All Students Reaching the Top



2 1120 East Diehl Road, Suite 200 Naperville, IL 60563-1486 • 630-649-6500 800-356-2735 .lear ningpt.or g www ning Point Associates, sponsor ed under gover nment contract number Copyright © 2004 Lear ED-01-CO-0011. All rights r eser ved. This work was originally pr oduced in part by the Nor th Central Regional Educational Laboratory with funds fr om the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), U.S. Department of eflect Education, under contract number ED-01-CO-0011. The content does not necessarily r the position or policy of IES or the Department of Education, nor does mention or visual ganizations imply endorsement oducts, or or esentation of trade names, commer cial pr epr r nment. by the federal gover NCREL r emains one of the 10 r egional educational laboratories funded by the U.S. Department of Education and its work is conducted by Lear ning Point Associates.

3 ategies f or Closing Str ALL STUDENTS Academic Ac hiev ement Gaps REACHING THE TOP y Gr A Report of the National Stud oup or the Affirmativ e Dev elopment f of Academic Ability Ph.D . Albert Bennett, Beatrice L. Bridglall, Ph.D. Ana Mari Cauce, Ph.D . Ho war d T . Ever son, Ph.D . Edmund W . don, Ed.D . Gor Car . Lee, Ph.D . ol D Rodolf o Mendoza-Denton, Ph.D . J Renzulli, Ed.D . oseph S. J ud y K. Stewart, Ph.D . 2004

4 87434 LEAR All Students book 3:26 PM 9/23/04 Page iii CONTENTS s of the National Stud oup f or the Member y Gr Academic Ability iv Aff irmative Development of ace v ef Pr Ac kno wledgments vi ecuti v e Summary 1 Ex hie ement Gaps 3 and Academic Ac Academic Ability v e of the Academic Ac hievement Gaps 3 Th e Natur Academic Ability and Intellective Competence Aff irmative Development of 7 eac oom 9 T High-Quality hing and Instruction in the Classr Nurturing Intellective Competence 9 er of Kno 14 : Challenges and Educational A pplications ansf Tr wledge T hool tionships in Sc he Importance of 19 T rusting Rela hosocial Pr T hat Hinder the Development of Academic Ability 19 Psyc ocesses rust 20 Building T o-Academic Beha Supports for Pr vior in the unity hool and Comm Sc 23 23 Access to Education-Relev ant Capital , C ommunity , Supportive F Academic En vir onments 24 amil y and vior al Demands of High Socialization to the Attitudinal and Beha hievement Academic Ac 25 ation r 26 Academic and Social Integ V Exposur rious F orms of Supplementary Education 26 e to a e to Models of Academic Excellence and Exemplar s of Sc holarl y Pr actice 27 Exposur ? t T op : W h a t W ill It T a k e the 29 All Students a 29 Conclusions 30 Recommendations References 33 41 T erms and Definitions Appendix : Ke y

5 Members of the Na tional Stud y Gr oup for the v e ti v elopment of Academic Ability Affirma De Car ol D. Lee, Ph.D. Albert Bennett, Ph.D. ofessor of Educational ashington Pr , School of Education ofessor Associate Pr old W Har and Public Policy and Social Policy ector , St. Clair Drake Center for African American n University Northwester Dir Studies, Roosevelt University , Ph.D. Ray Legler ade Boykin, Ph.D. W A. ogram Associate Senior Pr ning Point Associates Lear ector Codir CRESP d University AR, at Howar Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, Ph.D. Assistant Pr ofessor , Department of Psychology Beatrice L. Bridglall, Ph.D. nia at Berkeley University of Califor ector Editor and Assistant Dir Institute for Urban and Minority Education , Ph.D. Ulric Neisser T eachers College, Columbia University ofessor , Department of Psychology Pr Cor nell University Gina Burkhar dt CEO Joseph S. Renzulli, Ed.D. Lear ning Point Associates ch Center on the , National Resear ector Dir Gifted and T alented Ana Mari Cauce, Ph.D. ofessor of ynn Neag Pr Raymond and L ofessor and Chair Earl R. Carlson Pr alent Development Gifted Education and T Department of Psychology University of Connecticut ashington University of W , Ph.D. gar et Beale Spencer Mar Reginald Clark, Ph.D. d of Overseers Boar esident Pr ofessor of Education and Psychology Pr Clark and Associates University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School Howar d T . Everson, Ph.D. of Education V esident for Academic Initiatives ice Pr page iv ch Scientist and Chief Resear Judy K. Stewart, Ph.D. The College Boar d esident Pr aylor Education Consulting T Patricia Gandara, Ph.D. Pr ent, Ph.D. r William T ofessor , School of Education University of Califor nia at Davis ofessor Pr , Educational Policy Studies bana-Champaign University of Illinois at Ur don, Ed.D. Edmund W . Gor ch Hoe Pr ofessor of Psychology Philip Uri T r Richar eisman, Ph.D. d Mar and Education, Emeritus Pr ofessor of Mathematics eachers College, Columbia University T , Charles A. Dana Center ector Dir John M. Musser Pr ofessor of Psychology , University of T exas at Austin ale University Emeritus, Y Arie van der Ploeg Chair fir oup for the Af , National Study Gr mative Senior Pr ogram Associate Development of Academic Ability Lear ning Point Associates Sabrina W .M. Laine, Ph.D. Senior Advisor to the CEO ning Point Associates Lear The National Study Gr oup for the Af mative Development of Academic Ability was or ganized in 2002 by fir ning Point Associates, the Institute for Urban and Minority Education at Columbia University T Lear eachers College, and the College Boar d. During the course of one year , the National Study Gr oup engaged 20 scholars in dialogue and writing for the purpose of pr oducing a national r eport on critical interventions to help close the academic achievement gaps among ethnic-minority gr eport will be oups of students. This r followed by the r elease of an edited book by Edmund W . Gor don and Beatrice L. Bridglall, The Af fir mative Development of Academic Ability , in late 2004.

6 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page v 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP PREF ACE oduce students who ar A compr e intellectually compe­ ehensive mission of public schools is to pr tent and pr epar ed for postsecondary education and the incr easingly competitive workfor ce. fer However ent , dif ences in educational outcomes of students indicate that the impact of our curr gent concer ns among education stakeholders public school system is limited. One of the most ur today is the underr epr esentation of African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans among w enty years since the r e lease of the r eport A Nation at Risk (National high-achieving students. T Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), new ef forts continue to emer omising to ge, pr e that no child is left behind. Stakeholders have eliminate this academic disparity and to ensur elentlessly to maximize educational outcomes and to r espond to the unpr ece­ been working r dented challenge of educating incr easingly multicultural, multilingual, and disadvantaged d work indicates signs of pr ogr ess, mor e work is necessary to students. Although the har continue to impr ove student perfor mance. e ask For ce on Minority High Following up on the policy r commendations of the National T Achievement (1999), on which I served as cochair I called for a national ef fort at af fir mative , development (Gor don, 2001). Af fir mative development asserts that the purpose of lear ning—and, ther e knowledge and technique to develop human intellect. In efor e, of teaching—is to acquir other wor ds, af fir mative development helps build the intellectual muscle that humans need to apply to changing situations, experiences, and contexts. These developed abilities ar e by no page v estricted to subject matter knowledge. In sharp contrast, the student must now use his means r or her acquir ficiently solve both common and ed knowledge and technique to adaptively and ef novel pr oblems. emendously fortunate to chair the National Study Gr oup for the This past year , I have been tr fir mative Development of Academic Ability ith the support of Lear ning Point Associates, Af . W the College Boar d, and the Institute for Urban and Minority Education at Columbia University T eachers College, I have purposely united 20 leading scholars fr om multiple disciplines to help fir ming academic ability , nurturing intellective competence, and moving all craft a vision for af students—particularly minority and low-income students—to high levels of academic achievement. To be clear , what follows is a discussion about intellective competence—not intelligence. (Refer to eport.) The National Study Gr ms and definitions that appear in this r oup the appendix for key ter e, developable. maintains that intellective competence is not fixed but developed and, ther efor fort to marshal the chunks of knowledge needed to systematically nurtur e e, then, is our ef Her en. intellective competence and eliminate the academic achievement gaps among our childr . don, Chair Gor Edmund W oup for the Af fir mative Development of Academic Ability National Study Gr Lear ning Point Associates

7 87434 LEAR All Students book 3:26 PM 9/23/04 Page vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The National Study Gr fir mative Development of Academic Ability was or ganized oup for the Af with the support of thr ee agencies: Lear ning Point Associates, Columbia University T eachers d. As cosponsors, these agencies committed financial and human College, and the College Boar r esour oup, commission several papers, and publish ces to convene the National Study Gr eport. this r Gina Burkhar ning Point Associates, deserves special acknowledgment. Under dt, CEO of Lear her leadership, the National Study Gr oup first convened and defined its purpose. She r ecruited Edmund W . Gor don, Ed.D., endowed chair at Y ale University and T eachers College, to lead the ecognition in the academic and not-for National Study Gr don’ s pr esence and r . Gor -pr ofit oup. Dr communities set the wheels in motion for the design and work of the National Study Gr oup. Thr ough his ef forts, 20 r esear chers, scientists, and education practitioners committed to engage for one year in dialogue and substantive work on the issue of the achievement gaps. Also thr ough Dr . Gor don, a vital partnership was for esident for d T . Everson, Ph.D., vice pr ged with Howar s academic initiatives and chief r esear ch scientist at the College Boar d. The College Boar d’ well-known track r ecor ea of achievement helped galvanize the National Study Gr oup. d in the ar oup acknowledges the contributions of In addition to the cosponsors, the National Study Gr National Study Gr mer policy oup members Judy Stewart, Ph.D., independent consultant and a for dir ector with Lear ning Point Associates; Albert Bennett, Ph.D., pr ofessor , Roosevelt University; and Beatrice Bridglall, editor and assistant dir ector , Institute for Urban and Minority Education, page vi T . Dr . Judy Stewart first pr esented the idea of a National eachers College, Columbia University oup to CEO Gina Burkhar Study Gr . Stewart has dt, who authorized her to run with the idea. Dr been involved in every stage of the National Study Gr oup’ s work fr om its inception, partnership development, meeting facilitation, to coediting the final r eport. Dr . Albert Bennett has been instrumental in managing the partnerships and work pr oducts of the National Study Gr oup oup on task and united. Beatrice members. His critical insights helped keep the National Study Gr ce of expertise as a facilitator , r esear Bridglall served as a constant sour , writer , and coeditor . cher In addition to peer r eview by National Study Gr oup members, invaluable criticism was r eceived by Joshua Ar ork University; Sigmund T obias, Ph.D., Columbia University onson, Ph.D., New Y T eachers College; Andr ew Rotherham, Pr ogr essive Policy Institute; and Allan Alson, Ed.D., Evanston T ownship High School District 202. Lear ning Point Associates

8 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 1 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP EXECUTIVE SUMMAR Y mance of students of color r coming the continued academic underperfor equir Over es a systemic oach—one that combines simultaneous interventions by families, teachers and administra­ appr ger society . tors, and the lar ask For ce on Minority High Achievement, a gr oup The National T d in 1997 and cochair ed by pr or . Gor don and ganized by the College Boar ofessors Edmund W eport titled o p (1999), which indicated that “until Reaching the T Eugene Corta-Robles, issued a r om disadvantaged, middle class, and upper middle class cir cum­ e...minority students fr many mor e very successful educationally , it will be virtually impossible to integrate our society’ stances ar s institutions completely ask For ce concluded that , especially at the leadership levels” (p. 2). The T oblems r equir fort at the af fir mative development of academic ability . e a national ef these pr easingly , is r ecog­ ession of human intellective competence that, incr Academic ability is one expr ency of technologically advanced societies. Academic ability r e nized as the universal curr ences fer capabilities such as the following: Literacy and numeracy • . • Mathematical and verbal r easoning. • eating, r ecognizing, and r esolving r elationships. Skill in cr • Pr oblem solving fr om both abstract and concr ete situations, as in deductive and inductive r easoning. page 1 Sensitivity to multiple contexts and perspectives. • Skill in accessing and managing disparate bodies and chunks of infor • mation. ecognition and utilization (help seeking). ce r • Resour Self-r • egulation. e to the demands of specialized cultural Academic ability appears to be the pr oduct of exposur experiences—schooling being the most common—that interact with a wide variety of human , 1974; Hunt, 1966; Martinez, 2002; potentials (Cole, Gay , Glick, & Sharp, 1971; Cole & Scribner g, 1994). The National Study Gr Ster fir mative Development of Academic Ability nber oup for the Af eport is one pr oughout 2002 and 2003 to investigate this issue. This r met together thr oduct of their work. The National Study Gr oup r eviewed str ong evidence that academic ability is a developed (and , one that is not simply a function of one’ s biological endowment or a fixed developable) ability , the National Study Gr aptitude. Recognizing academic ability as a malleable ability oup ar gues om dif ent social oups of students fr fer that closing the gaps in academic achievement between gr , and language) will r divisions (class, ethnicity e the development of intellective , gender equir ough interventions in our homes, communities, competence in a wide range of individuals thr and schools. fir mative development of academic ability is nurtur ed and developed thr ough (1) high-quality Af oom, (2) trusting r lationships in school, and (3) supports for e teaching and instruction in the classr o-academic behavior in the school and community . These pedagogical and social activities and pr Lear ning Point Associates

9 87434 LEAR All Students book 3:26 PM Page 2 9/23/04 e Summar ecutiv Ex y envir onmental supports build a developmental “scaf folding” ar ound and within which students find support for gr owth in abilities and dispositions to: Per • critically . ceive • Explor e widely . • Bring rational or der to chaos. • Bring knowledge and techniques to bear on the solution of pr oblems. • est ideas against explicit and consider ed moral values and empirical data. T • Recognize and cr eate r elationships between concr ete and abstract phenomena. Intellective competence r eflects the ef fective or chestration of af fective, cognitive, and situative mental pr oblem solving. These competencies ocesses in the service of sense making and pr focus not only on what we want lear ners to know and know how to do, but also on what we want lear ners to be and become—that is, compassionate and independently critical thinking members of humane communities. Intellective competence r eflects intellective character . This r eport describes one appr oach—one that necessitates simultaneous interventions at the s classr oom, school, and community levels—in or der to r e ach that goal. The National Study Gr oup’ conclusions and r ecommendations wer e addr essed in the e guided by the following ideas and ar eport in the following or body of the r der: • The natur e and extent of the academic achievement gaps between majority and minority students. • T eaching and lear ning for knowledge acquisition, impr oved compr ehension, page 2 and understanding in the classr oom. The psychological pr ocesses, especially trust, associated with minority academic • achievement in schools. The envir onmental supports necessary for the development of intellective competence • and character . The char ge to the National Study Gr oup and now to the nation is guided by the belief that we cannot overlook the essential need to focus on impr oving the lear ning opportunities and academic s population achievement of minority and low-income students. Demographic shifts in our nation’ mandate that we attend specifically to these students’ achievement if we expect as a nation to d of living, our level of pr osperity maintain our standar . , and our place in the global economy Simply put, we need the knowledge and contributions of students of color—together with the knowledge and contributions of all our students and all our adults—to maintain our democracy . A systemic appr oach to closing achievement gaps and impr oving lear ning for all students necessitates access to a combination of educational interventions in the classr oom, school, and community . High levels of academic ability can be obtained for all students by applying pr oven ❙ e within our r each. pedagogical practices and adopting policies that ar Lear ning Point Associates

10 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 3 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP ACADEMIC ABILITY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT GAPS e perplexed when trying to find ways to raise the achievement of black, Educators generally ar ge urban Hispanic, and Native American students. For example, when superintendents of lar , they listed the issue of the achievement gaps between school districts wer e surveyed r ecently ns (Huang, Reiser , Parker , Muniec, minority and nonminority students as one of their major concer epeatedly & Salvucci, 2003). Many of these educators spoke of their frustrations and said, r , that ch that tells them what to do in their schools and classr ooms to esear they need practical advice—r oup for the Af addr mative Development of Academic ess this challenge. The National Study Gr fir esear ning sciences and on the transfer of Ability believes that contemporary r ch in the lear ovide the guidance that educators need to help r ning may pr educe the achievement gaps. lear ture of the Academic T hie v ement Gaps he Na Ac ends in standar dized tests in r eading, mathematics, and science Decades of data on national tr m the existence of achievement gaps for certain ethnic-minority student populations and confir . T a fer ences in science, mathematics, and r eading students living in poverty ble 1 shows these dif ogr es on the National Assessment of Educational Pr scor ess (NAEP) for samples of 8th- and om 1998 12th-grade students nationally fr om 1996 to 2000 for science and mathematics and fr page 3 m significantly lower to 2002 for r eading. At each grade level, black and Hispanic students perfor than white students in science, mathematics, and r eading. able 1. T AEP Scor es f or Gr ades 8 and 12: N Science, and Reading Mathematics, GRADE 12 GRADE 8 1996 2000 1996 2000 Science 121 122 124 123 Blacks Hispanics 129 128 130 128 Whites 159 159 154 162 1996 2000 2000 Mathematics 1996 247 280 243 Blacks 274 Hispanics 251 253 287 283 282 286 310 308 Whites 1998 2002 1998 2002 Reading 244 269 267 Blacks 245 243 247 275 Hispanics 273 White 270 272 297 292 Sour ces: T he Nation’ s Report Car d: Science 2000 (O’Sulli v an, Lauko , G rigg, Qian, & Zhang, 2003) J T s Report Car d: Mathematics 2000 (Br a s w ell, Lutkus, Grigg, Santapau, T a y-Lim, & he Nation’ ohnson, 2001) Jin, T s Report Car d: Reading 2002 (Grigg, Daane , he Nation’ & Campbell, 2003) Lear ning Point Associates

11 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 4 3:26 PM and Academic Ac hiev Gaps Academic Ability ement es on the SA Tr taken by college-bound high school juniors T ends in black and white average scor , able 2 shows the average SA T . and seniors, tell much the same story T verbal and mathematical r easoning scor es for black and white students over the past eight years—1996 thr ough 2003. The e gaps ar black-white SA end lines; the gap is about one standar d T scor e seen clearly in these tr e fer ence by any standar d . metric—a significant dif deviation (or 100 points) in the scale scor ences makes it clear that the gaps incr ease in size over time (see Figur e 1). fer Graphing these dif able 2. Diff er ences in SA T V T es erbal and Mathematical Scor f k and W h ite Students or Blac T V erbal Scor Mean SA T M athematical Scor es es Mean SA Black White Black White ear Y 434 526 1996 523 422 1997 526 423 526 434 434 526 1998 528 426 1999 434 527 422 528 2000 434 528 426 530 2001 433 426 531 529 430 527 533 2002 427 529 431 534 2003 426 Sour ces: , 2000 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001) Digest of Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics , (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003) 2002 Entr s: ables and Related Items 2003 College-Bound Senior g e T ance Examination Boar d, 2003) (Colle page 4 Figur e 1. Diff er ences in SA T V erbal and Mathematical Scor es f h ite Students or Blac W k and 110 108 106 104 102 100 98 96 SCORE DIFFERENCES 94 V: Wh-BI 92 : Wh-BI M 90 1999 1998 2003 2002 2001 2000 1996 1997 YEAR Sources: Digest of Education Statistics, 2000 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001) Digest of Education Statistics, 2002 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003) 2003 College-Bound Seniors: Tables and Related Items (College Entrance Examination Board, 2003) Lear ning Point Associates

12 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 5 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP These achievement scor es have ur gent ramifications for students’ subsequent educational o attainment. Success in high school and on the SA ls who enr T and ACT contr olls in college. m gap end in college entrance rates indicates a continuing, long-ter For example, the 11-year tr e 2). Although black-white enr ollment rates nearly between black and white students (see Figur r ed and has not diminished since then. eached equality in about 1998, the gap soon r eappear e 2. 11-Y ear T r end in College Entr ance Rates Figur or Blac k and W h f ite Students 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% Whites 30% Blacks PERCENTAGE OF COHORT 20% 10% page 5 0% 1992 1993 1995 1994 2002 1999 1997 1996 2000 2001 1998 YEARS Source: Opportunity, No. 132 (Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2003) A host of other indicators of academic achievement show similar dif fer ences by race and ethnicity . Indeed, compelling evidence has accumulated that suggests these achievement gaps appear even befor en enter kinder garten (Camara e disadvantaged African-American and Hispanic childr & Schmidt, 1999; Jencks & Phillips, 1998; Mickelson, 2003). On the other hand, educational opportunities and academic achievement for some ethnic- oups in the United States appear to be on the rise, judging fr om several of the findings minority gr outlined by the National Center for Education Statistics r eport Status and T r ends in the Education (Hof fman, Llagas, & Snyder of Blacks centage of black childr en whose mothers , 2003). The per have obtained a high school education has incr eased significantly since 1974. It also appears that mor e minority students have completed high school and gone on to college. Many black educa­ tors hold teaching appointments in institutions that ar e not historically minority . Unfortunately , we seem to have r eached a plateau with r e spect to gains made in the 1960s, ‘70s and ‘80s in student academic achievement. The findings of Hof fman, Llagas, and Snyder (2003) include the following: Black childr en ar e mor e likely than white or Hispanic childr • olled in center -based en to be enr pr eprimary education at the ages of 3, 4, and 5. • Most minority students attend public schools wher e minorities r epr esent the majority of the student body ee per cent of black 4th-grade students wer e enr olled in schools . Seventy-thr with mor e than half of the students eligible to r eceive a fr ee or r educed-price lunch. Lear ning Point Associates

13 87434 LEAR All Students book 3:26 PM Page 6 9/23/04 hiev ement and Academic Ac Academic Ability Gaps m tr eased perfor es show incr Long-ter mance in r eading for minority ends in NAEP scor • ends in perfor mance on NAEP mathematics and r students between 1971 and 1999. T ovements over the long ter science also show impr . m • e academic courses in 1998 than in Although black high school graduates completed mor edit totals r mained lower than those of whites in 1998. However , 1982, their academic cr e edit totals wer blacks’ vocational cr e higher than those of whites. • In 1998, black students wer e less likely than white students to take advanced mathematics courses and some advanced science courses and less likely than Hispanic students to take advanced for eign language classes. Between 1984 and 2000, the number of black students per 1,000 12th graders taking Advanced Placement (AP) examinations incr eased. However , fewer black students per 1,000 12th graders than white or Hispanic students took AP exams in 2000. • centage of minority and Hispanic childr en than white childr en wer e In 1999, a lower per in private schools. • s degr ees ear ned by blacks in 1999 wer e ear ned at Nearly one fourth of all bachelor’ historically black colleges and universities. • The pr oportion of blacks completing college incr eased between 1975 and 2000; however , blacks still r mained less likely than whites to ear n degr ees. e Accor ding to the American Council on Education’ s Minorities in Higher Education 2002–2003: T wentieth Annual Status Report (Harvey , 2003) r egar ding the sciences and engineering, African- ees in American students ear ned only 12,149 bachelor’ s degr ees in social sciences, 4,851 degr biological/life sciences, and 4,324 degr ees in engineering during 2000–01. The figur e even es ar ned e alar ith r mor ees, African Americans ear ming on the graduate level. W espect to doctoral degr only 80 degr ees in physical science, 190 degr ees in life science, 299 degr ees in social science, page 6 ees in engineering during 2000-01 (Harvey es ar e cause for and 82 degr , 2003). These figur n in light of the fact that minority students r epr esent appr oximately 11 per cent of all concer olled in higher education (W ilds, 2000). students enr eality is of particular concer n not just for the gifted and talented African-American students This r who do not persist and graduate in the sciences but also for the K–12 education continuum and easingly privileges those skills and intellective competencies r equir ed for the nation, which incr meaningful participation in an advanced technological society . These intellective competencies include the abilities to bring or der to the chaos cr eated by infor mation overload; to r eason; to uncover r elationships between phenomena; and to use comparison, context, intent, and values in e r arriving at judgments. Such competencies ar espected and sought after in both technologically developed and under developed societies. Indeed, the capacity to function ef fectively in these domains is the essence of intellective competence, which incr easingly is the universal curr ency in technologically advanced societies. ned against the neglect of gifted and talented minority Almost 75 years ago, DuBois (1940) war students. Curr ent attention, however , is primarily focused on the overr epr esentation of minorities on the left end of the academic achievement distribution to the neglect of those on the right end. These pr oblems include a persistent gap between minority and majority students in general, a lar ger gap between high-achieving minority and high-achieving majority students, and the tendency of traditional indicators of high academic achievement to overpr edict the subsequent academic achievement of many minority students. These often ignor ed findings wer e first r eported in Equality of Educational Opportunity by Coleman et al. (1966) and in the 1980s and ‘90s by Durán (1983), Ramist, Lewis, and McCamley-Jenkins (1994), and W . W . W illingham (1985). Lear ning Point Associates

14 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 7 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP ti De v elopment of Academic Ability v Affirma e Competence v and Intellecti e The National T ask For ce on Minority High Achievement (1999) concluded that these pr oblems r fort at the af fir mative development of academic ability . Academic ability is equir e a national ef ession of human intellective competence that, incr , is r ecognized as the universal one expr easingly ency of societies that ar efer ences capabilities curr e technologically advanced. Academic ability r such as the following: Critical literacy and numeracy . • Mathematical and verbal r • easoning. eating, r esolving r elationships. • Skill in cr ecognizing, and r mation and stimulus material. • Classification of infor oblem solving fr om both abstract and concr ete situations, as in deductive and • Pr inductive r easoning. Sensitivity to multiple contexts and perspectives. • Skill in accessing and managing disparate bodies and chunks of infor mation. • • Resour ce r ecognition and utilization (help seeking). • Self-r egulation (including metacognitive competence and metacomponential strategies). oducts of exposur e to the demands of specialized cultural Such capabilities appear to be the pr page 7 experiences—schooling being the most common—that interact with a wide variety of human potentials (Cole, Gay , Glick, & Sharp, 1971; Cole & Scribner , 1974; Hunt, 1966; Martinez, 2000; nber g, 1994). W e ther efor e conclude that academic ability is a developed ability—the quality Ster s biological endowment or fixed aptitudes. W of which is not primarily a function of one’ ith the , the National Study Gr ecognition of academic ability as a developed ability oup for the r Af mative Development of Academic Ability begins with the assumption that closing the gaps in fir academic achievement between gr oups of students fr fer ent social divisions (class, ethnicity , om dif equir e the af fir mative development of such ability in a wide range gender , and language) will r of individuals thr ough certain interventions in our homes, communities, and schools. mative development of academic ability is based on the notion that such abilities ar e Af fir ough (1) high-quality teaching and instruction in the classr ed and developed thr nurtur oom, (2) trusting r elationships in school, and (3) envir onmental supports for pr o-academic behavior in . These pedagogical and social activities and envir onmental supports the school and community eflect a type of developmental “scaf should r folding” ar ound and within which students can find owth in the development of abilities and dispositions to: support for gr • critically . ceive Per e widely . • Explor Bring rational or der to chaos. • Bring knowledge and techniques to bear on the solution of pr oblems. • • T est ideas against explicit and consider ed moral values and empirical data. Recognize and cr eate r elationships between concr ete and abstract phenomena. • Lear ning Point Associates

15 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 8 3:26 PM and Academic Ac hiev Gaps Academic Ability ement don (2001), the mastery of academic lear ding to Gor Accor ning is instrumental to the develop­ s vision of teaching, lear ning, and assessment, ment of intellective competence. In Gor don’ e central. However , it is the explication of what we want lear ners academic outcome standar ds ar to know about specific disciplines and be able to do that must be consider ed as instrumental to ners to become. Ther e is no question about the importance of what students what we want lear n and ar lear ee that teaching and lear ning independent of content e taught. Most of us would agr oblematic. However ning without subject matter (subject matter) is pr , just as teaching and lear e vacuous, teaching and lear ning should not be so constrained by content that the purpose ar ecluded. of engagement with these pedagogical endeavors is pr don (2001) also ar gues that the purpose of lear ning, and the teaching by which it is enabled, Gor is to acquir e knowledge and technique to develop adaptive human intellect. Developed abilities ar eflected in the specific discipline-based knowledge a student may have, but in e not so much r the student’ ficiently use knowledge, technique, and s ability and disposition to adaptively and ef values in mental pr ocesses to engage and solve both common and novel pr oblems. In summary , intellective competence is mor e than what advanced societies understand and e as “intelligence.” Intellective competence r eflects the integration of academic content measur ocesses such as r with mental pr -changing but easoning and critical thinking applied within an ever highly r elevant social context, which r esults in the mental activity that is necessary to make sense of experiences and to solve pr oblems. This end goal is less focused on what we want lear ners to know and know how to do, and is mor e sharply focused on what we want lear ners to be and become—compassionate and independently critical thinking members of humane communities. Fr om this perspective, intellective competence may be a r eflection of intellective character . page 8 The next thr eport describe the r esear ch base as well as educational appli­ ee sections of the r cations at the classr oom, school, and community levels that—if appr opriately integrated and implemented—should lead to high academic achievement and the development of intellective ❙ competence in all students. Lear ning Point Associates

16 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 9 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP HIGH-QUALITY TEACHING AND INSTRUCTION IN THE CLASSROOM n constructivist views of lear Moder ning and cognition emphasize that the child is an active lear ner who engages the world in trying to make sense of it. In the ideal world, the home, school, e books at home, museums in the and neighborhood serve as the child’ s laboratory; ther e ar neighborhood, and adequate facilities in the school. The child has peers to serve as companions e maximally conducive to e interactions that ar in exploration and adult guidance to structur lear e for malized in the classr oom, with ning. Support for lear ning continues and becomes mor ning envir . school serving as an extension of the lear onment in the home and community oximate the lear onments of af fluent childr en Although the above description may appr ning envir , it is a far cry fr om the settings in which too many others r eside. Poor childr en— in this country e dispr who ar oportionately African American, Hispanic, and Native American—often gr ow up ents often need to pr otect their childr -city neighborhoods. Par om these in high-crime, inner en fr neighborhoods instead of letting them explor e. In these same neighborhoods, adult authority es often ar e lacking and peer interactions ar e as apt to r esult in har m as in good. (See Cauce figur ecent r e.) eview of this literatur et al., 2003, for a r v e Competence Nurturing Intellecti page 9 ning is based on a simple pr oposition: Students come to The constructivist perspective of lear school with constructed understandings of the world—not with empty minds to be filled up ough lectur thr ning. They have prior knowledge, albeit sometimes incom­ es, drills, and r ote lear plete, of their worlds and how things in it work. Contemporary theorists subscribe to the belief ner comes to school af fects his or her ability to lear that the knowledge with which a lear n and e attempting to teach conflicts with the e new knowledge. By extension, if what teachers ar acquir pr eviously constructed knowledge of the student, this new knowledge will make little sense and e use in other settings (Anderson, 1987; Br ooks will be ill constructed and unavailable for futur & Br ooks, 1999; von Glasersfeld, 1989; Resnick, 1987; Schauble, 1990). Obviously m , this constructivist perspective has important implications for pr omoting long-ter etention and transfer e to transfer new lear ning to other contexts may stem r . Much of the failur om the buzz of confusion that lear eviously constructed knowledge and fr ners experience when pr new knowledge (and novel contexts) conflict or ar e not well aligned (Everson & Renzulli, in pr ess). er to students, the r esear ch suggests, will not enhance Simply making the new knowledge clear m understanding or lead to adaptive for man, s of transfer (Cheng & Holyoak, 1985; Gentner , Ratter ect teaching & Forbus, 1993; Gick & Holyoak, 1983). The drill and practice—as well as other dir methods—found in many lar ge, urban, and otherwise poorly funded schools might be working . This type of instruction may be particularly damaging to minority to mitigate against transfer students attending these schools. Mor e to the point, the achievement gaps between white and black childr en as early as kinder­ e constructing knowledge long befor e they enter garten suggest that, indeed, all students ar ed knowledge that school. Some students, perhaps, have constructed understandings and acquir e feasible and r e levant to the classr oom; others have not. Some students appar may be mor ently Lear ning Point Associates

17 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 10 3:26 PM T eac oom High-Quality hing and Instruction in the Classr s of prior knowledge—stories, wor arrive at school with richer and deeper stor ds, and schemas e ch indicates that the body of for understanding the world ar ound them (Lee, in pr ess). Resear ed befor e coming to school may be private understandings that many students have acquir incomplete, inaccurate, and in conflict with what the curricula demand of them (Di Sessa, 1988). ovide teachers and ning strategies can pr W ith this caveat in mind, a handful of teaching and lear efocus the lear ning pr students r espectively with a framework to r ocess. These strategies include oved compr ough consolidation and automaticity , deep knowledge acquisition, impr ehension thr . It is important to note that these strategies ar e defined ning for transfer understanding, and lear epr esent clear demar cations in the lear ning pr ocess in a somewhat arbitrary manner and do not r e mer ely an or or distinct teaching techniques. They ar e that our tr eat­ ganizational device to ensur ment of teaching is compr ning (such as ehensive and that we do not gloss over aspects of lear eatment in the literatur e. automaticity and deep understanding) that typically get little tr eac Acquisition or Kno wledge 1. T hing f mains a critical stage in the lear ning pr ocess; it is the building block for Knowledge acquisition r e ocesses. The mor e that is lear ned about higher all other pr der thought pr ocesses, the clear er it -or becomes that such pr m ation a child alr eady pos­ ocesses do not occur independently of the infor ning build upon the knowledge base that exists. Curr sesses. All aspects of lear nt understanding e of pedagogical r esear ch str ongly suggests that the first step in teaching for knowledge acquisition involves taking the time to find out what knowledge childr eady bring to the situation (Lee, en alr in pr ess). During the acquisition stage, using conventional teaching techniques, new infor mation is page 10 econceptions. This combination deter mines whether combined with these existing theories or pr model of sulting construction is accurate. V ewer’ s the r s osniadou and Br e (1992) work on the child’ . They found that if childr en have a mental model of the the world illustrates this point beautifully n” that it is world as flat (a model perfectly in tune with their experience of it), when they “lear r ound, their r ds, childr en take esulting model may be that of the world as a pancake. In other wor oundness on it. This example nicely illus­ their original flat model of the world and superimpose r s job to figur e out what the student’ s mental model is and then teach trates why it is the teacher’ om that as a starting point. fr Inquiry-based instructional techniques do an exceptionally good job of drawing out a student’ s assumptions and using them as the building blocks for the construction of new knowledge. Such inquiry-based appr oaches begin with the lear ner’ s pr evious knowledge. They then actively engage him or her to sear ch not only for answers but also for explanations. Inquiry-based appr oaches also mation, analyzing it, and—in the pr ding involve the student in gathering new infor ocess—discar ed to make sense. A gr owing body of r esear ch suggests some explanations that may have appear that inquiry-based appr oader and mor e r obust acquisition of knowledge than oaches lead to a br a student obtains fr om a mor e conventional, didactic teaching appr oach. Most of the r esear ch on inquiry-based techniques has been conducted on lear ning science and mathematics because inquiry-based appr oaches have been primarily used in these fields. A similar technique, r ecipr ocal teaching (Palincsar & Br own, 1984), has been used to impr ove r eading compr ehension. This interactive teaching appr oach is based on questioning, clarification, summarization, and pr ediction. Each of these elements is aimed at understanding the meaning of Lear ning Point Associates

18 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 11 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP the text. Not only do students actively participate in these activities (e.g., questioning, clarifica­ e necessary for compr tion) that ar ehension, but they watch the teacher model these behaviors. ovements This r elatively simple teaching technique has shown some dramatic and durable impr , 1992). in student lear , & McGilly ning (Br own & Campione, 1994; Br own, Campione, W ebber ning, focusing ole of knowledge acquisition in all other aspects of lear Because of the essential r on impr s knowledge acquisition, whether it be in oving African-American and Hispanic childr en’ ms of infor ning skills, is the first step in bridging the achievement gaps. As ter mation or actual lear Resnik and Hall (1998) put it, “What we know now is that just as facts alone do not constitute true , so thinking pr ocesses cannot pr knowledge and thinking power oceed without something to think about” (p. 101). Or , to put it even mor e simply , how much one knows af fects how well one thinks. T eac hing f or Impr o ved Compr ehension T h r o ugh Consolidation 2. u and A tomaticity e basic facts, they need to make this new infor After childr mation theirs, assimilating it en acquir into their existing network of ideas. The notion of impr oved compr ehension primarily includes two key concepts: consolidation and automaticity . Both concepts ar e described in detail in this section. The pr is essential for new infor mation to stick, or to stay with an ocess of consolidation olonged period, becoming part of long-ter m memory . Consolidation happens individual for a pr ning is “deep” and goes beyond the simple ability to parr ot infor mation or to best when lear explain concepts at a surface level. It is likewise essential that basic skills become automated befor fectively (Cauce, in pr ess). Automaticity is the ability to perfor m e they can be built upon ef page 11 fort. Thr ough r e peated practice, the task itself a complex task without conscious awar eness or ef becomes an automatic pr ocess. mation-pr ocessing models of knowledge acquisition distinguish between ef fortful and auto­ Infor ocesses. Ef matic pr equir e the use of mental r esour ces, including consciousness fortful pr ocesses r fort. The consolidation of knowledge and lear ning for auto­ and intentionality , in addition to ef gy for other activities that r maticity ar e mental ef fort. ee up ener e important because they fr equir , childr en ar e less likely to use even basic memory and/or Indeed, younger , as opposed to older ecisely because metacognitive strategies, or to benefit fr om such strategies when used, pr fortful (see Bjorklund, 1995, chapter 4, p. 116). It is only when cognitive pr ocessing they ar e ef ficient with age that childr fectively use mor e ef e sophisticated en begin to ef becomes mor e between fourth and eighth grade ther e is a shift ning strategies. For example, somewher lear om lear ning to r ead to r eading to lear n. But, this shift only occurs after—and if—r eading fr becomes a practiced, automated skill. Until this happens, limitations in working memory capacity ar mit the interaction between syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic infor mation e too gr eat to per eading becomes mor e ehension. It is only after r e automatic and ther that is necessary for compr eading. is excess working memory capacity that compr ehension becomes the primary task of r ehension. W ith practice, compr e­ oved compr Practice is the best strategy for developing impr ocesses becomes less ef fortful and mor e automatic. Practice can be for mal hending complex pr ents may sit down very purposely with their childr en and go over or not. For example, some par the day’ s school lessons or listen to their child r ead aloud. Or , they may pay for tutors to do such activities. Others may simply pr ovide an opportunity for practicing some skills during r outine eading. Some childr en, however , may not get any opportunities activities, such as bedtime r oom. for practice outside the classr Lear ning Point Associates

19 87434 LEAR All Students book 3:26 PM Page 12 9/23/04 eac hing and Instruction in the Classr T High-Quality oom eading r om the en develop the underlying skills that make r elatively automatic fr Most childr oportion of childr en, who combination of what they get at school and at home. However , a small pr esent as many as 40 per cent in some urban schools, benefit fr om having skills such as epr may r eness and phonic wor d attack taught much mor phonemic awar e systematically (Hook & Jones, 2002; Sanders, 2001). Some evidence suggests early pr eventive intervention of this type can help eater compr or gesen, Rashotte, & Alexander , 2001). students develop gr ehension and fluency (T esear ch suggests that childr en who do not get r This r , or opportunities to practice, eady support for r eading skills may benefit fr om mor e dir ect and explicit classr oom support and instruction. The importance of developing compr ehension, especially for childr en in envir onments that do not support lear ning, cannot be emphasized enough. What might r eadily appear to be deficits in -or ocessing might mor e accurately be attributed to a failur e to develop fluency and higher der pr ehension of much simpler skills. W ithout the latter , the for compr mer may simply not be attainable. 3. T eac hing f o r Deep Under standing As Br own, Collins, and Duguid (1989) note, teaching of abstract concepts in the absence of authentic, naturalistic situations overlooks the fact that “understanding is developed thr ough continued, situated use” (p. 2). The importance of this type of lear ning also places emphasis on the home envir onment or supplementary educational settings wher e lear ning and practice may occur in mor e naturalistic settings (Gor don & Bridglall, 2002; Steinber g, 1996). The cognitive appr enticeship appr oach emphasizes the r ole of collaborative lear ning and social interaction. In this sense, it is worth noting that while most school situations emphasize individual lear ning, most authentic lear ning situations involve collaboration, including social discourse (Resnick, 1988; ge, 1997). Resnick, Soaljo, Pontecorvo, & Bur page 12 T oaches have been associated with lear ning that emphasizes understanding: wo key appr ning and oblem-based lear ning (also called concept-based lear ning). Key to these active lear pr ecognition that lear ning takes place thr ough a dialectical pr ocess of active par­ appr oaches is the r ticipation, and not just within an individual’ s mind. It is this type of participation that leads to what engaged lear ning. Pr has been called ning illustrates that to r eally oblem-based or engaged lear understand what is lear ning within an appr opriate and authentic ned, it is essential to place lear om the perspective of situated cognition, pr ning, and lear ning activity context. Fr oblem-based lear ning is as much an act of socialization to “habits and skills of interpr communities, lear etation and meaning construction” (Resnick, 1989, p. 39) as it is a pur ely cognitive act. This richer way of looking at lear ning and teaching is especially important for nonmainstr eam childr en because it highlights the fact that many important skills ar e lear ned implicitly , thr ough the course of everyday or authentic interactions. If childr en alr e engaged with their par ents or eady ar den at home (or building a bir other adults in planting a gar dhouse, or raising a gerbil), they may ning in the school context. But, to the degr ee that some youth not need to get this type of lear ar onments in which such lear ning takes place and is encouraged, they e not exposed to envir will be at a disadvantage (Hung, 2002) unless such lessons ar e pr ovided at school. 4. T eac hing f or T r ansf er ability School lear ned in one context can be trans­ ning is important only if one believes that what is lear ferr ed to others. T ransferability is the ability to make connections to skills lear ned in one context and transfer those skills to another context. Because of the importance of transferability , a gr eat Lear ning Point Associates

20 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 13 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP ning conditions that enhance this pr ocess. Key points to deal has been written about the lear emphasize ar e the following: Strategies used to enhance deep understanding and automaticity also lead to transferability . • . Students who For example, one of the most important factors influencing transfer is mastery lear n specific subject material well find it easier to transfer that knowledge to other subjects own, & Cocking, 2000; Klahr & Carver , 1988). or material (Bransfor d, Br ehension enhances transfer (Bransfor Compr ithout an understanding of • d & Stein, 1993). W oblem-solving transfer mation, pr the deeper concepts and/or their connections to other infor elevant aspects of a may fail because students cannot see beyond superficial content-r pr cent of students who oblem. In one study , Bassok and Holyoak (1989) showed that 90 per oblem could not use the same used a distance equation to successfully solve a physics pr eases, although it was an analogous equation to answer a question about salary incr oblem. When lear pr ning is overly contextualized or occurs only in the context of solving omised (Cognition and T a very specific pr echnology oblem, transferability may be compr Gr oup at V anderbilt, 1997). • eatly incr eased when issues of transferability (e.g., the implications T ransferability can be gr e highlighted during instruction (Anderson, Reder , & Simon, 1996). of one task for another) ar ned to solve the distance equation mentioned above, For example, after students have lear ovide them with the additional example of salary incr omote eases to pr the teacher could pr further transfer of knowledge. But, even mor e indir ect strategies for transferability have been ecipr ocal teaching, which is used found to enhance it. For example, strategies similar to r page 13 ove compr ehension, also have been found to benefit transferability (Scar damalia, to impr eiter , & Steinbach, 1984). In addition, pr oblem-based lear ning and lessons acquir ed in a Ber ning envir situated lear e likely to lead to the transfer of knowledge to r eal-life onment ar e mor e ar e unique issues involved in transfer­ pr oblems (Im & Hannafin, 1999). Thus, while ther ability , and , teaching for knowledge acquisition, teaching for consolidation and automaticity especially teaching for deep understanding also enhance the transferability of knowledge. In most instances, instruction should involve some pr m of modeling befor e eparation in the for ovide students begin to work on a complex new pr oblem. Equally important is for teachers to pr oblem solving— e in the act of pr what Cazden (2001) calls “as needed” support while students ar oups, or thr e, both the sequence whether individually ough whole-class work. Her , working in gr of pr oblem types and the manner in which students ar e socialized to engage with these oblems ar e important. Key socialization strategies include exploring, articulating, and pr debating the following: The featur • ner should pay attention and why . es of the pr oblem to which the lear eady knows and doesn’ es. What each student alr • t know about these featur What these featur oblem-solving strategies that may • es signal about concepts and pr be r elevant. The str engths and weaknesses of what will inevitably be multiple solution paths. • The goodness of fit of solutions (i.e., what the solution explains or accounts for and what • it does not). If such socialization experiences ar e a r outine part of instruction acr oss subject matters and e mor e likely to develop several important dispositions and competencies: grades, students ar Lear ning Point Associates

21 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 14 3:26 PM T eac oom High-Quality hing and Instruction in the Classr ficult pr (1) oblems in the face of uncertainty; (2) a willingness and a willingness to persist with dif epertoir oblems, ability to sear e of existing knowledge to look for connections to new pr ch one’ s r particularly when the connections ar e not obvious; and (3) a sensitivity to look closely for r ecognizable patter ns that help define the kind of pr oblem one is tackling (known in the cognitive defining and constraining the pr oblem space). These dispositions or competencies e as literatur ning envir ar e not developed in the short run, and especially not in erratic lear onments. ansfer of Kno tional Applica tions Tr wledge: Challenges and Educa ess pr ned in school to addr oblems in other settings is the very essence of Applying what is lear fective lear ning. Indeed, the very r eason childr the pr e sent to school is so they oduct of ef en ar e the knowledge, skills, and abilities that will serve them later in life, when they ar e in will acquir eal world.” Distr the “r , the r esear ch on the pr oblem of transfer of lear ning suggests that essingly ther e of lear ning fr om instruction (Bransfor d & Schwartz, 1999; Haskell, 2001; e is a wholesale failur oblem is even mor e oubling when viewed in the McKeough, Lupart, & Marini, 1995). This pr tr ger social context of the black-white achievement gap (Mortenson, 2003). lar A lar owing) body of r esear ch evidence is available on how people lear n and what ge (and gr omote lear ning for transfer , and this r esear ch ought to influence classr oom teachers can do to pr eport, we make the case for designing instruction based on prin­ practice. In this section of the r ning derived fr ning sciences—the inter disciplinary field of r esear ch fr om ciples of lear om the lear psychology oscience, linguistics, philosophy , computer science, anthr opology , and educa­ , neur tion—to enhance the critical thinking abilities of all students. W e aim to transfer what nearly two m decades of r esear ch has taught us about how to impr ove lear ning, pr oblem solving, long-ter page 14 re ning to novel situations. The r esear ch we r eview suggests we tention, and the transfer of lear e poised to capitalize on knowledge of how people think, lear n, and r fers instruc­ ar emember; it of oom lear ning for all omote transfer of lear ove classr tional design principles to impr ning and pr , these views ar ely our own but derive fr om our r eading of a number students. Obviously e not entir esear chers and scholars, including Bransfor d and Schwartz (1999), Halper n and Hakel (2003), of r and DeCorte (2003). W e om the literatur e on transfer of lear ning then describe the key findings fr esses students’ ability to lear . and emphasize the cognitive perspective, which str n during transfer conclude by suggesting how these lear ning principles can be applied in the classr oom to We impr ning, and transfer for all students. ove teaching, lear Scientific inquiry into the question of transfer of lear ning has a long history , dating back mor e than a century to the work of E. L. Thor ndike (Thor ndike & W oodworth, 1901). Fr om the very beginning, this line of r esear transfer —that is, how well what a person ch has suggested that ns in one set of cir , novel situations—is both fragile lear cumstances transfers or is adapted to other oversial. Indeed, the only clear finding fr om this long history of r esear ch is that ther e and contr , as well as a number of successes have been a number of failed attempts at achieving transfer (Bar nett & Ceci, 2002; Detter man & Ster nber g, 1993). In an especially clear tr eatment of the r esear ch on transfer , Bransfor d and Schwartz (1999, p. 62) r e fer to the “agonies and ecstasies” that characterize this body of r ch. It would not be unfair , for example, to summarize the esear literatur e on transfer by concluding that “ther e is no evidence to contradict Thor ndike’ s general conclusions: T ransfer is rar e” (Detter man, 1993, p. 15). Lear ning Point Associates

22 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 15 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP esear cently that r esear ch is chers have pointed out r Despite the pessimism, a number of r e uncovering a number of important lear ning perspectives and principles that appear to be capable n & Hakel, 2003). In a classic study that involved of enhancing transfer (DeCorte, 2003; Halper teaching subjects to thr ow darts while underwater , Judd (1908) demonstrated the value of s experiment demon­ ning experience. Judd’ pr omoting understanding as part of the initial lear strates the benefits of guided practice. T owing darts at an wo gr oups of boys practiced thr get. Prior to practice, the experimental gr underwater tar oup was instructed about how water fect the accuracy of their perfor ol efracts light and how this principle may af mance. The contr r oup wer gr oup was not given this instruction, but simply practiced. Boys in the experimental gr e e accurate at thr owing darts at new tar gets at varying depths. mor d and Stein (1993) studied how lear ning with under­ Building on these early studies, Bransfor fects transfer standing af oblem-solving . In general, these studies show that when pr esented in a pr e mor ecalled and activated in novel mation ar e likely to be r context, knowledge and infor oblem of transfer fr pr oblem-solving situations. Rethinking the pr om a cognitive perspective may ning, including monitoring one’ s lear ning yield insights into how strategic knowledge about lear oss domains and contexts (Bransfor d & Schwartz, 1999; Br own, 1978; T obias & Everson, 2002), acr mance in novel settings. enhances perfor e us is: Do we have the strategies and principled pedagogical appr oaches that The question befor flect our best understanding of how students lear n ? W ork done r ecently under the auspices of re ch Council (Bransfor d, Br own & Cocking, 2000) suggests that indeed we do, the National Resear page 15 eport makes a str ong case for af fecting students’ long-ter m r e tention and transfer by and the r oving how we teach. The authors write: impr ning and transfer r Moder e n theories of lear tain the emphasis on practice, but they specify the kinds ner characteristics (e.g., existing knowledge and strategies) of practice that ar e important and take lear into account (e.g., Singley & Anderson, 1989). In the discussion below e key characteristics , we explor ning and transfer that have important implications for education: of lear , and a considerable amount is known about the kinds of ning is necessary for transfer • Initial lear lear ning experiences that support transfer . Knowledge that is overly contextualized can r epr esentations of knowledge • educe transfer; abstract r . omote transfer can help pr r ansfer is best viewed as an active, dynamic pr • oduct of a T ocess rather than a passive end-pr ning experiences. particular set of lear All new lear ning involves transfer based on pr evious lear ning, and this fact has important implications • n. (p. 53) for the design of instruction that helps students lear and Schwartz (1999), DeCorte (2003), Halper n d n (1998), Halper Building on this work, Bransfor g, (2002), and D. T . and Hakel (2002, 2003), Ster illingham (2002, 2003), among others, nber W ovide specific guidance by applying the sciences of lear ning to the challenge of teaching for pr eparing students for futur e lear ning. Thr ough a variety of collaborative ef forts, transfer and pr esear chers have developed theories and extracted basic principles that, we suspect, these r can be applied br oadly in schools and classr ooms. On the following pages, we describe a epr esentative set of these principles and of fer examples of possible educational applications. r Lear ning Point Associates

23 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 16 3:26 PM T eac oom High-Quality hing and Instruction in the Classr o vide Opportunities f actice at Retriev al 1. Pr or Students to Pr m r tention and transfer is to allow omote long-ter e ch tells us that a powerful way to pr Resear students to practice r m memory . Opportunities etrieving pr eviously taught material fr om long-ter to practice can occur either during r eview for tests or in actual testing sessions (Cull, 2000; , 1992). T , 1989; Wheeler & Roediger e encouraged Dempster & Perkins, 1993; Glover eachers ar mation and knowledge fr m and long- etrieve infor om both short-ter to work with students as they r memories. Doing so r epeatedly , in varied contexts, str ter m engthens students’ ability to access ecall pr eviously lear ned material fr om long- these knowledge bases and solidifies their ability to r m memory , thus pr omoting transfer acr ter n and Hakel (2002, 2003) also tell oss contexts. Halper us that r peated testing helps in the r ecall of infor mation. T eachers ar e encouraged to align class­ e oom discussions, homework assignments, and tests so that important infor mation will have to r ed at dif ent times thr oughout the academic year or course, enhancing long-ter m be r fer emember r fer an opportunity for “practice at r etrieval” and deepen students’ etention. T est questions also of , tests should be cumulative; test items should knowledge of the material being tested. Ideally obe for understanding of the material. The key idea is to cue students’ prior knowledge in ways pr e r levant to the lear that ar ning context. e V ry the Conditions of Learning 2. a The key idea her e is that when lear ning takes place under a variety of conditions and contexts, e r ounded and multiple r conceptual understanding becomes mor e activated. etrieval cues ar Resear ch fr om the lear ning sciences pr ovides insights into the benefits of pr oviding dif fering types native solution strategies. Though we ar of pr oblems and alter ning may take e war ned that lear longer and be somewhat less enjoyable to students, r ch suggests that students and teachers esear page 16 m r etention and transfer will see significant gains in long-ter . e i me f or Learning Maximiz T 3. Another factor to seriously consider in supporting minority-student lear ning is making sur e that n. Resear ch has demonstrated that when time to lear n is students have the time needed to lear , the best pr edictor of mastery lear ning is a student’ allowed to vary prior knowledge. On the s other hand, when time available for lear s intelligence is the best ning is held constant, a student’ edictor of mastery (Anderson & Block, 1977; Bloom, 1971). Regar pr dless of what one thinks about the construct of intelligence or its validity , it is clear that when time to lear n is held constant, as is esent educational system, it leads to the outcome that ability is a better typically the case in the pr pr ning per se. Lear ning can be viewed as a r esult of opportunity to lear n and edictor than lear perseverance. But, while the perseverance is up to the student, the teacher contr ols the oppor­ tunity to lear n. Ideally , a lear ner -center ed envir onment would allow opportunities to be better matched to the student’ s, rather than the teacher’ s, needs. Repr wledge Using Alternate F orms 4. esent Kno ning is mor e powerful when students ar e pr ompted to take infor mation pr Lear esented in one for mat and “r epr esent” it in an alter native way . Cognitive r esear ch tells us that we pr ocess infor mation in multiple ways—visually and thr ough auditory-verbal channels. Students’ lear ning and r oved by integrating infor mation fr om both the verbal and visual-spatial ecall can be impr for ms of r epr esentation. T eachers ar e encouraged, ther efor e, to use both modes of r epr esentation in all their lear ning tasks, explicitly and consciously incorporating multiple for ms of r epr esentation into their instructional designs. Lear ning Point Associates

24 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 17 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP Build on Students’ Prior Kno wledge and Experience 5. veals that experts have a lar Resear ch comparing experts to novices r ger knowledge base, e e meaningful chunks, which further compar ed to novices, and can compile infor mation into mor elative to novices, chess experts have a better memory for facilitates lear ning. For example, r positions of chess pieces on a game boar d (Chi, Feltovich, & Glaser , 1981). When chess pieces ar , this advantage disappears, suggesting that chess e placed randomly on the boar d, however , they ar experts do not have superior general memory; rather e able to draw upon their knowl­ membering and developing game strategies. e edge of common chess positions when useful for r students arrive in the classr oom with sets of assumptions and beliefs that serve , As noted earlier as a mental framework for lear ning. As they construct knowledge, students build on their prior knowledge to infuse meaning into newly lear ned material. In this way , prior knowledge influences et new infor mation and decide what aspects of this infor mation ar e r elevant how students interpr elevant. and irr e Kno Emphasiz wledge and Skill Development 6. T eachers, teaching assistants, and tutors need to make explicit those concepts and pr ocesses that students need to know der to achieve mastery . This appr oach is , understand, and inter nalize in or evious intensive exposur e to mathematics and the especially important if students have not had pr esear e is r eplete with findings that support the idea that ch literatur sciences, for example. The r peer study gr oups cr eate opportunities for academic and social support, which appear to con­ r eisman, 1992). Peer study gr oups can serve mor e than tribute to higher academic achievement (T page 17 the purpose of helping students master the concepts in their fields; they also enable students to egar d themselves as part of an academic community . In addition, peer study gr oups pr omote con­ r versations in which participants have to articulate their own ideas and listen to the ideas of others. Peer study gr oup interactions also ensur e that students make their work and thinking public; fer ent perspectives and the knowledge fund of their peers. The students ar e thus exposed to dif peer study gr oup setting exposes students to peers who also struggle with various ideas and esult is that students lear n quickly that excelling in a subject does not mean subject content. The r oblems quickly and easily but rather working very har d and persevering. being able to solve pr W ith Str ategies f or Learning 7. Infuse Lessons ficult and uncom­ ning new concepts and developing understanding is often dif For students, lear e questioned in the fortable. Students’ views of the world ar e challenged, and long-held beliefs ar ning pr ocess. Students and teachers often complain that some subjects, such teaching and lear ficult for them to lear as mathematics and science, ar ning to be e just too dif n. All of us want lear . Thus, when students ar e faced with some school subjects, they become discouraged by the easy ficulty they encounter during the lear ning pr ocess. Halper n and Hakel (2003) r e mind teachers dif ning depends on what we want students to lear that optimizing lear n and what students alr eady ning, infusing their eachers can help students by discussing ways of lear know about that subject. T n, and surfacing students’ own beliefs about lear ning. ning to lear lessons with strategies for lear o vide Systematic F eedbac k 8. Pr , and as discussed earlier , students come to school with pr econceived ideas about Not surprisingly e taught in the classr e wr ong, belief in them can oom. Even if these notions ar the subjects they ar solidify based on or dinary , everyday experiences, especially when objective, corr ective feedback ovided. This lack of feedback has serious implications for lear ning and perfor mance. is not pr Lear ning Point Associates

25 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 18 3:26 PM T eac oom High-Quality hing and Instruction in the Classr fect to For instance, students may come to believe incorr ectly in causation by attributing an ef native causes, engaging in a salient possible causal agent without considering plausible alter easoning. Similarly , students often may r ely on self-cr spurious causal r eated devices to judge or interpr et events and outcomes. These mental shortcuts may not always lead to corr ect solutions oblems. W e also know that students, typically or to the r esolution of complex pr , have poor e poor judges of what they know and do not know (T metacognition—that is, they ar obias & Everson, 2002). These misguided notions and feelings of confidence about what they know ning. Lear ners may be fooled into believing that they may also develop in the course of lear ar ning by the appar ent ease of their perfor mance; in contrast, optimal lear ning is usually e lear om moderately dif ficult lear ning situations. T eachers can become mor e awar derived fr e of students’ common misconceptions and lead discussions in class that addr ess such misconcep­ ovide systematic feedback on homework assignments, tests, and pr ojects tions. They also can pr oneous thinking. thr oughout the course of instruction to combat the persistence of err Use Dynamic Classr oom Assessment 9. ging, lar gely fr om a psychometric perspective, indicating that some standar dized Resear ch is emer e mor e dif ficult for black students than for white students, even when the test items and tasks ar oups ar two gr espect to their ability levels and have been taught by the same e equal with r om a cognitive perspective, it has been suggested that the teachers in the very same classes. Fr es or characteristics that ar e mor e or less salient with r espect to class­ test items may have featur r ning, and that these saliency characteristics dif fer for black and white students. These oom lear test items—which often ar e consider ed the final transfer task, particularly in high-stakes testing esenting “sequester situations—have been viewed as pr d & ed pr oblem solving” (Bransfor Schwartz, 1999, p. 68). In such situations, students rar om ely have the opportunity to seek help fr page 18 esour ces, such as other students, teachers, or texts. They rar other r ely have the opportunity to ms of lear evise their work. or for ning, get feedback, or even r engage in trial-and-err eparing students for futur e By shifting to a perspective that looks at transfer in ter ms of pr d and Schwartz (1999) suggest, we ar e then fr ee to look ning, as DeCorte (2003) and Bransfor lear n in knowledge-rich envir at assessments as opportunities to gauge students’ abilities to lear on­ ments. The key idea is that assessments serve as opportunities to measur e students’ abilities n new infor elate this new lear ning to pr evious experiences. Accor ding to to lear mation and r d and Schwartz, “Assessments can be impr Bransfor om static, one-shot oved by moving fr measur es of ‘test taking’ to envir onments that pr ovide opportunities for new lear ning” (p. 88). These dynamic for ms of assessment hold pr omise for pr omoting transfer and r educing the achievement gaps. For example, teachers who dir e ms of “teaching to ct their instruction to for ficulty engaging in metacognitive knowledge moni­ the test” often find that their students have dif eating the testing situation as exter nal to the lear ning envir onment, as a hur dle to be toring. By tr mance event, they ar e depriving students of the oppor­ leaped, or as a one-shot maximal perfor tunity to assess their own lear ning, to monitor and r egulate their lear ning strategies, and to capitalize on corr ective feedback and engage in new lear ning. By incorporating dynamic for ms of assessment in the classr e how oom, teachers have a tool that will allow them to better measur prior lear ning and experience have pr epar ed their students for futur e lear ning—knowledge that ❙ in itself pr omotes transfer of lear ning. Lear ning Point Associates

26 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 19 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP T ANCE OF TRUSTING THE IMPOR RELA TIONSHIPS IN SCHOOL e points to a clear message that feelings of trust in the insti­ The social-psychological literatur tution, and in those who ar epr esent the inter ests of those institutions (e.g., teachers, e seen to r e a fundamental building block in the af fir mative development pr ofessors, administrators), ar onson, in pr , 2002; Mendoza-Denton & Ar of high minority achievement (Bryk & Schneider ess; e , as they e incr easingly likely onson, 1995, 2000). Y Steele & Ar t successful minority students ar oup move up the achievement ladder , to encounter contexts and situations in which their gr has been historically excluded and underr epr esented. hosocial Pr ocesses T h a t Hinder the De v elopment Psyc of Academic Ability The past decade in particular has witnessed an explosion of r esear ch on the experience of being esear ch on two separate but r elated phenomena: One ge part to r stigmatized, attributable in lar ocker & Major , 1989), and the other is ster eotype thr eat (Steele & is attributional ambiguity (Cr onson, 1995, 2000). Attributional ambiguity involves the challenge that a student of color may Ar eceiving feedback about his or her perfor ficulty of deter mining face when r mance and the dif when feedback (particularly critical feedback) is accurate or is actually r eflective of racial bias page 19 eotype thr eat is the awar eness that others on the part of the one giving the feedback. Ster s perfor mance in ter ms of one’ s racial backgr ound, rather than in ter ms of one’ s may judge one’ ound. individual backgr These general findings have been r eplicated with a variety of methodologies and seem to mative development? obust phenomenon. What implications does this have for af indicate a r fir As one begins to think about this issue, a particular conundrum begins to take shape for the high-achieving minority student. On the one hand, an important aspect of academic achievement om the integration of academic success into the self-concept (Steele, 1992). Similarly , comes fr ol over their outcomes (Bandura, people want to achieve mastery and have at least some contr 1986). Thus, when faced with negative feedback or obstacles along the way that all high- in particular achieving students ar e bound to face, minority students may be faced with a eceives negative feedback, should one catch-22 with attributional ambiguity at its heart. If one r eflective of exter s own inter nal ability? discount it because it may be mor nal bias than of one’ e r Or does it in fact r nal ability? Mor eover , if one chooses to see it as r eflective eflect one’ s own inter s own ability , is one ignoring or being foolishly blind to systematic biases that can af fect of one’ s evaluations? Such a state of uncertainty can be distracting and intrusive, and may mor one’ eover essing the negative lead to confusion when thinking about ef fective coping strategies for addr e is that high-achieving minority students in particular have r eason feedback itself. The point her explanations for negative feedback when it is r to be attracted to both eceived, and as such, e dif ficult time r esolving the state of attributional ambiguity . may have a mor eotype thr eat becomes a r elevant psychological pr ocess when people find themselves in Ster e a ster oup is applicable. As such, Hispanic and African- eotype about their gr contexts wher American students may be particularly vulnerable to ster eotypes in the domain of academics, eotype surr o unding these students concer ns a generalized suspicion about their because the ster Lear ning Point Associates

27 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 20 3:26 PM he Importance of T hool T rusting Relationships in Sc the ef eotypes can occur without the ster eotyped individual , fects of ster intelligence. Importantly himself or herself believing the ster eotype—one simply has to have the knowledge of the ster eo­ ough that ster eotype. T o the degr type and the awar eness that others may view him or her thr ee dized testing in particular place particular emphasis on diag­ that schooling in general and standar opportunities, the nosis of ability as a gateway for tracking, or college admissions, or other futur e implications of feeling ster eotyped in r lation to minority student achievement ar e pr ofound. e fects of ster eotyping ar e potentially mor e pr onounced the higher one comes to r eaching The ef d’ the top. As the College Boar ask For ce on Minority High Achievement (1999) notes, s National T “The negative impacts of these beliefs do not seem to be confined to the most disadvantaged underr mine the achievement of high SES [socioeco­ epr esented minority students; they can under nomic status] students as well” (p. 16). Indeed, when combined with the possibility that the state e pr of attributional ambiguity may be mor e dif ficult to dispel, for students onounced, and mor who succeed at succeeding, a pictur e of the psychological weight of being a high-achieving easingly into focus. minority student in this country comes incr ect or vicarious experiences of exclusion, discrimination, and pr ejudice can lead people to Dir eated in contexts wher e the possibility of such anxiously anticipate that they will be similarly tr new eatment exists. Minority students in particular ar e likely to experience doubts about their accept­ tr ns ar e likely to be accentuated in academic ance in educational institutions, and such concer envir onments and institutions that high-achieving minority students strive for . , students who enter Longitudinally ns about how welcome they would ed the university with concer be experienced less diverse friendships and felt less trust and obligation towar d the university at the end of their first year in college than students who enter ed with fewer concer ns. As sopho­ page 20 es and juniors, they also r eased attendance at academic r e view sessions, as mor eported decr well as incr eased anxiety about appr oaching pr ofessors and teacher assistants with academic oblems. Unsurprisingly , pr ejudice appr ehension was pr edictive of students’ change in grade- pr point average over the first five semesters of college, such that students who experienced pr ehension wer e particularly likely to experience a decr ease in their grades over time ejudice appr die, Downey (Mendoza-Denton, Pur , & Davis, 2002). “Since students have only a limited amount of gy , those able to concentrate on their academic tasks, without constant time and emotional ener concer elationships to others, ar e most likely to do n about their place on the campus and their r well academically ,” note Bowen and Bok (1998, p. 82). Building T rust If af fir e nurtur ed and devel­ mative development is based on the notion that academic abilities ar ough pedagogical, social, and interpersonal supports, the r oughout this ch cited thr oped thr esear eport suggests that beyond the opening of doors and beyond the achievement of numerical r , educators—and the institutions that they r epr esent—must work together towar ds the diversity achievement of r elational diversity (Fine, W eis, & Powell, 1997). By r elational diversity , we mean a type of diversity in which institutions ar ely filling numerical quotas but instead ar e e not mer actively working to secur e the trust and confidence of those students to whom they have opened their doors. As the summarized r esear ch implies, such trust and confidence is a critical component of minority students’ achievement on several levels. Lear ning Point Associates

28 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 21 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP When high-achieving minority students succeed, many times they will be faced with situations onments wher e their gr oup membership becomes particularly salient. As r esear ch on and envir ejudice appr ehension shows, concer ns about one’ s belonging can dir pr s achieve­ ectly impact one’ ment by leading people to not take advantage of the various r ces that the institution may esour fer of o tective strategy minimizes the possibility of r ejection and futur e . Although this self-pr pr ejudice, it also r educes the number of r esour ces and support systems one can count on when faced with the dif ficulties that all students face. have ar We gued that minority students may experience the psychological impact of being a oup mor e acutely as they become mor member of a stigmatized gr e academically successful. The r easons for this ar e twofold: First, such success implies developing an academic identity , which for minority students is a thr eatened identity . Second, as minority students become mor e successful, the likelihood incr eases that educational opportunities and institutions will continue being over­ r epr esented by majority gr oup members—ther eby incr easing suspicions about one’ s belonging ❙ and acceptance. page 21 Lear ning Point Associates

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30 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 23 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP SUPPOR TS FOR PRO-ACADEMIC BEHA VIOR IN THE SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY elated policy stems fr oaches. In our collective experience, most education-r om deficits-based appr engths-based appr oach to the conceptual­ We purposely have taken a developmental and str e critical to the ization of intellective competence. A number of key envir onmental supports ar development of intellective competence: • Access to education-r elevant capital. Supportive family , community , and academic envir onments. • Socialization to the attitudinal and behavioral demands of high academic achievement. • Academic and social integration. • Exposur e to various for ms of supplementary education. • • Exposur e to models of academic excellence and exemplars of scholarly practice. tion-Rele v Access to Educa ant Capital For students of color , the pr oblems of inequality of access to many of the envir onmental supports that under gir d pr o-academic behavior in schools and communities ar e critical factors. What is the page 23 e of the education-r elevant capital that high-achieving students mor e often have access to natur ding to Bour dieu (1986), Coleman et al. (1966), thr ough their families and communities? Accor e several types of capital, as illustrated in T e ar Gor able 3. don (1999), and Miller (1995), ther Education-Relev T able 3. ant Capital ype of Capital Definition T TURAL CUL Collected knowledge, techniques, and beliefs of a people. FINANCIAL , community , and societal economic r esour ces Income; wealth; family available for education. HEAL Physical developmental integrity , health, nutritional condition. TH HUMAN Social competence, tacit knowledge, and other education-derived abilities as personal or family assets. INSTITUTIONAL Quality of and access to educational and socializing institutions. PEDAGOGICAL Supports for appr opriate educational tr eatment in family , school, and community . Disposition, attitudes, aspirations, ef , sense of power . PERSONAL ficacy Societal membership, social concern, public commitment, POLITY . political economy SOCIAL Social network r elationships, social norms, cultural styles and values. Obviously , wealth is mor e than money . It is the accessibility and contr ol of r esour ces. If we ar e corr fectiveness of schools and other institutions that serve students ar e ect in assuming that the ef in part a function of the availability of such wealth-derived capital for investment in human develop­ ment, we may have in this r e lationship a catalyst for pedagogical, political, and social intervention. Lear ning Point Associates

31 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 24 3:26 PM or Pr o-Academic Beha hool and Comm unity Supports f vior in the Sc and e y , Comm unity , amil Academic En vir onments v F Supporti y En F onments amil vir fer ounds of students, In 1966, Coleman et al. concluded that dif ences in the family backgr eatest amount of variance in their as opposed to school characteristics, accounted for the gr academic achievement. This finding was later found to be less so for low-income and ethnic- en than for the general population (Gor don, 1999), but typically , family backgr ound minority childr ong pr edictors of achievement in school (Gor don, 1999; Jaynes & and income stand as str W illiams, 1989; Sexton, 1961). In r lated works, Mer cer (1973) and W o lf (1966, 1995) posited that e esence of family envir onmental supports for academic development may explain this associ­ the pr ation between family status and student achievement. They made the now obvious point that e associated books, positive models, help with homework, and a place to study in the home ar with school achievement. Community En onments vir Because lear ning is influenced in fundamental ways by its context, pr omoting student achieve­ equir es the development of nor ms for the classr oom, schools, and the ment via the community r m cor community that both support and infor ning values. In some schools, the nor ms may e lear equir ms may encourage academic risk mation base; other nor r e that students build their own infor ovide opportunities for students to make mistakes, obtain feedback, and r taking and pr evise their thinking. School nor ms also must support students’ comfort in r evealing their pr econceptions d understanding new conceptual con­ about a subject, their questions, and their pr ogr ess towar structs r lated to the subject. T eachers need to design classr oom activities and pr omote students’ e page 24 d lear ning that build a sense of community and intellectual camaraderie and attitudes towar . These activities may take the for m of students solving pr r esponsibility for each other oblems together by building on each other’ s knowledge, asking questions to clarify explanations, and fering solutions (Br o wn & Campione, 1994). In this way , cooperation and ar gu­ suggesting dif oblem solving enhance cognitive development (Evans, 1989; Goldman, 1994; mentation in pr mas, 1990; Kuhn, 1991; Moshman, 1995a, 1995b; Newstead & Evans, 1995; Salmon & Haber ouniss & Damon, 1992) and ar e factors in enabling student achievement. Zeitz, 1995; Y egner (1991) found that a community-center ed appr Lave and W oach also supports teachers in establishing a community of lear ners among themselves. Such a community fosters comfort with questioning (not just with knowing the answer) and is a model for cr eating new ideas that build on the contributions of individual members. Community membership also can pr omote in teachers a sense of ownership of new ideas that they can transfer to their classr oom. Ultimately , teachers need to develop new ways to link classr oom lear ning to other aspects of students’ lives. This strategy equiring that students actively participate in community service. can be operationalized in r ograms, all students ar e encouraged or r equir ed to take part in For example, in some education pr . This strategy can help to make concr a community service activity ete the value of “giving back” to the lar ger community and deliberately encouraging students to focus on outr each activities and service to the br oader community . Community service could include volunteer work with at-risk youth, tutoring, or ganizing envir onmental pr ojects, collecting food for homeless shelters, or participating in campus outr oles give each activities to middle schools. Community service r students the status and r esponsibility of r epr esenting their school in the community . Although the pr ogram staf f is r esponsibile for enabling community activity , the community itself gr ows Lear ning Point Associates

32 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 25 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP om the human r mer students, e fr lations and interactions among all the participants: students, for f, and university leadership. The community is at its ogram staf graduate students, teachers, pr most vital when students take an active r onment (Hrabowski, 2002). ole in shaping their own envir Academic En vir onments e lear In envir ed, teachers pay close attention to the knowledge, skills, onments that ar ner center oom. This strategy focuses on distilling students’ and attitudes that students bring into the classr omoting a better understanding pr econceptions about various subjects while simultaneously pr eachers need to become awar e of the following concepts: of students. T fer ences can af fect students’ comfort level in working collaboratively instead of • Cultural dif . These dif fer ences also ar e r eflected in the backgr ound knowledge that students individually ning situation (Moll, T bring to a new lear apia, & Whitmor e, 1993). fect their perfor Students’ conceptions of what it means to be intelligent can af mance. • Students who think that intelligence is a fixed entity ar e mor e likely to be perfor mance oriented as opposed to lear ning oriented; they want to look good rather than risk making e especially likely to give up when tasks become ning. These students ar mistakes while lear dif ficult. In contrast, students who think that intelligence is malleable ar e mor e willing to e mor e comfortable with risk (Dweck, 1989; Dweck struggle with challenging tasks and ar & Legget, 1988). individual pr ner -center ed classr ooms ar e attentive to each student’ s eachers in lear ogr ess and T page 25 opriate tasks that facilitate a mor e sophisticated understanding of the material. For develop appr esent students with challenging material that they can manage; that is, instance, teachers can pr ficulties ar the dif e demanding enough to maintain engagement but not so dif ficult as to lead to s discouragement. This appr understanding of his or her students’ oach demonstrates the teacher’ knowledge, skill levels, and inter ests (Duckworth, 1987). The underlying principle is V ygotskian oximal development ner’ (V zone of pr ygotsky , 1978) in that most of the lear ning is within the lear s . owing edge of mastery at the gr Socializa vior al Demands tion to the Attitudinal and Beha High Academic Ac v ement of hie eater for minority students to excel academically (given issues Although the challenges may be gr re , and cultur e bias), continuous monitoring and advising of students should lated to race, gender emphasize the skills, values, and habits that students need to acquir e and practice in their eading, academic lives. Students should be socialized to (1) understand the importance of r e to seek answers, solving pr knowing wher oblems, and asking questions; (2) accept their ethical d and moral r but also to work to be among the best; and (3) set esponsibility not only to work har high standar ds, follow thr ough, be dependable, and understand how to work well with others. Similarly , given the universal importance of advanced technologies and complex communication n how to use these technologies, and how to speak and write with skills, students need to lear clarity and confidence in the standar d ver naculars. Students need to be r eminded that these e necessary in the classr oom and eventually in their pr ofessional lives. On yet skills and abilities ar another level, students should be coached on the importance of interacting, working, and coex­ isting ef e maining open to new experiences without thr eat to fectively with diverse people and r their own identities. Academic socialization is thus dir ected at shaping the attitudes, dispositions, d pr o-academic intellective pursuits. and habits of mind towar Lear ning Point Associates

33 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 26 3:26 PM or Pr o-Academic Beha hool and Comm unity Supports f vior in the Sc tion Academic and Social Integr a Resear ch and contemporary practice show that the academic and social integration of students tention (Maton, Hrabowski, & Schmitt, e leads to higher grade-point averages, persistence, and r 2000; T eisman, 1992). This strategy can be operationalized in the social domain thr ough stead­ r espect to fast commitment fr om district and school leadership, teachers, and students with r om a variety of sour omotion of help seeking fr celebrating diversity; pr ces; peer supportiveness; high academic goals; and meaningful community service. In the academic domain, consistent eparation and conceptual mastery of dif ficult concepts; involvement in faculty emphasis on solid pr esear ch; and special faculty attention to the needs of underr epr esented students collectively r einfor ce students’ participation. These acts of inclusion ar e intended to ensur e encourage and r that all students develop academic and social competencies, have a sense of membership in the lear e capable of dischar g ing the r esponsibilities of such membership in ning enterprise, and ar onments. academic and social envir V arious F orms of Supplementary Educa tion Exposure to don (Gor don, Mer oe, & Bridglall, in pr ess) defines supplementary education as the for mal and Gor mal lear ning and developmental enrichment opportunities pr ovided for students outside of infor egular school day or year school and beyond the r . Some of these activities may occur inside the e beyond those included in the for mal curriculum of the school. After -school school building but ar car ead for m of supplementary education, but supplements to e is, perhaps, the most widespr schooling also include the special ef forts that par ents exert in support of the intellective and en. These ef personal development of their childr ovisions for good health forts may range fr om pr and nutrition to extensive travel and deliberate exposur es. e to life in multiple cultur page 26 ed r outine in the settings in which they occur e nonetheless thought to Many activities, consider , ar e adequate intellective and academic develop­ be implicitly and deliberately engaged in to ensur ment of young people. These r outines include r s childr en; dinner table eading to and with one’ talk and inclusion in other family discussions of important issues; exposur e to adult models of ning; active use of the library , museums, and community behaviors supportive of academic lear and r e ces of infor m ation; help seeking fr om appr opriate sour ces; and ligious centers as sour investments in r fer e nce and other education materials. In r elated but dif fer ent domains ar e e ef forts dir ected at influencing childr en’ s choices of friends and peers, guiding and contr olling use of their spar e time, guiding and limiting their time spent watching television, and encouraging mance lear their participation in high-perfor ning communities (Clark, 2002). Par ents of high-achieving students understand and emphasize academic achievement by supple­ en’ s education with travel, dance lessons, scouting, tutoring, summer camp, menting their childr med par ents, scholars, and educators have known for some time and other activities. Indeed, infor now that schools alone cannot enable or ensur e high academic achievement (Coleman, 1966; Gor don, 2001; W ilkerson, 1985). James Comer (1997) asserts this position mor e for cefully in W oblems—And How W e Can. aiting for a Miracle: Why Our Schools Cannot Solve Our Pr Colloquial knowledge among many par ents “in the know” r e flects awar eness that a number of experiences and activities occurring outside of school appear to enable schooling to work. Lear ning Point Associates

34 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 27 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP Exposure to Models of emplars Academic Excellence and Ex of Sc holarl y Pr actice advocate the pairing of students with mentors who ar e pr ofessional r o le models in students’ We eas of inter ar ecruited fr om a variety of settings, including universities, est. Mentors can be r nment facilities, and corporations. Pairings or assignments of students private laboratories, gover m but can be tar geted to the developmental phase or and mentors should ideally be long ter stage of the student. Mentors can consult with students on educational and car eer issues, as well as topics ranging fr om class scheduling, inter nship experiences, school placements, car eer choices, and personal concer es, business meetings, laboratory visits, and social encoun­ ns. Lectur ters with mentors can expr ess mentor and mentor ee r e lationships for mally . The mentoring r elationship also can be expr essed infor mally thr ough social outings, letter writing, and r ecr e­ ational activities. These facets of mentoring can facilitate educational and pr owth ofessional gr ❙ oss the lear ning continuum. acr page 27 Lear ning Point Associates

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36 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 29 3:26 PM ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP ALL STUDENTS A T WILL IT T AKE? T THE TOP: WHA , guably The state of education for minority students is clearly multidimensional and complex. Ar oblem in education faced by minority students is the gap in academic achieve­ the most critical pr ment known to exist between minority and nonminority students. This pr oblem is manifested at all achievement and socioeconomic levels. medy this situation, the National Study Gr oup for the Af To mative Development of Academic re fir oposes that the education community embark upon a deliberate ef fort to develop Ability pr academic abilities in a br oad range of students who have a history of being r esour ce deprived e underr epr and who, as a consequence, ar esented in the pool of academically high-achieving students. The deliberate or af mative development of academic ability should include mor e fir equitable access to a variety of capitals and educational interventions. The authors of this r oup members chose the title of the r eport eport and the National Study Gr car efully to r e flect our goal of enabling all students to r each the top, both academically and in gency of the pr their personal endeavors. Due to the ur e is a critical need for the oblem, ther education establishment to work together with the social and political institutions in this country to lead what we consider to be a char ge to the nation. In describing this char ge, we have attempted to marshal what we know fr om multiple r esear ch domains to addr ess the achievement gaps. W e r ecognize that our knowledge as r esear chers tends to be discr ete and disconnected. page 29 What is most needed, then, is a bundling and systemic application of our best r esear ch, strate­ ning opportunities for gies, and practices to close the achievement gaps and to enhance lear all students simultaneously in the home, classr . oom, school, and community Conclusions Thr oughout this r eport, we have emphasized a developmental appr oach to teaching and fir mative development of academic ability—which we believe will lead not only lear ning—the af to higher academic achievement for all students and closing the academic achievement gaps oups, but also to the development of intellective competence in between diverse student gr have segments of the population with whom schools have typically not been successful. W e suggested that access to education-r elevant for s of capital, combined with r esear ch-based m educational interventions, may be necessary in closing the achievement gaps that exist between en and their Eur opean-American, Asian- black, Hispanic, Native American, and low-income childr e economically advantaged peers. The conclusions and r American, and mor ecommendations that d engaging education practitioners, policymakers, par follow pr ents, and ovide a first step towar e that all students r eceive the kinds of instruc­ community members in leading the char ge to ensur tion and support necessary to meet the goals of the No Child Left Behind Act and to achieve d s by the year 2014. high academic standar move all students to the top by 2014, the National Study Gr oup concludes that ef forts at To fir mative development of academic ability should be guided by the following educational the af experiences in homes, classr ooms, schools, and communities for all students: Lear ning Point Associates

37 87434 LEAR All Students book 3:26 PM Page 30 9/23/04 op: What ill It T ake? T W All Students at the In local communities, attention should be given to socializing young people to the specific • behavioral and dispositional r equir ements of high levels of academic work and to the forts and pr oducts look like. explication of examples of what such ef • Because academic success is associated with community and family envir onments that ongly support academic development, families and communities should be str str engthened in their capacity to pr ovide a wide variety of supplemental education supports for the en. academic and personal development of childr • eater attention to the pr omotion of Schools and other educative institutions should give gr feelings of trust in our schools, trust in the people who staf f these institutions, and trust in the pr ocesses by which teaching and lear ning transactions ar e managed. • Schools can r ce the belief that high levels of academic ability should be r e cognized as einfor omised by fear of being ster eotyped a universal civil right—a right that should not be compr s identity or the social division to which one is assigned. based on one’ • Attention should be given in schools and classr ooms to r econciling the possible tensions between the several purposes of education—intellect development, skills development, and moral development (W allace, 1966)—and the political agendas of diverse lear ners, to the end that academic lear ing can be seen as compatible with the purposes that infor m those n who must do the lear ning. • Incr eased opportunities should be cr eated for continuous exposur e to high-perfor mance lear ning envir onments in which childr en successfully experience high expectations and joyful oximal develop­ but rigor ous challenges that ar e at the gr owing edges of their zones of pr ment—the ar eas just beyond each student’ lear ning comfort zone. s • eaching and lear ning in the classr oom should r eflect a balanced focus between the content T page 30 ocesses that ar ed and the metacognitive understandings and and pr e expected to be master strategies that ar e essential to making sense of one’ s experiences. For students, time and ef fort must be devoted to lear ning tasks that ar e r e levant to the • ed. knowledge and skills to be master tions Recommenda The National Study Gr oup agr ees that what we know about the development of high levels of eflected in pedagogical practices and polices that ar e within our r e ach. academic ability can be r Y et deter mining the most appr opriate and timely avenues to implement r esear ch-based pr oposals to impr ove education necessitates actively seeking opportunities to leverage existing national, ograms. In or e that all students have access to educa­ state, and local policies and pr der to ensur tional experiences that ar e guided by the above conclusions, the National Study Gr oup of fers the following practical and immediately actionable r ecommendations at the national, state, and local levels. National Level • Colleges, universities, and policymakers should influence teacher pr eparation pr ograms to r efocus their curricula to str engthen teacher knowledge of subject matter and to r eflect the r ch fr om the lear ning sciences. This task will ensur e that classr oom teachers will be able esear to intr oduce rigor ous content and lear ning experiences leading to intellective competence Lear ning Point Associates

38 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 31 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP ent r fers a timely e in all students. The curr authorization of the Higher Education Act of ograms. eparation pr avenue for influencing teacher pr • ess and the U.S. Department of Education of ficials seek ways to As members of Congr enhance the No Child Left Behind Act, they should encourage states to br oaden assessment e fr equent pr ograms to include the following: curriculum-embedded assessments, mor es of student lear assessment pr obes, and dynamic measur ning behavior and outcomes—all oom envir e thought to lead to the type of school and classr onments that support of which ar mative development of academic ability the af fir . State Level • In collaboration with foundations and institutions of higher education, state education e focus the pr eparation of school leaders on the development of agencies should r mance lear high-perfor onments, high expectations ar e ning envir onments. In such envir e held accountable for content-rich instruction deliver ed ead, and teachers ar widespr e levant and fr ee fr om pr ejudicial behavior for all students. in a context that is culturally r Building on existing federal and state funding str eams that pr ovide enrichment opportunities • ning Center grants and the pr ovisions for students such as the 21st Century Community Lear for supplemental education services in the No Child Left Behind Act, state of ficials in Departments of Education and Departments of Health and Human Services should work efine the criteria that qualify pr oviders of these services to design pr ograms together to r that set high expectations for all students. page 31 Local Level In the continuing pr ofessional development of teachers and administrators, special attention • f to meet the instructional r should be given to better enabling staf eas­ equir ements of an incr equir ements should build on what we know ingly diverse student body . Such instructional r ch about the conditions necessary for the successful transfer of knowledge. fr esear om r • eachers and school-level administrators need to r einfor ce daily with students, their families, T ds and achieve and the community the belief that all students can lear n to high standar intellective competence. T fir mative development of academic ability is the key to • eachers who believe that af dingly—should e their instruction accor achieving intellective competence—and structur eceive incentives to nurtur e other teachers to follow a similar appr oach. At the very least, r teachers who do not believe that academic ability is developable in all students should eceive assistance with finding a mor e suitable teaching or work assignment. Clearly , r equir students in the most high-need situations r e teachers who believe in their ability to ous content and experience that under d the lear gir n but who also can deliver the rigor development of intellective competence. The char ge to the National Study Gr oup and now to the nation is guided by the belief that we oving the lear ning opportunities and academic cannot overlook the essential need to focus on impr s population achievement of minority and low-income students. Demographic shifts in our nation’ mandate that we attend specifically to these students’ achievement if we expect as a nation to maintain our standar osperity , and our place in the global economy . d of living, our level of pr Simply put, we need the knowledge and contributions of students of color—together with the ❙ knowledge and contributions of all our students and all our adults—to maintain our democracy . Lear ning Point Associates

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41 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 34 3:26 PM ences Refer w n, A. L. (1978). Kno wing when, wher e , and ho w to r emember: A pr ob lem of metaco gnition. Br o Adv ances in instructional psyc y (V ol. 1, pp . 77–165). Hillsdale , NJ: Erlbaum. In R. Glaser (Ed.), holog In K. n, L., & Campione , J . C . w Guided disco v e r y in a comm unity of learners. A. McGill y Br o (1994). oom lessons: Integr e theor y and classr oom pr actice ating cognitiv . 229–272). Classr (Ed.), (pp , MA: MIT Pr ess. Cambridg e w . A. L., Campione , J o C ., W e bber , L . S ., & McGill y K. (1992). Inter acti v e learning en vir onments: Br n, In B d & M. R. Giffor w look at assessment and instruction. C. O’Connor (Eds.), Alternativ e A ne . , c hiev ement and instruction. Boston: Kluw er . ws of aptitude a vie w n, J . Br . , Collins, A., & Duguid, P . (1989). Situated co gnition and the cultur e of learning. o S c her , 1 8 (1), 32–42. Educational Resear yk, Br S . , & Sc hneider , B . (2002). T rust in sc hools: A cor e r esour ce f or impr ov ement. Ne w Y ork: Russell A. g e oundation. Sa F E. W J . , & Sc a, A. . (1999). Gr oup differ ences in standar diz ed testing and social str atification Camar hmidt, g e Boar d Re port No . 99-5). Ne w Y ork: The Colle g e Boar d. Retrie v ed J u l y 27, 2004, fr om (Colle .colle e boar e positor y/rr9905_3916.pdf http://www g , A . M . (in pr ess). T e ac hing and learning for kno wledg e acquisition, consolidation and Cauce , e In E. W . Gor don & B . L. Bridglall (Eds.), T he affirmativ automaticity and understanding. elopment of academic ability Lanham, MD: Ro wman and Littlefield. dev . , A . M., Ste w art, A., Rodriguez, M. D Cauce , Coc hr an, B . , & Ginzler , J . (2003). Ov er coming the odds? . . Adolescent de v elopment in the conte xt of urban po v erty . In S . S Resilience and Luthar (Ed.), w Y vulner hildhood adv er sities (pp . 343–363). Ne Adaptation in the context of c ork: Cambridg e ability: Uni v ersity Pr ess page 34 C. (2001). oom discour se: T he language of teac hing and learning . P ortsmouth, NH: Cazden, Classr Heinemann. Pr W . , & Hol Cheng, oak, K. J . (1985). . a gmatic r easoning sc hemas. Cognitiv e Psyc holog y , 17, 391–416. P y M. T . H., F elto vic h, P . J . , & Glaser , R . (1981). Cate gorization and r e pr esentation of ph ysics Chi, ob pr y e xperts and no vices. Cognitiv e Science , 5, 121–152. lems b hiev R. In-sc hool and out-of-sc hool f actor s that build student ac December). ement: Resear c h - Clark, (2002, or sc hool instructional polic y (P olic y Issues No . 13, pp . 11–18). Naperville based implications f IL: , North Centr g ional Educational La bor ator y . Retrie v ed J u al Re y 27, 2004, fr om l http://www .ncr el.or g/g ap/clark/ Co gnition and T e c hnolo gy Gr oup at V anderbilt. (1997). T he J asper pr oject: Lessons in curriculum, instruction, assessment, ofessional dev elopment. Mahw ah, NJ: Erlbaum. and pr Ne , Ga y , J . , Glic k, J . , & Sharp , D . W . (1971). Cole he cultur al context of learning and thinking . M., w Y ork: T Basic Books. hological intr , & Scribner , S . (1974). Cultur e and thought: Cole M., oduction. Ne w Y ork: W ile y . A psyc Coleman, J . S . , Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J . , McP artland, J . , Mood, A. M., W einfeld, F . D . , et al. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity . ashington, DC: U . S . Go v ernment Printing Office . W es v g Entr Colle d. (2003). Gr aph 10: SA T scor e a r y b y r ace/ethnicity . ance Examination Boar In 2003 college-bound senior s: T ables and r elated items . Retrie v ed J u l y 27, 2004, fr om wnloads/a http://www g e boar od_do .colle bout/ne ws_info/cbsenior/yr2003/pdf/gr aph10.pdf Lear ning Point Associates

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45 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 38 3:26 PM ences Refer . (1995a). The construction of mor al r ationality . Human Dev elopment, 38, 265–281. Moshman, D . (1995b). ained thinking. Human Dev elopment, 38, 53–64. Moshman, D Reasoning as self-constr a le 133. Sc holastic Assessment T b (2001). National Center for Education Statistics. v er T g es, b y r ace/ethnicity: 1986–87 to 1999–2000. In Digest of education est (SA T) a a 2000. Wa shington, DC: A uthor . Retrie v ed J u l y 27, 2004, fr om statistics , v/pr o r ams/dig est/d00/ta b les/PDF/ta b le133.pdf http://nces.ed.go g T b le 133. Sc holastic Assessment (2003). a National Center for Education Statistics. T) a v er a g es, b y r ace/ethnicity: 1986–87 to 2001–02. In Digest of education T est (SA ed J 2002. shington, DC: A uthor . Retrie v Wa u l y 27, 2004, fr om , statistics v/pr o g r ams/dig est/d02/ta b http://nces.ed.go b le133.pdf les/PDF/ta National Commission on Excellence in Education. A nation at risk: T he imper ativ e f o r (1983). e f W ashington, DC: U . S . Go v ernment Printing Office . educational r orm. ask F Reac r ce on Minority High Ac hie v ement. (1999). T hing the top . National o ed J Y w g e Boar d. Retrie v ork: u l y 27, 2004, fr om Ne The Colle .colle g e boar e positor y/r eac hingthe_3952.pdf http://www wstead, Ne . E., & Ev ans, J . St. B . T . (Eds.). (1995). Pe r spectiv es on thinking and r easoning: Essa ys in honour S eter ason. Hillsdale , NJ: Erlbaum. of P W Act of 2001, Pub . L . N o . 107-110, 115 Stat. No Child Left Behind Retrie v ed J u l y 27, 2004, 1425 (2002). fr om http://www .ed.go v/polic y/elsec/le g/esea02/inde x.html . O’Sulli v an, C. Y . , Lauko , M . A., Grigg, W . S . , Qian, J d: Science , & Zhang, J . (2003). T he nation’ s r eport car v 2000 a shington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrie W ed J u l y (NCES 2003453). page 38 2004, fr v/pubsear c h/pubsinfo .asp?pubid=2003453 27, om http://nces.ed.go Recipr , o w n, A. (1984). & Br ocal teac hing of compr ehension-fostering and alincsar P A., vities. Cognition and Instruction, 1 (2), 117–175. compr ehension-monitoring acti y of Opportunity in Higher Education. ell Institute for the Stud J une). Colle g e P (2003, ance r y r ace/ethnicity and g ender for r ecent high sc hool gr aduates entr ate b eadsheet]. Opportunity , 132. Retrie v ed J u l y 1959 to 2002 [Spr 2004, fr om 27, http://www y .or g/ar c h i v es/Re ports/Spr eadsheets/Entr anceRate .htm .postsecondar L., ences in pr wis, C., & McCamle y-J enkins, L. (1994). Student gr oup differ Ramist, edicting college Le 93-1). ades: Sex, , and ethnic gr gr (Colle g e Boar d Re port No . language Ne w Y ork: The oups Colle g e Boar d. Resnic k, L. (1987). Education and learning to think. W ashington, DC: National Academ y Pr ess. Resnic k, (1988). T r eating mathematics as an ill-structur ed discipline . In R. Charles & E. Silv er L. A: National T oblem solving (pp . 32–60). Reston, V hing and assessing of mathematical pr (Eds.), he teac T e ac hers of Mathematics. Council of k, L. (1989). Pr ob lem solving in e Resnic er yda y pr actice . In R. J . Charles & E. A. Silv er (Eds.). v Th e teac hing and assessing of mathematical pr oblem solving . Hillsdale , NJ: Erlbaum. Resnic k, L., & Hall, M. W . (1998). Learning or g anizations for sustaina b le education r eform. Daedalus: Arts and Sciences T American Academ y of ournal of the , 127 (4), 89–118. he J Resnic k, L. B . , Saljo , R., P ontecorv o , C., & Bur g e , B . (1998). Discour se , tools , and r easoning: Situated er cognition and tec onments . Heidelber g, German y: Spring hnologically supported envir V erla g. Lear ning Point Associates

46 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 39 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP M. Zeitz, C. M. (1995). Anal yzing con v ersational r easoning. Inf ormal Logic, 17, 1–23. H., Salmon, & ents Under yslexia and the r eading pr ocess: A guide f or educator s and par standing d . Sanders, M. (2001). All yn and Bacon. MA: Needham Heights, M., Ber eiter , C ., & Steinbac h, R. (1984) T e ac ha bility of the r eflecti v e pr Scar damalia, ocesses in Cognitiv , 8, 173–190. written composition. e Science The r le . (1990). Belief r e vision in c hildr en: L ole of prior kno wledg e and str ate g ies for haub , Sc ating e vidence . J g holog y , 49, 31–57. ener ournal of Experimental Child Psyc xton, . C. (1961). Education and income: Inequalities in our public sc hools . P w Y ork: V iking Pr ess. Se Ne y , M. K., & Anderson, J . R. (1989). T he tr ansfer of cognitiv e skill. Cambridg e , MA: Harv ar d Single v Uni ersity Pr ess. Americans. C . (1992, April). Race and the sc hooling of b lac k M Th e Atlantic Monthly , 68–78. , . Steele C . M., & Ar onson, J . (1995). Ster eotype thr Steele African , eat and the intellectual performance of J e r sonality and Social Psyc holog y , 69, 797–811. Americans. ournal of P . C M., & Ar onson, J , (2000). Ster eotype thr eat and the intellectual test performance of African Steele . In C. Stangor (Ed.), Ster eotypes and pr ejudice: Essential r eadings (K e y Readings in Americans. T holo p p . 369–389). Philadelphia: , a ylor and F r ancis. gy Social Psyc g, L. (1996). Be y ond the classr oom. Wh y sc hool r e f orm has f ailed and w hat par ents need to do . Ne w Steinber ork: Simon and Sc . Y huster page 39 . R. . (Ed.). g, Enc yclopedia of human intelligence J Ne w Y ork: Macmillan. Sternber (1994). g, R. J . (2002). Raising the ac hie v ement of all students: T e ac hing for successful intellig ence . Sternber holog Educational Psyc , 14 (4), 383–393. y Revie w E Thorndike & W ood w orth, R. S . (1901). The influence of impr o v ement in one mental function . , L., hological Revie , 8, 237–261. Psyc w y of other functions. upon the efficienc . , & Ev erson, H. T T (2002). Knowing w h at y ou know and w hat y ou don’ t: Further r esear c h on obias, S . (Resear c h Re port No . 2002-3). Ne w Y ork: metacognitiv g e Boar d. e knowledge monitoring The Colle v u l y 27, 2004, fr om http://www .colle g e boar e positor y/cbr e port20013_10769.pdf Retrie ed J (2001). esen, . K., Rashotte , rg . A., & Ale xander , A . W . J Principles of fluenc y instruction in r eading: To C b In M. W olf (Ed.), Dyslexia, lished empirical outcomes. y , and the Relationships with esta fluenc ain (pp . 333–355). T i monium, MD: Y ork Pr ess. br eisman, Tr U . (1992). Stud ying students stud ying calculus: A look at the li v es of minority P . e T he College Mathematics J ournal, 23 (5), 362–372. g . mathematics students in colle S ., & Br e w er , W . Vo . (1992). Mental models of the earth: A stud y of conce ptual c hang e sniadou, F hildhood. Cognitiv e Psyc holog y , 24, 535–585. in c y , L. S . (1978). Mind in society: T he dev elopment of higher psyc hological pr ocesses . Cambridg e , MA: Vygotsk ar Harv ersity Pr ess. d Uni v al arts college , . (1966). allace e: Social structur e and continuity in a liber W . W Student cultur go: Aldine . Chica , M . A., & Roedig er , H . L . (1992). Dispar ate effects of r e peated testing: Reconciling Ballar d’ s Wheeler , s (1932) r Psyc hological Science , 3 esults. 240–245. (1913) and Bartlett’ Lear ning Point Associates

47 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 Page 40 3:26 PM ences Refer D . J . (2000). Minorities in higher education, 1999–2000: Sev enteenth annual status r eport. W ilds, DC: ashington, American Council on Education. W D . A. (1985). W hildr en. W estport, CT : Mediax. ilkerson, Educating all our c illingham, D . T . (2002). Infle xib le kno wledg e W American Educator , 2 6 (4), 31–33. . W D . T . (2003). Students r emember what the y think a bout. American Educator , 2 7 (2), 37–41. illingham, he r illingham, . W . (1985). Success in college: T W ole of per sonal qualities and academic ability . Ne w Y ork: W The Colle g e Boar d. esting pr W M. (1966). The measur ement of en vir onments. In A. Anastasi (Ed.), T R. oblems in olf, per e (pp . spectiv W ashington, DC: American Council on Education. 491–503). W olf, R. M. (1995). The measur ement of en vir onments: A follo w-up stud y . T he J ournal of Negr o Education, (3), 354–59. 64 Y ouniss, J . , & Damon, W . (1992). Social construction in Pia g et’ s theor y . In H. Berlin & B . Pufal (Eds.), Hillsdale Piaget’ y: Pr ospects and possibilities (pp . 267-286). s theor , NJ: Erlbaum. page 40 Lear ning Point Associates

48 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 41 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP APPENDIX: KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS The statistical phenomenon of pr edictable lower perfor mance on standar dized achievement gap. tests by African-American, Hispanic, Native American, and low-income students as compar ed to their white, Asian, and mor e economically advantaged peers. mative development of academic ability . The deliberate ef fort to equip students with fir af strategies that build knowledge and develop techniques to solve both common and novel pr oblems in pursuit of high academic achievement. . The challenge that a student of color may face when r eceiving feedback attributional ambiguity mance and the dif about his or her perfor ficulty of deter mining when feedback (particularly eflective of racial bias on the part of the one critical feedback) is accurate or is actually r giving the feedback. automaticity The ability to perfor m a complex task without conscious awar eness or ef fort. . ough r epeated practice, the task itself becomes an automatic pr ocess. Thr Systematic ways of r easoning, of inferring patter ns fr om one’ s envir on­ intellective competence. page 41 ments, and using them to maintain practices and to invent new ones; highly adaptive, rich habits oblem solving. Academic intellective competence is a of thinking; engagement in meaningful pr e a dir highly specialized set of abilities that ar ect r esult of particular kinds of experiences over n schooling. ester long periods of time in W eat. The awar eness that others may judge one’ s perfor mance in ter ms of one’ s eotype thr ster ms of one’ s individual backgr ound. racial backgr ound, rather than in ter supplementary education. The for mal and infor mal lear ning and developmental enrichment ovided for students outside of school and beyond the r egular school day or year . opportunities pr eading with and to one’ s child on a daily basis, Examples of supplementary education include r family trips to the museum or other lear ning envir onments, and community-based after -school tutoring pr ograms, to name a few (Bridglall & Gor don, 2002). . How well what a person lear ns in one set of cir cumstances is adapted to other , transfer novel situations. Lear ning Point Associates

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