BSR ASQ CSR and Quality.final

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1 ExEcutivE BriEf CSR and Quality: A Powerful and Untapped Connection

2 Introduction Much of what we call sustainability has deep roots in quality. Quality tools have been used by industry for decades to create lean operations, reduce waste, and improve efficiency, but they have not been widely recognized in the corporate social responsibility (cSr) space. cSr grapples with energy efficiency, supply chain metrics, supplier engagement several tiers away, reduced waste, and keeping a strong focus on customer value, which in the quality world can be viewed as old challenges put in a new context and for a new era of increasingly networked and globalized operations. Quality tools have been used by Over a half-century ago, quality pioneers Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran encouraged organizations to ask better questions about corporate challenges and enabled companies industry for decades to create to redesign systems for improvement. they started with a systems approach and then lean operations, reduce waste, grounded quality in practical analytical tools to foster product, service, and organizational and improve efficiency, but improvements. cSr frameworks encourage businesses to ask better questions today’s they have not been widely about impacts to stakeholders, society, and the environment, and they seek to develop the tools and measures needed to demonstrate improvements. recognized in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) space. Often, where there is proactive management of quality, cSr is nearby. for example, activities to reduce GHG emissions are consistent with typical quality aims of zero-waste. At the same time, a lack of quality has shown to be detrimental to environmental and social performance, as the recent BP oil spill testifies. in this case, cSr and quality provide complimentary perspectives. cSr typically explores the business case of lower costs of avoidance (e.g., through implementing a culture of safety versus the cost of disaster) while quality hones in on the use of—or lack of—a robust failure mode and effects analysis (fMEA) to adequately address process shortcomings. Disasters provide a narrow but instructive example. Both cSr and quality frameworks arrive at the same place: corporate failures tied back to failed management systems and governance. there are signs of quality and cSr disciplines converging, in particular with the release of the iSO 26000 Guidance on Social responsibility (Sr). the international standard encourages voluntary commitment to Sr and common guidance on concepts, definitions, and methods of evaluating Sr efforts. iSO 26000 will attract the attention of those invested in other iSO frameworks, such as the iSO 9000 quality management framework. in the united States, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the nation’s highest recognition for organizational performance excellence, now incorporates “societal responsibilities” as a factor for assessing strategic challenges, governance, and leadership. the award and its criteria encourage companies to go “beyond a compliance orientation” and integrate cSr into strategic corporate planning to guide their operations, improve performance and achieve sustainable results. However, a closer look reveals that the intersection of quality and cSr is even deeper. cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 2 © 2011 ASQ and BSr

3 Shared Concepts of CSR and Quality Core values cSr, quality is based on a set of values and beliefs at its center, such as “do no harm,” Like “zero-waste,” “make external costs visible,” and “driving out fear” between management and employees. While these sound like the latest ambitious mantras of cSr, they are core principles and definitions of the quality movement, defined by the quality gurus decades Quality was a frame that aguchi, and Deming, and at a time, much like today, ago such as feigenbaum, crosby, t companies latched onto when resource constraints were a growing concern. then, quality was a frame that when they had to, but after companies latched onto when they had to, but after periods of recession, the business periods of recession, the case for quality became stronger and more integrated into organizations. business case for quality became stronger and Like cSr, quality also has a very strong focus on people—not just customer satisfaction, more integrated into but also quality of working life and employee satisfaction. the iSO 26000 standard makes organizations. a more deliberate connection between people and quality management systems with guidance provided for human rights, labor practices, fair operating practices, consumer issues, and community involvement and development. Other concepts there are other shared concepts between quality and cSr, including several areas below as revealed by common lines of thinking: CSR Examples Quality Examples costs that are hidden from obvious Lifecycle approaches highlight the Making hidden costs visible view in areas such as wasted materials, impacts buried deep in the value chain, for example supplier and consumer wasted energy, distracted employees, energy use for the manufacture and dissatisfied customers, and poor operation of products. performing products can amount to 10–40 percent of total costs (feigenbaum). Eighty-six percent of cEOs see “accurate valuation by investors of sustainability in long-term investments” as important to reaching a tipping point in sustainability (united Nations Global compact 2010 report, “A New Era of Sustainability”). cSr success is directly related to cEO Quality improvement starts from the Corporate governance commitment. top. Senior management is 100-percent responsible for the problems with quality and their continuance. Quality is made in the boardroom. the majority of quality problems are the fault of poor management rather than poor workmanship. cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 3 © 2011 ASQ and BSr

4 Quality Examples CSR Examples “Quality at the source” refers to workers Empowerment is a primary pillar in Empowerment being given authority to stop a production promoting supply chain sustainability. line if there is a quality problem or to give a customer an on-the-spot refund if the including worker voices and promoting service is not satisfactory. an informed, participatory workplace will help to ensure fair working conditions. Monitoring approaches when used Prevention and continuous improvement From reactive to proactive are more effective than inspection. alone for suppliers will fail to address root causes for social and environmental the system for causing quality is challenges. prevention, not appraisal. internal collaboration both vertically Each department must see other Internal alignment (i.e., from the cEO level to the factory departments as internal customers. Barriers begin to fall when this is floor) and horizontally (i.e., across practiced. departmental silos) are needed to identify and manage cSr issues, which are inherently cross-functional. Corporate FIGURE 1 strategy The Quality Management Environment Reference: “Corporate Social Responsibility, ASQ 2003. corporate social responsibility is at the core. Values philosophy and culture Baldridge Tools and and other techniques award models © 2011 ASQ and BSr cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 4

5 Defining Quality and CSR Quality CSR Social, environmental, and governance issues, • Managing the Total quality management (TQM): most commonly defined by Gri. entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions • includes both outcomes and processes. of products and services that are important to the customer, with the goals of: Activities: corporate responsibility activities • • careful design of the product/service. can lead to concrete and even quick returns on • Ensuring that the organization’s systems can investment. consistently produce the design. • More generally, organization-wide Systems: management systems that embrace corporate Two components: responsibility often lead to better decision • Design quality (“fitness for use”): Set of features - making, and ultimately a more economically specified in design to meet the requirement of the efficient organization. customer. Dimensions can include performance, Vision: finally, there is the broad potential of • features, reliability, durability, serviceability, aligning society and business, which is found aesthetics, and perceived quality. in optimistic sentiments like: “Our goals are to • Process quality (“conformance quality”): make money, make it ethically, and make a reliability and freedom of defects in terms of difference,” (GE’s corporate citizenship dimensional tolerances and/or service error rates. website), as well as its criticisms, such as Milton friedman’s manifesto and Aneel Karnani’s recent case against cSr. Background: Evolution of Quality and Its CSR Foundations in addition to a strong link in core values and concepts, cSr and quality already share an interest in several common issues. Additionally, there are a variety of cSr issues and applications that can benefit from a quality framework, including a range of tactical-level tools and approaches that can help cSr leaders develop stronger, business-aligned cases for action, and robust programs for improvement on a variety of cSr issues. © 2011 ASQ and BSr cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 5

6 Intersection With Quality Tools and Approaches Issues is the elimination of waste that starts with a customer trigger—the upstream Lean • Waste reduction processes only produce what has been ordered by the customer. Just-in-time (J • kanban : Efficient manufacturing layout and inventory controls reduce it ) and waste from overproduction including energy, waiting time, transportation, inventory, over processing, reduced factory footprints, excessive motion, defects and raw materials. • reducing defects: the key method of quality control (Qc) is statistical quality control (SQc), which has two main tools: (1) acceptance sampling and (2) process control. Six Sigma is one tool within this. for cSr, waste minimization and pollution prevention addresses key issues related to resource use, energy, and significant environmental trends that affect a wide range of stakeholders, including consumers and communities. Waste reduction is often a catalyst for corporate cSr programs as the link to cost reduction requires only minimal analysis. Worker empowerment framework, employees are expected to seek, identify, and correct quality problems. TQM in the Workers are empowered by instilling quality management approaches and are provided incentives and rewards for identifying quality problems for both internal and external customers. for cSr, inclusive models for ensuring the rights of workers in global supply chains include secure communication channels, robust grievance systems, and worker education and skills development. these are common attributes for ensuring fair working conditions in the supply chain. Worker empowerment tied to quality can be an easier sell to management than a link to the broader sustainability agenda. use of quality control frameworks to build systems that lead to more informed senior Governance accountability. for cSr, partnerships with quality departments to include cSr considerations, emphasizing the “perceived quality” element of “design quality” aspects, is important. Health and safety Approaches to modeling and mitigating disaster scenarios, such as the BP spill of 2010, include —a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a product or service. FMEA for cSr, when considering disasters, stakeholders may perceive it as irresponsible (i.e., lack of cSr) to not have high quality when lives are at stake. in quality frameworks, the supplier is seen as an extension of the business; most faults are Supplier engagement, due to purchasers themselves (crosby). accountability, and transparency Lean shows that value must be defined jointly with suppliers for each product family with target metrics. Also, firms must work together with suppliers to identify waste, and when targets are met, new analyses should be made and targets set. All firms should have the opportunity for adequate return on investment. for cSr, sensitivities and a general reluctance to engage suppliers on social and environmental issues can be mitigated when quality-based approaches support stronger business cases for supplier action. © 2011 ASQ and BSr cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 6

7 organizations, and make changes in energy efficiency, all aimed Quality as a Role Model: at increasing customer value. it is this latter concept—creating alignment between upstream supply chain activities and What CSR Only Dreams Of downstream customer and consumer value—where cSr in the past 30 years, quality as a discipline has been well struggles and stands to gain from quality. cSr is tentative and integrated into business operations. One indication of this is self-effacing on the subject of monitoring, measuring, and driving fewer corporate vPs and directors focused solely on quality. continuous performance improvements in areas such as the cSr may follow a similar path—some even argue that the supply chain—this is a realm that quality began to address success of cSr integration will be measured by a diminishing decades ago with approaches, tools, and best practices that need for a corporate level cSr or sustainability function—and are mostly unknown to cSr professionals. there are many lessons from the path that quality has taken. relatively speaking, cSr is a young field, while quality is three times older. investing in making products cheaper, faster, and Ways Forward for more attractive is now seen as worthwhile business endeavors beyond just Pr. Although now ingrained, it was not always this CSR Leaders way. t - oday, quality is part of the business and widely under the intersections between cSr and quality in shared core values stood and seen as valuable. Everyone is responsible for quality and issues provide a strong foundation for more strategic and the business case is embedded into management thinking; alignment between the two functions. using quality approaches poor quality is simply not tolerated. to advance cSr can begin with cSr leaders taking some initial steps in this direction: fifty-four percent of cEOs surveyed in a 2010 united Nations Global compact report identified a tipping point for cSr occurring familiarize yourself with the common tools and approaches • within the next decade—a point at which sustainability/ cSr with an eye toward how to apply these to social and will be embedded in the core business strategies of the majority environmental issues: of companies globally (80 percent of cEOs believe this point will • PDCA cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Act) or PDSA (Plan-Do- occur within the next 15 years). the survey also states that if a A four-step model for implementing change: Study-Act): tipping point is reached such that sustainability is fully integrated — Plan – recognize an opportunity and plan a change— into businesses globally, it will present an operating environment e.g., due diligence and an understanding of current profoundly different from today, requiring a redefinition of high initiatives, programs, and performance on key issues. performance: deeper collaboration, cSr embedded in the est the change. carry out a small-scale study— — Do – t culture, and new ways of measurement. e.g., pilot study to help support the business case. — – review the test, analyze the results, Study/Check there are ways that quality has made itself part of business that and identify what you’ve learned—e.g., stakeholder cSr could do, too. Quality figured out how to win the conversation engagement to seek feedback from experts. of the “business case” and the need for deep integration and — – t Act ake action based on what you learned in the robust measurement. However, also integrated away from study step. if the change did not work, go through corporate view are the tools and practices that have enabled the cycle again with a different plan. if you were quality to drive business value, demonstrate rOi, and create successful, incorporate what you learned from the internal alignment. t oday, cSr and sustainability teams, most test into wider changes. use what you learned to plan often housed at the corporate HQ level, remain under-informed new improvements, beginning the cycle again—e.g., about the now mature and refined quality tools and approaches implement changes as needed—e.g., to programs, developed to address some of the same challenges. Greater processes, data collection. alignment between cSr and quality functions can add momentum to cSr conversations that stagnate over questions such as how to drive performance into supply chains, create zero waste © 2011 ASQ and BSr cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 7

8 ools: • familiarize yourself with the Seven Basic Quality t cause and Effect Diagrams, check Sheets, control charts, Histogram, Scatter Diagrams, flowcharts and the Pareto How CSR Can Advance Quality chart. Pareto chart: — An analytical tool and technique used responsibility for leadership of Sr efforts is clearly seen as to identify quality problems based on their degree of coming from the top as two-thirds of respondents point to importance. the logic behind Pareto analysis is that the c-Suite, an executive committee or upper management only a few quality problems are important, whereas team responsible for leading such efforts. When asked if their many others are not critical—e.g., cSr professionals organizations’ quality professionals are included in Sr efforts, can innovate this as a form of materiality analysis to approximately 40 percent of respondents either state that they identify cSr issues (presenting both risks and do not know or they did not answer the question, indicating a opportunities) that matter the most. high degree of uncertainty. Six Sigma: • A fact-based, data-driven philosophy of quality Among those who did respond: 51 percent say “Yes,” quality improvement that values prevention over detection. it professionals are included in organizational efforts around Sr; drives customer satisfaction and bottom-line results by 21 percent say “No”; and 28 percent say they “Don’t know.” reducing variation and waste, thereby promoting a the overall picture is fragmented. Lacking clear directives competitive advantage. Six Sigma approaches rely on and the involvement of quality, corporate efforts may not be both qualitative and quantitative techniques to drive maximizing potential benefits. though respondents may lack ools process improvement, with an emphasis on DMAic. t an understanding of exact strategies, there is a general belief include statistical analysis and fMEA. cSr professionals that Sr is good for business and that this will continue to grow can bring a robust set of tools for new levels of analysis in importance. and insights. DMAIC cycle (Design, Measure, Analyze, — Because of the distance between quality professionals and Improve, Control): their organizations’ Sr activities, the results of the following Define • – Determining the problem statement and chart may not accurately represent actual knowledge. rather, engaging with everyone involved with the process they may speak to general perceptions about the likely impact improvement. on these areas. – Mapping the current state with sufficient • Measure detail to understand which process elements can Additional hurdles are created by the distance between quality be improved. Data is collected to show the current and cSr. A 2008 ASQ survey of quality professionals found a metrics and KPis. lack of appreciation for cSr, a lack of understanding of the Analyze – Generating solutions and building logical • links. While cSr professionals may lack the skills and training arguments for why the solutions could work. to integrate quality tools, some in quality have a reluctance to Analyzing data and measuring the operational and focus on EHS and labor issues. the following are several areas financial impact. Analyzing the data to investigate where cSr can support the quality agenda: and verify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine what the relationships are, and attempt • CSR creates new room to grow for the quality to ensure that all factors have been considered— Addressing underlying issues can professional. e.g., for new projects or initiatives. potentially resolve “quality problems” with management • Improve – improving or optimizing the current of stakeholders and alignment. process based upon data analysis using cSr has made inroads into the brand • CSR advances. experiments or standardized processes to create function in an effort to understand and appeal to new levels of performance—e.g., pilot projects to consumer and stakeholder values. this provides a link to establish process capability. perceived quality and design quality. Control • – implementing processes to maintain the (Continued on page 8) future state and targets—e.g., continuous data reporting and transparency. © 2011 ASQ and BSr cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 8

9 • in making the business case for sustainability, explore how issues can be put into terms of quality, in particular, how How CSR Can Advance Quality perceived quality (governed by customer expectations) links (Continued from page 7) to design quality and how risks, for example, can lead to interruptions in process quality. CSR tools for quality management. • for supplier engagement or other initiatives where • • Stakeholder engagement: Existing cSr approaches alignment is needed, consider selling cSr not to the and best practices for stakeholder engagement procurement or other department directly, but rather to can help quality professionals collaborate and the quality department, which may be gatekeepers to the communicate with a wider range of internal and systems and enforcement. external stakeholders. • t ransparency: cSr reporting has innovated a • Seek integrated management systems where existing range of standard non-financial reporting metrics departments such as Hr, cSr, and quality are looking and indicators that quality professionals can use to at similar issues with very different approaches, and in build more holistic models. the worst cases, with different messages to external • Systems thinking: cSr approaches incorporate stakeholders such as suppliers. the interdependence inherent in ecosystems and can bring in important aspects of society and environment into business decision making. References: 1. Chase, Jacobs, and Aquilano (2006), Operations Management for Competitive Advantage, McGraw-Hill. 2. Jacobsen (2011), “Designing and Operating for Social and Environmental Responsibility.” 3. ASQ (2011), “Social Responsibility and the Quality Professional: The Implications of ISO 26000.” 4. ASQ.com: http://asq.org/learn-about-quality . 5. Dahlsrud (2008), “How Corporate Social Responsibility Is Defined: An Analysis of 37 Definitions.” 6. BSR (2007), “Beyond Monitoring: A New Vision for Sustainable Supply Chains.” 7. BSR (2011), “Using the Supply Chain to Drive More Efficient Manufacturing Processes and Products.” 8. UN Global Compact and Accenture (2010), “A New Era of Sustainability.” 9. 2011 Baldrige Award Criteria. 10. McAdam and Leonard (2003), “Corporate social responsibility in a total quality management context: Opportunities for sustainable growth.” © 2011 ASQ and BSr cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 9

10 About BSR: A leader in corporate responsibility since 1992, BSr works with its global network of more than 250 member companies to develop sustainable business strategies and solutions through consulting, research, and cross sector collaboration. With offices in Asia, Europe, and North America, BSr uses its expertise in the environment, human rights, economic development, and governance and accountability to guide global companies toward creating a just and sustainable world. v isit www.bsr.org for more information. About ASQ: ASQ is a global community of people dedicated to quality who share the ideas and tools that make our world work better. With millions of individual and organizational members of the community in 150 countries, ASQ has the reputation and reach to bring together the diverse quality champions who are transforming the world’s corporations, organizations, and communities to meet tomorrow’s critical challenges. ASQ is headquartered in Milwaukee, Wi, with national service centers in china, india, and Mexico. Learn more about ASQ’s members, mission, technologies, and training at www.asq.org Authors: Raj Sapru , Director, Advisory Services, BSr • • , Manager Advisory Services, BSr Ryan Schuchard Contributors: • Daniel Aronson , Director, Deloitte consulting, LLP Ron Atkinson • , (retired) • Michelle Bernhart , founder, t rue Blue communications, LLc • Paul Borawski , cEO, ASQ • (retired) Dorothy Bowers , Associate Dean, Environmental Studies, Milwaukee Area technical college • Joseph Jacobsen, Ph.D. • , President, NanoSynopsis, LLc Marc Kelemen • Ron Kingen , President, cvi Group • Denis Leonard, Ph.D. , President, Business Excellence consulting • Michelle Mason , Managing Director, ASQ • Tom Mosgaller, Ph.D. , Director of change Management, cHESS center – university of Wisconsin School of Engineering • Rick Perlman , Manager, Supplier Quality, Bayer Healthcare cSr and Quality: A Powerful and untapped connection | p. 10 © 2011 ASQ and BSr

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