community, in order to ensure its authenticity. 3. Music tourism should be defined as a distinct category in tourism impact studies, in order to better identify music-specific opportunities and challenges. {87}

88 The Mastering of a Music City SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS: Government Policy: Music-Friendly Policies 1. Government departments responsible for liquor licensing, business licensing and other public safety measures, should work with the music community to identify compliance issues that restrict business growth in an effort to identify mutually-beneficial solutions. 2. Transportation planning and parking zones should take into account the needs of existing and developing music business clusters for efficient access. This should include short-term, reserved parking spots for active loading and unloading. 3. Land use planning should take into account culturally significant sites and zones to protect their ongoing viability, recognizing that these are often the assets that make neighbourhoods attractive to additional investment. Developers should be required to take into account these existing sites as part of the planning process, coordinate their activities with all relevant city departments, and inform future purchasers about the presence of music venues and clusters. 4. Music communities should explore the viability of historical designation or cultural zone designation to bring awareness to the value of individual sites and zones. 5. The Agent of Change principle (see page 42) should be explored in areas where there is already a significant number of live music venues. Government Policy: Musician-Friendly Policies 6. Conduct a needs assessment of your community of musicians, singers, songwriters and producers in order to identify policies that can help them succeed along with key challenges and obstacles to pursuing music as a vocation. 7. Inventory the music professionals and businesses available to support artists in their careers including managers, agents and labels. 8. Based on these assessments, identify the priority needs and opportunities. These may require financial support, infrastructure spending, training or programs in other areas. 9. Identify key public and private sector players who can help deliver programs to meet the identified needs and priorities. {88}

89 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Music Office or Officer 10. Establish a single point of contact – whether an individual or team – for the music industry within City Hall mandated to: a. Help the music community navigate relevant city government departments and policies; b. Lead the city’s music strategy or lead the development of a strategy if one does not exist; c. Liaise with the volunteer music advisory board or commission; d. Help other city employees, agencies and elected officials understand the issues facing the music sector; and e. Mediate between the music community and other community groups in order to resolve conflicts. 11. Music should be recognized as a commercial industry, and therefore the officer should be housed in a department focused on economic development. 12. Ensure the person hired as a music officer has direct experience in a creative industry, preferably music. 13. Engage the broader music community to continuously promote the importance of the music officer/office to ensure sustainability and continued funding. Music Advisory Boards 14. Establish a music advisory board representing a cross-section of the music community and key decision makers in agencies that have an impact on music (e.g. tourism agencies). 15. Enlist the involvement of music industry representatives with larger networks to facilitate two-way communication with government. 16. Governments should utilize the music advisory board as a sounding board for legislation, policies and programs, providing members with ample opportunity to study the issues and engage their networks to provide feedback and ideas. Engaging the Broader Music Community 17. Create opportunities for networking, mentoring and education in order to build relationships and trust within the music community. 18. Seek consensus on common issues that will deliver broad benefits across the sector. 19. Address issues of conflict and competition behind closed doors in order to present a united front; where consensus cannot be achieved on an issue, do not bring it forward. {89}

90 The Mastering of a Music City 20. When crisis occurs, use the situation to build support for sustainable music advocacy organizations and sustained engagement. 21. Develop strong relationships with elected officials at all levels of government, and of all political stripes to help overcome bureaucratic inertia. Spaces and Places 22. Conduct an inventory of existing rehearsal spaces, recording studios and live music venues, noting their capacity, primary uses, licensing conditions, cost to access, quality of sound and lighting, and accessibility to transportation and parking. 23. Based on the inventory, identify gaps in the venue ladder and other music spaces, and identify potential public and private partners, as well as underutilized buildings that may be repurposed to fill the gaps identified. 24. Clusters, hubs and accelerators in their many forms can make efficient use of resources and expertise, while establishing an environment where artists are nurtured and respected. Investigate the opportunity for projects in your community. Audience Development 25. Live music strategies should include specific goals to expand access to all ages events and facilities. 26. Joint marketing of live music events should be coordinated by music associations, cities or tourism agencies, to ensure information on the full breadth of available options is available music fans. 27. Transportation planning must take into account the night economy in order facilitate access both to and from live music events. 28. Artist mobility should be enhanced in order to expose remote or segregated communities to a variety of music for its social and cultural benefits. Music Tourism 29. Together, the music community, city and tourism officials should identify the available music tourism assets including music heritage sites, live venues and festivals, and initiate policies and programs that support their continued operation and growth. 30. A Music City brand should be developed with the involvement of tourism experts in conjunction with the local music community, in order to ensure its authenticity. 31. Music tourism should be defined as a distinct category in tourism impact studies, in order to better identify music-specific opportunities and challenges. {90}

91 Hip Hop al Parcque, Photo Credit: Invest in Bogotá Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing {91}

92 The Mastering of a Music City SECTION VI Conclusions {92}

93 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing here is growing recognition of Music Cities around the world can also benefit music as a transformative power, by working together. During the research for this not only as a cultural staple, but report, it became clear that there is a great deal also as an economic driver for of interest in sharing best practices. Reports like cities. The outsized impact of this one are intended to facilitate that, as are many music on both the lifestyle and of the music conferences that take place around T economic fortunes of places the world. Similarly, there is an eagerness among like Austin and Melbourne has become a beacon music community members to share knowledge for other cities. Artists and businesses in the music and build a dialogue – an aspiration that came to industry, after more than a decade of difficult the forefront during focus groups for the report. adjustment to the digital revolution, are eager to With organization and a willing host, this could be seize – and share – the opportunities. facilitated on a larger scale. Boosting the music economy brings multiple This spirit of sharing and cooperation, in dividends to communities, from advancing artistic combination with well thought out strategies, gives and cultural growth, to generating substantial hope that many more Seattles, Berlins and Bogotas economic impacts from job creation and music – Music Cities – will take root all over the world. tourism spending, thereby increasing GDP. A vibrant music economy creates the quality of life that makes people want to live and work in a Music City, giving these communities an added edge in business attraction and retention. The proven strategies outlined in this report can help communities of all sizes seize the opportunities offered by music. To do so, members of the music community, government and larger business community should all get involved. Together, they can develop a plan that builds on existing assets and overcomes areas of challenge and friction. {93}

94 The Mastering of a Music City SECTION VII Credits {94}

95 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Music and Tourism. A native of Toronto, Roxanne is ABOUT THE passionate about the city and the diverse spectrum AUTHORS of music it has to offer. is Vice President Public Affairs AMY TERRILL Numerous community and music leaders from at Music Canada where she is responsible for around the world made this report possible through government relations, communications and public a generous contribution of their time, ideas, insights relations. Amy has been instrumental in Music and expertise. Below is a list of those individuals Canada’s efforts to unite a broad coalition of and their affiliations. industry members in Ontario in a bid to promote live Norman Abdul Halim, KRU Studios, Malaysia performance, music tourism and Toronto as a music city. She has also led the organization’s research Kate Becker, Director, Office of Film and Music, City of activities since 2010 which have included the Seattle The Next Big Bang – A New Direction publication of for Music in Canada, Accelerating Toronto’s Music Tsedey Betru, Vice President, Community LIFT, Memphis Industry Growth - Leveraging Best Practices from Austin Texas, Fertile Ground - Alberta Music Cities Michael Blair, The House of Songs and Scorpio Music Initiative and Economic Impact Analysis of the Production, Stockholm . Sound Recording Industry in Canada Hannah Brooks, Business Advisor, City of Melbourne is a communications consultant DON HOGARTH with more than 20 years of experience in public Jennifer Carlat, M.P.P, AICP Special Projects Director, relations and print journalism. Don has extensive Metro Nashville/Davidson County Planning Department consulting experience in the music industry, including with Music Canada. His work there Bradley Collins, Senior Director Writer/Publisher Relations, has included contributions to several initiatives, Broadcast Music Inc. (BMI), Nashville among them copyright reform, the organization’s The Next rebranding, and the 2013 research report, Damian Cunningham, Director, Live Music Office, Sydney Big Bang – A New Direction for Music in Canada . Mark Davyd, Music Venue Trust, United Kingdom ALEX CLEMENT (Research Assistant) is a graduate of the University of Toronto’s School of Public Silvia Di Donato, Manager, Arts and Culture, City of Policy and Governance. Alex has worked with Music Kitchener Canada on their Music City initiatives and has been active in Music Canada’s efforts to promote and Gareth Donal Gordon, Bogotá Chamber of Commerce, recognize Toronto’s potential as a Music City. Bogotá (Research Assistant) has ROXANNE FRANCIS Patrick Donovan, CEO, Music Victoria, Melbourne worked in the Arts and Entertainment industry for most of her career. She is a graduate of the Music Martin Elbourne, UK Music Promoter and Author of Reverb Business Management Program from the University Report on City of Adelaide of Westminster where she focused her studies on {95}

96 The Mastering of a Music City Bobby Garza, General Manager, Transmission Events, Mary MacDonald, Heritage Preservation Services, City of Toronto Austin David Melo, Marketing Manager, Invest Bogotá Andrea Goetzke, Cultural Producer, Berlin Miranda Mulholland, Musician, Toronto David Grice, Managing Director, Musitec, Adelaide Bill Harvey, co-founder, NY is Music, New York City Chris R. Parham, Nashville Mayor’s Office of Economic and Community Development Emmanuelle Hébert, Department of Culture, City of Montreal Don Pitts, Music Program Manager, City of Austin David Porter, President/Founder, The Consortium MMT, Graham Henderson, Music Canada, Toronto Memphis Bart Herbison, Executive Director, Nashville Songwriters Association International, Nashville Dylan Rice, Director of Creative Industries – Music, Department of Cultural Affairs and Special Events, City of Chicago Jennifer Houlihan, Executive Director, Austin Music People, Austin Shain Shapiro, Managing Director, Sound Diplomacy, London, UK Ian James, Managing Director, Mushroom Music Publishing, Melbourne Fredrik Sandsten, Event Manager Music, Göteborg&Co, Till Kniola, Referent für Popkultur und Filmkultur (Pop and Gothenburg Film Culture Representative), Culture Department, City of Butch Spyridon, President and CEO, Nashville Convention Cologne and Visitors Corporation, Nashville Andre Le Roux, SAMRO Foundation, South Africa Nikula Stuba, Cultural Director, City of Helsinki Lutz Leichsenring, Clubcommission, Berlin Mike Tanner, Music Sector Development Officer, City of Toronto Tom Kiehl, Director of Government and Public Affairs, UK Music, London Andrew Vincent, Musician, Ottawa Johnnie Walker, Executive Director, Memphis Music Hank Locklin, Senior Advisor of the Music and Commission Entertainment Industry for the State of Tennessee, Tennessee Film, Entertainment and Music Commission, John Wardle, Director, Live Music Office, Sydney Nashville Katja Lucker, CEO, the Musicboard Berlin GmbH, Berlin Juan Luis Restrepo, Department of Culture, Recreation and Sport, City of Bogotá {96}

97 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing Additionally, some of the above contributors We wish to thank the many people who gave participated in one of two international focus willingly of their time and ideas in the research for groups. this report. The enthusiasm with which the focus groups were approached, in particular, suggests Focus Group 1 – February 2, 2015 that there is a great deal of interest in further exchange of ideas and best practices in Music Patrick Donovan, CEO, Music Victoria, Melbourne Cities around the world. David Grice, Managing Director, Musitec, Adelaide Juan Luis Restrepo, Department of Culture, Recreation and Sport, City of Bogotá Butch Spyridon, President and CEO, Nashville Convention and Visitors Corporation, Nashville John Wardle, Director, Live Music Office, Sydney Focus Group 2 – February 3, 2015 Silvia Di Donato, Manager, Arts and Culture, City of Kitchener Bobby Garza, General Manager, Transmission Events, Austin Graham Henderson, President, Music Canada, Toronto Jennifer Houlihan, Executive Director, Austin Music People, Austin Andre Le Roux, SAMRO Foundation, South Africa Ignacio Priego, Concerts SA, South Africa Shain Shapiro, Sound Diplomacy, United Kingdom Andrea Goetzke, Cultural Producer, Berlin The focus group sessions were led by consultant Erik Lockhart of Queen’s University in Kingston, Canada to whom we are grateful for his moderation. Participants joined both sessions by phone and online. The focus groups helped verify our initial findings, identify gaps, and rank the following: the benefits accrued to cities with music-friendly and musician-friendly policies; the fundamental building blocks or assets for a music city; and, the most effective music strategies. {97}

98 The Mastering of a Music City REFERENCES 1 Music Canada, “Accelerating Toronto’s Music Industry Growth – Leveraging Best Practices from Austin, Texas,” March 2012. Available at: Toronto%E2%80%99s-Music-Industry-Growth-%E2%80%93-Leveraging-Best-Practices-from-Austin- Texas.pdf 2 Dr. Garrett Harper and Chris Cotton, Nashville Music Industry: Impact, Assessment and Cluster Analysis, Nashville Chamber of Commerce Research Center, 2013, pg. 12. Available at: http://www.nashvillechamber. com/docs/default-source/research-center-studies/nashville-music-industry-study.pdf 3 Planning and Environment, NSW Government. Available at: 4 John Wardle, Wollongong Live Music Taskforce Report, January 2014. 5 Laura Lewis Brown, “The Benefits of Music Education,” Available at: 6 UK Music, Measuring Music, September 2014, pg. 12-13. Available at: general/UK_MUSIC_Measuring_Music_September_2014.pdf 7 Dr. Garrett Harper and Chris Cotton, Nashville Music Industry: Impact, Assessment and Cluster Analysis, Nashville Chamber of Commerce Research Center, 2013, pg. 17. Available at: http://www.nashvillechamber. com/docs/default-source/research-center-studies/nashville-music-industry-study.pdf 8 Victorian Live Music Census 2012, Music Victoria and City of Melbourne. Available at: www.musicvictoria. 9 TXP, Inc., The Economic Impact of the Creative Sector in Austin – 2012 Update, Austin, Texas pg. 1. 10 Dan Solomon, “SXSW’s Economic Impact On Austin In 2014 Was Worth $315 Million,” Texas Monthly, September 12, 2014. Available at: 2014-was-worth-315-million 11 Ibid. {98}

99 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing 12 UK Music, “Wish You Were Here: Music Tourism’s Contribution to the UK Economy,” October 2013, pg. 5. Available at: 13 Hannah Ellis-Petersen, “24 comes to London as tax break lures big-budget television shows to Britain,” The Guardian, May 2, 2014. Available at: london-tax-relief 14 Liverpool City Region Local Enterprise Partnership. Available at: economy.aspx 15 Nashville Convention and Visitors Corporation. Available at: 16 Grand Ole Opry. Available at: 17 Memphis Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, Memphis & Shelby County Economic Tourism Impact Report, 2013, pg. 2. Available at: pdf 18 “Graceland, Elvis Presley’s home, marks 30th year as tourist destination,” Daily News, June13, 2012. Available at: 30th-year-tourist-destination-article-1.1094806 19 Destination Melbourne, Facts and Figures. Available at: research 20 Invest in Bogota, “Bogota, recognized by UNESCO as a City of Music, celebrated the 20th anniversary of the largest rock festival in Latin America with its best show ever,” August 22, 2014. Available at 21 Lewis Lazare, “Headliner Eminem upstaged at 2014 Lollapalooza,” Chicago Business Journal, August 5, 2014. Available at 2014lollapalooza.html 22 See the ReeperBahn Festival webpage. Available at: 23 Normandy Madden, “Coke Takes Marketing Cues from South Korea’s Popular Culture”, Advertising Age, August 8, 2014. Available at: marketing-cues-south-korea-s-popular-culture/294503/ 24 Joanna Tweedy, “South Korea records best ever year for tourism in 2012,” The Daily Mail Online, March 2, 2015. Available at: Korea.html#ixzz3Sygjy7C1 {99}

100 The Mastering of a Music City 25 The Rise of the Creative Class, Richard Florida, Washington Monthly, May 2002. Available at: http://www. 26 Dr. Garrett Harper and Chris Cotton, Nashville Music Industry: Impact, Assessment and Cluster Analysis, Nashville Chamber of Commerce Research Center, 2013, pg. 77. Available at: http://www.nashvillechamber. com/docs/default-source/research-center-studies/nashville-music-industry-study.pdf 27 Patricia Clarembaux, “In Venezuela, music provides hope for impoverished youth,” UNDP. Available at: http:// music_orchestras_impoverished_youth/ 28 El Sistema USA. Available at: 29 UNESCO Creative Cities Network in Music, Executive Summary – Bogota’s Candidature, pg. 16. 30 South Australia Live Music Office. Available at: 31 Martin Elbourne, Reverb – Adelaide’s Live Music Movement, The Future of Live Music in South Australia, 2013, pg. 113. 32 South Australia Live Music Office. Available at: 33 Government of New South Wales, “Bringing Back the Music: Planning for Entertainment Guidelines,” October 2009. Available at: Entertainment_guidelines.pdf 34 Government of the United Kingdom, Department of Culture, Media, and Sport, “Entertainment Licensing: Changes under the Live Music Act”. February 2013. Available at: changes-under-the-live-music-act 35 Music Canada, “Accelerating Toronto’s Music Industry Growth – Leveraging Best Practices from Austin, Texas,” March 2012, pg. 26. Available at: Toronto%E2%80%99s-Music-Industry-Growth-%E2%80%93-Leveraging-Best-Practices-from-Austin- Texas.pdf 36 Marc Burrows, “Why London’s music scene has been rocked by the death of Denmark Street,” The Guardian, January 2015. Available at: denmark-street-tin-pan-alley 37 Adelaide City Council Live Action Plan, 2014-2016, August 2014. Available at: {100}

101 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing 38 Andrew Hawkins, “Council aims for industrial growth through zoning,” Crain’s New York Business, November 2014. Available at: industrial-growth-through-zoning 39 Richard Fausset,”As Music Row Shifts to Condo Row, Nashville Cries in its Beer,” The New York Times, September 27, 2014. Available at: row-nashville-cries-in-its-beer.html?_r=0 40 Ann Hui, “Dragon’s Den breathes new life into the El Mocombo,” The Globe and Mail, November 6, 2014. Available at : article21490987/ 41 Adam Sichko, “Nashville halts future development on famed Music Row,” Nashville Business Journal, February 13, 2015. Available at: halts-future-development-on-music-row.html?page=3 42 Dr. Garrett Harper and Chris Cotton, Nashville Music Industry: Impact, Assessment and Cluster Analysis, Nashville Chamber of Commerce Research Center, 2013, pg. 60. Available at: http://www.nashvillechamber. com/docs/default-source/research-center-studies/nashville-music-industry-study.pdf 43 Leanne Harper, “Ringo Starr’s birthplace on Madryn Street, Liverpool, saved,” BBC News, June 14, 2012. Available at: 44 Leslie Ferenc, “Silver Dollar Room now a Heritage Site,” The Toronto Star, January 13, 2015. Available at: 45 Quartier des Spectacles Montréal, History and Vision. Available at: en/about/history-and-vision/ 46 Michael Corcoran, “Red River Street gets cultural district designation from the City,”, October 17, 2013. Available at: gets-cultural-designation-city/ 47 “Live Music Action Plan,” Marrickville Council. Available at: outandabout/arts-and-culture/live-music-program/ 48 Music Venues Trust, Understanding Small Music Venues, An interim findings report, January 2015. 49 “Supervisor London Breed Introduces First-in-the-Nation Legislation to Preserve Live Music Venues,” News Release, December 16, 2014. 50 Ibid. {101}

102 The Mastering of a Music City 51 Ibid. 52 Austin Music People, “The State of the Austin Music Industry,” White Paper, 2013, pg. 8. Available at: http:// 53 Ibid., pg. 8. 54 Robert Levine, Free Ride: How Digital Parasites are Destroying the Culture Business and How the Culture Business can Fight Back, 2011: Doubleday. 55 “Recording Industry in Numbers,” IFPI, 2013, pg. 7-10. 56 Music Canada, “Accelerating Toronto’s Music Industry Growth – Leveraging Best Practices from Austin, Texas,” March 2012, pg. 25. Available at: Toronto%E2%80%99s-Music-Industry-Growth-%E2%80%93-Leveraging-Best-Practices-from-Austin- Texas.pdf 57 Seattle City of Music. Available at: 58 Bogota received Creative City of Music status from UNESCO in 2012. Designated cities must maintain commitment to the key criteria in order to maintain status. 59 “Les soutiens de la Mairie de Paris au secteur des musiques actuelles,” Conseil Parisien de la Musique, Groupe de travail n°1, L’économie du spectacle vivant musical à Paris, Mairie de Paris. 60 Elle Eichinger, “Dylan Rice Launches Chicago Music Summit,” Michigan Avenue, September 16, 2013. Available at: 61 “Bientot un Conseil parisien de la musique,” Le Parisien, October 14, 2014. Available at: http://www. php 62 “La Musique aura son Conseil Parisien,” Paris. Available at: son-conseil-parisien/rub_9491_actu_149378_port_23873 63 City of Adelaide, “Live Music Action Plan: 2014-2016,” August 2014. Available at: http://www. 64 Nashville Entrepreneur Center, “Musicpreneur Program.” Available at: {102}

103 Key Elements, Effective Strategies and Why it’s Worth Pursuing 65 Nashville Entrepreneur Center, “Project Music.” Available at: 66 “Hidalgo installe le conseil parisien de la nuit,” Le Figaro, Sept. 12, 2014. Available at: flash-actu/2014/12/09/97001-20141209FILWWW00464-hidalgo-installe-le-conseil-parisien-de-la-nuit.php 67 Save Australia’s Live Music (SLAM). Available at: 68 City of Chicago, Department of Cultural Affairs and Special Events Strategic plan 2013 – 16. Available at: 69 Machteld Faas Xander, “Music Works – The Strategy Sessions,” City of Kitchener, July 27, 2012. Available at: 70 Denise Balkissoon, “A look at the ever-evolving Yonge Street,” The Globe and Mail, November 28, 2014. Available at: article21836497/ 71 Guillaume Guguen, “Can Paris nightlife be brought back?” France 24, November 23, 2013. Available at: capital-europe/ 72 Music Venues Trust, “Music Venues Alliance: Championing the Grassroots,” February, 2, 2015. Available at: 73 Coral Williamson, “New trade body Music Venues Alliance to support live industry,” Music Week, January 21, 2015. Available at: support-live-industry/060610 74 E.J. Boyer, “Nashville’s ‘Project Music’ attracts nearly 100 startup applicants,” Nashville Business Journal, December 9, 2014. Available at: attracts-nearly-100.html 75 Jim Dallke, “Fort Knox: The Recording Studio and Incubator That’s Changing Chicago’s Music Industry,” ChicagoInno, October 14, 2014. Available at: chicagos-music-industry/ 76 National Music Centre, Fertile Ground, Alberta’s Music Cities Initiative, 2014, pg. 20. 77 Martin Elbourne, Reverb – Adelaide’s Live Music Movement, The Future of Live Music in South Australia, 2013, pg. 69. 78 City Culture & Community Services Committee Meeting, August 5, 2014, Adelaide City Council – Live Music Strategy & Action Plan, pg. 202. {103}

104 The Mastering of a Music City 79 Ontario Live Available at: 80 Keith Nelson Jr. “Live Nation partners with Uber to let concertgoers skip the parking lot,” Digital Trends, January 15, 2015. Available at: app-rides/ 81 Music Victoria & Live Music Roundtable, “Best Practice Guidelines for Live Music Venues,” 2013. Available at: 82 “Sound Moves UK supports bigger Heathrow to ‘rock n roll,’” Heathrow Airport, February 4, 2015. Available at: 83 Seattle Music Commission, Annual Report 2014, pg. 5-6. Available at: SMC%20Annual%20Rept%20Assessment%20July%202013-June%202014.pdf 84 Arts Victoria, “The economic, social and cultural contribution of venue-based live music in Victoria,” June 20, 2011, pg. i-ii. 85 Ontario Arts Council, “Ontario Arts and Culture Tourism Profile,” November 2012. Available at: http://www. 86 UK Music, “Imagine – The value of Music Heritage Tourism in the UK,” pg. 3. Available at: http://www.ukmusic. org/assets/general/IMAGINE._The_value_of_music_heritage_tourism.pdf 87 “Music Victoria launches ‘Melbourne Music City’ guide digital app,” Music Victoria, February 21, 2013. Available at: 88 4479: Music Meets World. Toronto. Available at: 89 Nashville Convention and Visitors Corporation. Available at: 90 Daisy Modiano, “Smart City Branding,” Toposophy, September 18, 2012. Available at: https://aboutourism. 91 E.J. Boyer, “How Butch Spyridon is pushing Nashville into London,” Nashville Business Journal, March 20, 2014. Available at: html?page=all 92 Stuart Elliot, “Ads Promote Tennessee as “Made” for Visitors,” New York Times, July, 21, 2014. Available at: r=0 {104}

105 Presented by: In association with:


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