QOL 9.indd

Transcript

1 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY WILLIAM J. BRATTON Police Commissioner

2

3 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 VIBRANT AND DENSE, New York City is inhabited were a symbol of New York for a different reason. - by people from every continent and every coun The underground graffiti, crime, and disorder - try, speaking every language in every accent, rep were emblematic of an aboveground city that had resenting every culture and every creed. It “orbits become so parlous that it was driving America’s around eight million centers of the universe,” as crime rate. That year was crime’s apogee and New York’s poet laureate Billy Collins once wrote. the city’s nadir. In 1990, the city accounted for Today that figure is closer to 8.4 million, and 2.9 percent of the nation’s population and 9.6 doesn’t include the additional millions who come percent of the nation’s homicides and this at a each day, to work, or visit, or otherwise enjoy time when the whole nation was more violent. America’s greatest city. Mayor Bill de Blasio and I By 2013, those figures were 2.7 percent and 2.4 have pledged to make a safer, fairer city for resi- percent, respectively. The city, once the site of a dents and visitors alike, and this report describes tenth of the country’s murders, now literally has one of the main tools for doing so: quality-of-life less than its share. policing. More than any other factor, what caused this ~ amazing change was Broken Windows, or qual - ity-of-life policing. The term Broken Windows PERHAPS EVEN MORE than Lady Liberty in the comes from an eponymous 1982 article in the harbor, the subway pole is the symbol of this city. Atlantic , written by George Kelling and the late Every day, the city’s diverse millions—black and James Q. Wilson. In brief, Kelling and Wilson white, rich and poor, from Brooklyn or Bhutan, asserted that unaddressed disorder encourages from Queens or Qatar—cram into the tight con - more disorder. From that follows crime, then fines of the country’s busiest transit system. Five increasingly serious crime, and finally violence. and a half million people ride the subways every This criminogenic progression existed irrespective day, coursing through the metaphorical heart of of a neighborhood’s demographics. As Kelling and New York. What the subway pole denotes is that - Wilson wrote, “Window-breaking does not neces this city works. In very crowded circumstances, sarily occur on a large scale because some areas five and a half million people—six million on peak are inhabited by determined window breakers days—go to work together and school together, whereas others are populated by window-lovers; sometimes squeezed shoulder to shoulder, and rather, one unrepaired broken window is a signal they do it in peace. Amazingly, there are fewer that no one cares, and so breaking more windows - than six crimes a day on average. Because Ameri costs nothing.” ca’s greatest city is her safest big city, as well. Beginning in 1990, I applied these ideas to crime It wasn’t always so. in the New York City transit system. We wouldn’t ignore the little things. Fare evasion and graffi - When I first came to this city in 1990, as Chief ti would no longer be considered too petty to of the New York City Transit Police, the subways address. In fact, we’d focus on them as vigorously 1

4 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY NYC Crime Rate and Misdemeanor Arrests NYC Misdemeanor Arrest Rate per 100,000 % Above/Below 5-City Avg 40% 4,000 30% 3,500 20% 3,000 10% 0% 2,500 -10% 2,000 -20% 1,500 -30% -40% 1,000 -50% 500 -60% 0 -70% 2006 1982 1984 1986 1990 1988 1992 1994 1996 2012 2010 2008 1998 2004 2002 2000 1980 NYC Crime Rate Relative to 5-City Avg NYC Misdemeanor Arrest Rate In order to put New York City's crime decline in context, this chart displays New York City's crime rate—the blue line—as a percentage above or below the average of the state's five next largest cities (Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, and Yonkers)—the black zero line. Atop that sits New York City’s misdemeanor arrest rate per 100,000 residents, in red. Figure A as on serious crimes like robberies, if not more so. should have been enjoyed by other, fare-paying rigorous, it fell only 17.9 percent. Why? Because serious crime was more likely to - riders. A subway criminal arrested for a misde occur in a lawless environment—and ubiquitous meanor rather than a felony wouldn’t be going to It’s hard to overstate how counterintuitive this low-level disorder signaled lawlessness even more prison, but he wouldn’t be victimizing anyone for was in 1990. Observers, academics, and pundits than serious crime, which was less common. We a while, either. had difficulty with the idea of concentrating also quickly learned that the serious criminals on fare beating when felony violent crime was committed petty crimes, too. When they weren’t Quality-of-life policing in the transit system as predominant as it was. But we proved the committing robberies or assaults, they were hop - worked. From 1990 through 1993, crime rates conventional wisdom wrong, first in the transit ping turnstiles, unlawfully moving between cars, underground fell by 35.9 percent. In the city system and then, starting in 1994, in New York and generally diminishing the quality of life that above, where quality-of-life enforcement was less City as a whole the first time I served as Police 2

5 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Commissioner. With my leadership team—partic - quality-of-life policing to the city as a whole, that may result. That’s why index-crime arrests are ularly Deputy Commissioner of Operations, the we saw New York City’s crime rate fall below the down 36% from 1994 (in 2014, there were 60,000 late Jack Maple, and Chief of Department, Louis average of the state’s next five largest cities. And fewer felony arrests than there were twenty years - Anemone—we established the crime accountabil compared to the crime rate of those other cities, ago). That’s why the city jail population on Rikers ity system known as CompStat. which were not using CompStat and Broken Island was nearly halved between 1993 and 2013. Windows, our crime rate just kept dropping, until That’s why, from 1990 to 2012, New York City has Using crime mapping and organizational account - New York City had nearly 60% less crime than its sent 69% fewer people to state prisons (and it is ability practices, CompStat recreated, at the in-state peers. the major factor in the state prison population executive command level, the Broken Windows declining 25% from 2000 to 2013). Misdemeanor philosophy of sweating the small stuff before it The frequent argument that New York City’s crime arrestees don’t go to prison, and they rarely go to became the big stuff. The advent of quality-of-life decline was or is no greater than the regional or jail. (See page 24.) policing for the cops and management account - national decline is patently untrue. ability for the commanders amounted to a public safety revolution that was about more than More misdemeanor arrests ultimately led to NONE OF THIS means we can’t explore alterna - fighting crime—it was about preventing crime. A few-er felony arrests because the NYPD was tives to misdemeanor arrest. We can and we are primary means of doing so was stopping low-level preventing crime more effectively. By applying doing so. We can be more considered and more disorder and petty crime before they flourished summonses to violations and arrests to misde - considerate. We can be more respectful and more and invited more serious crime. meanor crimes, rather than looking the other respected—and we will be. way because these offenses are “too insignifi - The chart on the previous page (Figure A) shows cant,” officers were correcting conditions early. The fact is that quality-of-life polic-ing is not about - New York City’s crime rate, in blue, as a percent Arresting someone for a misdemeanor frequently the blind pursuit of arrests; it’s about what it says age relative to the crime-rate average of New prevents him from graduating to committing it’s about: the quality of life in this city. Critics York State’s next five largest cities, which is the felonies, for which severe sanctions like prison of Broken Windows regularly conflate it with horizontal zero line. Atop that sits New York City’s “zero-tolerance tactics,” but I have never equated misdemeanor arrest rate per 100,000 residents, the two, nor does George Kelling, and neither did in red. Atlantic Jack Maple or James Q. Wilson. In their article, while discussing order maintenance on After a mid-’80s peak and fall, the misdemeanor public transportation, Kelling and Wilson noted arrest rate gradually began to rise again in 1990. that “the enforcement need involve nothing more Misdemeanor arrestees This was influenced by my adoption of quali - than ejecting the offender (the offense, after all, don’t go to prison, ty-of-life policing in the transit system, as our is not one with which a booking officer or a judge small force started taking back the platforms and wishes to be bothered).” What they were ac - and they rarely go to jail. the trains. When Mayor David Dinkins initiated his knowledging was lawful police discretion, which “Safe Streets, Safe City” program and increased the report that follows defines and discusses at the NYPD’s headcount, the rate increased a length. (See page 11.) bit more because there were more officers to make the arrests. But it wasn’t until 1994, when In my view, Broken Windows should be synon - I assumed leadership of the NYPD and brought ymous with discretion, not zero tolerance. In 3

6 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY thousands of cops at training sessions and roll calls, the first six months of my time with the Transit We’re doing this increasingly well. In 2014, com- and via internal messages and videos. Department, cops issued 30 percent more sum - - plaints to the Citizen Complaint Review Board de monses and made 80 percent more arrests, but clined by 11.3 percent, and when comparing the - We’re not just telling our officers, however. The De they also more than quadrupled ejections from first quarter of 2015 to the first quarter of 2014, partment is actively exploring ways to divert people the system—a non-criminal-enforcement mea- such complaints are down 33 percent. from the criminal justice system, or, once they’re in sure to control behavior. it, to minimize their exposure to it. It is also our obligation to respond with the least intrusion possible—a warning before a sum- In conjunction with the MTA, the Department of mons, a summons before an arrest. This is the The fact is that a lot of quality-of-life Homeless Services, and the Bowery Residents essence of officer discretion. Council, we’ve begun an innovative program where policing stems from responding officers and social workers conduct joint patrols in - Since returning as Mayor de Blasio’s Police Com the subways. During the program’s first months in to 911 and 311 calls for service. missioner, I have made it a mission to reempha- 2014, the outreach teams placed 388 individuals in size discretion for our cops. I want them to be shelters, compared to 63 during the same period in prob-lem solvers, not merely crime fighters. At 2013. - Cops know that when someone’s actions di every weekly CompStat session, Chief of Depart - minish other people’s quality of life, arrests ment James O’Neill and Deputy Commissioner of Mayor de Blasio has also initiated a $130-million and summonses aren’t the only answer. Broken Operations Dermot Shea make it clear that results program to address behavioral health needs in the Windows and CompStat were never and should matter, not numbers. I have said the same to never be about making them the only answer. At the same time, we also should never and must never retreat from enforcing the law. Discretion has limits. When we decline to offer a warning to The Peace Dividend: In 2015, we expect to see recidivists—people caught doing the same thing again and again, with multiple arrests and open cases—that’s not only lawful, it’s sensible. “Catch nearly a million fewer enforcement sharks, not dolphins,” Jack Maple used to say. contacts like arrests, summonses, The fact is that many misdemeanor arrests, and a lot of quality-of-life policing, stem from from and reasonable-suspicion stops responding to 911 and 311 calls for service. (See - page 31.) We must never and will never stop com when compared to their ing when people call, especially since many of the calls come from the poorer communities in this respective highs. city with no where else to turn. Our obligation is to ensure, when we arrive, that we are respect - ful; that we enforce the law equitably; and that we treat every citizen with the dignity that every citizen deserves. 4

7 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 city. It includes finding ways to keep people with that the new card will help minimize arrests that more commonly known as “stop, question, and mental health and substance abuse issues out of stem from a violator’s not possessing identifica - frisk.” Reasonable suspicion stops are an integral the criminal justice system. Some of that money tion. part of policing. They are outlined by federal law, will go to train thousands of officers. For people and nearly every state in the union has a variant. who are sick, we will offer healthcare, not hand - The exploration of alternatives to enforcement is But in 2011, with nearly 700,000 stops, it became cuffs. already giving rise to what I call “the Peace Divi - clear the tool was being overused. Whatever its dend.” In 2015, we expect to see nearly a million efficacy, it was not worth the impact it had on the - The new Municipal ID, IDNYC, which was devel - fewer enforcement contacts like arrests, sum communities where it was employed. oped by the Mayor and the City Council with the monses, and reasonable-suspicion stops when Department’s cooperation and assistance, will compared to their respective historic highs. What differentiates reasonable-suspicion stops further decrease unnecessary arrests. Currently, from summons and misdemeanor enforcement is a small but not insignificant number of people Figure B demonstrates that, from 2011 to 2014, the legal standard that pertains. Reasonable sus - who commit summons-eligible violations cannot the decrease exceeded 800,000. This is a process picion is a lower standard than probable cause. be issued a summons because they lack lawful that began under my predecessor Ray Kelly, but It allows a brief stop, and, if weapons possession identification. When that occurs, they must be it’s one we’re working on more explicitly now. or a violent crime is reasonably suspected, a brief arrested instead. Considering that combined sign- frisk or pat down (not a search). Probable cause, up appointments and enrollments for IDNYC are Most of the reduction stems from a 93.2% de- on the other hand, is explicitly referenced in the currently approaching half a million, we expect cline in reasonable suspicion stops, which are United States Constitution and is a narrower, - higher standard sufficient and necessary for mak ing arrests or issuing summonses in lieu of arrest. Peace Dividend Whereas reasonable suspicion relies strongly on an officer’s articulable but subjective observation, 1,800,000 C-Summonses Reasonable Arrests probable cause is a more fact-based standard. Suspicion 1,600,000 The Peace Dividend—the diminished need to use 1,400,000 enforcement tools for every problem—is in keep- ing with one of the most salient observations that 1,200,000 Kelling and Wilson made about Broken Windows: 1,000,000 “The essence of the police role in maintaining order is to reinforce the informal control mecha- 800,000 nisms of the community itself.” 600,000 In other words, quality-of-life policing is about 400,000 helping neighborhoods achieve an equilibrium that is fair for all residents. I wholeheartedly reject 200,000 the idea that some neighborhoods are more ac- cepting of disorder than others. The quality-of-life 0 2014 2011 expectations of someone living in Riverdale are Figure B 5

8 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY or sex crimes, forcible touching, the violation of no different than those of someone living in Red the Health Code Laws, the Vehicle and Traffic orders of protection, or vandalism. In Figure C, Hook. Laws, and other state laws. the graph on the right shows the breakdown of 156,000 arrestees in misdemeanor crimes for With regard to race, arrests for proactive offenses which victims identified their victimizer. BUT WE KNOW that not all neighborhoods enjoy break down along percentages that are nearly the same quality of life. So with regard to Broken identical to the breakdown of arrests for vic - What’s interesting is that we see the same break- Windows, we go where we are called and where tim-driven offenses. down for so-called “proactive” misdemeanor disorder and crime occur. The NYPD’s policing is arrests. These are misdemeanor arrests for which responsive, not capricious. Among the myriad of factors the NYPD uses when officers observed the offense and took action we deploy officers and allocate resources—911 without a complainant. They are shown in the - Our responsiveness, however, gives rise to anoth - calls, 311 calls, complaint reports, domestic-inci chart on the left, below, which breaks down er misconception about Broken Windows, one dent reports, traffic patterns and accident rates, 100,000 arrestees in victim-driven misdemeanor as misleading as improperly equating it with zero - the presence of infrastructure or cultural monu crimes. Proactive arrests include those involving tolerance. Some critics allege that we “target” ments deemed high-value in a counterterrorism offenses such as theft of service, making graffiti, communities. We do not. Nor, in general, do we sense, residential headcounts—not one is based criminal trespass, possessing or using dangerous “target” individuals—we address behavior. We on income or on race. - drugs or dangerous weapons, gambling, intox use the law to control behavior, taking the law as icated/impaired driving, public lewdness, and - a proxy for the behavioral standards that legisla We focus police resources in neighborhoods and - prostitution and related offenses, as well as mis tures have agreed upon and judges have upheld. communities where the “informal control mech - demeanors described in the Administrative Code, anisms” spoken of by Kelling and Wilson have Our policing is also based on conduct, not de - mographics. In New York City there are intrac - Victim Driven Arrests Proactive Arrests table racial disparities in who commits—and, who suffers from —crime and more importantly, disorder. Blacks and Hispanics represent half of AMER IND 0.2% AMER IND 0.3% ASIAN 5.4% 4.0% ASIAN our city’s population, but represent 96.9 percent of those who are shot, and 97.6 percent of those WHITE WHITE 13.5% 12.9% who commit shootings. For overall violent crime, 91.2 percent of suspects are black or Hispanic. For overall major crime, excluding burglaries and grand larceny auto, for which identified suspects 46.7% BLACK BLACK 46.8% - are rare, 88.6 percent of suspects and 72.3 per cent of victims are black or Hispanic. HISPANIC 34.6% HISPANIC 35.6% - These disparities appear in victim-driven misde meanors, as well. These are misdemeanor crimes for which victims can identify a suspect, such as Figure C - misdemeanor assault, petty larceny, misdemean 6

9 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 been weakened and need to be bolstered. Even and point-of-origin of calls for service, the public shared responsibility. It is something from which in neighborhoods where they are stronger, they wants and requests quality-of-life policing. (See we all benefi t—in economic terms, it is a public cannot always maintain themselves. Anyone the map on page 31.) Polls confi rm this. In August, good. In our democracy, it is government’s fi rst who has been in a subway car when disorder 2014, in the wake of Eric Garner’s death during obligati on. But it is not enti rely the government’s unexpectedly erupts knows this. Under certain a quality-of-life arrest, Quinnipiac University burden, because democracy is about shared circumstances, situati ons that can be informally surveyed city residents for their views on Broken responsibility. We all have a fundamental right to controlled by citi zens can become uncontrollable Windows and their feelings about the police. As live free from fear, free from crime, and free from by anyone but police. might be expected during such a criti cal moment disorder—but while we share that right, we also for the city and the police, the Department’s share the duty to secure it. approval fell. Nine out of ten African-American THE VAST MAJORITY of citi zens obey the law, respondents believed there was “no excuse” for whether from goodness or in acquiescence to how police had acted in arresti ng Mr. Garner. But OVER THE PAST twenty-fi ve years, the police the social contract. But others do not. Their their anger and dissati sfacti on did not extend and the community have largely achieved the acti ons run a gamut, from pett y violati ons to to quality-of-life policing. Even at that strained “safety” part of the “public safety” construct. The serious crime. There are those who live their challenge of the last era was a homicide every days preying on others. Some are violent, some four hours, one hundred shooti ngs a week, and a are thieves, some use bytes rather than bullets. pervasive sense of disorder and fear that pre- Public safety is a Some are bullies, some are desperate, some are vented people from enjoying their public spaces. shared responsibility. driven purely by greed. Some clothe their mis- This crime-based challenge was later exacerbated deeds in poisoned politi cal or religious agendas. by a parallel but separate challenge: the need to For reasons of sociology, psychology, or biology— counter terrorism. But we faced both challenges, moment, the poll showed that African-Americans or some combinati on thereof—these men, and, the community and the police, all of us, together. supported Broken Windows by 56 to 37 percent, less frequently, women, will never disappear. Po- whites by 61 to 33 percent, and Hispanics by 64 lice prevent the crime and disorder these people The challenge of this new era is ensuring that all to 34 percent. People do not want to live in a cause. They must do so vigorously, but they must New Yorkers feel that their city is not only safer, disorderly city. do so fairly and respectf ully. In striving for securi- but fairer. We can achieve this, too, the police and ty, the community’s dignity is not secondary to its the community, together. Our challenge is how to respond to disorder in a wellbeing. Because policing isn’t just about crime, way that our acti ons do no harm. Instead, those it’s about people—the crime fi ghti ng is one facet acti ons should always provide opportuniti es to of the real mission, which is serving the public. build positi ve relati onships with the public we serve—because safety without public approval is Police and community have more in common not public safety. that unites us than divides us. The challenge is to identi fy and secure that common ground The policing of any community, of any city, is not and expand it. As evidenced by the frequency solely incumbent on the police. Public safety is a 7

10 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY INDEX FOREWORD...1 INDEX...8 INTRODUCTION...10 to Arrest...10 Authority imes...11 Cr etty Offenses...11 P Penalties...11 Civil iscretion...11 D MISDEMEANOR ARRESTS IN NEW YORK CITY...12 ests for Crimes against Persons and Property...12 Arr raffic Arrests...13 T ransit Arrests...14 T ransit Recidivist...15 T meanor Drug Arrests...16 Misde Marijuana Arrests...16 Misde meanor Narcotics Arrests...17 Criminal Trespass Arrests...18 Str eet Level Quality-of-Life Arrests...19 meanor Arrests in 2014...19 Misde P ercentage Increases in Misdemeanor Arrests...19 Arrest History of Misdemeanor Arrests...19 Prior Charting Misdemeanor Arrests...21 P ost-Arrest Processing...22 Desk Appearance Tickets...22 Arr aignment Arrests...23 l...24 Bai meanor Arrest Outcomes...25 Misde CRIMINAL COURT SUMMONSES...26 Issued in 2014...26 C-Summonses Adjudic ation of C-Summonses...27 Consump tion of Alcohol in Public...28 8

11 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Disor derly Conduct...28 derly Conduct Summonses...28 Disor T ransit Adjudication Bureau Notice of Violation...29 Charting C-Summons Activity...30 RACIAL IMPACT, OFFICER DISCRETION, CIVILIAN COMPLAINTS, AND PRISON POPULATIONS...33 Race and Ethnicity...33 R esponse to Calls and Complaints...34 etion and Dispute Resolution...36 Discr Civilian Complaints...37 and Jail Population...38 Prison POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY IN 2015...39 GLOSSARY...40 Note on Data: All figures are preliminary and subject to further review and revision. Note on Maps: Maps do not identify every location of arrest or summons issuance, nor do they identify every location of a 911 or 311 call for service. Maps utilize densities to illustrate areas with the highest listed activity. 9

12 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY closely with the origin points for calls for service State, or by any order, rule, or regulation of any INTRODUCTION via 9-1-1 and 3-1-1, as well, particularly calls governmental instrumentality authorized by law 1 about disputes and disorderly groups. While offi - to adopt the same. This report takes a close look at the NYPD’s en- cers always respond to these calls, officers often forcement of lesser crimes through misdemeanor The authority of a New York City police officer correct conditions without using enforcement arrests, criminal-court summonses, and notices to intervene in suspected crimes or to arrest for action. of violation. What it shows is that, contrary to an alleged offense is outlined in the New York general opinion, enforcement actions of all kinds 2 According State Criminal Procedure Law (CPL). The historic increase in misdemeanor arrests have been declining in New York City, in what Po- to the CPL, a police officer may forcibly stop a paralleled a decrease in major crime and felony lice Commissioner Bratton has called the “Peace person if he reasonably suspects that person has arrests. More recently, that increase has been Dividend.” The report also explains, in detail, committed, is committing, or is about to commit reversed and misdemeanor arrests are falling. what types of arrests are made and what types of any felony or Penal Law misdemeanor. A police Quality-of-life policing and Broken Windows summonses are issued—in what numbers and for officer may arrest a person for a crime if he has assert that misdemeanor arrests help forestall what offenses. reasonable cause to believe that that the person has committed a crime, also known as probable The majority of misdemeanor arrests fall into . A police officer may arrest a person for an cause three categories: 1) crimes against persons and Fewer than one out of ten - offense below the level of a crime if he has rea property; 2) traffic-related crimes; and 3) theft of sonable cause to believe the offense was commit - misdemeanor arrestees is service. These categories have been increasing in ted in his presence. recent years, as arrests for drug offenses, tres - sentenced to jail time. passing, and other crimes have declined. Fewer The Penal Law classifies offenses under four than one out of ten misdemeanor arrestees is types: felonies, misdemeanors, violations, and sentenced to jail time. felony crime. During the era of quality-of-life traffic infractions. Felonies and misdemeanors policing, from 1994 to today, we have seen major 3 Violations and traffic are classified as . crimes The majority of criminal-court summonses, crime plummet and felony arrests fall. Further - 4 In petty offenses . infractions are classified as known as C-summonses, are for three violations: more, because misdemeanor arrests rarely result New York City each of these offense categories 1) consumption of alcohol in public; 2) disorderly in jail time, both the jail population on Riker’s Is - is treated differently by the New York City Police conduct; and 3) urinating in public. In most in - land and the prison population in New York State Department. As the level of offense rises, so does - stances, C-summonses can be settled by appear penitentiaries have fallen dramatically during that the intrusion into an offender’s freedoms. The ing in court and, if convicted, paying a fine. For time. - police response to each alleged offense is out summonses issued for consumption of alcohol or lined below: urinating, that fine can be paid by mail in which Authority to Arrest case no appearance is necessary. An offense, as defined in the New York State Misdemeanor arrests are effected and C-sum - Penal Law, is conduct for which a sentence to a monses are issued in every part of the city. term of imprisonment or to a fine is provided by 1 NYS Penal Law Section 10.00(1) But the locations where they are concentrated 2 any law of New York State or by any law, local law, NYS CPL Article 140 3 correlate closely with the locations of both major NYS Penal Law Section 10.00(6) or ordinance of a political subdivision of New York 4 and minor crimes in New York City. They correlate NYC CPL section 1.20(39) 10

13 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Crimes en the case with violations This is oft Œ Discretion rson found to have allegedly commit • - A pe committed in the transit system. While all - ted a felony offense generally will be arrest violations outlined in the Transit Author - “Officer discretion” is a phrase used to describe ed, fingerprinted, and brought to court for ity Rules of Conduct can be criminally the latitude granted to police officers to resolve arraignment. prosecuted, they can also be adjudicated conditions involving crimes and petty offenses - • A person found to have allegedly commit civilly through the Transit Adjudication with a continuum of options from warning, to - ted a Penal Law misdemeanor offense gener Bureau (TAB). summons, to arrest. According to the Criminal ally will be arrested, fingerprinted, and either ew York City police officers assigned N Œ Procedure Law, officers “may arrest” individu - brought to court for arraignment or released to the Transit Bureau will almost always als for petty offenses committed in the officer’s from the police station with a summons to issue the civil TAB notice to properly iden - presence, and they “may arrest” people who appear at Criminal Court, also known as a tified violators of the transit rules, unless have committed crimes regardless of whether Desk Appearance Ticket, or DAT. the subject has a warrant or is classified a they observed the crime so long as the officer has • A person found to have allegedly commit - transit recidivist (defined later). probable cause. The only exception to an officer’s ted a non-Penal Law misdemeanor offense • An individual found to have allegedly discretion to arrest is in the area of domestic - generally will be issued a summons return committed a traffic infraction generally will violence, where the Criminal Procedure Law able to the Summons Part of the local Crimi - receive a traffic summons returnable to the mandates that an officer must arrest for certain nal Court. New York State Traffic Violations Bureau. crimes committed against a member of the per - 5 One not Œ - able exception to this proce petrator’s family or household. dure is the New York State Vehicle and Civil Penalties Outside domestic-violence incidents, officers - Traffic Law misdemeanor offense of driv generally have the option to warn and admonish ing with a suspended license. A person - As a practical matter, New York City police of people who have committed offenses. In New found to be driving with a suspended ficers cannot enforce rules and local laws that York City, officers often warn and admonish in license generally will be arrested and provide for civil penalties only. In New York State, petty offense cases. As a practical matter and by issued a DAT. a police officer’s authority to arrest does not Department policy, however, all offenses that in - extend beyond crimes and petty offenses. While - volve victims generally have much higher thresh Petty Offenses an unwritten social contract may allow a police olds for the exercise of officer discretion. When a - • A person found to have allegedly commit officer to intervene and mediate civil matters, the victim or complainant is involved, and probable ted a violation offense generally will be issued laws of the state stop short of granting officers cause exists, officers usually will make an arrest. a summons returnable to the Summons Part arrest authority in civil law. Therefore, unlike the of the local Criminal Court. cases of criminal or traffic summonses, if people If the Œ person has a warrant, or cannot refuse to identify themselves when stopped for 5 The Family Court Act’s definition of family - be properly identified, he may be arrest civil violations, officers are neither able to compel includes persons who: 1) are currently or ed and brought to court for arraignment. that identification nor to arrest these individuals formally legally married 2) related by mar- • If the violation offense also carries a civil because there is no criminal penalty associated riage 3) related by blood 4)have a child in penalty, the person may be served a civil with civil transgressions. common or 5) are currently or have been in an intimate relationship notice of violation (NOV) to appear at an administrative tribunal or the Environmental Control Board. 11

14 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY - value of $1,000 or less). (See Figure 2.) These mis Arrests for Crimes Against Persons and MISDEMEANOR ARRESTS IN demeanor crimes were driven by a growing resi- Property NEW YORK CITY 6 the theft of small, dential and tourist population; portable, valuable electronics; and increased The rise in misdemeanor arrests was driven, in From 1994 to 2010 misdemeanor arrests in New reporting of domestic-violence crimes, as well as part, by misdemeanor “victim crimes,” defined as York City increased by more than 100,000. (See 7 expansion of the definition of a family offense. crimes against persons or property. These types of Figure 1.) Since 2010, misdemeanor arrests have crime increased by nearly 32,000 incidents from steadily decreased, driven largely by a decline in 1994 to 2010, including misdemeanor assaults arrests for low-level marijuana offenses. and petit larcenies (the theft of property with a Misdemeanor Arrests in New York City Arrests in New York City Misdemeanor 292,219 300000 259,926 250000 187,385 200000 150000 10000 50000 0 2009 2008 2007 2006 2010 2011 2013 2014 2004 2005 2012 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Figure 1 7 6 In 2008 New York State expanded the During this time, the population of the city increased by more than one million definition of a family to include persons with people. Tourism also increased dramatical- intimate relationships. This in turn increased ly from about 28 million visitors per year the number of offenses for which an arrest in 1995 to more than 56 million visitors in must be made. 2014. 12

15 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 80000 Misdemeanor Assault Arrests for Theft and Arrests for Theft and t Assual Misdemeanor 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 2013 2014 2004 2005 2003 2002 2001 2010 2011 2012 2009 2000 1999 1998 1996 1997 2008 1995 1994 2006 2007 Figure 2 Traffic Arrests expanded, driven by advances in technology, and From 1994 to 2014, arrests for traffic offenses 25,000 in 2014. During that time, New York State training on the use of state databases to identify also grew. While arrests for Driving While Intoxi - introduced several new penalties that allowed for variations of names, aliases, and transposed dates cated increased over these years, the traffic-arrest the state to suspend a person’s license. A person’s 8 of birth. increase was primarily attributable to arrests for license to drive can now be suspended for failure driving with suspended or revoked licenses. In to pay child support or vehicle insurance, as a While still elevated by historical standards, arrests 1993, the New York State legislature raised the condition of parole or probation, or as a penalty - for driving with a suspended license have de offense of driving with a suspended license from for a drug conviction. creased by 25 percent in the first quarter of 2015, a traffic infraction to a misdemeanor. Over the compared to the first quarter of 2014. next 20 years the number of arrests grew from - Also during this time, the officer’s ability to iden slightly more than 5,000 in 1994 to more than tify drivers with suspended licenses in the field 8 Out-of-state motorists and persons with no license who had their driving privileges suspended in New York must be identified through name and date-of-birth checks. A misspelling of the name or failure to use a middle initial could lead to a negative finding in the computer sys- tem. Transposed names and dates of births (on the original summons) have also been found to produce false negatives when conducting a license check. 13

16 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Arrest Outcome of 94,753 Recorded Theft of Service Enforcement in Transit - 2014 TAB Notice Arraignment Arrest (67,587) (20,606) 60000 20000 0 100000 80000 40000 DAT (5,438) C Summons (1,122) Figure 3 Transit Arrests But there are situations in which the Department er than the entire populations of Chicago, San Transit misdemeanor arrests have steadily 9 mandates an arrest for fare evasion: when the Diego, and Dallas combined. Of 1.7 billion yearly and as Met - increased as ridership has increased subject has an arrest warrant, cannot be properly subway entries, approximately 95,000 persons roCards replaced tokens. In addition to jumping a identified, is classified as a transit recidivist (the were stopped for evading the fare (0.005% of turnstile to evade the fare, people began alter - 10 definition of which is found on the next page), Of those, approximately 67,600 or all entries). ing or stealing MetroCards, using stolen credit or is found to have committed another crime. 71% were issued a civil notice to appear before cards to purchase MetroCards, using student or for example, in 2014, there were more than 130 the Transit Adjudication Bureau (TAB). While fare discount MetroCards illegally, and selling illegal 11 weapons-possession arrests that also included it is also a evasion is a Penal Law misdemeanor “swipes” to other riders. The full implementa - theft of service charges. In 2014, approximately - violation of transit rules. In these situations, tran tion of the MetroCard system in 2003 coincided 26,000 subjects fell into one of these categories sit officers will generally use their discretion and precisely with the rise in transit misdemeanor and were arrested for theft of service. (See Figure - default to the use of TAB notices—the civil penal arrests. 3.) In the first quarter of 2015, arrests for theft of ty. The underlying crime, however, is what allows service have decreased by 20 percent compared the officer arrest discretion in the first place. In 2014 an average of 5.6 million riders entered to the first quarter of 2014. the subway each weekday. That figure is great - Of 1.7 billion yearly subway entries, approximately 9 Daily weekday ridership increased by 95,000 persons were stopped for evading the fare nearly 400,000 riders from 2007-2013. Aver- age weekend ridership increased by nearly (0.005% of all entries). 680,000 riders for that time period. 14

17 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 New York City Police Department established the into the 1980s. In 2012, the Department updated Transit Recidivist transit recidivist database. A person stopped for the database to include only the most recent and a violation of transit rules who is identified as a more serious crimes to identify recidivists. The In an effort to identify persons likely to commit transit recidivist is ineligible for a civil notice and table below lists the criteria for being included in - crimes in the transit system or persons who rou must be arrested for the offense. The original the transit recidivist database. tinely violate transit rules and disregard notices database included people with arrests dating back to appear at the Transit Adjudication Bureau, the 2012 Transit Recidivist Database Update 12 Any prior ‘seven major ’ crime, sex crime, or weapons arrest within NYC in the last four years Transit in the last two years Any prior felony or misdemeanor arrest in Three or more violation arrests in Transit in the last five years Three or more unanswered TAB summonses On parole or probation Figure 4 10 This does not include the number who were stopped and simply ejected for the fare evasion. 11 NYS Penal Law 165.16, Theft of Service. 12 Seven Major Crimes: Murder, Rape, Robbery, Felony Assault, Burglary, Grand Larceny, Grand Larceny Auto. 15

18 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Arrests for Marijuana Offenses Misdemeanor Drug Arrests 60000 Changing arrest policies regarding the posses- 50000 sion and use of drugs, particularly marijuana, also contributed to changes in the number of misdemeanor arrests over the past two decades. 40000 They did so first by helping to drive the numbers up, and then, more recently, by accounting for a 30000 significant share of the overall decrease. Marijuana Arrests 20000 Marijuana arrests peaked in 2000 with more than 10000 51,000 arrests, then decreased until 2004, and then rose again to 51,000 in 2010 and 2011. (See Figure 5.) 0 2004 2006 2008 2009 2010 2014 2005 2011 2012 2007 2013 In September 2011, the Department issued a Figure 5 memorandum that clarified Department policy with respect to New York State law. The memo Misd. Narcotics Arrest in New York City reiterated that people found in possession of 35,000 small amounts of marijuana, which came into public view as a result of police interaction, were 30,000 to be issued a C-summons rather than arrested. Marijuana arrests subsequently declined from 25,000 2011 to 2014 by more than 25,000, or nearly 50 percent. When comparing 2010 to 2014, this 20,000 decline represented the bulk of the decrease in the misdemeanor-arrest total. 15,000 In November 2014, the Department issued anoth - 10,000 er order affecting arrests for marijuana posses - 5,000 sion. In this order, officers were directed to use discretion when apprehending someone possess - 0 ing small amounts of marijuana in public. Al - 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 though officers have the authority to arrest such Figure 6 individuals for the fingerprintable misdemeanor 13 offense of Criminal Possession of Marijuana, 16

19 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Misd. Narcotics Arrests in New York City by Age 1994 1500 2004 1200 2014 900 600 300 0 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 0 10 12 14 16 Figure 7 Misdemeanor Narcotics Arrests Misdemeanor narcotics arrests have also declined crack-cocaine, and the aging of the street-level they were directed instead to issue a C-summons over the years. Unlike the steep decline in mari - drug-user population. As shown in the chart, as for the lesser-included violation offense of Unlaw - 14 juana arrests, which resulted from policy changes, the number of narcotics arrests decreased, the The Department’s ful Possession of Marijuana. narcotics arrests have trended down since 2000. age of the offenders rose. (See Figure 7.) preference to arrest persons observed to be (See Figure 6.) This has continued into 2015. In smoking marijuana in public remained in place. the first quarter of 2015, drug arrests declined by Marijuana arrests once again declined. In the first 15 percent compared to the first quarter of 2014. quarter of 2015 marijuana arrests were down Overall, the trend is likely because of the decrease nearly 60% compared to the first quarter of 2014. in open-air drug markets, diminished demand for In the first quarter of 2015 marijuana arrests were down nearly 60% compared to the 13 New York State Penal Law Section 221.10 first quarter of 2014. 14 New York State Penal Law Section 221.05 17

20 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Street-level Quality-of-Life Arrests 300000 Trespass 250000 We apon 200000 Vice 150000 Obstruction/Resist 100000 Misc Local Laws 50000 0 Drugs Figure 8 20,000 arrests per year for criminal trespass. Criminal Trespass Arrests Vertical patrols, or From 2009 to 2014, that number significantly A significant element of quality-of-life policing decreased to about 13,000 per year, in the con - in the 1990s entailed confronting unauthorized verticals, are to a Housing text of about 400,000 yearly vertical patrols. This people found in New York City Housing Authority 15 decrease resulted from the increased practice of As the buildings and in some private buildings. development what warning and ejecting trespassers in lieu of arrest - Department’s narcotics units clamped down on ing them. The downward trend has continued the open-air drug markets, many dealers sought random sector patrol into 2015. In the first quarter of 2015, arrests for refuge in building stairwells and hallways. Other - criminal crespass declined by 23 percent com criminals used the buildings as a place to commit and walking a beat are pared to the first quarter of 2014. robberies. The Department increased its presence in the buildings through what is known as vertical to a neighborhood - Vertical patrols, or verticals, are to a Housing de patrols, or top-to-bottom walkthroughs of the - velopment what random sector patrol and walk in a precinct. - structures. As a result, criminal trespass arrests in ing a beat are to a neighborhood in a precinct. creased. By 2009, officers were making more than 18

21 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 against persons and property accounted for 31 They are used to secure the building, to ensure Misdemeanor Arrests in 2014 percent of all misdemeanor arrests. In 2014, they that any criminal activity or hazardous situation is accounted for 36 percent. In the first quarter of identified, and to add a sense of safety in envi - In 2014, the largest number of misdemeanor ar - 2015, the share has risen further to 39 percent. ronments that sometimes experience levels of rests was for theft and assault offenses, which are In that same period, marijuana arrests declined in crime disproportionate to their share of the city’s crimes involving victims. Misdemeanor arrests in number and as a percentage. In 2010 they were population. Vertical patrols are not solely enforce - 2014 (259,926 arrests) were down 2 percent from 15 percent of all misdemeanor arrests; for the ment oriented. Of the hundreds of thousands of 2013, and have declined more than 11 percent first quarter of 2015, they were 5 percent. verticals conducted throughout the city in 2014, since 2010. Again, this decline was largely driven approximately 95 percent ended with no enforce - by the reduction in marijuana arrests. Prior Arrest History of Misdemeanor Arrestees ment action. During 95 percent of all verticals, no person was stopped, summonsed, or arrested. The following graph compares misdemeanor In 2014, there were 259,926 misdemeanor arrests arrests in 2014 to those in 2010. (See Figure involving 198,626 unique individuals. Nearly Street Level Quality-of-Life Arrests 9.) Crimes against persons and property, traffic 36,000 arrests involved subjects who had been offenses, and theft of service all increased while arrested more than once during 2014. Sixty-four While misdemeanor arrests have decreased from other categories shrank. Arrests listed in Other percent of all persons arrested for misdemeanor their 2010 peak, they are still higher than in the Laws, which include many of the traditional qual - crimes in 2014 had at least one prior New York mid-1990s. When arrests for victim crimes, traffic ity-of-life crimes, make up less than 4 percent of City arrest at some point in their lifetimes. In arrests, and transit arrests are excluded, however, all misdemeanor arrests. In 2014, police officers - 2014, more than half of all misdemeanor arrest quality-of-life arrests—which are historically driv - serving in an enforcement capacity averaged ees had multiple prior New York City arrests, and en by drug arrests—have decreased to a level not approximately one arrest per month. nearly half had a prior felony New York City arrest. seen since 1996. (See Figure 8.) This contributes to the “Peace Dividend” spoken of by Police Com - Percentage Changes in Misdemeanor Arrests missioner Bratton. It is indicative of new policies, the increased application of officer discretion, As the number of quality-of-life arrests has de - In 2014, more than half and communities that, in the words of Broken creased, the share of total misdemeanor arrests Windows, have increasingly established their own represented by crimes against persons and of all misdemeanor informal control mechanisms. property has increased. In 2010, arrests for crimes arrestees had multiple prior New York City arrests, and nearly half 15 Under the Trespass Affidavit Program private landlords could sign an agreement that would allow NYPD officers to patrol inside private buildings. had a prior felony New York City arrest. 19

22 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Obstruct/Resist (9,079) Trespass Vice (21,472) (5,233) Categorized 2010 Misdemeanor Arrests Crime Against Marijuana Drugs Traffic Theft of Person or Property Service (35,234) (31,168) (50,950) (91,907) (25,016) Other (12,389) Weapon (9,771) 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 300000 250000 Obstruct/Resist (8,017) Vice Trespass (3,765) (12,870) Categorized 2014 Misdemeanor Arrests Drugs Marijuana Traffic Crime Against Theft of Service Person or Property (28,790) (25,689) (39,629) (29,433) (94,203) Other (10,281) Weapon (7,182) Figure 9 20

23 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Charting Misdemeanor Arrests - predominantly theft arrests. When misdemean plaints versus arrests for drug use. (See Figure 23 or arrests are compared to 911 calls for minor and Figure 24 on pages 34 and 35.) Police officers - As shown by the maps below, misdemeanor ar crimes in progress (including vandalism, trespass, are deployed where the crime is and where the rests in New York City occurred predominantly in and harassment) (see Figure 10, below left), the complaints originated. the South Bronx, Brooklyn North, and Manhattan geographic correspondence is readily apparent. North—the areas with the city’s highest con- Misdemeanor arrests occur where complainants centrations of both minor and violent crime—as make 911 calls. well as Manhattan South, the borough with the city’s highest non-residential population and the This pattern is repeated when any type of 911-call largest, densest concentration of shops, restau - map is compared to the corresponding type of rants, bars, and entertainment. (See Figure 11, misdemeanor-arrest map—from calls related to below right.) The arrests in Manhattan South are - assaults versus assault arrests, to drug-use com Minor Crimes in Progress- 911 Misdemeanor Arrests 2014 2014 Figure 11 Figure 10 21

24 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY During the past decade, NYPD officers have in - Desk Appearance Tickets Post-Arrest Processing and Outcomes - creasingly issued DATs rather than sending individ uals “through the system.” In 2000, only 9 percent A Desk Appearance Ticket (DAT) is a summons Misdemeanor arrests can be processed in a of misdemeanor arrests resulted in DATs; in 2014, issued at the precinct, generally after the arrestee variety of ways. The two most common are Desk the figure was 41 percent. (See Figure 12.) has been properly identified and fingerprinted. Appearance Tickets and arraignments. DATs can only be issued to arrestees who have 16 Issuing a DAT allows In 2013, the Department changed its internal committed certain crimes. an officer to release an arrestee from the precinct identification standards concerning DATs to be rather than transporting him to Central Booking. Percent of Misdemeanor Arrests Issued a DAT Percent of Misdemeaner Arestees Issued a DAT 50 41% 40 37% 36% 35% 34% 30 28% 24% 20 19% 15% 14%1 4% 13% 10 10%1 0% 9% 0 2012 2013 2014 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Figure 12 22

25 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Bail Set - No Prior Bail Set - Prior Felony 2014 Misdemeanor Arrests Released Without Bail or Case Disposed 93% of all Arrestees Bail Set - Prior Misd. 0 250,000 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 Figure 13 issued for marijuana arrests. As a result, 80 Bail percent of persons arrested for smoking or possessing small amounts of marijuana in 2014 - Of the 7 percent of misdemeanor arrestees re During the past decade, were released from the precinct with a DAT rather quired to pay bail, the overwhelming majority had than brought before a judge for arraignment. This prior New York City arrests—and most had prior NYPD officers have change, coupled with the decrease of marijuana felony arrests. First-time misdemeanor arrestees arrests, has resulted in fewer and fewer arrestees required to post bail represent 0.5% of misde - increasingly issued DATs being sent to Central Booking or being held in jail meanor arrestees. The chart on the next page for marijuana crimes. lists the top five arrest offenses in which first-time rather than sending offenders were required to pay bail. These top Arraignment Arrests - five offenses account for 74% of all persons with individuals “through out prior New York City arrests who were required the system.” Of the persons who do not receive a DAT, the to pay bail (1,257 arrestees). (See Figure 14.) majority are processed through Central Booking and released from custody at arraignment, either by disposing of the case through a plea or through a release without bail pending the next court date. (See Figure 13.) In 2014, only 0.6 percent of misdemeanor arrestees were remanded to jail 16 The parameters for the issuance of a DAT pending their next court date. Another 7 percent are outlined in Department procedure and were required to pay bail in order to be released. disqualify some minor crimes while allowing certain felonies. The authority to issue a DAT resides in the NYS Criminal Procedure Law. 23

26 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY TOP FIVE Offenses 2014 BAIL SET - NO NYC PRIOR - OFFENSE DESCRIPTION Arrestees Assault 517 DWI 146 Sex Crimes 82 Violate Order Of Protection 76 Forcible Touching 71 These represent 74% of all persons without prior arrest who were required to post bail. Figure 14 Misdemeanor Arrests Dispositions: NYC 2013 Dismissal: 21% Penalty: 29% Court Supervision: 50% Fined ime Dismis sT Adjourned DP Jail Cond. Discharge Served Contemplating Dismissal 0 20% 60% 80% 40% 100% Figure 15 24

27 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 18 tant District Attorney’s office within 24 hours. Misdemeanor Arrest Outcomes In discharge can last no longer than one year. 2013, only 9 percent of persons charged with mis - An adjournment in contemplation of dismissal demeanors were sentenced to any jail time. Even As illustrated in the graph opposite, there are a (ACD) is a case in which the defandant does not - though the large majority of misdemeanor arrest variety of possible outcomes to a misdemeanor enter a plea, and the case is scheduled to be ees are released without being fined or incarcer - arrest. (See Figure 15.) Once a person is arrested dismissed if the defendant does not violate fixed ated, dispositions such as ACDs and conditional and arraigned for a misdemeanor offense he or - conditions set by the court before the adjourn discharges serve a vital purpose in crime reduc - she has a small likelihood of going to jail. - ment date. By law, all first time marijuana offend - tion, by providing a deterrent that dissuades re ers receive an ACD, or, at the court’s discretion, an peat offenders from committing additional crimes The “DP” category represents cases in which the 17 outright dismissal. before their ACD or conditional discharge is fully District Attorney declined to prosecute the case. adjudicated. In some respects, the process is the This could occur for many reasons, one of which is When a defendant pleads guilty to, or is found punishment. While efficiencies can be realized in the failure of the victim or complainant to provide guilty of, a misdemeanor, he or she might receive that process, it ensures that those who violate the information to the District Attorney’s office. This a conditional discharge, time served, a monetary law experience consequences for doing so. reason was identified as a cause of the relatively fine, or jail time. A conditional discharge releas - high Decline Prosecution rate in the Bronx, which es the defendant from the custody of the state is higher than any other borough because of the under certain conditions set by the judge. For Bronx District Attorney’s policy of declining victim misdemeanor arrests, the period of a conditional - cases if the victim does not appear at the Assis Once a person is arrested and arraigned for a misdemeanor offense he or she has a small likelihood of going to jail. 17 NYS Criminal Procedure Law 170.56 18 NYS Penal Law 65.05 Figure 15 25

28 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY though an arrest could be made for any C-sum - C -Summonses Issued in 2014 CRIMINAL COURT mons offense. SUMMONSES There were 359,432 C-summonses issued in 2014, - Officers generally issue C-summonses during rou a reduction of 15.4 percent from the same period Criminal Court Summonses (C-summonses) are tine patrol or in response to a citizen’s complaint. in 2013 and down 35 percent (more than 185,000 usually issued for violation-level offenses and As crime and general disorder have decreased summonses) from 2009. The most common some misdemeanors. Except in the case of a - over the past decade, so has the use of C-sum violation cited was the consumption of alcohol in misdemeanor, a C-summons can only be issued monses to address quality-of-life situations. public, followed by disorderly conduct and public when an officer personally observes the offense. Today, officers write nearly a quarter of a million urination. (See Figure 17.) These three offenses As with arrests, the legal standard for issuing a fewer C-summonses than they did in 2005. (See account for more than half of all C-summonses is - C-summons is probable cause. C-summonses are Figure 16.) issued “in lieu of arrest” whenever possible, even C-Summonses Issued 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 359,432 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2003 2004 2005 Figure 16 26

29 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 issued are directly related to vehicle and business violations. - On average, a police officer serving in an enforce - ment capacity issues approximately two C-sum Top Ten Charges- 2014 116,929 Criminal Court Summonses: 120,000 monses per month. Adjudication of C-Summonses 100,000 Historically, C-summonses had to be answered in lated C-Summonses Bicycle Re person at the Summons Part of the local Criminal 76% 25,082 Court and usually resulted in a monetary fine. 80,000 People who failed to appear on the specified court date had a warrant issued for their arrest. 6,069 60,000 Today, in New York City, C-summonses issued 2014 2013 for the consumption of alcohol in public and 42,193 for public urination, which comprise more than 40,000 40 percent of all C-summonses issued (nearly 28,599 146,000 summonses in 2014), can both be settled 24,557 by payment of a fine by mail. This means nearly 20,000 14,824 13,377 40 percent of people receiving a C-summons no 9,217 8,130 7,886 6,705 longer have to appear at a local court to pay their fines. A person issued a summons for urinating 0 in public can mail the summons in and pay a $50 fine. A person issued a summons for consuming DISCON Code Liering Reckless Trespass Urinang Driving Marijuana, in Public with Sign alcohol in public can mail the summons in and of Alcohol Consumpon Other ADMIN Veh. Safety Federal Motor Possession of Failure to Comply pay a $25 fine. For reference, the fine for double parking in New York City is $115. Figure 17 sued and are important tools in the management One percent of C-summonses were issued for 19 C-summonses of disorderly groups on the streets. In 2014, there riding a bicycle on the sidewalk. are also issued for specific traffic violations such were more than 120,000 calls placed to 911 for 19 In 2014 the Department began issuing vio- as reckless driving and disregarding motor vehicle disorderly groups, a disorderly person, or noise lators of riding a bike on a sidewalk moving safety regulations. Five of the top 15 C-summons - and more than 46,000 calls to 311 for disorderly violations rather than criminal court sum- es issued in the first half of 2014 were for traffic youth, drinking, urinating, and noise in parks and mons. offenses. In fact, 20 percent of all C-summonses on the street. 27

30 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Consumption of Alcohol in Public Disorderly Conduct disorderly manner. The atmosphere of disorder Enforcement of public drinking laws stems from Disorderly conduct C-summonses are issued in can precipitate violent crime as intoxicated people a quality-of-life concern that is often raised at accordance with seven Penal Law subsections. become embroiled in arguments and altercations. community meetings and reported through calls Among these are fighting, obstructing vehicle Engaging these individuals or groups prior to an to the police. The Department receives tens of and/or pedestrian traffic, refusing a lawful order, outbreak of violence is a cornerstone of effective thousands of calls each year regarding disor - and unreasonable noise. Taken together, sum - street-level violence reduction. derly individuals or groups who are drinking or monses for the disorderly conduct subsections ac - who appear intoxicated. Often they are gather - counted for nearly 12 percent of all C-summonses ing on corners, in parks, or in playgrounds, and issued in 2014. The issuance of these summonses frequently they are reported to be acting in a - is sometimes discretionary in that, upon observ ing the offense and in the absence of victims or complainants, the officer can choose to rectify the condition without issuing a C-summons or making Disorderly Conduct Summonses an arrest. Officers regularly use discretion when confronting disorderly individuals; “move along” 120,000 is heard far more frequently than “you’re getting 104,127 a ticket.” In 2014, police officers issued 42,000 101,515 summonses for disorderly conduct; this is 62,000 20 100,000 94,510 (See Figure 18.) fewer than were issued in 2007. 91,755 - The much smaller number of arrests for disorder 87,496 ly conduct has also been cut by 36 percent since 3,316 disorderly conduct arrests in 2007, from 76,664 80,000 in 2014. 2,108 2007 to 56,101 60,000 Officers regularly use discretion 42,193 when confronting disorderly 40,000 individuals; “move along” is heard far more frequently than 20,000 “you’re getting a ticket.” 0 20 Reliable reporting of the issuance of indi- 2010 2009 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2008 vidual types of summons began in 2007. Figure 18 28

31 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Transit Adjudication Bureau Notice of Violation Transit Violations 120,000 Transit officers regularly issue TAB notices in lieu 110,356 107,257 of C-summonses. In 2014, transit officers issued 87,420 TAB notices (including 67,587 for fare 100,000 93,361 92,815 evasion) and only 4,630 C-summonses. That is 88,247 87,420 nearly 23,000 fewer TAB notices and 4,700 fewer C-summonses than in 2009. (See Figure 19.) 80,000 60,000 40,000 TAB notices 20,000 10,670 C-summonses 9,383 8,444 7,436 5,729 4,630 0 2010 2014 2013 2009 2012 2011 Figure 19 29

32 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Charting C-Summons Activity proximately 40 percent of the total. The locations mons activity. One noticeable divergence from this The map below compares C-summons issuance to of concentrated summons activity coincide highly pattern is found on White Plains Road in the Bronx criminal shootings and robberies. While C-sum - with the locations of violent crime. Note that even where there was not a high volume of summons moneses are written in every part of the city, this small pockets of crime in Queens (along Roosevelt activity. This location, perhaps not coincidentally, density map illustrates the areas with the highest Avenue and in Jamaica) correspond with sum - saw a dramatic increase in violence in 2014. concentration of summons, which equate to ap - Robberies and Shootings with C-Summons Issuance (Citywide - 2014) Density of Robberies And Shootings LOWH IGH Areas of Highest Concentration of C-Summons Issuance Figure 20 30

33 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 ersons, 311 and 911 Calls for Disorderly P and Drinking Noise, (Citywide - 2014) Highest Incidence of Selected 311 and 911 Calls Lower Incidence of Selected 311 and 911 Calls Areas of Highest Concentration of C-Summons Issuance Figure 21 31

34 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY African-American and Hispanic P opulation with C-Summons Issuance (Citywide - 2010*) Proportion of Population that is Tract's African-American or Hispanic by P ercent 00908070605040302010 01 Areas of Highest Concentration of C-Summons Issuance Figure 22 * SOURCE: US Census Bureau - 2010 32

35 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 RACIAL IMPACT, OFFICER DISCRETION, CIVILIAN COMPLAINTS, AND PRISON POPULATIONS When looking at misdemeanor arrests and sum - These patterns (with the exception of the clusters - Finally, when discretionary admonitions and cor monses together, as the combined application in lower Manhattan and some other business dis - - rective actions are insufficient, the use of enforce of the enforcement aspects of Broken Widows tricts) are found in the most impoverished areas - ment has not contributed to increased incarcera policing, the data are interesting. - of the city. While it is generally true that the ma tion in New York jority of people who live in these areas are black First, the correlation of race to enforcement is not Race and Ethnicity or Hispanic, there are also many middle class as clear as some quality-of-life critics believe. areas in the city, including southeastern Queens The map of shootings and robberies illustrates and northeastern Bronx, where the population is Second, enforcement closely parallels the calls of what is known within the NYPD as the “crime primarily black and Hispanic and where crimes— residents in the neighborhoods and communities cloud.” These incidence patterns recur for maps and the resulting arrests and summonses—are where it occurs. of violent crime, maps of complaints, maps of not occurring at a high rate. (See Figure 22.) calls for service to 911 and 311, (see map 21) and Third, if civilian complaints are a proxy for citi - maps of arrests and summons enforcement. The zen dissatisfaction, the significant reduction in Department focuses significant resources in these complaints suggests that there is positive public geographic areas. As a result, more arrests are sentiment about the less obtrusive way in which made and more summonses are issued in these the NYPD has been practicing Broken Windows. neighborhoods than in areas of the city with lower crime. 33

36 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Response to Calls and Complaints with the officer’s arrival on scene. The data that geographical mapping of crime and complaints. The police respond to a vast array of complaints, officers gather contribute to the Department’s Officers respond to the identified areas—some - which range in severity from blocked driveways effort to identify, analyze, and respond to crime times called “hot spots”—to address complaints. to murder, and the police response does not end patterns. The NYPD’s analysis is aided by the Police deployment is concentrated in areas where Assault 911 Calls Misdemeanor Assault Arrests 2014 2014 Figure 23 34

37 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 citizens complain about conditions that can be - calls and arrests; not every call results in enforce tions of citywide enforcement, as illustrated below. corrected or prevented. This correspondence is ment, and some calls may result in several arrests. (See Figure 23 and Figure 24.) It should be noted best depicted by maps of the locations of crimes that there is not a one-to-one relationship between and complaints compared with maps of the loca- Misdemeanor Drug Arrests Drug Complaints Misdemeanor Assault Arrests 2014 2014 2014 Figure 24 35

38 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Discretion and Dispute Resolution Police officers respond to millions of 911 calls 190,000 confirmed calls for disputes, trespassing, 21 annually, including hundreds of thousands qual - - the vast major and disorderly persons in 2014, ity-of-life crimes in progress, disputes, disorderly ity of which were handled without enforcement groups, and noise complaints. Each year the action. (See Figure 25.) number of 911 and 311 calls steadily rises. As the number of requests for police assistance increas - es, so does the number of occasions in which responding officers correct conditions without taking enforcement action. There were more than 2014 Confirmed Calls for Service for Disputes, Trespassing, and Disorderly Persons Summons/Arrest Condition Corrected Through Verbal Warning or Other Other Resolution Report 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 Figure 25 21 Confirmed calls for service do not include calls that were finalized with 90X, 90Y, or 90Z. 36

39 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 Civilian Complaints 22 • Use of Force 4,762 resulted counters in New York City in 2014, If a citizen is unhappy with police services or feels • Abuse of Authority in civilian complaints. The decline has continued that he or she was mistreated by a police officer • Discourtesies - into the new year. In the first quarter of 2015, civil from the NYPD, that person has the option of • Offensive Language ian complaints are down 33 percent compared to reporting the incident to the Civilian Complaint the first quarter of 2014. Review Board (CCRB). If the case falls within its Civilian complaints have decreased significantly jurisdiction, the CCRB will investigate the incident. over the past several years; they are down 37 The jurisdiction of the CCRB resides in four main percent from 2009 to 2014. (See Figure 26.) These categories: complaints account for only a small fraction of all - police encounters. Of the millions of police en Total CCRB Complaints 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2013 2004 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2014 Figure 26 22 This includes, 4.8 million radio calls, approx- imately 388,000 arrests, 360,000 criminal court summonses, 872,000 moving violations, and 87,000 Transit Adjudication Bureau notices. 37

40 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY Prison and Jail Populations A large part of the NYPD’s success in reducing NYC Jail Population NYS Prison Population Down 45% Down 25% crime and disorder is not the result of arrests or 80,000 25,000 summonses, but rather of officer engagement - and crime management. While crime-rate reduc 71,126 21,449 tions have been well documented, the concurrent 70,000 reduction of people entering the prison system is less frequently noted. Because there are fewer 20,000 felony crimes committed each year, fewer persons 60,000 are arrested, tried in court, and sent to prison. 53,565 The New York State prison population has de - 50,000 15,000 clined 25 percent from its high point in 2000. This decline is a result of a 69 percent decrease 11,827 in the number of court commitments from New 40,000 York City to the state prison system. Similarly, the New York City jail population, made up of people 10,000 - awaiting trial and persons sentenced to imprison 30,000 ment of a year or less, is down 45 percent from its height in 1992. (See Figure 27.) It has been cut 20,000 nearly in half in a time period that corresponds - exactly to the Department’s focus on quali 5,000 ty-of-life policing. 10,000 0 0 1992 2013 1992 2013 Figure 27 38

41 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY IN 2015 Crime is down. Homicides have fallen to the As the historic types of street crimes recede and lowest level since 1957. Robberies have reached new conditions emerge, the Department’s focus their lowest point since accurate statistics became shifts toward other crimes: available in 1970. Shootings remain historically • A focus on domestic violence and the pas - - low, and fewer people are sustaining fatal inju sage of new laws related to domestic violence ries in these incidents. As crime and disorder has increased complaints and arrests for decrease, arrests and summons issuance should crimes against persons follow, and so they have. • The theft of valuable portable technolo - gy has increased complaints and arrests for The past several years have seen a reduction in crimes against property many enforcement actions: • A focus on traffic injuries and traffic-related 23 are down 93 percent • Reported stops fatalities has increased arrests for traffic-relat - from 2011 to 2014 ed crimes • C-summons issuance is down 33 percent Increased transit ridership of more than • from 2010 to 2014 400,000 additional riders per day and a focus • Drug arrests have decreased 32 percent on emerging dangerous subway conditions from 2010 to 2014 has increased enforcement activity in the • Trespass arrests have decreased 45 percent transit system from 2009 to 2014 In the nation’s largest and densest city, where mil - In 2015 those trends have continued. Comparing lions of people occupy only a few hundred square the first quarter of 2015 to first quarter 2014: miles of space, there will always be minor dis- • Reported stops are down 50 percent putes and quality-of-life concerns. It is the job of • C-summons issuance is down 30 percent the New York City Police Department to manage • Misdemeanor arrests are down 22 percent these issues constitutionally and efficiently, and Œ ests are down 60 percent Marijuana arr the Department continuously strives to do so. Œ arcotics arrests are down 15 percent N Œ respass arrests are down 23 percent T R Œ - esisting and obstructing governmen tal administration arrests are down 35 percent 23 Reasonable suspicion stops, also known as stop and frisk or UF250 39

42 BROKEN WINDOWS AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING IN NEW YORK CITY the conditions are not met within the time frame, facility, but requires the arrestee to appear for GLOSSARY OF TERMS the judge can resentence the defendant. arraignment at a specified date and time. The Adjournment in Contemplation of Dismissal: Crime: An offense characterized by the penal law In policing terms, the ability to choose Discretion: judge adjourns the case (typically six months to as a misdemeanor or felony. This does not include between enforcement options such as arrest or one year) and if the defendant has stayed out of violations, but does include some traffic infrac - summons or admonition. Provided for by the legal trouble during that time the charges will be tions. Criminal Procedure Law, which states that officers dismissed. If the defendant has been rearrested “may arrest” for all offenses other than family during that time the judge can impose a sentence Misdemeanor Crimes against Person or Property: offenses (for which they “shall arrest”). on the original charge. offenses for assault, criminal mischief, harass - ment, offenses related to theft, sex crimes, and Misdemeanor offenses for drug possession Drugs: The arrestee is released from custody but Bail: violations of orders of protection. (except criminal possession of marijuana 5th) and surrenders money or property as a surety that he/ loitering for drug purposes. she will return at an appointed time. A ticket Criminal Court Summons or C-Summons: Released on Own Recognizance: The arrestee is issued in lieu of an arrest to a person alleged to ECB: The Environmental Control Board is a type of released from custody and promises in writing to - have committed a violation of the law (as op court that is an administrative tribunal but not a return at an appointed time. No bail is required. posed to a misdemeanor or felony), requiring a part of the state court system. City agencies with defendant to appear before Criminal Court at a enforcement powers can issue a type of ticket Broken Windows: A criminological philosophy specified date and time. Summonses are issued called a Notice of Violation to persons alleged to that holds that maintaining and monitoring urban “in lieu of arrest,” meaning that any officer issuing have violated rules under the jurisdiction of the environments to prevent low-level disorder and a summons has the discretion to effect an arrest ECB. small crimes such as vandalism, public drinking, for the offense instead. and fare-evasion helps to create an atmosphere Ejection: The term for removing a person from of order and lawfulness, thereby preventing more Decline to prosecute (DP): A District Attorney’s the Transit system after the person has commit - serious crimes from occurring. decision not to prosecute a case. In such instanc - ted an offense. es, an arrested person will not face any further Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB): An judicial action in regard to the particular charge An offense for which a sentence to a term Felony: independent city agency, with subpoena power. and will immediately be released from custody if of imprisonment in excess of one year may be CCRB handles complaints about the following four no other charges are pending. imposed. The category includes Class A, Class B, kinds of alleged police misconduct: Unnecessary Class C, Class D, and Class E variants. - Force, Abuse of Authority, Discourtesy, and Offen Desk Appearance Ticket (DAT): A summons sive Language. issued during arrest processing for certain crimes Geographical areas with high rates of Hot Spots: if the arrestee meets certain criteria. A DAT allows crime. Conditional Discharge: A sentence passed by a - for the release of an arrestee rather than requir court whereby the defendant is not punished, ing them to be processed at a central booking Illegal “Swipes”: A criminal tactic in which a per - provided they comply with certain conditions. If 40

43 THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT | 2015 law of this state or by any law, local law, or ordi- other unlawful means without compensating the petrator uses an unlimited Metrocard to “swipe” nance of a political subdivision of this state, or by provider for these services. This includes entering other passengers into the Transit system while any order, rule, or regulation of any governmental the NYC Transit system without proper payment. charging them. Perpetrators sometimes attract instrumentality authorized by law to adopt the “customers” by charging less than the standard same. Offenses are generally categorized as viola - Traffic: Misdemeanor offenses that include fare, and sometimes disable Metrocard machines. tions, misdemeanors, and felonies (in ascending - driving with a suspended license, intoxicated/im order of severity). paired driving, and other vehicle and traffic laws. A local detention facility used to confine de - Jail: fendants who are awaiting trial or who have been A geographical area or Open-Air Drug Market: TAB is the Transit Adjudication Bureau (TAB): convicted of minor offenses and sentenced for - open public space where numerous drug transac agency responsible for adjudicating summonses short durations (typically up to one year). tions occur. issued to individuals who have been alleged to have violated one or more of the rules governing Marijuana: Misdemeanor offenses for the crimi - Other Offense (as labeled in charts): - Misde conduct of the use of Transit facilities. nal possession of marijuana 5th. meanor offenses that include Administrative - Code offenses, Miscellaneous Penal Code offens Misdemeanor offenses for the Transit offenses: Misdemeanor: In the New York State Penal Law, es, and other State Laws not outlined in other theft of service. “misdemeanor” means an offense, other than a categories. traffic infraction, for which a sentence to a term Vertical Patrol: The patrol of multiple-dwelling of imprisonment in excess of fifteen days may be Prison: A state detention facility used to confine buildings by police officers to prevent and detect imposed, but for which a sentence to a term of defendants who have been convicted of a crime illegal activity occurring in lobbies, stairwells, imprisonment in excess of one year cannot be im - and sentenced to confinement for more than one basements, and other common areas. posed. The category includes Class A, Class B, and year. unclassified variants, each with different penalty Vice: - Misdemeanor offenses for gambling, prosti thresholds. Generally, a Street Level Quality of Life Arrest: tution, and violations of Alcohol Beverage Control proactive arrest based on officer observation of laws. Misdemeanor Recidivist: A person who has low level offenses. This includes criminal trespass, repeatedly violated the New York State Penal Law - misdemeanor possession of a weapon, misde An offense, other than a traffic infrac Violation: - by having committed multiple prior misdemeanor meanor vice crimes, misdemeanor obstruction - tion, for which a sentence to a term of imprison infractions. of governmental administration, resisting arrest, ment in excess of fifteen days cannot be imposed. - misdemeanor drug possession, and misdemean Misdemeanor offenses Obstruction/Resisting: or violations of miscellaneous local laws. Weapon: Misdemeanor offenses for the posses - for resisting arrest and the obstruction of govern - sion of dangerous weapons. mental administration. Theft of Service (NY PL Theft of Service (TOS): 165.15) is a Penal Law offense in which a person Offense: Conduct for which a sentence to a term obtains valuable services by deception, threat or of imprisonment or to a fine is provided by any 41

44

45

46

Related documents

2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report

2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report

2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report To the Secretary of Health and Human Services

More info »
Health related quality of life and utility in head and neck cancer survivors

Health related quality of life and utility in head and neck cancer survivors

(2019) 19:425 et al. BMC Cancer Liao https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5614-4 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Health-related quality of life and utility in head and neck cancer survivors 1,2 1 4,5 4,5,6...

More info »
2018 MOIL Provider Directory 2 13 18 FA WEB

2018 MOIL Provider Directory 2 13 18 FA WEB

Provider Directory For more information, please contact Essence Healthcare at 866-597-9560, or for TTY users 711, 8 a.m. For more infor to 8 p.m., seven days a week, or visit essencehealthcare.com. Th...

More info »
WAO White Book on Allergy web

WAO White Book on Allergy web

WORLD ORGANIZA TION ALLERGY O WA O WA White Book on Allergy White Book on Allergy Allergy White Book on O WA

More info »
2016 aaha iaahpc eolc guidelines

2016 aaha iaahpc eolc guidelines

VETERINARY PRACTICE GUIDELINES End-of-Life AAHA/IAAHPC Care 2016 Guidelines* Gail Bishop, BS, Kathleen Cooney, DVM, Shea Cox, DVM, Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP, CCRP, DVM, DVM , Nancy Soar...

More info »
57

57

International Journal of Health Sciences and Research www.ijhsr.org 9571 ISSN: 2249 - Review Article Associated Factors among Health Related Quality of Life and It ’s en: a Review Thalassemic Childr 1...

More info »
Burden of adult neurofibromatosis 1: development and validation of a burden assessment tool

Burden of adult neurofibromatosis 1: development and validation of a burden assessment tool

(2019) 14:94 et al. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases Armand https://doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1067-8 RESEARCH Open Access Burden of adult neurofibromatosis 1: development and validation of a burden ...

More info »
untitled

untitled

CIOMS Current Challenges in Pharmacovigilance: Pragmatic Approches CIOMS publications may be obtained directly from CIOMS, Current Challenges c/o World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 2...

More info »
Microsoft PowerPoint   2009 ISPOR Workshop 22 Value Messages 11 May 2009.ppt

Microsoft PowerPoint 2009 ISPOR Workshop 22 Value Messages 11 May 2009.ppt

rategic Pricing rategic Pricing Outcomes and St Outcomes and St and Health Outcomes Strategy and Health Outcomes Strategy Health Outcomes Strategy Health Outcomes Strategy Health Outcomes Strategy Hea...

More info »
Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Final Report NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome December 9–10, 2014 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Carmen R...

More info »
Microsoft Word   CRYOGEN HER OPTION SYSTEM SSED  P000032.DOC

Microsoft Word CRYOGEN HER OPTION SYSTEM SSED P000032.DOC

SUMMARY OF SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS DATA: Her Option™ Uterine Cryoblation Therapy™ System GENERAL INFORMATION I. DEVICE GENERIC NAME: Thermal (Cryosurgical) Endometrial Ablation Device Her Option™ Ute...

More info »
afy191

afy191

Measuring health-related quality of life of care home residents Age and Ageing 407 – 413 2019; 48: © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Societ...

More info »
There has been a long standing debate over the contribution that has been made by medical innovation to health improvement

There has been a long standing debate over the contribution that has been made by medical innovation to health improvement

W orking Paper 34 Andrew Webster, SATSU, University of York , UK Do not quote without authors permission : email [email protected] Evaluation, governance and moves to a socially robust assessm...

More info »
pediatricsleepdurationmethods

pediatricsleepdurationmethods

http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.6288 pii: jc-00365-16 SPECIAL ARTICLES Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for Healthy Children: Methodology...

More info »
e022642.full

e022642.full

Research Open access BMJ Open: first published as 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022642 on 21 January 2019. Downloaded from Are there also negative effects of social support? A qualitative study of patients dis...

More info »
monograph 1

monograph 1

FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE IN CROP PATHOGENS: HOW CAN IT BE MANAGED? nd 2 , revised edition KEITH J BRENT and DEREK W HOLLOMON

More info »
JCFS 11(1).pdf

JCFS 11(1).pdf

Volume 11 Number 1 2003 CONTENTS EDITORIAL 1 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Guidelines Kenny De Meirleir Neil McGregor Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition, D...

More info »
e025553.full

e025553.full

Open access Research BMJ Open: first published as 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025553 on 5 May 2019. Downloaded from Public health impact model estimating the impact of introducing an adjuvanted recombinant z...

More info »
Guideline on Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias

Guideline on Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias

European Medicines Agency Pre-Authorisation Evaluation of Medicines for Human Use London, 24 July 2008 Doc. Ref. CPMP/EWP/553/95 Rev. 1 COMMITTEE FOR MEDICINAL PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE (CHMP) GUIDELINE ...

More info »