Global competency for an inclusive world

Transcript

1 PREPARING OUR YOUTH FOR AN INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE WORLD The OECD PISA global competence framework

2 INTRODUCTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF Contents Foreword AN INTERNATIONAL GLOBAL COMPETENCE “Reinforcing global competence is vital for “In 2015, 193 countries committed ASSESSMENT individuals to thrive in a rapidly changing to achieving the UN’s 17 Sustainable P.04 world and for societies to progress without Development Goals (SDGs), a shared vision leaving anyone behind. Against a context of humanity that provides the missing piece in which we all have much to gain from of the globalisation puzzle. The extent to THE CONCEPT THE ASSESSMENT growing openness and connectivity, and which that vision becomes a reality will OF GLOBAL OF GLOBAL COMPETENCE AND THE DIMENSIONS much to lose from rising inequalities and depend on today’s classrooms; and it is THE ASSESSMENT COMPETENCE OF GLOBAL ITS IMPLICATIONS STRATEGY radicalism, citizens need not only the skills educators who hold the key to ensuring that IN PISA COMPETENCE FOR EDUCATION P.21 to be competitive and ready for a new world the SDGs become a real social contract P.07 P.21 P.07 of work, but more importantly they also with citizens. Goal 4, which commits to need to develop the capacity to analyse quality education for all, is intentionally THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF GLOBAL SELF-REPORTED and understand global and intercultural not limited to foundation knowledge and THE COGNITIVE COMPETENCE INFORMATION IN TEST ON GLOBAL – KNOWLEDGE, issues. The development of social and skills such as literacy, mathematics and THE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING SKILLS, ATTITUDES QUESTIONNAIRE emotional skills, as well as values like science, but places strong emphasis on AND VALUES P.23 CONCLUSIONS P.34 respect, self-confidence and a sense of learning to live together sustainably. But P.12 P.38 belonging, are of the utmost importance such goals are only meaningful if they to create opportunities for all and advance become visible. This has inspired the a shared respect for human dignity. The OECD Programme for International Student OECD is actively working on assessing Assessment (PISA), the global yardstick global competence in PISA 2018. Together, for educational success, to include global ILLUSTRATIVE we can foster global competence for more competence in its metrics for quality, equity EXAMPLES OF and effectiveness in education. PISA will SCENARIOS FOR inclusive societies.” REFERENCES ANNEXES THE COGNITIVE assess global competence for the first time ASSESSMENT P.39 P.43 OF GLOBAL ever in 2018. In that regard, this framework Gabriela Ramos UNDERSTANDING provides its conceptual underpinning.” OECD Chief of Staff and Sherpa to the G20 P.43 QUESTIONS DESCRIPTION Andreas Schleicher RELATED TO GLOBAL OF POSSIBLE COMPETENCE Director, OECD Directorate for Education TOPICS FOR THE IN THE STUDENT SCENARIOS OF THE and Skills, and Special Advisor on Education QUESTIONNAIRE COGNITIVE TEST Policy to the Secretary-General P.50 P.46 This framework is the product of a collaborative effort between the countries participating in PISA and the OECD Secretariat, under the guidance of Andreas Schleicher and Yuri Belfali. The framework was developed by Mario Piacentini with Martyn Barrett, Veronica Boix Mansilla, Darla Deardorff and Hye-Won Lee. Rose Bolognini and Natalie Foster edited the framework. Natasha Robinson provided excellent research assistance and Mattia Baiutti, helpful comments. This framework builds on earlier work by the experts who led the first phase of development of the assessment: Darla Deardorff, David Kerr, Peter Franklin, Sarah Howie, Wing On Lee, Jasmine B-Y Sim and Sari Sulkinen. The OECD would also like to thank Project Zero at Harvard University for their invaluable input and dissemination efforts.

3 immigrants in numerous countries, communities people tend to “flock together” (Zuckerman, have to redefine their identity and local culture. 2014) favouring interactions with a small set of people with whom they have much in common. Contemporary societies call for complex forms of belonging and citizenship where individuals Likewise, access to an unlimited amount of information is often paired with insufficient must interact with distant regions, people and media literacy, meaning that young people are ideas while also deepening their understanding easily fooled by partisan, biased or fake news. of their local environment and the diversity Introduction: within their own communities. By appreciating In this context, cultivating students’ global the differences in the communities to which competence can help them to capitalise on digital spaces, better understand the world they belong - the nation, the region, the city, the The importance of an they live in and responsibly express their voice neighbourhood, the school – young people can online. learn to live together as global citizens (Delors et al., 1996; UNESCO, 2014b). While education international global cannot bear the sole responsibility for ending To support the Sustainable Development Goals racism and discrimination, it can teach young competence assessment people the importance of challenging cultural biases and stereotypes. Finally, educating for global competence can help form new generations who care about global issues and engage in tackling To thrive in a changing labour market Twenty-first century students live in an social, political, economic and environmental significant to both the world at large and to their own lives. They can teach students how Educating for global competence can boost interconnected, diverse and rapidly changing challenges. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable to critically, effectively and responsibly use Development recognises the critical role of world. Emerging economic, digital, cultural, employability. Effective communication and education in reaching sustainability goals, demographic and environmental forces are digital information and social media platforms. appropriate behaviour within diverse teams are keys to success in many jobs, and will remain calling on all countries “to ensure, by 2030, that shaping young people’s lives around the planet, Schools can encourage intercultural sensitivity and respect by allowing students to engage so as technology continues to make it easier for all learners acquire the knowledge and skills and increasing their intercultural encounters people to connect across the globe. Employers needed to promote sustainable development, on a daily basis. This complex environment in experiences that foster an appreciation increasingly seek to attract learners who easily including, among others, through education for diverse peoples, languages and cultures presents an opportunity and a challenge. Young people today must not only learn to participate for sustainable development and sustainable (Bennett, 1993; Sinicrope, Norris and Watanabe, adapt and are able to apply and transfer their lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, in a more interconnected world but also skills and knowledge to new contexts. Work 2007). Schools are also uniquely positioned to readiness in an interconnected world requires promotion of a culture of peace and non- appreciate and benefit from cultural differences. enhance young people’s ability to understand young people to understand the complex violence, global citizenship and appreciation Developing a global and intercultural outlook is their place in the community and the world, and of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution a process – a lifelong process – that education dynamics of globalisation, be open to people improve their ability to make judgements and from different cultural backgrounds, build trust to sustainable development” (Target 4.7, can shape (Barrett et al., 2014; Boix Mansilla take action (Hanvey, 1975). Incheon Declaration and and Jackson, 2011; Deardorff, 2009; UNESCO, in diverse teams and demonstrate respect for Education 2030, , page 20). others (British Council, 2013). 2013, 2014a, 2016). Framework for Action Why do we need global competence? To use media platforms effectively and Should we assess global What is global competence? responsibly To live harmoniously in multicultural competence? Global competence is a multidimensional communities Over the past two decades radical Every school should encourage its students capacity. Globally competent individuals Education for global competence can promote transformations in digital technologies have to try and make sense of the most pressing can examine local, global and intercultural cultural awareness and respectful interactions issues defining our times. The high demands shaped young people’s outlook on the issues, understand and appreciate different world, their interactions with others and their placed on schools to help their students cope in increasingly diverse societies. Since the perspectives and world views, interact perception of themselves. Online networks, end of the Cold War, ethno-cultural conflicts successfully and respectfully with others, and and succeed in an increasingly interconnected environment can only be met if education have become the most common source of social media and interactive technologies are take responsible action toward sustainability and collective well-being. political violence in the world, and they show giving rise to new types of learning, where systems define new learning objectives based on a solid framework, and use different types no sign of abating (Brubacker and Laitin, young people exercise greater control over what and how they learn. At the same time, 1998; Kymlicka, 1995; Sen, 2007). The many of assessment to reflect on the effectiveness of Can schools promote global their initiatives and teaching practices. In this episodes of indiscriminate violence in the name young people’s digital lives can cause them competence? of a religious or ethnic affiliation challenge to disconnect from themselves and the world, context, PISA aims to provide a comprehensive and ignore the impact that their actions may the belief that people with diverse cultures overview of education systems’ efforts to Schools play a crucial role in helping young have on others. Moreover, while technology create learning environments that invite young people to develop global competence. They are able to live peacefully in close proximity, people to understand the world beyond their accept differences, find common solutions and helps people to easily connect around the can provide opportunities for young people to critically examine global developments that are resolve disagreements. With the high influx of immediate environment, interact with others world, online behaviour suggests that young ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 5 4

4 with respect for their rights and dignity, and take Taken together, the cognitive assessment and action towards building sustainable and thriving the background questionnaire address the communities. A fundamental goal of this work following educational policy questions: is to support evidence-based decisions on how To what degree are students able to critically to improve curricula, teaching, assessments • examine contemporary issues of local, global and schools’ responses to cultural diversity The concept of and intercultural significance? in order to prepare young people to become global citizens. To what degree are students able to • global competence understand and appreciate multiple cultural How do we assess global perspectives (including their own) and competence? manage differences and conflicts? and its implications The global competence assessment in PISA • To what degree are students prepared 2018 is composed of two parts: a cognitive for education to interact respectfully across cultural assessment and a background questionnaire. differences? The cognitive assessment is designed to elicit students’ capacities to critically examine • To what degree do students care about the global issues; recognise outside influences world and take action to make a positive on perspectives and world views; understand The dimensions of global competence difference in other peoples’ lives and to how to communicate with others in intercultural safeguard the environment? Education for global competence builds an individual to reflect upon and engage with contexts; and identify and compare different global problems that have deep implications on the ideas of different models of global courses of action to address global and • What inequalities exist in access to education education, such as intercultural education, for current and future generations). Acquiring intercultural issues. global citizenship education and education for global competence between and within global competence is a life-long process – countries? there is no single point at which an individual for democratic citizenship (UNESCO, 2014a; In the background questionnaire, students will Council of Europe, 2016a). Despite differences becomes completely globally competent. PISA be asked to report how familiar they are with What approaches to multicultural, in their focus and scope (cultural differences or • will assess at what stage 15-year-old students global issues; how developed their linguistic democratic culture, rather than human rights intercultural and global education are most are situated in this process, and whether their and communication skills are; to what extent commonly used in school systems around or environmental sustainability), these models schools effectively address the development they hold certain attitudes, such as respect for share a common goal to promote students’ the world? of global competence. people from different cultural backgrounds; understanding of the world and empower them and what opportunities they have at school How are teachers being prepared to develop to express their views and participate in society. • The PISA 2018 assessment uses the following to develop global competence. Answers to definition of global competence: students’ global competence? the school and teacher questionnaires will PISA contributes to the existing models by provide a comparative picture of how education proposing a new perspective on the definition systems are integrating global, international and assessment of global competence. These and intercultural perspectives throughout the Global competence is the capacity to conceptual foundations and assessment curriculum and in classroom activities. examine local, global and intercultural guidelines will help policy makers and school issues, to understand and appreciate leaders create learning resources and curricula the perspectives and world views of that approach global competence as a others, to engage in open, appropriate multifaceted cognitive, socio-emotional and civic and effective interactions with people learning goal (Boix Mansilla, 2016). They will also from different cultures, and to act for facilitate governments’ ability to monitor progress collective well-being and sustainable and ensure systematic and long-term support. development. “ Competence ” is not merely a specific skill but This definition outlines four target dimensions is a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes of global competence that people need to apply and values successfully applied to face-to-face, 1 successfully in their everyday life: encounters with people virtual or mediated who are perceived to be from a different cultural 1. the capacity to examine issues and situations background, and to individuals’ experiences of global issues (i.e. situations that require of local, global and cultural significance 1 ‘ Mediated’ here refers to encounters that occur through images in the media (for example, on television, on the Internet, in a movie or book, in a newspaper, etc.). ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 7 6

5 (e.g. poverty, economic interdependence, Dimension 1: Examine issues of local, global and cultural significance. These four dimensions are strongly migration, inequality, environmental interdependent and overlapping, justifying the ” global competence “ This dimension refers to globally competent risks, conflicts, cultural differences and use of the singular term . questions, analyse data and arguments, explain For example, students from two different people’s practices of effectively combining stereotypes); phenomena, and develop a position concerning knowledge about the world and critical cultural backgrounds who work together for a a local, global or cultural issue (Boix Mansilla and Jackson, 2011). Development in this the capacity to understand and appreciate school project demonstrate global competence reasoning whenever they form their own 2. opinion about a global issue. People who different perspectives and world views; as they: get to know each other better (examine dimension also requires media literacy, defined acquire a mature level of development in this their cultural differences); try to understand how as the ability to access, analyse and critically the ability to establish positive interactions 3. dimension use higher-order thinking skills, evaluate media messages, as well as to create each perceives his or her role in the project such as selecting and weighing appropriate with people of different national, ethnic, new media content (Buckingham, 2007; and the other's perspective (understand perspectives); negotiate misunderstandings Kellner and Share, 2005). Globally competent evidence to reason about global developments. religious, social or cultural backgrounds or gender; and and clearly communicate expectations and Globally competent students can draw on people are effective users and creators of both and combine the disciplinary knowledge and traditional and digital media. feelings (interact openly, appropriately and the capacity and disposition to take 4. effectively); and take stock of what they learn modes of thinking acquired in schools to ask constructive action toward sustainable from each other to improve social relationships in their classroom and school (act for collective development and collective well-being. well-being). Examining issues of global significance: an example In her history course, a student learns about industrialisation and economic growth in developing countries, and how these have been influenced by foreign investments. She Defining culture learns that many girls of her age work in poor conditions in factories for up to ten hours a day, instead of going to school. Her teacher encourages each student to bring one item of clothing “Culture” is difficult to define because cultural groups are always internally heterogeneous to class and look at the label to see where it was manufactured. The student is surprised to and contain individuals who adhere to a range of diverse beliefs and practices. Furthermore, notice that most of her clothes were made in Bangladesh. The student wonders under what the core cultural beliefs and practices that are most typically associated with any given group conditions her clothes were made. She looks at the websites of various high-street brand are also constantly changing and evolving over time. However, distinctions may be drawn shops to see if the websites can tell her about their manufacturing standards and policies. between the material, social and subjective aspects of culture, that is, between the material She discovers that some clothing brands are more concerned with human rights in their artefacts that are commonly used by the members of a cultural group (e.g. the tools, foods, factories than others, and she also discovers that some clothing brands have a long history clothing, etc.), the social institutions of the group (e.g. the language, the communicative of poor conditions in their factories. She reads different journalistic articles about the issue conventions, folklore, religion, etc.), and the beliefs, values, discourses and practices that and watches a short documentary on YouTube. Based on what she discovers, she starts to group members commonly use as a frame of reference for thinking about and relating to buy fair-trade clothing and becomes an advocate for ethically responsible manufacturing. the world. Culture is a composite formed from all three of these aspects, consisting of a network of material, social and subjective resources. The full set of cultural resources is distributed across the entire group, but each individual member of the group only uses a subset of the full set of cultural resources that is potentially available to them (Barrett et al., Dimension 2: Understand and appreciate the perspectives and world views of others. 2014; Council of Europe, 2016a). Defining culture in this way means that any kind of social group can have its own distinctive assumptions. This in turn implies a profound This dimension highlights that globally culture: national groups, ethnic groups, faith groups, linguistic groups, occupational groups, competent people are willing and capable of respect for and interest in who the other is, generational groups, family groups, etc. The definition also implies that all individuals considering global problems and other people’s their concept of reality and their emotions. belong to multiple groups, and therefore have multiple cultural affiliations and identities Individuals with this competence also account perspectives and behaviours from multiple (e.g. national, religious, linguistic, generational, familial, etc.). Although all people belong to for and appreciate the connections (e.g. basic viewpoints. As individuals acquire knowledge multiple cultures, each person participates in a different constellation of cultures, and the human rights and needs, common experiences) about other cultures’ histories, values, way in which they relate to any one culture depends, at least in part, on the perspectives that communication styles, beliefs and practices, that enable them to bridge differences and are shaped by other cultures to which they also belong. In other words, cultural affiliations create common ground. They retain their they acquire the means to recognise that their intersect, and each individual has a unique cultural positioning. cultural identity but are simultaneously aware of perspectives and behaviours are shaped by the cultural values and beliefs of people around multiple influences, that they are not always People’s cultural affiliations are dynamic and fluid; what they think defines them culturally them. Recognising another’s position or belief is fully aware of these influences, and that others fluctuates as an individual moves from one situation to another. These fluctuations depend not necessarily to accept that position or belief. have views of the world that are profoundly on the extent to which a social context focuses on a particular identity, and on the individual’s However, the ability to see through ‘another different from their own (Hanvey, 1975). needs, motivations, interests and expectations within that situation (Council of Europe, cultural filter’ provides opportunities to deepen 2016a). and question one’s own perspectives, and thus Engaging with different perspectives and world views requires individuals to examine the make more mature decisions when dealing with others (Fennes and Hapgood, 1997). origins and implications of others’ and their own ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 9 8

6 Dimension 4: Take action for collective well-being and sustainable development. Understanding perspectives and worldviews: an example on the refugee crisis via social media. Globally This dimension focuses on young people’s role A student notices that certain members of his class have stopped eating lunch. When he competent people are engaged to improve as active and responsible members of society, enquires, they tell him that they are participating in a religious fast. The student is curious living conditions in their own communities and and refers to individuals’ readiness to respond and asks more about what that involves: for how long will they fast? When can they eat? also to build a more just, peaceful, inclusive and to a given local, global or intercultural issue What can they eat? What is the religious significance of the fast? The student learns that or situation. This dimension recognises that environmentally sustainable world. for his classmates fasting is something that they do every year, along with their families young people have multiple realms of influence and religious community. He also learns that fasting is significant to his classmates as for Figure 1 shows how global competence ranging from personal and local to digital and them it is a way of demonstrating control over their bodies. The student reflects on this global. Competent people create opportunities is defined as the combination of the four significance. Although he does not fast he recognises that the themes of community, dimensions (examining issues, understanding to take informed, reflective action and have their sacrifice and material transcendence are common to many different religions, including that voices heard. Taking action may imply standing perspectives, interacting across cultural of his own religious heritage. He recognises that different groups can attribute the same up for a schoolmate whose human dignity is in differences and taking action), and how each meaning to different practices. He furthermore asks his classmates whether he can fast dimension builds on specific knowledge, skills, jeopardy, initiating a global media campaign at with them for a day, as a way of experiencing what fasting means for them. His classmates attitudes and values. school, or disseminating a personal view point warmly agree and invite him to join their families for dinner in the evening to break the fast together. Although the student does not attribute the same significance to fasting, through this experience he better understands the perspectives of his classmates and his respect Taking action for well-being and sustainable development: an example for religious diversity increases. A group of students decides to initiate an environmental awareness campaign on the ways in which their school contributes to local and global waste and pollution. With support from their teachers, they arrange a series of talks on how to reduce waste and energy consumption. Dimension 3: Engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions across cultures. They also design and strategically distribute information posters that help guide students to make better choices when buying products and when disposing of waste. Furthermore, This dimension describes what globally interact with others across differences in ways they collaborate with both student representatives and school administrators to introduce competent individuals are able to do when that are open, appropriate and effective. Open recycling bins and energy conservation strategies on the school premises. interactions mean relationships in which all they interact with people from different cultures. They understand the cultural norms, participants demonstrate sensitivity towards, interactive styles and degrees of formality of curiosity about and willingness to engage with intercultural contexts, and they can flexibly others and their perspectives. Appropriate Figure 1. The dimensions of global competence adapt their behaviour and communication to refers to interactions that respect the expected suit. This dimension addresses appreciation cultural norms of both parties. In effective e g d communication, all participants are able to for respectful dialogue, desire to understand e l w o n K make themselves understood and understand the other and efforts to include marginalised the other (Barrett et al., 2014). groups. It emphasises individuals’ capacity to Understand Interacting openly, effectively and appropriately across cultural differences: and appreciate Examine local, an example the perspectives global and V and world views a intercultural Jo and Ai are collaborating on a school project with a student from another country, Mike. The l u of others e issues s students set up a video chat on a web platform to brainstorm ideas, but at the convened time for the meeting, they cannot find Mike online. When, a few hours later, the students manage Global to connect on the web platform, Jo complains that not showing up at the first meeting competence is not a good way to start, and gets angry when she receives no explanation at all from Mike, who remains silent at the other end of the line. At this point, Ai demonstrates global s l l i k Engage in open, competence as she successfully de-escalates the conflict. She knows that silence is used S Take action appropriate and in some cultures as a strategy to deal with perceived aggressions, and is not necessarily an for collective effective well-being admission of guilt or indifference. She is also aware that some people refrain from speaking interactions and sustainable out directly for fear of a disagreement that may hurt the other person’s feeling and threaten across cultures development their relationship. Ai thus suspends her judgement about Mike’s behaviour and asks Mike politely why they could not find him online. Mike explains that this is probably due to a misunderstanding about the meeting time, as Jo and Ai’s country moved to daylight saving time the night before while his country did not. Thanks to Ai’s intervention, the students A t t i t u d could laugh about their little incident and successfully start to work on their project. e s ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 11 10

7 The building blocks of global competence – knowledge, skills, attitudes In the worst cases, these misunderstandings cases of conflict or successful integration 2 and values degenerate into negative stereotypes, between cultural groups. discrimination and violent conflict. socio-economic development The four dimensions of global competence The domain of attitudes should also be adapted to the context in which the school operates. are supported by four inseparable factors: and interdependence refers to the study of More than in other domains of knowledge, . For knowledge, skills, attitudes and values development patterns in different regions global competence requires engaging with of the world, with a focus on the links and example, examining a global issue (dimension controversial issues. Schools can provide Knowledge about the world and a safe space in which students can explore interdependences between societies and other cultures 1) requires knowledge of a particular issue, the economies. Students can analyse, at different complex and controversial global issues that skills to transform this awareness into a deeper they encounter through the media and their levels of complexity and in developmentally understanding, and the attitudes and values Global competence is supported by knowledge appropriate ways, the many forms of of global issues that affect lives locally and to reflect on the issue from multiple cultural own experiences. perspectives, keeping in mind the interest of globalisation, such as international migration, around the globe as well as intercultural all parties involved. The list of relevant global or intercultural issues knowledge, that is, knowledge about the transnational production, global brands and that can be introduced to children and young technologies. By doing so, students can start similarities, differences and relations between cultures. This knowledge helps people to to make sense of how local, national and global Effective education for global competence gives people in school is a long one. There have been students the opportunity to mobilise and use recent attempts to systematise these complex processes jointly shape the development challenge misinformation and stereotypes about other countries and people, and thus sets of issues into a coherent sequence of patterns of countries, and the inequalities in their knowledge, attitudes, skills and values opportunities available to individuals. together while exchanging ideas on a global lessons and learning materials at all curriculum counters intolerance and oversimplified levels (IBO, 2012; OXFAM, 2015; Reimers, issue in and outside of school or interacting representations of the world. with people from different cultural backgrounds Students need a solid foundation in 2017). A curriculum should pay attention to the following four knowledge domains: environmental issues in order to promote and Global issues are those that affect all individuals, (for example, engaging in a debate, questioning culture and intercultural relations; socio- support sustainability. Learning activities in the viewpoints, asking for explanations or identifying regardless of their nation or social group. They environmental sustainability help directions for deeper exploration and action). economic development and interdependence; domain of range from trade to poverty, human rights, geopolitics and the environment. Global issues environmental sustainability; and global students understand the complex systems and policies surrounding the demand for and use reveal how different regions around the world institutions, conflicts and human rights. A school community that wishes to nurture Teaching these four domains should highlight global competence should focus on clear of natural resources. are interconnected by shedding light on the and manageable learning goals. This means differences in opinions and perspectives, diversity and commonality of their experiences questioning concepts such as “truth” and (Boix Mansilla and Jackson, 2011). For example, engaging all educators to reflect on teaching The fourth knowledge domain of global pollution in one place affects the ozone layer competence focuses on formal and informal topics that are globally significant, the types “information”. For example, while examining of skills that foster a deeper understanding of that support peaceful relationships somewhere else; floods in agricultural areas not inequalities in economic development across institutions only ruin the local environment and economy, but the world and facilitate respectful interactions between people and the respect of fundamental the world, the teacher can explain that there are human rights. Students can learn how global in multicultural contexts, and the attitudes and also affect markets worldwide and drive waves of different interpretations of what development migration. Global issues are also local issues: they values that drive autonomous learning and institutions such as the United Nations were means and implies, inciting students to measure development according to different metrics. are global in their reach but local communities inspire responsible action. established, can reflect on the contested nature experience them in very diverse ways. of global governance in a world with highly This section provides a general description of the The first key domain of knowledge for global unbalanced power relationships, review causes content knowledge, attitudes, skills and values competence relates to the manifold expressions of and solutions for current and historical As global issues emerge when ecological culture and intercultural relations , such that individuals need in order to be globally conflicts between countries, ethnic or social of and socio-economic interests cross borders, intercultural issues competent. Policy makers, school leaders groups, and examine spaces and opportunities as languages, arts, knowledge, traditions and (situations) arise from norms. Acquiring knowledge in this domain can for young people to play an active role in society, and teachers can refer to this section as they the interaction of people with different cultural backgrounds. In this interaction, each party’s take responsibility and exercise their rights. help young people become more aware of their define strategies for teaching and assessing global competence. However, this description way of thinking, believing, feeling and acting Acquiring deep knowledge in this domain own cultural identity, help them understand is instrumental for young people to develop differences and similarities among and within are interpreted by the other. This process can does not pretend to be conclusive or omni- cultures, and encourage them to value the be smooth if there are not extreme differences values such as peace, non-discrimination, comprehensive (other perspectives on global importance of protecting cultural differences between cultures, and individuals are open to equality, justice, non-violence, tolerance and competence might put more emphasis on other respect. learning about and accepting those differences. and diversity. As they engage in learning about important skills or attitudes, such as problem other cultures and individual differences, But intercultural interactions can also face framing or emotional self-management). The Skills to understand the world and miscommunication and misunderstanding. definition and targeting of relevant skills and students start to recognise multiple, complex to take action identities and avoid categorising people through single markers of identity (e.g. black, 2 The discussion regarding knowledge, attitudes, skills and values in this section draws upon the conceptualisation of these Global competence also builds on specific white, woman, poor). Students can acquire components provided by the Council of Europe (2016a) which was developed through an extensive process. It involved auditing cognitive, communication and socio-emotional knowledge in this domain by reflecting on their 101 existing conceptual global, intercultural and civic competence schemes. The basic values, attitudes, skills, knowledge and understanding throughout the schemes were then identified, and a set of criteria identifying the core values, attitudes, “skills”. Skills are defined as the capacity to own cultural identity and that of their peers, by skills, knowledge and understanding was established. Next, a first draft of the resulting model was produced and academic carry out a complex and well-organised pattern analysing common stereotypes towards people experts, education practitioners and policy makers reviewed and endorsed the model. It was then fine-tuned and finalised, taking into account the experts’ feedback. Full details of the development process can be found in Council of Europe (2016a). in their community, or by studying illustrative of thinking (in the case of a cognitive skill) or ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 13 12

8 behaviour (in the case of a behavioural skill) Perspective taking refers to the cognitive Integrating global and intercultural issues in the curriculum in order to achieve a particular goal. Global and social skills individuals need in order to competence requires numerous skills, including understand how other people think and feel. Research on global education tends to focus on social studies and foreign language classes, reasoning with information, communication It is the capacity to identify and take on often often in the upper grade levels (Gaudelli, 2006; Karamon and Tochon, 2007; Merryfield, 2008; skills in intercultural contexts, perspective conflicting points of view, “stepping into Myers, 2006; Rapoport, 2010; Suarez, 2003). However, the local, global and intercultural someone else’s shoes”. Perspective taking does taking, conflict resolution skills and adaptability. issues that students should learn about, in order to take responsibility for and act upon not only involve imagining another person’s them, cut across education levels and academic disciplines (Gaudelli, 2003; O’Connor and reason Globally competent students are able to point of view but also entails understanding how Zeichner, 2011). For global education to move from abstraction to action, many advocates with information from different sources, i.e. various perspectives are related to one another. recommend integrating global issues and topics into existing subjects (Klein, 2013; UNESCO, Understanding others’ perspectives facilitates textbooks, peers, influential adults, traditional 2014). In practice, several countries are pursuing a dual approach, where content knowledge and digital media. They can autonomously more mature and tolerant interpretations of related to global competence is both integrated into the existing curriculum and also taught in differences among groups. identify their information needs, and select specific subjects or courses (e.g. human rights education). Students can come to understand sources purposefully on the basis of their local, global and intercultural issues across ages, beginning in early childhood when such Competent students approach conflicts in a relevance and reliability. They use a logical, issues are presented in developmentally appropriate ways (Boix Mansilla and Jackson, constructive manner, recognising that conflict systematic and sequential approach to examine 2011; UNESCO, 2015). information in a text or any other form of media, is a process to be managed rather than seeking The way that a teacher frames a topic in the curriculum can significantly shape its contribution conflict to negate it. Taking an active part in examining connections and discrepancies. to global competence. When framing a topic to explore with students, teachers may consider management and resolution requires listening They can evaluate the worth, validity and the ways in which this topic addresses local and global dynamics, and how it can enable and seeking common solutions. Possible reliability of any material on the basis of its students to understand broad global patterns and the impact on their local environment. internal consistency, and its consistency with ways to address conflict include: analysing For instance, a mathematics teacher might invite students to decide whether linear or evidence and with one’s own knowledge and key issues, needs and interests (e.g. power, exponential functions best fit the data on world population growth, or a music teacher may experience. Competent students question recognition of merit, division of work, equity); explore how today’s hip hop is expressed differently around the world. and reflect on the source author’s motives, identifying the origins of the conflict and the In order to avoid the risk that global education becomes a catch-all curriculum where perspectives of those involved in the conflict, purposes and points of view, the techniques everything fits, teachers must have clear ideas about the global and intercultural issues used to attract attention, the use of image, recognising that the parties might differ in status that they want students to reflect upon. Teachers need to collaboratively research topics or power; identifying areas of agreement and sound and language to convey meaning, and and carefully plan the curriculum, giving students multiple opportunities to learn about a the range of different interpretations which are disagreement; reframing the conflict; managing core set of issues that increase in complexity throughout their education (Gaudelli, 2006). and regulating emotions, interpreting changes likely for different individuals. Professional learning communities can be highly effective to engage all teachers and to in one’s own and others’ underlying emotions facilitate collaboration and peer learning. For example, Lee et al. (2017) show that highly communicate Competent students are able to and motivation and dealing with stress, anxiety motivated teachers in Thailand followed a training course on global competence promoted with people and insecurity, both in oneself and in others; effectively and respectfully by the Ministry of Education, and then created professional learning communities in their and prioritising needs and goals, deciding on who are perceived to have different cultural school to engage other teachers, help them integrate global and intercultural topics in their possible compromises and the circumstances backgrounds. Effective communication requires courses and promote school-wide projects (Lee et al., 2017). under which to reach them (Rychen and being able to express oneself clearly, confidently, and without anger, even when expressing Salganik, 2003). However, approaches to Teaching about minority cultures in different subject areas requires accurate content about a fundamental disagreement. Respectful managing and resolving conflict may vary by and comprehensive portrayals of ethnically and racially diverse groups and experiences. communication requires understanding the societal expectations, so not all adhere to the Curricula should promote the integration of knowledge of other people, places and steps outlined here. expectations and perspectives of diverse perspectives into the everyday workings of the classroom throughout the year (UNESCO, audiences, and applying that understanding 2014a), rather than using a “tourist approach”, giving students a superficial glimpse of life Adaptability refers to the ability to adapt to meet the audience’s needs. Respectful in different countries every now and then. one’s thinking and behaviours to the prevailing communicators also check and clarify the Textbooks and other instructional materials can also distort cultural and ethnic differences meanings of words and phrases when they cultural environment, or to novel situations and (Gay, 2015). Teachers and their students should thus critically analyse their textbook and engage in an intercultural dialogue. Speaking contexts that might present new demands or teaching resources, and compensate for inadequacies when necessary. challenges. Individuals who acquire this skill more than one language is a clear asset for are able to handle the feelings of “culture effective intercultural communication. Smooth Connecting global and intercultural topics to the reality, contexts and needs of the learning communication in intercultural contexts is shock”, such as frustration, stress and group is an effective methodological approach to make them relevant to adolescents also facilitated by active listening – this means alienation in ambiguous situations caused by (North-South Centre of the Council of Europe, 2012). People learn better and become looking for not only what is being said but also new environments. Adaptable learners can more engaged when the content relates to them, and when they can see the parallels how it is being said, through the use of voice more easily develop long-term interpersonal between many global issues and their immediate environment. For example, students can relationships with people from other cultures, and accompanying body language. Competent become aware of the risks related to climate change by studying the effects that natural and remain resilient in changing circumstances. students are capable speakers who can use phenomena (e.g. hurricanes, floods) have on their own community. Capitalising on local their body language and voice effectively when expertise and the experience of young people in culturally responsive ways is particularly they discuss and debate global issues, express relevant when teaching less privileged or immigrant youth (Suárez-Orozco, Suárez-Orozco and justify a personal opinion and persuade and Todorova, 2008). others to pursue a particular course of action. ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 15 14

9 Attitudes of openness, respect consists of positive regard and Respect Pedagogies for promoting global competence for people from different cultural esteem for someone or something based on Various student-centred pedagogies can help students to develop critical thinking with regards backgrounds and global mindedness the judgement that they have intrinsic worth. In to global issues, respectful communication, conflict management skills, perspective taking this framework, respect assumes the dignity of and adaptability. all human beings and their inalienable right to Global competence embodies and is propelled by key dispositions or attitudes. Attitudes choose their own affiliations, beliefs, opinions can improve reasoning and collaborative skills. It Group-based co-operative project work refer to the mind-set that an individual adopts or practices. Being respectful of cultural involves topic- or theme-based tasks suitable for various levels and ages, in which goals and differences does not require minimising or towards a person, a group, an institution, an content are negotiated by all participants, and learners can create their own learning materials ignoring significant and profound differences issue, a behaviour, or a symbol. This mind-set that they present and evaluate together. In order to co-operate effectively, learners need to integrates beliefs, evaluations, feelings and that might exist between oneself and others, feel safe and comfortable, and the task and its goals must be clearly set for them. Learners nor does it require agreeing with, adopting tendencies to behave in a particular way. participating in co-operative tasks soon realise that in order to be efficient, they need to be or converting to others’ beliefs. Respect for Globally competent behaviour requires an respectful, attentive, honest and empathic (Barrett et al., 2014). Project work can effectively attitude of openness towards people from others also has certain limits that are set by connect students within and across borders. For example, Global Cities has created a digital other cultural backgrounds, an attitude of the principle of human dignity. For example, exchange program (Global Scholar) through which students in 26 countries are given the respect for cultural differences, and an attitude respect should not be accorded to the contents opportunity to work in e-classrooms across the world (Global Cities, 2017). Harvard Project of global mindedness (i.e. that one is a citizen of beliefs and opinions or to lifestyles and Zero also established a digital exchange program in 57 countries. practices which undermine or violate the dignity of the world with commitments and obligations Students can voice their differences, biases and culturally determined beliefs through of others (Council of Europe, 2016a). toward the planet and others, irrespective of in the classroom. In order to stimulate discussion, a teacher typically organised discussions their particular cultural or national background). uses a thought-provoking video clip, image or text (Costa and Kallick, 2013). Students can Such attitudes can be fostered explicitly, The concept of respect should be distinguished then present supporting evidence, comment and express their differing points of view. Class through participatory and learner-centred from the concept of tolerance. Tolerance may, discussion is, by nature, an interactive endeavour, and reflective dialogue engenders proactive teaching, as well as implicitly through a in some contexts, simply mean enduring listening and responding to ideas expressed by one’s peers. By exchanging views in the curriculum characterised by fair practices and difference. Respect is a less ambiguous classroom, students learn that there is not always a single right answer to a problem to be a welcoming school climate for all students. and more positive concept. It is based on memorised and presented; they learn to understand the reasons why others hold different recognition of the dignity, rights and freedoms views and are able to reflect on the origins of their own beliefs (Ritchhart et al., 2011). of the other in a relationship of equality. Openness toward people from other cultural constitute a specific format of class discussion that is increasingly Structured debates involves sensitivity toward, backgrounds used in secondary and higher education as a way to raise students’ awareness about global is defined as “a worldview curiosity about and willingness to engage Global mindedness and intercultural issues, and to let them practice their communication and argumentation in which one sees oneself as connected to with other people and other perspectives on skills (see the web platform “idebate.org” and Schuster and Meany (2005) for resources on the world community and feels a sense of the world (Byram, 2008; Council of Europe, debates in school education). In this format, students are given instructions to join a team 2016a). It requires an active willingness to responsibility for its members” (Hett cited in either supporting or opposing a polemic point of view – for instance, “the Internet should be seek out and embrace opportunities to engage Hansen, 2010). A globally-minded person has censored” or “hosting the Olympics is a good investment”. It is often helpful for students to with people from other cultural backgrounds, concerns for other people in other parts of the articulate views that may be different from their own. to discover and learn about their cultural world, as well as feelings of moral responsibility to try to improve others’ conditions irrespective perspectives and how they interpret familiar Service learning is another tool that can help students to develop multiple global skills through and unfamiliar phenomena, and to learn about of distance and cultural differences (Boix real-world experience. This requires learners to participate in organised activities that are Mansilla and Gardner, 2007). Globally-minded their linguistic and behavioural conventions. based on what has been learnt in the classroom and that benefit their communities. After the people care about future generations, and so Another important characteristic of open activities, learners are required to reflect critically on their service experience to gain further act to preserve the environmental integrity of learners is their willingness to suspend their understanding of course content, and enhance their sense of role in society with regard to own cultural values, beliefs and behaviours the planet. Globally-minded individuals exercise civic, social, economic and political issues (Bringle and Clayton, 2012). Service learning is when interacting with others, and not to assume agency and voice with a critical awareness of strongly tied to the curriculum and differs both from other types of educational experiences the fact that other people might have a different that their own values, beliefs and behaviours in the community and from volunteering. Through service learning, students not only “serve are the only possible correct ones. The attitude vision of what humanity needs, and are open to learn,” which is applied learning, but also “learn to serve” (Bringle et al., 2016). to reflecting on and changing their vision as of openness towards cultural otherness needs The Story Circle approach has been used in numerous classrooms around the world to to be distinguished from only being interested they learn about these different perspectives. let students practice key intercultural skills, including respect, cultural self-awareness and in collecting ‘exotic’ experiences merely for Rather than believing that all differences can empathy (Deardorff, forthcoming). The students, in groups of 5-6, take turns sharing a 3-minute be eliminated, globally-minded people strive one’s own personal enjoyment or benefit. story from their own experience based on specific prompts such as “Tell us about your first to create space for different ways of living with Rather, intercultural openness is demonstrated experience when you encountered someone who was different from you.” After all students dignity. through a willingness to engage, cooperate and in the group have shared their personal stories, students then take turns briefly sharing the interact with those who are perceived to have most memorable point from each story in a “flash back” activity. Other types of intercultural cultural affiliations that differ from one’s own, engagement involve simulations, interviews, role plays and online games (for examples of on an equal footing. specific activities to use in the classroom, see Anna Lindh Foundation, 2017; Berardo and Deardorff, 2012; Council of Europe, 2015; Fantini, 1997; Seelye, 1996; Storti, 2017; Stringer and Cassiday, 2009). ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 17 16

10 Valuing human dignity and diversity many different traditions, with many different beings who care for and respect others (Delors reflections on human dignity can be found conceptions of “good”, can agree on these core et al., 1996), deciding which values education in several different countries and cultures. capabilities as the necessary basis for pursuing systems around the world should promote is Values go beyond attitudes: they transcend For example, the indigenous African concept specific objects or situations. They are more a good life (Nussbaum, 1997). subject to debate. It is not easy to identify a of Ubuntu has a strong connection with the conceptualisation of human dignity in Western core set of rights that are universally valid and general beliefs about the desirable goals that individuals strive for in life, reflecting modes of A controversial issue relates to the Western philosophy. Ubuntu generally translates interpreted in the same way everywhere and roots of the concept of human dignity and to as humaneness, and its spirit emphasises conduct or states of being that an individual in every circumstance, as morals and social institutions vary across cultures and historical the Western dominance in the discussion and finds preferable to all other alternatives. In respect for human dignity, marking a shift from contexts (Donnelly, 2007). this way, values serve as standards and definitions of human rights. However, deep confrontation to conciliation (Mogkoro, 1995). criteria that people use both consciously and unconsciously in their judgements. They have a Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Perspectives on global competence from different cultures Rights describes the constitutive elements normative prescriptive quality about what ought to be done or thought in different situations. of a minimum core of rights that can guide The literature, theories and frameworks on intercultural competence, global competence and education around the world: Values therefore motivate certain behaviours “All human beings global citizenship emerge predominantly from a Western, Euro-American context. However, and attitudes. For example, people for whom are born free and equal in dignity and rights. related concepts exist in many countries and cultures around the world. One interesting independence is an important value are They are endowed with reason and conscience perspective on global competence comes from South Africa and involves the concept of triggered if their independence is threatened, and should act towards one another in a spirit Ubuntu. There is much literature written about Ubuntu (Nwosu, 2009; Khoza, 2011), found in . The article defines two basic feel despair when they are helpless to protect of brotherhood” a Zulu proverb Umuntu Ngumuntu Ngabantu – meaning that a person is a person because it, and are happy when they can enjoy it foundations of human dignity: the first is that of others. This concept of Ubuntu can be used to illustrate a collective identity, as well (Schwartz, 2012). every human being possesses an intrinsic as connectedness, compassion, empathy and humility. There are other similar concepts worth, merely by being human; the second is to Ubuntu found in different cultures around the world including in indigenous cultures that this intrinsic worth should be recognised Valuing human dignity and valuing cultural in the Andes and in Malaysia. Collective identity, relationships and context (as impacted diversity and respected by others, and certain forms contribute to global competence by historical, social, economic and political realities) all become major emphases in other of treatment by others are inconsistent with because they constitute critical filters through cultural discourses on global competence. In summarising some central themes across respect for this intrinsic worth. Individuals which individuals process information about different cultures with regard to global competence, Deardorff (2013) noted the following other cultures and decide how to engage have a distinct moral obligation to treat each key elements: respect, listening, adaptation, relationship-building, seeing from multiple other in ways that are constrained by certain with others and the world. Individuals who perspectives, self-awareness and cultural humility. cultivate these values become more aware of inviolable limits. Embracing this value often themselves and their surroundings, and are means helping others to protect what is most important to them in life. strongly motivated to fight against exclusion, and discrimination, improving the school Even if the cultural context varies, the common ignorance, violence, oppression and war. environment and social relationships in the core value of respecting human dignity is communities that schools serve. sufficiently robust to challenge the legitimacy of The concept of respecting the fundamental right of human dignity is often associated Education has a deep influence on the values a wide array of systems that abuse their power 3 with protection from discrimination. Andrew Respecting human beings’ core rights and against individuals and groups . Abuses of of individuals. During their time at school, power against vulnerable individuals are not a Clapham (2006) has suggested that valuing young citizens form habits of mind, beliefs and dignity is, in most cases, compatible with the equality of core rights and dignity has respecting and valuing cultural diversity. prerogative of war-torn regions or fragile states. principles that will stay with them throughout They can happen everywhere: neighbourhoods, Globally competent learners should not only four aspects: (1) the prohibition of all types of their lives. This is why it is so crucial to reflect offices or schools. Schools, in particular, on the type of education that best “cultivates have a positive attitude towards cultural inhuman treatment, humiliation or degradation humanity” (Nussbaum, 1997). An education that are places where human dignity takes on a by one person over another; (2) the assurance diversity (the attitude of “openness” and encourages valuing dignity, human rights and “respect” defined above), but should also concrete meaning, because every student of the possibility for individual choice and the diversity emphasises shared commonalities value cultural diversity as an asset for societies deserves equal justice, equal opportunity conditions for each individual’s self-fulfilment, that unite people around the world, rather than autonomy or self-realisation; (3) the recognition and a desirable goal for the future. However, and equal dignity. Discrimination at school can be overtly displayed through xenophobic valuing cultural diversity has certain limits that the issues that divide them; provides learning that the protection of group identity and culture may be essential for the protection of personal comments, bullying, name-calling, segregation experiences so that students see the world from are determined by the inviolability of human many different perspectives, enabling them to and physical altercations. Discrimination dignity (UNESCO, 2001). The possible tension dignity; and (4) the creation of the necessary examine their own thoughts and beliefs, and conditions for each individual to have their between valuing cultural diversity and valuing can also be less apparent but still present in stereotypes, fear of others and unconscious their society’s norms and traditions; encourages essential needs satisfied (Clapham, 2006). human rights can be solved by establishing a normative hierarchy between the two: valuing Martha Nussbaum has argued that a minimally people to understand the significance of reactions to or intentional avoidance of certain groups. Teaching youth to use human rights another person’s sufferings; and emphasises core human rights is more important than just society has to endeavour to nurture and valuing cultural diversity, in cases where the as a frame of reference for their behaviour can the importance of reasoning, careful argument, support a core set of basic “capabilities”, two values are in conflict with each other. logical analysis, self-questioning, the pursuit of defined as opportunities for choice and action allow them to break down stereotypes, biases truth and objectivity. (e.g. being secure against violent assault, being able to imagine, to think and to reason, being 3 Here system is used in a broad sense to include not just states and markets, but also husbands, parents, officials, landowners, While most people would agree that education able to love, to grieve, to experience longing, social authorities etc. In other words, all those who have power and can use it to control or interfere in people’s lives. should help students develop into human gratitude and justified anger, etc.). People from ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 19 18

11 Promoting the value of cultural diversity in situations. While assessing such values is education practice involves encouraging beyond the scope of the PISA 2018 assessment students to take actions to safeguard both of global competence, the inclusion of values in this framework hopes to stimulate a productive tangible and intangible cultural heritage around debate on how education can shape children’s the world, as well as actions to promote the rights of all people to embrace their own development of an ethical decision-making perspectives, views, beliefs and opinions framework grounded on human rights, while (UNESCO, 2009). It also means conveying fully preserving the value of diverse opinions the message to all students that their cultural and beliefs. Acknowledging the importance of The assessment values in education does not mean promoting heritage is important and enriches society. a uniform and fixed way to interpret the world; of global competence it rather implies giving students some essential Evaluating how much students care about and references to navigate a world where not cherish the values of human dignity and cultural everyone holds their views, but everyone has a diversity is complex and calls for a broad in PISA repertoire of assessment strategies ranging duty to uphold the principles that allow different from interviews or conversations to observation people to co-exist and to prosper. of students in more and less structured The assessment strategy Teaching attitudes and values related to global competence Assessing global competence in all of its in all countries. On the other hand, leaning Allocating teaching time to a specific subject dealing with human rights issues and non- too much towards “cultural neutrality” in the complexity requires a multi-method, multi- discrimination is an important first step in cultivating values for global competence. But perspective approach. The PISA 2018 design of scenarios and questions reduces even more can be achieved by mainstreaming the principle of respect for human dignity assessment of global competence contributes the authenticity and relevance of the tasks. and for cultural diversity across all subjects. For example teachers can use multi-ethnic a development in this direction, although clear The test design is further limited by the time and multicultural examples to illuminate general principles and concepts, or emphasise the constraints of the assessment and the narrow challenges and limitations remain. The most contributions of people from different ethnic groups to our collective knowledge and quality salient challenge for the PISA assessment is availability of internationally-valid instruments of life. Teachers thus need to develop repertoires of culturally diverse examples, the skills that — through a single international instrument that measure the behavioural elements of to use them fluidly and routinely in classroom instruction, and the confidence to do so. global competence. — it needs to account for the large variety of Values and attitudes are partly communicated through the formal curriculum but also through geographic and cultural contexts represented in the ways in which educators and students interact, how discipline is encouraged and the Accounting for these limitations and challenges, participating countries. Students who perform types of opinions and behaviour that are validated in the classroom. For example, a history the PISA 2018 global competence assessment well on a question assessing their reasoning lesson on the American Civil War may emphasise valuing racial equality; however if the has two components: 1) a cognitive test about a global issue are likely to have some teacher disciplines minority students more severely, he or she communicates a contradictory exclusively focused on the construct of “global prior knowledge of the issue, and the type of value system. It is likely that students will assimilate the culture of the classroom more knowledge students already have of global understanding”, defined as the combination readily than they will learn the curriculum. Therefore, recognising the school and classroom of background knowledge and cognitive skills issues is influenced by their experiences within environments’ influence on developing students’ values can help educators to become required to solve problems related to global and their unique social context. On the one hand, more aware of the effects that their teaching has on students. For example, a teacher might a set of questionnaire cultural variability in the tested population intercultural issues; 2) reconsider the seating plan of the classroom if he is hoping to promote racial and gender collecting self-reported information items requires that the test material cannot be too integration among his students. biased towards a particular perspective, for on students’ awareness of global issues and example the perspective of a student in a rich cultures, skills (both cognitive and social) and Teachers can be instrumental in replacing stereotypes of minority and disadvantaged attitudes, as well as information from schools country who thinks about a problem in a poor students with more positive ones. However, teachers often find it difficult to engage in open and teachers on activities to promote global country. Similarly, the test units should focus on discussions about diversity and discrimination. Part of the problem is a lack of experience competence. issues that are relevant for 15-year-old students with people who are different, and the assumption that conversations about discrimination and ethics will always be contentious. Consequently, teachers may concentrate only on “safe” topics about cultural diversity, such as cross-group similarities, ethnic customs, cuisines, costumes and celebrations, while neglecting more troubling issues such as inequities, injustices and oppression (Gay, 2015). These difficulties can be overcome by giving educators access to continual professional development throughout their career. Specific training programmes and modules can help teachers to acquire: a critical awareness of the role that different subject and teaching approaches can play in the struggle against racism and discrimination; the skills to acknowledge and take into account the diversity of learners’ needs, especially those of minority groups; and a command of basic methods and techniques of observation, listening and intercultural communication (UNESCO, 2007). ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 21 20

12 competent ways, but whose measurement goes problems, and to weigh the direct and indirect Figure 2. The PISA approach to assessing global competence beyond the parameters of the PISA cognitive consequences of such actions. test. Self-reported skills and attitudes will Global competence The student questionnaire will provide be measured through Likert-type scales that have been selected on the basis of a review of complementary information on the attitudes, knowledge and skills that people need to empirical studies. navigate everyday life in globally and culturally Social skills Values Knowledge Cognitive skills and attitudes Figure 3. Elements of a typical PISA 2018 global competence test unit Beyond the scope Pisa 2018 ASSESSED IN THE COGNITIVE TEST of the PISA 2018 assessment assessment ASSESSED IN THE STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE Depicts Scenario: real-life situations, in the form of case John is doing a project about renewable energy. He learns that there any studies, from which The reporting of the results will reflect the Global understanding is assessed in the PISA many types of renewable energy. He also learns that not everybody is various tasks (test supportive of certain types of renewable energy. He decides to watch a cognitive test by asking students to complete differences between these two assessment documentary about... items) are derived. several test units. Each test unit is composed components. Students’ answers to the Each scenario has multiple corresponding of one scenario (or case study) and various questions in the cognitive test can be Question 1 test items. scenario-based tasks (see Figure 3). In a objectively scored as right (or partially right) or What are examples of...? Circle “Yes” or “No” for each example below. typical test unit, students read about a case wrong, and can thus be presented on a scale. Categorised by: content domain, context, Given that the capacity to understand global and respond to questions (otherwise referred Test Item: Any individual Is this an example of...? Yes or No? and complexity format. or intercultural issues and situations can be to as test items) that evaluate their capacity task that the student has Statement A Yes / No to perform in relation to a to understand its complexity and the multiple developed at school, the PISA proficiency Yes / No Statement B given scenario . The scale is expected to yield results that can be perspectives of the diverse actors involved. Statement C Yes / No response format of test interpreted in educational policy terms. For Each scenario will expose students to a range items can be either open- or closed-response some of the questions measuring attitudinal of different situations, and test their capacity Question 2 questions. to apply their background knowledge and or socio-emotional traits (e.g. “openness”), Explain why an inhabitant of a nearby village might be unhappy with the decision to... however, defining right or wrong answers is cognitive skills in order to analyse the situation cognitive Categorised by: process. more controversial because the development and suggest solutions. of these traits and their contribution towards The combination of a Test Unit: The cognitive skills demanded by global global competence might be non-linear (beyond test and its corresponding scenario a certain threshold, more “openness” may not understanding are relevant measures of all four items . Each test unit is independent dimensions of students’ global competence. necessarily be better). Measurement issues and self-contained. The PISA are also more acute in self-reported items, Test items asking students to critically analyse cognitive test is made up of several different test units. statements and information will provide so ranking students or countries on the basis of students’ responses to the questionnaire relevant information about students’ capacity to “examine global and intercultural issues” risks errors of misrepresentation and (dimension 1). “Understanding perspectives” misinterpretation. For example, people from The cognitive test on global understanding (dimension 2) can be assessed through some cultural backgrounds tend to exaggerate their responses to typical questionnaire items test items examining students’ capacity to: and trends, and legal and policy frameworks based on a Likert-type scale (e.g. questions recognise different perspectives while being A short review of cognitive associated with 13 global themes. asking students whether they strongly aware of one’s own cultural lens and biases, assessments in this area as well as those of other people; consider disagree, disagree, agree or strongly agree Research in this area has predominantly been Test items in the Global Understanding Survey with a statement), whereas others tend to the contexts (cultural, religious, regional) based on student self-reports, and only a few addressed real-world issues. Students who take a middle ground (Harzing, 2006). The that influence these perspectives; and find reported regular news consumption scored examples of cognitive assessments exist. In the possible connections or “common ground” responses to the questionnaire items will thus higher on the test. However, the authors found Global Understanding Survey (Barrows et al., across perspectives. Elsewhere, “engage not be used to position countries and students 1981), the authors define global understanding only weak relationships between students’ on a scale. Instead, they will be used only to in appropriate and effective interactions” as a sum of four components: (a) knowledge; educational experiences—coursework, (dimension 3) can be assessed through items illustrate general patterns and differences language study or study abroad—and their (b) attitudes and perceptions; (c) general within countries in the development of the testing students’ capacity to understand levels of international knowledge. The final background correlations; and (d) language communicative contexts and the norms of skills and attitudes that contribute to global report also recognised that the assessment proficiency. The knowledge domain in the competence among 15-year-old students, as respectful dialogue. Finally “take action for provided only limited insights into the nature well as to analyse the relationship between Global Understanding Survey consisted of sustainability and well-being” (dimension 4) 101 multiple-choice questions that addressed and development of global understanding. those skills and attitudes and students’ results can be assessed vis-a-vis students’ capacity on the cognitive test. to consider possible actions to combat global international institutions, major historical events ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 23 22

13 students need to use in order to fully understand The IEA Studies on Civic Education (the Civic Defining the construct of global students to not only use and process texts but global or intercultural issues and situations: understanding Education Study) and the International Civic also to employ other cognitive, language and and Citizenship Study are other relevant social reasoning skills, as well as call upon their 1. The capacity to evaluate information, own knowledge, strategies and dispositions. Access to global information and opportunities examples that could guide item development formulate arguments and explain complex in PISA. The key research questions for ICCS for intercultural encounters have greatly Unlike traditional reading assessments that present students with a set of unrelated texts concern student achievement in civic and situations and problems by using and increased over the last decade, meaning that citizenship education and their disposition to and no purpose for reading them, GISA uses connecting evidence, identifying biases and the majority of PISA students are exposed to a scenario-based approach with a carefully a wide range of perspectives on global issues engage with such issues. ICCS measures the gaps in information and managing conflicting arguments. cognitive processes of knowledge, reasoning structured sequence of tasks. By employing and intercultural experiences even if they and analysis across four content domains scenarios that provide authentic contexts and do not actively search for them. However, purposes for reading, the assessment better identify and analyse The capacity to 2. access to information about the world and including: (a) civic society and systems, (b) civic principles, (c) civic participation, and (d) civic other cultures does not always go together multiple perspectives and world views, reflects the cognitive processes that students identities (Schulz et al., 2010; Torney-Purta et positioning and connecting their own and engage in when confronted with real learning with understanding. The oversimplification of al., 2015). The item format combines multiple- others’ perspectives on the world. activities. complex knowledge is a significant contributing choice and open-ended questions. factor to deficiencies in learning (Spiro et 3. The GISA assessments also include collaborative al., 1988), and is particularly frequent in the understand differences in The capacity to domain of global and cultural issues. Although Some of the items in ICCS measure students’ activities. For example, test takers “interact” communication , recognising the importance misconceptions often arise from a lack of of socially-appropriate communication with simulated peers to identify errors, correct ability to analyse and reason. Reasoning asks students to apply knowledge and conventions and adapting communication misconceptions and provide feedback. The information, they are compounded by the fact members of the simulated interactions can to the demands of diverse cultural contexts. understanding of familiar concrete situations that initial and deeply-held beliefs about how the world works are difficult to subsequently state facts, present incorrect information, give in order to reach conclusions about complex, change. Given that humans learn by creating multifaceted, unfamiliar and abstract situations evaluate actions and The capacity to 4. their opinions and go off topic, just as people by identifying and comparing classification systems, a lack of new knowledge consequences (Schulz et al., 2008). do in real life. Performance moderators such as background knowledge, self-regulatory or experiences can lead to oversimplified different courses of action and weighing strategies and motivation are also measured in Outside of the context of global and civic categorisations and generalisations which, in these actions against one another on the education, an increasing number of assessments basis of short- and long-term consequences. GISA and are used to interpret the reading score. turn, can result in prejudice and stereotyping. However, misconceptions also arise even when have attempted to measure students’ capacity to evaluate information and think critically about students are exposed to appropriate information Globally competent students should thus be Relatively few assessments of perspective- 4 taking skills exist. One relevant example In many of these tests, students but absorb this information in a passive way, problems. able to perform a wide variety of tasks utilising without reflecting on its deeper meaning or different cognitive processes. The first of these read a short text and decide whether a series for the PISA test is the perspective-taking measure developed within the Catalyzing cognitive processes requires students to be of statements related to the text are likely using the information to adjust their prior beliefs. to be true or false. Some of these tests also able to: reason with evidence about an issue Comprehension through Discussion and 5 Students need to use knowledge and skills include constructed response questions, where Debate (CCDD) initiative. or situation of local, global and intercultural The assessment simultaneously in order to develop global significance; search effectively for useful students need to develop logical arguments is designed to assess students’ ability to or explain how someone else’s conclusions sources of information; evaluate information understanding (Figure 4). If a student does acknowledge, articulate, position and interpret not know much about a certain issue, they the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in could be verified or strengthened. All these on the basis of its relevance and reliability; will find it difficult to identify flaws in texts, synthesise information in order to describe the assessments emphasise reasoning, analysis, a social conflict, and provide solutions that consider multiple perspectives (Willingham, argumentation and evaluation (Liu et al., consider and integrate their respective different main ideas in an argumentative text or the salient positions. The assessment puts students in the 2014). These tests treat those skills as generic, passages of a conversation; and combine 2007), communicate in rich ways and consider their background knowledge, new information the consequences of actions related to the however, while PISA will look at the application shoes of an “advisor”, who needs to address social conflicts that can occur in different of these capacities in the specific context of and critical reasoning to build multi-causal issue in question. However, knowledge alone explanations of global or intercultural issues. of intercultural and global issues without global and intercultural issues. contexts. In a sample assessment unit, test takers read a story about a student named understanding adds little value. One can know, The Global Integrated Scenario-Based Furthermore, a solid understanding of a and continue to judge and dismiss superficially “Casey” who is a victim of bullying, and are Assessment of Reading, or GISA for short, is global or intercultural problem also requires asked what they would recommend Casey (Williams-Gualandi, 2015). Understanding is should do, why, and to identify potential negative the ability to use knowledge to find meaning recognising that one’s beliefs and judgements another relevant reference for the PISA test and connection between different pieces of consequences of their recommendation. (O’Reilly and Sabatini, 2013; Sabatini et al., are always contingent upon one’s own cultural 2014; Sabatini et al., 2015). GISA assesses information and perspectives. Students have to provide answers to these affiliations and perspectives. Students should students’ “global reading literacy ability”, a questions in the form of short, open responses. therefore be able to recognise the perspectives multidimensional competence that requires of other people or groups and the factors that The cognitive processes that support global understanding might influence them, including their access to information and resources. Students need to be 4 Measurement instruments of critical thinking include the Ennis–Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test (Ennis and Weir, 1985), able to explain how perspectives and contexts For analytical and assessment purposes, this Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Ennis, Millman and Tomko, 1985), ETS HEIghten™ Critical Thinking Assessment (Liu, Frankel, and Roohr, 2014; Liu et al., 2016) and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (Halpern, 2010). shape human interactions and interpretations framework distinguishes four, interrelated 5 cognitive processes that globally competent of events, issues or phenomena. http://ccdd.serpmedia.org/ for more information. See ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 25 24

14 Globally competent students should also 3) is especially complex and might require a Table 1 describes students’ abilities at issue. For example, students can be asked to basic, intermediate and advanced levels of identify ways to manage conflicts that emerge select the most reliable among a selection of longer period of development and validation. from communication problems, by analysing development in the four typologies of cognitive different sources of information about an issue; This cognitive process is thus expected to be communicative contexts and conventions and processes that constitute global understanding, they can evaluate whether a statement is valid less represented than the other three in the 2018 PISA test. recognising markers of respect. the cognitive facet of global competence. and based on evidence; they can be asked to summarise and explain an issue or situation, Table 1. Typologies of cognitive processes by level in the PISA 2018 test of global or choose among possible summaries; they Finally, students demonstrate their level of can be asked to identify passages of a media competence global understanding when they can evaluate message transmitting negative stereotypes or different courses of action, propose solutions making hasty generalisations; they can identify and consider the immediate and indirect Advanced Cognitive process Sub-category Basic Intermediate implications of actions. The last constitutive the different stakeholders in a case and list the 1. Evaluate Selecting The student prefers using The student searches The student is able to frame cognitive process of global understanding possible contextual and cultural drivers of their information, sources sources stemming from for and selects sources the search systematically formulate her own cultural context (range) stemming from geographic in a way which enables her therefore involves the ability to draw sound respective positions; they can identify which arguments and without having an apparent and cultural contexts (region, to identify the nature and explain complex strategy to search for, select passages in a conversation demonstrate a conclusions from the information one language, perspective) extent of information needed situations or or differentiate between beyond her own. She can to address the issue. She possesses and acquires. clear ignorance of intercultural communication problems sources. also search for and select selects sources purposefully more than one source drawing on contexts and approaches; or they can be asked to list or type (e.g. newspapers, types that will inform her publications, personal understanding of the issue select the possible consequences of a Different types of tasks can test students’ level of testimonies, government at hand. reports). However, no proficiency in applying each of these interrelated proposed solution to a problem. concrete strategy beyond cognitive processes to a global or intercultural a commitment to using different sources is apparent. Figure 4. The relationship between the cognitive test of global understanding and the The student takes the Weighing The student weighs sources The student pays attention dimensions of global competence information at face value sources for their relevance vis-a-vis to contextual factors to without considering (reliability and the topic or claim at hand. establish the source’s contextual factors (author, relevance) The student also considers reliability and its relevance. geo-perspective, culture) contextual factors that can She understands the or source kind. She cannot inform her evaluation of significance of different yet detect clear biases or a source’s reliability. She sources’ perspectives, PISA cognitive test of global understanding inconsistencies. The student can detect clear biases can distinguish the does not weigh the sources’ and inconsistencies, communicative intentions of relevance vis-a-vis the topic yet she shows a rather sources and claims (facts, or claim at hand. binary view of reliability opinions, propaganda), (“biased”/“non-biased”). evaluate whether the Dimensions of Cognitive Knowledge assumptions or premises are global competence skills/processes reasonable or well-grounded in evidence, and identify assumptions or claims that reveal stereotypes. Evaluate information, formulate arguments Examine local, global The student views the Employing The student understands the The student recognises and explain complex and intercultural issues use of sources as a sources need for multiple sources the provisional nature of Knowledge of situations or problems simple, unproblematic (reasoning but uses a mechanistic evidence and that multiple global issues matter of copying and with evidence) approach when including arguments can stem from pasting information into an sources in an argument (e.g. similar sources. The student argument. two “pro”- two “against” can consider evidence to sources) explore and meet counter- Understand and appreciate arguments. She can also Identify and analyse the perspectives and address conflicting claims or + multiple perspectives world views of others sources. Describing The student can produce The student can describe The student can describe Intercultural and explaining short summaries of the issue/situation at hand the issue/situation at hand Engage in open, Understand knowledge complex information or perspectives. in ways that connect larger in ways that connect larger appropriate and differences in situations or Summaries read as a string concepts (e.g. culture, concepts (e.g. culture, effective interactions communication problems of information with little identity, migration) and identity, migration) and substantive organisation. simple examples. She relevant examples. She The student is not yet can order content in a can develop and express capable of classifying the way that supports others’ clear, sound and effective Take action for collective Evaluate actions information. understanding of the issues. arguments synthesising well-being and sustainable and connecting information and consequences development provided in the task and information she acquired in or outside of school. GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING While all four cognitive processes are important cover all four cognitive processes in a balanced indicators of a globally competent individual’s way. In particular, creating test items that skills, the test items in the PISA 2018 global validly measure students’ understanding of competence assessment are not expected to communication norms and differences (process ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 27 26

15 Basic Basic Intermediate Advanced Intermediate Advanced The student has a simplistic Recognising 2. Identify and Understanding 3. Understand The student does not The student is aware The student can identify The student can describe The student is aware of view of perspectives: one perspectives analyse multiple differences in communicative yet understand how to of her own styles of different actors and points of and interpret multiple her way of communicating person-one perspective. and world communication perspectives and contexts and effectively and appropriately communication and view on an issue. perspectives and world and attempts to make She cannot yet explain the views world views The student begins to respectful communicate based on understands that views. that communication fit the The student understands source of the perspective. recognise that differences dialogue audience and context. effective and appropriate context. Specifically, she does The student can identify that perspectives are rooted The student views context in perspectives or world communication must be some interactive styles, not recognise cultural in cultural, religious, socio- as either irrelevant or as views are rooted in cultural, adapted to audience, expectations, or levels norms, interactive styles, economic, regional and deterministic (“context as religious, socio-economic, purpose and context. Specifically, she is sensitive expectations, or levels of of formality in a given other backgrounds, and she destiny”). regional and other She views perspectives to nuances in cultural social and cultural formality in a given social understands how someone’s backgrounds, and that she (cultural, religious, linguistic) norms, interactive styles, context but cannot yet and cultural context and geographic and cultural also holds a particular view as relatively fixed, bounded expectations, or levels of audience. calibrate her language and context can shape how that of the world. The student cannot yet The student is not yet able or impermeable markers of a formality of a given social communication choices person sees the world. She also understands that to observe, listen actively, articulate how multiple person’s identity and world and cultural context and accordingly. The student can respond an individual’s identity is and interpret social and perspectives relate to one view. The student views audience. She listens to breakdowns in complex (one can be at once contextual clues such another. Differences in an individual’s identity as actively, observes carefully communication, (for example a girl, a daughter, a farmer, as body language, tone, perspectives or world view predominantly one category and gathers insight, by requesting repetitions or and a citizen). start to be seen as rooted diction, physical interactions, (such as nationality or including social and cultural She can articulate reformulations) but does so in cultural, religious, socio- dress code, or silences. religion). clues that inform her The student does not relationships among very tentatively. The student is surprised economic, regional and communicative choices. The student can break down consider herself as having a perspectives, placing the by any breakdowns in other backgrounds. her messages, providing distinct cultural perspective perspectives in a broader communication and lacks re-statements, revisions or or world view and rather encompassing frame (e.g. a communicative repertoire simplifications of her own believes that what she when the student sees that can resolve or prevent communication. knows is “the norm”. that two classmates from such breakdowns. She employs linguistic different ethnic groups devices such as avoiding fight because of cultural categorical claims, prejudices, she understands connecting to what others that their relationship reflects say, sharing questions and broader tensions in today's puzzles, and acknowledging society). The student views herself contributions in ways that as holding perspectives advance civil and reciprocal and blind spots. She dialogue. understands that her perspective is informed by Basic Intermediate Advanced her cultural context and experiences and that others may perceive her in ways Considering The student considers one 4. Evaluate The student demonstrates The student understands that may differ from the way course of action as obvious actions actions and an ability to identify and that multiple courses of she sees herself. and unproblematic. For consequences evaluate different courses action are possible and example, when presented of action to solve an issue/ necessary to address an with a problem about situation. She weighs these issue/situation or contribute The student appreciates Identifying The student does not The student recognises industrial pollution, her actions against one another, to the well-being of common human rights recognise connections Connections that people from different immediate conclusion would for example, by looking at individuals and societies. and needs and reflects among human beings apart cultures share most basic She can identify directions be “just close all polluting precedents, considering on individual, cultural or from physical connotations human rights and needs for future investigations if factories”. and evaluating available contextual differences and evident cultural markers. (e.g. food, shelter, work, the available evidence is evidence, and assessing the critically, understanding the The student does not education, happiness). insufficient for reaching conditions that may make She understands the obstacles that individuals recognise the impact that conclusions about the best actions possible. meaning of these rights or and societies may confront actions have on others course of action. needs and some of the ways (economic inequality, and sees individuals from in which they can be met. unequal power relations, different cultures or contexts violence or unsustainable as distant or exotic who The student understands Assessing The student understands The student considers conduct) in affirming their think and behave differently the implications of simple consequences the most likely immediate the immediate and rights to diversity and well- and do not share similar actions in linear terms and consequences of a given indirect consequences or being. rights or needs. without weighing multiple implications position or course of action, implications of different She also understands that actions and implications and can assess how these possible actions and universal human rights or considering unintended consequences compare decisions. She can weigh leave considerable space consequences. with available alternative short- and long-term for national, regional and positions/views. consequences as well as cultural individuality and short-range and spatially- other forms of diversity, and distant consequences. The that they allow individuals student also considers the and groups to pursue possibility of unintended their own vision of what consequences as a result of constitutes a good life as actions. long as their choices do not impede others’ core human rights. identify a set of ‘big issues’ that all young people Content of the test units should learn about, regardless of where they live or their socio-cultural background. However A typical test unit is based on a scenario that an exact delimitation of relevant content for focuses on one global or intercultural issue and presents different perspectives on the issue. the scenarios is difficult because global and Scenarios are often used as teaching tools, intercultural issues are in constant evolution. Nonetheless, Table 2 outlines four content and their use in the test units can yield useful domains, and their related subdomains, which evidence for education policy and teachers as they encourage students to think logically and can be considered relevant for all students. systematically. Every scenario in the PISA cognitive test can therefore be categorised according to one of A scenario-based design in an international these content (sub)domains. assessment assumes that it is possible to ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 29 28

16 Table 2. Content domains and subdomains of the scenarios Table 3 sets out the categorisations of complexity asked to reflect about a particular case study of the test units, according to the level of content presented in a test unit. Content Domain 1: Culture and intercultural relations knowledge and general reading skills required by the scenario and test items. Although When students read a text or follow a Subdomain 1.1: Identity formation in multicultural societies Subdomain 1.2: Cultural expressions and cultural exchanges general language decoding and comprehension conversation presented in the scenario of each Subdomain 1.3: Intercultural communication skills are not integral components of global test unit, their understanding is constrained Subdomain 1.4: Perspective taking, stereotypes, discrimination and intolerance by both the content and complexity of the competence, the language used in the test Content Domain 2: Socio-economic development and interdependence scenarios and items will inescapably influence material in the scenario, and the development Subdomain 2.1: Economic interactions and interdependence the difficulty of test units. Highly complex of the cognitive processes necessary for Subdomain 2.2: Human capital, development and inequality language thus needs to be avoided to reduce global understanding. The cognitive demand Content Domain 3: Environmental sustainability of individual test units is therefore defined by the risk that the test results become heavily influenced by differences in text decoding and the level of content knowledge and cognitive Subdomain 3.1: Natural resources and environmental risks Subdomain 3.2: Policies, practices and behaviours for environmental sustainability skills that students need to activate in order language comprehension skills. As for domain- to solve the tasks. In more demanding test specific content knowledge, the requirement Content Domain 4: Institutions, conflicts and human rights of prior exposure to relevant information and units the student must generally contribute Subdomain 4.1: Prevention of conflicts and hate crimes intercultural situations is an important driver information from his or her own knowledge Subdomain 4.2: Universal human rights and local traditions Subdomain 4.3: Political participation and global engagement about the content domain that is not explicitly of a test unit’s difficulty, and thus of students’ stated in the scenario. performance on the cognitive test. gender, religion, socio-economic differences Test developers should aim at a balanced and so on — students can be assessed on their Table 3. Dimensions and levels of complexity of the scenarios coverage of the four content domains across intercultural communication and understanding the different units that constitute each 1-hour Percentage General knowledge (text and Levels of Percentage skills (cognitive processes 2 and 3, and content cognitive test, favouring scenarios that cut Domain-specific knowledge of scenarios of scenarios language) complexity domain 1). Scenarios that incorporate histories across multiple content domains. The test The topic analysed in the test unit is Low Around 60% The scenario is framed in very simple Around 40% units should privilege stimulus material that is of conflicts or positive cultural exchanges in familiar to the vast majority of students. language, without technical words or Very limited prior knowledge of the expressions that are unique to a certain familiar and relevant to 15-year-olds, in order to multicultural neighbourhoods (local context) topic/issue is required from students to socio-cultural or demographic group. understand what the unit requires. facilitate students’ engagement with the task. can serve as useful background for test items The risk associated with sensitive topics (e.g. a assessing students’ understanding of the Medium Most students regularly hear about the The language in the scenario is familiar Around 40% Around 30% topic/issue but they are not necessarily to the majority of 15-year-old students. case study on hate violence against minorities challenges of social integration within their familiar with all its aspects. Students The choice of words is typical of who have had some exposure to the communication addressed to non- may be sensitive for a student from a minority local community; scenarios in which students topic/issue in or outside of school can specialist audiences. Differences in be expected to perform better on the communication styles across groups group) should be carefully assessed and are required to analyse global news or work unit. are minimised whenever fictional conversations are used as scenarios. minimised during the design of the scenarios remotely on a project with other students in Single texts are internally coherent and and related test items. The combination of a different country can tap into a wide variety multiple texts are clearly connected. appropriate media, such as texts, comic strips of content domains and cognitive processes. Most students have heard about the High The scenario is framed in more complex Around 20% Around 10% topic/issue but, given its complexity, only language that is typical of formal and photography, can increase the quality and a minority of students can be expected writing or professional conversation, to be familiar with the content of the unit. and can include a limited amount of Complexity of the test units relevance of the scenario for students, reducing Students who have had some exposure content-specific or technical vocabulary. the reading load and increasing students’ to the topic/issue in or outside of school Communication between actors in can more easily engage with the test unit the scenario can reflect differences in engagement with the tasks. It is also important The effective use of the assessed cognitive and are expected to perform significantly communication styles among groups, bet te r. although most students are expected to avoid scenarios which present a stereotypical processes (described in Table 1) is intimately tied to be able to follow the conversation and understand its overall meaning (no to the students' content knowledge of the issue representation of certain identities or cultural jargon or convoluted phrasing is used). or situation they are asked to work on. While groups, and could thus further contribute to single stories and prejudice. the cognitive skills of analysing and evaluating other cultures can be traced to the varying International asymmetries in a student’s information are intrinsically general in nature, socio-cultural environments in which they live As well as varying by content, the scenarios in opportunity to learn the subject matter are global and intercultural issues present their own specific challenges that require knowledge of the probably more important in an assessment and learn. Learning for global competence is each test unit can vary by context. For example a cultural activity, not just because it is partly of global competence than in assessments of world and of cultural differences. For example, they can refer to the personal context of the student (situations relating to the self, family and acquired through social interactions but also only those students who have some degree more traditional subjects, such as science or because the process is influenced by the way of knowledge of the consequences of climate peer groups), to their local context (wider social mathematics. This is because only a minority of schools already consciously include global in which specific cultural groups interpret the networks, neighbourhood, city or country) or change can fully understand conflicting positions education in their curriculum, and the content in a debate on the reduction of carbon emission world and transmit information. to a global context (life across the world, as of global education varies significantly across experienced through exposure to the media and in cities. Similarly, if a student does not know countries. Moreover, the learning process of These asymmetries in content knowledge are anything about an issue, they will find it difficult participation in social networks). For example, global competence takes place within a context in the personal context of student interaction expected to matter for performance on the to consider the issue from multiple perspectives. within a multicultural classroom — whereby a that extends far beyond the classroom: an test. However, the design of the test makes Background content knowledge is considered, multicultural classroom encompasses not only the PISA cognitive assessment fundamentally in this framework, as an important facilitator of important factor determining the extent to differences in national backgrounds but also in the cognitive processes that students use when which students know about global issues and different from a knowledge quiz. Firstly, no ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 31 30

17 test item directly assesses factual knowledge perspective-taking abilities can be assessed that include detailed qualitative descriptions Finally the ‘student as debaters’ scenarios of performance standards (Andrade, 2005; require test takers to develop arguments and by asking them to examine the causes of a (for example, an item would not ask students misunderstanding or conflict between two to specify the increase in global temperature compare different perspectives on an issue Popham, 1997; Popp, Ryan and Thompson, reported in the last International Panel on Climate members on the research team. in a debate format. The scenario typically 2009; Stellmack et al., 2009; Thaler, Kazemi 6 Change report). Secondly, only a minority of test provides some background information and Huscher, 2009) . Most units in the test units will require students to have a high level of on the issue that students can use for their The second format presents performance should include at least one question with an tasks that students should solve by acting as responses. The questions in the scenario ask open-response format. background knowledge of global and intercultural issues (Table 2). While background content reporters: the scenario asks students to put the students to develop (or select) arguments for their side, and address and rebut the themselves in the shoes of a journalist who knowledge assists students’ understanding of Moderators of performance: reading comprehension, attitudes the scenario, performance on the test should arguments their opponent’s side has made. If wants to write an article about a piece of news he or she has heard. The text in this type of and values properly transposed to an assessment format, mainly reflect students’ capacities to use scenario typically takes the form of an extract the debate format can stimulate students’ their reasoning and perspective-taking skills engagement and give them the opportunity to connect their general knowledge of global Certain individual factors that are not explicitly from a newspaper or from social media where issues to new and unanticipated problems and assessed in the PISA cognitive test may to demonstrate their grasp of thinking and the main elements of a case are presented. situations. The test design mitigates international communication skills. A first question or set of questions typically nonetheless moderate students’ performance. In the 2018 iteration of the test, the scenarios asymmetries in students’ opportunity to learn verifies whether the students understand the message, can assess the quality and credibility are mostly based on written texts, despite This description of scenario formats is not background content knowledge because it asks of information reported in the source, and can students to work on several short test units in efforts to efficiently integrate texts and images. exhaustive, and other types of scenarios can be The capacities that students need in order to explored during the test development process. different content domains. Test takers from a reason beyond the text questioning possible perform well on the global competence test given socio-cultural context will thus likely have motivations and subjective interpretations of Response format more background knowledge on some areas, the information by the author. The scenario therefore overlap to a certain extent with those but not on others. required for reading literacy, because the PISA then develops as students are asked to search definition of reading literacy has progressively The form in which the evidence is collected for their own information and sources, for – the response format – varies according to Format of the scenarios example by asking students to identify which put more emphasis on students’ capacities stakeholders they would like to interview, the cognitive process that is assessed and to analyse, synthesise, integrate and interpret The scenarios used in the test should reflect the multiple texts (OECD, 2016). However, this the chosen format of the scenario. Various and/or selecting relevant questions to ask variety of contexts and roles in which students response formats can require different skills. For different actors in order to better understand framework identifies a set of perspective- can learn about global issues or explore the example, closed and multiple-choice response taking and reasoning abilities that clearly go their actions and perspectives. This type of complexity of intercultural interactions. The items depend more on decoding skills, because scenario can assess all the cognitive processes beyond reading proficiency, and focuses on the application of these abilities to specific content authenticity and relevance of the tasks are in the framework, and works particularly well readers have to eliminate incorrect responses, areas (global and intercultural issues). The when compared to open-constructed response for assessing students’ capacity to select, critically important to stimulate a sufficient level specificities of global issues and intercultural use information and assess the validity of of engagement with the test. The scenarios can items (Cain & Oakhill, 2006). information. The investigative nature of the relations contribute to defining and determining be designed using the following four formats tasks should be sufficiently stimulating and that assign a particular role to the student, As in any large-scale assessment, the range the cognitive processes and skills employed realistic for most students. providing a clear purpose to engage in the task: of feasible item formats is limited to some in the tasks. combination of open and closed response questions. However, contextualised open- It will be possible to measure and partially 1. The ‘students as mediators/team-members’ students as researchers response items are particularly relevant for scenarios ask students what they would suggest 2. students as reporters account for the correlation between reading this assessment as they ask the learner to 3. students as mediators or team-members skills and global understanding as students to moderate or solve a conflict in their schools or neighbourhood. The text typically takes the form assemble relevant, abstract, conceptual and tested in global competence in 2018 will also students as debaters. 4. of a conversation, where two or more actors be tested in reading. Thus, individual students’ case-specific knowledge components for have a conflict over an issue. The questions a problem-solving task (Spiro et al., 1995). and countries’ results on the assessment could In the first format – students as researchers ask students to identify who is involved in the be compared before and after accounting for Open-response items were already used and – the test takers are asked to imagine that they are enrolled in a course at their school their performance in reading. situation, how the different stakeholders are validated in the ICCS’s International Cognitive and that they need to submit a collaborative likely to feel, think and react, and why they think Test (Schulz et al., 2008), NAEP Civics (National Assessment Governing Board, 2010), and in research paper with other fellow students at and react in this way, based on the relationships the end of the school term. In this scenario, the between characters and their social and cultural the United Kingdom’s GCSE examination in student has to examine information from web Citizenship Studies (Department for Education characteristics. The test-taker can also be asked to generate or identify possible solutions that searches or from inputs from other students (UK), 2014). The open-response items are scored using rubrics – scoring guidelines on the team. This format tests multiple types consider the interests of all or most parties. This type of scenario can effectively test students’ of cognitive processes: students’ capacities ability to acknowledge, articulate, position and to select information can be assessed by 6 Doscher (2012) explores the validity and reliability of two rubrics for the Global Learning Initiative at Florida International presenting them with multiple results from web interpret multiple stakeholders’ perspectives in University (FIU). The rubrics referred to two case studies measuring university students’ global awareness and perspectives. a given social conflict, and provide solutions that queries and asking them to select the one that The rubrics yielded scores that reliably measured students’ global learning outcomes. Students who attended global learning consider and integrate these different positions. is most appropriate to the research; students’ courses scored significantly higher on the performance tasks than students who did not attend such courses. ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 33 32

18 Attitudes can facilitate global and intercultural Global-Mindedness Scale, for example, was relating to global issues, such as explaining how intercultural understanding. While values are understanding at the affective level, and can carbon-dioxide emissions affect global climate an integral part of global competence, the developed in order to “measure attitudes of thus act as moderators of performance in the students related to their sense of connection PISA cognitive test does not assess values. change. Another question asks students to The proposed test asks students to reflect on to, interest in, and responsibility for, the global cognitive test. Some examples of attitudes report how familiar they are with different global community and the behaviours associated with that support the practice and development the validity and consequences of statements, issues, such as climate change and global of cognitive skills with respect to global warming, global health and migration. this perspective” (Hett, 1993). The items in the and to elaborate their own conclusions about competence are: curiosity about other cultures; scale addressed both beliefs and behaviours: a specific issue or situation. for example, students were asked to report the Self-reported ability to communicate in inquisitiveness with regard to a wide range This issue requires a careful choice of the of global issues; conscious efforts to remain extent to which they agreed with the statement multicultural contexts test questions that can be included in the well-informed about current events at the “I tend to judge the values of others based on A second set of questions refers to the linguistic, international cognitive assessment. Students local and global level; a positive and respectful my own value system”. regard of cultural differences; and a desire to could be asked to evaluate statements that are communication and behavioural skills that are clearly right or wrong on the basis of objective do something about global problems that required to communicate with other people, Following this literature, the student questionnaire in PISA 2018 includes multi- to manage breakdowns in communication, threaten the needs and freedoms of current criteria, because they adhere to or contradict and to mediate between speakers of different and future generations (global mindedness). statement items using Likert-type methods. agreed scientific or historical evidence. However, all the questions in the cognitive test languages or cultures. Students’ progression These items are based, as much as possible, These attitudes will not be measured directly in this component can be evaluated according on pre-existing works, taking into account should not aim at assessing students on their in the cognitive test. However in the contextual ethics and opinions, but rather on their capacity issues of testing time and question sensitivity PISA questionnaire, students will report the to their proficiency in a foreign language and through their self-reported ability to handle extent to which they agree with a series of to recognize and explain the complexity of a and adapted as best can be to the reality of statements related to such attitudes (see communication with people from other cultural case and the multiplicity of possible positions. 15-year-old students. Annex C includes the section on self-reported information in the questions and items on global competence For example, in a hypothetical scenario backgrounds and in unfamiliar contexts. student questionnaire). The triangulation that will be included in the PISA 2018 student describing the case of a father who steals in of results of the cognitive test and the self- questionnaire. These questions are a subset order to feed his starving children, the students Self-reported data on foreign language reported information from the questionnaire proficiency can be used to examine the would not be asked to conclude whether or of a larger set of material that was field trialled across all countries participating in PISA. In the will provide relevant evidence on how attitudes not the action deserves a given punishment; relationships between acquiring a second support global and intercultural understanding. language and measured levels of global the questions would rather ask the students to transition from the field trial to the main study, understanding or positive dispositions some questions were deleted and some scales demonstrate an understanding that the law may in some cases and under certain perspectives toward other countries and cultures. Such an Arguably, the most complex issue for the were shortened in order to save testing time, all investigation could have several relevant policy collide with basic human needs, and to identify/ operationalisation of this assessment the while still ensuring the proper coverage of implications for both language teaching efforts explain the possible risks and uncertainties of this framework and preserving the psychometric framework relates to a clear definition of validity of the scales. The longer questionnaire the way in which values affect global and establishing ad-hoc exceptions to the law. and curricular programmes aimed at increasing tested in the PISA field trial, as well as the field the level of students’ understanding of global issues. trial analysis of the psychometric quality of the Self-reported information in the student questionnaire material, are available upon request. In addition to the results of the cognitive The student questionnaire for PISA 2018 desirability. Attitudes, in particular, are related reports how many languages students and assessment, the reporting on global The analysis of the responses to these items to self-image and social acceptance. In order to preserve a positive self-image, students may be is expected to support the future development competence in PISA 2018 will include their parents speak well enough to be able to country- or sub-population level information converse with others. The questionnaire also of questions on attitudes and behavioural or tempted to answer questionnaire items in a way on students’, school principals’, teachers’ and includes one question asking the students the that they believe is socially acceptable. Self- emotional skills that might be included in future reported scales that measure attitudes towards rounds of PISA. Future work beyond 2018 extent to which they would explain things very parents’ responses to questionnaire items. race, religion, sex, etc. are particularly affected might also consider integrating other methods carefully, check understanding or adapt their language when talking in their native language for measuring attitudes and “soft skills” that are For socio-emotional skills and attitudes, finding by social desirability bias. Respondents who harbour a negative attitude towards a less prone to social desirability bias. with people whose native language is different. the right method of assessment is arguably more a stumbling block than deciding what particular group may not wish to admit, even to Self-reported knowledge and skills to assess. It is practically not possible to Self-reported adaptability themselves, that they have these feelings. In a define scales for self-reported attitudes and study of attitudes towards refugees, Schweitzer skills that are always 100% valid. The strategy et al. (2005) found that social desirability bias Self-reported knowledge of global and Research on intercultural communication has developed and validated several items adopted in PISA 2018 has privileged the use accounted for 8% of the variance in attitudes. intercultural issues and scales on adaptability and flexibility. For and adaptation of scales that have already been A first set of questions in the student example, the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale of A large number of Likert-type scales appear validated in other empirical assessments. in the literature on civic and democratic Portalla and Chen (2010) includes self-reported questionnaire covers knowledge of global and intercultural issues. One question in the PISA attitudes and a number of them are related to measures of behavioural flexibility, such as the The most common problem with assessing 7 self-reported skills and attitudes is that of social 2018 questionnaire asks students to report . The level of agreement with the statement “I often global competence as defined in PISA how easily they could perform a series of tasks act like a very different person when interacting 7 Likert scales involve a series of statements to which respondents indicate agreement or disagreement on, for example, a 4- or 5-point response scale. ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 35 34

19 The student questionnaire also provides particular, asks students to report whether they with people from different cultures”. The PISA Self-reported global mindedness think that their teachers treat students from all information on teachers’ behaviours from the 2018 question includes one multi-statement perspective of the students. One question, in cultural groups with equal respect. The PISA questionnaire includes one question question on adaptability, asking students how on global mindedness. The six items in the they deal with challenging interactions with question are expected to assess the following people from other cultural backgrounds. The facets of global mindedness: ‘sense of world six items in the question were adapted from citizenship’ (item no. 1), ‘responsibility for validated scales in Martin and Rubin (1995) and Dennis and Vander Wal (2010). others in the world’ (items 2, 4 and 6), ‘sense of inter-connectedness’ (item 3) and ‘global self-efficacy’ (item 5). Self-reported perspective taking As in the case of adaptability, there are several Questionnaire items on strategies, scales on perspective taking and on empathy pedagogies and attitudes to teach that have been specifically designed for global competence adolescents and have been reviewed for the PISA questionnaire. These include the Index of The PISA 2018 questionnaire will provide Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA, information on innovations in curricula and Bryant, 1982), the empathy subscale from the teaching methods aimed at preparing students for global citizenship. Two questions focus on Children’s Behaviour Questionnaire (Rothbart the curriculum. One question asks principals et al., 1994), the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, Davis, 1980), the Basic Empathy and teachers whether the curriculum includes global topics such as climate change and Scale (Jolliffe and Farrington, 2006), and the global warming, global health or migration. Adolescent Measure of Empathy and Sympathy Another question asks principals and teachers (AMES, Vossen et al., 2015). In the PISA student questionnaire, one question comprised of five whether the formal curriculum refers to global items assesses perspective taking. The five competence skills and dispositions, such as items have been adapted from Davis (1983) communicating with people from different and are expected to form a uni-dimensional cultural backgrounds or countries, or openness to intercultural experiences. construct. Self-reported attitudes A second set of questions focuses on educators’ beliefs and practices. One question asks principals to report on their teachers’ general Self-reported openness toward people from other cultural backgrounds beliefs about how the school should handle ethnic diversity. A second enquires about specific practices for multicultural learning at The PISA questionnaire includes one question assessing students’ “interest in learning about the school level, such as teaching about the other cultures”. The question assesses a beliefs, customs or arts of diverse cultural groups that live in the country, or encouraging student’s desire or willingness to learn about students to communicate with people from other countries, religions and cultures. The other cultures via the internet and social media. four items included in the question have been adapted from different sources, such as Chen Two questions in the PISA teacher questionnaire et al. (2016) and Mahon and Cushner (2014). enquire about the teachers’ level of preparation to respond to different student communities, Self-reported respect for people from other potentially through different teaching strategies. cultural backgrounds One question provides information on whether a teacher has studied intercultural issues or One question in the PISA questionnaire asks the received training in pedagogical methods to students to report to what extent they feel they respect and value other people as equal human teach effectively in multicultural environments. Another question in the teacher questionnaire beings, no matter their cultural background. will provide information about teachers’ self- The five items were adapted from the Council efficacy in coping with the challenges of a of Europe (2016b), Munroe and Pearson (2006), Lázár (2012), and Fritz et al. (2002). multicultural classroom and adapting their teaching to the cultural diversity of students. ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 37 36

20 Conclusions References Andrade, H. G. (2005) , “Teaching with rubrics: The good, the bad, and the ugly”, College Teaching , Vol. 53/1, How schools respond to growing economic around the world, and on how teachers are pp. 27-30. being prepared to promote global competence. interdependence, cultural divides, new digital Anna Lindh Foundation (2017) , The Anna Lindh Education Handbook, Intercultural Citizenship in the Euro Education systems will thus learn from each opportunities and calls for sustainability will Mediterranean Region, Anna Lindh Foundation. have a significant impact on the well-being of other about how to best adapt curricula, Barrett, M., M. Byram, I. Lázár, P. Mompoint-Gaillard and S. 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22 Schulz, W. et al. (2010) ICCS 2009 International Report. Civic Knowledge, Attitudes, and Engagement Among Lower- , , IEA, Amsterdam. Secondary School Students in 38 Countries , International Debate , Schuster, K. and J. Meany (2005) Speak out! Debate and Public Speaking in the Middle Grades Education Association, New York. , “An overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values”, Schwartz, S. H. (2012) Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Vol. 2/1, http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116 Schweitzer, R. et al. (2005) , “Attitudes towards refugees: The dark side of prejudice in Australia”, Australian Journal , Vol. 57/3, pp. 170-179. of Psychology Experiential activities for intercultural learning . Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Seelye, H. N. (1996) , , Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny , Penguin Books, India. Sen, A. (2007) Annexes Sinicrope, C., J. M. Norris and Y. Watanabe (2007) , “Understanding and assessing intercultural competence: A summary of theory, research, and practice”, Technical report for the Foreign Language Program Evaluation Project, Honolulu, HI. Spiro, R. J. et al. (1988) , “Cognitive flexibility theory: Advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains” th , Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ. Proceedings of the 10 Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society in V. Patel (ed.), , “An assessment of reliability and validity of a rubric for grading APA-style Stellmack, M. A. et al. (2009) Teaching of Psychology introductions”, , Vol. 36/2, pp. 102-107. Cross-Cultural Dialogues: 74 Brief Encounters with Cultural Differences, . Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural , Storti, C. (2017) Press. . Yarmouth, Stringer, D. M. and P. A. Cassidy (2009) , 52 Activities for Improving Cross-Cultural Communication Annex A. Illustrative examples of scenarios for the cognitive ME: Intercultural Press 8 assessment of global understanding Suarez, D. (2003) , “The development of empathetic dispositions through global experiences”, , Educational Horizons Vol. 81/4, pp. 180-82. Are global temperatures rising? Learning a New Land: Immigrant Students , Suárez-Orozco, C., M. M. Suárez-Orozco and I. Todorova (2008) in American Society , Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Content domain: 3. Environmental Sustainability (3.1 Natural resources and environmental risks). , “Developing a rubric to assess student learning outcomes using Thaler, N., E. Kazemi and C. Huscher (2009) Teaching of Psychology , Vol. 36/2, pp. 113-116. a class assignment”, In her science class, Mei reads a research temperatures are not supported by the data. In , Assessing Civic Competency and Engagement in Higher Education: Torney-Purta, J. et al. (2015) article that was featured in the daily press. The fact, global temperatures were lower in 2011 Research Background, Frameworks, and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment , ETS Research Report Series. and 2012 than in 2008 and 2009. author of the article uses the following graph to , “Citizenship studies: Draft GCSE subject content UK Government Department for Education (2014) , Department of Education. (DFE-00582-2014)” argue that popular claims about a rise in global , UNESCO, Paris. Universal Declaration of Cultural Diversity , UNESCO (2001) Available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001271/127160m.pdf Global temperature , UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2007) , Guidelines on Intercultural Education Deviation Intercultural Competences: Conceptual and Operational Framework UNESCO (2013) , , UNESCO, Paris. from mean st , UNESCO, century UNESCO (2014a) Global Citizenship Education: Preparing learners for the challenges of the 21 , 0,7 Paris. 0,6 UNESCO (2014b) , Learning to Live Together: Education Policies and Realities in the Asia-Pacific , UNESCO, Paris. 0,5 Teaching Respect for All UNESCO (2014c) , UNESCO, Paris. , 0,4 , Global Citizenship Education: Topics and Learning Objectives , UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2015) 0,3 Global Education Monitoring Report UNESCO (2016) , UNESCO, Paris. , 0,2 , “Development of the Adolescent Measure of Vossen, H. G. M., J. T. Piotrowski and P. M. Valkenburg (2015) , Vol.74, pp. 66-71. Personality and Individual Differences Empathy and Sympathy (AMES)”, 0,1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.040 0 Williams-Gualandi, D. (2015) , “Intercultural Understanding: What are we looking for and how do we assess what we 2011 2012 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 find?”, Working Papers Series: International and Global Issues for Research No. 2015/7, University of Bath. , pp. 8-19. American Educator , “Critical thinking: Why is it so hard to teach?”, Willingham, D. T. (2007) Mei’s teacher asks the class to have a look at another chart she produced from the same source Zuckerman, E. (2013) , W. W. Norton & Company. Rewire: Digital Cosmopolitans in the Age of Connection , of data in the article. 8 These examples are provided only for illustrative purposes. They have not been prepared nor verified by the professional test developers who are responsible for developing the cognitive instruments for PISA 2018. No fully developed test item is included in these examples. The examples include questions and “answer keys” to these questions that are meant to guide the development of test items using either a multiple-choice or an open-response format. ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 43 42

23 Global temperature Answer key: Question: What is a possible consequence It can reinforce a belief that of the choice of nicknames? national players are smart, hardworking, team Deviation from mean players while foreign players are athletes who 0,5 Question classification: get by on their natural gifts. 4. Evaluate 0,4 actions and consequences (4.2 Assessing 0,3 consequences and implications). 0,2 0,1 0 A song in Quechua -0,1 -0,2 Content domain: 1. Culture and Intercultural Relations (1.1 Identity formation in multicultural -0,3 societies)/ 4. Institutions, conflicts and human rights (4.3 Political participation and global -0,4 engagement). -0,5 -0,6 In a YouTube video that reached over 2 million launched a version in Quechua and the New 1900 1952 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1960 1880 1884 1888 1892 1896 1964 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1956 1948 South Wales Government of Australia has viewers, Renata Flores sings in Quechua, her native language, to Michael Jackson’s “The proposed legislation for protecting and reviving Aboriginal languages. However, keeping alive Question: What can you infer about the Way You Make Me Feel” against the backdrop a study require the researchers to sign a a disappearing language is not an easy task. validity of the article’s claim by comparing of ancient Inca ruins. Renata is an activist nondisclosure agreement before they are the two charts? participating in a project called ‘Las juventudes funded, by which researchers waive their right Question: Which factors, among to release any results independently. tambien hablamos Quechua‘ (The youth, we the following, can contribute to the speak Quechua too). Question classification: 1. Evaluate Question: What is a possible consequence disappearance of languages? information, formulate arguments and explain of allowing unregulated sponsoring complex situations or problems (1.2 Weighing Question: What messages do you think of scientific research by industrial sources). 1. Evaluate Question classification: Renata is trying to convey? companies? information, formulate arguments and explain 2. Identify and Question classification: Answer key: complex situations or problems (1.4 Describing The author’s claim is not based 4. Evaluate Question classification: analyse multiple perspectives (2.1 Recognising and explaining complex situations or problems) on solid evidence. The author should have perspectives and contexts) considered a longer time frame to analyse actions and consequences (4.2 Assessing Young people from minority Answer keys: changes in global temperatures. consequences and implications). groups who think that speaking their heritage Answer keys: She wants to combat young If not properly regulated, some Answer key: The teacher tells the class that the research people’s perceptions of the indigenous language is not cool; lack of Aboriginal in the article was financed by a major oil language as unhip and backwards. She wants financing might result in a “ funding bias ” , due and indigenous language teachers; few disappearing languages have written grammar to the fact that a researcher might be induced to revive her culture and combat uniformity. corporation. She also explains that some companies that hire researchers to perform and dictionaries that people can use to learn to support the interests of the sponsor. them. Several other initiatives are trying to revive disappearing languages. For example, A talented player one of the top Internet search engines has Content domain: 1. Culture and intercultural relations (1.4 Perspective taking, stereotypes, discrimination and intolerance). Clear regulations enforced by Last weekend your team lost because a Answer key: foreign-born player decided to walk away from the referee in which he or she suspends a the game after putting up with racial insults by match whenever he/she hears racial insults, disqualifying the team whose supporters the visiting team’s fans for almost one hour, forcing your team to play 10 against 11. One of perpetrate racist acts. your friends was at the stadium, and told you As you keep talking about the player who that the player should have gone on with the left the game, you realise that both you and game, and not have let the insults get to him. your friend have never used his real name but Question: What could have prevented the always referred to him as “the Animal”. This is player leaving and destabilising his team? the nickname he got from the press after his first game with your team. The captain of your Question classification: 4. Evaluate actions team, who is also the captain of your national and consequences (4.1 Considering actions) team, is nicknamed “the Brain”. ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 45 44

24 Annex B. Description of possible topics for the scenarios of the and ways to combat these. Scenarios in such as schools, community organisations, or workplaces become more effective as this subdomain can reproduce texts, media cognitive test messages or conversations that: exhibit some colleagues/peers adjust their communication explicit or implicit cultural bias against some styles; people fail to understand each other this list that these complex topics have to be This annex lists global and intercultural issues because of different non-verbal communication groups; describe how individuals adjust and that can be used as reference topics to develop developmentally appropriate for 15-year-olds styles (especially given that more is often suffer as a result of cultural prejudices; show scenarios in the cognitive test. It is implied in and sufficiently engaging. communicated nonverbally than through how people correct their stereotypes as they acquire new information about others. Common spoken word); individuals adapt (or fail to adapt) 1. Culture and intercultural relations expressions of prejudice and oversimplification their communication style to different contexts include: gender or socioeconomic-based (academic/informal neighbourhood/online Cultural expressions and cultural This content domain relates to the manifold 1.2 settings); or individuals seek to communicate stereotyping about what students can achieve in exchanges expressions of cultural diversity, such as different subjects; gender or racial biases while while not sharing a language. These situations languages, arts, knowledge, traditions and can be within informal contexts to which selecting applicants for a job; perceptions about This subdomain focuses on issues related norms. Acquiring knowledge in this domain can 15-year-olds may better be able to relate certain groups’ predispositions to violence and to preserving the world’s cultural capital help young people recognise that perspectives such as a sports team, within a friend group, crime; stereotypes about indigenous cultures; (e.g. language, arts and traditions) and the are shaped by multiple cultural influences, in welcoming a new student (even from within intolerance towards sexual inclinations; and relationships between dominant and non- better understand differences among cultures, the same country but different background), religious stereotypes. The scenarios may dominant cultures. Scenarios in this content and value the importance of protecting cultural and so on. invite students to identify, articulate, explain area can describe: expression of different differences. and position different cultural perspectives. cultures in a globalised world; significance 1.4 Perspective taking, stereotypes, They may ask students to engage with these of cultural diversity; public policies to protect Identity formation in 1.1 discrimination and intolerance discrimination cases and manage dilemmas and promote the diversity of language and multicultural societies associated with conflicting value systems. other cultural expressions; school initiatives to Specifically, this could be a conversational This subdomain refers to what students can encourage learning and appreciating different This subdomain focuses on how young people learn about social/cultural understanding exchange in which a biased remark is made cultural traditions; different perspectives on develop their cultural identity in multicultural and perspective taking as well as the nature, and the respondent must determine how to what development means and on how countries communities and interconnected societies. respond. manifestations and impact of cultural prejudices should support other countries’ development; Scenarios in this content area can describe: designing art and cultural education situations where minority individuals and/ programmes in schools; new technologies’ or migrants must navigate between minority 2. Socio-economic development and interdependence role in providing access to cultural expressions; ethnic (home) culture and majority national This domain focuses on economic links between instability; the emergence of global corporations; diversity of public media (access, content and (peer group and school-academic) cultures; impacts of low-cost travel and shipping on local local, regional and worldwide levels and looks language); convergence of people’s habits and young citizens’ rights and responsibilities in at how these links influence opportunities economic systems; technological investments consumption patterns and how transnational different societies; complex views of identity and technology exchanges; wage differences around the globe and across social or cultural ideas (e.g. hip hop, meditation) are culturally (national, gender, religious); ideas of culture groups. Students who acquire an advanced and foreign investments; and the impact of job appropriated in local contexts and/or fused as fixed and determined versus dynamic and level of knowledge in this domain more easily migration on countries. with other cultural practices to form hybrid permeable; expectations of how adolescents understand how people, places and economies cultures. Scenarios could include recognising should behave in and outside of school; causes are strongly interrelated, and are aware that 2.2 Human capital, development cultural elements or messages within such of supportive and conflicting relationships economic policies and choices made at any level and inequality expressions. between teachers and students in multicultural have consequences at all levels, from individual classes; relationships with parents, family and This subdomain focuses on the relationship to global. 1.3 Intercultural communication community networks in different cultures; between economic integration and social tensions between cultural celebrations and 2.1 development. Examples of topics in this Economic interactions and This subdomain focuses on what students can attempts to affirm larger cultural identities; interdependence subdomain include: inequality in education, learn about the complexity of communicative understanding of power and privilege within trends in income inequalities between and processes involving individuals from different a society; distinction between collective and This subdomain focuses on the connections within countries; economic integration and cultural backgrounds. Scenarios in this area individual cultural orientations and the different reducing poverty; developing sustainable and interdependencies of economic systems can represent situations where: diverse value judgements which can arise from these. at multiple levels. Some examples of tourism; changes in employment opportunities audiences interpret different meanings from Scenarios may also address how young people scenario topics framed in this subdomain are: in the face of global automated production and the same information; two or more people fail construct and respond to digital identities. It will computerisation; and education mobility and transnational production of everyday goods to understand each other because they follow be important for these scenarios to address the (cell phones, clothing); financial liberalisation, brain drain. different communication norms; individuals multiple, complex identities held by individuals contagion and crisis; capital flow directions and explore the idea that languages sometimes so that they do not perpetuate the “single story” encode meanings which can be difficult to access in other languages; multicultural settings identity. ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 47 46

25 3. Environmental Sustainability 4.2 Universal human rights and local 4.3 Political participation and This content domain focuses on the complex traditions balance; contamination from pesticide residues; global engagement systems surrounding the demand for and use loss of biodiversity on the planet; access to clean, of natural resources. Students who are more This subdomain refers to the opportunities fresh water; overfishing; and the clearing of forests. This subdomain includes human right exposed to this area learn about the main drivers With any of these topics, it will be important to young people across the world have to express education and scenarios can refer to key their voice and make a difference in local or that deplete the planet’s natural environment, select ones that are most relevant to 15-year-olds. documents such as the Universal Declaration global contexts. Scenarios in this area can of Human Rights or the UN Convention on the and better understand how improving the quality of life should be pursued without describe real experiences of young people who 3.2 Policies, practices and Rights of the Child. Students might be asked damaging the planet for future generations. behaviours for environmental to reflect on the reasons why some people’s have taken action to improve peoples’ living sustainability conditions in their own or other communities, rights are denied (e.g. why gender inequalities 3.1 in access to education persist); enquire about Natural resources and or who are evaluating the actions they can the political, legal, socio-cultural, religious and environmental risks take on a social, civic or political issue. The This subdomain focuses on what policy makers economic factors that can undermine human and individuals can do to reduce resource situations presented in the scenarios can also describe practical difficulties young people rights in particular contexts; analyse opposing depletion and better manage environmental In this subdomain students learn about the main environmental risks facing our planet and about risks. Scenarios in this subdomain can ask arguments and evidence about the universality face when they start volunteering, such as lack students to reflect on tools and instruments (e.g. or relativity of human rights; reflect on the the ecological interdependence of the natural of knowledge about the people they wish to obligations of states in relation to human rights help, recognising their limits in taking action as world. The environmental risks considered in standards, taxes, subsidies, communication this subdomain are widespread, concerning campaigns, education) put in place to encourage an individual, backlash, discouragement and and/or on the means to protect oneself which fatigue. This subdomain also includes issues sustainable consumption and production; how are available to citizens; and reflect on rights both developed and developing countries, and related to how young people are exposed to cause harm to people who have not voluntarily that are in conflict with one another and how environmental risks are communicated in the to resolve such conflicts. media; how governments weigh the risks of the political propaganda and develop their political chosen to suffer their consequences, requiring public authority regulation. In most cases, these opinions. depletion of natural resources when making risks cannot be assessed precisely, and can be choices of economic policy; what role non- government organisations have in forming evaluated differently in different contexts and social terms. A partial list of these risks include: the public opinion about environmental issues climate change; air pollution and related health and changing policies; trade-offs between risks; pollution and over acidification of the development and environmental concerns and differences in how sustainable development oceans; soil degradation; desertification and is understood and political responsibilities are drought; population growth and unsustainable urbanisation; natural disasters; glacier mass allocated in different countries and contexts. 4. Institutions, conflicts and human rights or religious conflicts and hate crimes against This content domain focuses on the formal particular groups. Scenarios in this area can and informal institutions supporting peaceful relationships between people and the respect expose students to different interpretations of fundamental human rights. Students can about the causes of a particular violent conflict; present different historical reconstructions of learn how global institutions such as the United Nations have developed, can be asked to reflect conflicts driven by competition over scarce natural resources or by economic competition on the contested nature of global governance in a world with highly asymmetrical power between countries; encourage them to analyse strategies for managing, resolving relationships, review factors of and solutions and preventing conflicts; ask them to think to current and historical conflicts between about why some conflicts are more difficult countries, ethnic or social groups, and examine to resolve than others; let them reflect on the spaces and opportunities for young people to psychological preconditions that might be play an active part in society and exercise their rights and responsibilities. necessary for reconciliation between conflicting parties (e.g. willingness to admit that one’s own group has perpetrated unacceptable acts, 4.1 Prevention of conflicts and hate etc.); make them examine the role of non- crimes violent protests in social and political change, conflicting definitions of social justice, and This subdomain relates to institutions and strategies for managing, resolving and contrasting arguments about the conditions for lasting peace and greater social cohesion. preventing violent conflicts. Relevant conflicts include international wars, civil wars, ethnic ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 49 48

26 Annex C. Questions related to global competence in the student questionnaire How informed are you about the following topics? How easy do you think it would be for you to perform the following tasks on your own? (Please select one response in each row.) (Please select one response in each row.) I have heard I am familiar I know about this with this something I would but I would I could do and I would about this I have never I could do struggle to I couldn’t not be able this with a bit be able to and could heard of this this easily do this on do this to explain of effort explain this explain the my own what it is well general issue really about Explain how carbon-dioxide emissions affect global climate 01 02 04 03 Climate change and global change 01 02 03 04 warming Establish a connection between prices of textiles and working Global health (e.g. epidemics) 04 02 01 03 conditions in the countries of 02 03 01 04 production Migration (movement of people) Discuss the different reasons why 02 04 03 01 01 02 03 04 people become refugees Explain why some countries suffer International conflicts 04 03 02 01 more from global climate change 02 01 03 04 than others Hunger or malnutrition in different 03 01 04 02 Explain how economic crises in parts of the world single countries affect the global 01 02 04 03 economy Causes of poverty 04 01 02 03 Discuss the consequences of economic development on the 01 04 02 03 environment Equality between men and women 02 01 03 04 in different parts of the world Construct: Self-efficacy regarding global issues Construct: Awareness of global issues ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 51 50

27 How well does each of the following statements below describe you? How well does each of the following statements below describe you? (Please select one response in each row.) (Please select one response in each row.) Very Very Mostly Somewhat Not much Not at all Not at all Not much Mostly Somewhat much like much like like me like me like me like me like me like me like me like me me me I try to look at everybody's side of I can deal with unusual situations. a disagreement before I make a 01 04 03 05 02 02 05 03 04 01 decision. I can change my behaviour to I believe that there are two sides 03 04 02 05 01 meet the needs of new situations. to every question and try to look 04 01 03 02 05 at them both. I can adapt to different situations I sometimes try to understand my even when under stress or 01 03 02 04 05 friends better by imagining how pressure. 02 03 05 01 04 things look from their perspective. I can adapt easily to a new Before criticizing somebody, I try 04 05 01 03 02 culture. to imagine how I would feel if I 04 03 02 05 01 were in their place. When encountering difficult situations with other people, I When I’m upset at someone, I try 02 03 01 05 04 can think of a way to resolve the to take the perspective of that 01 02 03 05 04 situation. person for a while. Construct: Perspective-taking I am capable of overcoming my difficulties in interacting with 05 02 01 04 03 people from other cultures. Construct: Adaptability ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 53 52

28 Imagine you are talking in your native language to people whose native language Are you involved in the following activities? is different from yours. (Please select one response in each row.) To what extent do you agree with the following statements? (Please select one response in each row.) No Ye s Strongly Strongly I reduce the energy I use at home (e.g. by turning the heating down Agree Disagree disagree agree or turning the air conditioning up or down or by turning off the 01 02 lights when leaving a room) to protect the environment. I carefully observe their reactions. 01 02 03 04 I choose certain products for ethical or environmental reasons, 02 01 even if they are a bit more expensive. I frequently check that we are understanding each other 04 02 03 01 I sign environmental or social petitions online. correctly. 01 02 I listen carefully to what they say. I keep myself informed about world events via or 03 01 04 02 01 02 . I choose my words carefully. I boycott products or companies for political, ethical or 04 03 02 01 02 01 environmental reasons. I give concrete examples to I participate in activities promoting equality between men and 01 02 03 04 explain my ideas. 02 01 women. I explain things very carefully. 02 03 01 04 I participate in activities in favour of environmental protection. 01 02 If there is a problem with I regularly read websites on international social issues (e.g. poverty, communication, I find ways 02 01 human rights). 02 01 03 04 around it (e.g. by using gestures, re-explaining, writing etc.). Construct: Student’s engagement (with others) regarding global issues Construct: Awareness of intercultural communication ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 55 54

29 How well does each of the following statements below describe you? How well does each of the following statements below describe you? (Please select one response in each row.) (Please select one response in each row.) Very Very Somewhat Not at all Mostly Not much Not much Somewhat Not at all Mostly much like much like like me like me like me like me like me like me like me like me me me I want to learn how people live in I respect people from other 01 04 02 05 03 02 01 03 04 05 different countries. cultures as equal human beings. I treat all people with respect I want to learn more about the regardless of their cultural 02 03 01 04 05 religions of the world. 03 05 02 01 04 background. I am interested in how people I give space to people from other from various cultures see the 02 04 01 03 05 05 01 03 04 02 cultures to express themselves. world. I am interested in finding out I respect the values of people about the traditions of other 05 04 03 02 01 from different cultures. 04 03 02 05 01 cultures. Construct: Interest in learning about other cultures I value the opinions of people 02 03 01 05 04 from different cultures. Construct: Respect for people from other cultural backgrounds Do you have contact with people from other countries? (Please select one response in each row.) Ye s No In your family 02 01 At school 02 01 In your neighbourhood 01 02 In your circle of friends 02 01 Construct: Contact with people from other countries ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 57 56

30 To what extent do you agree with the following statements? People are increasingly moving from one country to another. How much do you agree with the following statements about immigrants? (Please select one response in each row.) (Please select one response in each row.) Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree agree disagree Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree agree disagree I think of myself as a citizen of the 02 03 01 04 world. Immigrant children should have the same opportunities for 01 02 04 03 education that other children in the When I see the poor conditions country have. that some people in the world live 03 02 01 04 under, I feel a responsibility to do Immigrants who live in a country something about it. for several years should have the 04 01 02 03 opportunity to vote in elections. I think my behaviour can impact 01 02 03 04 people in other countries. Immigrants should have the opportunity to continue their own 02 03 01 04 It is right to boycott companies customs and lifestyle. that are known to provide poor 03 04 02 01 workplace conditions for their Immigrants should have all the employees. same rights that everyone else in 02 03 01 04 the country has. I can do something about the Construct: Attitudes towards immigrants 03 02 04 01 problems of the world. Looking after the global 04 03 01 02 environment is important to me. How many languages, including the language(s) you speak at home, do you and your parents speak well enough to converse with others? Construct: Global mindedness (Please select one response in each row.) One Three Four or more Tw o Yo u 03 02 04 01 Your mother 01 03 02 04 Your father 02 03 01 04 Construct: Number of languages spoken ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 59 58

31 How many foreign languages do you learn at your school this school Thinking about teachers in your school: to how many of them do the year? following statements apply? (Please enter a number. Enter “0” (zero) if you do not have any foreign language courses this (Please select one response in each row.) school year.) To all or To none or To most of To some of Number of foreign languages ____________ 01 almost all of almost none them them them of them Construct: Number of foreign languages learnt at school They have misconceptions about the history of some cultural 02 01 03 04 groups. Do you learn the following at school? They say negative things about (Please select one response in each row.) 02 03 04 01 people of some cultural groups. Ye s No They blame people of some cultural groups for problems faced 02 04 01 03 by . I learn about the interconnectedness of countries’ economies. 02 01 They have lower academic expectations for students of some 03 04 02 01 cultural groups. I learn how to solve conflicts with other people in our classrooms. 01 02 Construct: Intercultural attitudes of teachers I learn about different cultures. 01 02 We read newspapers, look for news on the internet or watch the 01 02 news together during classes. I am often invited by my teachers to give my personal opinion 01 02 about international news. I participate in events celebrating cultural diversity throughout the 02 01 school year. I participate in classroom discussions about world events as part of 01 02 the regular instruction. I analyse global issues together with my classmates in small groups 01 02 during class. I learn that how people from different cultures can have different 01 02 perspectives on some issues. I learn how to communicate with people from different 02 01 backgrounds. Construct: Global competence activities at school ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 61 60

32 ©OECD 2018 ©OECD 2018 63 62

33 Write to us Directorate for Education and Skills OECD 2, rue André Pascal 75 775 Paris Cedex 16 FRANCE [email protected] Visit our website www.oecd.org/edu Explore our data on education and skills gpseducation.oecd.org Read our books on line www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/books Subscribe to our online library www.oecd-ilibrary.org

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