Public Libraries in the United States: Fiscal Year 2015

Transcript

1 Public Libraries in the United States FISCAL YEAR 2015 July 2018 i

2 Institute of Museum and Library Services Dr. Kathryn K. Matthew Director The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grant-making, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook (www.facebook.com/USIMLS) and Twitter (www.twitter.com/us_imls). As part of its mission, IMLS conducts policy research, analysis, and data collection to extend and improve the nation’s museum, library, and information services. IMLS research activities are conducted in ongoing collaboration with state library administrative agencies; national, state, and regional library and museum organizations; and other relevant agencies and organizations. IMLS research activities are designed to provide consistent, reliable, complete, and accurate indicators of the status and trends in library and museum services; and to report timely, useful, and high- quality data to Congress, the states, other policymakers, practitioners, data users, and the general public. Contact Information Institute of Museum and Library Services 955 L’Enfant Plaza North, SW, Suite 4000 Washington, DC 20024-2135 202-653-IMLS (4657) www.imls.gov This publication is available online: www.imls.gov/research/ . IMLS will provide an audio recording of this publication upon request. . For questions or comments, contact [email protected] July 2018 Suggested Citation The Institute of Museum and Library Services. 2018. Public Libraries in the United States Fiscal Year 2015. Washington, DC: The Institute. Unless specifically noted, all information contained herein is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without special permission. Cover Photos Otis Library (left): Otis Library’s Multicultural Services Coordinator provides a range of programs, services, and resources that assist New Americans and celebrate world cultures. Credit: Cathleen Special, Otis Library, Norwich, CT. Richland Library (middle): Richland Library North Main renovated its space in 2016 to include a networking center, a recording studio, and a courtyard with public art. Credit: Richland Library, Columbia, SC. George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Library (right): The computers designated for young library users are equipped with educational software that builds digital literacy skills. Credit: David Hopper, George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Library, Woodlands, TX.

3 Contents Public Libraries in the United States Survey, Fiscal Year 2015 ... List of Tables iv List of Figures v ... Executive Summary ... vi Introduction 1 ... Public Library Indicators ... 1 Methodology ... 2 Data and Analysis ... 3 Organization of the Report ... 4 5 ... PART ONE: Public Library Financial Health Overview ... 6 Indicator 1. Total Operating Revenue per Capita Indicator 2. Total Operating Expenditures per Capita ... 11 PART TWO:Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Overview ... 12 Section One: Collections and Circulation ... 12 Indicator 3. Collection Materials per Capita Indicator 4. Circulation per Capita Section Two: Library Visits and Reference Transactions 18 ... Indicator 5. Library Visits per Capita Indicator 6. Reference Transactions per Capita Section Three: Public Library Program Offerings and Attendance ... 22 Indicator 7. Total Programs Offered per 1,000 People Indicator 8. Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People Section Four : Public-Access Internet Computers and Usage ...28 Indi cator 9. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People Indicator 10. Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Capita PART THREE: Public Library Staffing ... 32 Overview ... 33 Indicator 11. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People APPENDICES ... 37 Appendix A. About the Public Libraries Survey ... 38 Appendix B. Technical Notes ... 41 Appendix C. State Indicator Tables ... 49 Appendix D. State Profiles 59 ... iii

4 List of Tables Table ES-1. Summary of FY 2015 PLS Indicators viii ... ... 3 Table N-1. Public Libraries by Locale and Population Size Served, FY 2015 ... 6 Table 1-1. Public Library Finances Summary, FY 2014–2015 Table 1-2. Operating Revenue per Capita by Source of Revenue, Locale, and Population Size Served, ... 9 FY 2015 Table 1-3. Operating Expenditures per Capita by Type of Expenditure, Locale, and Population Size, ... 9 FY 2015 ... 13 Table 2-1. Public Library Collections and Circulations Summary, FY 2014–2015 Table 2-2. Collection Materials and Circulation per Capita by Type, Locale, and Population Size ... 15 Served, FY 2015 18 ... Table 2-3. Library Visits and Reference Transactions Summary, FY 2014–2015 Table 2-4. Library Visits and Reference Transactions per Capita by Locale and Population Size ... 19 Served, FY 2015 ... 22 Table 2-5. Public Library Programs Summary, FY 2014–2015 Table 2-6. Total Programs Offered and Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People by Program ... 24 Type, Locale, and Population Size Served, FY 2015 ... 28 Table 2-7. Public-Access Internet Computers and User Sessions Summary, FY 2014–2015 Table 2-8. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People and User Sessions per Capita ... 30 by Locale and Population Size Served, FY 2015 ... 33 Table 3-1. Public Library Staffing Summary, FY 2014–2015 Table 3-2. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People by Staffing Type, Locale, and Population Size Served, ... 34 FY 2015 ... 42 Table B-1. Reporting Periods of Public Libraries, FY 2015 ... 43 Table B-2. States with Public Libraries with Overlapping Service Areas, FY 2015 ... 46 Table B-3. Urban-Centric Locale Categories ... 47 Table B-4. Regional Designations Used in the PLS, from the Bureau of Economic Analysis ... 49 Table C-1. Operating Revenue and Operating Expenditures per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 51 Table C-2. Public Library Collections and Circulation per Capita by State, FY 2015 53 ... Table C-3. Library Visits and Reference Transactions per Capita by State, FY 2015 Table C-4. Total Programs Offered and Program Attendance per 1,000 People by Program Type 54 ... and State, FY 2015 ... 56 Table C-5. Public-Access Internet Computers and User Sessions by State, FY 2015 Table C-6. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People and Percentage of Librarians with an ALA-MLS 57 ... by State, FY 2015 iv

5 List of Figures Figure ES-1. Collection Materials per Person by Material Type, FY 2006–2015 ... viii 2 ... Figure N-1. Public Library Administrative Entities in the United States, FY 2015 Figure 1-1. Total Operating Revenue and Expenditures, FY 2006–2015 ... 7 (in Constant 2015 Dollars) Figure 1-2. Operating Expenditures per Capita by Expenditure Category, FY 2006–2015 8 ... (in Constant 2015 Dollars) ... 10 Figure 1-3. Total Operating Revenue per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 10 Figure 1-4. Total Operating Expenditures per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 14 Figure 2-1. Collection Materials per Capita by Material Type, FY 2006–2015 14 ... Figure 2-2. Circulation and Children’s Materials Circulation per Capita, FY 2006–2015 ... 16 Figure 2-3. Collection Materials per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 17 Figure 2-4. Circulation per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 17 Figure 2-5. Children’s Materials Circulation per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 19 Figure 2-6. Library Visits and Reference Transactions per Capita, FY 2006–2015 Figure 2-7. Library Visits per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 20 ... 21 Figure 2-8. Reference Transactions per Capita by State, FY 2015 ... 23 Figure 2-9. Total Programs Offered per 1,000 people by Program Type, FY 2006–2015 23 ... Figure 2-10. Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People by Program Type, FY 2006–2015 25 ... Figure 2-11. Total Programs Offered per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 ... 25 Figure 2-12. Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 ... 26 Figure 2-13. Children’s Programs Offered per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 ... 26 Figure 2-14. Children’s Program Attendance per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 Figure 2-15. Young Adults’ Programs Offered per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 ... 27 27 ... Figure 2-16. Young Adults’ Program Attendance per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 ... 29 Figure 2-17. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People, FY 2006–2015 ... 29 Figure 2-18. Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Capita, FY 2006–2015 31 ... Figure 2-19. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People by State, FY 2015 ... 31 Figure 2-20. Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Capita by State, FY 2015 34 ... Figure 3-1. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People by Type of Staff, FY 2006–2015 ... 35 Figure 3-2. Librarians (FTEs) per 25,000 People by State, FY 2015 36 ... Figure 3-3. Percentage of Librarians with an ALA-MLS by State, FY 2015 v

6 Executive Summary The Institute of Museum and Library Services libraries’ services and resources have continued (IMLS), under the Library Services Act of 2010, to diversify and expand. administers the Public Libraries Survey (PLS) to The Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 PLS annual census collect data annually about how libraries serve the collected data from 98 percent of the public public. Since 1988, the PLS data provide insights 1 in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, libraries on long-term trends in the changing role of and outlying territories. This report summarizes public libraries in response to increasingly diverse the findings from 9,068 active public libraries that information needs. These data help practitioners met Federal and State Cooperative System (FSCS) and policymakers identify community 2 Ten-year trend data are provided for 11 criteria. engagement, resource usage, needs for local key indicators, with two-year data (FY 2014 and FY services, and areas for future development. This 2015) provided for an additional 16 sub-indicators. report shows that over the past ten years, the Great This report provides information at the national Recession of 2009 impacted funding and staffing, and state levels and separately for libraries that but while funding has rebounded, staffing levels serve different sizes and types of communities. continue to stay flat. At the same time, public Highlights Public Library Financial Health (Indicators 1 and 2) The financial health of public libraries was relatively stable over the 10 fiscal years between FY 2006 and 3 Total operating revenue grew from $11.93 billion in FY 2006, peaking in FY 2009. Recently the FY 2015. level has rebounded to $12.42 billion in FY 2015, with a similar trend for total operating expenditures, which were at $11.62 billion in FY 2015. Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage (Indicators 3–10) Public libraries respond to the needs of their communities by providing diverse services and information resources. In FY 2015, there were 1.39 billion visits to public libraries. Patrons had access to 1.31 billion items and over a quarter million public-access Internet computers. From FY 2006 to FY 2015, public libraries have shifted from solely providing physical collections to offering a variety of electronic materials, most notably e-books. For example, in FY 2006 there were just 0.04 e-books per person in U.S. public libraries; by FY 2015 this had grown to just over one e-book per person. Additionally, libraries are expanding services and programs desired by their communities. The 4.70 million programs offered by public libraries in FY 2015 (15.21 programs per 1,000 people) represent a substantial increase over the 3.03 million programs in FY 2006. Public Library Staffing (Indicator 11) Over the past ten years, there has been an overall decline of almost one staff FTE per 25,000 people since FY 2006, when there were 12.17 library staff per 25,000 people, to 11.19 staff per 25,000 people in FY 2015. 1 Any reference to a public library in this report refers to the administrative entity, which may be a single-outlet library or a multiple-branch library system. There were 17,408 outlets recorded. An outlet is a public library, such as a central library, branch library, or bookmobile that is attached to an administrative entity. 2 The analyses presented in this report exclude 183 libraries: 161 libraries that did not meet the FSCS public library definition, 2 libraries that were in outlying areas, and the 20 libraries that were reported as permanently or temporarily closed in FY 2015. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (www.bea.gov) does not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. vi

7 Executive Summary The FY 2015 PLS suggests that many of the long- The data also suggest that libraries are providing term trends present in FY 2014 continued in FY more programs, with greater public attendance 4 Both operating revenue and expenditures 2015. (Indicators 7 and 8). The 4.70 million programs per person increased (Indicators 1 and 2), offered by public libraries, in topics ranging continuing the trends that began in FY 2012. from information literacy and workforce skills to However, although the financial health of public children’s story times, were attended by 106.90 libraries has improved steadily over the last three million people in FY 2015. There were 139,213 paid years, both operating revenue and expenditures staff at public libraries in FY 2015, compared to remain below the levels seen at the start of the 140,442 in FY 2006 (Indicator 11). Great Recession. Finally, the public continued to rely on public The FY 2015 PLS data also show that public libraries to access the Internet (Indicators 9 and libraries are continuing to adapt their collections 10). The 294 thousand public-access Internet (Indicator 3) to modern demands, by adding more computers in public libraries each logged, on e-books and audio and video materials—both average, more than one thousand user sessions in physical units and downloadable items—which FY 2015. Libraries serving smaller populations had, now make up a larger portion of their collections. on average, higher numbers of Internet computer Overall, the 1.31 billion collection materials user sessions per capita. available to the public represented 4.28 materials The FY 2015 PLS annual report’s 11 indicators tell per person, an increase from the 3.13 per person a cohesive and consistent story: Public libraries in FY 2006 ( Figure ES-1 ). During this decade are rebounding from the Great Recession, but of changing information needs, the relative staffing levels are staying flat. At the same distribution of collection materials shifted. In time, public libraries are responding to their FY 2015, print materials comprised most of the communities by expanding program offerings collection materials, but there were also significant and continuing to provide access to physical percentages of e-books. E-books have grown from and electronic materials to meet the public’s just 0.04 per person in FY 2006 to 1.07 per person information needs. These trends demonstrate in FY 2015. that public libraries are gradually changing how There were 1.39 billion visits to public libraries in they serve their communities. Further research is FY 2015, or 4.48 visits per person (Indicator 5), with needed about how patrons access public libraries’ an estimated 7.3 items checked out per person collections and services, both inside and outside (circulation, Indicator 4). The public also accessed the physical building, as well as how staff skills can the reference services at public libraries more than be continuously upgraded in the rapidly changing 255 million times in FY 2015 (Indicator 6). information environment. 4 . For more comprehensive trend analyses, please see the PLS FY 2014 report at: www.imls.gov vii

8 Executive Summary Table ES-1. Summary of FY 2015 PLS Indicators 1 Metrics FY 2015 PLS Indicators Total Amount FY 2015 FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 2 $39.94 per person $39.77 per person $12.42 billion 1. Total Operating Revenue 2 $37.38 per person $37.36 per person $11.62 billion 2. Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage 1.31 billion 4.28 per person 3.78 per person 3. Collection Materials 7.54 per person 7.30 per person 2.27 billion 4. Circulation 1.39 billion 4.48 per person 4.64 per person 5. Library Visits 255.88 million 0.86 per person 0.82 per person 6. Reference Transactions 15.21 per 1,000 people 14.61 per 1,000 people 7. Public Library Programs 4.70 million 8. Program Attendance 341.25 per 1,000 people 332.40 per 1,000 people 106.90 million 9. Public-Access Internet Computers 294,319 4.73 per 5,000 people 4.66 per 5,000 people 10. Public-Access Internet Computer 300.65 million 0.97 per person 1.05 per person User Sessions Public Library Staffing 11.19 FTEs 11. Staffing 139,213 FTEs 11.29 FTEs per 25,000 people per 25,000 people 1 State-reported population data may derive from the U.S. Census Bureau (www.census.gov/acs), which does not publish margins of error associated with annual population estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. Changes in per capita metrics less than 10% are not considered statistically meaningful in this report. 2 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov) does not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. Figure ES-1. Collection Materials per Person by Material Type, FY 2006–2015 4.50 4.28 3.78 4.00 1.07 3.14 3.47 3.32 3.16 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.13 3.50 0.70 0.12 0.43 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.29 0.16 0.23 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.22 3.00 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.29 0.36 0.52 2.50 2.00 Collection Materials E-books 1.50 2.79 2.78 2.76 2.74 2.72 2.64 2.59 2.54 2.50 2.41 Video materials 1.00 Audio materials Collection Materials (per Person) 0.50 Books 0.00 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Fiscal Year NOTE: Per person estimates in the figure use the unduplicated population and exclude libraries missing data. Missing data for e-books and downloadable audio and video materials were not imputed due to data element definition changes in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from these estimates. The total collection materials per person is displayed on the very top of each bar, which is the sum of e-books, video materials, audio materials, and books. Total excludes libraries missing data for e-books and downloadable audio and video materials. Collection materials exclude libraries missing data for the respective material type only. As a result, material types will not sum to the total given the different denominators. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. viii

9 Introduction Public libraries provide learning and information public library service area (LSA)—nearly 97 percent 2 This translates to 2.82 resources for individuals, families, businesses, of the total U.S. population. 3 for every 100,000 public libraries and 5.35 outlets and non-profits. By offering access to collections, people. The number of public libraries varied by technology, and community spaces, public locale and population. In FY 2015, cities (506) had libraries enhance civic life and provide valuable fewer public libraries than suburbs (2,328), towns access points to various information resources (2,234), and rural areas (4,000). Furthermore, most that some may not normally be able to access. public libraries (76.53 percent) served a population Libraries not only serve as places where area of fewer than 25,000 people. people can gain assistance with research and information needs from professional staff, but also as collective gathering spaces and important Public Library Indicators forums of community discourse. Libraries have This report explores three key types of metrics for an intimate relationship with their communities public libraries: (1) financial health, (2) resources, and offer programming that addresses the health, services, and usage, and (3) staffing. Each metric learning, and workforce development needs of is composed of various indicators that provide local residents. The role of the public library has an overall picture of the stability and utility of grown over recent years, serving as a cornerstone public libraries when examined together. In most of community engagement and development in cases, the indicators are calculated as per capita, communities. per 1,000 people, per 5,000 people, or per 25,000 The Public Libraries Survey (PLS) serves as a people; thus, they provide a way to compare 4 tool that facilitates both the examination of The various units performance across libraries. when, where, and how public library services are associated with the size of the raw indicators, are changing and how the public conceptualizes so that indicators are transformed to an order the role of these libraries as a whole. These data, of magnitude that is cognitively accessible. supplied annually by more than 98 percent The 11 primary indicators associated with each of public libraries across the country, provide metric are listed below; sub-indicators are used in long-term trend information that researchers, some cases to show a finer level of detail. policymakers, and practitioners can use to make Public Library Financial Health strategic data-based decisions about the support and management of public libraries. Appendix A • Indicator 1. Total Operating Revenue per provides additional background information about Capita the PLS. Indicator 2. Total Operating Expenditures • per Capita In FY 2015, there were 9,068 active public libraries in the United States that met the definition of a Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage public library developed by the Federal and State • Indicator 3. Collection Materials per Capita 1 Public Cooperative System (FSCS) ( Figure N-1 ). Indicator 4. Circulation per Capita • libraries provided access to information and • Indicator 5. Library Visits per Capita services through the 16,560 central and branch libraries and 647 bookmobiles in the United States. Indicator 6. Reference Transactions per • Approximately 311 million people lived within a Capita 1 Analyses in this report exclude 183 libraries: 161 libraries that did not meet the FSCS public library definition in FY 2015, 20 libraries that were reported as permanently or temporarily closed in FY 2015 and 2 libraries in the outlying areas of American Samoa and Guam. 2 In 2015, the U.S. population was 321,039,839. For more information, see www.census.gov/popest/. 3 An outlet is a public library attached to an administrative entity, which is either a branch, central library, or bookmobile. 4 Per capita indicators are calculated using state-reported population data that may be derived from the U.S. Census Bureau (www.census.gov/acs), which does not publish margins of error associated with annual population estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. 1

10 Introduction Figure N-1. Public Library Administrative Entities in the United States, FY 2015 Locale Code City (n=506) Suburb (n=2,328) Town (n=2,234) Rural (n=4,000) SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Indicator 7. Total Programs Offered per • In FY 2015, the PLS survey frame consisted of 9,231 1,000 People public libraries—9,229 public libraries in the 50 states and the District of Columbia and 2 public • Indicator 8. Total Program Attendance per libraries in the outlying areas, as identified by state 1,000 People library agencies. The PLS survey frame includes Indicator 9. Public-Access Internet • public libraries that do not meet all the criteria Computers per 5,000 People outlined in the FSCS Public Library Definition • Indicator 10. Public-Access Internet but excludes libraries reported as permanently Computer User Sessions per Capita or temporarily closed in the fiscal year of data 5 collection. Public Library Staffing Indicator 11. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 • Data were collected using the PLS Web Portal, People an online data collection tool developed by the American Institutes for Research. After the data were collected, data editing and imputation were Methodology performed. The PLS is a universe survey, which means that information is solicited from all public libraries Historically, PLS response rates have been high. in the United States. The PLS questionnaire was Since FY 2010, unit response to the PLS has been designed collaboratively by the IMLS, State Data over 97 percent. In FY 2015, the unit response rate Coordinators (SDCs), and the Library Statistics was 97.65 percent, and the majority of item-level Working Group (LSWG). response rates were above 92.17 percent. 5 In FY 2015, 161 libraries did not meet the FSCS public library definition and 20 libraries that were reported as permanently or temporarily closed. 2

11 For a detailed description of the PLS data collection library or a multiple-branch library system. methodology, see Appendix B. References to outlets refer to central libraries, branch libraries, and bookmobiles. Data and Analysis In this report, national estimates are aggregate totals based on summing data across all public A public library is established under state laws libraries to the national level. For estimates based or regulations to serve a community, district, or on subpopulations, such as state or locale, data are region. This report summarizes the findings from 7 Data summed up to the level of the subpopulation. the 9,068 active public libraries in the United are analyzed at the national and state levels as well States in FY 2015 that met the definition of a public 8 6 as by locale and size of population served. library developed by the FSCS. Population size served is measured using the Under this definition, a public library must, at a population of the LSA. In the PLS, the LSA is the minimum, meet the following criteria: geographic space that a library serves. Some • Contain an organized collection of printed states have libraries with overlapping boundaries; or other library materials, or a combination therefore, multiple libraries could serve the thereof; same LSA population. To enable meaningful state comparisons using total population of legal • Have paid staff; service area data (for example, the number of print Have an established schedule in which • materials per capita), the population of LSA data the services of the staff are available to the were adjusted to eliminate duplicative reporting as public; a result of overlapping service areas. All per capita • Have the facilities necessary to support such estimates in this report are calculated using the a collection, staff, and schedule; and 9 unduplicated population of legal service area. • Be supported in whole or in part with public funds. Most states have libraries in each of the locale types. The locale code system, developed by the A community may have one or more individual U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for public libraries or may be served by a public library Education Statistics (NCES), classifies a territory system, which may have a central library and into four major categories: urban, suburban, town, multiple branches or bookmobiles. Any reference and rural. Population size served is also separated to a public library in this report refers to the ). into four categories ( Table N-1 administrative entity, which may be a single-outlet Table N-1. Public Libraries by Locale and Population Size Served, FY 2015 Locale Population Size Served Town City Suburb Total Rural Very large (>25,000) 971 473 211 2,128 473 1,756 22 777 691 266 Large (10,000–25,000) 517 970 1,250 2,744 7 Medium (2,500–9,999) 2,273 4 Small (<2,500) 100 63 2,440 Total 506 2,328 2,234 4,000 9,068 SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 6 The analyses presented in this report exclude 161 libraries that did not meet the FSCS public library definition. 7 Because the PLS is a universe collection, this report does not use statistical tests to measure the statistical significance of differences between subpopulations—a technique that is necessary when only a sample of an entire subpopulation is used. 8 The District of Columbia, although not a state, is included in the state analyses; special care should be used in comparing its data to state data. Caution also should be used in making comparisons with the state of Hawaii, as Hawaii reports only one public library for the entire state. 9 See Appendix B for more information about population estimates in the PLS. 3

12 However, there are differences between locale Services, and Usage, and (3) Public Library Staffing. Each part of the report explores various indicators and size of the population served. For instance, and provides an overall level of performance for not all large populations served fall into the “city” locale, and similarly, not all small populations these key metrics. The three parts of the report served fall into town or rural areas. Therefore, it provide a national overview and highlights is important to conduct both analyses given that differences that are occurring across the United States on the main indicator and relevant sub- operating revenue and expenditure estimates at indicators. Trend data are provided only at the the locale level and by population size served are national level. Then, differences on the main not comparable. For additional details about locale definitions, see Appendix B. indicators are compared across the four locale types and four LSA population size groups. Finally, each part includes state level maps to visualize Organization of the Report variation on indicators across states. This report has three parts: (1) Public Library Financial Health, (2) Public Library Resources, 4

13 PART ONE: Public Library Financial Health

14 PART ONE: Public Library Financial Health Overview Most public library services and resources are dependent on how public libraries receive and spend money. Revenues and expenditures serve as gauges of change in public library resources. Total operating revenue is generated primarily from four sources: local government, state government, federal government, and other sources (e.g., fees, monetary gifts and donations). The mix of funding sources provides insights about investments in public libraries. Public libraries use expenditures to pay for library resources, staffing, special projects, and other needs. There are three main types of operating expenses: collection (e.g., print materials, electronic materials, and other materials), staffing (e.g., salaries and benefits), and other expenditures (all other expenditures not reported under collection or staffing expenses). For example, other expenditures may include binding, supplies, repair or replacement of existing furnishings and equipment, and costs of computer hardware and software used to support library operations or to link to external networks, such as the Internet. Operating expenditures are tied to operating revenues. Taken together, the two metrics—operating revenues and expenditures—indicate the financial health of libraries. Indicator 1. Total Operating Revenue per Capita: $39.94 Indicator 2. Total Operating Expenditures per Capita: $37.38 Public investments at the local, state, and federal libraries had $12.4 billion in total revenue, levels allow libraries to provide access to many or $39.94 per capita, and $11.6 billion in popular services and resources. In FY 2015, public Table 1-1 ). expenditures, or $37.38 per capita ( Table 1-1. Public Library Finances Summary, FY 2014–2015 1 Indicator FY 2015 FY 2014 Indicator 1. Total Operating Revenue per Capita $39.94 $39.77 Indicator 1.1 Operating Revenue per Capita from Local Government $34.16 $33.87 $2.83 $2.80 Indicator 1.2 Operating Revenue per Capita from State Government Indicator 1.3 Operating Revenue per Capita from Federal Government $0.15 $0.14 Indicator 1.4 Operating Revenue per Capita from Other Sources $2.80 $2.94 Indicator 2. Total Operating Expenditures per Capita $37.38 $37.36 Indicator 2.1 Operating Expenditures per Capita on Staffing $25.03 $24.98 Indicator 2.2 Operating Expenditures per Capita on Collections $4.21 $4.20 Indicator 2.3 Operating Expenditures per Capita on Other Costs $8.18 $8.13 1 In constant 2015 dollars. NOTE: Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014–2015. 6

15 PART ONE: Public Library Financial Health Operating revenues and operating expenditures Some metrics used in this report still show a share a close relationship and are directly affected sluggish recovery compared to pre-recession data. by the national economy. Between December For instance, operating revenue and expenditures 2007 and June 2009, the United States had a decreased between FY 2009 and FY 2013. However, recession that impacted the national economy both have increased over the last two fiscal years 10 The and the financial health of public libraries. and appear to be moving closer to reaching pre- Great Recession—which changed the financial recession values, though the rate of change from operations of public libraries—was a period year to year is modest ( ). Figure 1-1 of declining economic activity that impacted communities throughout the United States. Figure 1-1. Total Operating Revenue and Expenditures, FY 2006–2015 (in Constant 2015 Dollars) $14.00 $12.00 $10.00 $8.00 $6.00 Library Finances $4.00 Dollars (in Billions) Operating revenue $2.00 Operating expenditures $0.00 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2014 2008 2006 2007 2009 Fiscal Year SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. 10 U.S. Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions. Retrieved from www.nber.org/cycles. See also www.nber.org/cycles/sept2010.html. 7

16 PART ONE: Public Library Financial Health of operating expenditures, but had the largest Total operating expenditures were $38.60 percentage decrease (17.02 percent) over these in FY 2006 and $37.38 in FY 2015. Collection ). 10 years ( Figure 1-2 expenditures represented the smallest share Figure 1-2. Operating Expenditures per Capita by Expenditure Category, FY 2006–2015 (in Constant 2015 Dollars) $45.00 37.36$ 37.00$ 37.08$ $40.57 $40.36 $38.16$ $39.33 $38.60 $39.54 37.38 $40.00 $4.86 $5.18 $4.59 $5.19 $5.08 $4.36 $4.20 $4.21 $35.00 $4.22 $4.19 $8.69 $8.66 $8.40 $8.42 $30.00 $8.24 $8.15 $8.13 $8.18 $7.79 $7.94 $25.00 Operating Expenditures $20.00 Collection $15.00 expenditures $27.02 $26.52 $26.33 $25.92 $25.55 Dollars (per Capita) $25.37 $25.08 $25.03 $24.98 $24.87 Other operating $10.00 expenditures $5.00 Sta expenditures $0.00 2010 2014 2008 2015 2011 2007 2009 2013 2006 2012 Fiscal Year NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. The total operating expenditures is displayed on the very top of each bar, which is the sum of collection expenditures, other operating expenditures, and staff expenditures. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. Locale and Population Size Estimates Operating revenue and expenditures per capita Across all locale types and population sizes, local varied across locale types in FY 2015. Cities and government revenue constituted the majority of suburbs had substantially higher revenue and operating revenue. However, the proportion of expenditures per capita than towns and rural revenue from local government was highest in Table 1-2 and Table 1-3 areas ( ). Total operating libraries in cities and suburbs and in libraries that revenue and expenditures per capita also varied Table 1-2 serve very large and large populations ( ). by size of the population served. Libraries serving Across all locale types and population sizes, small populations had the highest total operating staff expenditures constituted the majority of all revenue and total operating expenditures per operating expenditures. The proportion of staff capita; in comparison, libraries serving very large expenditures relative to collections and other populations had the lowest total revenue and expenditures was relatively similar across locales ). expenditures per capita ( Table 1-2 and Table 1-3 and population sizes except in libraries that serve small populations. In these libraries, other expenditures accounted for over one quarter of all operating expenditures. 8

17 PART ONE: Public Library Financial Health Table 1-2. Operating Revenue per Capita by Source of Revenue, Locale, and Population Size Served, FY 2015 Operating Revenue Source per Capita Category State Total Federal Local Other $2.83 $34.16 $2.80 $39.94 Overall $0.14 Locale $36.08 $2.52 $0.19 City $42.06 $3.27 $43.33 $2.72 $0.08 $2.37 Suburb $38.16 $23.03 $3.60 $0.17 $2.67 Town $29.47 $32.02 Rural $3.40 $0.20 $3.10 $25.31 Population Size Served $38.91 $33.40 $0.14 $2.54 Very large (>25,000) $2.82 $46.19 $2.87 $0.12 $3.38 Large (10,000–25,000) $39.82 $44.03 $35.94 $2.91 Medium (2,500–9,999) $5.03 $0.15 Small (<2,500) $40.31 $3.07 $0.37 $9.42 $53.17 NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Table 1-3. Operating Expenditures per Capita by Type of Expenditure, Locale, and Population Size, FY 2015 Operating Expenditure Type per Capita Collections Print Total Electronic 2 1 Other Staff Total Category Materials Materials Collections $24.98 $4.21 Overall $0.97 $8.18 $37.38 $2.43 Locale $39.70 $26.95 $4.31 $2.38 $1.14 City $8.44 Suburb $26.99 $4.66 $2.62 $1.08 $8.75 $40.40 $27.50 $17.93 $3.07 $2.01 $0.49 $6.49 Town Rural $29.49 $18.77 $3.55 $2.36 $0.52 $7.17 Population Size Served Very large (>25,000) $24.40 $4.12 $2.30 $1.01 $7.94 $36.45 $42.92 $29.17 $4.60 $2.90 $0.80 $9.17 Large (10,000–25,000) Medium (2,500–9,999) $41.16 $26.67 $4.78 $3.31 $0.55 $9.70 $13.61 Small (<2,500) $29.25 $6.31 $4.70 $0.52 $49.23 1 Includes operating expenditures for other materials not reported separately in this table (e.g., microform, physical audio, physical video, DVD, and new formats). 2 Other operating expenditures not included in staff or collections. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 9

18 PART ONE: Public Library Financial Health State Estimates In FY 2015, total operating revenue per capita across the states, ranging from as high as $85.42 in ranged from as high as $85.58 in the District of the District of Columbia and $63.56 in New York to Columbia and $70.35 in New York to as low as as low as $16.47 per capita in Mississippi and $17.93 $18.35 in Georgia and $17.26 in Mississippi. The ). See Appendix C for in Tennessee ( Figure 1-4 majority of states had total operating revenue per additional detail on operating revenue per capita ). In FY 2015, Figure 1-3 capita of $39.99 or less ( and operating expenditures per capita by state. total operating expenditures per capita varied Figure 1-3. Total Operating Revenue per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Total Operating Revenue per Capita AR NM SC $50.00 or more (14 states + DC) GA AL MS $40.00 to $49.99 (8 states) TX LA $30.00 to $39.99 (12 states) $20.00 to $29.99 (11 states) AK FL Less than $20.00 (5 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Figure 1-4. Total Operating Expenditures per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Total Operating Expenditures per Capita AR NM SC $50.00 or more (12 states + DC) GA AL MS $40.00 to $49.99 (7 states) TX LA $30.00 to $39.99 (13 states) $20.00 to $29.99 (13 states) AK FL Less than $20.00 (5 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 10

19 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage

20 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Overview Part two of this report looks at indicators related to the resources and services that public libraries provide and how these resources and services are used by the public. These indicators provide information about a public library’s collection (e.g., books, e-books, audio materials, video materials, and electronic materials) and circulation, visits and reference transactions, program offerings and attendance, and public-access Internet computer availability and usage. Part two includes four sections. Section one explores collection materials, some of the fundamental building blocks of public libraries. Next, section two looks at programs offered to children and young adults, which have increased over the last 5 and 10 years. Section three examines library visits and reference transactions, which offer insight into library usage. Finally, section four explores public-access Internet computers, which increasingly have been brought into public libraries for patrons who lack access to personal computers in an environment where web-based access has become necessary for everything from information access to job applications to requesting public services. Section One: Collections and Circulation Public libraries curate collections to improve the quality of service they provide to the public. Collection materials offer information to the public that can assist in addressing community needs and problems. 11 include many formats: physical In an effort to cultivate rich and diverse information, library collections books, e-books, audio materials, and video materials. Libraries make the materials in their collections available for circulation to the public. Circulation is an important measure of library utilization. Together, the collection materials per capita and circulation per capita metrics provide insight into the materials libraries collect and offer to the public and how the public engages with these materials. In this 12 In response to states’ needs to section, both total circulation and children’s circulation are examined. document ways in which libraries serve the needs of children, data elements that provide insights about children’s services were added in 1992. 11 Data elements measuring electronic collections were modified in FY 2015 and have not previously been included in this indicator. Therefore, these elements are not included in analyses for this report but may be added in the future. Data elements measuring e-books and downloadable audio and video materials were modified in FY 2015 but have been previously included in this indicator. Therefore, these items were included for the FY 2015 analyses, but missing data were not imputed due to data element definitional changes; libraries with missing data are excluded from per capita estimates. 12 Total circulation is the total annual circulation of all library materials of all types, including renewals. Circulation of electronic materials, introduced to the PLS in FY 2013, has not been collected systematically since its introduction. Therefore, this item is not included as a sub-indicator for this report. 12

21 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Indicator 3. Collection Materials per Capita: 4.28 Indicator 4. Circulation per Capita: 7.30 In all, more than 1.31 billion collection materials (53.16 percent and 44.16 percent, respectively) 13 14 Although collection materials were made available to the public in FY 2015. Table 2-1 ( ). Nationally, the number of collection materials per increased, total circulation per capita was 2.58 in capita increased from 3.78 to 4.28 materials per ), FY 2015, down from 2.67 in FY 2014 ( Table 2-1 capita between FY 2014 and FY 2015, with large continuing the trend in overall circulation noted increases in e-books and audio materials in Figure 2-2. Table 2-1. Public Library Collections and Circulations Summary, FY 2014–2015 Indicator FY 2014 FY 2015 1 4.28 3.78 Indicator 3. Collection Materials per Capita 2.50 2.41 Indicator 3.1 Books per Capita 2 0.70 Indicator 3.2 E-books per Capita 1.07 3 Indicator 3.3 Audio Materials per Capita 0.36 0.52 3 0.23 Indicator 3.4 Video Materials per Capita 0.22 Indicator 4. Circulation per Capita 7.54 7.30 Indicator 4.1 Children’s Materials Circulation per Capita 2.67 2.58 1 Total excludes libraries missing data for e-books and downloadable audio and video materials. Sub-indicators exclude libraries missing data for the respective data element only. As a result, sub-indicators will not sum to the total given the different denominators. 2 Missing data were not imputed due to data element definition change in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from this estimate. 3 Includes physical and downloadable materials. Missing data for downloadable audio and video materials were not imputed due to data element definition change in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from this estimate. NOTE: Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population and exclude libraries with missing data. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014–2015. 13 This includes all reported data for print materials, e-books, physical audio materials, downloadable audio materials, physical video materials, and downloadable video materials. 14 Collection materials per capita, Indicator 3, is the national sum of print materials, e-books, physical audio materials, downloadable audio materials, physical video materials, and downloadable video materials divided by the national sum of the unduplicated population served. In FY 2015, items capturing e-books and downloadable audio and video materials were not imputed due to data element definition changes; each contain missing data. To accurately generate any an aggregate collections per capita estimate, libraries missing of these three items are excluded from both the numerator and the denominator. The numerator for the per capita estimate of 4.28 is 1.26 billion materials divided by a national unduplicated population of 295.24 million. 13

22 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Since FY 2006, there has been a rapid increase from 3.13 to 4.28. This was most notably for in the number of e-books and audio materials e-books, as shown by the expansion of these per capita—over 2,600 percent and 250 percent, . However, total collections in Figure 2-1 respectively. E-books now constitute 25 percent of circulation per capita increased only marginally, all collection materials, up from one percent in FY with annual declines noted after FY 2010, and Figure 2-1 2006 ( ). children’s circulation has varied little over the same ten fiscal year period ( Figure 2-2 ). Between FY 2006 and FY 2015, total collection materials per capita increased by 36.74 percent Figure 2-1. Collection Materials per Capita by Material Type, FY 2006–2015 4.50 4.28 3.78 4.00 1.07 3.13 3.47 3.32 3.16 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.50 0.70 0.12 0.43 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.29 0.16 0.23 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.22 3.00 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.29 0.36 0.52 2.50 2.00 Collection Materials E-books 1.50 2.79 2.78 2.76 2.74 2.72 2.64 2.59 2.54 2.50 2.41 Video materials 1.00 Audio materials Collection Materials (per Person) 0.50 Books 0.00 2015 2014 2009 2010 2013 2007 2006 2012 2011 2008 Fiscal Year NOTE: Per capita estimates in the figure use the unduplicated population and exclude libraries missing data. Missing data for e-books and downloadable audio and video materials were not imputed due to data element definition changes in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from these estimates. The total collection materials per capita is displayed on the very top of each bar, which is the sum of e-books, video materials, audio materials, and books. Total excludes libraries missing data for e-books and downloadable audio and video materials. Collection materials exclude libraries missing data for the respective material type only. As a result, material types will not sum to the total given the different denominators. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. Figure 2-2. Circulation and Children’s Materials Circulation per Capita, FY 2006–2015 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 Circulation Circulation (per Capita) 2.00 All circulation Children’s 1.00 materials 0.00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2006 2009 2008 2010 Fiscal Year SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. 14

23 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Locale and Population Size Estimates Total collection materials per capita and Collection materials per capita also varied by circulation per capita varied by library locale population size served in FY 2015. Overall, the in FY 2015. Total collection materials per capita smaller the population size served, the greater was substantially lower in cities (2.90), suburbs the library’s total collections per capita. This was (3.72), and towns (5.83) than in rural areas (9.97) also true for each type of collection material: ). Similar to total collection materials, Table 2-2 ( books, e-books, audio materials, and video the more rural the locale, the greater the number materials ( ). E-books clearly exemplify Table 2-2 of each type of material per capita in the library’s this relationship, with libraries serving very collection—that is, books, e-books, audio materials, large (0.40) and large (2.57) populations having and video materials. This was especially apparent substantially smaller numbers of e-books per for e-books; the number of e-books per capita in capita than libraries serving medium (5.99) and libraries located in cities (0.24), suburbs (0.70), ). Circulation Table 2-2 small (23.82) populations ( and towns (2.05) was substantially lower than in per capita exhibited a similar relationship; that is, libraries located in rural areas (4.60) ( Table 2-2 ). the smaller the population size served, the greater the total circulation per capita. This relationship Conversely, total circulation per capita was higher was less extreme for children’s materials, where in cities (7.18) and suburbs (8.32) than in towns the variation in circulation per capita across (5.52) and rural areas (5.83). Children’s materials population size served was smaller than it was circulation per capita was also higher in cities for total circulation per capita. (2.39) and suburbs (3.13) than in towns (1.83) and rural areas (1.91) ( Table 2-2 ). Table 2-2. Collection Materials and Circulation per Capita by Type, Locale, and Population Size Served, FY 2015 Circulation per Capita Collection Materials per Capita Children’s Total Materials Total Video Audio Collection 2 3 1 3 Materials Circulation Circulation Materials Category Books E-books Materials Overall 4.28 2.41 1.07 0.52 0.23 7.30 2.58 Locale City 2.22 0.24 0.23 0.18 7.18 2.39 2.90 3.72 0.70 0.53 0.25 8.32 3.13 Suburb 2.22 5.83 2.73 2.05 0.74 Town 5.52 1.83 0.23 Rural 9.97 3.57 4.60 1.36 0.34 5.83 1.91 Population Size Served Very large (>25,000) 3.02 2.07 0.40 0.33 0.19 7.21 2.55 Large (10,000–25,000) 7.70 2.57 1.05 0.37 7.76 2.77 3.49 Medium (2,500–9,999) 4.91 5.99 2.07 0.52 7.71 2.61 13.82 Small (<2,500) 41.49 10.45 23.82 5.84 1.01 8.42 2.74 1 Total excludes libraries missing data for e-books and downloadable audio and video materials. Collection material types exclude libraries missing data for the respective material type only. As a result, material types will not sum to the total given the different denominators. 2 Missing data were not imputed due to data element definition change in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from this estimate. 3 Includes physical and downloadable materials. Missing data for downloadable audio and video materials were not imputed due to data element definition change in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from this estimate. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population and exclude libraries with missing data. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 15

24 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage State Estimates In FY 2015, total collection size per capita varied Mississippi and West Virginia had the lowest total across the 50 states and the District of Columbia, circulation per capita (2.57 and 3.39, respectively). with nine states having collection materials In FY 2015, children’s materials circulation per per capita greater than 6.50 and seven states capita also varied across the 50 states and the with fewer than 2.50 collection materials per ). Two states, Figure 2-5 District of Columbia ( ). Kansas had the highest total Figure 2-3 capita ( Utah and Idaho, had the highest children’s collection size per capita in the nation (27.56). In materials circulation per capita (5.51 and 5.21, contrast, Arizona had the lowest total collection respectively). Conversely, Mississippi had the size per capita (1.77). See Appendix C for additional lowest children’s materials circulation per capita detail on collection materials per capita by state. (0.81) and was the only state in the nation with a Total circulation per capita also varied across children’s materials circulation per capita below the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 1.00. See Appendix C for additional detail on total Figure 2-4 ). Ohio and Oregon had FY 2015 ( circulation per capita and children’s materials the highest total circulations per capita in the circulation per capita by state. nation (15.85 and 15.01, respectively). In contrast, Figure 2-3. Collection Materials per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Collection Materials per Capita AR NM SC More than 6.50 (9 states) GA AL MS 4.50 to 6.50 (14 states) TX LA 2.50 to 4.49 (20 states + DC) Fewer than 2.50 (7 states) AK FL HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 16

25 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Figure 2-4. Circulation per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Circulation per Capita AR NM SC More than 11.00 (7 states) GA AL MS 9.00 to 11.00 (7 states) TX LA 7.00 to 8.99 (11 states) 5.00 to 6.99 (17 states + DC) AK FL Fewer than 5.00 (8 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Figure 2-5. Children’s Materials Circulation per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Children’s Materials SC Circulation per Capita GA AL MS More than 5.00 (2 states) TX LA 3.00 to 5.00 (17 states) 1.00 to 2.99 (30 states + DC) AK FL Fewer than 1.00 (1 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 17

26 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Section Two: Library Visits and Reference Transactions Information on the number of patrons visiting public libraries is a traditional metric for understanding how the public interacts with the physical services and facilities provided by public libraries. The public may visit libraries to check out collection materials, access the Internet, attend programs, or consult with librarians and staff. Visits per capita, or the ratio of the total number of visits to a public library to the total number of individuals within the public library LSA, proves useful in gaining a general 15 It is important to interpret trends in patron visits with caution. understanding of how libraries are used. The PLS collects data on the number of in-person visits to public libraries, but it does not collect similar data on virtual visits. Patron visits become even more meaningful in understanding physical library usage when examined in conjunction with reference transactions, an information contact that involves the knowledge, use, recommendations, interpretation, or instruction in the use of one or more information sources by a library staff member. Information sources can range from printed materials and catalogs to machine- readable databases and other sources. By examining these indicators together, one can gain a more detailed understanding of both the number of people using physical library services and the demand for staff member guidance and expertise in using them. Indicator 5. Library Visits per Capita: 4.48 Indicator 6. Reference Transactions per Capita: 0.82 In FY 2015, 1.39 billion people visited public reference transactions per capita have declined libraries in the United States, or 4.48 visits per each year since FY 2009. Over the last six fiscal ). Nationally, there were 255.88 capita ( Table 2-3 years, visits per capita have decreased by 16.29 million reference transactions, or 0.82 transactions percent and reference transactions per capita by ). Library visits and Table 2-3 per capita, in FY 2015 ( 21.16 percent ( Figure 2-6 ). Table 2-3. Library Visits and Reference Transactions Summary, FY 2014–2015 Indicator FY 2015 FY 2014 4.48 Indicator 5. Library Visits per Capita 4.64 0.86 Indicator 6. Reference Transactions per Capita 0.82 NOTE: Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014–2015. 15 This metric is based on a count of the number of people who physically entered a public library (i.e., foot traffic into the building). Counts are not based on individual people but, rather, the number of visits that a library records, regardless of whether or not a person previously visited the library. 18

27 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Figure 2-6. Library Visits and Reference Transactions per Capita, FY 2006–2015 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 Library Usage Library visits 1.00 Reference transactions 0.00 2012 2014 2013 2015 2007 2011 2010 2009 2008 2006 Library Visits/Reference Transactions (per Capita) Fiscal Year SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. Locale and Population Size Estimates Library visits per capita and reference transactions library visits and reference transactions per capita per capita varied slightly across library locales. in libraries serving less populated areas than in Overall, libraries in suburbs received 4.78 visits those serving larger populations. Libraries serving per capita, higher than in any other type of locale small populations had the largest number of visits Table 2-4 ( ). Reference transactions per capita and reference transactions per capita, whereas were substantially higher in libraries in cities and those serving very large and large populations had suburbs than in towns and rural areas. Across the lowest visits and reference transactions per population size served groupings, there were more Table 2-4 capita ( ). Table 2-4. Library Visits and Reference Transactions per Capita by Locale and Population Size Served, FY 2015 Library Visits per Capita Reference Transactions per Capita Category 4.48 0.82 Overall Locale City 4.35 0.89 Suburb 4.78 0.90 Town 0.55 4.18 Rural 4.13 0.60 Population Size Served Very large (>25,000) 4.23 0.83 Large (10,000–25,000) 5.80 0.76 Medium (2,500–9,999) 6.09 0.83 Small (<2,500) 6.73 0.96 NOTE: Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 19

28 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage State Estimates reported more than 6.00 visits per capita, whereas Library visits per capita varied across the states, four states—Georgia, Tennessee, Texas, and West Figure ranging from 6.75 in Ohio to 2.67 in Texas ( Virginia—had fewer than 3.00 visits per capita. ). Eight states and the District of Columbia 2-7 Figure 2-7. Library Visits per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Library Visits per Capita AR NM SC More than 6.00 (8 states + DC) GA AL MS 5.00 to 6.00 (14 states) TX LA 3.00 to 4.99 (24 states) Fewer than 3.00 (4 states) AK FL HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 20

29 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage In the majority of states, reference transactions reference transactions per capita, with the lowest per capita varied from 0.50 to 0.90, but two ). See Appendix in West Virginia (0.33) ( Figure 2-8 states (Ohio and Maryland) had more than 1.5 C for more detail on visits per capita and reference reference transactions per capita (1.64 and 1.53, transactions per capita by state. respectively). Five states had fewer than 0.50 Figure 2-8. Reference Transactions per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Reference Transactions per Capita AR NM SC More than 1.50 (2 states) GA AL MS 1.00 to 1.50 (3 states + DC) TX LA 0.50 to 0.99 (40 states) Fewer than 0.50 (5 states) AK FL HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 21

30 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Section Three: Public Library Program Offerings and Attendance Public libraries offer programming designed to address the needs and issues that people face in their communities. These programs range in nature from recreational to educational, including such diverse offerings as chess clubs, employment readiness seminars, and story times. The PLS captures information on the total number of programs offered, as well as the number of programs offered to two 16 In addition, the target populations: children (ages 11 years and under) and young adults (ages 12–18). PLS captures attendance information for total programs offered, children’s programs, and young adults’ 17 programs. Section three examines indicators pertaining to public library program offerings and attendance per 1,000 people. The number of programs offered indicated how the library responds to needs in its community. Attendance metrics reflect the public response to library offerings, with higher rates signaling greater public interest. Indicator 7. Total Programs Offered per 1,000 People: 15.21 Indicator 8. Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People: 341.25 A public library program is any planned event that Children’s and young adults’ program offerings introduces the attending group to any of a broad make up approximately two-thirds of the total range of library services, activities, or information, programs reported in the PLS. In FY 2015, public and is often designed to meet a specific libraries offered 455,612 young adults’ programs, community need. In all, public libraries offered or 1.47 programs per 1,000 people; moreover, 4.7 million library programs in FY 2015, and young adults’ program attendance per 1,000 106.1 million patrons attended these programs, people was 23.18 in FY 2015 ( Table 2-5 ). Public compared to 4.5 million programs offered and libraries offered 2.68 million children’s programs, 101.9 million attendees in FY 2014. In FY 2015, total or 8.61 programs per 1,000 people, while children’s program attendance per 1,000 people was 341.25— program attendance per 1,000 people was 233.59 that is, for every 1,000 people in a library service in FY 2015. area, approximately 341 patrons attended a public ). library program ( Table 2-5 Table 2-5. Public Library Programs Summary, FY 2014–2015 Indicator FY 2015 FY 2014 14.61 Indicator 7. Total Programs Offered per 1,000 People 15.21 Indicator 7.1 Children’s Programs Offered per 1,000 People 8.38 8.61 Indicator 7.2 Young Adults’ Programs Offered per 1,000 People 1.47 1.38 341.25 332.40 Indicator 8. Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People 228.76 233.59 Indicator 8.1 Children’s Program Attendance per 1,000 People 23.18 21.84 Indicator 8.2 Young Adults’ Program Attendance per 1,000 People NOTE: Per 1,000 people estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014–2015. 16 Data on program offerings for adults are included in total program offerings rather than collected separately. 17 The number of attendees is not an accounting of individual people; it may include multiple instances of the same person if that person participated in more than one program. 22

31 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Between FY 2011 and FY 2015, total programs per 1,000 people was over five times lower than offered per 1,000 people and program attendance the number of children’s programs, the relative per 1,000 people increased by 19.76 percent and percent change in both young adults’ programs 14.98 percent, respectively. Children’s program offered and attendance was higher. Since FY 2011, offered per 1,000 people increased by 12.11 young adults’ program offered and attendance at percent, and children’s program attendance per such programs per 1,000 people have increased 1,000 people increased by 25.84 percent. Although by 32.43 percent and 30.67 percent, respectively the number of young adults’ programs offered Figure 2-9 and Figure 2-10 ). ( Figure 2-9. Total Programs Offered per 1,000 people by Program Type, FY 2006–2015 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 Types of Programs 6.00 All programs Children’s 4.00 programs Programs (per 1,000 People) Young adults’ 2.00 programs 0.00 2006 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2013 2014 2015 Fiscal Year NOTE: Total programs does not equal the sum of children’s programs and young adults’ programs. Instead, total programs may include other state-specific program data not collected or reported by the PLS. Data on young adults’ programs were not collected until FY 2009, and therefore, 10-year trends are not available. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. Figure 2-10. Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People by Program Type, FY 2006–2015 400.00 350.00 300.00 250.00 200.00 Types of Programs 150.00 All programs 100.00 Children’s programs Attendance (per 1,000 People) 50.00 Young adults’ programs 0.00 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Fiscal Year NOTE: Total programs does not equal the sum of children’s programs and young adults’ programs. Instead, total programs may include other state-specific program data not collected or reported by the PLS. Data on young adults’ programs were not collected until FY 2009, and therefore, 10-year trends are not available. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. 23

32 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Locale and Population Estimates Programs offered per 1,000 people and program (1.45) offering fewer programs per 1,000 people attendance per 1,000 people varied across locales ). Table 2-6 than libraries in rural areas (1.79) ( in FY 2015. In general, the more rural the library’s Examining programs offered and attendance locale, the more programs offered per 1,000 people by population size served shows similar results. and the higher the program attendance per 1,000 Overall, the smaller the size of the LSA population, people. This trend was also found for children’s the greater the number of programs offered programs, with libraries in city locales offering and program attendance in FY 2015. Children’s almost two times fewer programs per 1,000 people programs offered per 1,000 people and young than libraries in rural locales. Young adults’ adults’ programs offered per 1,000 people also program offerings followed a similar trend, with followed this trend. libraries in cities (1.34), suburbs (1.51), and towns Table 2-6. Total Programs Offered and Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People by Program Type, Locale, and Population Size Served, FY 2015 Programs Offered Program Attendance per 1,000 People per 1,000 People Young Young Children’s Total Adults’ Adults’ Total Children’s Category Programs Programs Programs Programs Programs Programs 15.21 Overall 1.47 341.25 233.59 23.18 8.61 Locale City 12.83 7.00 1.34 303.99 204.85 22.11 Suburb 15.47 1.51 364.40 248.26 24.87 8.52 15.92 242.17 1.45 338.22 Town 21.33 9.93 Rural 13.41 1.79 388.36 267.76 22.50 22.44 Population Size Served Very large (>25,000) 12.59 7.04 1.26 304.34 208.90 21.22 Large (10,000–25,000) 14.78 2.42 511.42 351.83 33.79 25.45 Medium (2,500–9,999) 34.45 20.09 2.82 584.16 394.27 33.44 Small (<2,500) 58.22 34.02 4.37 837.53 533.52 48.06 NOTE: Per 1,000 people estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 24

33 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage State Estimates In FY 2015, the number of programs offered per per 1,000 people (690.11), and Vermont reported 1,000 people varied across the states, from highs the second highest (678.15). Hawaii and Tennessee of 45.96 in Vermont, 42.91 in New Hampshire, had the lowest total program attendance per and 35.68 in Maine, to lows of 8.34 in Tennessee, 1,000 people in the nation (197.22 and 210.26, 7.88 in Georgia, and 7.10 in Hawaii ( Figure 2-11 ). respectively) ( Figure 2-12 ). Wyoming reported the highest total attendance Figure 2-11. Total Programs Offered per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Total Programs Oered AR NM SC per 1,000 People GA More than 25.00 (8 states) AL MS 20.00 to 25.00 (9 states + DC) TX LA 15.00 to 19.99 (10 states) AK 10.00 to 14.99 (16 states) FL Fewer than 10.00 (7 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Figure 2-12. Total Program Attendance per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Total Program Attendance SC per 1,000 People GA AL MS More than 450.00 (15 states + DC) TX LA 350.00 to 450.00 (12 states) 250.00 to 349.99 (12 states) AK FL Fewer than 250.00 (11 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 25

34 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Four states offered more than 20.00 children’s Figure 2-13 ). Attendance per and Alabama (4.79) ( programs per 1,000 people: Vermont (28.56), New 1,000 people at children’s programs ranged from Hampshire (24.06), Maine (20.80), and Wyoming a high of 526.91 in Wyoming to a low of 121.93 in (20.54). Most states offered fewer than 10.00 Figure 2-14 Delaware ( ). Attendance at children’s children’s programs per 1,000 people, with the programs per 1,000 people was second highest in lowest offerings in Georgia (4.04), Tennessee (4.78) Vermont (457.81). Figure 2-13. Children’s Programs Offered per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Children’s Programs Oered SC per 1,000 People GA AL MS More than 14.99 (8 states) TX LA 10.00 to 14.99 (16 states + DC) 5.00 to 9.99 (22 states) AK FL Fewer than 5.00 (4 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Figure 2-14. Children’s Program Attendance per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Children’s Program Attendance SC per 1,000 People GA AL MS More than 350.00 (11 states + DC) TX LA 250.00 to 350.00 (13 states) 150.00 to 249.99 (24 states) AK FL Fewer than 150.00 (2 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 26

35 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage The number of young adults’ programs offered per adults’ programs per 1,000 people (0.50, 0.60, and 1,000 people and the attendance at these programs 0.66, respectively); these three states also had the varied across the states ( Figure 2-15 ). Wyoming lowest attendance at young adults’ programs per offered the highest number of young adults’ 1,000 people (12.10, 11.79, and 11.51, respectively) programs per 1,000 people (3.81) and had the ( Figure 2-16 ). See Appendix C for additional detail highest attendance at these programs per 1,000 on programs offered and program attendance per people (58.32). Conversely, Nevada, Georgia and 1,000 people by state. Mississippi offered the lowest number of young Figure 2-15. Young Adults’ Programs Offered per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Young Adults’ Programs Oered SC per 1,000 People GA AL MS More than 3.00 (2 states) TX LA 2.00 to 3.00 (15 states) 1.00 to 1.99 (24 states + DC) AK FL Fewer than 1.00 (9 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Figure 2-16. Young Adults’ Program Attendance per 1,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Young Adults’ Program Attendance SC per 1,000 People GA AL MS More than 30.00 (19 states) TX LA 25.00 to 30.00 (3 states) 20.00 to 24.99 (12 states + DC) AK FL 15.00 to 19.99 (10 states) Fewer than 15.00 (6 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 27

36 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Four : Public-Access Internet Computers and Usage Section A core function of public libraries is to provide patrons with open access to information resources. Access to the Internet is one of the many valuable resources public libraries provide, particularly helping those who otherwise lack access to web-connected computers or devices. The public uses these resources for tasks ranging from searching and applying for jobs to researching information online. Section four describes the final two indicators of public library services, resources, and usage. These indicators analyze the number of public-access Internet computers per 5,000 people and the number of 18 These metrics describe computer availability public-access Internet computer user sessions per capita. in U.S. public libraries and help libraries and states determine the need for computers located in public libraries. Indicator 9. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People: 4.73 Indicator 10. Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Capita: 0.97 19 In FY 2015, public libraries reported 294,319 Nationally, public libraries reported ). Table 2-7 ( public-access Internet computers, or 4.73 1.02 thousand user sessions per public-access computers per 5,000 people, and 300.65 million Internet computer. user sessions, or nearly one session per person Table 2-7. Public-Access Internet Computers and User Sessions Summary, FY 2014–2015 FY 2014 FY 2015 Indicator Indicator 9. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.66 4.73 0.97 1.05 Indicator 10. Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Capita NOTE: Per 5,000 people and per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014–2015. 18 This does not include wireless Internet sessions. The item that captures wireless Internet sessions has been collected since FY 2014 but contains a large proportion of missing data. Therefore, this item is not included in analyses for this report. 19 It is important to note that the PLS does not collect information on demand for public-access Internet computers or the duration of public-access Internet sessions. 28

37 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Since FY 2006, the number of public-access per 5,000 people ( Figure 2-17 ), while the number Internet computers available at public libraries of public-access Internet computer user sessions has increased. In particular, there has been a per capita decreased slightly from 1.14 sessions per steady increase between FY 2011 and FY 2015 in capita to 0.97 sessions per capita over this same the number of public-access Internet computers Figure 2-18 ). period ( Figure 2-17. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People, FY 2006–2015 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 (per 5,000 People) 1.00 Public-Access Internet Computers 0.00 2015 2006 2011 2010 2014 2013 2009 2008 2007 2012 Fiscal Year SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. Figure 2-18. Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Capita, FY 2006–2015 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 User Sessions (per Capita) 0.20 Public-Access Internet Computer 0.00 2007 2006 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 Fiscal Year SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. 29

38 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage Locale and Population Size Estimates The number of public-access Internet computers Libraries serving small populations both offered per 5,000 people varied across locales in FY 2015, more public-access Internet computers and with higher availability of computers in public logged more user sessions per capita than libraries libraries in rural areas than in other locales. serving larger populations. For every 5,000 people, Public-access Internet computer user sessions small libraries offered 23.59 computers versus per capita showed little variation across locales 4.05 at large libraries. Small libraries have 1.68 in FY 2015. ( ). Table 2-8 user sessions per capita in contrast to 0.94 at large libraries. ( ). Table 2-8 Table 2-8. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People and User Sessions per Capita by Locale and Population Size Served, FY 2015 Public-Access Internet Computer Public-Access Internet Computers Category per 5,000 People User Sessions per Capita Overall 4.73 0.97 Locale City 1.01 4.39 4.09 0.97 Suburb Town 0.86 5.26 Rural 8.24 0.96 Population Size Served Very large (>25,000) 4.05 0.94 Large (10,000–25,000) 1.05 6.32 Medium (2,500–9,999) 10.18 1.22 Small (<2,500) 23.59 1.68 NOTE: Per 5,000 people and per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 30

39 PART TWO: Public Library Resources, Services, and Usage State Estimates The number of public-access Internet computers 5,000 people, while six states had more than 7.50. per 5,000 people varied across the states in FY User sessions per capita ranged from highs of 1.67 2015, ranging from 9.19 in Nebraska and Vermont in the District of Columbia and 1.66 in Ohio, to to 1.87 in Hawaii ( Figure 2-19 ). Fourteen states lows of 0.51 in Hawaii and 0.54 in West Virginia had fewer than 4.50 public-access computers per ( ). Figure 2-20 Figure 2-19. Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Public-Access Internet Computers SC per 5,000 People GA AL MS More than 7.50 (6 states) TX LA 6.00 to 7.49 (13 states + DC) 4.50 to 5.99 (17 states) AK FL Fewer than 4.50 (14 states) HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. Figure 2-20. Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Capita by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Public-Access Internet Computer SC User Sessions per Capita GA AL MS More than 1.50 (1 state + DC) TX LA 1.00 to 1.50 (26 states) 0.50 to 0.99 (23 states) AK FL HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 31

40 PART THREE: Public Library Staffing

41 PART THREE: Public Library Staffing Overview This section describes the public library staffing indicator and its components. Public library staff help to ensure that the facilities, resources, and services are accessible, available, and well managed. Beyond collection development and resource management, library staff help address information needs by providing programs, answering reference questions, and supporting patron research. The total number of library staff includes librarians and other paid staff, such as paraprofessionals, information technology specialists, operations managers, and maintenance staff. In a public library, a librarian is a staff member who has special training and skills in the theoretical or scientific aspects of library work. Librarians with an American Library Association-accredited master’s degree in library or information science (typically abbreviated as an ALA-MLS) typically have expertise in managing collections, serving as leaders in their public library or state, and taking on other responsibilities that require an advanced degree such as the MLS. 20 staff; thus, the data may contain decimal places The PLS collects data on paid full-time-equivalent (FTE) because they include part-time staff. Public library staffing is represented by one indicator—FTE staff per 25,000 people—and three sub-indicators—librarians per 25,000 people, other paid staff per 25,000 people, and the percentage of public librarians with an ALA-MLS. These metrics indicate the extent to which members of the public have access to professionals in library and information sciences to address their information needs. Indicator 11. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People: 11.19 There were no marked differences in staffing and approximately 68 percent of all librarians have levels between FY 2015 and FY 2014. In FY 2015, Table 3-1 ). However, in the decade an ALA-MLS ( total staff per 25,000 people was 11.19 compared between FY 2006 and FY 2015, there were changes ). Over one-third (35 to 11.29 in FY 2014 ( Table 3-1 in the number and distribution of FTEs among percent) of all paid staff hold the title of librarian, library staff per 25,000 people ( Figure 3-1 ). Table 3-1. Public Library Staffing Summary, FY 2014–2015 Indicator FY 2014 FY 2015 Indicator 11: Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People 11.19 11.29 3.86 Indicator 11.1 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.85 Indicator 11.2 Other Paid Staff per 25,000 People 7.34 7.44 67.94% Indicator 11.3 Percentage of Librarians with ALA-MLS 68.24% NOTE: Per 25,000 people estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014–2015. 20 In analyses of the workforce, information on employment is classified according to FTE status. FTE is a unit that measures the workload of an employed person. FTE refers to 40 hours of work per week. For example, two people who work a part-time schedule of 20 hours per week are equal to 1.0 FTE. 33

42 PART THREE: Public Library Staffing Figure 3-1. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People by Type of Staff, FY 2006–2015 14.00 1.19 11.291 1.25 11.311 12.33 11.71 12.15 12.17 12.40 11.43 12.00 1.28 1.30 1.26 1.26 1.25 1.26 1.26 1.23 1.28 1.22 10.00 2.76 2.76 2.74 2.78 2.68 2.63 2.62 2.61 2.61 2.63 8.00 6.00 Type of Sta 8.36 Librarian without 8.26 8.17 8.11 4.00 7.77 7.54 7.44 7.44 7.36 7.34 ALA-MLS FTEs (per 25,000 People) Librarian with 2.00 ALA-MLS Other paid sta 0.00 2010 2009 2015 2013 2014 2008 2007 2012 2011 2006 Fiscal Year NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. The total number of FTE staff per 25,000 people is at the very top of each bar, which is the sum of librarians without an ALA-MLS, librarians with an ALA-MLS, and other paid staff. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2006–2015. Locale and Population Size Estimates The total number of library staff per 25,000 people Libraries that serve small populations had more varied somewhat by locale. Libraries in rural than twice as many total staff per 25,000 people areas had more staff (including librarians) per as libraries that serve very large populations, and 25,000 people compared to libraries in all other over five times the number of librarians. However, locales and the national estimate. However, the libraries that serve very large populations had a percentage of librarians with an ALA-MLS was higher ratio of ALA-MLS librarians than libraries highest in city libraries (86.65 percent) and lowest that serve smaller populations. Table 3-2 ). in rural libraries (27.85 percent) ( Table 3-2. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People by Staffing Type, Locale, and Population Size Served, FY 2015 Percentage of Librarians with Category Total Staff Librarians Other Paid Staff ALA-MLS 11.19 7.34 68.24% Overall 3.86 Locale 10.70 3.19 7.51 86.65% City Suburb 11.67 3.96 7.70 77.15% Town 10.52 6.42 41.66% 4.10 12.03 27.85% 6.39 Rural 5.64 Population Size Served 10.40 3.23 7.17 78.90% Very large (>25,000) Large (10,000–25,000) 14.68 6.16 8.52 56.94% Medium (2,500–9,999) 8.25 8.18 32.89% 16.44 Small (<2,500) 23.43 16.41 7.01 9.95% NOTE: Per 25,000 people estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 34

43 PART THREE: Public Library Staffing State Estimates The total number of library staff per 25,000 people high of 10.54 in New Hampshire and 9.02 in was highest in the District of Columbia (20.18) and Vermont, to lows of 1.41 in Georgia and 1.78 in 21 The number of librarians lowest in Texas (6.38). Nevada ( Figure 3-2 ). All but 11 states had three or per 25,000 people varied across the states, from more librarians per 25,000 people. Figure 3-2. Librarians (FTEs) per 25,000 People by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ Librarians (FTEs) per 25,000 People AR NM SC More than 6.00 (12 states + DC) GA AL MS 4.60 to 6.00 (13 states) TX LA 3.00 to 4.59 (14 states) Fewer than 3.00 (11 states) AK FL HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 21 A map displaying total staff per 25,000 people by state is not included in this report. See Appendix C, Table C-6 for additional detail on total staff by state. 35

44 PART THREE: Public Library Staffing The ratio of ALA-MLS librarians also varied across in West Virginia ( Figure 3-3 ). See Appendix C the states, ranging from 100.0 percent in the for additional detail on staffing levels per 25,000 District of Columbia and Georgia to 20.64 percent people by state. in Mississippi, 25.89 in South Dakota, and 25.94 Figure 3-3. Percentage of Librarians with an ALA-MLS by State, FY 2015 WA ME ND MT VT OR MN NH ID WI SD NY MA MI WY RI CT IA PA NE NJ NV OH IL IN UT DE CO DC WV CA VA KS MD MO KY NC TN OK AZ AR NM Librarians with ALA-MLS SC 75.00% to 100.00% (15 states + DC) GA AL MS 50.00% to 74.99% (13 states) TX LA 25.00% to 49.99% (21 states) AK 0.00% to 24.99% (1 state) FL HI SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 36

45 APPENDICES Appendix A. About the Public Libraries Survey Appendix B. Technical Notes Appendix C. State Indicator Tables Appendix D. State Profiles

46 APPENDIX A: About the Public Libraries Survey Appendix A. About the Public Libraries Survey was transferred from NCES to IMLS. The FY 2006 About the Public Libraries Survey survey was conducted by NCES and the data were The Public Libraries Survey (PLS) is a voluntary released by IMLS. The FY 2015 survey is the ninth survey conducted annually by the Institute of PLS data collection released by IMLS. Museum and Library Services (IMLS). IMLS collects these data under the mandate in the Museum and Survey Purpose and Data Items Included in Library Services Act of 2010, as stated in Section 210. The American Institutes for Research is the This Report data collection agent for IMLS. The FY 2015 survey The PLS provides a national census of public is the 28th in the series. libraries and their public service outlets (see the “Key Library Terminology” section of this History of the Public Libraries Survey report). These data are useful to federal, state, and local policymakers; library and public policy In 1985, the National Center for Education researchers; and the public, journalists, and others. Statistics (NCES) and the American Library This report provides summary information about Association (ALA) conducted a pilot project in public libraries in the 50 states and the District of 15 states to assess the feasibility of a federal- 2 It covers service measures Columbia for FY 2015. state cooperative program for the collection such as number of uses (sessions) of public- of public library data. The project was jointly access Internet computers, number of public- funded by NCES and the U.S. Department of access Internet computers used by the general Education’s former Library Programs office. In public, reference transactions, interlibrary loans, 1987, the project’s final report recommended circulation, library visits, children’s program the development of a nationwide data collection attendance, and circulation of children’s materials. system. The Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and This report also includes information about Secondary School Improvement Amendments of collection size, staffing, operating revenue and 1988 (P.L. 100-297) tasked NCES with developing expenditures, type of legal basis, and number and a voluntary Federal-State Cooperative System type of public library service outlets. This report (FSCS) for the annual collection of public library is based on the final data file. Appendix B, Note 1, 1 To carry out this mandate, a task force was data. provides detailed information about the data and formed by NCES and the National Commission on methods for FY 2015. Libraries and Information Science, and the FSCS was established in 1988. Congressional Authorization , Public The first survey report in this series Two separate laws cover the protection of the Libraries in 50 States and the District of Columbia: confidentiality of individually identifiable which includes data from 8,699 public 1989, information collected by the IMLS—the Privacy libraries in 50 states and the District of Columbia, Act of 1974 and the E-Government Act of 2002. was released by NCES in 1991. Since then, a data The Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing file and survey report have been released annually. the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity The states submitted their data electronically via of Information Disseminated by the IMLS customized, personal computer survey software were prepared under the Treasury and General through FY 2004 and via a web-based application Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year beginning in FY 2005. 2001, Section 515(b). IMLS collects these data as authorized by its congressional mandate, the The Museum and Library Services Act transferred Museum and Library Services Act of 2010, as stated the Library Programs office, including the Library in 20 U.S.C. Section 9108 (Policy research, analysis, Statistics Program, from the Department of data collection, and dissemination): Education to IMLS. On October 1, 2007, the survey 1 The Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-297) was superseded by the National Education Statistics Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-382) and, more recently, by the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002. 2 The fiscal year reporting period varies among states and among local jurisdictions in some states. Please see Reporting Period in Appendix B, Note 1, for more information. 38

47 APPENDIX A: About the Public Libraries Survey trends of State and public libraries; and 20 U.S.C. Section 9108. Policy research, report timely, useful, and high-quality data to analysis, data collection, and dissemination the U.S. Congress, the States, other education (a) In general policymakers, practitioners, data users, and the general public. The Director shall annually conduct policy research, analysis, and data collection to 3 extend and improve the Nation’s museum, Key Library Terminology library, and information services. A public library is an entity that Public library. is established under state-enabling laws or (b) Requirements regulations to serve a community, district, or The policy research, analysis, and data region, and that provides at least the following: collection shall be conducted in ongoing (1) an organized collection of printed or other collaboration (as determined appropriate by library materials, or a combination thereof; (2) paid the Director), and in consultation, with— staff; (3) an established schedule in which the services of the staff are available to the public; (1) State library administrative agencies; (4) the facilities necessary to support such a (2) National, State, and regional library and collection, staff, and schedule; and (5) support in museum organizations; whole or in part with public funds. (3) Other relevant agencies and An administrative entity Administrative entity. organizations. is the agency that is legally established under local or state law to provide public library service (c) Objectives to the population of a local jurisdiction. The The policy research, analysis, and data administrative entity may have a single public collection shall be used to— library service outlet, or it may have more than one public library service outlet. (Note: In (1) Identify national needs for and trends in this report, the term public library means an museum, library, and information services; administrative entity.) (2) Measure and report on the impact and effectiveness of museum, library, and Public library service outlet. Public libraries may information services throughout the United have one or more outlets that provide direct States, including the impact of Federal services to the public. This report includes programs authorized under this chapter; information on three types of public library service outlets: central library outlets, branch library (3) Identify best practices; and outlets, and bookmobile outlets. Information on a (4) Develop plans to improve museum, fourth type of outlet, books-by-mail-only outlets, library, and information services of the was collected but omitted from this report because United States and to strengthen national, these outlets are not open to the public. State, local, regional, and international communications and cooperative networks. Supplementary Tables (d) Dissemination As a supplement to this report, IMLS has provided Each year, the Director shall widely 48 tables to make available additional data about disseminate, as appropriate to accomplish the findings in this report. These tables offer both the objectives under subsection (c), the national- and state-level statistics for variables results of the policy research, analysis, and presented in this report, as well as for additional data collection carried out under this section. variables found in the PLS data files. Tables 1 through 1B provide overview data by state about IMLS library survey activities will be the number of public libraries and the population designed to address high-priority library data of the legal service areas. Tables 2 through 33 needs; provide consistent, reliable, complete, appear in sets of two each. The base table in each and accurate indicators of the status and 3 Data File Documentation: Public Libraries Survey: More detailed definitions of the terms used in this report can be found in the PLS data documentation, . available at www.imls.gov Fiscal Year 2015, 39

48 APPENDIX A: About the Public Libraries Survey set (Tables 2 through 33) displays data for the Survey Questionnaire and Data Elements nation as a whole and for each of the 50 states and The questionnaire for the PLS is developed in the District of Columbia. The “A” table in each set partnership between IMLS and its stakeholders in displays the same data by 11 ranges of population the library community, specifically, the Library of legal service area. Tables 34 through 35 include Statistics Working Group and the State Data data about public library size. Tables 36 through Coordinators (SDCs). The questionnaire used 48 provide state rankings on key variables. The in the FY 2015 survey is published in the data supplementary tables are available online only at documentation, Data File Documentation: Public www.imls.gov . Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2015, available at www.imls.gov . In addition to the survey, the data documentation provides definitions of items, including those used in this report. 40

49 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes Appendix B. Technical Notes Survey Response Note 1. Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015 A total of 9,014 of 9,231 public Unit response. Survey Universe libraries in the survey frame responded to the FY The PLS is a universe survey. Unlike sample 4 for a unit response rate of 97.6 percent. 2015 PLS, surveys, which collect data from a portion of the Unit respondents are defined as public libraries population, universe surveys collect data from for which the population of the legal service area the entire population. In FY 2015, the survey and at least three of the five following items are frame consisted of 9,231 public libraries (9,229 reported: total number of paid employees, total public libraries in the 50 states and the District of operating revenue, total operating expenditures, Columbia and 2 public libraries in the outlying total number of print materials, and total areas of American Samoa and Guam), as identified 5 All response rates were calculated circulation. by state library agencies. The frame consisted of using American Association for Public Opinion all libraries that were not reported as closed in Research (AAPOR) Response Rate #2. FY 2015, plus any changes registered with IMLS outside of the prior data collection period. States The base for calculating response Total response. reported changes to the frame as part of the FY rates to individual survey items is the total number 2015 data collection. Coverage and other forms of of libraries in the survey frame, including unit non-sampling errors are discussed in the “Non- nonrespondents. sampling Errors” section below. Data file and reported numbers of public The FY 2015 survey frame includes 161 public libraries. PLS data files and publication tables libraries that do not meet all the criteria outlined report different numbers of public libraries. Public in the FSCS Public Library Definition (see item libraries in outlying areas and libraries that do not 203 of the “Administrative Entity” definitions for meet FSCS public library definitions are treated the criteria). Military libraries that provide public differently in the data files and publication tables, library service and libraries that serve residents of as follows: institutions are not included in the survey frame. The FY 2015 public-use data file also includes 20 1. Libraries that do not meet FSCS public records for public libraries that were permanently or library definitions are included in the data temporarily closed in FY 2015, but they are generally files but excluded from publication tables not considered to be part of the survey frame. and national totals. Responding public libraries in outlying 2. Data Collection areas are, whenever possible, included in The FY 2015 PLS began collecting data from states, both the data files and publication tables; 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the outlying however, national totals in publication areas in February 2016. States were placed into one tables include only the 50 states and the of three reporting groups (with survey due dates of District of Columbia, and exclude outlying June 17, July 29, or August 19, 2016) based on their areas and libraries that do not meet the FSCS fiscal cycle or claim of extraordinary reporting public library definition. hardship. State Data Coordinators were contacted by email and asked to report their data over the 3. All libraries, including those that do conform Internet via the PLS Web Portal, a Web-based to the FSCS definition of a public library, application developed by AIR (the data collection are included in the aggregate counts in the agent for the FY 2015 PLS). Edit follow-up was State Summary/State Characteristics Data completed in late 2016. The editing process is File. For this reason, the Public Library Data described in the “Editing” subsection below. The File is the primary source for producing survey was conducted in English. the publication tables because libraries that do not meet the FSCS definition can be excluded from the aggregations. 4 Including American Samoa and Guam. 5 Note: Some individual survey items, such as population of legal service area, service outlets, and type of legal basis, have a 100.0 percent response rate because the state library agency provided these data for all public libraries in their state. 41

50 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes New data items are not imputed or included in the encompass either a calendar year or July to June. In some states, the FY reporting period varies publication tables until the new data have been collected for three years; see the “Imputation” among local jurisdictions. These states are listed in . Regardless, most section below for more information on which the “Other” column in Table B-1 variables were imputed and the methods used. public libraries provided data for at least a 12-month period. The FY starting date and ending date of each The FY 2015 PLS requested data Reporting period. public library are included in the data file. for state fiscal year 2015. Most state fiscal years Table B-1. Reporting Periods of Public Libraries, FY 2015 October 2014 July 2014 January 2015 through through through 1 September 2015 Other December 2015 June 2015 2 Alabama Arkansas Alaska Arizona 3 Illinois Colorado California District of Columbia 4 Florida Maine Connecticut Indiana 5 Kansas Michigan Idaho Delaware 6 Mississippi Missouri Georgia Louisiana 7 Minnesota Guam Nebraska Hawaii 8 Iowa New Hampshire North Dakota American Samoa 4 New Jersey New York Kentucky 9 Maryland Ohio Texas 8 Utah Pennsylvania Massachusetts 7 South Dakota Vermont Montana Washington Nevada New Mexico Wisconsin North Carolina Oklahoma Oregon Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee Virginia West Virginia Wyoming 1 The reporting period varies among localities for the states in this column; however, each public library provided data for a 12-month period. 2 January 2014 to June 2015. 3 December 2013 to June 2015. 4 April 2014 to December 2015. 5 December 2013 to September 2015. 6 October 2013 to October 2015. 7 January 2014 to December 2015. 8 July 2014 to December 2015. 9 February 2014 to December 2015. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 42

51 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes Total Population Estimate. The population data Calculations Included in the Tables are provided by the state library agency. The Selected tables include per capita values for methods of calculation of the first two items vary some items and “per 1,000 population” or “per among states, and the state reporting periods also 5,000 population” values for others (e.g., Tables vary. The Total Unduplicated Population of Legal 2-6 and 2-8). Scales (per capita, per 1,000, etc.) Service Areas does not include unserved areas and were selected to provide the clearest display of may vary from data provided by sources using differences across categories in the data. The standard methodology (e.g., the Census Bureau). calculations are based on the total, unduplicated population of legal service areas (instead of the The total Population of Legal Service Area for total population of legal service areas) to eliminate all public libraries in a state may exceed the duplicative reporting as a result of overlapping state’s Total Unduplicated Population of Legal service areas. The state population estimate was Service Areas or the State Total Population not used as the basis for the calculations because Estimate. This happens in states in which there some states have unserved populations. See the are overlaps in population of legal service areas “Population items” subsection below for more served by individual libraries, resulting in the information. same population being counted twice. Twenty- four states had such overlapping service areas in Questionnaire ). FY 2015 ( Table B-2 The questionnaire used in the FY 2015 survey is To enable meaningful state comparisons using total Data File published in the data documentation, Population of Legal Service Area data (for example, Documentation Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal the number of print materials per capita), the available at www.imls.gov Year 2015, . In addition Population of Legal Service Area data were adjusted to the survey, the data documentation provides to eliminate duplicative reporting as a result of definitions of items, including those used in this overlapping service areas. The Public Library Data report. A few key survey items are discussed next. File includes a derived, unduplicated Population Library visits and reference transactions. Public of Legal Service Area value for each library for this libraries reported annual library visits and annual purpose (the variable is called POPU_UND). This reference transactions based on actual counts, value was prorated for each library by calculating if available. Otherwise, annual estimates were library’s the ratio of a Population of Legal Service provided based on library visits and reference Area (POPU_LSA) to the state’s total Population of transaction activity during a typical week in Legal Service Area (POPU_UND) and applying the October, multiplied by 52. ratio to the state’s Total Unduplicated Population of Legal Service Areas (POPU_UND). The latter Population items. The PLS has three population item (POPU_UND) is a single, state-reported figure items: (1) Population of Legal Service Area for each found in the Public Library State Summary/State public library, (2) Total Unduplicated Population Characteristics Data File. of Legal Service Areas for each state, and (3) State Table B-2. States with Public Libraries with Overlapping Service Areas, FY 2015 Kentucky New Jersey Alaska Arizona Louisana New York Arkansas Maine Oregon Colorado Maryland Pennsylvania Connecticut Rhode Island Massachusetts Florida Minnesota South Dakota Indiana Mississippi Vermont Iowa New Hampshire American Samoa SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 43

52 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes Paid staff were Paid, Full-Time-Equivalent Staff. For more information on edit checks, see the PLS Tables 3-1 and 3-2 reported in FTEs ( ). To ensure FY 2015 Data Documentation. comparable data, 40 hours was set as the measure The PLS Web Portal generates state summary of full-time employment (for example, 60 hours tables (showing state totals for all numeric data per week of part-time work by employees in a staff items), single-library tables (showing data for category divided by the 40-hour measure equals individual public libraries in a state), and state item 1.50 FTEs). FTE data were reported to two decimal response tables. Respondents were encouraged places (rounded to one decimal place in the tables). to review the tables for data quality issues before submitting their data. After the data were Caveats for Data Use submitted through the PLS Web Portal, the Chief The data include imputations, at the unit and Officer (CO) of the state library administrative item levels, for nonresponding libraries. See agency received an automated email with a the “Imputation” section on the next page for request to review and certify the accuracy of the a discussion of the imputation methodology. data. Comparisons to data prior to FY 1992 should be made with caution because earlier data do not AIR and IMLS reviewed and edited National level. include imputations for nonresponse, and the the state data submissions, working closely with percentage of libraries responding to a given item the PLS State Data Coordinators (SDCs). varied widely among the states. Imputation State data comparisons should be made with Imputation is a procedure for estimating a value caution because of differences in reporting for a specific data item in which the response ) and adherence to survey periods ( Table B-1 is missing. Imputations were performed in two definitions. The definitions used by some states in stages using 11 different methods. In the first collecting data from their public libraries may not stage, imputations were carried out for nearly be consistent with the PLS definitions. all missing values using the following methods: prior-year value multiplied by cell mean growth The District of Columbia, although not a state, rate, adjusted cell mean, cell mean, prior-year is included in this report. Special care should be ratio, current-year cell median ratio, direct used in comparing data for a city to those for a substitution of prior-year data, cell median, state. Caution also should be used in comparing and special imputations. In the second stage, Hawaii’s data to those of other states because all imputed values were adjusted for some missing public library data in Hawaii are reported under values (based on the variable) using the following one entity, the Hawaii State Public Library System. methods: obtained value by relationship of total to detail items, raking of detail items to match Editing total, and consistency checks. The imputation Respondents generated an Edit Report State level. method used depends on the variable’s content, following direct data entry or import of their data the availability of prior-year data for the specific into the PLS Web Portal. The Edit Report, which observation being imputed, and the availability can be viewed on screen or printed, was used to of one or more highly correlated variables for identify and correct any errors—and to confirm the specific observation. In many instances, data the accuracy of data that generated edit warnings were imputed using aggregated information but did not require changes—before submitting for libraries with similar characteristics, which the final file to AIR. was obtained by grouping together libraries in imputation strata. Missing data were In the FY 2015 PLS, four types of edit checks were imputed for the 50 states and the District of performed: Columbia, but not for the outlying areas. In total, 47 items were imputed. For more detail on Relational edit checks; 1. imputation procedures, see the PLS FY 2015 Data 2. Out-of-range edit checks; Documentation. 3. Arithmetic edit checks; and Blank, zero, or invalid data edit checks. 4. 44

53 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes Processing errors are considered average for PLS Non-Sampling Errors administrative data collection because no reported Because all units in the universe are surveyed, the data values are changed during data processing. data are not subject to sampling error; however, Processing errors exist in edit check and they are subject to non-sampling errors, such as imputation processes and depend on the quality of errors in response, nonresponse errors, coverage prior years’ data. errors arising from an incomplete listing of public libraries, coding errors, or processing errors. Note 2. Commonly Used Measures Every effort is made to mitigate such errors. The This report presents statistics for metrics related editing efforts described below are designed to to aspects of financial, operational, and service decrease the number of errors resulting from activities in public libraries in the United States. inaccurate responses or processing problems. National-level summaries of these metrics are Imputation lessens the effect of nonresponse. presented for FY 2015, and 5- and 10-year trends Efforts are made to obtain complete listings of are presented for many metrics from FY 2006 public libraries from the state library agencies. through FY 2015. Some data elements, such as Although such efforts are made, some non- the number of young adults’ programs offered, sampling errors likely remain in the data. were added to the survey after FY 2005. Over the past 5 years (between FY 2011 and FY 2015), trend Undercoverage errors are estimated to be minimal analyses were performed for these metrics. In because states are incentivized to register new the indicators, metrics are also broken out and libraries with IMLS to access discounts provided presented by locality, population size of the service through the Universal Service Schools and area, and state. Libraries Program (more commonly known as E-rate), as well as other benefits afforded to Per Capita public libraries (e.g., Tech Soup). Overcoverage Many items presented in this report are measured occurs when libraries are not reported as closed. is the measure of an item per capita. Per capita In addition, overcoverage will occur if data users divided by the unduplicated population of the do not account for libraries in the dataset do not 6 Per capita metrics control legal service area. meet the definition of a public library developed for population changes over time and allow for by the FSCS. standardized comparison of metrics. In some cases, items are measured per 1,000, 5,000, and Measurement errors are associated with data entry 25,000 people for illustration purposes. As with per errors, significant structure changes, and complex capita metrics, these measures help standardize concepts. There are no formal studies that comparisons over time. estimate bias and variance due to measurement errors for PLS. Locale Unit nonresponse, which is measured at the Federal agencies use a variety of ways to classify library level, has minimal bias due to high community types. In this report, libraries are response rates in the 50 states, but there may be classified using a system of locale codes developed high nonresponse bias in outlying territories due by NCES. Working with the U.S. Census Bureau, to non-reporting. NCES revised these codes by using improved geocoding technology and the 2010 Office Item nonresponse bias was generally low. of Management and Budget definitions of However, it may be higher for items that are 7 Thus, locale codes metropolitan statistical areas. consistently missing data from certain AEs and rely on proximity to an urbanized area, rather than outlets. Newly added items are subject to high item population size and county boundaries. nonresponse bias. 6 Data File Documentation: Public Libraries Survey: Fiscal Year 2015, Details about the unduplicated population can be found in the PLS data documentation, . available at www.imls.gov 7 The Office of Management and Budget delineates geographic entities for metropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas for use by federal agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing federal statistics. To learn about the designation, see the notice in the Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 123, pp. 37246–39052, published June 28, 2010. 45

54 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes Beginning with the FY 2008 data file, locale codes Bureau as a way to identify the location of public were added to the PLS outlet and administrative schools for the Common Core of Data, a survey entity datasets. Locale codes identify general collected by NCES. characteristics about where a public library is By incorporating objective measures of rurality situated. The codes allow users to quickly identify and urbanicity into the data files, researchers which library outlets and administrative entities and practitioners can benchmark services are located in cities, suburbs, towns, or rural areas. in a fundamentally different way by basing The locale codes are based on the proximity of an comparisons on community attributes as well as address to an urbanized area, defined as a densely the attributes of the libraries themselves. In other settled core with densely settled, surrounding areas. words, library services in rural, remote areas can The locale code system classifies a territory into now be compared to library services in other four major categories: urban, suburban, town, rural, remote areas within the same state or across and rural ( ). Each category has three Table B-3 the country by using a standardized rurality/ subcategories. For urban and suburban areas, urbanicity metric that is applied consistently to gradations are based on population size: large, each library in the country. Once communities medium, or small. Towns and rural areas are of interest have been selected, comparisons can subcategorized based on their distance from an be made to any data that are available in the PLS, urbanized area: fringe, distant, or remote. The whether they are related to aspects of finance, coding methodology was developed by the Census operations, or service. Table B-3. Urban-Centric Locale Categories City Territory inside an urbanized area and inside a principal city with population of 250,000 or more Large: Midsize: Territory inside an urbanized area and inside a principal city with population less than 250,000 and greater than or equal to 100,000 Small: Territory inside an urbanized area and inside a principal city with population less than 100,000 Suburb Territory outside a principal city and inside an urbanized area with population of 250,000 or Large: more Midsize: Territory outside a principal city and inside an urbanized area with population less than 250,000 and greater than or equal to 100,000 Small: Territory outside a principal city and inside an urbanized area with population less than 100,000 Town Fringe: Territory inside an urban cluster that is less than or equal to 10 miles from an urbanized area Distant: Territory inside an urban cluster that is more than 10 miles and less than or equal to 35 miles from an urbanized area Remote: Territory inside an urban cluster that is more than 35 miles from an urbanized area Rural Fringe: Census-defined rural territory that is less than or equal to 5 miles from an urbanized area, as well as rural territory that is less than or equal to 2.5 miles from an urban cluster Distant: Census-defined rural territory that is more than 5 miles but less than or equal to 25 miles from an urbanized area, as well as rural territory that is more than 2.5 miles but less than or equal to 10 miles from an urban cluster Remote: Census-defined rural territory that is more than 25 miles from an urbanized area and is also more than 10 miles from an urban cluser SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Common Core of Data, Identification of Locale Codes, from https://nces. ed.gov/programs/edge/docs/NCES_LOCALE_USERSMANUAL_2016012.pdf. 46

55 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes As of FY 2008, each library outlet and Geographic Region administrative entity in the PLS was assigned one State Profiles presented in this report include of the 12 locale codes. Starting with the FY 2009 geographic regional estimates. The PLS uses the survey data files, bookmobiles and books-by- geographic regional classification developed mail-only outlets were assigned locale codes. For by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, which is the FY 2015 data file, all records were coded for composed of nine geographic regions: New geography. Administrative entities were assigned England, Mid-East, Great Lakes, Plains, Southeast, locale codes based on the modal locale codes Southwest, Rocky Mountains, Far West, and among central and branch libraries of that library outlying areas ( Table B-4 ). For the purpose of system (excluding bookmobile and books-by- this report, outlying areas are not included in the mail-only outlets). analyses. Table B-4. Regional Designations Used in the PLS, from the Bureau of Economic Analysis Region States Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New England Vermont Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Mid-East Pennsylvania Great Lakes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin Plains Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota Southeast Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia Southwest Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas Rocky Mountains Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming Far West Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, Washington Outlying Areas American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands 47

56 APPENDIX B: Technical Notes Full-Time Equivalent In analyses of the workforce, information on employment is classified according to FTE status. FTE is a unit that measures the workload of an employed person. It is used to aid in comparisons of workload across contexts. An FTE of 1.0 indicates that the person is the equivalent of a full-time worker, who usually works 40 hours per week. An FTE of 0.5 indicates a person who works half time. If a library reports that it has 2.0 FTEs, it may be referring to two full-time employees or four part-time employees (each of whom works approximately 20 hours per week). Note 3. Adjusting for Inflation: Financial Indicators and Calculations For financial trends that report dollar amounts over time, such as 5- and 10-year revenue trends, metrics Constant dollars are an adjusted value of currency that accounts for are represented in constant dollars. inflation. We use this adjustment to compare monetary values from one period to another. For FY 2015 8 as shown in Equation B-3.1 : analyses, inflation was accounted for using a GDP deflator, Nomi nal GDP (B-3.1 100 ) GDPDeflator = X Real GDP In general, a real value is one in which the effects of inflation have been taken into account, and a nominal value is one in which the effects have not. Thus, the real GDP is the value of all the goods and is the value nominal GDP services produced in the United States expressed relative to a base year, and the of the same goods and services expressed in current prices. To calculate the value in constant dollars for a target year, multiply a value from a base year by a ratio of the GDP deflators from the base year and the target year. For example, to calculate the amount of revenue from the year 2006 in 2015 constant dollars, multiply the original value of revenue in 2006 by the ratio of the deflators from year 2015 to 2006 (see Equation B-3.2 ). GDP Deflator 2015 Value Value (B-3.2) = (constant2015 dollars) 2006 X GDP Deflator 2006 8 Information on the U.S. GDP was obtained from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (www.bea.gov). 48

57 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Appendix C. State Indicator Tables Table C-1. Operating Revenue and Operating Expenditures per Capita by State, FY 2015 Operating Expenditure Type Operating Revenue Source per Capita per Capita Collec- Other State Federal Sources Staff State tions Other Total Local Total 1 $34.16 $0.14 $2.80 $37.38 $24.98 $39.94 $8.18 Total $4.21 $2.83 $0.79 $0.20 $2.12 $21.67 $14.81 $2.19 $4.67 $22.10 Alabama $19.00 $50.55 $1.58 $1.48 $1.94 $55.42 $37.29 $3.74 $14.39 Alaska $55.55 $26.63 $24.97 $0.29 $1.12 $26.23 $15.78 $3.92 $6.54 Arizona $0.25 $24.89 $0.00 $1.51 $27.46 $17.00 $3.56 $6.90 $28.37 $1.97 Arkansas $34.43 $0.33 $0.13 $1.73 $34.83 California $3.17 $9.07 $36.63 $22.58 $56.91 $0.29 $0.17 $3.79 $52.66 $32.99 $6.99 $12.17 Colorado $52.15 $56.13 $48.31 $0.40 $0.05 $7.37 Connecticut $43.12 $5.49 $9.99 $58.61 Delaware $22.28 $4.22 $0.02 $1.78 $27.37 $18.84 $2.54 $5.99 $28.31 $85.58 $83.61 $1.39 $0.57 $85.42 $61.60 $7.08 $16.74 District of Columbia $0.00 $25.29 $15.84 $0.07 $0.99 $26.28 $27.77 $3.12 $7.32 Florida $1.42 $1.33 $18.05 $12.64 $1.69 $3.72 $0.13 $18.35 $2.53 Georgia $14.35 $24.12 $0.00 $21.98 $0.73 $1.41 $24.35 $16.66 $2.85 $4.84 Hawaii Idaho $39.46 $1.14 $0.02 $2.89 $36.75 $23.28 $3.81 $9.66 $35.41 $68.38 $3.95 $0.22 $3.40 $61.13 $39.61 $6.96 $14.56 Illinois $60.80 $54.01 $48.10 $3.31 $0.13 $2.47 Indiana $32.01 $7.11 $12.57 $51.69 Iowa $35.92 $0.85 $0.02 $40.23 $38.61 $26.44 $5.05 $7.12 $3.44 Kansas $49.60 $43.09 $1.63 $0.03 $4.84 $47.72 $30.49 $5.62 $11.61 Kentucky $41.69 $1.39 $0.16 $1.98 $32.58 $20.60 $4.64 $7.34 $38.16 $50.73 $47.91 $0.13 $1.59 $44.09 $26.54 $5.22 $12.33 Louisiana $1.10 $28.39 $26.86 $0.03 $10.49 $39.23 $39.23 $3.62 $8.74 Maine $0.32 $53.85 $8.86 $0.18 $5.32 $46.48 $34.57 $5.66 $6.25 Maryland $39.49 $43.91 $38.98 $1.34 $0.09 $3.51 $45.48 $32.60 $5.45 $7.43 Massachusetts Michigan $40.89 $1.10 $0.04 $2.33 $37.04 $23.61 $4.15 $9.28 $37.42 2 $39.71 $1.53 $0.02 $3.68 $34.48 $24.67 $4.75 $9.75 $39.10 Minnesota $17.26 $12.40 $3.09 $0.23 Mississippi $16.47 $11.07 $1.38 $4.01 $1.55 Missouri $41.86 $0.79 $0.46 $45.93 $42.09 $24.83 $6.58 $10.68 $2.82 Montana $28.36 $25.98 $0.57 $0.02 $1.78 $25.76 $18.15 $2.85 $4.77 Nebraska $36.83 $0.34 $0.00 $2.06 $34.92 $23.31 $4.88 $6.73 $34.42 $32.40 $28.86 $7.92 $0.43 $1.31 Nevada $19.89 $3.79 $5.19 $22.75 3 $3.86 $47.49 $0.11 $0.03 $51.49 $50.43 $36.83 $5.32 $7.89 New Hampshire New Jersey $54.36 $51.62 $0.44 $0.04 $2.26 $51.52 $37.63 $4.62 $9.27 New Mexico $31.31 $1.18 $0.15 $1.77 $28.70 $18.50 $4.36 $5.83 $28.21 New York $58.21 $2.78 $0.31 $9.05 $63.56 $45.72 $5.39 $12.45 $70.35 North Carolina $21.93 $19.34 $1.37 $0.17 $1.06 $21.14 $14.87 $2.29 $3.97 North Dakota $28.77 $24.18 $2.37 $0.00 $2.22 $27.40 $17.61 $3.81 $5.97 See notes at end of table. 49

58 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-1. Operating Revenue and Operating Expenditures per Capita by State, FY 2015—continued Operating Revenue Source Operating Expenditure Type per Capita per Capita Collec- Other State Federal Total Staff State tions Other Local Total Sources $29.91 $32.97 $0.04 $6.39 $61.19 $39.31 $8.66 $13.22 Ohio $69.30 $37.81 $33.99 $0.16 $3.01 $34.42 $22.88 $4.61 $6.93 Oklahoma $0.65 $57.04 $0.18 $0.16 $2.96 $53.01 $34.96 $5.29 $12.76 Oregon $53.75 $28.62 Pennsylvania $4.50 $0.14 $4.86 $27.61 $18.69 $2.71 $6.21 $19.12 Rhode Island $31.46 $7.75 $0.60 $6.68 $45.04 $33.05 $3.44 $8.56 $46.49 $29.12 $1.54 $0.06 $1.53 $27.39 $18.88 $3.54 $4.97 South Carolina $25.99 $34.79 $33.02 $0.00 $0.56 $1.20 South Dakota $22.12 $4.37 $6.57 $33.06 Tennessee $17.39 $0.06 $0.05 $18.53 $17.93 $12.01 $2.41 $3.51 $1.03 Texas $18.88 $18.17 $0.00 $0.02 $0.70 $18.43 $12.64 $2.34 $3.45 Utah $36.76 $0.47 $0.18 $1.55 $35.18 $22.13 $5.06 $8.00 $34.56 $39.99 $0.00 $0.16 $7.53 $41.18 $27.61 $4.17 $9.40 $32.30 Vermont $6.74 $3.85 $23.69 $34.27 $1.39 $31.51 $34.95 Virginia $0.20 $1.84 W $59.86 $57.62 $0.05 $0.12 $2.07 $56.33 $38.54 ashington $10.32 $7.47 West Virginia $12.93 $5.39 $0.16 $19.99 $19.16 $12.56 $2.78 $3.82 $1.52 Wisconsin $40.62 $37.33 $0.73 $0.18 $2.37 $39.51 $27.05 $4.32 $8.14 Wyoming $57.40 $0.00 $0.01 $3.98 $55.64 $41.35 $4.49 $9.81 $53.41 Outlying areas American Samoa $0.00 $5.21 $2.26 $7.73 $7.38 $3.83 $1.58 $1.97 $0.26 Guam $7.25 $7.18 $0.00 $0.00 $0.07 $5.45 $4.99 $0.24 $0.22 1 Total includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes outlying areas, libraries that closed or temporarily closed in FY 2015, and libraries that do not meet the FSCS Public Library Definition. 2 Reported expenditure details do not sum to reported total for this state. 3 Total staff expenditures for 12 libraries in this state were not imputed because the imputed total was inconsistent with the reported value for total expenditures; that is, the imputed value for STAFFEXP was greater than the reported value TOTOPEXP or the imputed value for STAFFEXP plus the reported value of TOTEXPCO and OTHOPEXP was greater than the reported value of TOTOPEXP. Therefore, data were not imputed and left as missing. However, a discrepancy in the reported data remains, resulting in details that do not sum to the total. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population and exclude libraries with missing data. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 50

59 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-2. Public Library Collections and Circulation per Capita by State, FY 2015 Collection Materials per Capita Circulation per Capita Children’s Audio Video 1 3 2 3 State Total Books Materials E-books Materials Materials Total 4 2.41 0.52 0.23 4.28 2.58 Total 7.30 1.07 0.71 0.26 0.14 4.34 1.40 3.06 Alabama 1.96 3.65 0.78 0.97 Alaska 6.92 2.19 5.72 0.42 1.77 0.26 0.20 0.16 6.54 2.11 Arizona 1.21 2.41 0.18 0.14 2.91 5.36 1.29 Arkansas 0.22 2.10 0.15 0.16 0.15 5.63 2.35 California 1.65 3.06 1.89 0.32 0.59 0.27 11.97 Colorado 4.08 Connecticut 3.98 0.47 0.56 0.35 8.26 2.94 5.42 2.77 1.76 0.21 0.21 6.54 2.15 Delaware 0.58 2.77 5.97 0.08 0.23 3.44 2.01 District of Columbia 0.36 2.54 0.12 0.69 0.19 5.74 1.74 Florida 1.56 1.83 1.61 0.04 0.09 0.09 3.64 1.56 Georgia Hawaii 2.57 0.03 0.17 0.12 4.50 1.92 2.25 4.06 0.31 0.33 0.24 11.44 Idaho 3.18 5.21 5.39 3.60 1.02 0.48 Illinois 9.50 3.84 0.32 Indiana 5.49 3.80 0.86 0.46 0.36 12.73 3.92 3.14 7.50 3.89 2.11 1.09 0.33 8.94 Iowa Kansas 3.65 16.80 2.58 0.39 9.98 3.82 27.56 4.95 2.09 0.55 0.26 6.92 2.24 Kentucky 2.06 2.53 4.50 0.31 0.26 3.37 1.06 Louisiana 0.27 8.02 1.30 1.19 0.35 7.75 2.81 Maine 5.18 3.16 2.03 0.46 0.50 0.18 9.90 3.84 Maryland Massachusetts 8.15 2.47 0.53 0.34 9.20 3.09 4.63 4.28 0.37 0.39 0.27 8.28 2.62 Michigan 3.24 3.77 2.61 0.72 0.26 Minnesota 9.56 3.87 0.18 Mississippi 2.21 1.91 0.05 0.08 0.12 2.57 0.81 Missouri 3.86 2.97 0.34 0.32 0.22 10.01 3.37 Montana 4.82 0.97 0.96 0.23 6.14 2.16 2.65 7.11 2.20 1.09 0.22 8.19 3.78 Nebraska 3.67 2.19 1.45 0.09 0.42 Nevada 7.34 2.45 0.23 New Hampshire 10.29 5.02 3.27 1.59 0.42 8.63 3.40 New Jersey 4.44 3.15 0.43 0.54 0.27 6.44 2.52 1.73 New Mexico 0.15 0.25 0.21 5.54 3.18 2.58 New York 3.58 0.86 0.39 0.31 6.91 2.20 5.14 North Carolina 3.49 1.61 1.66 0.13 0.09 5.18 2.28 North Dakota 4.55 3.24 0.70 0.38 0.22 5.86 2.05 See notes at end of table. 51

60 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-2. Public Library Collections and Circulation per Capita by State, FY 2015—continued Collection Materials per Capita Circulation per Capita Children’s Audio Video 1 3 2 3 State E-books Total Books Materials Materials Materials Total 3.56 4.11 2.54 0.62 Ohio 4.55 10.84 15.85 3.46 2.22 0.75 0.33 0.17 6.88 1.99 Oklahoma 4.74 2.61 1.05 0.79 0.30 15.01 Oregon 3.41 Pennsylvania 2.04 0.74 0.43 0.40 5.23 1.95 4.35 6.47 1.58 0.64 0.25 6.36 2.05 Rhode Island 4.01 2.42 1.96 0.13 0.18 0.17 5.65 2.08 South Carolina South Dakota 6.07 1.54 0.66 0.22 7.62 2.67 3.65 Tennessee 1.83 3.36 1.26 0.28 4.07 1.37 6.74 Texas 1.90 1.47 0.17 0.15 0.11 4.24 1.74 Utah 3.53 0.39 0.63 0.25 12.63 5.51 2.27 5.62 0.16 0.34 0.35 7.39 2.91 Vermont 4.80 3.22 2.11 0.56 0.20 0.18 8.80 3.08 Virginia Washington 2.79 0.36 0.30 0.22 12.00 4.07 1.91 West Virginia 2.70 2.19 0.55 0.19 3.39 1.10 5.63 Wisconsin 15.74 3.27 9.33 2.71 0.43 10.12 3.74 Wyoming 5.73 0.70 0.59 0.35 8.44 3.06 4.08 Outlying areas 0.74 0.70 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.37 0.15 American Samoa Guam 1.69 1.67 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.20 0.10 1 Total excludes libraries missing data for e-books and downloadable audio and video materials. Collection material types exclude libraries missing data for the respective material type only. As a result, material types may not sum to the total given the possible different denominators for each material type by state. 2 Missing data were not imputed due to data element definition change in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from this estimate. 3 Includes physical and downloadable materials. Missing data for downloadable audio and video materials were not imputed due to data element definition change in FY 2015. Libraries with missing data are excluded from this estimate. 4 Total includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes outlying areas, libraries that closed or temporarily closed in FY 2015, and libraries that do not meet the FSCS Public Library Definition. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population and exclude libraries with missing data. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 52

61 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-3. Library Visits and Reference Transactions per Capita by State, FY 2015 Reference Reference Library Library Transactions Transactions Visits Visits State State per Capita per Capita per Capita per Capita 1 Montana 0.82 4.48 0.48 Total 4.27 Nebraska 5.31 0.51 0.55 Nevada 3.49 Alabama 3.47 0.94 New Hampshire Alaska 4.81 0.69 0.79 6.39 Arizona 5.05 0.85 3.91 New Jersey 0.83 New Mexico Arkansas 0.84 3.93 0.87 4.47 1.42 New York 5.36 California 4.20 0.57 3.58 0.77 North Carolina Colorado 6.14 0.68 0.96 6.11 Connecticut North Dakota 3.29 0.76 6.75 Ohio 1.64 Delaware 4.40 0.48 1.24 6.23 0.60 4.24 Oklahoma District of Columbia Florida 5.47 1.19 3.71 0.59 Oregon 0.64 Pennsylvania 3.58 Georgia 2.84 0.80 Rhode Island Hawaii 0.63 5.57 3.48 0.47 0.84 South Carolina 3.70 0.58 Idaho 6.33 0.88 Illinois 5.97 0.56 4.88 South Dakota Tennessee 0.54 Indiana 5.73 0.70 2.97 0.53 Texas 0.56 5.90 Iowa 2.67 Utah 0.96 5.99 Kansas 5.61 0.81 0.94 4.23 Vermont 6.17 0.97 Kentucky Louisiana Virginia 4.33 1.13 0.84 4.61 0.66 Washington 0.56 5.74 Maine 5.76 0.33 2.94 West Virginia 1.53 4.78 Maryland Massachusetts 5.55 6.10 Wisconsin 0.73 0.67 Wyoming 4.91 0.80 Michigan 0.89 6.09 Outlying areas Minnesota 0.69 4.45 American Samoa 0.04 1.05 0.47 Mississippi 3.04 Guam 0.45 0.01 5.19 Missouri 0.65 1 Total includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes outlying areas, libraries that closed or temporarily closed in FY 2015, and libraries that do not meet the FSCS Public Library Definition. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 53

62 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-4. Total Programs Offered and Program Attendance per 1,000 People by Program Type and State, FY 2015 Programs Offered per 1,000 People Program Attendance per 1,000 People Young Young Adults’ Total Children’s Adults’ Total Children’s State Programs Programs Programs Programs Programs Programs 1 8.61 1.47 341.25 233.59 23.18 15.21 Total 4.79 1.03 238.17 153.66 Alabama 9.45 19.89 19.84 2.80 390.87 271.92 33.13 Alaska 12.53 5.79 225.83 157.53 14.81 10.73 1.02 Arizona 9.12 2.01 397.32 Arkansas 39.31 14.50 279.39 9.36 5.57 0.96 243.65 182.23 14.31 California 21.53 13.55 1.79 504.52 359.84 31.41 Colorado 28.77 Connecticut 588.03 357.50 31.35 15.89 2.10 7.20 275.92 121.93 19.31 16.05 1.36 Delaware 13.47 1.95 487.51 District of Columbia 20.88 22.31 383.87 11.08 5.13 0.86 243.94 152.22 17.14 Florida 7.88 4.04 0.60 225.67 152.30 11.79 Georgia 7.10 Hawaii 197.22 145.46 32.13 5.19 1.14 23.39 2.67 579.57 456.84 50.34 Idaho 16.05 17.42 10.44 1.72 410.89 292.47 29.56 Illinois 22.95 13.39 2.21 501.84 323.40 34.23 Indiana 559.18 439.30 32.89 2.19 Iowa 25.46 16.99 Kansas 23.37 2.57 474.01 36.25 14.13 344.49 13.77 502.71 337.03 28.85 21.62 1.64 Kentucky 9.28 2.57 388.94 Louisiana 44.68 17.48 228.26 35.68 20.80 2.16 510.98 315.01 24.58 Maine 12.88 8.66 1.16 350.44 Maryland 31.69 259.70 Massachusetts 11.71 1.73 397.10 272.01 20.13 20.68 13.43 1.24 340.60 219.64 22.82 Michigan 7.15 11.82 7.27 1.19 Minnesota 194.17 17.04 269.93 Mississippi 8.61 4.91 0.66 219.64 156.87 11.51 Missouri 17.08 8.60 1.35 426.54 303.08 31.21 Montana 16.85 1.65 317.53 214.00 20.78 10.90 21.21 2.12 492.35 382.53 30.55 Nebraska 13.64 10.01 5.10 0.50 Nevada 176.54 12.10 303.29 New Hampshire 42.91 24.06 2.49 645.04 426.38 24.70 New Jersey 21.49 10.82 1.94 382.78 228.21 24.32 New Mexico 12.83 1.90 293.64 206.91 31.02 7.49 New York 11.72 3.02 485.11 256.66 40.28 27.28 North Carolina 12.72 8.64 1.09 271.03 218.32 14.93 228.82 19.44 North Dakota 12.40 8.19 1.92 294.04 See notes at end of table. 54

63 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-4. Total Programs Offered and Program Attendance per 1,000 People by Program Type and State, FY 2015—continued Program Attendance per 1,000 People Programs Offered per 1,000 People Young Young Adults’ Adults’ Total Children’s Children’s Total State Programs Programs Programs Programs Programs Programs Ohio 2.40 553.02 388.53 38.84 15.00 23.64 6.60 1.29 343.87 232.26 25.55 Oklahoma 11.28 18.88 Oregon 1.88 440.38 351.41 21.00 12.72 Pennsylvania 10.53 1.64 327.69 238.80 19.48 17.58 27.38 2.50 398.14 186.08 20.85 Rhode Island 11.96 10.12 5.86 0.95 South Carolina 159.62 20.08 230.09 South Dakota 18.37 13.97 1.80 365.92 308.57 21.55 Tennessee 8.34 4.78 1.08 210.26 150.77 16.99 Texas 9.34 0.90 225.76 160.44 15.88 5.01 11.23 0.99 562.75 438.18 24.70 Utah 7.64 45.96 28.56 2.32 678.15 457.81 31.96 Vermont Virginia 12.90 0.91 313.90 211.57 17.14 8.14 Washington 7.30 2.05 334.59 241.23 30.68 13.02 West Virginia 13.35 8.61 1.48 246.59 183.02 18.97 Wisconsin 17.14 1.34 409.69 307.83 22.95 10.90 Wyoming 20.54 3.81 690.11 526.91 58.32 30.70 Outlying areas American Samoa 6.37 5.87 0.02 113.49 110.80 0.20 11.11 Guam 4.73 5.08 56.91 55.03 10.25 1 Total includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes outlying areas, libraries that closed or temporarily closed in FY 2015, and libraries that do not meet the FSCS Public Library Definition. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per 1,000 people estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 55

64 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-5. Public-Access Internet Computers and User Sessions by State, FY 2015 Public- Public- Access Access Public- Public- Internet Internet Access Access Computer Computer Internet Internet User User Computers Computers Sessions Sessions per 5,000 per 5,000 per Capita per Capita People People State State 1 0.97 4.73 6.51 Montana 1.19 Total 9.19 1.30 Nebraska 5.86 Alabama 0.89 0.90 Nevada 2.23 6.38 New Hampshire Alaska 8.05 1.15 0.75 New Jersey 1.06 1.05 Arizona 5.64 4.63 5.14 5.16 Arkansas 0.70 New Mexico 1.20 New York 2.87 1.11 California 0.83 5.31 Colorado 1.36 0.74 3.97 North Carolina 6.15 North Dakota 6.24 1.22 Connecticut 0.87 6.11 Ohio Delaware 5.83 1.66 5.75 0.70 Oklahoma 5.08 1.14 District of Columbia 1.67 7.44 4.23 0.83 4.26 Florida 0.96 Oregon Pennsylvania 0.64 3.23 4.34 Georgia 1.13 Hawaii 1.87 6.64 0.51 Rhode Island 1.17 South Carolina 1.35 0.94 4.58 6.81 Idaho 7.01 7.25 1.47 South Dakota 1.15 Illinois Indiana Tennessee 0.79 4.14 7.12 1.13 Iowa Texas 0.63 3.68 7.87 1.04 Utah 7.43 Kansas 1.19 3.60 0.97 1.06 9.19 Vermont Kentucky 5.57 1.00 5.96 Louisiana 1.15 Virginia 4.34 0.85 7.99 1.29 Maine Washington 4.58 0.99 0.54 3.96 West Virginia Maryland 4.38 1.04 4.89 Massachusetts 0.95 Wisconsin 5.50 0.95 1.02 Wyoming Michigan 6.09 1.46 7.54 Outlying areas 5.21 0.93 Minnesota American Samoa 1.66 0.12 4.60 Mississippi 0.84 Guam 17.16 0.16 4.64 Missouri 1.10 1 Total includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes outlying areas, libraries that closed or temporarily closed in FY 2015, and libraries that do not meet the FSCS Public Library Definition. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per 5,000 people and per capita estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 56

65 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-6. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People and Percentage of Librarians with an ALA-MLS by State, FY 2015 Librarians Total Paid Staff Percentage of Librarians State with an ALA-MLS per 25,000 People per 25,000 People 1 3.86 68.24% 11.19 Total Alabama 3.83 45.15% 9.08 4.58 49.75% Alaska 12.06 2.07 Arizona 7.59 84.55% 2.67 51.35% 9.51 Arkansas 7.61 2.11 94.23% California 15.78 4.65 Colorado 74.25% Connecticut 7.62 69.46% 16.06 8.68 3.28 Delaware 51.52% 6.06 100.00% 20.18 District of Columbia 7.75 2.44 87.07% Florida 6.59 1.41 100.00% Georgia Hawaii 9.64 98.70% 2.71 14.27 45.32% Idaho 4.04 18.30 6.75 Illinois 68.55% Indiana 18.04 6.00 66.18% Iowa 14.18 8.07 30.20% Kansas 17.24 39.23% 7.04 12.62 6.88 Kentucky 30.03% 6.31 38.84% 14.44 Louisiana 14.92 7.49 45.05% Maine 15.24 5.65 49.77% Maryland Massachusetts 14.13 68.79% 6.90 12.05 69.70% Michigan 4.47 9.82 3.53 Minnesota 67.56% Mississippi 7.67 5.30 20.64% Missouri 14.41 3.74 36.20% Montana 9.68 35.82% 4.81 12.69 31.56% Nebraska 5.75 6.99 1.78 Nevada 80.95% 47.21% New Hampshire 17.85 10.54 New Jersey 13.17 4.02 83.22% New Mexico 4.39 43.98% 10.23 New York 16.09 5.43 84.87% North Carolina 7.45 2.01 92.93% North Dakota 9.07 5.16 31.87% See notes at end of table. 57

66 APPENDIX C: State Indicator Tables Table C-6. Staffing (FTEs) per 25,000 People and Percentage of Librarians with an ALA-MLS by State, FY 2015—continued Librarians Total Paid Staff Percentage of Librarians State with an ALA-MLS per 25,000 People per 25,000 People 5.67 73.70% Ohio 19.44 5.75 45.94% 11.11 Oklahoma 12.31 3.47 83.58% Oregon 9.04 Pennsylvania 79.61% 2.99 14.71 80.36% Rhode Island 6.37 10.11 3.19 79.28% South Carolina South Dakota 5.93 25.89% 11.62 Tennessee 7.18 2.18 49.22% Texas 6.38 2.27 68.75% Utah 10.76 57.92% 3.31 14.93 31.99% Vermont 9.02 11.47 3.05 90.05% Virginia Washington 3.01 95.19% 13.96 West Virginia 8.95 4.94 25.94% Wisconsin 13.27 4.99 62.00% Wyoming 7.38 35.78% 19.54 Outlying areas American Samoa 4.14 2.90 14.29% Guam 3.29 0.00 † † Not applicable. 1 Total includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes outlying areas, libraries that closed or temporarily closed in FY 2015, and libraries that do not meet the FSCS Public Library Definition. NOTE: Calculations are based on unrounded estimates; therefore, reported totals may differ due to rounding. Per 25,000 people estimates in the table use the unduplicated population. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2015. 58

67 APPENDIX D: State Profiles Appendix D. State Profiles Appendix D includes a one-page profile for each state that meets the FSCS definition. The total of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. population of legal service area for all public Caveats for data use are listed below. For additional libraries in a state may exceed the state’s total technical information about the Public Libraries unduplicated population of legal service areas or Survey data, see Appendix B. The profiles are part the state total population estimate. of the FY 2015 annual report, and as such do not “Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians” is a consider changes less than 10 percent in per capita subset of “Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff.” metrics to be statistically meaningful. Numbers shown are rounded FTEs. Caveats for Data Use The locale code system, developed by NCES, State profile data include libraries that, in FY 2015, classifies a territory into four major categories: met the definition of a public library developed by urban, suburban, town, and rural ( Table B-3 ). the Federal and State Cooperative System (FSCS). Percentage of outlets by locale may not sum to Libraries that did not meet this definition are 100 due to rounding. excluded. Other operating expenditures includes all Data comparisons between states should be made expenditures other than those reported for with caution because of differences in reporting total staff expenditures and total collection Table B-1 ) and adherence to survey periods ( expenditures. This may include expenses such definitions. The definitions used by some states in as binding, supplies, repair or replacement of collecting data from their public libraries may not existing furnishings and equipment; and costs of be consistent with the PLS definitions. computer hardware and software used to support library operations or to link to external networks, The District of Columbia, although not a state, including the Internet. is included in this report. Special care should be used in comparing data for a city to those for a All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. state. Caution also should be used in comparing The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (www.bea. Hawaii’s data to those of other states because all ) does not provide margins of error associated gov public library data in Hawaii are reported under with these estimates. Readers should take this into one entity, the Hawaii State Public Library System. consideration when comparing data across years. “Number of Public Library Systems” refers to the Per person, per 1,000 people, per 5,000 people, number of administrative entities. In the body of and per 25,000 people estimates are based on this report, public library systems are referred to as the unduplicated population of the legal service public libraries. area. State-reported population data may derive from the U.S. Census Bureau. The U.S. Census “Number of Public Library Branches and Bureau (www.census.gov/acs) do not provide Bookmobiles” refers to the number of public margins of error associated with their estimates. library outlets. An outlet is a public library, such Readers should take this into consideration when as a central library, branch library, bookmobile, comparing data across years. or books-by-mail that is attached to an administrative entity. Estimates for total collections materials exclude libraries missing data for e-books or downloadable “Population Served” is sum of the population of audio or downloadable video materials. legal service areas for each public library in the 59

68 Alabama Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL by Outlets Stats Quick Library Public Locale 4,708,977 Population Size Served 219 Number of Public Library Systems 42% Number of Public Library Branches 21% 21% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 16% 307 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 722 1,709 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb Town Rural City 1 Person per Expenditures Operating per Person Collections Library Public $14.81 $4.67 1.96 0.71 $2.19 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $22.10 $22.13 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $21.39 $25.42 $37.38 $21.67 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.99 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.06 4.47 5.30 7.30 4.34 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 3.47 3.71 3.63 4.48 0.94 0.96 0.87 0.82 Reference Transactions per Person 9.45 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 11.71 15.21 9.19 238.17 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 229.69 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.86 5.74 4.55 4.73 0.90 0.95 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 9.83 8.85 11.19 9.08 3.83 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.06 3.86 3.96 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. Census The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey metrics report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 60

69 Alaska Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public ocale L by Stats Quick Outlets Library 652,561 Population Size Served 80 Number of Public Library Systems 79% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 97 14% 5% 1% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 118 311 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb City Rural 1 Person Expenditures Operating per per Person Collections Library Public $37.29 $14.39 3.65 0.78 $3.74 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $55.55 $58.52 $40.69 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $56.31 $38.50 $37.38 $55.42 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.38 2.44 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 5.72 7.35 7.17 7.30 6.92 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.81 5.35 4.44 4.48 0.69 0.60 0.57 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 19.42 10.58 15.21 19.84 390.87 272.55 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 425.89 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 8.05 7.52 3.19 4.73 1.15 1.18 0.90 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 11.65 8.82 11.19 12.06 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.33 2.35 3.86 4.58 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Far West region includes Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 61

70 Arizona Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 10,652,448 Population Size Served 90 Number of Public Library Systems 35% 25% 23% Number of Public Library Branches 18% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 233 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 561 2,053 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person per Expenditures Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $15.78 $6.54 $3.92 1.21 0.26 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $26.63 $25.53 $22.34 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $26.78 $21.57 $37.38 $26.23 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 1.82 2.06 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 1.77 6.55 4.92 7.30 6.54 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 3.91 4.14 3.09 4.48 0.85 0.86 0.61 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 11.08 9.89 15.21 10.73 225.83 238.48 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 220.93 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.64 4.19 4.20 4.73 1.06 1.24 0.77 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 7.62 7.15 11.19 7.59 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.05 2.61 3.86 2.07 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southwest region includes Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 62

71 Arkansas Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale y b Stats Quick Outlets Library 2,833,849 Population Size Served 58 Number of Public Library Systems 51% Number of Public Library Branches 31% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 235 11% 8% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 283 1,006 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb City Rural 1 Person Expenditures Operating per per Person Collections Library Public $17.00 $6.90 $3.56 2.41 0.22 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $28.37 $28.60 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $27.48 $25.42 $37.38 $27.46 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.90 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.91 5.44 5.30 7.30 5.36 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 3.93 4.15 3.63 4.48 0.84 0.86 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 12.95 11.71 15.21 14.50 397.32 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 377.43 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.14 4.91 4.55 4.73 0.70 0.75 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 9.96 8.85 11.19 9.51 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.71 3.06 3.86 2.67 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 63

72 California Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 38,697,702 Population Size Served 184 Number of Public Library Systems 37% 36% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 1,166 14% 13% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 3,269 11,779 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $22.58 $9.07 1.65 0.15 $3.17 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $36.63 $35.74 $40.69 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $33.92 $38.50 $37.38 $34.83 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.03 2.44 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.10 5.81 7.17 7.30 5.63 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.20 4.29 4.44 4.48 0.57 0.61 0.57 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 8.94 10.58 15.21 9.36 243.65 272.55 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 247.67 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 2.87 2.84 3.19 4.73 0.83 0.91 0.90 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 7.57 8.82 11.19 7.61 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.09 2.35 3.86 2.11 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Far West region includes Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 64

73 Colorado Libraries Public 2015 YEAR FISCAL Locale b Outlets Stats Quick Library Public y 5,325,718 Population Size Served 113 Number of Public Library Systems 37% 24% Number of Public Library Branches 21% 18% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 271 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 980 3,324 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff City Town Rural Suburb 1 Person Operating Expenditures per Person per Public Library Collections $32.99 $12.17 $6.99 1.89 0.32 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $56.91 $55.44 $46.97 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $51.25 $43.64 $37.38 $52.15 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.80 3.60 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.06 12.49 11.37 7.30 11.97 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 6.14 6.37 5.96 4.48 0.77 0.81 0.81 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 20.61 19.12 15.21 21.53 504.52 522.16 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 511.28 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.15 6.18 5.67 4.73 1.36 1.43 1.25 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 15.70 13.93 11.19 15.78 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.40 4.38 3.86 4.65 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Rocky Mountains region includes Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 65

74 Connecticut Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 4,152,620 Population Size Served 182 Number of Public Library Systems 52% Number of Public Library Branches 25% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 233 18% 5% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,041 2,192 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $43.12 $9.99 3.98 0.47 $5.49 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $56.13 $55.67 $47.15 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $57.96 $48.36 $37.38 $58.61 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.25 7.41 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 5.42 8.72 8.52 7.30 8.26 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 6.11 6.15 6.06 4.48 0.96 0.99 0.76 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 26.99 27.27 15.21 28.77 588.03 485.08 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 567.12 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.24 6.11 5.91 4.73 1.22 1.26 1.03 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 16.06 15.05 11.19 16.06 Librarians per 25,000 People 7.56 7.47 3.86 7.62 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The New England region includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 66

75 Delaware Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale y b Stats Quick Outlets Library 935,043 Population Size Served 21 Number of Public Library Systems 41% 35% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 34 12% 12% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 123 325 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Rural City Suburb Town 1 Expenditures Person per Operating per Person Collections Public Library $18.84 $5.99 1.76 0.58 $2.54 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $28.31 $28.04 $54.02 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $27.30 $49.57 $37.38 $27.37 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.60 4.53 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.77 6.68 6.74 7.30 6.54 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.40 4.14 4.77 4.48 0.48 0.44 1.10 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 14.11 21.66 15.21 16.05 275.92 405.28 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 276.98 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.75 4.17 4.57 4.73 0.70 0.67 0.97 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 8.92 13.54 11.19 8.68 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.29 4.54 3.86 3.28 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Mid-East region includes Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 67

76 District Columbia Public Libraries of FISCAL YEAR 2015 Stats Locale by Outlets Quick Public Library 672,228 Population Size Served 1 Number of Public Library Systems 100% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 26 0% 0% 0% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 163 543 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb City Rural 1 Person Expenditures Operating per per Person Collections Library Public $61.60 $16.74 2.77 0.36 $7.08 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $85.58 $83.13 $54.02 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $83.33 $49.57 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $85.42 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.39 3.44 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.53 Circulation per Person 5.97 5.98 6.74 7.30 6.23 6.42 4.77 4.48 Visits per Person 1.24 0.82 1.10 Reference Transactions per Person 1.40 22.31 21.66 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 21.79 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 487.51 432.50 405.28 341.25 7.44 7.59 4.57 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 1.67 1.59 0.97 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 21.63 13.54 11.19 20.18 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.58 4.54 3.86 6.06 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Mid-East region includes Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 68

77 Florida Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL y b Outlets Stats Quick Library Locale Public 20,061,119 Population Size Served 80 Number of Public Library Systems 49% Number of Public Library Branches 25% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 558 15% 11% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,929 6,126 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb Town Rural City 1 Person Operating Expenditures per Person per Collections Public Library $15.84 $7.32 $3.12 1.56 0.12 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $27.77 $26.27 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $26.54 $25.42 $37.38 $26.28 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.05 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.54 6.00 5.30 7.30 5.74 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 3.71 3.88 3.63 4.48 1.19 1.22 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 10.46 11.71 15.21 11.08 243.94 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 236.94 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.26 4.31 4.55 4.73 0.83 0.98 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 7.70 8.85 11.19 7.75 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.46 3.06 3.86 2.44 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 69

78 Georgia Libraries Public 2015 YEAR FISCAL Locale by Stats Quick utlets O Public Library 10,250,112 Population Size Served 63 Number of Public Library Systems 29% 28% 25% Number of Public Library Branches 18% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 411 577 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 2,701 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Rural Town Suburb City 1 Person Expenditures Operating per per Person C Library Public ollections $12.64 $3.72 1.61 0.04 $1.69 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $18.35 $19.67 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $17.88 $25.42 $37.38 $18.05 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 1.81 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 1.83 3.77 5.30 7.30 3.64 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 2.84 2.85 3.63 4.48 0.80 0.84 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 6.52 11.71 15.21 7.88 225.67 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 181.44 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.34 4.16 4.55 4.73 1.13 1.27 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 6.61 8.85 11.19 6.59 Librarians per 25,000 People 1.45 3.06 3.86 1.41 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 70

79 Hawaii Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 1,419,561 Population Size Served 1 Number of Public Library Systems 38% 25% Number of Public Library Branches 23% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 52 13% 154 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 548 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $16.66 $4.84 $2.85 2.25 0.03 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $24.12 $24.45 $40.69 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $23.87 $38.50 $37.38 $24.35 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.66 2.44 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.57 4.60 7.17 7.30 4.50 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 3.48 3.47 4.44 4.48 0.47 0.48 0.57 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 7.13 10.58 15.21 7.10 197.22 272.55 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 196.02 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 1.87 1.87 3.19 4.73 0.51 0.52 0.90 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 9.75 8.82 11.19 9.64 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.06 2.35 3.86 2.71 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Far West region includes Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 71

80 Idaho Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 1,366,575 Population Size Served 102 Number of Public Library Systems 56% Number of Public Library Branches 27% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 154 11% 5% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 221 780 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $23.28 $9.66 $3.81 3.18 0.31 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $39.46 $38.54 $46.97 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $36.44 $43.64 $37.38 $36.75 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.82 3.60 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.06 10.57 11.37 7.30 11.44 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 6.33 6.44 5.96 4.48 0.84 0.98 0.81 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 22.37 19.12 15.21 23.39 579.57 522.16 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 565.84 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.81 6.61 5.67 4.73 1.35 1.39 1.25 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 14.10 13.93 11.19 14.27 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.84 4.38 3.86 4.04 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Rocky Mountains region includes Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 72

81 Illinois Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 11,708,841 Population Size Served 622 Number of Public Library Systems 34% 32% Number of Public Library Branches 19% 15% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 798 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 3,182 8,626 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $39.61 $14.56 $6.96 3.60 1.02 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $68.38 $69.44 $57.11 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $61.50 $51.84 $37.38 $61.13 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.08 7.92 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 5.39 9.78 11.38 7.30 9.50 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.97 6.22 5.85 4.48 0.88 0.89 1.03 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 16.66 18.85 15.21 17.42 410.89 444.11 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 401.85 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 7.01 6.79 6.33 4.73 1.15 1.19 1.22 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 18.45 16.55 11.19 18.30 Librarians per 25,000 People 6.75 5.65 3.86 6.75 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Great Lakes region includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 73

82 Indiana Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 6,222,089 Population Size Served 237 Number of Public Library Systems 38% 27% Number of Public Library Branches 19% 16% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 453 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,464 4,403 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $32.01 $12.57 $7.11 3.80 0.86 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $54.01 $55.19 $57.11 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $51.37 $51.84 $37.38 $51.69 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.42 7.92 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 5.49 12.66 11.38 7.30 12.73 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.73 5.81 5.85 4.48 0.70 0.75 1.03 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 22.62 18.85 15.21 22.95 501.84 444.11 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 487.57 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 7.12 7.18 6.33 4.73 1.13 1.18 1.22 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 17.94 16.55 11.19 18.04 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.88 5.65 3.86 6.00 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Great Lakes region includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 74

83 Iowa Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale by utlets Stats Quick O Library 3,087,130 Population Size Served 534 Number of Public Library Systems 74% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 561 17% 4% 4% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 990 1,740 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb Rural City 1 per Operating Expenditures Person Person per C Public Library ollections $26.44 $7.12 $5.05 3.89 2.11 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $40.23 $40.36 $42.00 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $39.03 $39.99 $37.38 $38.61 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 6.79 7.34 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 7.50 9.14 9.33 7.30 8.94 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.90 5.92 5.08 4.48 0.56 0.56 0.66 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 24.57 17.94 15.21 25.46 559.18 407.69 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 530.71 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 7.87 7.72 6.18 4.73 1.04 1.12 1.08 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 14.39 13.02 11.19 14.18 Librarians per 25,000 People 8.07 5.08 3.86 8.07 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Plains region includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 75

84 Kansas Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale by utlets Stats Quick O Library 2,495,381 Population Size Served 320 Number of Public Library Systems 70% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 372 19% 6% 5% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 703 1,723 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb Rural City 1 per Operating Expenditures Person Person per C Public Library ollections $30.49 $11.61 $5.62 3.65 16.80 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $49.60 $49.05 $42.00 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $46.66 $39.99 $37.38 $47.72 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 4.37 7.34 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 27.56 10.04 9.33 7.30 9.98 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.61 5.59 5.08 4.48 0.81 0.80 0.66 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 23.61 17.94 15.21 23.37 474.01 407.69 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 496.92 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 7.43 7.47 6.18 4.73 1.19 1.27 1.08 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 17.27 13.02 11.19 17.24 Librarians per 25,000 People 7.02 5.08 3.86 7.04 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Plains region includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 76

85 Kentucky Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 4,413,457 Population Size Served 119 Number of Public Library Systems 40% 39% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 280 14% 7% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,209 2,219 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $20.60 $7.34 $4.64 2.09 2.06 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $41.69 $40.62 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $32.06 $25.42 $37.38 $32.58 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 4.60 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.95 6.93 5.30 7.30 6.92 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.23 4.39 3.63 4.48 0.97 1.02 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 20.34 11.71 15.21 21.62 502.71 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 456.45 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.57 5.53 4.55 4.73 1.00 1.04 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 12.39 8.85 11.19 12.62 Librarians per 25,000 People 6.82 3.06 3.86 6.88 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 77

86 Louisiana Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 4,692,850 Population Size Served 68 Number of Public Library Systems 35% 26% 23% Number of Public Library Branches 16% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 367 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,178 2,698 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $26.54 $12.33 $5.22 2.53 0.27 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $50.73 $52.16 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $43.67 $25.42 $37.38 $44.09 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.16 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.37 4.50 5.30 7.30 4.50 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.33 3.72 3.63 4.48 1.13 0.99 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 16.21 11.71 15.21 17.48 388.94 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 388.88 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.96 5.79 4.55 4.73 1.15 1.14 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 14.23 8.85 11.19 14.44 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.66 3.06 3.86 6.31 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 78

87 Maine Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 1,280,104 Population Size Served 228 Number of Public Library Systems 72% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 235 14% 9% 5% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 346 689 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $26.86 $8.74 5.18 1.30 $3.62 Books E-books Other Collections Staffing ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $39.23 $38.41 $47.15 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $38.09 $48.36 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $39.23 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 8.02 7.41 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 7.37 8.06 8.52 7.30 Circulation per Person 7.75 5.93 6.06 4.48 Visits per Person 5.76 Reference Transactions per Person 0.66 0.65 0.76 0.82 35.68 32.28 27.27 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 510.98 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 485.08 341.25 493.31 7.99 8.07 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.91 0.99 1.03 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.04 Public Library Staffing 14.92 14.70 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 15.05 Librarians per 25,000 People 7.31 7.47 3.86 7.49 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The New England region includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 79

88 Maryland Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 5,922,168 Population Size Served 24 Number of Public Library Systems 52% Number of Public Library Branches 21% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 204 15% 12% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,330 3,587 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $34.57 $6.25 $5.66 0.46 2.03 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $53.85 $52.98 $54.02 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $45.62 $49.57 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $46.48 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.16 4.53 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.14 10.00 6.74 7.30 Circulation per Person 9.90 4.77 4.77 4.48 Visits per Person 4.78 Reference Transactions per Person 1.53 1.48 1.10 0.82 12.88 10.98 21.66 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 350.44 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 405.28 341.25 306.25 4.38 4.17 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.57 1.04 0.97 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.11 Public Library Staffing 15.24 14.29 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 13.54 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.79 4.54 3.86 5.65 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Mid-East region includes Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 80

89 Massachusetts Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 6,719,857 Population Size Served 368 Number of Public Library Systems 58% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 22% 466 13% 6% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,842 3,770 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $32.60 $7.43 $5.45 2.47 4.63 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $43.91 $43.83 $47.15 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $45.03 $48.36 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $45.48 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 8.15 7.41 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 6.69 9.58 8.52 7.30 Circulation per Person 9.20 6.38 6.06 4.48 Visits per Person 6.10 Reference Transactions per Person 0.67 0.74 0.76 0.82 20.68 19.54 27.27 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 397.10 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 485.08 341.25 389.51 4.89 4.88 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.91 0.95 1.03 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.11 Public Library Staffing 14.13 14.08 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 15.05 Librarians per 25,000 People 6.83 7.47 3.86 6.90 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The New England region includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 81

90 Michigan Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 9,723,351 Population Size Served 392 Number of Public Library Systems 44% Number of Public Library Branches 25% 18% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 649 12% 1,755 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 4,734 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $23.61 $9.28 $4.15 0.37 3.24 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $40.89 $40.78 $57.11 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $38.20 $51.84 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $37.04 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 4.28 7.92 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.15 8.54 11.38 7.30 Circulation per Person 8.28 5.10 5.85 4.48 Visits per Person 4.91 Reference Transactions per Person 0.89 0.95 1.03 0.82 13.43 12.76 18.85 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 340.60 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 444.11 341.25 322.59 6.09 6.07 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.33 1.02 1.22 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.10 Public Library Staffing 12.05 12.20 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 16.55 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.53 5.65 3.86 4.47 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Great Lakes region includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 82

91 Minnesota Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 5,781,457 Population Size Served 137 Number of Public Library Systems 42% 28% Number of Public Library Branches 18% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 363 12% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 778 2,162 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $24.67 $9.75 $4.75 0.72 2.61 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $39.71 $39.40 $42.00 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $38.56 $39.99 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $39.10 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.77 7.34 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.77 9.99 9.33 7.30 Circulation per Person 9.56 4.53 5.08 4.48 Visits per Person 4.45 Reference Transactions per Person 0.69 0.73 0.66 0.82 11.82 11.47 17.94 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 269.93 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 407.69 341.25 257.72 5.21 5.20 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.18 0.93 1.08 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.00 Public Library Staffing 9.82 9.86 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 13.02 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.58 5.08 3.86 3.53 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Plains region includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 83

92 Mississippi Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale by Outlets Stats Quick Library 3,010,927 Population Size Served 52 Number of Public Library Systems 57% Number of Public Library Branches 26% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 238 11% 6% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 632 916 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Rural City Suburb Town 1 Expenditures Person per Operating per Person Collections Public Library $11.07 $4.01 1.91 0.05 $1.38 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $17.26 $17.54 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $16.53 $25.42 $37.38 $16.47 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.10 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.21 2.70 5.30 7.30 2.57 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 3.04 3.08 3.63 4.48 0.47 0.53 0.87 0.82 Reference Transactions per Person 8.61 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 11.71 15.21 8.60 219.64 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 213.79 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.60 4.64 4.55 4.73 0.84 0.85 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 7.88 8.85 11.19 7.67 5.30 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.06 3.86 5.28 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 84

93 Missouri Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale by Outlets Stats Quick Library 5,476,144 Population Size Served 149 Number of Public Library Systems 39% 28% Number of Public Library Branches 19% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 388 14% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 819 3,157 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Rural City Suburb Town 1 Expenditures Person per Operating per Person Collections Public Library $24.83 $10.68 $6.58 2.97 0.34 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $45.93 $45.00 $42.00 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $40.93 $39.99 $37.38 $42.09 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.52 7.34 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.86 10.18 9.33 7.30 10.01 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.19 5.39 5.08 4.48 0.65 0.66 0.66 0.82 Reference Transactions per Person 17.08 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 17.94 15.21 16.32 426.54 407.69 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 413.65 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.64 4.51 6.18 4.73 1.10 1.17 1.08 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 14.34 13.02 11.19 14.41 3.74 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.08 3.86 3.64 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Plains region includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 85

94 Montana Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 988,533 Population Size Served 82 Number of Public Library Systems 69% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 118 25% 5% 1% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 190 383 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $18.15 $4.77 $2.85 0.97 2.65 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $28.36 $27.71 $46.97 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $25.80 $43.64 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $25.76 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 4.82 3.60 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.57 6.01 11.37 7.30 Circulation per Person 6.14 4.76 5.96 4.48 Visits per Person 4.27 Reference Transactions per Person 0.48 0.54 0.81 0.82 16.85 14.50 19.12 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 317.53 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 522.16 341.25 314.90 6.51 6.48 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.67 1.19 1.25 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.94 Public Library Staffing 9.68 9.69 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 13.93 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.81 4.38 3.86 4.81 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Rocky Mountains region includes Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 86

95 Nebraska Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 1,560,343 Population Size Served 247 Number of Public Library Systems 72% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 273 16% 8% 4% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 360 793 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $23.31 $6.73 $4.88 2.20 3.67 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $36.83 $36.57 $42.00 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $34.33 $39.99 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $34.92 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 7.11 7.34 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 6.76 8.54 9.33 7.30 Circulation per Person 8.19 5.41 5.08 4.48 Visits per Person 5.31 Reference Transactions per Person 0.51 0.54 0.66 0.82 21.21 21.00 17.94 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 492.35 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 407.69 341.25 469.27 9.19 9.52 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.18 1.30 1.08 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.38 Public Library Staffing 12.69 12.87 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 13.02 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.80 5.08 3.86 5.75 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Plains region includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 87

96 Nevada Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 2,842,285 Population Size Served 22 Number of Public Library Systems 39% Number of Public Library Branches 24% 24% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 88 14% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 203 794 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $19.89 $5.19 $3.79 1.45 0.09 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $32.40 $32.51 $40.69 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $28.37 $38.50 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $28.86 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.19 2.44 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.00 7.53 7.17 7.30 Circulation per Person 7.34 3.76 4.44 4.48 Visits per Person 3.49 Reference Transactions per Person 0.55 0.55 0.57 0.82 10.01 9.26 10.58 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 303.29 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 272.55 341.25 291.19 2.23 2.34 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 3.19 0.89 0.90 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 0.98 Public Library Staffing 6.99 7.48 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 8.82 Librarians per 25,000 People 1.82 2.35 3.86 1.78 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Far West region includes Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 88

97 New Public Libraries Hampshire YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 1,428,394 Population Size Served 219 Number of Public Library Systems 68% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 224 18% 13% 1% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 488 827 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $36.83 $7.89 3.27 5.02 $5.32 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $51.49 $50.62 $47.15 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $50.34 $48.36 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $50.43 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 10.29 7.41 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 10.62 9.00 8.52 7.30 Circulation per Person 8.63 6.47 6.06 4.48 Visits per Person 6.39 Reference Transactions per Person 0.79 0.77 0.76 0.82 42.91 39.91 27.27 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 15.21 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 645.69 485.08 341.25 645.04 6.38 5.91 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.31 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 0.75 0.85 1.03 0.97 Public Library Staffing 17.85 17.45 15.05 11.19 Staffing per 25,000 People 10.54 10.23 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.86 7.47 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The New England region includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. Bureau U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: The ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 89

98 New Public Libraries Jersey YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 9,328,224 Population Size Served 282 Number of Public Library Systems 85% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 437 7% 4% 4% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,389 4,551 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library C Public ollections $37.63 $9.27 3.15 0.43 $4.62 Books E-books Staffing Other Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 FY 2014 National Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $54.95 $54.02 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue $54.36 3 per Person $52.64 $49.57 $37.38 $51.52 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 4.33 4.53 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.44 6.74 6.74 7.30 6.44 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.05 5.25 4.77 4.48 0.83 0.89 1.10 0.82 Reference Transactions per Person 21.49 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 21.66 15.21 20.34 382.78 405.28 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 380.86 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.63 4.57 4.57 4.73 1.05 1.12 0.97 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 13.55 13.54 11.19 13.17 4.02 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.54 3.86 4.02 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Mid-East region includes Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 90

99 New Public Libraries Mexico YEAR 2015 FISCAL Locale by Outlets Stats Quick Library Public 1,638,831 Population Size Served 87 Number of Public Library Systems 37% 31% Number of Public Library Branches 21% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 117 12% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 288 672 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb Town Rural City 1 Person per Expenditures Operating per Person Collections Library Public $18.50 $5.83 $4.36 2.58 0.15 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $31.31 $29.42 $22.34 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $27.90 $21.57 $37.38 $28.70 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.07 2.06 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.18 5.60 4.92 7.30 5.54 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.47 4.46 3.09 4.48 0.87 0.87 0.61 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 12.12 9.89 15.21 12.83 293.64 238.48 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 284.33 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.16 4.90 4.20 4.73 1.20 1.27 0.77 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 10.04 7.15 11.19 10.23 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.29 2.61 3.86 4.39 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southwest region includes Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 91

100 New Public Libraries York YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 19,519,880 Population Size Served 756 Number of Public Library Systems 31% 30% 26% Number of Public Library Branches 13% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 1,071 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 4,213 12,470 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $45.72 $12.45 0.86 3.58 $5.39 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $70.35 $69.99 $54.02 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $63.47 $49.57 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $63.56 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.14 4.53 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 5.07 7.38 6.74 7.30 Circulation per Person 6.91 5.49 4.77 4.48 Visits per Person 5.36 Reference Transactions per Person 1.42 1.45 1.10 0.82 27.28 25.80 21.66 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 15.21 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 461.95 405.28 341.25 485.11 5.31 4.57 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.01 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.11 1.15 0.97 0.97 Public Library Staffing 16.09 16.08 13.54 11.19 Staffing per 25,000 People 5.43 5.26 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.86 4.54 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Mid-East region includes Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. Bureau U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: The ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 92

101 North Public Libraries Carolina YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 9,953,687 Population Size Served 80 Number of Public Library Systems 34% 25% Number of Public Library Branches 20% 20% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 406 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 800 2,966 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $14.87 $3.97 $2.29 1.66 1.61 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $21.93 $21.79 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $20.75 $25.42 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $21.14 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.49 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.25 5.36 5.30 7.30 Circulation per Person 5.18 3.56 3.63 4.48 Visits per Person 3.58 Reference Transactions per Person 0.68 0.68 0.87 0.82 12.72 12.17 11.71 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 15.21 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 264.20 274.99 341.25 271.03 3.97 4.55 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 3.89 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 0.74 0.79 0.88 0.97 Public Library Staffing 7.45 7.37 8.85 11.19 Staffing per 25,000 People 2.01 1.96 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.86 3.06 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. Bureau U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: The ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 93

102 North Public Libraries Dakota YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 666,843 Population Size Served 72 Number of Public Library Systems 72% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 86 17% 7% 3% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 138 243 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $17.61 $5.97 $3.81 0.70 3.24 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $28.77 $28.48 $42.00 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $26.95 $39.99 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $27.40 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 4.55 7.34 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.60 6.14 9.33 7.30 Circulation per Person 5.86 3.36 5.08 4.48 Visits per Person 3.29 Reference Transactions per Person 0.76 0.57 0.66 0.82 12.40 12.08 17.94 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 15.21 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 279.12 407.69 341.25 294.04 6.11 6.18 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 6.42 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 0.87 0.89 1.08 0.97 Public Library Staffing 9.07 9.47 13.02 11.19 Staffing per 25,000 People 5.16 5.18 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.86 5.08 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Plains region includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. Bureau U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: The ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 94

103 Ohio Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 11,509,951 Population Size Served 251 Number of Public Library Systems 31% 28% 24% Number of Public Library Branches 18% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 763 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 2,609 8,951 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library C Public ollections $39.31 $13.22 $8.66 4.11 3.56 Books E-books Staffing Other Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 FY 2014 National Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $66.48 $57.11 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue $69.30 3 per Person $60.29 $51.84 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $61.19 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 8.94 7.92 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 10.84 15.93 11.38 7.30 Circulation per Person 15.85 7.16 5.85 6.75 Visits per Person 4.48 Reference Transactions per Person 1.64 1.71 1.03 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 23.47 18.85 15.21 23.64 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 529.85 444.11 341.25 553.02 5.83 6.33 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.61 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.66 1.74 1.22 0.97 Public Library Staffing 19.44 19.38 16.55 11.19 Staffing per 25,000 People 5.67 5.64 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.86 5.65 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Great Lakes region includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. Bureau U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: The ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 95

104 Oklahoma Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 3,201,818 Population Size Served 119 Number of Public Library Systems 38% 38% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 218 12% 12% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 736 1,424 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collections Public $22.88 $6.93 $4.61 0.75 2.22 Books E-books Other Staffing Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $37.81 $36.38 $22.34 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue 3 per Person $35.77 $21.57 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $34.42 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.46 2.06 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.21 6.92 4.92 7.30 Circulation per Person 6.88 4.34 3.09 4.48 Visits per Person 4.24 Reference Transactions per Person 0.60 0.79 0.61 0.82 11.28 12.39 9.89 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 343.87 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 238.48 341.25 368.02 5.08 4.86 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.20 1.14 0.77 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 1.15 Public Library Staffing 11.11 11.64 Staffing per 25,000 People 11.19 7.15 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.39 2.61 3.86 5.75 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southwest region includes Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. NOTE: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 96

105 Oregon Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Library Stats Quick Locale by Outlets Public 3,796,448 Population Size Served 131 Number of Public Library Systems 39% 32% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 15% 231 14% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 521 1,848 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Expenditures Person Operating per per Person Library Collec Public tions $34.96 $12.76 2.61 1.05 $5.29 Books E-books Staffing Other Collections ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 FY 2014 National Public Library Financial Health 3 per Person $54.15 $40.69 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue $57.04 3 per Person $50.88 $38.50 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $53.01 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 4.84 2.44 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.74 15.22 7.17 7.30 Circulation per Person 15.01 5.77 4.44 5.47 Visits per Person 4.48 Reference Transactions per Person 0.59 0.62 0.57 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 17.53 10.58 15.21 18.88 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 404.54 272.55 341.25 440.38 4.23 3.19 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.17 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person 0.96 1.03 0.90 0.97 Public Library Staffing 12.31 12.00 8.82 11.19 Staffing per 25,000 People 3.47 3.32 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.86 2.35 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Far West region includes Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. Bureau U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: The ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 97

106 Pennsylvania Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale y b Stats Quick Outlets Library 12,446,680 Population Size Served 455 Number of Public Library Systems 48% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 19% 643 17% 16% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,486 4,492 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb City Rural 1 Person Expenditures Operating per per Person Collections Library Public $18.69 $6.21 2.04 0.74 $2.71 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $28.62 $27.97 $54.02 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $27.21 $49.57 $37.38 $27.61 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.04 4.53 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 4.35 5.34 6.74 7.30 5.23 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 3.58 3.60 4.77 4.48 0.64 0.63 1.10 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 16.73 21.66 15.21 17.58 327.69 405.28 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 329.99 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 3.23 3.24 4.57 4.73 0.64 0.69 0.97 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 8.94 13.54 11.19 9.04 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.98 4.54 3.86 2.99 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Mid-East region includes Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 98

107 Rhode Public Libraries Island YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 1,431,901 Population Size Served 48 Number of Public Library Systems 59% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 71 21% 18% 1% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 270 622 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $33.05 $8.56 4.01 1.58 $3.44 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $46.49 $45.12 $47.15 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $44.10 $48.36 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $45.04 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 6.00 6.47 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 7.41 Circulation per Person 6.36 6.81 8.52 7.30 5.57 5.73 6.06 4.48 Visits per Person 0.63 0.82 0.76 Reference Transactions per Person 0.66 27.38 27.27 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 24.53 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 398.14 387.55 485.08 341.25 6.64 6.64 5.91 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 1.17 1.36 1.03 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 13.91 15.05 11.19 14.71 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.91 7.47 3.86 6.37 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The New England region includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 99

108 South Public Libraries Carolina YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 4,652,360 Population Size Served 42 Number of Public Library Systems 30% 28% 25% Number of Public Library Branches 17% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 223 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 594 1,882 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $18.88 $4.97 $3.54 1.96 0.13 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $29.12 $28.37 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $27.37 $25.42 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $27.39 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.38 2.42 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.26 Circulation per Person 5.65 5.59 5.30 7.30 3.70 3.91 3.63 4.48 Visits per Person 0.58 0.82 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.61 10.12 11.71 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 9.49 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 230.09 216.20 274.99 341.25 4.58 4.52 4.55 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 0.94 0.96 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 10.26 8.85 11.19 10.11 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.24 3.06 3.86 3.19 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 100

109 South Public Libraries Dakota FISCAL YEAR 2015 Quick Outlets Locale Stats Library Public by 1,239,099 Population Size Served 112 Number of Public Library Systems 76% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 147 18% 5% 1% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 180 352 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb City Rural 1 Person Expenditures Operating per per Person Collections Library Public $22.12 $6.57 $4.37 1.54 3.65 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $34.79 $33.56 $42.00 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $32.31 $39.99 $37.38 $33.06 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.73 7.34 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 6.07 7.58 9.33 7.30 7.62 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.88 5.15 5.08 4.48 0.56 0.50 0.66 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 16.40 17.94 15.21 18.37 365.92 407.69 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 360.76 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 7.25 7.26 6.18 4.73 1.47 1.94 1.08 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 11.70 13.02 11.19 11.62 Librarians per 25,000 People 5.96 5.08 3.86 5.93 1 The sum of books and e-books will not equal the total collections per person reported in the table. The total collections per person reported in the table includes books, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Plains region includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 101

110 Tennessee Libraries Public 2015 YEAR FISCAL y b Stats Quick Outlets Library Locale Public 6,374,660 Population Size Served 185 Number of Public Library Systems 35% 28% 23% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 14% 287 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 558 1,842 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb Town Rural City 1 Person Operating Expenditures per Person per Collections Public Library $12.01 $3.51 $2.41 1.83 3.36 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $18.53 $17.89 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $17.29 $25.42 $37.38 $17.93 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.48 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 6.74 4.13 5.30 7.30 4.07 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 2.97 3.08 3.63 4.48 0.54 0.55 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 7.72 11.71 15.21 8.34 210.26 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 208.11 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.14 3.98 4.55 4.73 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 7.17 8.85 11.19 7.18 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.21 3.06 3.86 2.18 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 102

111 Texas Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Locale Outlets Library Stats Quick by Public 24,827,614 Population Size Served 549 Number of Public Library Systems 29% 28% 24% 19% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 877 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 2,441 6,875 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff City Town Rural Suburb 1 Person Operating Expenditures per Person per Public Library Collections $12.64 $3.45 $2.34 1.47 0.17 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $18.88 $20.22 $22.34 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $19.62 $21.57 $37.38 $18.43 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.04 2.06 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 1.90 4.65 4.92 7.30 4.24 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 2.67 3.00 3.09 4.48 0.53 0.61 0.61 0.82 Reference Transactions per Person 9.34 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 9.89 15.21 10.03 225.76 238.48 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 249.19 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 3.68 3.90 4.20 4.73 0.63 0.72 0.77 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 6.97 7.15 11.19 6.38 2.27 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.61 3.86 2.51 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southwest region includes Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 103

112 Utah Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale by Outlets Stats Quick Library 2,921,493 Population Size Served 72 Number of Public Library Systems 35% 30% 25% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 141 10% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 387 1,258 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Rural City Suburb Town 1 Expenditures Person per Operating per Person Collections Public Library $22.13 $8.00 $5.06 2.27 0.39 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $36.76 $36.81 $46.97 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $34.42 $43.64 $37.38 $35.18 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 3.22 3.60 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.53 12.96 11.37 7.30 12.63 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.99 6.15 5.96 4.48 0.96 0.97 0.81 0.82 Reference Transactions per Person 11.23 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 19.12 15.21 11.49 562.75 522.16 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 438.76 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 3.60 3.63 5.67 4.73 0.97 1.03 1.25 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 10.79 13.93 11.19 10.76 3.31 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.38 3.86 3.14 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Rocky Mountains region includes Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 104

113 7erNont Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale y b Stats Quick Outlets Library 660,318 Population Size Served 159 Number of Public Library Systems 79% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 165 16% 4% 1% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 210 348 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Rural City Suburb Town 1 Expenditures Person per Operating per Person Collections Public Library $27.61 $9.40 4.80 0.16 $4.17 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $39.99 $37.66 $47.15 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $39.78 $48.36 $37.38 $41.18 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.58 7.41 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 5.62 7.58 8.52 7.30 7.39 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 6.17 6.43 6.06 4.48 0.94 0.92 0.76 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 42.15 27.27 15.21 45.96 678.15 485.08 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 657.41 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 9.19 9.08 5.91 4.73 1.06 1.10 1.03 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 14.73 15.05 11.19 14.93 Librarians per 25,000 People 8.89 7.47 3.86 9.02 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The New England region includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 105

114 Virginia Libraries Public YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 8,164,556 Population Size Served 91 Number of Public Library Systems 35% 27% Number of Public Library Branches 22% 16% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 379 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 997 3,744 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $23.69 $6.74 $3.85 2.11 0.56 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $34.95 $34.69 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $34.11 $25.42 $37.38 $34.27 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.73 3.26 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.22 9.23 5.30 7.30 8.80 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 4.61 4.62 3.63 4.48 0.84 0.90 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 11.97 11.71 15.21 12.90 313.90 274.99 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 288.80 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.34 4.25 4.55 4.73 0.85 0.90 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 11.80 8.85 11.19 11.47 Librarians per 25,000 People 3.01 3.06 3.86 3.05 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 106

115 8ashington Libraries Public 2015 YEAR FISCAL by Outlets Stats Quick Library Locale Public 6,955,368 Population Size Served 62 Number of Public Library Systems 29% 27% 24% 21% Number of Public Library Branches and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 371 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 839 3,883 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb Town Rural City 1 Person Operating Expenditures per Person per Collections Public Library $38.54 $10.32 $7.47 1.91 0.36 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $59.86 $59.09 $40.69 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $55.24 $38.50 $37.38 $56.33 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 2.73 2.44 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 2.79 12.20 7.17 7.30 12.00 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.74 6.02 4.44 4.48 0.56 0.61 0.57 0.82 Reference Transactions per Person 13.02 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 10.58 15.21 12.08 334.59 272.55 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 313.77 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 4.58 4.79 3.19 4.73 1.29 1.54 0.90 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 13.56 8.82 11.19 13.96 3.01 Librarians per 25,000 People 2.35 3.86 3.01 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Far West region includes Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 107

116 8est Public Libraries 7irginia YEAR FISCAL 2015 Library Quick Locale by Outlets Stats Public 1,852,994 Population Size Served 97 Number of Public Library Systems 48% Number of Public Library Branches 27% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 181 17% 9% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 366 663 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Suburb City Rural Town 1 Person Expenditures per Operating Person per Collec Public Library tions $12.56 $3.82 $2.78 2.70 2.19 Books E-books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $19.99 $21.32 $27.13 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $19.04 $25.42 $37.38 Total Operating Expenditures $19.16 Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.81 5.63 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 3.26 Circulation per Person 3.39 3.38 5.30 7.30 2.94 2.90 3.63 4.48 Visits per Person 0.33 0.82 0.87 Reference Transactions per Person 0.33 13.35 11.71 15.21 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 12.69 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 246.59 226.54 274.99 341.25 3.96 3.91 4.55 4.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 0.54 0.58 0.88 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 8.72 8.85 11.19 8.95 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.88 3.06 3.86 4.94 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Southeast region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these Census estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 108

117 Wisconsin Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale y b Stats Quick Outlets Library 5,749,006 Population Size Served 381 Number of Public Library Systems 50% Number of Public Library Branches 25% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 465 15% 10% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 1,148 3,052 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Rural City Suburb Town 1 Expenditures Person per Operating per Person Collections Public Library $27.05 $8.14 $4.32 3.27 9.33 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $40.62 $40.32 $57.11 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $39.50 $51.84 $37.38 $39.51 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 14.10 7.92 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 15.74 10.55 11.38 7.30 10.12 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 5.55 5.73 5.85 4.48 0.73 0.78 1.03 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 16.20 18.85 15.21 17.14 409.69 444.11 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 388.73 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 5.50 5.48 6.33 4.73 0.95 1.05 1.22 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 13.32 16.55 11.19 13.27 Librarians per 25,000 People 4.98 5.65 3.86 4.99 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Great Lakes region includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 109

118 8yoNing Libraries Public YEAR 2015 FISCAL Public Locale y b Stats Quick Outlets Library 584,153 Population Size Served 23 Number of Public Library Systems 64% Number of Public Library Branches 29% and Bookmobiles (Outlets) 77 5% 3% Number of Full-Time Equivalent Librarians 172 456 Number of Full-Time Equivalent Staff Town Suburb City Rural 1 Person Expenditures Operating per per Person Collections Library Public $41.35 $9.81 4.08 0.70 $4.49 E-books Books Collections Staffing Other ExpenditureType 2 Regional FY 2015 National FY 2014 Public Library Financial Health 3 $57.40 $55.70 $46.97 $39.94 Total Operating Revenue per Person 3 per Person $54.90 $43.64 $37.38 $55.64 Total Operating Expenditures Public Library Resources, Services, and Usages 5.43 3.60 4.28 Public Library Collections per Person 5.73 8.43 11.37 7.30 8.44 Circulation per Person Visits per Person 6.09 6.29 5.96 4.48 0.80 0.83 0.81 Reference Transactions per Person 0.82 Public Library Programs per 1,000 People 27.94 19.12 15.21 30.70 690.11 522.16 341.25 Program Attendance per 1,000 People 642.92 Public-Access Internet Computers per 5,000 People 7.54 7.45 5.67 4.73 1.46 1.55 1.25 0.97 Public-Access Internet Computer User Sessions per Person Public Library Staffing Staffing per 25,000 People 19.86 13.93 11.19 19.54 Librarians per 25,000 People 7.74 4.38 3.86 7.38 1 Thesumofbooksande-bookswillnotequalthetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetable. Thetotalcollectionsperpersonreportedinthetableincludesbooks, e-books, and physical and downloadable audio and video materials. 2 The Rocky Mountains region includes Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. 3 All financial data are in constant FY 2015 dollars. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ( www.bea.gov ) and the U.S. Census NOTE: Bureau ( www.census.gov/acs ) do not provide margins of error associated with these estimates. Readers should take this into consideration when comparing data across years. These state profiles are a part of the FY 2015 Public Libraries Survey report. In that report, changes of less than 10% in per capita metrics are not considered statistically meaningful. SOURCE: IMLS, Public Libraries Survey, FY 2014-2015. 110

119 Acknowledgments Many individuals made important contributions to this report. The Institute of Museum and Library Services is grateful to the many staff members who contributed to this report as well as the team from the American Institutes for Research. IMLS extends sincere gratitude to the Chief Officers, State Data Coordinators, other State Library Administrative Agency staff, librarians, and public library directors and other staff who provided data for this report. Their diligent efforts result in a national data resource with an exceptionally high response rate, year after year. IMLS would also like to extend a special thank you to members of the survey advisory group for their help in managing the survey process. The Library Statistics Working Group (LSWG) is a vital part of the survey team. Their time and effort has helped make this report a more valuable resource to the library community and the public. Library Statistics Working Group Members Stacey Aldrich, State Librarian, Hawaii State Public Library System Jay Bank, State Data Coordinator, Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives Michael Golrick, State Data Coordinator, State Library of Louisiana Linda Hofschire, Director of Library Research Service, Colorado State Library Amanda Johnson, State Data Coordinator, State Library of North Carolina Martha Kyrillidou, Principal, QualityMetrics LLC; Research Associate, iSchool, University of Illinois Jennifer Nelson, State Librarian/Director of State Library Services, Minnesota Department of Education Annie Norman, State Librarian and Director, Delaware Division of Libraries Whitney Payne, State Data Coordinator, State Library of Georgia Emily Plagman, Project Manager, Public Library Association James Ritter, State Librarian, Maine Library Commission Mark Smith, Director and Librarian, Texas State Library and Archives Commission 1 11

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