1 A Model of Learning Objectives based on A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Among other modi�ications, Anderson and Krathwohl’s (2001) revision of the original Bloom’s taxonomy (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956) rede�ines the cognitive domain as the intersection of the Cognitive Process Dimension and the Knowledge Dimension. This document offers a three-dimensional representation of the revised taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Although the Cognitive Process and Knowledge dimensions are represented as hierarchical steps, the distinctions between categories are not always clear-cut. For example, all procedural knowledge is not necessarily more abstract than all conceptual knowledge; and an objective that involves analyzing or evaluating may require thinking skills that are no less complex than one that involves creating. It is generally understood, nonetheless, that lower order thinking skills are subsumed by, and provide the foundation for higher order thinking skills. classi�ies four types of knowledge that learners may be expected to acquire or construct— The Knowledge Dim ens ion ranging from concrete to abstract (Table 1). Table 1. The Knowledge Dimension – major types and subtypes concrete knowledge abstract knowledge factual conceptual procedural metacognitive* knowledge of classifications and strategic knowledge knowledge of terminology knowledge of subject-specific categories skills and algorithms knowledge about cognitive tasks, knowledge of specific details and knowledge of principles and including appropriate contextual knowledge of subject-specific elements generalizations and conditional knowledge techniques and methods knowledge of theories, models, self-knowledge knowledge of criteria for and structures determining when to use appropriate procedures (Table 1 adapted from Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, p. 46.) *Metacognitive knowledge is a special case. In this model, “metacognitive knowledge is knowledge of [one’s own] cognition and about oneself in relation to various subject matters . . . ” (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, p. 44).
2 . objectives learning This taxonomy provides a framework for determining and clarifying activities often involve both lower order and higher order thinking skills as well as a mix of concrete and abstract knowledge. Learning The Cognitive Process Dimension represents a continuum of increasing cognitive complexity—from lower order Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) identify nineteen speci�ic cognitive processes that further thinking skills to higher order thinking skills. clarify the scope of the six categories (Table 2). and alternative names Table 2. The Cognitive Processes dimension — categories & cognitive processes lower order thinking skills higher order thinking skills create understand evaluate remember analyze apply interpreting executing checking differentiating recognizing generating • identifying • carrying out • clarifying • coordinating • discriminating • hypothesizing • distinguishing • paraphrasing • detecting recalling implementing planning • representing • monitoring • focusing • using • retrieving • designing • translating • selecting • testing producing critiquing organizing exemplifying • constructing • judging • illustrating • finding coherence • integrating • instantiating • outlining classifying • parsing • categorizing • structuring • subsuming attributing summarizing • deconstructing • abstracting • generalizing inferring • concluding • extrapolating • interpolating • predicting comparing • contrasting • mapping • matching explaining • constructing models (Table 2 adapted from Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67–68.)
3 A statement of a learning objective contains a verb (an action) and an object (usually a noun). cognitive process •The verb . generally refers to [actions associated with] the intended knowledge object generally describes the •The students are expected to acquire Create or construct. (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 4–5) an innovative learning portfolio. shows an example of a In this model, each of the colored blocks Reflect Design on one’s an efficient project learning objective that generally corresponds with each of the various progress. workflow. combinations of the cognitive process and knowledge dimensions. Judge Deconstruct Assemble efficiency of sampling one’s biases. a team of techniques. experts. these are . learning objectives Remember: activities learning —not Use It may be useful to think of preceding each objective Integrate techniques that match Determine Generate compliance with one’s strengths. relevance of a log of daily with something like: “Students will be able to . . .” regulations. results. activities. Predict Carry out one’s response to Check Differentiate pH tests of water *Anderson, L.W. (Ed.), Krathwohl, D.R. (Ed.), culture shock. for consistency among high and low samples. Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., sources. . culture Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M.C. (2001). Identify Clarify A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and strategies for retaining Provide Select assembly information. assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of advice to the most complete list instructions. novices. of activities. Educational Objectives (Complete edition). New York: Longman. Recall Classify Respond how to perform adhesives by to frequently asked CPR. toxicity. questions. Recognize Summarize symptoms of features of a new exhaustion. product. List primary and secondary colors. Model created by: Rex Heer Iowa State University Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching Updated January, 2012 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unsupported License. For additional resources, see: www.celt.iastate.edu http://
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