1 2016 2017 Chester Water Authority WATER QUALITY REPORT PWS ID# 1230004 Este informe contiene información importante acerca de su agua potable. Haga que alguien lo traduzca para usted, ó hable con alguien que lo entienda. (This report contains important information about your drinking water. Have someone translate it for you or speak with someone who understands it.) A Message from Our Executive Manager On behalf of Chester Water Authority (CWA), I am pleased to share our 2017 Water Quality Report, which is also known as a Consumer Confidence Report (CCR). This report includes all water quality data based on testing performed between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017. As you review this report, you will notice that we continue to supply water that meets or exceeds all state and federal drinking water standards. This CCR was produced in accordance with regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP), and contains information on the communities we serve, the water sources we use to produce your drinking water, the 2017 testing results, educational information on your drinking water, and our contact information. Water is essential for public health, quality of life, fire protection, and economic development. CWA employees are committed to providing our customers with high quality drinking water . Please review this report to learn about the source of and the quality of your drinking water . As always, CWA welcomes your questions about this report, your drinking water, and our organization. Please share this information with other people who drink this water, especially those who may not have received this notice directly (for example, people in apartments, nursing homes, schools, and businesses). You can do this by posting this notice in a public place or by distributing copies by hand or by mail. For an electronic copy of our 2017 CCR, please go to . CCR2017.pdf If you would like more information regarding this report, please contact our Customer Service Department . at 610.876.8181 or 1.800.793.2323, or visit our website at: At CWA, we take pride in our ability to provide our customers with high quality water and reliable service. We value our customers and are committed to keeping you informed about your water quality. CWA appreciates the opportunity to serve you. Robert A. Judge Executive Manager About Chester Water Authority CWA is a Pennsylvania Municipal Authority that was established in 1939 to provide potable water to our customers. We are a public water supplier, but we are not a for-profit organization. CWA serves the following areas: Franklin Township Aston Township New London Township Kennett Square Borough Bethel Township Oxford Borough Kennett Township Birmingham Township Parkside Borough Londonderry Township Brookhaven Borough Penn Township London Grove Township Chadds Ford Township Pennsbury Township Lower Chichester Township Chester Heights Township Thornbury Township (Chester County) Lower Oxford Township Chester Township Thornbury Township (Delaware County) Marcus Hook Borough City of Chester Trainer Borough Middletown Township Concord Township Upland Borough Nether Providence Township East Marlborough Township Upper Chichester Township New Garden Township East Nottingham Township Upper Oxford Township Page 1

2 Where Does Your Water Come From? The water treated at the Octoraro Treatment Plant comes from two sources: the Octoraro Reservoir and the Susquehanna River. Both of these sources are in the Susquehanna River Basin. The water is treated and pumped to our customers from the CWA Octoraro Treatment Plant which produces an average of 30 million gallons per day. The US EPA and PA DEP have established regulations that require public water systems to monitor for certain contaminants. They have also set limits for (Octoraro Reservoir in Lancaster County, PA) the amounts of contaminants that may be present in drinking water. As your water supplier, we recognize that contaminants may be present in source waters and we operate the treatment processes of the Octoraro Treatment Plant to ensure the water we provide to our customers meets all drinking water standards. Source Water Protection Plan and Source Water Assessments In 1988, a Source Water Assessment (SWA) of the Octoraro Reservoir was completed by the Cadmus Group. The SWA identified and ranked sources of potential threats of source water contamination. The SWA indicated that the Octoraro Reservoir was most susceptible to contamination by nutrients and sediments from agricultural activity. Other potential sources of contamination include spills from roads and bridges, residential and municipal wastewater treatment, urban storm water runoff and industrial discharges. To better protect the source water in the Octoraro Reservoir, CWA and PA DEP used the SWA as a foundation to develop a Source Water Protection Plan (SWPP) that was finalized in July 2015. The SWPP is a voluntary effort by interested parties or stakeholders to take action to prevent contaminants from entering CW A’s Octoraro Reservoir. The goal of the SWPP is to improve and protect the quality of the surface water within the Octoraro’s 139 square mile watershed and within the Octoraro Reservoir. Improved water quality will benefit our customer’s drinking water, as well as residents and businesses within the watershed. CWA hosts an annual steering committee meeting to continue protection efforts and to gain public participation and support. The steering committee is made up of residents, township officials, regulators, conservation districts, and other partnering stakeholders. The stakeholders include the Octoraro Watershed Association Starts at the Source! Safe Drinking Water (OWA), the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay, the Chester County Water Resources Authority, and the Lancaster County and Chester County Conservation Districts. In addition to the Octoraro SWPP, the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) completed a SWA for the Susquehanna River Conowingo Pond in 2003. The SWA indicated that Conowingo Pond was most susceptible f. to contamination from agricultural contaminants, spills from roads and bridges, and urban storm water runof Other potential sources of contamination include discharges from wastewater treatment plants, water treatment plants, and industries. A summary report of the Susquehanna River Basin assessment is available on the Pennsylvania Source Water Assessment website at: A DEP Complete reports were distributed to municipalities, water suppliers, local planning agencies, and P offices. Copies of the reports are available at the PA DEP Southeast Regional Office at 484.250.5110, or by calling CWA at 1.800.217.7880. Information about the Octoraro Watershed Association (OWA) may be obtained by contacting OWA directly at 517 Pine Grove Road, Nottingham, PA 19362, or by calling 1.717.529.2132. Page 2

3 Frequently Asked Questions Why is my water discolored? If your water is rusty, yellowish, or brownish, the color is likely a result of iron or rust. This may occur when there is an upset in the distribution system (such as a water main break) or when the direction of water flow changes (such as during hydrant use to extinguish a fire or during routine hydrant flushing). Discolored water may also result from internal plumbing issues. A rust problem is usually short-lived and we recommend that you do not wash clothes if you notice discolored water because the clothes may stain. Flush your cold and hot water taps, after the water clears, to make sure the rust does not accumulate or stay in your plumbing. Why does my water appear milky? When water is cold, such as during the winter, there is more air in it. When the cold water enters your home, the water warms up and air is released from the water. The air in the water will give it a milky or cloudy appearance. So, when you open the faucet to fill a glass, the air is released as bubbles similar to what you see when shaking a soda. As the water sits in the glass, it will clear from the bottom of the glass to the top. The air is not harmful. The more air in the water, the longer it will take for the water to clear and more cloudy or milky it looks. Why is there pink slimy material in my toilet bowl, my pet’s dish, my sink drain, bathtub, or shower head? Bacteria grow well in these areas because they are moist and provide a food source for the bacteria to thrive on. The bacteria can be found in the air, in soil, in water, or on household surfaces. Orange and pink are common colors for many bacteria, but the bacteria known as Serratia marcescens is often the source of the “orangy/pink stuff”. This bacteria is not easily eliminated from these areas. Periodic and routine cleaning of these areas followed by disinfection with a chlorine-based cleaner is the best way to control it. What are these black particles in my water? Black particles may arise from a broken household water filter that contains a carbon cartridge and the particles will look like coffee grounds. If you see particles you should replace the cartridge. Black particles may also be a result of a degrading faucet washer or gasket or a disintegrating black rubber liner inside a woven stainless steel flexible hose used in many plumbing connections. These particles are often described as small, like a spec of black pepper or oily; you should replace the washer, gasket, or hose. Choose a hose with a different style that does not contain a black rubber liner. Why does my water smell like rotten eggs or sewage? , it might be caused by gases residing If you notice a smell similar to rotten eggs (sulfur) or sewage when running water , etc. When water goes down a drain, these gases are in the sink drain. In the drain, bacteria live on food, soap, hair released into the air. These odors are often mistakenly associated with the water because they are observed only when the water is running. In this case, the odor is not in the water , it is merely the water pushing the gas out of the drain. You can confirm this by getting a glass of water from the faucet and carrying it away from the sink and drain. If the odor is coming from the drain, the odor will not be noticed in the glass of water once you move away from the sink drain. To resolve the drain odor, we recommend that you clean the drain. In 2017, Chester Water Authority’s Octoraro Treatment Plant received a 5 Year President’s Award in recognition of its exceptional treatment under the Partnership for Safe Drinking Water Program. This is a voluntary program administered by the US EPA, PA DEP, the American Water Works Association, the Water Research Foundation, and other drinking water organizations. The award honors utilities for achieving operational excellence by voluntarily optimizing their treatment facility operations and adopting more stringent performance goals than those required by federal and state drinking water standards. Proudly , the Octoraro Treatment Plant also maintained the prestigious Phase IV, Excellence in Water Treatment Award, the highest performance level award in the Partnership for Safe Drinking W ater Program for the th 4 consecutive year. Page 3

4 2017 Water Quality Results The following water quality tables show the quality of your drinking water compared to the standards set by the US EP A and the PA DEP in 2017. Although we test your water for more than 100 substances per year, only the substances that were detected in 2017 are shown in the table below. The US EPA and PA DEP allow us to monitor for some contaminants less than once per year because the concentrations of these contaminants do not change frequently . Some of our data, therefore, is more than one year old. For data that is more than 1 year old, the year of the most recent monitoring results is shown in the table. TURBIDITY - is a measure of the clarity or cloudiness of the water. We monitor it because it is a good indicator of the effectiveness of our filtration system. Range of MCL Violation Source of Substance Result MCLG Results TT = 1 NTU for a single Soil Runoff NA No 0.09 0.02 - 0.09 measurement Turbidity TT = at least 95% of (NTU) monthly samples less than NA No Soil Runoff NA 100% or equal to 0.3 NTU MICROBIOLOGICAL MCL Highest Result Violation Source of Substance MCLG No more than 5% of Total Naturally present in the No 0 0 monthly samples can be environment Coliforms positive LEAD AND COPPER (2016) th 90 AL Samples > AL Violation Source of Substance MCLG Percentile Copper 0.24 1.3 Corrosion of household plumbing 0 No 1.3 (ppm) Lead Corrosion of household plumbing 0 15 9.5 5 No (ppb) INORGANIC CHEMICALS Range of MCLG Highest Result Violation Source of Substance MCL Results Barium 2 2 0.03 Erosions of natural deposits No NA (ppm) Fluoride Water additive that promotes 2 2 0.3 - 0.8 No 0.8 (ppm) strong teeth Nitrate Source water contaminant from 10 7.7 1.4 - 7.7 No 10 (ppm) fertilizer use SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS Range of Source of MCLG MCL Highest Result Violation Substance Results Runoff from Atrazine No herbicide used on 3 0.46 ND - 0.46 3 (ppb) row crops ENTRY POINT DISINFECTION RESIDUALS Minimum Lowest Level Range of Violation Source of Substance Disinfectant Detected Detections Residual Water additives to Chloramine 2.5 - 3.1 2.5 0.2 No (ppm) control microbes Page 4

5 DISTRIBUTION DISINFECTION RESIDUALS MRDLG Violation Source of Substance MRDL Highest Result Range of Results Water additives to Chloramine 4 2.4 1.9 - 2.4 No 4 (ppm) control microbes DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS Highest Violation Range of Results MCL Source of Substance MCLG Result Total By-product of drinking 20 - 93 NA 80 54 Trihalomethanes No water chlorination (ppb) By-product of drinking Haloacetic Acids 46 23 - 70 No NA 60 water disinfection (ppb) TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) Number of % Removal Quarters % Removal Violation MCLG Source of Substance MCL Achieved Out of Required Compliance TOC Naturally present in the NA TT 25 - 45 35 - 55 0 No (ppm) environment Definitions of Terms Used in the Data Table > : A symbol used to designate “greater than.” NA : Not applicable. : A symbol that means “percent.” % ND : Not detected. Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) : A measure of water Action Level (AL) : The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements clarity. that a water system must follow. Parts per billion (ppb) : One microgram per liter, or one in : A measurement of water a billion. Grains per gallon (gpg) hardness often used to determine detergent requirements for dishwashers or washing machines. One grain per gallon : One milligram per liter, or one in a Parts per million (ppm) equals 17.12 ppm (see right) of hardness. million. Treatment Technique (TT) : A required process intended to : The highest level of Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water. a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs (see below) as feasible using the best available treatment technology. : The level Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety. Maximum Residual Disinfection Level (MRDL) : The highest level of disinfectant that is allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants. : Maximum Residual Disinfection Level Goal (MRDLG) The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminant. Page 5

6 Special Health Concerns Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons, such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbiological contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking W ater Hotline at 1.800.426.4791. Information About Lead If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. CWA is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to two minutes before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your drinking water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure, is available from the Safe Drinking Water . Hotline at 1.800.426.4791, or go to US EPA’s website at: Fluoride CWA follows the PA DEP standard for fluoride in drinking water. PA DEP’s standard is referred to as Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). PA DEP set the MCL at 2 milligrams per liter for fluoride. CWA’s treatment process is carefully controlled to achieve a targeted concentration level of 0.7 ppm in the water leaving our treatment plant. Cryptosporidium A monitored Cryptosporidium is a microbial pathogen found in surface water throughout the United States. In 2017, CW the Octoraro and Susquehanna source waters for Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium was detected in the Octoraro source Although our treatment in three monthly samples and in the Susquehanna source in two monthly samples in 2017. process includes filtration to remove Cryptosporidium, the most commonly-used filtration methods cannot guarantee 100 percent removal. Current test methods do not allow us to determine if the organisms are dead or if they are capable of causing disease. Ingestion of Cryptosporidium may cause Cryptosporidiosis, an abdominal infection. Symptoms of infection include nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Most healthy individuals can overcome the disease within a few weeks. However, immuno-compromised people, infants and small children, and the elderly are a greater risk of developing life-threatening illness. We encourage immuno-compromised individuals to consult their doctor regarding appropriate precautions to take to avoid infection. Cryptosporidium must be ingested to cause disease, and it may be spread through means other than drinking water. Nitrates Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants less than six months of age. High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause blue baby syndrome. Nitrate levels may rise quickly for short periods of time because of rainfall or agricultural activity. If you are caring for an infant, you should ask advice from your health care provider. Other Water Quality Interest How hard is your water? . High hardness Hardness is a measure of the concentration of calcium and magnesium that are naturally present in water levels cause soap not to foam as easily as it would at lower levels. Hardness levels in 2017 ranged from 90 to 170 ppm, or 5 to 10 gpg. What is the alkalinity in your water? Alkalinity is a measure of the water’s ability to resist changes in the pH level and a good indicator of overall water quality. Alkalinity levels in 2017 ranged from 40 to 80 ppm and averaged 60 ppm. What is the pH (acidity) of your water? pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity in water. A pH of 7.0 is considered neutral, neither acidic nor basic. The pH of the water in 2017 averaged 7.8 pH units and ranged from 7.6 to 8.1 pH units. Page 6

7 Substances Expected in Drinking Water The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and wells. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and, in some cases, radioactive material, and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity. Contaminants that may be present in source water include:  Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife.  Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally-occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming.  Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, and residential uses.  Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by- products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, and septic systems.  Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities. In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, the US EPA and PA DEP prescribes regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and PA DEP regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water which must provide the same protection for public health. Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that the water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the US EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1.800.426.4791. Page 7

8 For More Information If you would like more information regarding the Chester Water Authority, please contact our Customer Service Department at 610.876.8181 or 1.800.793.2323, or visit our website at . Be sure to also visit and follow the Chester Water Authority on Facebook for news, updates, and more at . Chester Water Authority Board of Directors have regularly scheduled meetings on the third Thursday of every month at 2:00 pm at Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, PA 19014. Notice of any changes will be made publicly available prior to the meeting. Please call 610.876.8185, extension 1219, to confirm the exact location on the Neumann University campus. Map of Chester Water Authority Service Area Chester Water Authority 415 Welsh Street Chester, PA 19013 610.876.8181 1.800.793.2323 Public Water Supplier Identification Number: PA1230004 Page 8

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