trauma bulletin 1

Transcript

1 T ce Bulle an T ssis Technical a in Ten Things Every Juvenile Court Judge Should Know About Trauma and Delinquency Authored By: Kristine Buffington, MSW Carly B. Dierkhising, MA Shawn C. Marsh, Ph.D. NCTSN Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1

2 Introduction he majority of youth who develop a pattern of delinquent behaviors and experience - subsequent juvenile court involvement have faced both serious adversities and trau T matic experiences. Research continues to show that most youth who are detained in juvenile detention centers have been exposed to both community and family violence and many have been threatened with, or been the direct target of, such violence (Abram et al., 2004; Wiig, Widom, & Tuell, 2003). Studies also demonstrate that youth who have multiple exposures to violence or victimization are at higher risk for mental health problems, behavioral problems, sub - stance abuse, and delinquent behaviors (Ford, Chapman, Hawke, & Albert, 2007; Ford, Elhai, Connor, & Frueh, in press; Saunders, Williams, Smith, & Hanson, 2005; Tuell, 2008). Studies also The mission of the juvenile court is complex. The court is tasked with protecting society, demonstrate that safeguarding the youth and families that come to its attention, and holding delinquent youth youth who have accountable while supporting their rehabilitation. In order to successfully meet these sometimes multiple exposures contradictory goals, the courts, and especially the juvenile court judge, are asked to understand to violence or the myriad underlying factors that affect the lives of juveniles and their families. One of the most victimization pervasive of these factors is exposure to trauma. To be most effective in achieving its mission, the are at higher juvenile court must both understand the role of traumatic exposure in the lives of children and risk for mental engage resources and interventions that address child traumatic stress. Accordingly, the purpose health problems, of this technical assistance bulletin is to highlight ten crucial areas that judges need to be famil- behavioral iar with in order to best assist traumatized youth who enter the juvenile justice system. problems, substance abuse, and delinquent behaviors. 2

3 1. A traumatic experience is an event that threatens someone’s life, safety, or well-being. rauma can include a direct encounter with a dangerous or threatening event, or it can involve witnessing the endangerment or suffering of another living being. A key condi- T tion that makes these events traumatic is that they can overwhelm a person’s capacity to cope, and elicit intense feelings such as fear, terror, helplessness, hopelessness, and despair. Traumatic events include: emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; neglect; physical assaults; witnessing family, school, or community violence; war; racism; bullying; acts of terrorism; fires; serious accidents; serious injuries; intrusive or painful medical procedures; loss of loved ones; abandonment; and separation. Ons Key Definiti A key condition rauma Acute t “A single traumatic event that is limited in time. An earthquake, dog bite, or : motor vehicle accident are all examples of acute traumas” (Child Welfare Committee (CWC)/ that makes these National Center for Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) 2008, p. 6). events traumatic Chronic t rauma: “Chronic trauma may refer to multiple and varied (traumatic) events such is that they can as a child who is exposed to domestic violence at home, is involved in a car accident, and then becomes a victim of community violence, or longstanding trauma such as physical abuse or overwhelm a war.” (CWC/NCTSN, 2008, p. 6). person’s capacity “Complex trauma is a term used by some experts to describe both exposure trauma: Complex to cope, and elicit to chronic trauma—usually caused by adults entrusted with the child’s care, such as parents or caregivers—and the immediate and long-term impact of such exposure on the child.” (CWC/ intense feelings NCTSN, 2008, p. 7). such as fear, Hypervigilance: “Abnormally increased arousal, responsiveness to stimuli, and scanning of terror, helplessness, the environment for threats” (Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers, 2007). Hypervigilance is a symptom that adults and youth can develop after exposure to dangerous hopelessness, and and life-threatening events (Ford et al., 2000; Sipprelle, 1992). The American Psychiatric despair. Association’s diagnostic criteria manual (DSM-IV-TR) identifies it as a symptom related to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Resiliency: “A pattern of positive adaptation in the context of past or present adversity” (Wright & Masten, 2005, p. 18). traumatic Reminders: “A traumatic reminder is any person, situation, sensation, feeling, or thing that reminds a child of a traumatic event. When faced with these reminders, a child may re-experience the intense and disturbing feelings tied to the original trauma.” (CWC/NCTSN, 2008, p. 12). 3

4 2. Child traumatic stress can lead to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). hile many youth who experience trauma are able to work through subsequent challenges, some display traumatic stress reactions. The impact of a potentially traumatic event is determined, not only by the objective nature of the event, but W also by the child’s subjective response to the event; something that is traumatic for one child may not be for another. The degree to which a child is impacted by trauma is influenced by his or her temperament; the way the child interprets what has happened; his or her basic coping skills; the level of traumatic exposure; home and community environments; and the degree to which a child has access to strong and healthy support systems. Rates of PTSD in juvenile justice-involved youth are estimated between 3%-50% (Wolpaw & Ford, 2004) making it comparable to the PTSD rates (12%-20%) of soldiers returning from Rates of PTSD deployment in Iraq (Roehr, 2007). PTSD is a psychiatric disorder defined in the DSM-IV-TR, in juvenile justice- and several conditions or criteria must be met for an individual to receive the diagnosis. These involved youth criteria include: having been exposed to a threatening event, experiencing an overwhelming are estimated emotional reaction, and developing symptoms causing severe distress and interference with daily between 3%-50% - life. Further, individuals also must experience a sufficient number of the following three symp (Wolpaw & Ford, (i.e., avoiding reminders of the trauma); avoidance toms for more than one month: hyperarousal 2004) making it (e.g., nightmares or intrusive re-experiencing (i.e., being emotionally or behaviorally agitated); and comparable to the memories). Since the PTSD diagnosis was developed initially to describe an adult condition, the PTSD rates (12%- definition is not a perfect fit for what professionals often see with children and youth who have 20%) of soldiers experienced trauma. It is also important to understand that not all youth who are impacted se - returning from verely by traumatic stress develop PTSD. Some youth may experience partial symptoms of PTSD, deployment in Iraq other forms of anxiety or depression, or other significant impairments in their ability to meet the (Roehr, 2007). demands of daily life (e.g., emotional numbness or apathy). 4

5 3. Trauma impacts a child’s development and health throughout his or her life. raumatic experiences have the potential to impact children in all areas of social, cognitive, and emotional development throughout their lives. Trauma that occurs early in life, such as infancy or toddlerhood, strikes during a critical developmental T period. The most significant amount of brain growth occurs between birth and two years of age. Exposure to child abuse and neglect can restrict brain growth especially in the areas of the brain that control learning and self regulation (DeBellis, 1999). Exposure to domestic violence has also been linked to lower IQ scores for children (Koenen, Moffitt, Avshalom, Taylor, & Purcell, 2003). In addition to critical periods of brain development, it is during early childhood that children develop the foundations for their future relationships. When young children are cared for by parents who protect them, interact with them, and nurture them, they can learn to trust others, develop empathy, and have a greater capacity for identification with social norms Exposure to child (Putnam, 2006). Loss of a caregiver or being parented by a significantly impaired caregiver can abuse and neglect disrupt children’s abilities to manage their emotions, behaviors, and relationships. Youth who ex - can restrict brain perience traumatic events may have mental and physical health challenges, problems developing growth especially and maintaining healthy relationships, difficulties learning, behavioral problems, and substance in the areas of abuse issues (Ford et al., 2007; Saunders et al., 2005). In other words, what occurs in the lives the brain that of infants and young children matters a great deal and can set the stage for a child’s entire life control learning trajector y. and self regulation The experience of either acute trauma (a single traumatic event limited in time), or chronic (DeBellis, 1999). trauma - (multiple traumatic events) can derail a child’s development if proper supports or treat ment are not accessed (Garbarino, 2000). It is not likely just one traumatic event will lead a youth to become violent or antisocial, rather it is both a series and pattern of traumatic events – occurring with no protection, no support, and no opportunities for healing – that places youth at the highest risk (Garbarino, 2000). It is this pattern of chronic trauma that affects many youth who come before the juvenile court system. Research also suggests that the impact of trauma can persist into adulthood and can increase risk of serious diseases, health problems, and early mortality (Felitti et al., 1998). Given that child traumatic stress can impact brain development and have such a profound influence throughout a person’s lifespan, it is essential for courts and communities to work together to prevent traumatic events where possible (such as child abuse and neglect) and to provide early interventions to treat traumatic stress before a youth becomes entrenched in a pattern of maladaptive and problematic behavior. 5

6 4. Complex trauma is associated with risk of delinquency. he effect of trauma is cumulative: the greater the number of traumatic events that a - child experiences, the greater the risks to a child’s development and his or her emo have been exposed complex trauma tional and physical health. Youth who experience T to a series of traumatic events that include interpersonal abuse and violence, often perpetrated - by those who are meant to protect them. This level of traumatic exposure has extremely high po tential to derail a child’s development on a number of levels. Youth who are victimized by abuse, and are exposed to other forms of violence, often lose their trust in the adults who are either - responsible for perpetrating the abuse or who fail to protect them. Victimization, particularly vic timization that goes unaddressed, is a violation of our social contract with youth and can create a deep disregard both for adults in general and the rules that adults have set (Cook, Blaustein, By recognizing and Spinazzola, & van der Kolk, 2003; Cook et al., 2005). Distrust and disregard for adults, rules, addressing the role and laws place youth at a much greater risk for delinquency and other inappropriate behaviors. of trauma in the Danny, a runaway who was interviewed in a residential treatment program, expressed anger lives of youth, the and frustration with the fact that the juvenile court’s first response was to quickly issue punitive court and other consequences for his delinquent behavior, while being very slow to act and protect him from the systems can become physical abuse that he was suffering at the hands of his parent. He asserted that courts need to more effective in ask the questions, “Why is this kid running away? Why is he acting out like this?” It does not meeting the needs of go unnoticed by youth when their safety and well-being is not addressed but their delinquent the justice-involved behavior is. These kinds of paradoxes and frustrations can increase the likelihood that youth youth and the needs will respond defiantly and with hostility to court and other professionals who are in positions of the community. of authority. System professionals would benefit from recognizing that imposing only negative or punitive consequences will likely do little to change the youth’s patterns of aggression, rule breaking, and risky behaviors because such a response does not address the impact of traumatic stress on the child. By recognizing and addressing the role of trauma in the lives of youth, the court and other systems can become more effective in meeting the needs of the justice-involved youth and the needs of the community. 6

7 5. Traumatic exposure, delinquency, and school failure are related. cademic failure, poor school attendance, and dropping out of school are factors that increase the risk of delinquency. Success in school requires confidence, the ability to focus and concentrate, the discipline to complete assignments, the ability to regulate A emotions and behaviors, and the skills to understand and negotiate social relationships. When youth live in unpredictable and dangerous environments they often, in order to survive, operate . Clinical dictionaries typically describe hypervigilance as abnormally hypervigilance in a state of - increased physiological arousal and responsiveness to stimuli, and scanning of the environ ment for threats. Individuals who experience hypervigilance often have difficulty sleeping and managing their emotions, and because they often see people or situations as a threat they are more likely to react in aggressive or defensive ways. The mindset and skills involved in hypervigi- lance fundamentally conflict with the skills and focus needed to succeed in school academically, When youth live socially, and behaviorally. in unpredictable Unfortunately, school performance and attendance issues (whether trauma related or not), and dangerous can be exacerbated by involvement in the juvenile justice or child protections systems. Studies environments they in New York City and the State of Kentucky found that after being released from juvenile justice often, in order to facilities, between 66%-95% of youth either did not return to school or dropped out (Brock & survive, operate Keegan, 2007). Youth may experience absences while waiting for records to transfer, a delay in in a state of specialized services, inadequate educational planning, and poor service coordination between hypervigilance. school systems, child welfare agencies, and juvenile justice systems. Also, it may be easier for youth to act out or give up than to continue failing in school. It is essential that the juvenile justice system work with other community partners to ensure that youth have the supports they need to attend and succeed in school. Without these supports and resources, uneducated youth face further adversities such as poverty, unemployment, and ongoing justice system involvement. 7

8 - 6. Trauma assessments can reduce misdiagnosis, pro mote positive outcomes, and maximize resources. ixty-percent of youth involved in the juvenile justice system suffer from diagnosable “ mental health disorders” (Wood, Foy, Layne, Pynoos, & James, 2002, p. 129). Many of S these youth have extensive histories of mental health treatment that may also include the use of psychotropic medication. Often youth who are exposed to chronic or complex trauma receive a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, or other mental health disorders. These diagnoses are predominantly based on observ - able behaviors and symptoms. When there is a lack of thorough assessment, youth are provided treatment based on these behavioral diagnoses, without addressing the traumatic experiences that are contributing to the symptoms. In order to avoid this disconnect, trauma screenings and standardized assessments should be implemented at intake and at other points of contact. When there is a There are a number of assessments that assist in both identifying and tracking trauma histories, lack of thorough such as the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (Daviss et al., 2000; Ford et al., 2000) and the assessment, youth Child Welfare Trauma Screening Tool (Igelman et al., 2007). There are also validated, standard - are provided ized assessment tools that assist with identifying both mental health and behavioral symptoms treatment based on - and disorders related to traumatic experiences such as the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disor these behavioral der Reaction Index (Steinberg, Brymer, Decker, & Pynoos, 2004) and the Trauma Symptom diagnoses, without Checklist for Children (Briere, 1996). With such a strong body of knowledge and tools available, addressing and so much at stake for youth and society, it makes good sense and is also ethically imperative the traumatic to use evidence-based assessment tools to make accurate diagnoses that can inform appropriate experiences that are responses and treatment for trauma-exposed youth. contributing to the symptoms. 8

9 7. There are mental health treatments that are effective in helping youth who are experiencing child traumatic stress. number of evidence-based practices (EBPs) are available to courts and communities for treating youth who are impacted by trauma. EBPs are practices that have been A evaluated through rigorous scientific studies and have been found to be effective. It is a service provider’s ethical responsibility to provide the highest standard of care and to use evidence-based practices whenever possible. It is also imperative that referrals for treatment be made to service providers that use trauma-focused EBPs, so that youth may receive both the best care and the most positive outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control indicates that the most highly effective treatments for traumatic stress are cognitive behavioral treatment models (Cen - ters for Disease Control, 2008). Typically, trauma-focused, evidence-based treatments include the following components: psychoeducation, caregiver involvement and support, emotional It is also imperative regulation skills, anxiety management, cognitive processing, construction of a trauma narrative, that referrals for and personal empowerment training. Judges can and should discuss the availability of EBPs treatment be made with their treatment providers and advocate for the development of trauma-specific program- to service providers ming. (Please visit www.nctsnet.org for a list of evidence-based trauma treatments and respective that use trauma- evidence, treatment components, and target populations.) focused EBPs, so that youth may Ave HO H H W evi Den Ce-B Ase D tR eAtments f OR W ORK ing W it H yO ut receive both the best exPeRien CeD tRA um A care and the most There are a variety of treatments that research suggests are effective in working with youth positive outcomes. who have experienced trauma. A comprehensive list of such treatments and supporting documentation is available at http://www.nctsn.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/CCG_Book.pdf. Some of the more common evidence-based treatments, however, include (in no particular order): ntervention for t rauma in s chools (CB Cognitive Behavioral i ): Tested with youth who its have experienced violence and complex trauma. CBITS is provided in a group format in schools, residential programs, and other similar environments. trauma Affect Regulation: g uide for e ducation and t herapy ( tAR get -A): TARGET-A shows evidence of effectiveness with youth who are in correctional facilities, residential settings, and community-based programs. This model can be practiced in group, individual, and family formats, which helps both youth and families to better understand trauma and stress, and to develop skills that help them to think through, and regulate, their emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to stress triggers. trauma- focused Cognitive Behavioral t herapy ( tf -CB t): Youth (and their parents, possibly) are taught to process the trauma; manage distressful thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; and enhance both personal safety and family communication. It can be provided over a relatively short period of time in virtually any setting. sanctuary m odel: The Sanctuary Model promotes system change based on the creation and maintenance of a nonviolent, democratic, productive community to help individuals heal from trauma. The model provides a common language for staff, clients, and other stakeholders, and can be adapted to several settings and populations. 9

10 8. There is a compelling need for effective family involvement. outh who do not have helpful and consistent family support are at higher risk of violence and prolonged involvement in the court system (Garbarino, 2000). If juvenile courts are to enhance their success in rehabilitating juveniles who commit delinquent Y acts, they need to maximize opportunities to engage and partner with their caregivers. This means working to develop meaningful involvement of biological parents, extended family mem- bers, kinship caregivers, adoptive families, foster parents, and others. Families may need education about traumatic stress and treatments that work so they can be more supportive of their children, and for some families, this education will help them address their own traumatic experiences. Kinship caregivers, foster parents, and adoptive families often regret not being involved sooner in a child’s life so they could have prevented earlier traumatic Families may need events. Often out-of-home caregivers need more information about what specific traumatic education about events or adversities a child may have experienced prior to becoming part of their family so they traumatic stress can make sense out of the child’s behaviors and find helpful ways to respond. and treatments that There can be obstacles and challenges to achieving successful family involvement. Sometimes work so they can be families avoid interactions with the court system because of feelings of shame and fears of being more supportive of criticized. Therefore, courts might wish to engage families in ways that can help them feel more their children, and - valued, respected, and invited to participate in the court processes and their child’s rehabilita for some families, tion. Practical and economic issues can also play a significant role in limiting family involve - this education will ment, including: too much distance from the child’s home to the juvenile correction center, lack help them address of reliable transportation, language and cultural barriers, and feelings of being overwhelmed their own traumatic and intimidated about interacting with a large public institution. When courts collaborate with experiences. community organizations and families, they may be able to find some practical ways to locate the resources that enable increased family participation. The best strategy to improve family involve - ment and partnerships is for the courts to take the time to ask them for guidance and solutions. 10

11 9. Youth are resilient. esiliency is the capacity for human beings to thrive in the face of adversity – such as traumatic experiences. Research suggests that the degree to which one is resilient is influenced by a complex interaction of risk and protective factors that exist across R various domains, such as individual, family, community and school. Accordingly, most practi- tioners approach enhancing resiliency by seeking both to reduce risk (e.g., exposure to violence) and increase protection (e.g., educational engagement) in the lives of the youth and families with whom they work. Research on resiliency suggests that youth are more likely to overcome adversi- ties when they have caring adults in their lives. Through positive relationships with adults, youth experience a safe and supportive connection that fosters self-efficacy, increases coping skills, and enhances natural talents. Parents and other important familial adults can help increase their children’s ability to heal from trauma and promote prosocial behaviors by spending time Research on at home together, talking, sharing meals, and “setting clear boundaries for behavior and reason - resiliency suggests able disciplinary actions” (National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center, 2007). Further, that youth are more schools, courts, and communities can enhance resiliency by providing opportunities for youth to likely to overcome - make meaningful decisions about their lives and environment, as well as investing in recreation adversities when al programs, arts, mentorship, and vocational programs. The Search Institute, in Minneapolis, they have caring Minnesota, has developed a variety of tools to identify and promote developmental assets (www. adults in their lives. search-institute.org). 11

12 10. Next steps: The juvenile justice system needs to be trauma-informed at all levels. r auma-informed systems of care understand the impact of traumatic stress both on youth and families, and provide services and supports that prevent, address, and ameliorate the impact of trauma. It is essential that juvenile courts work to provide T environments that are safe and services that do not increase the level of trauma that youth and families experience. For example, a trauma-informed juvenile justice system understands that youth who are chronically exposed to trauma are often hypervigilant and can be easily triggered into a defensive or aggressive response toward adults and peers. Such a juvenile justice system raumatic makes system-level changes to improve a youth’s feelings of safety, reduce exposure to t , and help equip youth with supports and tools to cope with traumatic stress reactions. reminders The provision of or referral to evidence-based trauma-informed treatment is essential within To help sustain a trauma-informed system, as youth are less likely to benefit from rehabilitation services if the and ensure system they are involved in does not respond to their issues of safety and victimization. effectiveness of a Trauma-informed systems require successful and respectful partnerships between youth, trauma-informed families, professionals, and other stakeholders. To help sustain and ensure effectiveness of a juvenile justice trauma-informed juvenile justice system, data needs to be collected, evaluated, and used to de - system, data needs termine the quality, fidelity, and effectiveness of the system changes. For example, there needs to to be collected, be supervision and evaluation to ensure that trauma-informed interventions are being practiced evaluated, and used the way they were designed in the particular evidence-based treatment model. Clinical outcome to determine the measures need to be used at least pre- and post-treatment to determine if a decrease in symptoms quality, fidelity, and and/or increase in healthy coping have occurred during and after completion of the therapy effectiveness of the model. Often juvenile detention centers have looked at rates of aggression, self-injury, and system changes. restraint and seclusion as data to help determine if the trauma-informed treatments are effective or in need of modification. All stakeholders need to be regularly informed on the status and quality of the outcomes of the system change efforts (Fixsen, Blase, Naoom, & Wallace, 2007). There are many resources that describe trauma-informed care in various service systems, such as juvenile justice, that can help guide interested systems through a transformation process. 12

13 Summary uvenile courts can benefit from understanding trauma, its impact on youth, and its rela - tionship to delinquency. Research has repeatedly shown that the majority of youth in the J juvenile justice system have experienced traumatic events; the juvenile court is disadvan - taged if this fact is overlooked. By becoming trauma-informed, juvenile justice personnel aid the juvenile court in its mission of protecting and rehabilitating traumatized youth while holding them responsible for their actions. Rehabilitation resources also can be maximized by utilizing effective assessment and treatment strategies that reduce or ameliorate the impact of childhood trauma. Ultimately, such efforts will help promote improved outcomes for youth, families, and communities most in need of our help. Research has repeatedly shown that the majority of youth in the juvenile justice system have experienced traumatic events; the juvenile court is disadvantaged if this fact is overlooked. 13

14 Resources For more information about trauma, delinquency, or other issues of interest to juvenile and fam - ily courts, please contact the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) at [email protected] org or the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ) at (775) 784-6012; e-mail [email protected] Other resources are available online at: www.safestartcenter.org/cev/index.php www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov www.search-institute.org www.nctsnet.org www.ncjfcj.org 14

15 About the Authors , ms W , is the Vice President of Mental Health Services for A Renewed Kristine Buffington Mind, an outreach and community-based agency in Toledo, Ohio, that serves youth with mental health and substance abuse problems. Much of her 24-year career as a clinical social worker has been spent serving youth, adults, and families who have experienced traumatic stress. [[email protected]] Carly B. Dierkhising, m A , is the Program Coordinator for the Service Systems Program at the National Center for Child Traumatic Stress (NCCTS), which seeks to improve access and raise the standard of care for traumatized children and families. Her primary focus is on the assessment and treatment of trauma-exposed youth involved in the juvenile justice system. [[email protected]] shawn C. m arsh, Ph.D. , is the Director of the Juvenile and Family Law Department of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. His research and teaching interests include adolescent development, delinquency, and resiliency. [[email protected]] note: The authors would like to thank the judicial officers, clinical experts, staff, and system consumers who reviewed this bulletin for their time and thoughtful input that made this a better product. 15

16 References Abram, K. M., Teplin, L. A., Charles, D. R., Longworth, S. L., McClelland, G. M., & Dulcan, Ar - M. K. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma in youth in juvenile detention. chives of General Psychiatry, 61 , 403-410. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). (Re - Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders vised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. . Odessa, FL: Psychologi- Briere, J. (1996). Trauma symptom checklist for children professional manual cal Assessment Resources. Students highly at risk of dropping out: Returning to school after incar - Brock, L., & Keegan, N. (2007). ceration . Retrieved from http://www.neglected-delinquent.org/nd/resources/library/atrisk. asp#issue - Centers for Disease Control. (2008). Reducing psychological harm from traumatic events: Cog Guide to Commu nitive behavior therapy for children and adolescents (individual & group). - . Retrieved from http://www.thecommunityguide.org/ nity Preventive Services violence/behaviortherapy.html Child Welfare Committee, National Child Traumatic Stress Network [CWC/NCTSN]. (2008). Child welfare trauma training tool kit: Comprehensive guide (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Child Traumatic Stress. Cook, A., Blaustein, M., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (Eds.). (2003). - Complex trauma in chil dren & adolescents [White paper]. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_materials/ComplexTrauma_All.pdf Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C., Blaustein, M., Cloitre, M., DeRosa, R., Hub - bard, R., Kagan, R., Mallah, K., Olafson, E., & van der Kolk, B. (2005). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annual, 35 (5), 390-398. Daviss, W. B., Mooney, D., Racusin, R., Ford, J. D., Fleischer, A., & McHugo, G. J. (2000). Pre - Journal of the American dicting posttraumatic stress after hospitalization for pediatric injury. (5), 576-583. Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 De Bellis, M. D. (1999). Outcomes of child abuse part II: Brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 45 (10), 1271-84. Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. (2007). Retrieved from http://www. dorlands.com. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14 (4), 245-258. Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Naoom, S. F., & Wallace, F. (2007). Lessons learned from research on implementation . Retrieved from http://www.nwrel.org/nwrcc/images/rti2007/fixsen1.pdf Ford, J. D., Chapman, J. F., Hawke, J., & Albert, D. (2007). Trauma among youth in the juvenile justice systems: Critical issues and new directions . Retrieved from http://www.ncmhjj.com/pdfs/ Trauma_and_Youth.pdf Ford, J. D., Elhai, J. D., Connor, D. F., & Frueh, B. C. (in press). Poly-victimization and risk of posttraumatic, depressive, and substance use disorders and involvement in delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health . Ford, J. D., Racusin, R., Ellis, C. G., Daviss, W. B., Reiser, J., Fleisher, A., & Thomas, J. (2000). Child maltreatment, other trauma exposure and posttraumatic symptomatology among chil- dren with oppositional defiant and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Child Maltreat - ment, 5 (3), 205-217. Garbarino, J. (2000). Lost boys: Why our sons turn violent and how to save them . Norwell, MA: Anchor. Igelman, R., Taylor, N., Gilbert, A., Ryan, B., Steinberg, A., Wilson, C., & Mann, G. (2007). Creating more trauma-informed services for children using assessment-focused tools. Child (5), 15-33. Welfare, 86 16

17 References Koenen, K., Moffitt, T., Avshalom, C., Taylor, A., & Purcell, S. (2003). Domestic violence is as - Development and Psychopa - sociated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children. thology, 15 , 297-311. National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center. (2007). Risk and protective factors for youth violence fact sheet . Retrieved from http://www.safeyouth.org/scripts/facts/risk.asp Putnam, F. (2006). The impact of trauma on child development. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 57 (1), 1-11. High rate of PTSD in returning Iraq war veterans Roehr, B. (2007). . Retrieved from http://www. medscape.com/viewarticle/565407 The Navy’s future: Issues Saunders, B. E., Williams, L. M., Smith, D. W., & Hanson, R. F. (2005). (Contract No. N00140- related to children living in families reported to the family advocacy program 01-C-N662). Retrieved from http://www.wcwonline.org/proj/NSF/NFSFinalChildReport. pdf Sipprelle, R. C. (1992). A vet center experience: Multievent trauma, delayed treatment type. In Treating PTSD: Cognitive–behavioral strategies (pp. 13-38). New York: Guilford D. Foy (Ed.), Press. Steinberg, A. M., Brymer, M. J., Decker, K. B., & Pynoos, R. S. (2004). The University of Cali- fornia at Los Angeles post-traumatic stress disorder reaction index. Current Psychiatry Reports, 6 , 96-100. Tuell, J. A. (2008). Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems Integration Initiative: A Promising Progress Report. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America. Understanding child maltreatment and juvenile delin - Wiig, J. K., Widom, C. S., & Tuell, J. A. (2003). . Retrieved from http:// quency: From research to effective programs, practice & systematic solutions www.cwla.org /programs/juvenilejustice/ucmjd.htm Wolpaw, J. M., & Ford, J. (2004). Assessing exposure to psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress in the juvenile justice population . Retrieved from http://www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=515 Wood, J., Foy, D. W., Layne, C., Pynoos, R., & James, C. B. (2002). An examination of the rela - tionships between violence exposure, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and delinquent activity: An “ecopathological” model of delinquent behavior among incarcerated adolescents. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 6 , 127-147. Wright, M. O., & Masten, A. S. (2005). Resilience processes in development: Fostering positive adaptation in the context of adversity. In S. Goldstein & R. B. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 17–37). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. suggested citation: Buffington, K., Dierkhising, C. B., & Marsh, S. C. (2010). Ten things every juvenile court judge should know about trauma and delinquency . Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. 17

18 © 2010, n amily Court Judges. All rights reserved. ational Council of Juvenile and f national Council of Juvenile and f amily Court Judges P.O. Box 8970 Reno, nv 89507 www.ncjfcj.org Reproduction of this publication for non-commercial education and information purposes is encouraged. Reproduction of any part of this publication must include the copyright notice and attribution to: Ten Things Every Juvenile Court Judge Should Know About Trauma and Delin - quency, published by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, Reno, Nevada, 2010. NCJFCJ is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office as a trademark of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. This project was supported by Grant No. 2007-JL-FX-0007 awarded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Points of view or opinions in this document or program are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice or the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. 18

Related documents

Helping Traumatized Children Learn

Helping Traumatized Children Learn

Helping Traumatized Helping Traumatized Children Learn Helping Traumatized Children Learn marks a major milestone in child advocacy. Based on Children Learn evidence from brain research, child develop...

More info »
Attorney General’s Advisory Committee on American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence:

Attorney General’s Advisory Committee on American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence:

Attorney General’s Advisory Committee on American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence: Ending Violence so Children Can Thrive NOVEMBER 2014

More info »
Ending Violence So Children can Thrive

Ending Violence So Children can Thrive

Attorney General’s Advisory Committee on American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence: AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE CHILDREN EXPOSED TO VIOLENCE Ending Violence so Children Can Thri...

More info »
support matters resource guide

support matters resource guide

SUPPORT MATTERS Lessons from the Field on Services for Adoptive, Foster, and Kinship Care Families March 2015

More info »
Strengthening Our Future: Key Elements to Developing a Trauma Informed Diversion Program for Youth with Behavioral Health Conditions

Strengthening Our Future: Key Elements to Developing a Trauma Informed Diversion Program for Youth with Behavioral Health Conditions

Strengthening Our Future: Key Elements to Developing a TRAUMA-INFORMED Juvenile Justice Diversion Program for Youth with Behavioral Health Conditions

More info »
NASS Fellowship Directory

NASS Fellowship Directory

20 1 - 201 9 SPINE FELLOWSHIP DIRECTORY & SF MATCH TIMETABLE 8 , 201 8 July 31, 201 9 for August 20 20 Fellowship s ) (August 1 - Dear Potential Spine Fellow: 0 positions for sp ine Thank you for your...

More info »
NASS Fellowship Directory

NASS Fellowship Directory

20 1 - 201 9 SPINE FELLOWSHIP DIRECTORY & SF MATCH TIMETABLE 8 , 201 8 July 31, 201 9 for August 20 20 Fellowship s ) (August 1 - Dear Potential Spine Fellow: 0 positions for sp ine Thank you for your...

More info »
Strategies to Enhance Survival in Active Shooter and Intentional Mass Casualty Events: A Compendium

Strategies to Enhance Survival in Active Shooter and Intentional Mass Casualty Events: A Compendium

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS | | VOLUME 100 NUMBER 1S SEPTEMBER 2015 etin B u ll See Something, Do Something: Improving Survival Strategies to Enhance Survival in Active Shooter and Intentional Mass C...

More info »
refugees full report

refugees full report

Resilience & RecoveR W AR : y AfteR Refugee children and f amilies in the United s tates Report of the APA task force on the Psychosocial effects of War on children and families Who Are Refugees from ...

More info »
Preparing for a Site Visit

Preparing for a Site Visit

verification to improve your trauma program “The Ideal Site Visit” – Prior to review – During review • Input • Minimal stress • Successful

More info »
G:\COMP\PHSA\PHSA.bel

G:\COMP\PHSA\PHSA.bel

G:\COMP\PHSA\PHSA-MERGED.XML PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 115–408, Enacted December 31, 2018] References in brackets ¿ ø¿ ø are to title 42, United States Code TITLE I—SHORT TITL...

More info »
Layout 1

Layout 1

Trauma Recon System (TRS). Battery-driven power system designed for traumatology and arthroplasty. User’s Manual

More info »
Where Am I Going To Go

Where Am I Going To Go

WHERE AM I GOING TO GO? INTERSECTIONAL APPROACHES TO ENDING LGBTQ2S YOUTH HOMELESSNESS IN CANADA & THE U.S. EDITED BY: ALEX ABRAMOVICH & JAMA SHELTON

More info »
Every 4 Minutes: A discussion paper on preventing family violence in New Zealand

Every 4 Minutes: A discussion paper on preventing family violence in New Zealand

Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor Kaitohutohu Mātanga Pūtaiao Matua ki te Pirimia Professor Juliet Gerrard, FRSNZ Chief Science Advisor discussion paper on preventing Every 4 minute...

More info »
First Responder Guidance June 2015 FINAL 2

First Responder Guidance June 2015 FINAL 2

First Responder Guide for Improving Survivability in Improvised Explosive Device and/or Active Shooter Incidents Office of Health Affairs June 2015

More info »
Out of the Frying Pan, Into the Fire: Trauma in the Lives of Homeless Youth Prior to and During Homelessness

Out of the Frying Pan, Into the Fire: Trauma in the Lives of Homeless Youth Prior to and During Homelessness

Th e J ur n a l of Sociolog y & Soci a l W e lf a r e o Volume 37 Issue 4 Article 5 December - Special Issue on Homelessness in Canada 2010 ryin a in the an, Into the F ire: T raum Out of the F g P ve...

More info »
911 Call Logs   2017 Updated

911 Call Logs 2017 Updated

Fire and EMS 24 Hour Call Report 2019-04-10 through 2019-05-09 Address Problem City Call Date Call Time Incident Number 2019-05-09 < 100 block of HOSPITAL DR 5/9/2019 12:34:40 AM 37A02 Level I Transfe...

More info »
2015 COP sexual abuse layout web 1

2015 COP sexual abuse layout web 1

THE SEXUAL ABUSE TO PRISON PIPELINE: THE GIRLS’ STORY Human Rights Project for Girls Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality Ms. Foundation for Women VERTY and INEQU CENTER ON PO ALITY

More info »