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1 International Labour Organization Making The strongest links The strongest links A practical guide to mainstreaming gender analysis in value chain development Linda Mayoux Grania Mackie

2 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS A practical guide to mainstreaming gender analysis in value chain development "Mainstreaming gender analysis in value chain development is likely to encourage creative thinking about a range of different potential strategies for upgrading of the value chain as a whole and also protecting the interests of those most vulnerable at specific stages within it." Linda Mayoux Grania Mackie International Labour Organization

3 Copyright © International Labour Organization 2007 First published 2007 Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Nevertheless, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO Publications (Rights and Permissions), International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, or by email: [email protected] The International Labour Office welcomes such applications. Libraries, institutions and other users registered in the United Kingdom with the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP [Fax: (+44) (0)20 7631 5500; email: [email protected]], in the United States with the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 [Fax: (+1) (978) 750 4470; email: [email protected]] or in other countries with associated Reproduction Rights Organizations, may make photocopies in accordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Mayoux, Linda; Mackie, Grania A practical guide to mainstreaming gender analysis in value chain development / Linda Mayoux and Grania Mackie ; International Labour Office. - Addis Ababa: ILO, 2008 1 v. ISBN: 9789221202072; 9789221202080 (web pdf); 9789221202097 (CD-ROM) International Labour Office Guide / gender mainstreaming / gender equality / woman worker / value chains / developing countries 03.02.2 The designations employed in ILO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Office concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them. Reference to names of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International Labour Office, and any failure to mention a particular firm, commercial product or process is not a sign of disapproval. ILO publications can be obtained through major booksellers or ILO local offices in many countries, or direct from ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Catalogues or lists of new publications are available free of charge from the above address, or by email: [email protected] Visit our website: www.ilo.org/publns Printed in: Addsis Ababa, Ethiopia

4 Contents FOREWORD v vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS GLOSSARY viii ix PURPOSE OF THE GUIDE INTENDED USERS OF THIS GUIDE xi INTRODUCTION: MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS: GENDER & VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT 1 3 Gender equality, decent work and pro-poor development BOX 1: PRO-POOR GROWTH, DECENT WORK AND PRO-POOR DEVELOPMENT 4 Making the strongest links: Gender and value chain development 5 PART 1: GENDER EQUITABLE VALUE CHAIN 7 DEVELOPMENT: CONCEPTS AND FRAMEWORKS SECTION 1.1: VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT: APPROACHES AND VCD CYCLE 9 What is Value Chain Development? Different Approaches 9 BOX 2: WHAT ARE VALUE CHAINS? 9 10 GEVCAL Value chain development cycle 11 BOX 3: GEVCAL: UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES SECTION 1.2: WHAT IS GENDER MAINSTREAMING? 15 GENDER DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS BOX 4: GENDER OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS IDENTIFIED BY GOWE MEETINGS IN KENYA 15 BOX 5: FEMALE WEAVER AS FAMILY WORKER 16 BOX 6: GENDER ANALYSIS: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS 17 BOX 7: EQUALITY, EMPOWERMENT, AND EQUITY: SOME EXPLANATORY EXAMPLES 19 SECTION 1.3: GEVCAL 'GENDER LENS' 21 BOX 8: GENDER LENS: ELEMENTS AND CHECKLIST FOR DIFFERENT STAGES OF VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT 22 i MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

5 Contents PART 2: GENDER-INCLUSIVE DESIGN: PRELIMINARY 23 SCOPING, MAPPING AND PARTICIPATORY PROCESS SECTION 2.1: SCOPING THE VCD PROCESS: WHAT ARE THE GENDER ISSUES? 25 BOX 9: WHAT GENDER ISSUES: SCOPING THE INVESTIGATION 26 27 BOX 10: GENDER-INCLUSIVE LANGUAGE: SOME GUIDELINES SECTION 2.2: PRELIMINARY MAPPING: WHO WHERE CONTROLS WHAT? 28 BOX 11: DRAWING A PRELIMINARY MAP 29 SECTION 2.3: PARTICIPATORY PROCESS: WHY, 33 WHO AND WHEN? Who should participate? Gender issues in stakeholder analysis 34 BOX 12: VERY DIFFERENT FEMALE STAKEHOLDERS: EXAMPLES FROM ETHIOPIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 37 How can women participate and when? Designing the process 39 BOX 13: PARTICIPATORY PROCESS 40 How can the benefits of stakeholder workshops be maximised? 41 PART 3: GENDER- ACCURATE INFORMATION: VALUE CHAIN MAPPING, RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS 43 SECTION 3.1: VC ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH: INTEGRATING METHODOLOGIES 45 Participatory action learning: core of the GEVCAL process 45 BOX 14: GENERAL ETHICAL GUIDELINES 46 Gender dimensions of the research process 47 BOX 15: GENDER ISSUES IN THE INVESTIGATION PROCESS 47 SECTION 3.2: HOW MANY PEOPLE GET HOW MUCH WHERE? 49 ADDING QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION BOX 16: DEVELOPING THE MAP: ADDING QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION 49 SECTION 3.3: WHY? ADDING QUALITATIVE INFORMATION 55 BOX 17: WHY AND HOW ARE GENDER INEQUALITIES PERPETUATED? ADDING QUALITATIVE INFORMATION 57 BOX 18: INTERVIEW WITH MALE WEAVER IN A WAVERING COOPERATIVE 58 ii MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

6 Contents 61 PART 4: GENDER EQUITABLE PROPOSALS : ACTION STRATEGY SECTION 4.1: FROM GENDER ANALYSIS TO GENDER EQUITABLE RECOMMENDATIONS 63 Identifying the 'win-win' basket 63 BOX 19: SOME MUTUALLY REINFORCING LEVELS OF INTERVENTION TO SUPPORT WOMEN HOMEWORKERS 65 Negotiating conflict of interest for win win strategies 66 PART 5: SUSTAINABLE PARTICIPATORY LEARNING CYCLE: MONITORING CHANGES AND SUMMARY GENDER CHECKLIST 67 SECTION 5.1: IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING CHANGE 69 BOX 20: POSSIBLE INDICATORS FOR MONITORIING AND EVALUATION 69 SECTION 5.2: SUMMARY CHECKLIST 72 BOX 21: GENDER CHECKLIST FOR DIFFERENT STAGES OF 72 VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT PART 6: OVERVIEW OF DIAGRAMMING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 75 SECTION 6.1: USING DIAGRAMS 77 BOX 22: SOME DIAGRAM TOOLS FOR VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIC PLANNING 78 SECTION 6.2: ROAD JOURNEYS: STRATEGIC PLANING AND SWOT ANALYSIS 82 SECTION 6.3: CIRCLE DIAGRAMS: MAPPING AND STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 87 SECTION 6.4: TREES: CHALLENGE TO STRATEGY BRAINSTORMING TREES 91 REFERENCES AND RESOURCES 95 iii MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

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8 Foreword FOREWORD This Guide has been developed as a means to increase women entrepreneurs' capacity to access markets and build sustainable enterprises that create decent work. It has been informed by years of expertise in the ILO's work in Women's Entrepreneurship Development and Gender Equality (WEDGE). We would like to express our appreciation to the authors of the Guide, Ms. Grania Mackie and Ms. Linda Mayoux, who bring together decades of experience and practice in the field of women's entrepreneurship development. Through the WEDGE project, it became clear that there was a need to increase the understanding of gender differentiated aspects of value chains and enhance the capacity of practitioners who carry out value chain analysis to be successful in their work in supporting women's access to markets. The Guide clearly supports the ILO's work on sustainable enterprise promotion by ensuring that women and men have equal access to entrepreneurship opportunities that are developed through value chain analysis and upgrading. In line with the fifth core element of the ILO's Global Employment Agenda and the International Labour Conference Conclusions on Sustainable Enterprises (2007), the Guide takes into account of the diversity of enterprise types and aims to support the transfer of enterprises from the informal to the formal economy. In accordance with the ILO's Strategy on Women's Entrepreneurship Development, endorsed by the Governing Body in March 2008, the Guide contributes to the development of tools and support services for women entrepreneurs and contributes to mainstreaming gender into micro and small enterprise development methodologies. Applying this Guide effectively requires previous value chain analysis experience and a genuine interest in identifying and addressing gender issues at different stages and levels of the value chain analysis process. It also requires an openness to creative thinking about the challenges which gender presents to conventional economic analysis and methods. It is a Guide that could be used alongside other value chain materials and in particular the ILO's Guide on Value Chain Development for Decent Work. The tools in this Guide can be used on their own or complement participatory tools and quantitative and qualitative research from other manuals. We thank Irish Aid, for their ongoing commitment to women's economic empowerment and gender equality and their support to the WEDGE project. We also thank the WEDGE team for their hard work. Our hope is that this guide will result in gender sensitive value chain practices that will enable more women entrepreneurs to access lucrative markets and economic opportunities, and ultimately create more and better jobs for both women and men. Joni Simpson Coordinator & Senior Specialist, Women's & Youth Entrepreneurship Development Small Enterprise Development Programme (SEED) International Labour Office v MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

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10 Acknowledgements ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The tools, methodologies, and approaches in the Making The Strongest Links Guide have been developed from fieldwork undertaken by the Women's Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality team (WEDGE) of the International labour Organisation (ILO). Without the continuing support from the Government of Ireland through the ILO-Irish Aid Partnership Programme, the fieldwork and resulting guide would not have been possible. A particular acknowledgment is due to the authors of this guide: Dr. Linda Mayoux, whose experience and knowledge has lead to a guide that uses participatory value chain analysis and contemporary gender equity concepts. Grania Mackie, the Regional Technical Advisor for the ILO-Irish Aid Partnership Programme in the ILO's Sub Regional Office in Addis Ababa who provided both technical and operational support for the guide. The Authors would like to express their profound gratitude to the partner organisations from Ethiopia and Kenya involved in developing this guide, in particular the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Ethiopia and the Federation of Kenya Employers in Kenya. In addition, a number of ILO Officials in Ethiopia and Kenya have made valuable inputs, including Dereje Alemu and Gloria Ndekei. vii MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

11 Glossary African Development Bank AfDB BDS Business development services CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women FAMOS Female And Male Operated Small enterprises FI(s) Financial institution(s) GOWE(s) Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneur(s) IFC International Finance Corporation ILO International Labour Organization MFI(s) Micro Finance Institution(s) MSE(s) Micro and small enterprise(s) MSME(s) Micro, small and medium-sized enterprise(s) NGO(s) Non-governmental organization(s) UNCTAD UN Conference on Trade and Development VCA Value Chain Analysis VCD Value Chain Development ILO's Women's Entrepreneurship Development and Gender WEDGE Equality Theme viii MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

12 Purpose of the guide PURPOSE OF THE GUIDE A significant body of information exists on the situation of women in value chains of 1 different types and at different levels . ILO has conducted a series of studies on women exporters, women in the informal economy and home working. There are many existing 2 research studies, analyses, guides and manuals on value chain analysis . Most current value chain development has failed to integrate gender analysis - despite the gender mainstreaming policies of the donor agencies and the gender commitments of the governments involved. Some Manuals contain useful tools for value chains work with particular sectors of women and/or participatory approaches to value chain 3 research . However, these have not provided guidelines for mainstreaming gender throughout a value chain development process. Value chain development policies are often based on gender-blind or gender-discriminatory assumptions, marginalising women as a 'special' minority case. Women are still excluded from, and often further disadvantaged by, many 'mainstream' value chain development interventions. This Guide originated in an ILO project 'Improving Market Access for Women in the 4 Informal Economy' which led to an analysis of the Ethiopian weaving industry to identify ways in which women involved in weaving could increase their market access, and hence also control over their production process and improve their position in the household and community. During the project, it became clear that there was a need to improve the gender understanding, and ultimately the capacity of, local organizations and individuals who carry out value chain analysis to be able to take into account the gender based differences within an analysis. The Guide is partly based on the experience of that process. It is also informed by experience of short gender trainings for donor agencies in Ethiopia that focused on gender issues in leather and shoe sector, pharmaceuticals and trainings in Kenya with growth-oriented women entrepreneurs involved in a AfDB-IFC-ILO Program which focused on home textiles, flower production and other export businesses. 1. See for example Baden, S. (2001) , Barrientos, S. (2001) , Barrientos, S. , Dolan, C. and Tallontire, A. (2003) , Dolan, C. , Opondo, M. and Smith, S. (2004) , Dolan, C.S. and Sutherland, K. (2006) , Kabeer, N. (2004) , Smith, S. , Auret, D. , Barrientos, S. , Dolan, C. , Kleinbooi, K. , Njobvu, C. , Opondo, M. and Tallontire, A. (2004) , Tallontire, A. , Dolan, C. , Smith, S. and Barrientos, S. (2005) , Tallontire, A. , Smith, S. and Njobvu, C. (2004) , USAID (2007) , Velugu 2. For example Bernet, T. , Thiele, G. and Zschocke, T. (2006) , Campbell, R. (2007) , Kaplinsky, R. and Morris, M. (2000) , KIT, F.a.I. (2006) , M4P (2007) 3. For example existing manuals such as McCormick and Schmitz 2001 use analysis of women's position in global value chains;. For participatory methods for value chain research see Auret, D. and Barrientos, S. (2004) , Bernet, T. , Thiele, G. and Zschocke, T. (2006) 4. The ILO project 'Improving Market Access for Women in the Informal Economy aimed to reduce poverty amongst women micro and small informal entrepreneurs and producers, including developing and testing VCA for improving market access. ix MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

13 Purpose of the guide T he Guide provides: A framework and methodology for Gender Equitable Value Chain Action Learning „ (GEVCAL) which combines 'push-up' and 'pull-up' approaches and builds sustainable capacity and networks for ongoing Value Chain Development. „ Practical examples of gender issues and gender 'Good Practice' in different types of VCD process from 'pull-up' private sector development processes focusing on economic growth to more 'push-up' participatory processes focusing on Decent Work and women's empowerment. Details of how the gender framework and methodology can be adapted at different „ stages of VCD to address gender issues: design, research and analysis, action strategy and implementation and accountability. „ A core checklist for gender analysis which can be adapted for use in all types of Value Chain Development, based on internationally accepted gender mainstreaming principles, definitions, and insights from women entrepreneurs in the initial pilot phase in Ethiopia and Kenya. „ Diagram tools which can be used in VCDs of all types and at all levels (policy makers to women who cannot read and write) for planning, complex analysis and research and monitoring and evaluation. They help build participant analytical and research capabilities and networks, and increases communication between different stakeholders for subsequent implementation, monitoring and sustainability of VCD. The Guide is organised as follows: Part 1: Gives overview of different types of VCD process, gender principles and concepts that apply to all VCD processes. It provides an outline of the framework, principles and process for Gender Equitable Value Chain Action Learning (GEVCAL). Part 2: Looks at issues in gender-inclusive design: preliminary mapping, scoping and design of a multi-stakeholder participatory process. Part 3: Looks at issues in gender-accurate research: the types of quantitative and qualitative information needed to adequately incorporate gender, and the ways in which participatory, survey and qualitative methodologies can be effectively integrated to increase reliability of information, build stakeholder capacity and improve the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the VCD process. Part 4: Looks at the issues in developing gender-equitable VCD strategies which brainstorm laterally about 'win-win' possibilities and ways of negotiating tensions and conflicts as a prioritised and time bound plan. Part 5: Looks at issues in gender-accountable implementation and building participatory information systems for ongoing monitoring and evaluation which increase accountability to all stakeholders to build an ongoing and sustainable VC Action Learning process. It finishes with a summary Gender Checklist which can be applied to any VCD process and which then provides the basis for the more detailed discussion for each Stage given in the rest of the Manual. x MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

14 Purpose of the guide Part 6: gives practical guidelines in how the diagram techniques for mapping and analysis introduced in the Guide can be used and adapted for use with different stakeholders at different stages of value chain analysis and development. INTENDED USERS OF THIS GUIDE This Guide is intended as an overview of GEVCAL and the gender issues and questions that need to be asked in any Value Chain Development process. It is for VCA and/or gender consultants, researchers and policy-makers involved in value chain development who wish to: „ Improve the accuracy, relevance and usefulness of their work and policy recommendations in general through including the perspectives and needs of the global majority, rather than just the male half of the population involved in and affected by value chain development. „ Ensure that their work leads to recommendations that empower, rather than disadvantage women, and hence maximise contribution to employment creation, economic growth and poverty reduction. „ Make the transition from external academic conventional economic mapping and analysis for 'trickle-down' economic growth to effective and sustainable value chain development for pro-poor development. „ It provides the basis for gender training, promoting gender awareness amongst different stakeholders and a general guide to the types of questions and processes that need to form part of a VCD process at different stages. This is not a 'how to' Guide to value chain analysis and development. It rather shows how gender concerns should be incorporated into value chain development and demonstrates methodologies for doing so. It is a guide that could be used along side other value chain 5 materials in particular the ILO's existing Guide for Value Chain Analysis and Upgrading . Depending on the nature of the VCD the tools in Part 6 can be used on their own or to complement participatory tools and quantitative and qualitative research from other Manuals. It must also be emphasised that it is not possible to have one simple 'gender tool' that can just be effortlessly tacked onto a gender-blind (or more often gender-discriminatory) value chain development process. Applying this Guide effectively requires genuine interest in identifying and addressing gender issues at different stages of the VCA process and different levels. Gender analysis also requires not only an awareness of gender issues but also openness to creative thinking about the challenges which gender (and other social analysis) inevitably presents to conventional top-down economic analysis and methods. This Guide also does not aim to substitute in-depth gender expertise in gender research, gender mainstreaming and gender-inclusive participatory facilitation. Like VC analysis and development itself, gender integration requires training and research experience to do well. It may be that experts or stakeholders involved in the process already possess such extensive expertise. Otherwise VCD processes will need to engage experienced gender experts at least in the design and training stages, and followed through to the identification of action strategy in order to identify the most cost-efficient and effective ways of integrating gender. 5. Herr, M., Hultquist, I., Rogovsky, N., Pyke, F., (2006) A guide for Value Chain Analysis and Upgrading, ILO, Geneva xi MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

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16 Introduction INTRODUCTION MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS: GENDER & VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT

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18 Introduction GENDER EQUALITY, DECENT WORK AND PRO-POOR DEVELOPMENT Gender equality of opportunity and women's empowerment are now widely recognised as integral and inseparable parts of any sustainable strategy for pro-poor development 6 and Decent Work : Gender equality of opportunity and women's empowerment are essential for „ economic growth. Studies have shown that countries that have taken positive steps to promote gender equality have substantially higher levels of economic 7 . growth Gender equality and women's empowerment are essential components of poverty „ reduction strategies. Gender inequality and women's disempowerment are key factors in creating poverty . Gender inequality means women have higher representation amongst the poor and therefore women's needs are the majority norm rather than minority interest in poverty reduction strategies. Women also have prime responsibility for children and family welfare which makes them key 8 . actors in poverty reduction „ As stated in international agreements, gender equality of opportunity is a key goal in and of itself as part of an international commitment to women's human rights and gender justice. As such it is also an integral part of any Decent Work strategy. Women are statistically the global majority. As the global majority, women cannot be treated as 'a special case' but their needs and interests must be as an integral a part of any development policy as those of men. Failing to effectively harness the creativity and effort of at least half the population inevitably significantly undermines the potential for growth, with serious implications not only for women themselves but for household and national poverty reduction. Enabling women to realise their full potential requires removing gender inequalities and discrimination which constrain them at every level. It also requires affirmative action to enable women, and also men, to promote and benefit from this change. 6. Decent work: women and men have the opportunities to obtain decent and productive employment in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity, ILO (2006) 7. Klasen, S. (2002) estimated for World Bank that if Sub-Saharan Africa had given the same priority to addressing gender inequality in education as given in East Asia, real per-capita annual growth between 1960 and 1992 would have been between 0.4 and 0.6% faster. These effects only relate to gender inequality in education and are thus in addition to the effects of average human capital on growth. Its also suggested that these growth impacts would be much greater if they also took into account the subsequent impacts of women's education on reduced gender inequality in employment, access to technologies, or credit. ( Blackden, M. and Bhanu, C. (1999) 8. See eg DFID (2000) 3 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

19 Introduction BOX 1: PRO-POOR GROWTH, DECENT WORK AND PRO-POOR DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR GROWTH (PPG) Growth is pro-poor, when the income of the poorest (e.g. of the lowest quintile) increases equally or more than the average income. PPG stresses the need to make the poor participate directly in the economic growth, and does not rely 9 on "trickle down" processes or social transfers . GTZ 2007 DECENT WORK Definition: The ILO defines Decent Work as opportunities for men and women to obtain productive employment 10 in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity . To this end, the ILO believes that women, including women entrepreneurs, have a fair chance to generate adequate incomes through self-employment. In turn, the ILO is working hard to promote gender equity in mainstream small enterprise development methodologies, including Value Chain development. ILO 2006 PRO-POOR DEVELOPMENT Definition Pro-poor growth that takes place to increase incomes and the participation of the poor translates into improved wellbeing. This involves not only Decent Work for employees and entrepreneurs within value chains, but ensuring that value chain development contributes to wider processes of social development and environmental sustainability benefiting poor people. Policy levels „ policies targeting the poor „ policies targeting those who are not poor but can promote the above goals, „ an enabling environment which ensures that a) policies are mainstreamed and the benefits of b) policies go disproportionately to the poor. Underlying principles „ inclusion „ equity „ participation „ transparency „ accountability Adapted from Mayoux 2005 9. Springer-Heinze, A. (2007) Value Links Manual, GTZ 10. ILO (2006 ) Decent Work and Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) - An ILO Advocacy Guidebook: A supplement to the PRS reference manual, Policy Integration Department, ILO Geneva 4 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

20 Introduction MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS: GENDER AND VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT Value Chain Analysis (VCA) is increasingly being used as a methodology for identifying effective strategies for Value Chain Development (VCD) for pro-poor growth. It aims to identify: „ Appropriate points of intervention for upgrading industries to compete on local, regional and international markets and „ Improving the situation of those currently disadvantaged in the value chain. Researchers use VCA to understand why particular countries and particular types of enterprise find it difficult to enter certain sectors, why many of the potential benefits of globalisation fail to reach the very poor, and identify the implications for value chain development. Gender inequalities are often critical to understanding and addressing the 'weakest links' within value chains, and the most critical areas for upgrading quality and growth as well as poverty reduction. Gender analysis is however generally also the weakest point in most value chain analyses, and largely ignored in most value chain manuals. Gender differences and inequalities affect the ways in which value chains operate at every level: „ Women and men are likely to be involved at different stages of the chain as producers and entrepreneurs, in marketing and as consumers. Those areas where women are involved are often less visible and may be overlooked in both analysis and development. Large parts of the value chain, which are essential to upgrading, are often ignored, particularly homeworking, 'putting out' and temporary work. These are generally very important in explaining how value chains operate and indicate critical links at which upgrading or change should happen in order to bring about development of the chain as a whole, and for poverty reduction. „ Gender inequalities affect where power is located and where and how change can occur in order to translate chain upgrading into poverty reduction. Gender inequalities are often important in explaining why different parts of the chain are blockages to growth. Gender analysis is needed to explain why particular chains are dominated by men or women, in what circumstances women have been able to become successful at creating employment, and how women can be supported to make a more effective economic contribution? Gender inequalities also affect men's behaviour in enterprises and markets as well as the household. 5 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

21 Introduction „ „ Unless gender analysis is an integral part of value chain analysis, strategies for upgrading may further disadvantage women. Interventions may ignore women altogether. They may alter perceptions of ownership and rights in favour of men. Enterprises may be arbitrarily assumed to be 'male owned' even where women and other family workers may be important to their management and operation; Or they may be based on inaccurate stereotypes of women's capacities and situation, excluding them from support and hence giving men an advantage in markets or employment. This has implications not only for gender equity and women themselves, but reduces economic growth and perpetuates cycles of poverty. Ensuring that value chain analysis is able to identify and promote the 'strongest links' therefore requires the integration of gender analysis at all stages. Translating this analysis into the strongest development process also requires the full and equitable participation of women as well as men not only in design, but also implementation and monitoring. Many of the tricky and complex issues highlighted by gender analysis are often not confined to gender itself, but reflections of other inherent shortcomings in the types of economic analysis which commonly dominate value chain analyses and development. Gender analysis provides a starting point for more accurate poverty analysis and integration of key dimensions of extra-market factors, power relations and motivations into the currently incomplete understanding of economic growth. Understanding and incorporating these dimensions are essential not only for gender, but to designing effective sustainable pro-poor growth and development strategies themselves. 6 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

22 PART ONE GENDER EQUITABLE VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT: CONCEPTS AND FRAMEWORKS

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24 Part one SECTION 1.1: VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT: APPROACHES AND VCD CYCLE What is Value Chain Development? Different Approaches Value Chains conceptualise enterprises and economic activities, not as separate discrete units or functions, but as part of chains, holistic networks and systems of different linked production and exchange activities operating in different geographical areas: local, national and international. BOX 2: WHAT ARE VALUE CHAINS? The value chain describes the full range of activities that are required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of production (involving a combination of physical transformation and the input of various producer services), delivery to final consumers, and final disposal after use. (Kaplinsky and Morris 2000 p4) A value chain is a sequence of target-oriented combinations of production factors that create a marketable product or service from conception to the final consumption. This includes activities such as design, production, marketing, distribution and support services to the final consumer. The activities that comprise the value chain can be contained within a single firm or divided among different firms, as well as within a single geographical location or spread over wider areas. The term Value Chain refers to the fact that value is added to preliminary products through the combination of other resources. (ILO, 2006) 11 Value Chain Analysis (VCA) has been adapted for many different purposes including: „ Strategic planning for individual businesses to identify optimum market and production strategies „ Research to understand processes of globalisation and industrialisation, why particular countries and particular types of enterprise find it difficult to enter certain sectors and to identify key points for upgrading for firms within particular types of commodity chain and the macro level policy implications. „ Agricultural research to model the likely impacts of state agricultural policies and international trade policies on prices and supply of different agricultural commodities Action research by organisations trying to understand why many of the potential „ benefits of globalisation fail to reach the very poor, particularly women and identify strategies to change existing power relations within the chain. For example organisations such as: Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) and Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in 12 India . 13 „ Impact assessments and action research of Fair Trade . 11.See particularly two key manuals on the use of value chain analysis in examining processes of globalisation Kaplinsky, R. and Morris, M. (2000) and empowerment strategies for homeworkers (McCormick, D. and Schmitz, H. (2001). For links to other studies and resources on value chains see for example http://www.gapresearch.org/production/globprodpov.html which has all the papers from DFID sponsored research on global value chains and poverty and http://www.nri.org/NRET/.htm which gives papers and resources relating to agricultutal value chains and livelihoods. 12. See WIEGO website www.wiego.org for links to a wide range of very useful resources. 13. See papers on NRET website http://www.nri.org 9 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

25 Part One There are many different types of VCD process. They differ for example in: „ The main purpose (for example: increasing profits for particular stakeholders, upgrading whole chains as an economic growth strategy and/or to increase foreign exchange, to improve working conditions and worker incomes, to improve women's market access). „ The focus of interest (for example: one particular enterprise, a specific production process of marketing chain, a whole industrial or commodity sector or issues affecting particular stakeholders in the chain). „ The main intended direct beneficiaries or stakeholders: e.g. large entrepreneurs seen as leading the sector, small or micro-entrepreneurs, employees, women, people with disabilities. „ The resources available for the VCA in terms of budgets, skills and time frame and capacities of the implementing agencies. Approaches to VCD range from: 'Pull-up processes' focusing on economic analysis of upgrading strategies for „ lead businesses - large and medium entrepreneurs and policy change in order to 'pull-up' and create efficient markets for other stakeholders down the chain. Benefits are then assumed to benefit other stakeholders in the chain, including the poor, through for example increased employment. „ 'Push-up processes' focusing on participatory action research and mobilisation of workers disadvantaged in the value chain. This is seen as leading to improvements further up the chain through capacity-building and improving quality of products and employment conditions. GEVCAL Value chain development cycle This Manual proposes an approach to VCD which combines both 'pull-up' and 'push-up' approaches, and mainstreams gender at all stages: Gender Equitable Value Chain Action Learning (GEVCAL). The main goal is effective and ongoing implementation of gender equitable and pro-poor VCD strategies as a sustainable development process. GEVCAL aims to develop of 'win-win' strategies which can address different goals and balance the needs of different stakeholders. It sees VCD as inevitably needing collaboration between different stakeholders, not only 'heads of industry' but also informal sector actors, workers and those who are vulnerable down the chain. GEVCAL sees VCD as inevitably a long-term process in which any external one-off VCA should seek to not only give as accurate a picture of the Value Chain and propose realistic and realisable recommendations, but also help to build capacities and networks on for ongoing learning. The underlying principles are summarised in Box 3. MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS 10

26 Part one BOX 3: GEVCAL: UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES Goal: gender-equitable pro-poor development. Objectives: „ To establish where possible win-win interventions addressing poverty reduction and gender equity goals as well as economic growth. To establish where necessary the best ways of balancing different stakeholder „ needs and different priorities in allocation of scarce resources. „ To promote mutual respect and communication between stakeholders to enable equitable negotiation of tensions between these different goals and conflicts between stakeholders. To mainstream gender equity concerns in both growth and pro-poor strategies. „ Process : „ A participatory process which links the different stages from design through research and development of an action strategy to implementation and monitoring. „ A process which progressively builds sustainable understanding, communication and networks between stakeholders at different levels to enable a long-term ongoing learning process. A process which strategically targets necessary external expertise as a „ complement to, rather than subsitute for, the participatory process. „ A pro-poor process which includes, and where possible prioritises, the needs of poor women and men throughout. Gender mainstreaming: therefore can and should take place at all stages and levels of the process from initial design, analysis, action learning and implementation. „ Gender inclusive process which gives women at all levels a voice in the process. „ Gender accuracy of information: Gender disaggregation of all data to identify areas of gender difference. Investigating areas of gender difference to identify whether this is due to gender inequalities of opportunity or differences in free choice. „ Gender equitable planning: which mainstreams equality of opportunity and identifies supportive strategies needed to enable women to realise these opportunities, and to promote the support of men for the necessary changes. Gender accountable implementation and learning: which involves women as well „ as men in implementation, incorporates gender indicators in monitoring and informs women as well as men of learning outcomes. 11 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

27 Part one GEVCAL is based on a commonly accepted cycle for Value Chain Development (see STAGE arrows in Figure 1 below). The first stage, designing the process, involves: „ Scoping the process: deciding the main goals and objectives of the process and the main intended beneficiaries, and hence the main questions and/or hypotheses. „ Preliminary mapping: This is generally based on an initial meeting of some stakeholders and/or analysis of existing research and starts to map the different functions and activities in the chain and identify the main stakeholders who are likely to be involved in or affected by involved chain development interventions. „ Detailed design of the process to decide which stakeholders will participate at different stages and how, what information and support will be needed and the implications for the core team and types of expertise which will be needed. 12 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

28 Part one Figure 1: Value Chain Development Cycle 13 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

29 Part one The second stage is Value Chain Research and Analysis which uses participatory mapping and research tools as the core of the process to collect both quantitative and qualitative information, complemented where necessary by focused quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews to collect information from different stakeholders: „ To establish more precisely how many enterprises of different types are involved at different stages, how many people are involved in the different activities, relative distribution of 'values' and/or incomes, skills along the chain and so on. This then enables an analysis of some of the blockages, leverage points and inequalities to be addressed. „ To investigate complex and sensitive issues: why there are barriers to entry and blockages and the causes of inequalities in different parts of the chain - investigating effects of different interests and power relations and contextual factors „ To brainstorm potential 'win-win' intervention points with different stakeholders. The third stage is development of a prioritised and time bound action strategy that synthesises the analysis and brainstorming in the research and analysis stage. This involves: „ Synthesis of potential 'win-win' intervention points based on the combined analysis of 'pull factors': economic blockages and leverage points for upgrading the chain as a whole and the 'push factors': needs, opportunities, constraints and ways forward for more vulnerable and subordinate stakeholders in the chain. „ Identification of potential conflicting interests between stakeholders and best strategies for redistributing value in favour of those most vulnerable and disadvantaged. „ Developing a time-bound plan for implementation and allocation of roles of different stakeholders. The final stage is implementation and ongoing learning. Value chain research and analysis is potentially a very expensive exercise, often involving external experts. It has little value if it is only a one-off process. Chains are constantly changing in response to internal and contextual factors. It is therefore desirable that the analysis process itself considers how the stakeholder capacity- building and networks can become part of a sustainable participatory action learning process. This also involves some form of participatory monitoring of outcomes and impacts of the interventions. This then feeds into the next learning cycle. Linking the different stages is an inclusive multi stakeholder participation process (the outside ring of circles) in which: „ Stakeholder input in design aims to increase commitment and input to the process. „ Participatory research and analysis increase stakeholder capacity for their own research and analysis and promote communication, understanding and respect between stakeholders at different levels. „ Stakeholder, networks, collaboration and negotiation of well-informed and articulate stakeholders form the basis for implementation of VCD strategies at individual, enterprise, institutional and policy levels.Capacities and networks that are built up during this process then enable a more sustainable and ongoing learning process once the stage of intensive and expensive input from external experts has ended. 14 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

30 Part one SECTION 1.2: WHAT IS GENDER MAINSTREAMING? GENDER DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS Gender equity concerns can, and should, be mainstreamed throughout all approaches, and at all stages. As discussed above, gender differences and inequalities operate at all levels of the value chain, affecting not only women's rights, but also pro-poor development goals in general. Gender mainstreaming therefore requires addressing many interlinked and mutually reinforcing dimensions (economic, social and political) and levels (individual, household, community, national, and international) on which gender inequality operates within the value chain. Box 4 shows the range of gender concerns which growth oriented women entrepreneurs 14 (GOWE) identified in the pilot workshops using a gender in a value chain approach. BOX 4: GENDER OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS IDENTIFIED BY GOWE MEETINGS IN KENYA Women who ran in growth-oriented businesses recognised that as women they have advantages, and contributions, as well as facing challenges and discrimination. In particular they identified potential for women to be at the forefront of good management practice because of commonly recognised 'female' characteristics - able to manage multiple tasks and manage their workforce in more socially responsive ways contributing to a more empowering work experience for workers, particularly women. The women identified the following gender constraints which prevent them from realising their full potential in their respective value chains: 1) The problem of lack of property rights was spontaneously mentioned as a key constraint by groups in both GOWE workshops. This affects not only access to finance but also other dimensions of the enterprise such as decision-making power. 2) The burden of women's unpaid work in the household is a key constraint in their marketing and enterprise activities. 3) Conflict in the household because men would not accept women's economic role. A women handloom weavers association suggested it would be useful to have 'family days' where women come together with their spouses so men would become more accepting of their activities. 4) Upstream and downstream sexual harassment was said to be as a serious problem for women of all ages. 5) Getting, managing and retaining skilled labour was a serious problem. Issues such as the impact of HIV and AIDS were challenging the ability of their businesses to be productive and competitive. Although these are also general problems for men, the above constraints put women at an even less favourable competitive position, and the burden of HIV and AIDS falls hardest on women workers as they have to also care for sick relatives. 14. Part of a joint African Development Bank, International Finance Corporation and International Labour Organisation Program to support Growth Oriented Women Entrepreneurs, Kenya, Nairobi 2007. 15 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

31 Part one They identified constraints at a number of different levels: property rights, which in turn led to problems with collateral for credit and finance, unpaid work in the household, conflict in the household and sexual harassment. They also mentioned particular difficulties of women getting and retaining skilled labour. (See also Box 5 Below for further examples of interlinked and reinforcing inequalities). Box 5 gives details of an interview with Tsehay, a female weaver in Ethiopia, working on a traditional loom together with her father and brothers. Tsehay is one of the female weavers involved in an ILO Increasing Market Access project. This interview, conducted while the men were separately interviewed in another room, clearly indicates women's own aspirations, areas of resentment and the importance of asking women as well as men about options for women. The same aspirations were also heard in other interviews with women factory workers. These women wanted to earn an income, but both their aspirations and their capacities were seriously limited by many dimensions of gender inequality. These also sapped their confidence. BOX 5: FEMALE WEAVER AS A FAMILY WORKER Tsehay is 18 and lives with her parents and two brothers. She has read to10th grade and she is waiting to go to college. She says girls here normally marry around 20 to 25. She wants to continue her education and go to college to learn tailoring and design. It costs around 50 Birr (6USD) a month. She is not thinking about marriage at the moment, but when she marries she wants to contribute to the household income. She would want to work a few hours a day, even if they had enough money. It is not the tradition here for women to earn an income, but she thinks it is good to earn money herself because: „ If the husband is sick or has to go to another place then she doesn't want to have to depend on other people for money. „ The husband might spend all his money for himself and then she wouldn't have any. She says she is free to choose where she wants to go and goes to the market to buy consumption goods. But she doesn't sell weaving products in the market because she doesn't know how to sell them. She agrees it would be good to learn get experience of the market with her father and brothers and learn how to sell the products. They have actually suggested it. (The men told the male interviewers they did not want her to go - highlighting the importance of looking at male and female perceptions within households, and differences in views and aspirations). Although Tsehay works the same or longer hours, her brothers get more pocket money than she does 'because they go out". They go to the market. Her brothers get 30 Birr a month pocket money. She gets money if she asks for it. She doesn't really think the difference is right, but there is not much she can do about it. The room where she is weaving is very smoky and this affects the quality of the cloth, as well as their health. The family work together with three looms, one on top of the other with pits in the mud floor for their legs. They were working in a different room, but now they have improved that room for social purposes. It would only cost 60 Birr (7USD) for a safe stove i.e. the same amount as the two brothers' monthly pocket money, but the possibility of the brothers using their money for improving household health and production rather than for their own luxury expenditure had not been considered. They also need to improve the loom, but the best looms would not fit in the space they have available with three of them working. So they would need to improve the premises also. 16 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

32 Part one This interview also indicates the importance of lateral thinking in relation to interventions - a key means of upgrading the quality of the cloth which Tsehai and her father and brothers produce would be to arrange a loom for a smokeless stove to prevent the smoke spoiling the cloth. This would however require changes in authority in the household to prioritise domestic technology improvement over male luxury expenditure in with a reduction in this latter the family could have bought a smokeless stove even without a loan. This intervention would also have had very beneficial impacts on the family's health, and reduce air pollution in th city. The gender principles and definitions on which this Guide is based are given in Box 6 below. BOX 6: GENDER ANALYSIS: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS BASIC PRINCIPLES Gender is a Social Construct Biological or 'sex' differences are few and do not determine gender inequality. Gender inequalities are socially constructed through gendered power relations. Their form and justification vary widely between different contexts. Gender inequalities can and should be changed. Gender equality of opportunity is a basic human right established by International Agreements and Conventions, such as the ILO's 15 and the 1979 Convention on Elimination of Discrimination Against conventions 111 and 100. Women. Gender inequalities, therefore, cannot be justified by reference to cultural norms. Gender means both women and men. Discrimination based on gender affects both women and men adversely. However, in the current situation where all the statistical indicators indicate that women are overwhelmingly more disadvantaged than men, it is justified to prioritize strategies which advantage women. Addressing gender inequality to redress discrimination against both women and men requires actions by both women and men to challenge their existing attitudes, privilege and practice. Women are not a homogeneous category any more than men are. Other dimensions of economic and social inequality interact in different ways with gender inequality to produce different needs and priorities. It is not therefore sufficient to just include token women as one 'stakeholder group', but women must be included across stakeholder categories. IF INDOUBT ASK WOMEN AND MEN 15. ILO Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (1958) No.111; Equal Remuneration Convention (1951), No. 100. 17 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

33 Part one KEY DEFINITIONS Gender Difference: those differences between women and men that are freely chosen. However, most 'differences' between men and women, even where they may involve an element of choice (e.g. what to wear) are nevertheless embedded in structures of gender inequality which generally ascribe lower value to women's choices and perpetuate unequal access to power and resources. Gender Equality of Opportunity: the provision of an enabling environment whereby gender is no longer a basis for privileging access to resources, power or services. This is likely to require different types of considerations for women from different backgrounds depending on other dimensions of disadvantage, and at different levels. Women's Empowerment: the process through which women, who are currently most discriminated against, enable themselves or are enabled to take advantage of equality of opportunity. This includes affirmative action for women, and support for men to change those aspects of their behaviour, roles and privileges that currently discriminate against women. It is likely to include different types of support for women from different backgrounds depending on other dimensions of disadvantage, and at different levels. Gender Equity of Outcomes: the situation where gender equality of opportunity and women's empowerment have combined to mean that gender inequality and discrimination are is no longer a cause of gender difference. Any gender differences can be confidently attributed to free and realisable individual differences in choice rather than gender inequality or discrimination. Gender Mainstreaming in Policy: Making the concerns and experiences of women (as the currently most disadvantaged by gender inequality) integral to the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and social spheres. Its goals are gender equality of opportunity and equity of outcomes through empowerment of women as well as men. Explanations of differences and inequalities in terms of biology need to be constantly questioned. Gender differences in participation, pay and conditions at different parts of the value chain are often explained in terms of 'women's innate characteristics' like docility, patience to do repetitive work or lack of physical strength. However biological sex differences inadequate and misleading explanations of engendered divisions of labour. For example in Ethiopia weaving is seen as a male activity, and women are seen as too weak to operate a traditional loom. Tsehai in Box 5 is an exception to the rule. In Kenya, howver, traditional weaving is generally a female activity. Several of the GOWE women in Box 4 had weaving enterprises employing mainly women. Equally importantly, sex differences do not explain gender inequality, or the devaluing of women's skills. Questions, therefore, need to be asked in VCA why these characteristics are undervalued. Also why work is not arranged in such a way as to facilitate women's participation. For example: female-friendly technology and family-friendly working hours. 18 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

34 Part one Any justification of gender inequalities in terms of 'culture' and 'tradition' can be challenged in value chain development. Gender inequalities exist in all cultures - in both industrialised countries and low income countries. Many dimensions of 'culture' and 'tradition' are constantly changing. Supporting perpetuation of gender inequalities on the grounds of 'cultural sensitivity' is no more justified than perpetuation of the equally 'cultural' discrimination on the basis of race and ethnicity, religion, caste or disability. There is often confusion because of the assertion that 'gender means women and men'. All the indicators of human development in most countries show that women are significantly disadvantaged compared to men. This justifies a focus on changing those gender inequalities that disadvantage women, and a focus on women's needs and interests. The focus on 'gender policies' rather than 'women's projects' came about because it was realised that removing gender inequalities which disadvantage women requires changes not only in women's behaviour and position, but also that of men. It also requires change in underlying gender inequalities in power and resources that structure the ways in which women and men behave towards each other. Addressing gender inequalities therefore generally requires not only strategies targeting women, but mainstreaming change in gender relations in strategies targeting men, for example: the inclusion of gender awareness in livelihoods training for men as well as women. Gender equality of opportunity is however often insufficient for gender equity. Gender equality of opportunity often requires significant changes in institutional culture and processes - including language, assumptions, relationships and incentives. Many countries have legislation and even traditional religious law against different forms of discrimination - for example: property rights legislation, which remains unimplemented without supportive measures to enable women to take advantage of these laws. There is often a need for an initial period of affirmative action in order to support sufficient numbers of women or men to challenge existing inequalities and stereotypes and to establish new norms and practices that give equality of opportunity. BOX 7: EQUALITY, EMPOWERMENT AND EQUITY: SOME EXPLANATORY EXAMPLES EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION/EMPOWERMENT Property rights: Many governments have introduced property legislation giving women equal rights. Islamic law gives women very clear rights to inheritance. Hindu law gave women rights to their share of family property on marriage. However, women are often not aware on these rights and are often forced to waive these rights in favour of brothers and husbands because of their dependence on male support. Political participation in UK: Until very recently women's political participation in the UK was very low, despite having had one woman Prime Minister. The Labour party decided to introduce affirmative action in the form of compulsory inclusion of women's names on shortlists for electoral candidates, including female-only shortlists in some key constituencies, (despite opposition and debate from many party members). 19 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

35 Part one The result was a big increase in the numbers of women Members of Parliament, improvements in the physical facilities for women, more family-friendly working hours and practices for women and men. There is now competition between the political parties to promote themselves as 'women-friendly'. WHAT ARE EQUITABLE OUTCOMES? A woman may choose to stay at home to look after children, but this is only an equitable outcome if she has a real choice including: „ Equal opportunity to well-paid work „ Family-friendly working practices which do not lead to future discrimination in employment and promotion „ Anxiety-free childcare which is good for the children „ Male family members playing equal role in unpaid household work. It is only when women have equality of opportunity backed by supportive policies to enable them to realise those opportunities that different outcomes between women and men can be judged to be equitable - for example women choosing to stay at home rather than work, or to do certain types of job. Ultimately, gender equality will involve not only increasing women's access to profitable economic activities, but changing the nature of these economic activities themselves to take account of issues like men and women's relative responsibilities. In a gender equitable society, women and men may continue to make different choices, but gender biases cease to influence those choices. It is also important to also bear in mind that women are not a homogeneous category, any more than men are. There must be space within the process for all women to come together to discuss and address their common gender needs. It is not therefore sufficient to include a few token women as one 'stakeholder group', but women must be included across stakeholder categories. 20 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

36 Part one SECTION 1.3: GEVCAL 'GENDER LENS' In the GEVCAL process, gender is mainstreamed at all stages. The dimensions of the 'gender lens' - the framework within which participatory discussions and gender research and analysis can be situated, and checklist questions underlying the mainstreaming process are given in Box 8 below. This gender lens involves not only: Gender disaggregation of all economic data, „ but also: „ Ensuring that language is gender inclusive from the start and implicit understandings of terms like 'entrepreneur', 'farmer' are examined. „ Questionning the boundaries of 'economic' itself: to include not only production for the market but non-market activities. „ Analysis of inequalities in power relations, voice, and vulnerability and hence capabilities and how these affect gender relations within the chain. „ Looking not only at processes within and between enterprises in the chain, but also at effects of external factors at the meso- and macro-levels in development institutions and national and international policy and how these affect both gender relations within the chain and VCD interventions. „ Inclusion of all female stakeholders, including those who are normally invisible and those who are most disadvantaged within the chain. Looking at gender dimensions of men's attitudes and behaviours and the effects of „ these on gender equality of opportunity and women's empowerment. The challenge for VCD is to translate this broad framework of issues and constraints into practical questions that can be integrated into time-bound and manageable VCD. This is discussed in more detail in Part 3. Detailed discussion of the application of these principles at each stage is given in the relevant sections below. A summary checklist is then given in Box 21 in Part 5. The GEVCAL methodology also makes substantial use of diagram tools as a cumulative planning, action research and monitoring process. These diagrams are based on a combination of well-established value chain and systems mapping techniques used in economic analysis, and principles and innovations from participatory action research, particularly experience by Linda Mayoux with Participatory Action Learning Systems (PALS). These make participatory processes much more accessible to stakeholders at all levels, and promote communication between people at different levels. Examples of these diagrams are given in the text and a suggested process and sequencing of diagram tools with guidance on their use is given in Part 6. These can however be complemented or substituted by use of other participatory, quantitative or qualitative tools suggested in other value chain manuals. Although the checklists given here are best used as part of a participatory process like GEVCAL, they can also be used to examine the gender sensitivity of other processes and indicate ways in which gender can be better integrated into any type of VCD process. 21 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

37 Part one BOX 8: GENDER LENS: ELEMENTS AND CHECKLIST FOR DIFFERENT STAGES OF VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT ELEMENTS OF THE GENDER LENS „ Gender disaggregation of ALL economic data Ensuring that language is gender inclusive from the start and implicit understandings of „ terms like 'entrepreneur', 'farmer' are examined. „ Boundaries of 'economic analysis' to include non-market activities „ Analysis of inequalities in power relations, voice, and vulnerability and hence capabilities. „ Looking at effects of external gender inequalities at the meso- and macro-levels „ Inclusion of all female stakeholders „ Men's attitudes and behaviours GENDER LENS CHECKLIST ‡ Is all information gender-disaggregated and gender difference included as a dimension of analysis and monitoring throughout? What gendered assumptions are made in language and terminology? For ‡ example: in definitions of 'enterprise', 'worker', 'head of household'? ‡ Are women's 'invisible' and/or non-market activities part of the analysis and recommendations throughout? ‡ Are gendered power relations within and between enterprises part of the analysis and recommendations throughout? Within households? Withinmarkets? Within communities? Within development institutions? ‡ Are gender implications of macro- and meso-level policies included in the analysis and recommendations? ‡ Are the full range of female stakeholders not only been included throughout the process but have they been given a voice? ‡ Have the gender dimensions of men's attitudes, behaviour and experience also been included in the analysis and recommendations? What are the implications for the gender skills and gender composition of the ‡ Management Team and/or Steering Committee/s? 22 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

38 PART TWO GENDER-INCLUSIVE DESIGN: PRELIMINARY SCOPING, MAPPING AND PARTICIPATORY PROCESS

39

40 Part two SECTION 2.1: SCOPING THE VCD PROCESS: WHAT ARE THE GENDER ISSUES? Any value chain development process is unlikely to be able to address all the different issues at all parts of the chain and for all stakeholders. The goals and scope of the VCD need to be clear, agreed and transparent from the beginning of any analysis. This design phase is likely to require revision until an acceptable 'fit' has been found between the scoping/goals and design of the process. For reasons discussed below, it is likely that any preliminary mapping and stakeholder analysis will need to be revised before they are ready to form a reliable basis for the subsequent VCA. It is therefore crucial that sufficient time is allocated to the scoping process. If done well, then in many cases the preliminary mapping itself may provide sufficient information on which to start some implementation by stakeholders themselves before the more in-depth research and analysis is complete. Identifying some tangible and constructive ways forward for the values chain development in the short-term will serve to increase interest and investment in the process for the longer term also. Gender analysis is needed in all VCDs from the very beginning, integrated into the scoping and design. Box 9 outlines some of the gender dimensions of common policy questions in VCD. Gender analysis is very obviously relevant where: „ Substantial numbers of women are involved in the value chain selected „ Where the explicit goal focuses on women's empowerment and/or gender equality. Gender analysis is however also relevant: When investigating male dominated industries. Here there are important questions „ about why women are excluded from these industries and whether women are actually involved in invisible activities as family workers, in supply chains or as consumers. In terms of policy, appropriate responses to reducing male poverty may be to introduce interventions to increase the incomes of women in their households. „ Where the explicit goal is industry upgrading and/or pro-poor development and/or Decent Work. A gender analysis will be important in all types of VCA to encourage lateral thinking about different types of intervention (See Part 4 below for practical examples). This includes not only direct intervention in the value chain itself to reduce discrimination and vulnerability for those of the bottom of the chain but also indirect support at household or community level. From the beginning there needs to be an awareness of the importance of looking at potentially invisible activities, power relations and gender inequalities in the policy frameworks and to include these in both the preliminary mapping and the stakeholder analysis to design the participatory process. It is important to start the stakeholder participation process as soon as possible, to include a range of stakeholders in the scoping process. Two useful diagram tools at this stage are the Road Map and/or Diamond which help different stakeholders identify and prioritise their various goals and analyse how far these are similar, or potentially in conflict (See Part 6). This also helps incorporation of gender issues in the scoping process. 25 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

41 Part two BOX 9: WHAT GENDER ISSUES: SCOPING THE INVESTIGATION QUESTIONS RELEVANT TO GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT How can interventions at different levels of the value chain contribute to increasing gender equality? E.g. 1) Removing gender discrimination in the workplace and/or incomes 2) By developing new role models of successful women's entrepreneurship at different levels in the chain? 3) Through increasing the incomes of low paid women at different stages in the chain? 4) By strengthening women's voice and bargaining power within enterprises and households? 5) By increasing women's voice in policy-making processes? QUESTIONS RELEVANT TO CHAIN UPGRADING 1. Where in the value chain are women and men located? 2. What are the implications of gender difference and inequality for suggested value chain upgrading strategies: Process upgrading (increasing efficiency of internal processes) a. how far does gender discrimination and issues in the workplace undermine managerial efficiency and worker motivation? b. Product upgrading (introducing new products or improving old products) do women have the necessary skills for quality production? What are their access to resources for investment? Ideas about product diversification to address female markets? c. Functional upgrading (changing the mix of activities) within the firm and/or chain upgrading (moving to a new chain): how far and in what ways might greater attention to women's skills and women's consumption patterns indicate potentially profitable areas of change? 3. In what ways do gender inequalities external to the value chain affect women's and men's access to necessary skills and/or resources? 4. Which would be the best levels of intervention to increase access to skills and resources? What are the implications for participation in decision-making processes? 5. 26 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

42 Part two QUESTIONS RELEVANT TO THE PROMOTION OF 'DECENT WORK' 1. Employment creation: Do women and men get equal access to employment created? Are women or men excluded from the most profitable parts of the chain? 2. Rights at Work: Do women and men get equal shares of the added value at different points along the chain? 3. Social protection: Are there gender-specific dimensions of health and safety at work? Is there access to social protection, welfare, pensions and other benefits? 4. Social dialogue: Are women and men equally involved in decision and policy- making processes at different levels of the chain? 5. If there are inequalities, why is this? 6. What can be done to address the inequalities? It also is very important to ensure that language is gender inclusive from the start. Some guidelines are given in Box 10. BOX 10: GENDER-INCLUSIVE LANGUAGE: SOME GUIDELINES It is crucial at all stages of VCD Language should be explicitly rather than implicitly gender neutral through eg: „ Use of she/he or he/she at the beginning, then using 'they' when both sexes are referred to. 'He' should only be used when men only are referred to. To do otherwise is not only discriminatory but also inaccurate. „ Terms like 'head of household' should be avoided as they make assumptions about intra-household processes which may be inaccurate, and should rather be investigated rather than prejudged. „ Ensuring that language is gender inclusive from the start and implicit understandings of terms like 'entrepreneur', 'farmer' are examined. For Guidelines on gender-accurate use of language see (UNC-CH Writing Center 1998). 27 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

43 Part two SECTION 2.2: PRELIMINARY MAPPING: WHO WHERE CONTROLS WHAT? Once the goals of the investigation and key questions are identified, the next step is to draw up a preliminary map of the chain, network or system. This preliminary map provides the underlying analytical skeleton for the subsequent research and planning. It is therefore crucial that gender issues are included at this stage. The preliminary map is conventionally a simple flow chart like the one in Figure 2. This gives an initial rapid visual overview based on what is already known about: „ The main functions or activities involved in the chain „ Their broad geographical spread The main operational categories or stakeholders involved. „ Figure 2. Simple flow chart of Ethiopian leather value chain Source: GTZ ValueLinks Manual, 2007 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS 28

44 Part two Depending on how much is already known about the chain it can also show: a rough idea of the relative size of each element in terms of people „ involved „ a rough idea of the relative share of value contributed and taken by actors at that stage (not necessarily the same thing, one group of people may add the value but not receive a share of the benefits of that value) „ a rough idea of where the most powerful actors are „ it may also map from the start the main types of intervention and support to ensure proper inclusion of institutional stakeholders and as a guide to developing hypotheses This then provides a much more solid basis for designing the participatory process. Some guidelines for drawing the preliminary map are given in Box 11. BOX 11: DRAWING A PRELIMINARY MAP PLOTTING THE CHAIN (See figure 3) 1) What are the main functions in the chain (e.g. obtaining raw materials, production, distribution, storage, transport, advertising, retailing.)? Mark these as arrows with the different activities from left to right: raw materials to consumption/disposal. 2) What are the main product/market segments (e.g. export, national, local, luxury)? You may want to draw separate maps for each, or show the interlinkages depending on the chain or focus. 3) For each production/market segments, what are the main divisions between different types of enterprise (eg household enterprise/ smallholder, factory/plantation)? Mark these as circles underneath the relevant arrow. 4) Within each of the market segments/enterprise types, who are the main stakeholders? SKETCHING PRELIMINARY INFORMATION 5) At each point in the chain/market segment or type of enterprise or stakeholder category, what is your initial estimate of numbers of people involved? If you have precise information put this in. Adjust the size of the arrows or circles accordingly - the larger the arrow the greater the numbers of people involved. 6) What power relations exist in the chain? Where is the most value generated/who are the main price setters? Use line thickness or style to indicate differences in power/value/income - the thicker the line, the greater the power. Where along the chain are activities performing well? Mark these with a positive 7) symbol. The size of the symbol could indicate level of performance. 29 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

45 Part two 8) Where are the main blockages to upgrading? Mark these clearly with a negative symbol, again size of symbol could indicate degree of problem. 9) Where are the poorest people and those with least power likely to be located? Mark these clearly with an exclamation mark. Size again indicating extent. GENDER CHECK IN RELATION TO ALL THE ABOVE 10) Where are women located? Mark these with a colour e.g. red, or a picture of a woman. Strength of the colour or size of woman could indicate degree of female participation. 11) Have all female-specific or female-dominated products and markets been included? Have all female specific or female-dominated activities been included? 12) Have all female stakeholders been included in the map? 13) Have gender power relations been included in the map? GENERATING HYPOTHESES FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS OF THE VALUE CHAIN 1) What does the existing analysis of numbers of people and power/value/incomes indicate about the degree of concentraion of power and incomes i.e. are the arrows or circles with the thick lines large or small, how many thick line shapes are there? 2) What does it indicate about the blockages? 3) What does the analysis show about gender inequalities? Are women concentrated in a few large shapes with thin lines, or are most shapes equally balanced, are the small thick arrows female? Are they concentrated in the positive symbol sections or the negitive symbol sections? 4) What sorts of win-win interventions might contribute to both upgrading and gender equity? (see section 4.1) This map will differ depending on whether the focus is on particular activities along the chain, individual enterprises or international spread. Figure 3 shows a preliminary map of the Ethiopian honey value chain drawn by Netherlands Development Organisation 16 (SNV) staff at a workshop in Ethiopia in 2007 . This shows the activities in which both women and men are involved in black. Red shows where mainly women are involved: in honey beer (tej) brewing and as consumers. The blue lines show where men are concentrated. The thick lines indicate where the main profits are made or main concentration of value. If more information had been available, arrow size could have indicated where most people were involved. 16. Part of the ILO-Irish Aid Partnership Programme in Ethiopia: A joint ILO-Ethiopian Capacity Building Programme workshop, 2007 30 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

46 Part two Figure 3. Preliminary map: Honey value chain, Ethiopia from SNV Adding the gender analysis as this stage already highlights the fact that women are central to the upgrading process: „ Women tej brewers make large profits and divert honey from honey processing and thus are cause of a key blockage. „ Female consumers are also central to the market research to identify the qualities required in upgrading in order to sell on the market - both locally and export. „ Interestingly women's involvement in production of protective clothing inputs was the idea of one woman entrepreneur who had suggested this as an income generation activity. Then gender questions arise about: Why women are not involved in the blue arrows. If women could be involved in honey trading rather than tej production then this would be beneficial in terms of the health of local households and men. They would also be effective in identifying consumer needs for honey from female consumers. At the beginning of this discussion women had been seen as marginal to the upgrading process because they were not involved in the production of honey. There are therefore different ways in which the preliminary mapping can be done, depending on how much is already known and the geographical spread and social distance between the different operators at different stages. In some cases, all that may be possible is a very preliminary brainstorming by the expert development team, then the preliminary mapping is done with stakeholders during the research phase. If the preliminary mapping is done in participatory manner in the field at the start, it is generally possible to plot far more information. 31 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

47 Part two It is nevertheless generally possible to go beyond the simple functional arrows in this preliminary map: using different shapes, colours, lines and fills to indicate differences in profits/value/power and numbers of people involved and different types of operators. This stage must also include an initial 'gender check' to ensure that gender dimensions are included from the start as an integral part of the analysis, not as an afterthought, and hence also marginalised in the policy recommendations. This gender check needs to ensure: „ The inclusion of all main activities where women are involved, but may be 'invisible' contributors, or explicit questions included on this for the research. (See figure 4 below) „ Identification of whether women are involved in the main points where value is high and/or blockages to upgrading to point to key issues for gender analysis and identification of gender-equitable VCD strategies. Figure 4. Some invisible women stakeholders in honey value chain 32 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

48 Part two SECTION 2.3: PARTICIPATORY PROCESS: WHY, WHO AND WHEN? Most VCD processes involve some sort of stakeholder participation. All involve stakeholder participation in the sense of finding out information from stakeholders. In 'pull-up' VCDs the focus has generally been on 'key stakeholders' defined as leaders of industries and policy-makers who are seen as having the best overview and knowledge of the chains concerned. Generally other stakeholders are added, for example relevant development agencies, government officials, maybe union leaders, perhaps even leaders of women's associations. The involvement of more vulnerable stakeholders is often seen as too controversial, costly and difficult - often even if they are organised. Participatory facilitation skills are generally not part of the TOR of the VCD 'experts' involved. In 'push-up' processes, the focus has often been very explicitly on consulting with and organising people at or near the bottom of the power hierarchies in the chain, and then negotiating upwards. Generally some form of participatory methodology and tools are used which include these people in research and/or planning, this is then linked to an advocacy process. There is now a well-established body of experience on how to involve 17 a range of stakeholders. With 'push up' processes there may well be difficulties linking with those who have an economic overview for the chain as a whole, and hence then main drivers of change. Although it may be possible to establish short-term gains, these gains can be undermined by macro-level changes in the long-term unless there has also been a thorough analysis of these. GEVCAL aims to bridge the 'pull-up' and 'push-up' approaches to VCD. It does however build most on the 'push-up' approaches that treat conflict of interest as something to be negotiated rather than avoided or ignored. In GEVCAL participation is an inherent part of the definition of pro-poor development. This includes stakeholder input into: „ Design of the process in order to increase commitment and widen the range of skills and experiences from the start to maximise the relevance and contribution to pro-poor development. „ Research and analysis to build stakeholder capacity for their own research and analysis and promote communication, understanding and respect between stakeholders at different levels. „ Deciding the action strategy „ Implementation and monitoring of VCD strategies at individual, enterprise, institutional and policy levels. 17. See for example the excellent discussion and tools in VeneKlasen, L. and Miller, V. (2002) and for further examples and discussion of participatory tools and processes see the Participation Resource Centre of Institute of Development Studies, Sussex http://www.pnet.ids.ac.uk/prc/index.htm 33 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

49 Part two However, the aim of participation is not participation per se. There are circumstances where extensive participation of all stakeholders is neither possible in terms of political context or resources, nor desirable in terms of either empowerment of the most vulnerable, or reliability of the information and hence generating the most useful pro- poor recommendations. Very poor people like everyone else, and often more so, have many claims on their time, resources and energy. They have much to lose from badly designed policies and processes and/or where making their voices publicly known may have adverse repercussions. Even if it is their interests which are to be clearly prioritised it is important to ensure that their precious time, resources and energy are clearly focused on those issues and areas where their participation is most likely to lead to realisable benefits for them. As far as possible people should benefit directly and as far as possible from the time and energy they give to the research process itself, in terms of learning, understanding and capacity-building, and not treated as unpaid data givers 18 of information extracted by outsiders . It is these last strategic concerns that should determine decisions about when participation takes place, who participates at each stage, and how. In designing the VCD participatory process therefore the key questions are: „ WHO should participate? „ HOW should they participate? „ HOW CAN BENEFITS BE MAXIMISED in terms of development outcomes or learning from the process itself? In relation to all these questions, there are gender issues to be addressed as discussed below. Who should participate? Gender issues in stakeholder analysis Stakeholder analysis provides the basis for identifying the potential roles of different stakeholders at different stages of VCD. In Figure 5, a distinction is suggested between four broad stakeholder categories with potentially different roles in different stages of 19 : VCD process Their relative power and hence priority status for policy outcomes „ „ The degree to which they are likely to be affected by the VCD „ Their potential role in ensuring the reliability of the evaluation „ Their potential role in implementation of the recommendations. 18. For discussion of these issues and full references see Mayoux, L. (2005) 19.The treatment here draws on the much more strategic treatment of stakeholder analysis in the literature on advocacy, value chains analysis and critiques of stakeholder theory in business management. See particularly Veneklasen and Miller (2002), McCormick and Schmitz (2001), Mayoux (2003c) and Simanis (2004). 34 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

50 Part two It is an underlying assumption in GEVCAL that the priority is pro-poor development and hence particularly to protect and/or address the interests of vulnerable stakeholders. This will however inevitably require negotiation with those who have power within the chain, and also implementing stakeholders. Some of these may be very supportive of change, either because there are substantial possibilities of 'win-win' outcomes, or because they have a commitment to broader social goals or equity and poverty reduction. They may also have very good networks and resources for reaching the vulnerable stakeholders. Others may be strong opponents of change and may need to be explicitly excluded or carefully managed so that they do not dominate the process for their own ends. Figure 5. Types of stakeholder Any or all of these may be knowledgeable stakeholders. It is important to value and balance the different types of knowledge from vulnerable stakeholders as well as the powerful and policy makers. It is also important to value the potential contribution of vulnerable stakeholders to benefits all the way up the chain, rather than seeing them as passive recipients of policies designed by others. One of the principal barriers to inclusion of vulnerable stakeholders, apart from the prejudice of evaluators and policy makers and opposition from powerful stakeholders, are problems of how these often 'majority stakeholders' can be fairly represented. The communication skills and networks between vulnerable stakeholders may need to be progressively understood and built up. 35 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

51 Part two Depending on the particular characteristics of the chain and context it is likely that people in each of these categories will exist at different points along the functional/activity chain as indicated in Figure 3 for a honey chain. These different stakeholder categories are likely to have common interests that crosscut their particular point in the activity chain. Indeed the most powerful stakeholders may already be organised in business associations. Stakeholders that are more vulnerable or a subset of them may already be unionised. It is also crucial to recognise that: „ Vulnerable as well as powerful and implementing stakeholders are likely to have knowledge which is important for VCD. If VCD is based on the knowledge of powerful stakeholders alone, then recommendations are likely to be at best partial and at worst conflict with the goals of pro-poor development. „ Vulnerable as well as powerful stakeholders may be key in implementing development interventions, as individuals, collectively and/or in partnership with powerful stakeholders. In all categories it is important to include women and have a gender balance. Stakeholder analysis needs to identify differences and potential conflicts of interest not only between women and men, but also between women. It will generally be necessary to distinguish broadly between and give different consideration and investigation to: „ Female upwardly mobile entrepreneurs who can serve as role models and agents for change „ The vast majority of women who may not have access to the necessary resources for mobility because of factors like poverty, vulnerability or lack of education that further compound the constraints of gender inequality. It is important that women are not all lumped together as 'one stakeholder category' - even though they may face many similar constraints because of gender inequality as indicated by the preliminary case studies from the Ethiopian leather sector shown in Box 12. 36 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

52 Part two BOX 12: EVERY DIFFERENT FEMALE STAKEHOLDERS: EXAMPLES FROM ETHIOPIAN LEATHER INDUSTRY Leather trimming: Malefia Malefia is about 30 and married. She is working for an entrepreneur who has leased the equipment from the training institute where she is working. She works 8 hours 5 days a week and earns 200 Birr (24 USD) a month. She has been working there for three months. She thinks working relationships are good. She could earn more if she could use the drumming machine. But that is men's work, she doesn't know why its men's work. She thinks that she could do it if she had training. Female marketing staff: Betty Betty is about 20 years old has been working as a salesperson for two years. Before that, she was a student in a computer course. She earns 300 Birr (34USD) a month. There is another woman in marketing with her. The others are secretaries, storekeepers and so on. Above her there is a male liaison officer who deals with the relations with traders and goes round the various institutions. She is not quite sure how much he earns, but she thinks it is about 400 to 500 Birr (44-54 USD) a month. She wants to pursue her education through night school in computing so that she can increase her earnings. Her parents are not pressuring her to marry She wants to continue to work after marriage. Leather technician student: Zeuwdi Zeuwdi is taking a three-year diploma and is currently working on the quality control. She was assigned to this job by the government as a work placement because of her background in natural science. Women in other departments in the training institute have a negative attitude towards leatherwork because of the smell - they see it as a man's job. She thinks this work is very good. She likes it because it is an art. Her relationship with supervisor is good and he is very supportive. Her family are also supportive. She thinks it needs much better promotion to encourage more women to come into the leather industry. She could earn 650Birr (69 USD) per month once she has a diploma - it is the same for all workers with diploma. She would need to practice but she think she could then use any of the machinery in the shed. Female retail shop owner: Ganette Ganette is about 28 years old and unmarried. She has her own shop from her family. Currently she makes about 1500 Birr (160 USD) a month net profit, 2000 (240USD) Birr gross. She wants to expand but there is not enough space in her existing premises. If she could get another small shop near the market she could earn about 4000 (440 USD) per month. However, to get another plot would be too expensive. She is against loans because she would need collateral and guarantee and her profit margin is too small. If she took a loan for 100,000 Birr (1,060USD) she would need to repay 10,000 (140USD) Birr a month. This is only possible for manufacturers. 37 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

53 Part two Her father and elder brothers stop her from going out after dark. If there is a wedding, she can't stay after 10 o'clock because of safety. Men are also vulnerable and discouraged from staying out, but it is different. She wants to continue working after marriage. Leather goods entrepreneur: Sofia Sofia is about 45 years old, married with grown up children who have emigrated abroad. The leather goods business is in her name. She had 2-3 months training in fashion design and quality control. They produce jackets and bags. Her husband is the manager and does the marketing. She travels a lot to Italy, Canada and the US. They have relatives there but she says she could go even if she did not have relatives there. The main problem is obtaining good quality leather. She is one of the three women members (out of a total of nine) in the Leather Producers Association. She does not think that she faces any disadvantages as a woman. The women do face similar constraints because of lack of adequate resources, limitations on mobility and discriminatory attitudes. But the women differ in the degree to which they are affected, because of differences in age, education levels and marital status. These differences may be as, or even more, significant in determining the opportunities and constraints open to individual women as gender inequalities. Gender-inclusive stakeholder analysis will also need to look differently at the stakeholders to ensure inclusion of: „ Women working at different stages of the value chain but who are less visible, for example: in ancillary activities, temporary work, putting out systems and homeworking. They are likely to be among the most vulnerable stakeholders. They may also be critical in attempts to improve quality and productivity. „ Women family members who are significant actors in 'male-owned' enterprises as managers, supervisors and unpaid family workers in production or reproductive activities. They may be not only vulnerable but also significant potential beneficiaries of management training and quality improvement measures. „ Women involved in enterprises or trading activities which might be displaced by some types of upgrading strategies. „ Potential as well as actual female consumers who might be significant in market expansion locally, nationally or internationally. 'Gender balance' would also imply inclusion of: „ Men in 'female-owned' enterprises „ Men who are vulnerable to displacement by policies aiming to benefit women in value chain upgrading. 38 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

54 Part two It is also important to include consultations with men when investigating gender inequalities to identify which opportunities and constraints faced by women are due to the economic and market context, and/or poverty and hence faced by men as well as women, and which are due to gender. This is also an important part of identifying ways of involving men in ways forward to support the necessary process of change in behaviour and attitudes. Stakeholder analysis should however be seen not as a 'one-off' exercise, but an iterative and cumulative process. Understanding of the dynamics of power and difference within and between stakeholder groups, and the best ways in which the different interests can be represented and negotiated, will need to be continually refined. As the VCD progresses new knowledge will be obtained, and the context itself may change. Similarly it is important to progressively improve the gender balance over time through constant awareness and improvement of knowledge about women's involvement in the chain. A useful tool for this is a gender disaggregated Stakeholder Circle Map like the one in Figure 5. Details of how this can be facilitated are given in Section 3.1. How can women participate and when? Designing the process The outcomes of any participatory process will depend not on who actually participates, but also what form their participation takes. In most 'pull-up' VCDs stakeholders have been mainly involved in giving/collecting information through surveys or participatory exercises with focus groups. It is assumed that participation in collecting information is empowering through increasing awareness and pooling of knowledge. However, evaluation design and agenda are often decided by outsiders, as are analysis and recommendations. Dissemination is in the form of a long report handed to policy-makers and presented at some sort of dissemination meeting. Even for 'push up' processes, ensuring informed and meaningful representation of vulnerable stakeholders is a challenge. Giving stakeholders, including the most vulnerable, a voice requires focused attention to ways in which participatory processes are facilitated to ensure that: „ The right voices are actually present (presence) „ Those voices can speak (consultation) „ Those voices are heard (influence) „ Those voices are listened to (equity and control) Specific gender dimensions to each of these questions are in box 13 below. 39 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

55 Part two BOX 13: PARTICIPATORY PROCESS METHODS „ Tocus group discussions „ Participatory multi-stakeholder workshops „ Community-led research „ Individual reflection and investigation Participant observation and 'immersion' „ KEY GENDER QUESTIONS „ Presence: Are women's voices are present? Which women's voices? (See box 12 above) Are women from different stakeholder categories and different parts of the chain present? „ Consultation: Are women's voices speaking? Which women's voices? „ Influence: Are women's voices heard? Which women's voices? EQUITY AND CONTROL: ARE WOMEN'S VOICES LISTENED TO? WHICH WOMEN'S VOICES? AN EXAMPLE OF EXCLUSION A multi-stakeholder 'pull-up' VCD process in Ethiopia had attempted to involve women entrepreneurs in a gender inclusive strategy. However, during important stakeholder meetings, women did not attend regularly. When they did attend, they often did not to speak out. When they did speak, their issues were not viewed from a gender perspective. As a result, when value chain interventions that were developed they tended to increase women's workload and not take into account the power relations that prevented women from benefiting from increased incomes that came from the increased productivity due to their efforts. Not taking into account gender issues in stakeholder consultations can have a negative impact, with women being further disadvantaged by subsequent VCD interventions. Good practices in women's participation could have prevented this 'knock on effect'. For example: No attempt was made to see whether the location, timing and methodologies were appropriate for women. Women entrepreneurs and workers tend have multiple responsibilities beyond their businesses and depending on the power relations in their households may not be free to attend meetings at night or at locations outside their accepted communities. Non-attendance at stakeholder meetings can be a sign that discussions are either not relevant or are exclusionary. The facilitators, in the design of group discussions, did not address cultural issues about women speaking in front of men. For example, it is possible to design the discussion process so that participants are in subgroup discussions of varying composition over the timeframe of the meeting to ensure that those who are more vulnerable or less articulate can contribute equally and to make sure other participants hear them. 40 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

56 Part two Methodologies that do not depend on a high level of literacy can illicit much richer information from people with little education. (See section 3 for examples) Space was not given to the participants for the discussion of gender issues. Equitable representation needs to go further than collecting their views so they can be heard, ensuring policy makers and stakeholders that are more powerful listen to these views. This means facilitating communication between stakeholders to challenge prejudices and preconceptions, which are also a cause of poverty. There are many manuals on participatory tools and methods giving detailed discussion of the practicalities of implementing participatory processes in different contexts and for different purposes. Many of these explicitly discuss poverty and social inclusion 20 issues . How can the benefits of stakeholder workshops be maximised? GEVCAL envisages that the multi-stakeholder process will provide the background link between the different stages of the process: „ Stakeholder input in design aims to increase commitment and input to the process. „ Participatory research and analysis increase stakeholder capacity for their own research and analysis and promote communication, understanding and respect between stakeholders at different levels. „ Stakeholder, networks, collaboration and negotiation of well-informed and articulate stakeholders form the basis for implementation of VCD strategies at individual, enterprise, institutional and policy levels. „ The capacities and networks built up then enable a more sustainable and ongoing learning process once the stage of intensive and expensive input from external experts has ended. 20. See for example the many excellent and critical discussions of different tools in PLA Notes which can be accessed through a web search for specific tools and topics on their website: http://www.planotes.org/; the Manuals on the IDS Participation website www.ids.ac.uk/ids/particip/ 41 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

57

58 PART THREE GENDER-ACCURATE INFORMATION: VALUE CHAIN MAPPING, RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

59

60 Part three SECTION 3.1: VC ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH: INTEGRATING METHODOLOGIES Participatory action learning: core of the GEVCAL process The basis of the GEVCAL methodology is a participatory process based on principles of gender equity. The methodology at the research and analysis stage is the diagram tools presented in part 6. Practitioners can use these tools to collect quantitative and qualitative information and to build the research, analysis and planning capabilities of stakeholders and that promotes communication and mutual respect between different stakeholders. As in the experience of GOWE in Box 4 above, although gender inequalities are all pervasive and complex, using the participatory tools presented in this manual it is possible to immediately start identifying positive strategies which people can already start to implement, before understanding and analysing the underlying complexities. It is crucial therefore that the potentially long and complex process of research and analysis does not stifle immediate action on recommendations emerging at an early stage, (providing recommendations conform to general GEVCAL principles of inclusion, equity, participation, transparency and accountability.) Setting up this participatory process requires skilled facilitation but is not substitute for expert economic analysis or gender expertise. Once set up, and capacities and networks built around achievement of immediate and short-term benefits, then these capacities and networks can form a sustainable basis for sustainable multi-stakeholder action learning in the longer term - necessary ensure that VCD at different levels is able to adapt and respond to economic, social and political contexts that change frequently and rapidly. If VCA is to have practical impact, it is crucial that the whole research process follows a number of guidelines, not always so explicit in conventional economic research. The general ethical guidelines in Box 14 and apply to not only participatory workshops, but also quantitative and qualitative research. VCA, like any investigation, inevitably takes up time of those interviewed: entrepreneurs, workers and others affected by the value chain. Most of these people will be busy and it is important that they should benefit as far as possible from the investigation, and/or that the investigation should increase gender awareness and awareness of ways of increasing gender equality. These are not only moral concerns, but also affect the reliability of information in the short term, and the potential for establishing longer-term processes for ongoing accountability. Unless people are fully engaged and feel they will benefit in some way, they are unlikely to give reliable information and particularly so in any repeat visits. 45 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

61 Part three BOX 14: GENERAL ETHICAL GUIDELINES Respect people's time: All peoples' time is precious. People should benefit from „ the time they give to the action learning process. „ Start with the positive and constructive rather than 'problems'. This will serve to build rapport and mutual understanding between participants which will help to enable more sensitive areas to be investigated later. „ Progressively analyse and document potential constraints and conflicts of interest, invite suggestions as to how they might be overcome without increasing instability or vulnerability of the value chain itself and/or the poorest stakeholders within it. „ Do not raise unrealistic expectations but stress the importance of first understanding these opportunities and constraints affecting stakeholders at different levels, the potential areas of mutual interest and proceeding slowly. „ Right from the beginning identify and develop contacts, networks and structures which will enable the linking of the investigation into decision-making. At all stages ensure that the voices of the poorest and most vulnerable are both heard and given priority. 21 Underlying design of surveys is a process called 'empowering enquiry' . This takes people through a process of learning at the time of the interview so that by the end of the time they have given, they themselves have a greater understanding of the issues - as well as increasing the likelihood that information given is well thought through and reliable. This empowering enquiry process underlies not only the use of participatory tools, but also surveys and interviews. In particular, it underlies the "Road Journey" tool that is used by facilitators to structure interviews and questionnaires on different issues. (See section 5.1) Throughout the research and analysis, practitioners should consider documentation and dissemination. One of the major contributions of participatory methods has been the development of diagram tools for collection of information and for planning. They are relevant not only to the needs of non-literate people, but are also valuable for complex and non-linear analysis at all levels. As such, they potentially provide a universal language crosscutting status and education divides in a way which written reports cannot. Most diagram tools can graphically accommodate and represent quantitative as well as qualitative information, if conducted by facilitators with good basic numerical 22 . /statistical and/or qualitative research skills 21. For discussion of this methodology and underlying principles see Mayoux, L. (2003) 22. For detailed discussion of statistical analysis of participatory diagrams see Burns (2002); Barahona and Levy (2002) and other papers on the University of Reading 46 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

62 Part three Gender dimensions of the research process Ultimately, in GEVCAL both are participatory processes involving women and men and where interpersonal dynamics and power relations will be considered in design of the process. Gender issues will also be relevant in deciding the appropriate mix of participatory, quantitative and qualitative methods. Some issues will be more cost- effectively investigated through specifically designed participatory workshops to give women confidence, a way for discussing things with other women which they have not discussed before and also exploring differences of opinion and conflicts of interest. This may include areas generally considered very sensitive like sexual harassment and domestic violence. Other issues, such as income levels, may require individual interviews if very precise details are required. BOX 15: GENDER ISSUES IN THE INVESTIGATION PROCESS Does the research team have the appropriate gender balance to do the investigation? „ Do they have sufficient training in gender sensitive questioning? „ Are women stakeholders of from different backgrounds adequately represented? Are there any specific methodological issues which need to be considered? „ What are the likely key areas of sensitivity which will need to be taken into account? Might this require a strategy for progressive introduction of particular questions? Use of individual qualitative rather than participatory methods? What sort of preparation might be needed? „ Given the particular areas of sensitivity, vulnerability and vested interests identified, might this require a strategy for phasing the participation of certain stakeholders? What sort of preparation might be needed? „ How is representation of the most vulnerable women to be ensured? For example are separate workshops and investigation planned for these groups? Are their specific needs in terms of timing and location of meetings taken into account? „ How can sustainable networks between women and between women and men be progressively built in the course of the investigation? It is important to stress that the participatory process may not in itself be sufficient to raise and identify gender inequalities, even where they are important for women themselves. Even a well-facilitated participatory process will therefore need to be complemented by use of some version of the 'gender lens' in Figure 9 and discussed in more detail in Section 3.3 below. This gender lens provides a framework within which the outcomes of the participatory process can be situated and which can then be used to pose further questions beyond those which occur spontaneously. This framework can also be used to help design statistical surveys and qualitative interviews in all types of VCA. 47 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

63 Part three In individual interviews, it is important to bear in mind the gender of both the interviewer and interviewee. The sex of the researcher is likely to have an influence on the types of 23 . In general, where possible, male researchers should talk to men and responses given women researchers to women when gender issues are being explicitly discussed. In many societies, it will not be possible for women to openly discuss their gender-related problems with men, even where men are allowed to talk to women on other matters. It will therefore be very important to ensure a gender balance on the research team, and also to take the relative genders of interviewer and interviewee into account when analysing the responses. 23. Research by Cloke, J. (2001) with entrepreneurs in Nicaragua for example found very different responses from both women and men from the same households to the same simple questions. about ownership and decision-making in the household depending on whether the interview was male or female. 48 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

64 Part three SECTION 3.2: HOW MANY PEOPLE GET HOW MUCH WHERE? ADDING QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION The degree of detail and complexity of quantification required will depend very much on the purpose and scope of the VCD, the complexity of the particular chain, and how much is already known. In some cases, the preliminary map discussed in Section 2.2 will be sufficient for the main purpose of identifying realisable pro-poor VCD strategies. In others it may be necessary to get a lot more detailed quantitative information in order to identify: „ Where there are large numbers of people earning very little and/or where there are few people earning a lot Differences in productivity in different market and product lines in the same chain „ „ Investigating whether and how value can be distributed more equitably through different types of upgrading or other interventions. Using surveys to collecting quantitative information for value chains is extensively discussed in other manuals. Quantification may in some cases be relatively straightforward, in others extremely challenging. Some countries have relatively reliable statistics that are sufficiently sex disaggregated to be used more or less directly in their existing form. More commonly, statistics are fairly unreliable and/or aggregated in ways which make them difficult to use directly. Information on local economies and the informal sector are particularly problematic. Also information on female workers, particularly temporary, ancillary and homeworkers are likely to be unreliable, if they exist. Here gender based quantitative information will have to be collected through samples and estimates with careful cross checking of different sources and methodologies. BOX 16: DEVELOPING THE MAP: ADDING QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION NUMBER OF ENTERPRISES PER STAGE/CHAIN „ Possible sources of information: reliable official data may be available from government sources and/or business associations, including women entrepreneur associations and Employers' Organisations. „ Potential limitations/challenges: available registers of entrepreneurs and manufacturers often leave out key stakeholders i.e. the large numbers of unregistered enterprises, homeworkers and self-employed workers (the majority of which could be women). The particular groups excluded need to be identified and an initial estimate of their numbers made through interviews with key respondents. Data on input suppliers, retailers and wholesalers will have to be treated similarly. Data on retailers and wholesalers is likely to be problematic and their numbers need to be estimated through comparing and crosschecking information from a sample of producers and wholesalers themselves. 49 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

65 Part three NUMBER OF WORKERS, SKILL COMPOSITION AND PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE WORKERS PER STAGE/CHAIN „ Possible sources of information: Sometimes employment data is available from Business Associations or Trade Unions. Depending on the nature of your question, local Unions and may be the most useful source for disaggregated data. „ Potential limitations/challenges: Distinctions will have to be made between different types of worker, e.g. between permanent and casual workers of different types. Again labour which is unlikely to be registered with any organisation, for example: child labour, unpaid family labour and so on will need to be estimated. TOTAL SALES PER CHAIN (DOMESTIC SALES, EXPORT SALES AND FURTHER SUBDIVISIONS) „ Possible sources of information: Export data i.e. sales to foreign markets are usually obtainable. All National Governments have offices to collect and publish trade statistics although the degree of disaggregation in terms of products and their destination varies. Many global export or multinational companies have web sites which publish sales figures. Member based exporting fora exist in many countries and in some, such as Ethiopia and Kenya, there are women exporter forums. „ Potential limitations/challenges: Data on domestic sales may be less readily available, particularly for informal or local markets. Where the data is not in a readily usable form for the particular questions envisaged, it may be possible to enlist assistance of local business associations or other organisations, or some sort of sampling methodology would need to be used or approximate estimates tained from respondents in key positions RELATIVE VALUE PER STAGE/CHAIN „ Possible sources of information: Company records and data on prices and profits. Potential limitations/challenges: Measurement of relative value accruing to different stages or chains is crucial but inherently problematic. Different measures are used: profits, value added and price mark-ups however; their relative advantages and disadvantages depend very much on the economic context, relative importance of capital in the production process and macro economic factors like inflation than dollar exchange rates. Analysis typically must be pragmatic in gathering multiple indicators through both primary and secondary sources and focusing detailed investigation on those segments of the chain that are most important for the investigation. 50 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

66 Part three AVERAGE EARNINGS PER STAGE/CHAIN Possible sources: These data may be available for registered enterprises, Government „ or Trade Union sources. Speaking directly to women entrepreneurs or their associations will also be useful to compare differences in earnings between men and women in the chain „ Potential limitations/challenges: It will however be necessary to take into account numbers of hours worked, calculate returns to labour from outworking once raw material costs and other charges have been met. Importantly also any official earnings data must be treated with some caution as it is frequently circumvented. Sources: adapted from Kaplinsky and Morris 2000; (Gereffi, G. 2001) At this stage, providing the scoping, stakeholder analysis and gender check have ensured that gender issues have been fully incorporated in the initial map, the main issue is to ensure gender disaggregated information is included in collecting and analysing quantitative information. Figures 6-8 show different types of quantitative map with different types of scope and focus. „ Figure 6 is a map of female participation in the global textile market, showing different geographical spread. „ Figure 7 focuses in on a national chain for the Ethiopian home textiles industry which combines the analysis of employment with value in one diagram, using different sizes, colours and types of line as suggested in the discussion of preliminary mapping in Figure 3. „ Figure 8 focuses on the enterprise and the basic production cycle and stakeholders, using the same symbolism. 51 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

67 Part three Figure 6. Map showing percentage of female workers. Source: McCormick and Schmitz (2001 p. 60) 52 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

68 Part three Figure 7. Who gets what and where? Home textiles: Ethiopia (Source: ILO) Figure 8. Weavers in home textiles sector, Ethiopia. Source: ILO 53 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

69 Part three Figure 6 is only preliminary, providing the framework for subsequent more detailed quantification. From Figures 7 and 8 it is easier at a glance to identify the relationship between gender and power. Women are most numerous in those activities that are low paid, 'invisible' and have less or no direct income - though these assumptions would have to be further investigated through the quantitative and qualitative research. It is also already possible to identify gender-based differences from the maps. For example in figure 8: although women are not involved as traders in the traditional market, most handloom exporters are women, raising some very interesting questions about different types of market and women stakeholders for the subsequent qualitative analysis and action strategy. Given the difficulty of precise quantification in the informal sector as a whole, particularly in relation to women, the key is to identify which particular bits of the map require precise quantification in order to make reliable inferences for policy and be credible for policymakers involved in decision-making. In many cases, it will be sufficient to arrive at broad estimations for many parts of the chain focusing in on the parts that need precise quantification. In terms of methodology, it may well be most cost-effective and reliable to collect much of the quantitative information through a series of participatory mapping workshops where different stakeholders bring together their knowledge of different parts of the chain. Carefully designed participatory workshops can produce a series of detailed 'sub-maps' and rapidly fill in quantitative details in the map as a whole - much like completing a jigsaw. This would enable on the spot crosschecking and questioning of inconsistencies and highlighting gaps which possibly the various informants can then help to fill in. Particularly useful tools here are situational network maps. These have been used to identify numbers and earnings of textile homeworkers employed by different entrepreneurs (McCormick and Schmitz 2001). Detailed situational maps, containing qualitative and quantitative information can be aggregated and quantified to produce a similar map to Figure 10, but including gender analysis. Details of how this can be done are given in Section 5.3. It is also important to bear in mind that it may often be more reliable and cost-effective to collect quantitative information progressively alongside or integrated into participatory methods rather than as a separate one-off statistical survey. This participatory process and gradual approach is likely to be particularly useful in filling in the 'invisible' parts of the chain where women are most likely to be concentrated. Involving them in this way also helps to support the ongoing learning process and awareness and networking between women selves. Sometimes it may be both possible and useful to construct 'before and after ' maps using existing information for a broad baseline overview and, where appropriate, identifying the numbers of people directly targeted by particular interventions. The investigation would then focus on looking at the extent of change to draw up a second map indicating the effects of the intervention/s. A comparison of the two maps can then be used to highlight areas where significant positive change has taken place and those where little or negative change has occurred. These areas can be marked in different colours on the map to provide the basis for hypotheses and follow up qualitative investigation of the processes and reasons for change or lack of change. 54 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

70 Part three SECTION 3.3: WHY? ADDING QUALITATIVE INFORMATION In VCA for pro-poor development, qualitative analysis will be as important as quantitative information. It is essential for: „ Establishing why particular inequalities, blockages and patterns of change occur „ In particular, identification of patterns of governance and power relations governing the existing distribution of value and chain management „ Identification of potential areas of common interest between different stakeholders and potential areas for conflict of interest „ Based on these three, potential for positive changes in incomes and negotiating power of those who are currently vulnerable or disadvantaged by the chain. For many purposes in relation to pro-poor development, these qualitative questions may in fact be the main focus of the investigation to highlight 'possible points of leverage ' where change is necessary and/or explain patterns of impact. These qualitative questions will be particularly important in relation to gender issues. As outlined in Box 4, gender inequalities, and opportunities, operate on many different dimensions: economic, psychological, social, political, and different levels: individual, household, community, market, institutional, national, international and so on. Some of the many indicators which could be used are shown in the more detailed version of the 'gender lens' shown in Figure 9 below. Questions this stage will depend on context, the particular issues and policies being investigated and the range of potential changes and interventions that are envisaged or possible in that particular context. It will also depend on the sensitivity and complexity of the issues. The investigation will need to consider initially all the dimensions and levels of the 'gender lens'. This does not mean that all of these need to be investigated, but they should be first considered and then their exclusion justified, rather than just overlooked and ignored. This needs to be supplemented by 'empowerment analysis' (See Box 17) to clarify how far gender differences in the chain are due to discrimination or to different choices and priorities. Again, the best and most cost-effective way of conducting much of this investigation is likely to be carefully designed participatory workshops with different stakeholders. These participatory workshops would ideally also be both preceded and followed by in-depth qualitative interviews. 55 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

71 Part three Figure 9. Gender Lens: Possible indicators at different dimensions and Levels 56 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

72 Part three BOX 17: WHY AND HOW ARE GENDER INEQUALITIES PERPETUATED? ADDING QUALITATIVE INFORMATION EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY Are gender inequalities in the value chain perpetuated by: „ Gender segregation of tasks/markets/products? „ Gender discrimination within the production process? „ Gender discrimination in markets? „ Individual differences in skills, resources, time between men and women? „ Gender constraints at household/family/kinship level? E.g. lack of control over income, unpaid household work, restrictions on movements outside the home and relations with men. „ Gender constraints at community level? E.g. social sanctions and violence, withdrawal of social support, lack of business networks. „ Gender discrimination within development institutions? E.g. business development services, training, financial services. „ Gender discrimination in national legislation and policy-making? „ Gender discrimination in international agreements? E.g. on trade, aid and development programmes. „ Gender blindness/bias in underlying conceptualisation of issues and policies? EMPOWERMENT ANALYSIS „ What are women's own strategies for coping with constraints and maximising opportunities? „ How far do these perpetuate or challenge inequalities at the different levels? „ What are women's priorities for change? „ How do these compare with those of men? It is also very important to include not only women, but also men in the gender investigation. This was seen in ILO work on the home textile sector in Ethiopia. The first survey had only interviewed women, and concluded that what was needed was to set up women's weaving cooperatives. However subsequent interviews with men showed that this was unlikely to be such a simple solution. Box 18 shows an interview with a male weaver which clearly indicates many challenges facing skilled male weavers in the industry, and also the drawbacks of the cooperative. At the same time it highlights ways in which male gender roles limit both men's willingness to plan for the future and also lead them to seriously limit their wives ability to make a significant contribution to household income. This means that even if there are any significant increases in household incomes men need to address their own gendered attitudes towards rights to luxury expenses, to control household income and to determine what their wives do. It was not at all clear that increasing this man's income would lead to higher levels of household well-being, or lead to significant benefits for his wife. 57 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

73 Part three BOX 18: INTERVIEW WITH MALE WEAVER IN A WEAVING COOPERATIVE This man had joined the cooperative in order to get orders but he said there were none. Most of the looms were idle. He also works on his own account. He is unable to calculate his average monthly earnings, or maximum and minimum earnings, even when asked for actual months. The only way he can calculate his by adding his general household expenditure (260 Birr per month and general consumption, 60 Birr rent) together with how much he keeps for pocket money for himself (50 Birr). He estimates from this calculation that he earns around 500 Birr a month. (52USD) He gets raw material on credit which he said was interest-free. There are three or four different distributors the price from who get the yarn from factories in Dire Dawa. He can't buy direct from the factory because you have to buy 4 Bales at a time. When you buy this much you get discount, he doesn't know exactly how much. The price of cotton goes up and down and this is not always seasonal but is justified by the trader referring to the price of fuel and shop rents. He sells the finished product to a different trader. He prices his goods as raw materials plus labour, charging around 5Birr labour charge per day. The only way to increased income he thinks is to get orders from outside. He does not have any permanent customers. He only makes natela. (Medium sized shawls) There is no demand for gabi. (Large shawls) He makes four natela per week. Sometimes he goes to the market with only one garment. He would like to go with more because if you go with many then buyers have more choice. He suggests his main blockage to being more productive is capital. He needs 200 Birr (22USD) to be able to stock six natela. He rejected a recommendation of saving his pocket money to raise the capital as he normally spends it on personal consumption. His wife 'does not do anything'. She does not weave and he does not teach her because 'adults can't learn'. If she did weaving venture would not be so productive because she would not be able to housework, washing, cooking and the spinning of his yarn. The money from weaving is his. He keeps the money so he can buy clothes and other items from the market. He is in an 'idir' for social insurance. He has no savings. 'They are not used to giving money to women here', (Not because he does not trust his wife but as a matter of prestige.) Participatory workshops can be an effective means of rapidly collecting key important information. However, participatory workshops may sometimes not be possible. Qualitative interviews with the target group can be the only alternative. Participatory workshops may also be difficult to do with workers unless there is somewhere private where they can meet e.g. near their homes rather than in a factory itself. 58 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

74 Part three Where participatory workshops are possible, tools like the Challenge Solution Trees described in Part 6 can be used to obtain a lot of information, quickly, from many people, and also the opportunity to cross-check information from different people in the meeting in order to establish clearer patterns. Figure 10 shows a tree for the Ethiopian weaving industry based on information from the interviews with a woman weaver (Box 5), the male weaver (Box 18) and ILO staff at a participatory follow-up workshop. The goal for this tree is to examine how to increase women weavers' market access. The roots pointing downwards show how interlinked dimensions of gender inequality cause female exclusion from weaving itself, disadvantage in the market and access to the benefits within the household: Lack of Skills: skills are normally passed from father to son excluding daughters „ meaning that very few women are actually involved in weaving at all, being relegated to ancillary tasks like spinning „ Lack of Technology: improved technology is designed for male strengths and size meaning that women weavers skills in traditional technology cannot get good jobs in export weaving factories which pay higher wages „ Lack of Capital: institutional discrimination in financial institutions means they cannot get access to credit - although this is a problem for male weavers also. Underlying these inequalities at enterprise level are more deep-rooted gender inequalities (In the shaded oval) which affect relations within the household: „ Women are largely excluded from property ownership and hence have no collateral for credit or resources for investment. They are also not generally classed as 'entrepreneurs'. „ They also have the prime burden for unpaid household work and childcare which limits their time the production „ A more fundamental problem even than this is that women are forced to be dependents on men and are not granted the same levels of autonomy to make independent decisions. „ Their mobility outside the home, and hence access to markets and information networks, is seriously limited by norms of female respectability. The branches pointing upwards then show corresponding ways forward. These ways forward would ideally be further developed with women weavers to identify not only interventions from ILO, but also initiatives they can take as individuals and within their households. Tracked targets at the end of the branches could also be added for evaluation of interventions. 59 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

75 Part three Figure 10. Interlinked and mutually reinforcing elements in determining gender challenge solution tree for gender inequality in the Ethiopian traditional weaving sector. 60 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

76 PART FOUR GENDER EQUITABLE PROPOSALS: ACTION STRATEGY

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78 Part four SECTION 4.1: FROM GENDER ANALYSIS TO GENDER EQUITABLE RECOMMENDATIONS The main goal of VCA, is not the mapping itself, but identification of a realisable strategy to achieve the goals identified in the initial scoping, with any subsequent modifications. These would include explicit commitment to gender equity and specific gender objectives. If the GEVCAL Tools are used as a participatory process with different stakeholders, the Challenge to Solution Trees would have already identified a range of different ways forward from the perspectives of the different stakeholders, including actions at individual, household and community levels as well as extertnal interventions. Many of the former would also have put specific targets and already been acted upon. The task at the implementation stage is then to pull together the actions needed by external agencies into a coherent plan which focuses: „ First on identifying a 'basket of win-win strategies' for improvement. „ Secondly on the more contentious issues where there are engendered conflicts of interest between stakeholders which will require careful negotiation. Identifying the 'win-win' basket The whole VCD process should maximise the possibilities for collaboration and win-win scenarios. There are generally many ways in which the joint goals of chain upgrading and increasing profits in an industry can also contribute to gender equity and increased incomes for women at the bottom of the hierarchy. This kind of analysis can modify Challenge-Solution to produce the sort of analysis shown below in Figure 11 for the honey chain in Ethiopia. Here the chain upgrading strategy involves introducing new hives that will reduce moisture content of honey. This introduction can target women as well as men, giving women an alternative lucrative source of income that may in turn reduce the outflow of good quality honey for alcohol brewing. This is a good example of a technical solution, which, if gender analysis is done, can be implemented in such a way that it empowers women and thereby even further increases the positive economic impact on the chain itself. Conventionally strategies for women have focused on direct promotion of female small- scale or micro-entrepreneurs through micro-finance or training. However, on the one hand this risks 'ghettoising' women in small-scale enterprise and fails to recognise or address the needs and indeed human rights of women in growth-oriented enterprises and as co-owners or significant actors in male-owned enterprises. Gender analysis involves looking not only at enterprises per se, but also at the other the enabling environment, including gender relations, which affect how enterprises operate, how they relate to each other and particularly the causes of inequality within the chain. In many cases services apparently external to the enterprise like gender sensitisation of male entrepreneurs and household members, child care support and general improvements in health and education provision are also essential for real increases in women's incomes 63 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

79 Part four In many contexts macro-level factors like enterprise regulation, levels of inflation, infrastructure development or changes in property legislation may be more significant in influencing the income levels and women's vulnerability than targeted enterprise projects or programmes. Gender equitable land reform, anti-discrimination legislation and support for women's advocacy organisations may be a more valuable contribution to stimulating women's enterprises than small micro-enterprise development projects for women. An example of the range of potential strategies for support for homeworkers suggested in relation to a project on value chain upgrading in the Moroccan textile industry is outlined in Box 19. Figure 11. SNV honey chain: win-win strategies. Source ILO 64 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

80 Part four BOX 19: SOME MUTUALLY REINFORCING LEVELS OF INTERVENTION TO SUPPORT WOMEN HOMEWORKERS GOAL POSSIBLE STRATEGY Increase in enterprise Technical and managerial training, literacy and numeracy for women productivity Access to finance to improve technology, buy raw materials in bulk, extend credit to reliable clients, improve working space Childcare support Gender training for women and their families to increase women's Decrease in women's power in the family economic and social vulnerability Strengthening support networks in the community including protection of women against violence Access to financial services for consumption, pensions, housing loans and savings facilities Improvements in wider social security, health and education provision for very poor women. Strengthening Strengthening women's market information networks women's negotiating Improved facilities for women in markets and measures to counter power within markets discrimination and enterprise chains Organisational training for networking and collaboration Formation of networks and information centres and dissemination on women's rights, subcontracting conditions and labour legislation Formation of collaborative networks for homeworkers to directly access higher levels in the value chain Formation of networks and organisations to increase accountability of public and macro level institutions and the private sector in upholding the existing rights of homeworkers Establishment of Changes in property rights to end gender discrimination favourable macro level Legal recognition and protection of informal sector micro- policies enterprises and removal of restrictive policies and harassment Changes in taxation to recognise the costs of improvements to housing as a business cost Establishment of Codes of Conduct governing negotiations of subcontracting, working conditions and anti-discrimination measures. Establishment of institutions to represent homeworkers and women informal sector workers in economic policy-making. Gender mainstreaming in the private sector development policies and programmes of national governments and international development organisations. (Mayoux, L. 2002) 65 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

81 Part four Negotiating conflict of interest for win win strategies In some cases it may be very easy to identify win-win strategies. It is also crucial not to assume that there will always be resistance to change from powerful stakeholders. Some men are likely to be supportive of gender equity and change as part of their moral commitment to fairness and justice. However, in some chains and contexts there may be conflict of interest between for women and men over redistribution of scarce resources, between employers and workers over the provision of decent work and between enterprises in the same value chains. These conflicts can be clarified, negotiated and addressed wherever possible. It is important to work with both powerful and less powerful people in the chain to get concrete commitment to identified targets for change, and also to have this as a transparent process where women and other vulnerable stakeholders know what commitments have been made by more powerful stakeholders. 25 One useful Tool in both promoting a transparent process of negotiation is the Diamond Tool . Diamond tools can identify common gender goals and have been very useful negotiating conflicts of 26 interest for 'Happy Families' for women and men in very conservative Baluchistan, Pakistan . Similar principles can be used to identify common 'Decent Work' goals for enterprises. Diamonds are used to investigate local criteria and obtain a local hierarchy of indicators or priorities. They start by identifying extremes of indicators, and then progressively move to a middle line or average. Then the numbers of people at each level are quantified. They usually give particular attention to how people at the bottom of the Diamond can be helped to move up and/or people outside a group and ranked at the bottom can be brought in. Diamonds can also be used in VCA to identify for example: „ Local concepts of Decent Work at different stages of the chain and win-win priorities for change „ Good relations between different actors along the chain and win-win priorities for change. „ Types of violence and sexual harassment and priorities for change Value Chain Development is inevitably a long-term process, requiring therefore a sustainable learning process. The relationships within and between value chains are continually changing over time in response to both internal dynamics and contextual factors. In some cases there may be very little room for improvement in the situation of those at the bottom because of intense competition in markets, skills or other constraints which cannot be solved from within the chain itself and/or limited opportunities without considerable change in the economic, political or social context. Any one-off Value Chain Analysis can be seen as only a start for such a process. GEVCAL therefore emphasises the building of long-term capacities and networks between stakeholders. This requires attention to dissemination of information to different stakeholders - not only reports to policy-makers or donors but also information that is accessible to people at the bottom of the chain hierarchy. It also emphasises throughout the identification of actions which people can already take themselves before any external interventions are implemented. 25. The first diamond which Linda Mayoux came across was a poverty diamond developed by Rosette Mutasi of SATNET at a workshop organized by Kabarole Research and Resource Centre (KRC), Western Uganda May 2003. 26.For detailed discussion of diamonds used for identifying local empowerment and gender equity criteria see Mayoux, L. (2005) , Mayoux, L. and Anadi (2005) , Sardar, F. , Mumtaz, N. , Hossein, S. and Mayoux, L. (2005) 66 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

82 PART FIVE SUSTAINABLE PARTICIPATORY LEARNING CYCLE: MONITORING CHANGES AND SUMMARY GENDER CHECKLIST

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84 Part five SECTION 5.1: IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING CHANGE The aim of the GEVCAL process is not only learning and planning, but also action and implementation. Inbuilt into use of the diagram tools discussed in Part 6 are: „ Identification of immediate and longer-term actions which can be taken by participants as individuals and within their enterprises and households Identification of immediate and longer term support interventions to be „ implemented by development agencies and policy makers „ Identification of who among the participants will take the strategies forward. The implementation of these actions are then tracked over time through revisting the diagrams at periodic intervals in the course of participatory meetings of stakeholders both inside the value chain development process itself, and also outside (e.g. in the course of employer associations, micro-finance groups, trade union meetings). In addition to monitoring implementation, GEVCAL also aims to tracking changes through revisiting the baseline data given in diagrams given by actors in the value chain over time and marking on achievements, and actions that did not take place. The indicators and method of tracking originate from the diagrams themselves. Tools such as the Road Journey (see section 6.2) are more capable than standard quantitative methods of assessing attribution i.e. the degree to which interventions cause these changes observed. Gender equity impacts are experienced at different levels, and each level would require appropriate indicators to identify what impacts there have been. Possible indicators drawing on the Gender Lens Framework above (See Figure 9) are given in Box 20. These are however developed through the participatory process, and this might identify and/or prioritise different indicators. Indicators would also depend on the particular purpose and scope of the value chain development process as a whole (See Box 9). They would need to bear in mind differences between different women stakeholders and maybe different indicators would be needed for women at different levels. BOX 20: POSSIBLE INDICATORS FOR MONITORING AND EVALUATION Gender impacts Economic : Increased income, productive and assets (particularly large at individual assets) and women's increased control over these; Increased access to and level for women control over/ role in decision-making about household income and assets; women's increased participation in key activities and decisions in household businesses/male-owned businesses Reduced burden of unpaid work in household; increased visibility, recognition of and value given to women's role in household production and reflected in increased control over decision-making. Psychological : Improved negotiating power; Increased perception of life choices and confidence; Increased confidence in coping with life challenges Social : Increased ability to develop social capital and challenge social constraints : Increased participation in decisions affecting their lives Political 69 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

85 Part five Gender impacts : changes in economic decision-making processes and Economic household division of labour at Household/ Family level : improvements in perceptions of women's abilities and status Psychological Social: Reduced violence in the household; reduced pressure for conformity to social norms/ restrictions on women's mobility Policital: changes in decision-making processes in general and acceptance of women's autonomy. Gender impacts Economic : increased economic options/more and better jobs for women; at Community/ increased access to markets/reduction in market barriers and discrimination; Market/value improved access to services to reduce burden of unpaid household work chain levels Psychological/ideological : Widened perceptions of women's capacities and abilities; Increased access to education and training : Reduced social pressure for women to conform to stereotypes Social Political : increased women's participation in community and market-level planning and decision-making. Gender impacts Economic : removal of gender discrimination in legislation and policy- at National/ making; increased provision of services needed by women; reform and macro-levels implementation of property legislation which gives women equal access to resources Psychological : removal of discrimination/affirmative action in education and training; removal of gender stereotypes/gender-discriminatory language from all official documents and positive promotion of new female role models Social : legislation to remove social barriers to gender equality; measures to combat gender violence at household, community and institutional levels introduced and implemented. : equal representation of different women stakeholders in economic Political decision-making processes. 70 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

86 Part five These gender impact indicators could be combined with more general indicators of household poverty, enterprise growth and institutional sustainability for example: „ Enterprise level (both women's and joint businesses): increase in fixed assets (machinery, premises, etc.); more customers; expansion into new markets; increased business networks; increased potential for expansion. „ Household level: improved food security and nutrition, particularly for women and girls; improved housing conditions (including better kitchen, sanitation and factors which reduce household work e.g. improved flooring); money for education of children, particularly girls and equal male responsibility for these expenses; „ Association/Institution level: new members; increased revenue; meetings with policy-makers; improved management; sustainable services to members. The monitoring and evaluation process should also include gender audits at institutional level as for example in ILO's FAMOS Check Methodology (ILO, 2008). 71 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

87 Part five SECTION 5.2: SUMMARY CHECKLIST BOX 21: GENDER CHECKLIST FOR DIFFERENT STAGES OF VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT ELEMENTS OF THE GENDER LENS „ Gender disaggregation of ALL economic data Ensuring that language is gender inclusive from the start and implicit understandings of „ terms like 'entrepreneur', 'farmer' are examined. „ Boundaries of 'economic analysis' to include non-market activities „ Analysis of inequalities in power relations, voice, and vulnerability and hence capabilities. Looking at effects of external gender inequalities at the meso- and macro-levels „ „ Inclusion of all female stakeholders „ Men's attitudes and behaviours GENDER LENS CHECKLIST „ Is all information gender-disaggregated and gender difference included as a dimension of analysis and monitoring throughout? What gendered assumptions are made in language and terminology? For „ example: in definitions of 'enterprise', 'worker', 'head of household'? „ Are women's 'invisible' and/or non-market activities part of the analysis and recommendations throughout? „ Are gendered power relations within and between enterprises part of the analysis and recommendations throughout? Within households? Within markets? Within communities? Within development institutions? „ Are gender implications of macro- and meso-level policies included in the analysis and recommendations? „ Are the full range of female stakeholders not only been included throughout the process but have they actually been given a voice? „ Have the gender dimensions of men's attitudes, behaviour and experience also been included in the analysis and recommendations? „ What are the implications for the gender skills and gender composition of the Management Team and/or Steering Committee/s? „ Scoping : Does the goal include gender equity as an integral part of pro-poor development? Do the objectives include an explicit commitment to gender equality of opportunity and, where necessary, affirmative action for women's empowerment? Are the definitions and language used gender inclusive? 72 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

88 Part five ELEMENTS OF THE GENDER LENS Preliminary mapping: „ Does the preliminary VCA map include sufficient consideration of those parts of the value chain where women are concentrated, including outworkers and home workers and/or unpaid workers in male-owned enterprises? Do preliminary questions and hypotheses include questioning of gender differences and inequalities along the chain? Design of the process: Does the stakeholder analysis differentiate between men and „ women? Between women from different backgrounds? Are women equitably represented at different levels? What sort of support might women from different backgrounds need to enable them to fully articulate their perspectives and recommendations in the participatory process? STAGE 2: VALUE CHAIN RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS: GENDER-ACCURATE INFORMATION „ Participatory research: Does the participatory mapping enable accurate and adequate articulation of women's needs and views? Does it include explicit questioning on gender? „ Quantitative research: Does the quantitative information include relative proportions of women and men involved in different locations of the value chain? Gender inequalities in profits, remuneration, representation or power? „ Does the qualitative information include analysis of identified Qualitative research: gender inequalities at different parts of the value chain? Does it include influences outside the value chain likely to be relevant in explaining gender inequalities such as gender stereotypes and power relations in the household? STAGE 3: ACTION STRATEGY: GENDER EQUITABLE PROPOSALS „ Are women's needs and views equitably represented in action proposals? „ Have the full range of relevant VCD interventions for women been considered: different dimensions: economic, social and political? at different levels: individual, household, institutional, national and/or international levels? „ Have the gender dimensions of strategies for men been considered? Have possible strategies for them been proposed which would support gender equality? „ Have the gender implications and potential impacts of all the VCD recommendations been considered? Have women entrepreneurs been 'ghettoised' along the value chain? STAGE 4: IMPLEMENTATION: GENDER-ACCOUNTABLE OUTCOMES „ Has understanding and networking between women and men been increased at all levels to break down barriers and discrimination in implementation, maximise progress and minimise unnecessary conflict? „ Are gender indicators included in the monitoring and evaluation guidelines? Will the range of women stakeholders be adequately represented in ongoing value „ chain monitoring and planning? 73 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

89

90 PART SIX OVERVIEW OF DIAGRAMMING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

91

92 Part six SECTION 6.1: USING DIAGRAMS Most Value Chain Analysis conventionally makes extensive use of a range of diagram tools for basic mapping based on systems analysis in particular flow diagrams. Used by practitioners in Value Chain training for policy makers and entrepreneurs, they are progressively filled in with quantitative and qualitative data by consultants and researchers employed to assist the process. Mapping techniques have been used for value chain mapping with textile workers as part of the ILO and WIEGO process and with employees in agribusinesses and multinational companies as part of participatory social auditing for ethical enterprise promotion. The multi-stakeholder participatory GEVCAL process described in this guide uses more detailed versions of the standard mapping diagrams, as illustrated above and discussed in more detail below. Some other suggested diagrams and some of their uses are given in Box 22. These diagramming techniques (described briefly below) are based on experience adapting different diagrams in a methodology called PALS: 'Participatory Action Learning System'. PALS enables people not only to construct diagrams in workshops facilitated by outsiders, but also to do diagrams themselves for their own learning and benefit. Using these tools systematically at different levels enables stakeholders to clarify and articulate their various perspectives and promotes lateral and creative thinking about ways forward as a preliminary for negotiation of the complex and potentially conflicting interests in Value Chain Development. These tools provide the backbone of a systematic participatory process which, in themselves, go a long way to identifying useful and practicable ways forward for value chain development. Further updated resources based on further piloting will be available on the PALS website: www.palsnetwork.info. It must be stressed that these are not the only tools which are useful in any particular process. Other diagrams which are useful include: Diamonds, Seasonal Calendars and the other participatory tools discussed in other Manuals and websites listed in References and Resources. As well as improving analytical thinking, diagrams also potentially provide a universal language for communication between stakeholders and increasing stakeholder participation. They can be used for: „ Investigation through participatory methods, qualitative interviewing with individuals and key informants, rapid quantification of key indicators and issues. „ Analysis of information either in participatory focus groups or by researchers to identify hypotheses about why particular patterns occur, possible ways forward and also limitations in the information collected and implications for any conclusions. „ Dissemination of information in a clear and accessible form, in either PowerPoint or flipchart presentations or more formal reports. 27. See for example, McCormick, D. and Schmitz, H. (2001) Auret, D. and Barrientos, S. (2004) 28. For Background and evolution of this methodology see Mayoux, L. (2006) and for more details of all these tools see www.palsnetwork.info. 77 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

93 Part six The presentation in this Manual makes extensive use of diagramming software. Until the recent and rapid developments in computer and imaging technology, recording and refining diagrams could be tedious. The diagrams described here can input electronically to diagram software by practitioners. This enables onscreen input at workshops, quantification and transformation between different diagrams like Road Journeys and Trees. It is now also possible to record diagrams in the field using digital cameras and download them to computers for filing or for further editing and refinement using editing software. This means that any hard copies can stay with the interviewees or participants for their own use. It also means that diagrams can be reproduced in their original or edited for ongoing participatory monitoring and tracking by stakeholder groups at all levels. They therefore provide a much clearer and cost-effective means for taking notes and recording complex issues. However, the same outputs are achieved by just using coloured cards on flipcharts in the normal way. BOX 22: SOME DIAGRAM TOOLS FOR VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIC PLANNING FLOW DIAGRAMS Flow diagrams have a long history in systems analysis and scientific and organisational diagramming. They can represent complex functional or causal relationships and interrelationships. Used for: „ Basic VC functional mapping „ Value chains maps integrating governance and gender issues See Box 11 Section 2.2 ROAD MAPS Show change over time from present to future, or present to past showing opportunities and constraints as well as steps along the way. They are an effective strategic planning tool with integrated SWOT analysis. They are useful starting point for people who may not be used to diagramming. Used for: „ To follow individual timescales for different activities and plotting relevant opportunities and constraints along the timeline: z Work and enterprise histories, z Business plans, z Life plans Collective strategic plans for a value chain with participatory identification of goals and „ priorities The Road Journey is a more sophisticated version of a 'Fish Bone' Diagram. MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS 78

94 Part six CIRCLE MAPS Spider and circle diagrams look at relationships between different stakeholders and/or entities represented as circles (or other shapes) which can be linked through overlaps and/or lines of different types to indicate their interrelationships. Used as: „ Stakeholder maps „ Individual situation maps and network maps to identify the different market linkages, institutional linkages and/or household situation and how these linked. Market maps to analyse gender dimensions of markets, and potential strategies for „ addressing gender discrimination/exclusion „ Women's mobility maps to look at the types of networks which they could access for information See Figure 17 TREES Look at inputs and outputs, challenges and solutions. They can be a simplified version of a network or flow diagram and/or used to discuss in detail particular issues arising from any of the other diagrams. Used for: „ Challenge/solution trees for enterprise „ Challenge/solution trees for gender „ Win-win solutions for gender equality and value chain development See Figures 10 & 11 The ways in which these diagrams are used, and their sequencing, will depend on the participants and the purpose and particular stage of the value chain analysis and development process. What follows in the Part 6 are details of other tools which can be used. The aim of the sequencing in the manual is to progressively investigate issues in detail as they arise and fill in information on an overview diagram. Figure 12 below shows the different diagrams used at the different stages and how they fit together. Progressing from bottom to top: Stage 1: Row 1 produces a summary functional map showing the main activities and functions, their numerical weight in terms of numbers of people involved, and their value and power shown in terms of line thickness and the colour of the shapes representing where women are mainly found. Stage 2: Row 2 uses a preliminary Road Map to summarise a scoping process with stakeholders which identifies from the beginning the different goals and objectives and how far these can be combined, or may be in conflict. From the start goals and objectives are grounded in an analysis of opportunities and constraints. 79 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

95 Part six This also starts to build capacities in strategic planning through use of an intuitive but potentially very sophisticated diagram tool which can be used at all levels from policy makers and industry bosses to those who have never held a pen before and start to promote communication and mutual respect. Stage 3a: Row 3 uses participatory quantification of situational mapping and/or surveys to fill in more details on the different types of productive enterprise involved in each stage, again differentiating numbers of people involved, location of value and where the women are. On these maps some gender and upgrading opportunities and constraints will have been marked to transfer to stage 2b. Stage 3b: Row 4 uses participatory qualitative analysis through Challenge to Strategy Brainstorming Trees combined with qualitative interviews to identify with stakeholders their opportunities, contrants and brainstorm some potential solutions. Opportunities, constraints and also ways forward are differentiated as individual-level which can be directly and immediately changed, enterprise level which may or may not be under the control of the respondent, and lastly meso- and macro-level institutional and policy which need to be addressed. The focus is on encouraging immediate self-help actions which are then complemented by program interventions and policy change. Stage 4: Rows 5 uses a Strategic Road Journey to summarise the opportunities and 29 challenges and transforms strategy brainstorming into a staged strategy, again differentiated into a parallel 'multilane highway' of individual, enterprise and institutional/policy actions. The different steps on the Strategic Road Journey can then be tracked over time and ticked off as done, amended or deleted as the basis for the Implementation and Monitoring and Evaluation stage 4 of the process. It is possible to present summary diagrams of all the stages on one large sheet in this way as an overview of the whole VCD analysis and strategy. 29. If the Inspiration software is used, this is simply a question of dragging and dropping to transform the tree into the Road journey. Otherwise if post-its are used then they can be transferred from the Tree diagrams to a Road Journey template. 80 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

96 Part six Figure 12. Value Chain Overview Map: Process and Tools 81 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

97 Part six SECTION 6.2: ROAD JOURNEYS: STRATEGIC PLANING AND SWOT ANALYSIS ROAD JOURNEYS What are Road Journeys? Road journey diagrams chart a journey from one point to another, generally over time. They show the starting point, ultimate aims, difficulties of the journey and opportunities and challenges along the way. How are Road Journeys used in VCA? Road journey diagrams are very useful for bringing together information at individual and/or community/organisation level about peoples' perceptions or actual experience of change and development interventions. They are a pictorial means of tracking changes over time which are intuitively understandable to people with low or no literacy. Because of this they are often used for awareness raising and/or to get an overview of the vision history or vision of groups. Road journey diagrams can be made much more quantitatively rigorous and can be used as a focus for exploring in-depth qualitative processes. When used in GEVCAL they can be used for example for: „ Initial gender analysis of the gender opportunities and constraints on different stages of women's and men's economic activities, and how they are related to the value chain „ Strategic planning or past analysis of enterprise growth or reasons for failure both on an individual level and to explore general patterns. „ Economic or social aims on an individual or group basis and how far people have achieve these aims, how they have done and/or how they intend to do it. As such they are also useful for collecting data on impact. Figure 13. A Road Journey diagram: A Plan for Progress drawn during a training in GreenHome Women's Development Association in Uganda, 2003 82 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

98 Part six How To Do It: Simple Road Journey The Road Journey in figure 13 was produced in 2 hours by Beatrice, an elderly woman in Uganda, who had never held a pen before and did not have any confidence to talk in a group. The road shows her plan for progress following a grant from a US donor called Trickle Up. STEP 1) Vision circle: The process started by asking Beatrice to draw a large circle to depict the future at the top right hand of the Flipchart, i.e. how did she expect to move on and up in the world? STEP 2) Current situation circle: The second step was to draw a circle at the bottom right to depict where she is now. STEP 3) Sketch the Road: The third step was then to do two straight lines between the circles to represent her road journey from present to future - this sense of being able to think of progress over time was somewhat new to her. This Road goes upwards and to the right (or to the left in Arab countries) to signify upwards progress and leave sufficient space on either side of the road to put in opportunities and constraints at a later date. Figure 14. Close up of future plans from figure 14 83 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

99 Part six STEP 4) Indicators: The fourth step is to draw the vision and current situation in the respective circles which forms the basis for a set of measurable indicators. Once Beatrice had drawn two circles and two lines, she was now able to start to draw many other things in the circles. In the close-up of her drawing in figure 14 she has drawn jerry cans of cooking oil, and a foreign goat and a foreign pig (distinguished from local varieties because one has a tag in its ear and the other is tethered. By the end of the two hours she was even writing numbers like 10, 100, 10,000 all just combinations of lines and circles and the main Note denominations in Uganda. These were her goals for savings and profits. STEP 5) Developing the plan: Following the 2 hour training other people in the community then helped her to further develop her diagram as a number of staged steps in the lines as her strategy from present to future. How to Do It: Strategic Road Map The same basic principles and steps are used for a detailed strategic plan, combined with a SWOT analysis. This is very useful as the first introduction to diagramming as part of the initial scoping with value chain stakeholders. Figure 15 shows a version of a strategic road map used in Kenya with GOWEs. The strategic road map contains more information than a simple road journey. In addition to a vision the participants can add what opportunities and constraints they perceive they will encounter in achieving their vision. In VCA these constrains and opportunities can have a specific focus. In particular it can examine not only the enterprise based challenges but also challenges that women see as caused by gender biases. STEP 1) Vision: Draw a circle at top right for the Vision. It is important to start the map with the vision so that the participant's aims are clear. This will affect what needs to be done to achieve those aims. STEP 2) Start Point: Draw a circle at bottom left for where the participant started their enterprise. STEP 3) Current position: Draw a circle somewhere between the two to indicate how far along the road they think they have progressed. STEP 4) Achievement map: Draw two lines to link the start point with the current position to indicate how the enterprise was developed: was it an easy straight road, a difficult road with many turns and twists? A road with cul-de-sacs and/or new departures? STEP 5) Opportunities: What opportunities helped them along the way? Differentiate by different colours the different types of opportunities. For example: in Figure 16 the enterprise opportunities are blue and the opportunities which women enjoy because of their gender are red. 84 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

100 Part six Figure 15. A Strategic Road Map used in Kenya for GOWEs STEP 6) Challenges What challenges were encountered? Differentiating again between enterprise and gender challenges (it is important to term these challenges rather than problems, again because this promotes a positive attitude) STEP 7) Strategy: The final step is then to devise the future strategy divided into time periods with targets. This can be done later, based on the analysis through the other tools kinds of tools such as stakeholder analysis. After the individual mapping, there should be a plenary feedback and discussion where the different visions, opportunities and challenges are listed by the facilitator of flipcharts. Each person should be asked to give their vision and the two most important opportunities and challenges each person progressively adding to the points. 85 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

101 Part six Figure 16: An example of a strategic road map by a GOWE in Kenya 86 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

102 Part six SECTION 6.3: CIRCLE DIAGRAMS: MAPPING AND STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS What are circle diagrams? Circle diagrams (also known as venn or chapatti diagrams) show the relationships between different elements or institutions represented as overlapping circles of different sizes and forms. Circle diagrams are useful for clarifying the different interest groups, institutions and decision-making patterns as indicated by the different types below. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be added to get a good pictorial overview of power relations, levels and patterns of discrimination and so on. When might circle diagrams be used in VCA? Circle diagrams may be of many different types. Those likely to the most useful in include: Stakeholder analysis: Identifies the different stakeholders, in particular where the „ women are, who might be involved in an intervention, the degrees of overlap between groups, how easy it is to move from one group to another and the relative importance of the different groups in terms of numerical strength and/or power. „ Network maps to show the numbers and earnings of different types of employees and their interrelationships „ Market Mapping, where and how big are markets available in a value chain. This could be further refined through marking on e.g. gender of workers, piece rates and/or locations of different clusters, levels of autonomy and information flows. „ Mobility mapping, can show the physical outreach of individuals or social groups. „ Institutional analysis: Maps the different institutions and/or social groups in a village, for example: community groups, ethnic and other social groups and shows their relative importance, size of membership and degree of overlap. „ Decision-making analysis: Shows the different members of a household or group and the decisions made separately by each. Decisions made jointly are marked on overlaps. Examples of use of flow and network diagrams for value chain maps are given in Section 3. Here the focus is on circle diagrams, but similar principles can also be applied to flow diagrams. How To Do It : Stakeholder or Institutional Analysis Diagrams: STEP 1) What are the main institutions or actors in a community or household? Do they overlap? Draw circles for each of these. These should overlap if there are STEP 2) common members or elements. Different size circles can indicate relative size of membership or relative importance. 87 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

103 Part six STEP 3) What are the elements which distinguish each circle? What are the membership requirements? What decisions are made STEP 4) separately? Write these in the non-overlapped spaces. STEP 5) What are elements which overlap? STEP 6) How many common members are there in the overlaps? Who are they? What joint decisions are there? STEP 7) Insert qualitative information „ Are there differences between men and women, by age, by ethnic group or income level? How easy is entry to each group? If groups are easy to enter, it could be a dotted „ line, if it is difficult a thick line. „ Why are the circles the size they are? E.g. why are some bigger than others? Why are some more important than others? Is there any relationship between size and importance? Why are particular decisions in one circle rather than another? „ Why are the overlaps and boundaries as they are? E.g., what does this say about discrimination? „ What happens within each circle or overlap? E.g., are there different types of membership and participation which need to be added to information in each circle? Do we know how different decisions are made? Are there 'institutions within institutions' e.g. do we also need to look at other members of households of group members? „ Are the proposed solutions realistic? Is it possible to influence the institutions identified? To make the changes needed? Why did these things not happen before? What are potential constraints? Are the proposals gender sensitive? Do they increase social inclusion? STEP 8) Put on quantitative information: How many people are in each group? How many are in the overlaps? STEP 9) What are the key conclusions? „ What conclusions can be drawn about relative power and size of different institutions? About ease of entry and discrimination? „ What conclusions can be drawn about decision-making processes within households? „ These should also be marked in a corner of the chart or a separate sheet. „ Identify the main implications for the future: Following from the key conclusions discuss implications for the future e.g. which are the key institutions to influence? What changes in membership are needed to overcome discrimination? What changes are possible in decision-making? These should also be marked in a corner of the chart or a separate sheet. 88 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

104 Part six Figure 17. Individual situation analysis

105 Part six How to Do it: Individual Situation Analysis STEP 1) Where am I? Draw a circle in the middle of the paper to represent the woman. Then put on the 4 headings in the appropriate parts of the paper: Upchain/markets, Downchain/supplies, Institutions and Household. STEP 2) Mapping the different players: In each case put separate circles for the different markets, suppliers, institutions and household members. Differentiate as follows: „ The most significant should be marked in larger circles, the least significant by smaller circles „ Those where the highest incomes can be obtained should be marked in thicker lines Arrow direction and thickness should indicate levels of „ control „ Those which are female dominated should be in one colour (eg red), those which are mainly men in another colour (eg blue). STEP 3) Identify the strategy for the future: Based on the above analysis the best markets, raw material supply, most important institutions/ household members to form part of a future strategy should be identified. Along the arrows and/or in the circles the key opportunities and constraints/steps should then be marked. The analysis should then be fed back either in a plenary or in groups of women involved in similar activities. 90 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

106 Part six SECTION 6.4: TREES: CHALLENGE TO STRATEGY BRAINSTORMING TREES What are brainstorming trees? Trees are a simplified type of network, or part of a web. They start from a trunk representing an issue or an institution like a household or community. Inputs are then shown as roots and outputs as branches. When might brainstorming trees be used in VCA? Tree diagrams are useful for bringing together information at individual or community level about peoples' visions, opportunities, challenges and different possible solutions. The types of tree most likely to be relevant in VCA include, but by no means only: „ Challenge to Strategy Brainstorming Trees: has a particular goal eg gender equality or enterprise success as the trunk. The challenges which need to be addressed are shown as roots of the tree with very basic underlying issues as 'bad soil'. The branches in this case are the solutions to the different challenges. Opportunities to address challenges are shown as fertiliser on the roots, and opportunities to achieve specific solutions as beneficial insects. „ Costs and benefit tree (also input and output tree): Has an activity as the trunk. The roots of the tree represent the costs or inputs and the branches represent the benefits or outputs. „ Income and expenditure tree: Has a group, household or individual as the trunk. The roots of the tree represent the income from different activities or people and the branches represent the expenditure on different activities or people. „ Empowerment or vision tree: Has a particular goal or vision like empowerment or poverty elimination as the trunk. The roots of the tree show the different contributing elements or changes needed. The branches then show the different elements or effects of the vision or the ways in which the changes can be brought about. Figure 18. Challenge/solution tree 91 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

107 Part six Figure 19. Gender analysis tree from GOWE workshop How to Do It In groups by economic activity or some other common factor with post-it notes of 3 different colours for: constraints and then solutions differentiated by individual and external: 1) What is the goal? Draw the trunk of the tree which needs to grow and draw a symbol or mark the goal to be discussed. This exercise can be done either with gender equity in enterprise in general as the goal, or to deconstruct the different dimensions identified in Section 1. 2) What are the different challenges? Using post-it notes of one colour the members of the group should brainstorm the different challenges. Once the brainstorming is complete, the different challenges should be grouped into 4 or 5 key categories with sub-challenges. These can link to the different dimensions on the 'gender lens': economic, social, political etc. This discussion should also draw out which challenges are at the individual level, which at the household level, which at the institutional level, which at policy level etc. Very basic, underlying challenges which link all the others can be represented as a mass of roots or bad soil right at the bottom. 3) What are the different ways forward for individuals and implications for external interventions? Again using post-it notes of different colours brainstorm individual and external solutions. There should be branches or solutions for each of the large roots, taking into account the different subroots. Each branch should have steps which participants can take as individuals as well as what might be needed from external interventions, following the different levels identified in the discussion of causes.

108 Part six 4) What are the different opportunities? Those which can help address the challenges should be drawn as fertiliser on the roots, those which can help progress on ways forward can be drawn as beneficial insects. Again draw out those at the individual and household levels as well as program or policy level. 5) What are the concrete trackable targets? Draw these as fruits at the ends of branches that can then be tracked over time by tracking which 'fruit's have become large and which have withered and died. These can be drawn at the individual and household levels as well as program or policy level. 93 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

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110 References REFERENCES AND RESOURCES AURET, D. and BARRIENTOS, S. (2004). Participatory Social Auditing - a Practical Guide To Developing a Gender, Sensitive Approach. Working Papers. Brighton, Institute of Development Studies. BADEN, S. (2001). "Researching Homework and Value Chains in the Global Garments Industry: An Annotated Resource List and Binder." BARRIENTOS, S. (2001). "Gender, Flexibility and Global Value Chains." IDS Bulletin 32(3): 83-93. BARRIENTOS, S. , DOLAN, C. and TALLONTIRE, A. (2003). "A Gendered Value Chain Approach to Codes of Conduct in African Horticulture " World Development 31 (9): 1511-1526. BERNET, T. , THIELE, G. and ZSCHOCKE, T. (2006). "Participatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA)." from http://papandina.cip.cgiar.org/fileadmin/PMCA/User-Guide.pdf. BLACKDEN, M. and BHANU, C. (1999). Gender, Growth and poverty Reduction. Washington DC, World Bank Tachnical Paper No 428. CAMPBELL, R. (2007). "Value Chain Approach to Economic Growth with Poverty Reduction " Briefing Paper Retrieved Nov 2007, from http://www.microlinks.org/ev_en.php?ID=9030_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC. CLOKE, J. (2001). The gendered household: who really knows what's going on? MIMEO, University of Loughborough. DFID. (2000). "Poverty Elimination and Empowerment of Women: Target Strategy Paper." Retrieved Nov 2011, from http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/tspgender.pdf. DOLAN, C. , OPONDO, M. and SMITH, S. (2004). "Gender, Rights & Participation in the Kenya Cut Flower Industry." Nov 07, from http://www.nri.org/NRET/kenyareportfinal2.pdf. DOLAN, C.S. and SUTHERLAND, K. (2006). "Gender and Employment in the Kenya Horticulture Value Chain." Retrieved Nov 2007, from http://www.gapresearch.org/production/FinalDraft.pdf. GEREFFI, G. (2001). "Beyond the Producer-driven, Buyer-driven Dichotomy: The Evolution of Global Value Chains in the Internet Era." IDS Bulletin 32(3): 30-40. ILO. (2006 ). "Decent Work and Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) - An ILO Advocacy Guidebook." ILO, (2006) FAMOS Check Guide and Methods: A gender-based service quality check for supporting small enterprises, Geneva KABEER, N. (2004). "Globalisation, labour standards and women's rights: dilemmas of collective action in an interdependent world." from http://www.gapresearch.org/production/globlabourwomen.pdf. KAPLINSKY, R. and MORRIS, M. (2000). A Handbook for Value Chain Research. London, IDRC. KIT, F.A.I. (2006). Chain Empowerment: Supporting African Farmers to Develop Markets, Royal tropical Institute, Amsterdam; Faida Market Link, Arusha; International Institute of Reconstruction, Nairobi. KLASEN, S. (2002). Insert of the Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro-poor growth? University of Munich, Department of Economics. 95 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

111 References M4P. (2007). "Making Value Chains Work Better for the Poor: A Tool book for Practitioners of Value Chain Analysis." MAYOUX, L. (2002). "Travailleuses a domicile: RAPPORT METHODOLOGIQUE DE LA RECHERCHE " MISE A NIVEAU ET EMPLOI FEMININ DANS L'INDUSTRIE DE L'HABILLEMENT "." MAYOUX, L. (2003). "Empowering Enquiry: A New Approach to Investigation." from http:///www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/informationresources/toolbox/empoweringenquiry.shtml. MAYOUX, L. (2005). "Between Tyranny and Utopia: Participatory Evaluation for Pro-Poor Development." from http://www.parcinfo.org/filedownload.asp?folder=PARC%20Products&filename= Participatory+Evaluation. MAYOUX, L. (2005). "Women's Empowerment through Sustainable Micro-finance: Organisational training Taraqee Foundation draft report." from http://www.genfinance.info/Trainingresources_05/Taraqee_Report_draft.pdf. MAYOUX, L. (2006). Road to the Foot of the Mountain - but reaching for the sun: PALS adventures and challenges. Springs of Participation: creating and evolving methods for participatory development. KAREN BROCK and JETHRO PETTIT, Intermediate Technology Publications. MAYOUX, L. and ANANDI. (2005). "Participatory Action Learning in Practice: Experience of Anandi, India." Journal of International Development, 17, from http:///www.enterprise- impact.org.uk/informationresources/toolbox/PALinpractice.shtml (original version). MCCORMICK, D. and SCHMITZ, H. (2001). Manual for Value Chain Research on Homeworkers in the Garment Industry. Nairobi and Brighton, Institutes for Development Studies,University of Nairobi and University of Sussex. HERR, M.,(2007) An operational guide to Local Value Chain Development ILO, Geneva. SARDAR, F., MUMTAZ, N. , HOSSEIN, S. and MAYOUX, L. (2005). "Women and Men's Views of Empowerment: Kashf Empowerment Diamonds." Retrieved Nov 2007, from http://www.genfinance.info/Documents/Kashf%20Empowerment%20Diamonds.pdf. SMITH, S. , AURET, D. , BARRIENTOS, S. , DOLAN, C. , KLEINBOOI, K. , NJOBVU, C. , OPONDO, M. and TALLONTIRE, A. (2004). "Ethical trade in African horticulture: gender, rights and participation." IDS Working Paper 223 Retrieved Nov 07, from http://www.nri.org/NRET/idswp223.pdf. SPRINGER-HEINZE, A. (2007). "Value Links Manual." TALLONTIRE, A. , DOLAN, C. , SMITH, S. and BARRIENTOS, S. (2005). "Reaching the Marginalised? Gender, Value Chains and Ethical Trade in African Horticulture." Development in Practice. TALLONTIRE, A. , SMITH, S. and NJOBVU, C. (2004). "Ethical Trade in African Horticulture: Gender, Rights and Participation: Final Report on Zambia Study." from http://www.nri.org/NRET/etandgenderzambia.pdf. UNC-CH WRITING CENTER. (1998). "Gender-sensitive language." from http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts_pdf/Gender-Sensitive_Language.pdf. USAID. (2007). "Gender and Economic Value Chains: Two Case Studies from the GATE Project." VELUGU. "Gendered Value Chain Analysis: Red gram, Ground nut, Neem, and Tamarind." from http://www.velugu.org/downloads/gender.pdf. VENEKLASEN, L. and MILLER, V. (2002). A New Weave of Power, People and Politics: The Action Guide for Advocacy and Citizen Participation. Oklahoma, World Neighbours. 96 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

112 Useful websites SOME USEFUL WEBSITES Papers from DFID sponsored research on global value chains and poverty: http://www.gapresearch.org/production/globprodpov.html Papers on gender in African horticulture from Natural Resources Institute, London http://www.nri.org/NRET/gender.htm Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing Publications from and about the informal sector, development initiatives and initiatives by WIEGO partner organisations http://www.wiego.org/publications/ Participation Resource Centre of Institute of Development Studies, Sussex http://www.pnet.ids.ac.uk/prc/index.htm has comprehensive and constantly updated resources on different aspects of participation and participatory methods. The Overseas Development Institute http://www.odi.org.uk Gender in Value Chains Agri-ProFocus Learning Group http://genderinvaluechains.ning.com/ 97 MAKING THE STRONGEST LINKS

113 This Guide is intended as an overview of GEVCAL and the gender issues and questions that need to be asked in any Value Chain Development (VCD) process. It is for value chain analysis and/or gender consultants, researchers and policy-makers involved in value chain development who wish to: International • Improve the accuracy, relevance and usefulness of their work and Labour policy recommendations in general through including the perspectives Organization and needs of the global majority, rather than just the male half of the The strongest links population involved in and affected by value chain development. Ensure that their work leads to recommendations that empower, rather • than disadvantage women, and hence maximize contribution to employment creation, economic growth and poverty reduction. • Make the transition from external academic conventional economic mapping and analysis for 'trickle-down' economic growth to effective and sustainable value chain development for pro-poor development. • It provides the basis for gender training, promoting gender awareness amongst different stakeholders and a general guide to the types of questions and processes that need to form part of a VCD process at different stages. This is not a 'how to' Guide to value chain analysis and development. It rather shows how gender concerns should be incorporated into value chain develop- ment and demonstrates methodologies for doing so. It is a guide that could be used alongside other value chain materials in particular the ILO's existing Guide: Value Chain Development for Decent Work. Contact Details: Joni Simpson Senior Specialist & Coordinator of Women’s & Youth Entrepreneurship 4 route des Morillons CH-1211 Genève 22 Switzerland +41 (0) 22 799 6713 Website: http://www.ilo.org/seed This guide has been made possible by the ongoing support of the Government of Ireland for women’s entrepreneurship development and gender equality through the ILO-Irish Aid Partnership Programme. Designed by: AD 0911-661257

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