News In A New America

Transcript

1 A Report for the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation

2 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Significant research support for the appendices was provided ABOUT THE A UTHOR by Kni ght Chair in Journalism Stephen K. Doig of the Walter Cr onkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Sally Lehrman , the national Arizona State University, as well as Bill Dedman of The Telegraph in Nashua, N.H., Bob Papper of Ball State University, diversity chair for the Society Am anda Elliott of the Robert C. Maynard Institute for of Professional Journalists, Journalism Education and Kira Wisniewski of the University of is an award-winning inde- Miami. Feedback on the narrative was provided by Teresa M oore of the University of San Francisco, Venise Wagner of San pendent journalist who covers medicine and Francisco State University, Karen Reyes of AARP: The Magazine, science policy. and author Helen Zia. She has written for a wide range of Denise T om and Eric Newton edited the book. publications including Scientific American, Health, Salon.com, Nature, Alternative Medicine, The Washington Post and the Los For th e John S. and James L. Knight Foundation: Angeles Times. For 13 years she covered W. Gerald Austen, M.D., chairman, board of trustees AIDS, biotechnology, health policy and Alberto Ibargüen, president business as a columnist and reporter at The d ai Mi chael M enberg, vice president and chief program officer c Newton, director of journalism initiatives Eri San Francisco Examiner. om, journalism program specialist Denise T Lehrman was part of a team that received eyer, vice president of communications and secretary Larry M a 2002 Peabody Award for a series of public Robertson Adams, communications associate/webmaster Caroline Wingate, editorial consultant radio documentaries on human genetics. The group also received a Peabody/Robert Design: Jacques Auger Design Associates, Miami Beach, Fla. Wood Johnson Award for excellence in health Printing: Rex Three, Sunrise, Fla. and medical programming and the 1999 Alfred I. duPont-Columbia Silver Baton. In More information about Knight Foundation is available at 1995-96, she was a John S. Knight Fellow at . www.knightfdn.org Stanford University. Knight Foundation’s Journalism Advisory Committee members She is a USC Annenberg Institute for are: Rich Oppel (chair), editor, Austin American-Statesman; Justice and Journalism Expert Fellow and is Farai Chideya, host/correspondent, NPR West; John L. Dotson Jr., publisher emeritus, Akron Beacon Journal; Geneva active in several organizations that promote Overholser, Curtis B. Hurley Chair in Public Affairs Reporting, diversity in the media. SPJ lauded her work University of Missouri School of Journalism; James V. Risser, in this area with its highest honor, the retired director, John S. Knight Fellowships for Professional Journalists, Stanford University; Martin Baron, editor, The Wells Memorial Key. Boston Globe; Hilary Schneider, senior vice president/operations, Knight Ridder; Eduardo Hauser, founder/CEO, Mydya, a next- generation electronic publishing company. Copyri ght 2005 by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Miami, Fla. To request copies of this book or others in our journalism series, contact [email protected] This book examines news coverage of a changing America. It . You can download was commissioned in early 2004 by the John S. and James L. an Acrobat PDF file of this book at Knight Foundation as a fresh perspective on the issue of news . www.knightfdn.org/publications and newsroom diversity. The book also includes a guide to a variety of diversity programs and resources and the results of three surveys showing trends among American journalists and in newspaper and broadcast newsrooms. ISBN 0-9749702-1-2 2

3 CONTENTS From the Foundation 4 Foreword by Dori J. Maynard 6 10 Author’s Note Chapter One: News in a New America 12 26 Chapter Two: The Human Factor Chapter Three: Pressures in the Newsroom 44 Chapter Four: Reframing Diversity 60 d by John L. Dotson Jr. 82 Afterw or Diversity Resource Guide 86 Appendix I: Dedman-Doig Study of Newspaper Employment 107 121 Appendix II: 2005 Survey of Broadcast Journalists Appendix III: The American Journalist in the 21st Century 127 130 Appendix IV: Study and Discussion Questions Appendix V: Further Reading 133 3

4 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA THE FROM TION FOUNDA TO IBARGÜEN BY ALBER 4

5 THE FOUNDATION FROM So, in a world where my neighbors are not he questions most asked around Knight only possibly, but likely to be from another Foundation’s journalism program are: T place or culture, it is essential that we Who, in the future, will give us the find common ground. We need common information we need to succeed as a demo- ground that allows the community to cratic society? Who will connect the dots function by letting its residents and visitors of information so that the towns and cities see themselves as part of a shared universe. we live in feel like communities ... or, at least, are comprehensible, not as a series But to find common ground, we need a of discrete and independent neighborhoods medium that paves the way. We need a or interest groups, but as a whole? medium that is the functional successor of newspapers or broadcast television, some- In many important ways, this is what Knight thing that ties us together as newspapers newspapers used to do. They gave readers and television used to. Whether it’s through a sense of shared experience by making a m edium or m ultiple media, we need a ed in on e part of town some- what happen my part of town method and platform; a way of getting there. thing that happened in my newspaper. because I read about it in They gave us shared vocabulary and shared As this book illustrates, U.S. newsrooms expectations. They defined community. still have quite a distance to go before they and the communities they cover are Who will help us know each other well fully served and capably observed. We enough to function as small and large don’t lament here the change in the media democracies, whether municipal, metropol- landscape. We need to celebrate the itan or national? And, as author Sally evolution of our media and encourage it. Lehrman asks in this new publication, will Darwin was roughly right: it is not the those sources of information provide us strongest of the species that survive, nor the tools we need to understand each other? the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. In Knight Foundation’s home town of Miami, News in a New America adds multiple voices the issues of diversity, of communicating and perspectives to this rich and ongoing across cultural, ethnic and financial differ- search for a new understanding. ences influence how we think about the • role and value of news and communication. – Alberto Ibar güen, president Three-fourths of us who live here were John S. and James L. Knight Foundation born someplace else. Fifty percent of us er country. Miami is a oth e born in an wer place worth knowing for what it represents e. It offers daily about our globalized futur unities ate comm ow dispar amples about h x e can come together and figure out how to d work and progress together. live an 5

6 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA FOREWORD YNARD MA BY DORI J. 6

7 FOREWORD ood journalists should be able to sometimes putting aside our need to agree tackle any assignment, whether it is and striving simply to understand. covering their own community or G covering a community with which they My late father, Robert C. Maynard, the have had little or no personal contact. former editor and publisher of The Oakland Tribune, used to say that a newspaper In short, they should be able to give us should be a tool for community under- ews that is as American as America. n ding, a place where you see not only stan your life , but also the life of your neighbor, That’s the ideal. accurately and fairly represented. I’m sure that if h e were alive today, he would e truth is, we all have blind spots. Th in clude broadcast, radio and the Internet escription. in that d So it h elps to make good journalism a group effort, to have colleagues – copy editors, These days that idea may seem a pipe , producers and general managers city editors d ream, with blue state and red state with diverse backgrounds and different residents seeming to turn to very different ew workin g as a team to help the f vi ts o poin f n ews – talk r adio, cable tele- sour ces o newsroom as a whole understand the vision, the Internet, the growing ethnic community as a whole. media that increasingly fills the needs of people wh eir lives on’t oth o d erwise see th Some newsrooms operate with a diversity accurately reflected. model of “us and them”: White men may essur ed to accept Afri can Americans, feel pr et it is that m Y a fragmentation that edi Latinos, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, makes it even more urgent to work toward Asians, gays and women as equal colleagues, understanding. As changing demographics while th ose journ alists may feel as if they e with the ever-growing number of colli d must work overtime helping white co- news sources, there is the danger that workers understand the world outside the “mainstream” media may become a niche ostly white n m ewsroom. Journalists hired a in the not-so-distant future if we do edi m for their diverse views, as well as for their not more accurately portray the daily lives skills, become worn down by countless of all citizens in all of our coverage. attempts to e xplain a story to an editor o doesn’t appreciate the basic idea that wh T o understand some of the forces hastening different people can be interested in the dismantling of the mass media, one different things. need only look at the slow pace with which we are desegregating the nation’s newsrooms. This is not the best scenario, nor is it the best approach. A newsroom divided cannot Back in 1978, the American Society of help America understand itself. If we are Newspaper Editors (ASNE) began its annual to fulfill our obligation to accurately, fairly census. At the time, the goal was for the and completely cover all segments of our nation’s newsrooms to mirror the nation’s communities, we as professionals must society by the year 2000. At the start of learn to talk across the fault lines of race, the census, journalists of color made up 4 class, gender, generation and geography, percent of the work force and were growing. 7

8 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA retaining its nonwhite work force, journalists Much of that growth was fueled by the fact of color report that they often leave the that as the civil rights movement morphed business because they find their views of into the black consciousness movement, stories and news events often rejected by leaders at most news organizations discov- their colleagues and editors. In other ered they did not have a staff capable of words, one of the skills that led to their getting the story. hiring – their diverse take on stories – is the very thing that causes them to be Then the fires died, both literally and rejected once they are hired. figuratively. That is why learning how to talk across the Today, for many newspapers, their most fault lines is so essential. diverse years are in the past, according to a Knight Foundation-funded study (see It is not always easy. Though we live in an Appendix I). Among the 200 largest news- cr easingly diverse world, we also live in papers cent employ fewer nonwhites, , 73 per largely segregated lives. as a share of the newsroom jobs, than they did in some earlier year from 1990 to Researchers at the State University of New 2004, Bill Dedman and Steve Doig wrote in York at Albany examined the 2000 U.S. the report released in spring 2005. Census and discovered that the average white urban or suburban resident lives in a In 2005 the ASNE annual census found that neighborhood that is 80 percent white. the share of journalists of color in the The 2001 study also found that people of nation’s newspapers hovered at 13 percent. color tend to have slightly more integrated A similar study done for the Radio and lives, as might be expected of a so-called Television News Directors Association “minority’’ community living in a majority found that people of color account for a world. little more than 21 percent of local news staffs and women about 39 percent. As a result, many of us do not walk into Slightly better, but still far from reflecting the workplace with the tools to talk cross- a country that is 30 percent people of culturally. color and 50 percent women. There are those who argue that this failure Numbers alone, though, are not the entire shows in coverage that skews and distorts story. As the report demonstrated, organiza- the daily lives of people of color. In fact, tions that are truly committed to diversity dits of local news coverage t au ten es making strides, even in papers con e on e th ar consistently show that people of color are located far from urban centers. This is epresented in stories about crime, overr terintuitive to a belief that there is coun d are under- d sports an ucer t an od en all town editor or pr tertainm g a sm en othin n represented in stories about everyday life, can do to increase staff diversity. ess, politics and lifestyle. busin g is the story behind the agin e discour or M To start the cross-cultural conversation numbers. As the industry struggles with 8

9 FOREWORD Dori J. Maynard that can lead to a more accurate portrayal is president of all of our communities, news organizations and CEO of the Robert C. can encourage conversations across the Maynard Institute for Journalism Education, the fault lines with the goal of understanding each other’s viewpoints. At the same time, nation’s leading trainer of journalists of color. She is we must recognize that our fault lines , Letters to My Children shape the way we think about ourselves, the co-author of a compilation of nationally syndicated each other and events around us. columns by her late father, Bob Maynard, the first African American to own a major Consequently, two people with different metropolitan newspaper. Dori Maynard was fault-line perspectives can look at the same a reporter at The Bakersfield Californian, event and see two very different stories. The Patriot Ledger in Quincy, Mass., and the In today’s newsrooms, oftentimes one Detroit Free Press. In 1993, she and her person’s perception wins out, leaving scores f ather became the first f ather-daughter duo o f r eaders and viewers out of the picture. to be appointed Nieman Fellows at Harvard University. It is only through honest dialogue through- out the process of reporting and editing that we will learn how to include all pers- pectives and, by extension, many more viewers and readers. By adopting this approach and having these conversations, we are making it clear that diversity means everyone. White men no longer have the luxury of sitting it out with the excuse that diversity does not apply to them. Journalists of color no longer have the luxury of walking away because “they (white men) just don’t get it.” It’s time for all of us to do the hard work and to work together. A successful future for the news industry ewsrooms – not s true diversity in n ean m “us and them,” but journalists from all walks f life disagreeing and agreeing together. o ooms where everyone is ewsr s n ean t m I respected, appreciated and acknowledged ere everyone is needed and where – wh eans t m . I e can cover every story everyon newsrooms that produce American news. • 9

10 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA AUTHOR’S NOTE 10

11 AUTHOR’S NOTE n my research for this book, one Fortunately, each of us has the power to theme kept returning: change in news make the news better. A wealth of research I and in newsrooms requires more than from social scientists, combined with good intentions. experience from real-world newsgathering, can now speed our effort. Soon, I hope, A transformation is sweeping the country. America’s news providers will find a way to The United States is fast becoming a include all of America in our words, sounds nation of many cultures, with increasing and imagery. differences between young and old, rich In this book, we A word about language: and poor, city and rural. If we are to serve aim to respect the terms people use to our ideals as journalists, we must work escribe th emselves. Since this can vary by d er to give Am d har eri can s the tools they region and community, we use both black need to understand each other. and African American, Hispanic and Latino, and Native American and American Indian, cing or clever recruitment and Diverse sour usually according to usage by the original retention strategies are not enough. We source. We also recognize that all these must go deeper. We need to begin to address terms, as well as Asian Americans, lump a the powerful human processes that create very diverse population together as one. misunderstanding, the things that shape It is not our intention to portray all people interactions both inside and outside the within these groups as the same. newsroom. • – Sally Lehrman Montara, Calif. December 2005 11

12 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA ONE CHAPTER A NEW IN NEWS AMERICA 12

13 IN A NEW AMERICA NEWS in these ideals. The Society of s volunteers in Fremont, Professional Journalists, founded Calif., prepared for their A in 1909 to improve and protect 2004 Fourth of July parade, journalism, lays out the duties of Vice Mayor Steve Cho had an idea. good journalists in its ethics policy. If the local Boy Scout troop carried Reporters, producers, photographers flags from around the world, he and editors should further justice thought, everyone who lived there and democracy by providing a fair would feel included and excited and comprehensive account of about America’s birthday. But what Steve Cho events and issues. In short: “Seek at first sounded simple, quickly truth and report it.” became complicated. Some residents got angry that Old Glory wouldn’t be the only TH: OUR NA THE NEW MA TION IN 2050 centerpiece. Others questioned the selection of nations to be included. The argument, o general-circulation ose “truth” d But wh wr erron Zamora, a San Francisco ote Jim H journalists report, ask more and more Chronicle reporter, “caused hurt feelings all people in America today. Already, one in around and raised the timeliest of questions: three residents in the United States is not What does it mean to be an American?” of white European descent, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Following the year In the end, 50 volunteers carried flags 2050, people of color will begin to out- from 25 countries – a sampling of the 120 number whites. Then, exactly what will the or so nations representing the heritage of mean in this country? The minority word the city’s 210,000 residents. term, when used as a way to describe those who aren’t white, already makes little sense In various ways, Fremont’s Fourth of July in places such as Hartford, Conn., where a is happening all over the United States. nearly equal mix of African Americans, Asian Today’s journalists are covering a key Americans and whites live; Gary, Ind., and moment in U.S. history, a story of social Atlanta, which are majority black; and Daly upheaval as dramatic as the industrialization City and Monterey Park, Calif., both majority and immigration that shaped the nation Asian American. a century ago. In those days, the best journalists uncovered exploitive child labor, “You have a quiet demographic revolution dangerous factories and corrupt politicians. in the making,” says Peter Morrison, a Their work helped define the news media’s demographer for RAND Corp. in Santa emerging mission of exposing injustice and t the moment, the U.S. ca, Calif. A oni M ce to be heard. e powerless a chan g th givin Census Bureau describes the population of Today, once again, the country is struggling e nation as 75 percent white, 12 percent th d technological and demographic ami t Hispanic cen can, 13 per eri alists are called can Am d again, journ Afri . An e g chan (of any race), 4 percent Asian American, upon to provide – fairly, honestly and fully cent American Indian and 3 percent 1 per e news citizens need to shape their – th orrison does not doubt that . M ace ed r d their lives. mix t an en overnm g America’s racial diversity is accelerating. Despite their inbred skepticism, many A few decades from now, will we wonder uch of the skin-color e so m ad y we m wh passionately eve d editors beli eporters an r 13

14 CLOSE-UP: NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Century,” by Professor David Weaver and gradations we use to define race? Or will we his colleagues at Indiana University, put even more emphasis on them, creating new forms of segregation and disparities in strongly suggests this. In 1992, Weaver education, medical care and access to says, 8.2 percent of America’s journalists were journalists of color; in 2002, only technology? 9.5 percent. (See Appendix III.) Age will define the new majority population as Baby Boomers live on, swelling the The implication is, to say the least, interest- ing. If these rates were to hold, by 2050 over-50 crowd. Older people will drive many only 16 percent of America’s journalists trends in work, family life and politics, says Morrison. Too energetic and healthy to would be people of color in a nation more than half nonwhite. Weaver predicts that retire in the conventional sense, they may popularize second or third careers. change will accelerate as white men retire and a more diverse work force takes their one of the data collected over . But n place A t th e same time, immigrants will continue the past two-plus decades by Weaver, the to arrive from other nations – primarily American Society of Newspaper Editors or Latin America. The Hispanic and African the Radio and Television News Directors American middle classes will grow stronger. Association offer reason for optimism. Though racial diversity will continue to “Virtually every year, TV falls farther behind spread through the middle of the country, the population. Newspapers are even worse,” most of the immigrant population will live says Bob Papper, a telecommunications on the coasts. professor at Ball State University who studies work-force trends in broadcasting. Should trends in the news media continue, however, general-circulation newspapers If a white minority ends up controlling and magazines and broadcast networks will news flow in a richly pluralistic society, how still reflect the culture, economy and will a fair and open democracy survive? politics of a white America. Coverage of the rest of the country will largely be left “I’m saddened that we are now stagnated to ethnic media and the latest incarnations in the industry,” says Ernest Sotomayor, of vehicles such as blogs and videoblogs. director of career services at the Columbia Today, even though media executives have University Graduate School of Journalism pledged their commitment to diversity for and former president of UNITY: Journalists more than two decades, at least 86 of Color. “Our people are getting left percent of newspaper editorial employees, e and more, and at the same f broadcasters and 92 or t o d m cen behin about 79 per time we are seeing a backlash unlike any percent of network news sources are white. st immigrant populations.” in years again ove s have struggled to m on ganizati ews or N beyond a history where white men dominated “I don’t see that mainstream media gets it,” edia, business and government. Despite ees Patty Talahongva (Hopi), former m agr ons, however, they are diversi- t of the Native American Journalists ti en ten d eir in esi th pr fying at a snail’s pace. The only independent Association and managing editor for two syndicated public radio programs about study that covers all media over many years, st . can issues eri ative Am N ournalist in the 21 can J “Th eri e Am 14

15 IN A NEW AMERICA NEWS Yes and no. Granted, most corporate exec- Part of not getting it is seeing diversity utive officers and high government officials only as a question of staff counts on race are white men. But their ranks are changing or gender. The skew in news today reflects faster than our source lists. And sure, not just who sits in the newsroom, but reporters cannot chronicle every nuance whom we consult and whom we cover. of the breadth and depth of the U.S. Though women make up half of the population in every news story. At the population under 40 and an even bigger same time, however, journalism involves proportion of older age groups, for instance, telling stories that the audience finds the U.S. network news shows cited women relevant. We ignore great numbers of news as sources only 15 percent of the time in consumers at our own peril. If we want to 2000. Women didn’t fare any better as news stay in business, we must seek news that subjects on television and radio, with broad- is important or interesting to our readers, cast stories featuring just 14 percent of listeners and viewers. them in 2002 and 2003. Comparable data xual orientation, socioeconomic e se on th In their own fashion, large corporations level or age of news sources and subjects such as IBM, Ford, Aetna and Merck get doesn’t even exist. this. They have made work-force diversity and multicultural marketing a priority. At “Journalists default to male and white as postage-equipment company Pitney Bowes, authority figures, as experts,” says Ina for example, people of color made up a Howard, former U.S. research director for little over half the entire work force and Media Tenor International, a media analysis one-fifth of managers in 2003. The leader- firm based in Germany. “I think they tend ship at multinational banker Citigroup is to be thought of as more valuable sources 47 percent female. PepsiCo ties executive as well. They’re thought of as more neutral.” compensation to diversity performance. Is this the truth of U.S. society today? Diversity isn’t a “program” or “goal” at After much discussion, the SPJ ethics com- the Ford, according to Ray Jensen, former mittee carefully eliminated the article truth in order to acknowl- when describing director of supplier diversity development. edge that people with different backgrounds “It’s the way we do business,” he says, and can witness the same events and see a proven means to expand market share. different truths. Journalists can only report Ford and its corporate brethren are preparing as thoroughly as possible, test the accuracy for the $2 trillion in buying power that of information and seek a variety of today’s consumers of color will enjoy by ons and views as they invite etati terpr dle of the century. in d e mi th society to understand itself. ent to diversity might come This commitm s. Even oom ewsr y n ORLD AROUND US REFLECTING THE W an as a surprise in m business reporters write relatively little old on, some will argue. The narrow demo- dustry’s race to catch up with U.S. H about in f news choices and sourcing aphics. Though companies d o ogr c ban em aphi on d gr populati simply reflects today’s power structure. run by people of color (including the ethnic media) are growing at four times Journalists are just telling it the way it is. al average, they remain unusual on ati e n th 15

16 CLOSE-UP: REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE “I don’t see that main- stream media gets it. Not so long from now, the meaning of the terms They’re not embracing ethnic minority and racial minority will change in diversity now, and the United States of America. certainly, native people have been around forever. By the year 2050, European Americans will be a Everybody talks about so-called “minority” group in this nation. diversity, but if you look at the states with the This has already happened in many American largest populations of In dians – Arizona, New es, where people of color make up a majority of citi Mae Cheng the population. Even so, America’s news system Mexico, Oklahoma, California – none have a Native American anchor has not caught up to those population changes. This r aises the question: Will it ever? eir prime-time broadcasts. Native news on th doesn’t affect just our people; it affects the communities around us. It affects the states and Here are the reflections of seven journalists, who th e nation. The biggest business story out there, as lead ers in UNITY, the four ethnic journalist al er th e class-acti on lawsuit again st th e fed ati al Lesbian and Gay Journalists gr oups , th e N on government for mismanagement of the more than Association and an organization for women 500,000 Individual Indian Money accounts (money journalists, have volunteered untold hours helping from lands held “in trust” by the Bureau of Indian news organizations become more diverse. artha Stewart, it’s bigger airs), is bi Aff gg er than M Mae Cheng , pr esident of UNITY: Journalists of than Enr on. Where is the coverage? On the other Color; assistant city editor, Newsday; former hand, the reporting on issues such as mascots and president, Asian American Journalists Association: gaming is just a farce. It’s never in context, and there is another part of the story that’s not being “W e’re not making much headway. A lot of news- told at all. papers and television stations are treading water ri gh t now. We still think we’re covering these “Can a has a good idea, the Aboriginal People’s ad communities by covering their festivals and Television Network. I would like to see an ays. At some point, our readers and viewers oli h d on of that. It’s up to us to train our can versi Am eri orm on is so ati g to call our bluff. Inf oin e g ar own people an d g et th em out th er e . A s m or e accessible now they don’t have to rely on their native people become affluent or even middle local media. class, they’re going to want some options. I would ative e n ope that our people would stay true to th h “When the people in the suits start feeling it in media, and along with that, embrace the free ets th eir pock , this will be th or change. e impetus f d en ess pr cour , an age their tribal press to flourish But I hope we don’t have to wait that long. unrestricted. If that happens, native people will Hopefully, by 2050 we’ll be smarter. Between now turn to our own networks.’’ an d then we’ll have to provide all our journalists, Herbert Lo eporter, Newsday; former , courts r we e way up the ranks, training on how to cover all th pr esident, National Association of Black Journalists: unities. We’ll have to bring in more our comm grounds even when t back en om differ people fr e news media reflect the diversity of the “Will th ey’re not covering those beats – they bring a th population by 2050? The answer will be set today, wealth of resources and knowledge. The number of tomorrow and through the next decade by the ethnic media will grow. There will be more people who are doing the hiring. People with collaboration in content, marketing, advertising, aspirations have to be trained into people with and community projects.’’ ability; people with ability have to be given Patty Talahongva , managing editor of two responsible positions. For the industry to be c radio programs, oups cated publi e diversity in gr di , you have to have som syn National Native diverse ost of d ch as ASNE, RTNDA and NAA. Otherwise, over 50 an News Native America Calling ; h Native su America Calling ; former president, Native American years, you have a white publisher replaced by a Journalists Association: white publisher replaced by a white publisher. He 16

17 IN A NEW AMERICA NEWS Herbert Lowe Patty Talahongva Ernest Sotomayor Juan Gonzalez hires a white editor who hires a white managing get enough people into the pipeline for when that o hires a white assistant managing editor wh tim e comes. editor. It’s hard to aspire higher than where you see others like you. Fundamentally, it’s about who “There’s another, even more pernicious trend than gets to hire whom. the slow diversification of staffing. We’ve been putting so much attention to getting people in the “On the optimistic side, we are continuing to see door, we haven’t paid attention to ownership. So e and more black journalists getting into levels or m tegration of lower ay have a slow in while you m ce . P eople eally f influen , levels o o f auth ority – r d d perspectives o level staffin f es an g, th e attitu will always want to know what’s going on in their the owners and publishers – the people who set world, what’s going on in their communities. In the tone – are astoundingly white. Consider the or e black people into the pipeline, or d er to pull m d ess credibility. The news media are y on pr ew stu P journalism has to be portrayed as an important becoming less respected, less credible across the and honorable trade, as a defender of democracy. population. That should be a signal that When pastors rail against journalism, those parents something is not resonating in the population.’’ with influence aren’t going to want their kids to Ernest Sotomay ector of career services, , dir or g o into it. Integration and diversity must continue Columbi a U niversity Gr ad u ate Sch ool o f Journalism; o m ust learn that n atter what in sch ools . All ki ds m former president, UNITY: Journalists of Color: color they are, there cannot be any other choice but diversity. Managers must spot unhappy journal- ch more fragmented “By 2050, we will see a m u em back in. Retention is about d pull th ists an media society. I use that term because that’s what being able to advance, being satisfied in your job, ustry. More groups already d it will be – n ot an in e doing.’’ an d bein g able to enjoy what you’r have vehicles to distribute their information Juan Gonzalez , columnist, New York Daily News; through the Internet and even through low-power co-host of the national daily radio and television radio stations. If general circulation publications Democracy Now! ow ; ews sh , n f orm er pr esi d ent, ey will have to change. , th g to survive oin e g ar National Association of Hispanic Journalists: ere has to be some sort of incremental change “Th oadcast and print have always tried to be “Br e compani es are going to increasingly because th eralists in their coverage, to be something for en g depend on people of color as consumers. But all. I think we have conditioned ourselves over newsrooms obviously aren’t going to be anywhere the decades to not count on these companies to ear parity unless new, nationwide strategies are n eflect the interests and needs of Latinos, African r developed by some of these news companies. In Americans, Asian Americans and Native Americans. g to have a oin e g , you ar er 10 to 15 years arily oth e prim an g issues that ar orin gn g been i ey’ve lon Th strategic opening when the Baby Boomers begin to of importance to people of color. And for companies retire. There will be a lot of openings, particularly to think they can solve the problem by starting a in senior management jobs. Are companies going feature here and there on Sunday is folly. It’s got to take advantage of that to downsize, or begin to be a long-term process. One way or another, hiring more? What kind of efforts does the industry they’ll have to cover these issues – and they’ll et ready for the strategic opening? That’s m ak e to g (Continued on next page) what we’re trying to do with the Parity Project, to 17

18 CLOSE-UP: CLOSE-UP: “You’re already seeing it in magazines. For them, it’s about markets. When it becomes clear there is an underserved market, people will create magazines to serve it: an Advocate, an Essence, a Latina, or People en Español.’’ , president, National Lesbian and Gay Eric Hegedus Journalists Association, page designer, New York Post: “When you consider how diverse the population is etting, the news industry really has to get into g Eric Hegedus Amy Bernstein pace with that. We need to see more women, African Americans, Asian Americans, just across the board. (Continued from previous page) I d on’t think it’s a stretch to say the industry is made up of largely white, male leaders. We’ve made have to cover them from a broader range of strides, but is everything where it should be? No. perspectives. Subjects like immigration and schools affect everybody. I’m optimistic that we will see , peri atters yone f an “Diversity m od . I can’t think o easing change in the biggest and most diverse cr in coming up with a clear reason why it doesn’t. It communities because news media will understand absolutely matters who is in the newsroom, because the demographics eventually. Otherwise they will we each have a different perspective. I have a have gigantic chunks of their communities simply erstan din certain un g of what LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, d diences. d au disappear as r ead ers an xual and Transgender) issues are, for instance, Bise and how they should be covered fairly and accurately. “This all comes down to power sharing. They didn’t The UNITY groups have a right to be unhappy. And erase Jim Crow laws willingly; the laws had to be I should hope that by 2050, things will be a whole dismantled by force, by marches, by law. We’ve had h eck of a lot better than they are. d lobby and try to make media to advocate an companies understand the importance of this, to “ s far as gay coverage goes, as LGBT people A see that th ey can’t survive unless th ey change. become more of the mainstream, as the younger This is something we will continue to struggle with er g en ation becomes more accepting/tolerant, LGBT d after that. in 2050, an ’’ on in th people will be m d . An ews or e comm e n maybe as acceptance grows, LGBT issues will become , deputy editor, strategy+business Amy Bernstein less important because they will have been resolved. magazine; former president, Journalism and Women eflected in en ou can see it r Y ment first and tertain A WS): Symposium (J foremost. But as time goes on, as you see an cr ease in civil ri gh ts f or LGBT people and others, in t th “ A t som e majority of this country will not e poin you’ll see changes in how things are covered in be WASP. As a result, the forces that keep our the news and what is covered regularly.” • newsrooms white will give way. I think we’re seeing more people in power in newsrooms who want – Sally Lehrman th eir staffs to look more like America. It’s the thin ge of the wedge, thank heaven. Every woman I ed ewsroom looks f power in a n on o ow in a positi kn out for talented women and minorities. It’s a conscious act and they think of it as vital to the future of the business. Our judgment of what is important will change, what’s accepted and familiar will change. 18

19 News in a New America News in a New America IN A NEW AMERICA NEWS in the news. Nonwhite and female executives or objects of pity. Deeply religious folks are now commonly decide policy and set crazy conservatives. Gays and lesbians? direction at many corporations, yet they They all want to get married and upset the rarely appear as experts on business matters. nuclear family. The Black Image in the The same editorial myopia can be found in In their 2001 book, , Robert Entman and Andrew White Mind other areas of society undergoing a change Rojecki detail the distorted pattern of in leadership. One of three medical school broadcast news coverage of black people. graduates in 2004 was Asian American, Local and network news producers nearly Pacific Islander, African American, Native always place African Americans in narrowly American or Latino, yet journalists seldom defined roles, they report: at the center of ask for their views on hot issues such as crime and sports, as social victims or as prescription-drug benefits or health insur- supplicants on the public dole. Newspapers ance costs. The voices of women and ethnic f ollow suit. I t was race news in 2003 when oriti min es who serve in positions of author- the esteemed civil rights scholar Christopher ity in the military, schools and government Edley arrived at the University of California, often go unheard. Berkeley. The San Francisco Chronicle headline: “Black to lead UC Law School.” Mainstream journalists who push for news- rooms and news coverage that reflect the ARE JOURNALISTS HUMAN? nation’s changing demographics have been accused of dictating a “diversity orthodoxy.” Critics of news diversity say journalists are Journalists don’t build social bias into skewing sourcing and preventing balanced eliber stori es d ately. Our own human filters discussion of troubling issues such as – race, gender, generation, geography, crime, welfare, drug use, even race itself. class and ideology – help create it. (Later They worry that a commitment to hiring chapters will talk in d etail about that journalists of color will translate into phenomenon.) It’s also true that shortcuts biased coverage. In fact, the opposite is in writing and editing help produce much true. Good journalism, as the SPJ code f this im agery, as do news values that o recommends, should “tell the story of the rely on conflict, immediacy and symbolic diversity and magnitude of the human characters to carry the narrative. Still, a experience boldly.” n ewsroom’s composition plays a huge role. ecently as 2005, at least 346 U.S. Even as r The real news of today, not the imaginary newspaper newsrooms, or about one of e future, tends to oversimplify, f th ews o n four, were 100 percent white. That number to stereotype, to come loaded with the bias balloons to 621, or 44 percent of all scious or not) of its creators. At the (con general-circulation newspapers, if you take e swarming in from os ar e: Latin em xtr e into account the newsrooms that didn’t Mexico to grab all the U.S. jobs. Asian report their numbers in the 2005 American ericans are stealing coveted academic Am Society of Newspaper Editors’ annual ericans are building ative Am . N es opportuniti survey. Only a little over a third of daily casinos and exploiting local civic resources. newspapers (36 percent) are even halfway Women are always tempted by the “mommy to parity with the nonwhite population are heroes es eople with disabiliti ack.” P tr in their communities, according to an 19

20 A Report for the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation CLOSE-UP: WHAT WORKS: TEN TIPS ON RECRUITING analysis of ASNE data by Pulitzer Prize- FOR DIVERSITY winning investigative reporters Bill Dedman, managing editor of The Telegraph of (Editor’s note: This list was developed for those Nashua, N.H., and Stephen K. Doig, Knight recruiting for midcareer journalism programs). Chair in Journalism at Arizona State University. (See Appendix I.) 1. Join forces. Team up with other midcareer journalism fellowship programs to present panel workshops and receptions at ethnic journalism Broadcast also is behind the demographic conventions, attracting more prospective times. In 2005, people of color made up can didates who are interested in fellowships in just 21 percent of the television news work general. Split the costs and make a bigger splash. force and only 8 percent of radio news 2. Seek more and better visibility for your workers – even counting the Latinos program. Do a number of things each year to make working in the Spanish-language media, yourselves known (and always look for new ways): according to a study by the Radio and alism magazines; send flyers to advertise in journ T elevisi on News Directors Association and un dreds of newsrooms and news executives; send h Ball State. For the past 15 years, the ail n paper flyers an ces to m d e-m oti ailing lists of ethnic and other journalism organizations; attend proportion of workers of color in television journalism conventions and distribute materials, news has held at about 20 percent, while meet candidates and more. the proportion in radio has declined. (See Appendix II.) 3. U se your web site as a recruiting tool. In addition to providing background information on your program and application forms that can be The effects of these trends are more than downloaded from the web, post testimonials with skin-deep. In an environment where any ph f your alumni (m any of them people of otos o single group dominates, reporters must xperi en ces eir fellowship e g about th color) talkin work harder to gather the increasingly and what it meant to their careers. varied perspectives and experiences of or y our 4. Invite y our alumni to help r ecruit f today’s multicultural society. Add to that With more than half of our U.S. applicants program. the aging of newsroom staffs and the tellin ogr ey h g us th ear am from former d about our pr heavy influence of the East Coast media on fellows, we know alumni are a powerful recruiting each day’s news mix, and the search for tool. Send a letter to your alumni each year with a truth can be even more difficult. f your updated brochure, asking them to copy o . This o mi ak t m e a gr eat fellow gh think about wh also encourages alumni to think more about recruit- When Robert McGruder, then-executive ing, and to offer names of potential candidates. editor of the Detroit Free Press, accepted der hosting occasional alumni dinners in si Con the Helen Thomas Diversity Award in 2000, ent U.S. cities and alumni receptions at the differ ed the importance of going xplain e e h UNITY convention and other such events where alumni are invited to bring a fellowship candidate. beyond staff percentages. Though his ewsroom was one of the few across paper’s n 5. Seek out new places and new populations. g racial parity with the eachin on r ati e n th The ethnic media is a growing area of journalism, surrounding community, McGruder believed crease in fellowship e has been an in er d th an ot doing all it should. “The his paper was n cations from U.S. journalists working at pub- appli lications and broadcast outlets in Spanish, Chinese tent,” t, it is con en ot just employm issue is n and other languages. Attend the New America he said. “It is what’s going into the news- Media convention, where some of these journalists paper. ... Despite some major successes, g to all the ot listenin e n ow we ar we kn (Continued on next page) 20

21 CLOSE-UP: CLOSE-UP: (Continued from previous page) voices, showing all the faces and telling all the stories.” As an editor, McGruder meet annually, and send flyers to their members. emphasized that the real bottom line is JAWS – the Journalism and Women Symposium – is fairness and equality. a smart and irreverent women’s journalism group that has been around for years, but is growing and is now taking advertising in its annual conference, or Most reporters and editors would agree that “Fall Camp,” program. Attend JAWS conferences stereotyping and misrepresentation is bad and participate in panel discussions. journalism. Unfortunately, many just don’t think hard or long about it. We don’t pay 6. Be ther e for candidates. Offer to talk with enough attention to the influence of stories applicants who were not selected as fellows after the process is over, making suggestions on how that leave out context when covering issues th ey might improve their application if they decide such as crime, employment and rural poverty. to apply again. Find ways to reach out to journalists in other settings, such as making yourself available We may be tempted to dismiss the power or regional journalism conferences and workshops, f o f wor ds and images because of the tempo- e journ h elpin g ju d g alism contests and inviting journalists to your public events as a way to get rary nature of the news. Broadcast news the word out about your program that may pay off lasts only as long as someone is listening. with more applicants in the future. Newspapers become outdated before they even land on the doorstep. Even so, they w commitment to diversity through your 7. Sho really are the first rough draft of history. choices. By selecting a diverse group of fellows each year, journalists of color and those from media People still rely on television, magazines other than traditional daily newspapers (broadcast, and newspapers as a primary source of onlin e, etc.) see that you are interested in them information about each other. They use and that they should consider applying. the news to decide on the importance of issues, learn specifics about social concerns 8. Tailor promotion materials. Translate promotional gu to lan flyers in ages other than English for inter- and gauge the climate of opinion. People on n ati o so, be ready al can di d ates; an d wh en you d will choose to speak out or hold back to receive and answer queries in those languages. their own views on affirmative action, for instance, depending on the flavor of 9. Solicit top editor s and ne ectors. s dir w coverage. Their opinions become votes. Journalists in leadership positions in newsrooms s who once were fellows on cast stati oad an d br themselves – or understand the power of fellow- To understand the power of their work, ships – are terrific advocates for programs. Seek modern journalists might do well to read em out to find good candidates. In addition, their th the 1968 Kerner Commission report. In ewsrooms are the ones that often make the best n analyzing why riots had seethed in U.S. city f fellows when they return, recharged and use o gger challenges, after their fellowship. or bi y f ead r our summers in a row, the com- or f eets f str missioners pinpointed the isolation and Many of 10. Recruit with the long view in mind. eglect of black Americans by white society. n these efforts often take years to pay off from first a for its part edi ews m e n ey chastised th Th contact until someone actually applies. Be patient. • – both before and during the uprisings. – Dawn Garcia, deputy director d large, news organizations have “By an John S. Knight Fellowships eir black cate to both th uni ailed to comm f fessional Journalists, o or Pr f and white audiences a sense of the problems ord University Stanf America faces and the sources of potential e commission concluded ,” th s on soluti 21

22 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA bluntly. “The media report and write from tant for the newspaper, the initiative gener- the standpoint of a white man’s world.” ated background knowledge and a source list that still helps reporters cover the city more inclusively and accurately. The paper T NEXT? WHA has continued to write in depth about This work focuses mainly on race because immigration, in 2005 publishing a series the case here has been documented beyond about the exodus of the Hmong from Laos all reasonable argument. As the United 30 years ago. States rapidly becomes more diverse, the conventional news media risk repeating past Alas, too few general-circulation media mistakes – to be again branded as “white,” outlets are adapting to the demographic and thus irrelevant for a large portion of change across America as actively as the the population. Pioneer Press. To be fair, industry statistics note real progress at both Gannett and Kni t Ridder, which lead newspaper gh N ot lon g ago, Midwest editors could wave companies in newsroom diversity. But the off the nation’s increasing blend of race, American people set the pace here: sexual orientation, religion and national Newsrooms simply are not changing as fast origin as an artifact of coastal cities such as the nation. Without major new efforts, as New York, Miami, Los Angeles and San most mainstream print and broadcast news Francisco. But consider the transformation organizations risk losing market share and in areas such as Minnesota’s Twin Cities, societal influence to niche media. St. Paul and Minneapolis, famed for their light-skinned, Scandinavian immigrant A probable scenario for 2050: A few far- history. St. Paul (population 287,000) is sighted media companies rise above the home to more than 30,000 people of Hmong rest, and other, more relevant media use descent – most of whom are second- or ever-cheaper technology to step into the third-generation citizens whose parents gap. America’s journalists will either work fled Laos after the Vietnam War. Of the at news organizations that reflect their seven million Muslims across the United communities, or ones that don’t. In a States, some 75,000 live in this historically nation where democracy is organized by Lutheran region. The Hispanic population geography, the news organizations that in Minneapolis more than tripled from reflect their communities will stay in 1990 to 2000, and, across the state, the business. The others probably won’t. What black population has doubled. about the individual journalists who chose der the rapidly changing si oneer Press profiled ot to con aul Pi n e St. P In 2000, th country? They will be giving away the role five immigrant groups that were transform- eir predecessors fought for over the th g the city and conducted a survey in five in e middle of the t in th er to let the new arrivals gh d es: to be ri es in or turi ag cen gu lan most important debates, to be the town speak for themselves. With “The New Face are of a democratic nation. Their readers, squ f Minnesota,” the paper hoped to reconnect o ay find themselves, ewers m dents to their own families’ d vi esi ers an e r listen gtim lon for a time at least, living in a society immigrant experiences and generate discus- where vital concerns fester unexpressed sion about how best to allocate resources ressed. d ad d un an on. Just as impor- g populati gin to th e chan 22

23 : CLOSE-UP But here are 10 basic steps: TO INNOVATE, OPEN UP YOUR NEWS ORGANIZATION Take hiring as seriously as 1. Make diverse hires. budgeting. Post all openings. Advertise in community Does your news organization have a diversity and trade publications. Recruit at conferences and committee, but no diversity? Readership or viewer- colleges. Keep a database of diverse candidates. ship task forces, but no new readers or viewers? Hire young and promote in-house. Base managerial Retention programs, but no retention? Web sites bonuses on hiring performance. but no web revenue? Form commu- 2. Connect with your community. Innovation means more than a new hire, a new ds. Write and distribute media nity advisory boar beat or a n ew edition. It means creating new ways access guidebooks. Offer your cyberspace to of doing things: ways that help us change with the schools, neighborhoods, civic groups. Set up guest times while honoring the journalism values of s in all sections of the paper. Sponsor column fairness, accuracy, context and truth. community events. Stand up proudly as the citizens responsible for asking good questions. To diversify, to open up coverage, to grow, to ovate and to move fast, news organizations are inn Set up a compr en sive pr ogr am o f in- eh 3. T r ain. r g they need to make big changes. I once ealizin house training. Arrange for your experienced d oad m ese br escribed th d new people, oves towar journalists to coach newcomers. Start writing practices and products in a book about the groups. Fill in gaps with traveling trainers. Make creation of The Open Newspaper. These days, ub, working with your n ewspaper a local tr ainin g h though, you might want to call it The Open News hi gh schools and colleges. Let the staff know what Organization. the research says about your newspaper, readers and community. Spend 2 percent of payroll on At an open news organization, we agree that each training. Send people to the Media Management of us sees only a piece of the whole picture. We Cen ter, Poynter, the American Press Institute. build the skills of group decision-making. We take tim e to learn about thin gs that separ ate people – g a growing 4. A djust y our attitude. H avin gs er ch as g en d , ag e an d r ace – as well as thin su audience online is a good thing. Having Readership that bring people together. In stitute r esear ch on who reads what is a good g stori thin g. H estin es to tell about a avin g in ter on builds an in onal stituti ganizati ews or An open n changing America is a good thing. As former Knight open mind – it has a Learning Newsroom, one Foundation president and CEO, Hodding Carter III d knowledge about the esi d gn ed to r outin ely ad xplosively cr puts it: “This is an e e to be eative tim community it serves and the people it employs. going into journalism – if you are not in search of Such a news organization seeks to grow by th e past.” attr acting new readers and viewers from its core g n f only by takin stead o . unity comm ew territory , in 5. Open up your reporting. Ask reporters for their own story i deas. Help get them out of the office. The big problems faced by news people today – dize their reading lists. Build diverse source Subsi g department problems as ch advertisin even su atabases. Use content-audit software to lists in d f ailure to match online audiences with online g. Gain access to every oin e d eck what you’r ch revenue – are created or made worse by institu- overnment database in your region. Use TracFed g tional closed-mindedness. http://tracfed.syr.edu ( ). Raise writing standards. Issues hide behind every news event: find as many It doesn’t have to be that way. There are, in fact, as you can. Answer the question: So what? as many ways to open news organizations as there o are, after all, the soul of news , wh alists e journ ar Require reporters and 6. Open up your editing. d the people whose souls are fed when openness an editors to talk as a story is edited. Open news makes things happen. otating basis to staff and commu- gs on a r eetin m embers. Have regular planning meetings nity m (Continued on next page) 23

24 CLOSE-UP: your news organization into what Bob Maynard (Continued from previous page) called “a geographically discrete dynamic database.” away from the office. Align your training plans If this sounds like a tall order, perhaps now would with your editorial plans. Don’t forget your line be a good time to start. editors or producers; they make it happen, make sure there are enough of them. Know your Change is here. A generation ago, television colleagues; use each other as cultural specialists. passed newspapers as America’s No. 1 news source. Set up style rules that respect all your readers. Ten years ago, cable television developed greater Don’t dictate, coach. reach than newspapers. Today, the web has greater r each. Yet the nation’s newspapers – weekly and ou now mix hard with soft, Y our mix. 7. Expand y daily, free and paid – still possess America’s greatest local with wire. Try mixing in stories important to news-gathering system, and are best positioned to the different people of your community. Look at m ove quality local news into cyberspace. e paper through the prism of Robert C. Maynard’s th fault lines: gender, generation, race, class, To survive and thrive, all news organizations must geography. Try making Page One or newscast be r eady to change. To propel this great newsgather- d ecisions by consensus. Let anyone at the meeting war g system on in tury, we need e 21st cen to th d in ai . Don’t be afr y story to be your lead ate an omin n d to help each other drop the defensive stance and to promote your web site. focus on achievement. Seeking the truth is an Look at what you are doing 8. Review and revise. honorable calling. Let’s be open to doing the new d , weekly , m aily onthly, yearly. Survey readers and thin gs that will h elp Am eri cans – all Americans – th e community. Seek out critics. Make your phone g et the news they need to run their nation and numbers available. Speak and meet in the their lives. • community. Keep rewriting your rules. Have a five- – Eric Newton, director of Journalism Initiatives year editorial plan and one-year plans. Organize John S. and James L. Knight Foundation th e newsrooms to reflect the way readers live today. Rules make results: If a newspaper routinely m es 70,000 beat calls to the cops every year, ak unnecessary police stories will be reported. our standing featur If you work at 9. Br and y . es a newspaper, comics, columns, stock pages and the like take up most of a newspaper’s editorial space, e least atten ti et th yet g on. Order research with sample sizes large enough so no group is “statis- can ti cally in si t.” Look for alternatives to gnifi syndicates that have no demographic readership breakdowns. Make sure you know who reads, listen s to or watches what and why. If you have g ood locally produced columns or commentary or stan ding features, promote them. Grow your own , columns and special sections by es g featur din stan eaching out to the staff and community. Let r readers write a special section or send in video. 10. Experiment. Establish a “new products” unit. Find ways to collect the news once and distribute it through five different pipelines. Sell newspapers, books, magazines, parts of the web site, radio, ain journalists to do media they don’t r on. T televisi ally do. Use other media to promote your core usu product. Become more than a single source. Turn 24

25 IN A NEW AMERICA NEWS The civil conflict and unrest of the 1960s arose in just this sort of disconnected environment, as the Kerner Commission detailed. Does American journalism really need more riots before it starts writing again about social and political issues that concern more than white, middle-class men? Do we need our route to work blocked by fires before we think about polling in more than one language? Given the companies that are trying new formats and approaches to reach young readers, second- generation Asian Americans and Spanish- language consumers, among others, we hope th e an swer is no. Yet America’s demographic . By failing to seek truth clock is ticking and report it, we are robbing people of the news they need to govern themselves. • 25

26 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA CHAPTER TWO HUMAN THE ACTOR F 26

27 HUMAN FACTOR THE y now, many journalists know to These problems – while solvable – go avoid obvious blunders such as deeper than the choices we make in dressing disrespectfully in a mosque research and reporting. They begin with B or describing a person as “wheelchair- the very way we perceive the world. bound.” We tend to notice wrongheaded Y A SEEING THINGS OUR W word choices, as when The Seattle Times wrote that Californian Michelle Kwan was Do journalists routinely consider the way competing against “Americans” in the our own situations in life – from education 2002 Olympic figure-skating competition. to employment to home ownership – color We cringe at a Chicago Sun-Times story our “objective” reality? Do we think about that referred to a 2,250-member tribe in how these might affect the way we go Oklahoma as “ghosts of the past” who about our work? The honest answer is No, were troubling the descendants of German not really. settlers in the area. If we have never faced discrimination, for But the most dangerous of mistakes usually instance, we are less likely to notice the go unnoticed. They are sins of omission problem. We may have never needed to and emphasis, errors that can have life-or- look for its signs. On our beats, we may be death consequences. Look at the missing less likely to check for discrimination in pieces in most medical reporting. If articles school funding, corporate hiring or real about breast cancer rarely mention Asian estate lending. If we have been raised on Americans, will Japanese American women images of violent urban youth, we may be check for lumps or get mammograms? oblivious to the problems of youth anger When they do, they discover malignancies and alienation until suburban young people, nearly as often as white women. If heart- such as the boys at Columbine High School disease stories don’t mention African in 1999, turn on their classmates with Americans, how will people in that group gunfire. We may see medicine only through know the extremely high mortality rate the experiences of our own family and they share? How often have you seen a friends, not even guessing that others may report on diabetes featuring American get different standards of care. Indians? And yet they are more likely to have the disease than anyone else. Our personal histories can also help us see things that others don’t. If we live with a Gaps in coverage and off-base ways of condition that limits our physical abilities, framing a story and its importance, of ore attention to access cs that could t pay m en’t limited to topi gh , ar we mi course technologies or prescription drug pricing. make a difference in the health of people ew up in a religious family, we f color. They show up in news about If we gr o terview people cs and all the topics er to in , politi d it easi e t fin , crim gh ools mi sch with fundamentalist beliefs and portray of the day. Usually they result from journal- em fairly. If we are the first generation ortage of background knowledge th ists’ sh , s. Why would nited States on e U f assumpti amily to live in th d a surplus o in our f an we may have a finely tuned radar for one in five news stories about Native immigrant achievements and concerns. Americans, for instance, focus on reservation es? ative people live in citi ost n en m life wh 27

28 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA As many journalists point out, what we’re Our experiences each day as journalists really after is better news coverage. And reflect the whole package of our lives to that requires an expansion in thought, that moment: broadly, our race or ethnicity, inclusiveness in ideas . Recently The New class, gender, generation, ideology and the York Times formally adopted this concept places where we live and grew up. Together by broadening its definition of diversity. these elements influence our news judg- “We will make an extra effort to focus on ment, how we perceive and evaluate issues diversity of religious upbringing and and events. military experience, of region and class,” wrote Executive Editor Bill Keller. Hiring a Each of us, of course, is a unique mix. But mixed work force is just one aspect, he patterns can develop when people who work added. “It calls for a concerted effort by in a newsroom are a lot alike. According all of us to stretch beyond our predom- to the latest data, most mainstream inantly urban, culturally liberal orientation.” American journalists are well-educated, m ale an d white. The news they notice and True newsroom diversity can lead to a the sources they consult have led to a completely different take on the news. statistically provable national media tilt Reporting on three studies released in toward the white world. Shaped by news- August 2005, the San Francisco Chronicle room traditions and shared personal back- wrote this headline: “Health care treat- grounds, a powerful, unconscious belief ment for blacks improving.” The San Jose system has come into play. Because it is Mercury News, which has a more diverse woven into the very structure of the organi- newsroom and nearly the same market, zation, it is hard to identify and tough looked at it differently: “Studies: Health to crack. It determines what journalists care disparities persist.” collectively see as newsworthy. The less we notice it, the more that system influences How often do we overlook interesting stories choices about whose stories are deemed about people unlike ourselves? Recent important and whose are overlooked. figures collected by Media Tenor Interna- tional, the media-analysis group based in People create routines, but then the routines Germany, offer a clue. Researchers studied take on a life of their own. Newsroom race and ethnicity references in Time, cultures are famously defensive. Journalists Newsweek, The Wall Street Journal, and deal with the ever-changing news stream the NBC, ABC and CBS nightly news shows by avoiding change or even, at times, over 32 months ending in August 2004 awareness in how or why they process that Of 170,212 news e 29). ag ay hear a person of color talk (see chart, P ou m eam. Y str reports, African Americans appeared as about the “white media.” But it would be ain characters only 138 times – unless m usual to hear a white broadcast quite un ers, tertain own en e phrase. e well-kn ewspaper editor use th ey wer cer or n th u od pr athletes or government figures. Latinos Tom Jacobs, an African American documen- ed half that often; Arab Americans a appear oducer who worked in television for tary pr ericans, ative Am d N , says he hopes one day for ften; an es little less o ecad ee d thr about a third as often as African Americans. “real color TV.” In a column for Electronic Asian Americans, the subject of just 13 Media, Jacobs wrote: “White male news oducers and writers report on , pr ecutives x early invisible. e e n , wer es stori 28

29 HUMAN FACTOR THE Who’s in the News? A majority-white news department runs the risk of producing majority-white news. Bolstering that supposition is a study of 32 months of print and television news reports in which people of color were seldom the main characters. The chart below shows the number of news reports in which people of color were the focus. Source: Media Tenor International, 2004, 2005. Based on 170,212 reports in T ime, Newsweek,The Wall Street Journal, onight, CBS Evening News. Jan. 1, 2002, to Aug. 31, 2004. NBC Nightly News, ABC World News T 29

30 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA PRIMING STEREO TYPES the world from their point of view. The world, for most of these people, is a white world.” News helps people learn about the world around them, and to make up not just their As cognitive psychologists and media minds but also their policies. Most journal- analysts explain it, the bias toward the ists avoid obvious stereotypes. But we may white majority is rarely deliberate or – at not know that the stories we choose about least within the newsroom – even noticed. people or the way we characterize them It emerges in news reporting through a can activate unconscious stereotypes. lack of cultural awareness, unconscious They can strengthen assumptions that our stereotyping and selective sourcing. It is audiences already hold. maintained by news traditions that had grown out of a U.S. social structure where A 1999 study showed this directly. When white, upper-income men historically held immigration reporting focused on jobs and leadership positions. It especially flourishes oth er r esources, readers began to think oving, closed, assembly-line style ast-m in f about race– and race-based stereotypes – news systems. “Most reporters are embedded even if the word was never mentioned. In in this racial ideology – it’s somewhat response to questions after they read news equivalent to ‘common sense,’ ” says articles with an economics angle, people Hemant Shah, journalism and mass who thought of Hispanics as communication professor at “nurturing” said immigration the University of Wisconsin- helped the United States. Madison. “This comes out in Those who saw Hispanics as whose culture, whose ideas, violent, of course, said whose values are assumed immigration was harmful. to be proper.” Hemant Shah When reporting emphasized David Domke human rights or ethics Shah studies how instead of economics, though, readers did journalists shape, source and write stories. not associate their views on immigration “We look at who are the heroes, the with any perceptions about Hispanics them- villains, who is to blame,” he says. People selves. Social psychologists call this “priming,” of color are “portrayed as having concerns a process by which certain subject matter that are less important than the majority activates unconscious ideas. David Domke, ... presented in a way that highlights their the University of Washington professor anger or other emotion instead of the who led the research, concluded that argument they’re trying to make.” ay be building a powerful bias m alists journ into stories just by the angles we choose. It would be a mistake to assume this oblem of the white- system is solely a pr ain- ons e it, m en assumpti am oom. Mistak e possible ways to fr ewsr Of all th ajority n m stream journalists by and large reported don’t come only from notebooks held by ornia’s Proposition 187 as a dollars- Calif om a certain race, class, gender, people fr e 1995 law – most of . Th on or region. Fortunately, the ts issue ati d-cen er an en g which was later ruled unconstitutional – reverse is also true. Each of us has the would have blocked undocumented immi- power to change the situation. ucation, health care and om ed ts fr an gr 30

31 HUMAN FACTOR THE government services. “It is a matter of Our unconscious attitudes don’t affect just limited resources, not race,” wrote Evelyn the way we report about race. In a two- Iritani of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, year Media Tenor analysis of coverage ending paraphrasing a political consultant. But by in 2003, most television reports that sticking to an economics angle, journalists featured women involved social issues or may have unintentionally given the propo- human interest topics. Even with then sition an advantage. National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice in the news regularly, women featured less Even if government were mainly a financial often in international policy stories. Once transaction, there still would be more to again, who works in the newsroom matters. the story. When the stories on Proposition Women television reporters were more 187 covered only one part of the equation likely then men to use and give time to – taxes brought in and services going out – women sources, according to an analysis without covering any other aspects – culture, of local coverage of the 2002 governor’s history , h uman rights, moral values or chigan. ace in Mi r personal responsibility – was that either accurate or fair? Journalists often pick news angles, words and imagery to make stories more under- In an analysis of 166 stories about immi- standable and meaningful. But the choices gration in 2005, University of Missouri- we make may unintentionally promote a Columbia graduate student Brendan Watson point of view. Domke, a former journalist, found that reporters across a range of studied the use of terms such as “inner newspapers mostly wrote about conflict. city” or “disadvantaged teenagers” in This approach, other researchers have found, written crime coverage. Not surprisingly, often provokes negative reactions by the the phrases spurred readers to draw on audience. Watson also found differences in racial stereotypes when they weighed anti- immigration coverage depending on who crime strategies such as a stronger police was doing it. Latino reporters more often presence or job programs for youth. Political wrote from a human-interest perspective. scientists Franklin D. Gilliam Jr. and Shanto They also used more immigrants and other Iyengar found in a 1999 study that people’s regular people as sources, instead of attitudes shifted significantly when local officials or academics. crime news on television included clear racial elements. Stories with race references When it comes to economics in general, main- triggered white television viewers’ support stream news appears to take on a negative for a punitive criminal justice policy. os. Media Tenor studied g Latin ecognize that they e in coverin alists have to r ton ourn “J news from top national outlets in the 20 are fundamentally part of the processes by onths from January 2002 to August 2004. m ch people construct their racial reality,” whi ain e m o as th es with a Latin ost stori . M e says Domk character had a positive tilt – except those e labor market and, as might be about th chers at Stanford University and Resear e 33). ag , HIV/AIDS (see chart P ornia, Los Angeles xpected f Calif e niversity o e U th Could journalists be influenced by the same recently tested this phenomenon in a triggers linked to race-based stereotypes juvenile justice system setting. They found obation officers d pr ce an en poli y wouldn’t we? that wh elp to cause? Wh that we h 31

32 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA living depends upon it,” wrote psychologist had been primed with words such as Gordon Allport in his influential , they favored homeboy or dreadlocks The Nature in 1954. of Prejudice tougher punishment. We have the most influence, studies have Categories are everywhere. Letters are found, when our audiences live in places letters. Numbers are numbers. But categories or work in jobs that are not very diverse. can also betray us. Students in a 1995 That’s when they most rely on the news study described differences in color between media for information about other groups. a letter and a number – when the symbols When certain types of people don’t show were actually the same shade of red. up in the news, “long-standing cultural stereotypes and misunderstandings ... Socially, people align fast and easily with readily fill in the blanks,” wrote Robert what psychologists call our “in group,” The Black Image in Entman, co-author of which can be our race, class or gender, our , the White Mind: Media and Race in America g en eration or our occupation, our neighbor- summarizing a 2001 Shorenstein Center hood or our nation – or even the side of Conference on Race and the Press. the room we sit on. Quite quickly, we decide on one another’s perceived warmth The sheer volume of black Americans and competence, then react accordingly, featured in crime news stories – but not says Susan Fiske, a social psychologist at included elsewhere as contributing Princeton University. “These associations members of society – helps shape racial are in your head, even if you don’t have prejudices, conclude political scientists prejudiced values,” she says. Jon Hurwitz and Mark Peffley. They’ve shown that these biases, in turn, influence While we may not notice our resulting social and political choices: whether to preferences and distinctions, we act on them build more prisons, or teach inmates all the time. In 1998, social scientists now technical skills. And when both black and at Harvard University, the University of white people have followed news about Washington and the University of Virginia race relations and affirmative action, they designed the Implicit Association Test to are less likely to blame African Americans learn more about unconscious bias and themselves for race-based social and categorization. Their quizzes, available economic inequalities. on the Internet to anyone, measures auto- matic responses to images and words. TEGORICAL THINKING CA Over six years, visitors to the web site en http://implicit.harvard.edu ) have tak ( more than three million tests. Knowing this, why don’t journalists just ounce that, starting Monday, there will ann as in the way we tell de y bi e positive attitu er be an or g ow a m o lon ost people sh n M stories? Because we’re people. Humans toward whites than blacks and a stronger elp but think categorically. We g for young over old. Regardless of can’t h likin ent into comfort efs, they more often link onm ous beli ally sort our envir sci atur eir con n th zones, using past experiences and visual women with liberal arts and family, while they pair men with technical subjects and cues as our guides. “The human mind must old an unconscious e can even h . W eers ories. ... Orderly car f categ d o e ai think with th 32

33 HUMAN FACTOR THE How the Media Covers Latinos Mainstream news outlets are generally evenhanded when reporting on the most common topics involving Latinos – except when it comes to jobs and health. As this chart illustrates, print and broadcast media took a negative view of the and HIV/AIDS during 32 months Latino community in the areas of the labor market of reporting. 8 7 6 5 4 3 Number of stories featuring Latinos 2 1 0 As voters AIDS/HIV rate Elections in Religion Demographic Collective life or market Integration of Lab National Minorities elections increasing focus of society general Pos itive Rating Neutral Rating Negative Rating ime, Source: Media Tenor International, 2004, 2005. Based on 73 reports on Hispanics out of 170,212 stories in T Newsweek, The Wall Street Journal, NBC Nightly News, ABC World News T onight, CBS Evening News. Jan. 1, 2002, to Aug. 31, 2004. 33

34 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA bias against people like ourselves. About following Hurricane Katrina? The term 40 percent of African Americans in the usually describes people fleeing from one study so far show a pro-white bias, 40 country to another. Before September percent show a pro-black one, and the rest 2005, it had been mainly associated with have been neutral. Sudan and Afghanistan, according to the Global Language Monitor, a media tracking The response is very deep. Harvard University company. Some residents of New Orleans, psychologist Mahzarin Banaji, a collabora- including those sheltered in the Houston tor on the test, explains that these reactions Astrodome, felt the word turned them into reflect social conditioning and an ancient outsiders. “The fact is they are our own fear of people who seem different from us, people,” Donna Jo Napoli, a Swarthmore whether physically or due to different College linguistics professor, told the beliefs or cultures. If we have little contact Associated Press. Some news outlets dropped with people of another race, followed by the word. But others insisted on it. on e bad e xperience with someone, we are ,” said Associated Press Executive ee “Refug likely to reflexively fear everyone in that Editor Kathleen Carroll, captured the group. Banaji said she was encouraged “sweep and scope of this historic natural that the effect can be overcome – first of disaster on a vast number of our citizens.” all just by spending time with people unfamiliar to us and learning about them. News coverage of the hurricane brought “Above all it seems to be contact with more African American faces to television other groups that’s positive,” Banaji says. screens and newspapers than had been seen in decades. Some wondered why As journalists, we may unconsciously act reporters were so quick to repeat unsub- on these reflexive attitudes. They may stantiated rumors of armed carjacking and influence whom we rush to interview, and rape. Why the emphasis on people who whom we avoid. They may cause us to were pulling food, clothes or tools out of think of some people as representative, ruined stores? Were there really “wild and others, not. Banaji and Thierry Devos gangs” and an “urban menace,” as Fox’s at San Diego State University tested the Bill O’Reilly warned, blocking rescues? idea of “American” in six studies. They In a column that ran in black community found that both white and black people newspapers, Freedom Forum Diversity viewed Asian Americans as less “American” Institute training editor Dwight Cunningham than themselves. And both white people predicted that reporters will be much less and Asian Americans thought whites were eager to cover Katrina’s ongoing impact on erican than anyone. For all e Am or m can families across the nation. eri can Am Afri groups, “to be American is to be white,” Now is the time for journalists to monitor e researchers concluded. Do we think of th e fairness of the rebuilding effort, to th when we rush out to get on en om esponsibility to the en t r this ph en overnm eport on g r reactions on a breaking news story? Not poor and to African Americans, he urged. ally. Could it be one reason white usu ournalists, he wrote, should “embrace J ea of news? ate in every ar omin ces d eals. For all the people.” sour d c i eir basi th Could it help explain why so many reporters called the people leaving New Can we undo our natural inclinations? Yes, e very simple . Som uring the week ologists say ees” d al psych efug soci Orlean s “r 34

35 HUMAN FACTOR THE strategies work, they have found. First, we “She hit the man.” But if the person is can pay attention to these tendencies and outside the group, it tends to be a notice what triggers them. Over time, they sweeping indictment: “She’s hostile.” are likely to have less influence. And we can do what we already know how to do. Does this sound familiar? It might. Similar We can spend time with the people who patterns show up in coverage choices. make us feel uncomfortable. We can visit Every day, journalists decide what will be community gatherings, cultural events; we “spot news” – a one-time story that just can observe and ask questions. We can happened – and what will be more: a big learn how others do things, and why they feature, a running story worth many days, do things the way they do. an investigative series, a major trend. THE IN CRO WD Here’s an example: In 2001, there seemed to be plenty of news coverage of Coca- y journalists are trying to reach diverse an M ent to pay $192.5 million to eem Cola’s agr audiences and to portray all of society remedy racial inequities in the workplace. fairly. They know that they must respond But a bigger story, unearthed by Rutgers more deeply than counting up staff law professors Alfred and Ruth Blumrosen members or thinking more carefully about the following year, 2002, got little topics and sources. They are looking for attention. These two former EEOC officials ways to recognize our built-in bias, to studied Equal Opportunity Commission better see how this may infiltrate the data from 1999, the most recent year news. Compared to the scientists, though, available. They found that workplace we have a long way to go. discrimination went far beyond Coca-Cola. A whopping 37 percent of mid- to large- Jack Dovidio, a University sized U.S. companies intentionally avoided of Connecticut psychologist hiring nonwhites in nine job categories who studies stereotyping that year and 29 percent discriminated and prejudice, points to a against women. (See chart Page 37 for a phenomenon called “linguis- look at the risk of discrimination by tic intergroup bias.” This occupation.) Jack Dovidio builds on the theory that people unconsciously favor their own kind. What’s a bigger story? One company, or nearly four in 10? Dovidio finds that even simple sentences eads with bias built f our h adic e out o al disparity on a spor can com en we cover soci Wh in. Describing positive behavior in our own basis and shy away from documenting oup, we tend to convey a general sense gr ation, social scientists say, we discrimin e is helpful.” ess: “Sh oodn er g f a person’s inn e way people think about it. o ce th influen But if the person isn’t in our group, it’s Instead of getting concerned about a e facts: “she helped someone,” as just th al issue, they say, our audiences think soci , maybe she won’t. ow orr on and personal ough tom ctimizati th f vi s o in term responsibility. “Media coverage and debates When a group member behaves poorly, about affirmative action may help to amplify crete, one-time language: e con al resentment that runs et th aci th ey g f r orm o a f 35

36 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA through the opinions of many whites today,” Organizational analysts compare the wrote Oscar Gandy, a professor at the newsroom culture to hospital emergency University of Pennsylvania Annenberg School rooms. Both are places where people must for Communication, in a study on the ways think and act quickly. They know time news influences attitudes about inequality. pressure and stress like the back of their hands. Medical schools even train doctors TREA Y TING PEOPLE DIFFERENTL to quickly evaluate someone’s health by making guesses based on that person’s The unconscious human tendency to appearance, age and social circumstances. categorize others and treat them accord- So how do doctors handle the intensity? ingly also helps explain why change is so Are they able to sweep aside stereotypes difficult – in any enterprise, but especially and unconscious assumptions that might in pressure-cooker workplaces. When steer them wrong? several journalism organizations complained about a n ews story that d escribed a man In m y cases, probably not. an who had been murdered as “Oriental,” KMPH FOX 26 in Fresno, Calif., apologized Though health care overall is improving, and tried to explain. “Our staff was in a white men enjoy the benefits more than rush to report the story ‘live’ on the air,” others. Black Americans still die dispropor- wrote General Manager Charles Pfaff in a tionately from heart disease and cancer. letter to the groups. Without a thought, Latinos in the Northeast have twice the the reporter had repeated the term a police death rate from asthma as white people. officer had used. In some parts of the country, Native American men generally live only into their At KRON-TV 4 in San Francisco, the staff mid-50s. has worked hard to avoid such errors. They now have guidelines on when and where it Why? Biology? Lifestyle? Physicians have is appropriate to use race in a story or to blamed these things. use descriptions that might point to race. But sometimes, the result is still “informa- But more than 100 medical studies docu- tion that stereotypes rather than informs,” ment the biggest reason: unequal care. says producer Kevin McCormack. Crime news especially – because of frightening In 2003, a panel of experts convened by content and tight deadlines – attracts the Institute of Medicine analyzed all the quick-reflex mistakes. “Unconscious framing data on health disparities. Their final . Often these stories e says equal Treatment: Confronting n s a lot,” h happen eport, “U r are set in predominantly African American Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health o neighborhoods. Reporters “will e,” concluded “there was no disease or Latin Car f the scene, dies did not show differ- ey can o e stu es th e th ctur er et whatever pi ea wh g ar and grab whatever interviews they can,” ences in the quality of care.” cCormack explains. “There is little time M ces, er sour ely or oth e less lik e to look f os ar to think, let alon d Latin Black people an other perspectives. So the end result is a than white patients to receive the proper cardiac medicine. They’re less likely to get one-dimensional view of the story.” en they break their bones. a wh esi alg an 36

37 HUMAN FACTOR THE Discrimination by Job Category This chart, based on a study of EEOC data from 1999, shows the likelihood that an applicant will face intentional discrimination because of race, sex or national origin each time a job is sought in a given occupation. The figures indicate the percent of establishments that discriminate in each occupation. 43.6% 40.3% 39.5% 39.0% % 38.1% 37.0% 35.0% 35.0% 34.9% 34.4% 34.1 34.0% 31.8% 30.8% 30.2% 30.0% 29.1% 28.7% 28.1% 27.3% 27.6% 27.1% 26.6% 26.4% 24.6% 23.0% 23.0% 23.0% 21.8% 21.8% 21.9% 20.7% 20.0% 19.0% 19.0% 18.0% Tec Officials & Professionals hnical Lab orers Service All Sales Office & orkers Craft W Managers Wor kers kers Occupations Wor Clerical (skilled) Blacks Hispanics Asians/Pacific Islanders en Wom Source: Blumrosen, Alfred W., and Ruth G . Blumrosen. “ The Reality of Intentional Job Discrimination in Metropolitan America – 1999.” Rutgers University Law School, 2002. 37

38 CLOSE-UP: THINGS JOURNALISTS CAN DO Doctors amputate the limbs of people of color more often than those of white To learn more about bias and stereotyping, you patients. They give their patients of color can read some of the references at the end of this anti-psychotic medications more often book. In addition, you may wish to: than they do people who are white. Try the implicit association test to better â identify and understand your unconscious Along with structural and institutional biases. You can find the test at http://implicit.harvard.edu . reasons, the institute’s panel concluded that the unconscious biases and stereotypes Study other cultures. Your writing will become â held by doctors themselves are an impor- richer in detail and context if you come to tant factor. Studies on physician-patient derstanding of the each story with a better un people and cultures you cover, as well as their interactions have found that class, race, history in your area. One way to do this is to gender and age all play a role. In one al centers and museums for a look visit cultur study that ruled out other possible reasons into community histories. Another way is to f or th eir judgments, cardiologists rated the A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural read African Americans they treated as less Africana: Civil America by Ronald Takaki and , An A -Z Reference of the Movement that Rights educated, less intelligent and less likely to , edited by Kwame Anthony Changed America comply with medical advice than their Appiah and Henry Louis Gates Jr. white patients. “These processes are fairly universal; we all need to be on guard and â Build new relationships. Spend more time with sources and subjects so you can write about know that stereotypes may affect judgment,” them with detail and nuance. Visit community says Brian Smedley, who directed the han gouts and get to know people. When you national project. can include revealing details, your news reports becom e str onger. The diversity among physicians nearly Widen your sourcing. People of color; elderly â matches that in newsrooms: about 14 per- people; gay and lesbian people, and people cent are people of color. Asian Americans es all have m or with disabiliti e to talk about make up 8.4 percent of doctors; Hispanics, than “their issues.” Include the total 3.3 percent; African Americans, 2.4 percent; comm e unity in all your cover ag . and American Native/Alaska Natives, a dit your “bi g” an d f ollow-up stori es . What d o â A u little under 1 percent, according to the you consider trends worth writing about? What American Medical Association. Men out- do you treat as just one-day stories? Is your uch toward en ole ori work as a wh ted too m number women as doctors by two to one. stitutions and not enough toward a diverse in oup of people? gr With such similarities in the work environ- e strategies that medical t, perhaps th en m Audit overall coverage and sourcing regularly. â e Maynard Institute for Journalism Education Th institutions are using against unconscious ffers “Reality Checks,” a web-based diagnostic o eotyping and bias may work in journal- ster tool to analyze coverage and track progress. cine’s recom- edi f M stitute o e In ism, too. Th mendations may even sound familiar: Look at the language. Do you see cases where â abstract descriptions have been used to favor an “in group” or to negatively label an e quotes from women and people er? Ar d outsi f color used differently than those from white o xt page) (Continued on ne 38

39 : CLOSE-UP (Continued from previous page) â Hire a more diverse staff. men – for example, to add emotion to the â Provide interpreters. story, but not analysis? Encourage the newsroom to apply checklists â â Monitor progress. that will help keep fairness in the forefront. KRON-TV 4 in San Francisco has guidelines to help producers decide when race is appropriate But that’s only a start. To change the culture http:www.ciij.org/ to include in stories ( that builds in unequal treatment, Smedley newswatch?id=145 ). The Columbia Workshop on and his colleagues would like to see doctors d Ethnicity suggests a list that Race an learn about disparities and about cultures reporters can use to review their work at different from their own. They recommend http://www.jrn.columbia.edu/events/race/APME /growingyourcontent_diversity.asp. more research on the unconscious processes that can undermine good care. They suggest Fin â d out about the sociology, psychology, new procedures that help remove subjectivity politics and history of relations between groups in the United States. Check for resources on fr om d ecision-making. better reporting and media analysis at the Manship School of Communication Forum on Both the IOM and the American Medical edia Diversity: M Association emphasize cross-cultural http://www.masscommunicating.lsu.edu/ education and encourage doctors to build bibliography. stronger personal relationships across differ- ry the Writing for Change section of the T â ences, whatever they may be. The Depart- Southern Poverty Law Center’s teachingtolerance.org. The center’s 10-minute ment of Health and Human Services Health writing exercises focus on unconscious bias in Resources and Services Administration oi ce, phrasing and perspective. Written wor d ch www.hrsa.gov/ offers a downloadable course ( , f or colleg e stu d en ts e also useful for th ey ar financeMC/ftp/cultural-competence.pdf ) newsrooms. for physicians. The training describes http://www.tolerance.org/teach/expand/wfc/ wf c_sctn1_4.html. successful practices such as listening to the needs of historically underserved , open f dly Cr orums within the â en eate fri groups, involving them in problem-solving newsroom where stories can be discussed and i d eas sugg ested . K eep th e focus on improving and taking the time to learn about future work. knowledge, beliefs and attitudes shared by the community. Go out to neighborhoods and invite people from â the community into the newsroom to talk about coverage and offer their suggestions. Some TRAINING AND EXPOSURE n ewsrooms do spot checks on accuracy by send- g letters to sources from randomly selected in eaches back to medical school. ort r e eff Th al boards. ers use diverse editori . Oth es stori The American Association of Medical Colleges o lives in the community you cover. â Learn wh ffers programs to broaden interest in high o Consult the “American FactFinder” on the U.S. cal edi g m on ool, support diversity am sch Census web site . You http://www.census.gov students, encourage faculty of color and can get fact sheets on communities down to the size of a census tract, with details on the aise awareness. Many schools have begun r languages people speak, whether they own or al profiling. They aci d r acism an courses on r rent their houses, where they work and how teach students cultural traditions and they get there each day. • customs, and do exercises intended to t interactions. en octor-pati ove d impr – Sally Lehrman 39

40 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA It’s a complicated challenge. People trying disease. Stanford also brings in prestigious to address cultural diversity and health- speakers for a quarterly lecture series on care disparities in medicine can run up multicultural health. “I try to tweak their against the very problems they are trying interest to know that culture is part of to address, says Letha Mosley, an occupa- every encounter,” Garcia says. “You have tional therapist and faculty member at the to be immersed in it, use it and value it.” University of Central Arkansas. “They often have to deal with issues of racism and Garcia sends his charges out into the sexism even as they are trying to incorpo- community for everyday experiences, such rate such programming into their institu- as grocery shopping or visiting the library. tion,” she says. He asks them to study a culture different from their own and to research each ethnic Mosley studied diversity efforts at four group’s history in the area. He urges them accredited medical schools; two in historic- to find “guides” into a community and to ally black colleg es , two in historically elati build r onships with “cultural brokers,” white ones. The strategies that worked people who serve as informal bridges might easily transfer into newsrooms. between groups of people. His father, a Program planners measured progress. They business agent for the Longshoremen’s made sure people throughout the school Union in Southern California, was one. knew about the diversity effort and its Cultural, educational and political paths success. And they integrated cultural crossed inside their house in Ventura, sensitivity of all types – not just about Calif., as visitors of all races, classes and race – into the most important courses of backgrounds stopped by. “It’s about trust, the school. When interviewing patients for it’s about honesty, it’s about time and the first time, students at some schools being available,” Garcia says. “That may be met people of different races and genders too intimate for journalists. But you can’t with a range of physical abilities, linguistic have a relationship without nurturing it. skills and socioeconomic backgrounds. You will always be on the outside.” They learned about culture, context and history. The most successful medical Every good journalist knows to cultivate schools cultivated the assumption that the informed and connected people on his diversity and responding to disparities was or her beat. Think of it that way, no matter a central mission. “It was a given, rather who you are meeting, suggests Patty than a goal,” Mosley says. Talahongva, managing editor for the syndi- National Native News cated radio shows d d an on-air an an Native America Calling edical School aims to incorporate d M or Stanf host for the latter. “You have to win trust cross-cultural awareness in every aspect o,” she says. “Why is with every story you d f its curriculum. “You’ve got to look at the o , you es an? Y di d to talk to an In ol- it so har a, a psych ci ald Gar ole system,” says Ron wh have to approach it with a certain amount ogist who directs the Center of Excellence f caution, respect and sensitivity – but o . To begin, the school is offering in Diversity ck up the . Just pi ay o that every d you d uces students to the od tr e course that in on phone, call the Indian and meet them.” role of race in society, epidemiological • differences between racial and ethnic groups erstandings about d e-based un d cultur an 40

41 CLOSE-UP: ‘INTELLECTUALS LOST TRACK ... OF RACISM’ end. “Intellectuals lost track of the ability to discuss what racism is,” says UC Berkeley sociologist Andrew Barlow. As social theories about Many Americans would agree that open racial race develop, he adds, “We are really at the bigotry is mostly a thing of the past. beginning of a new era.” But stark race-based disparities in daily life This emerging school of sociologists is also reacting persist. Academic researchers, the U.S. Census Bureau and the Institute of Medicine continue to to other intellectuals who contend that discrimi- nation – and even the idea of race itself – is old news. document examples like these: Stephen and Abigail Thernstrom, who wrote America in Black and White: One Nation Indivisible â Afri can Americans with a college diploma find A Dream themselves jobless almost twice as often as in 1997, and Shelby Steele, author of Deferred in 1999, argue in their books that the nation white people with the same education. t to forget about race. It’s time to appreciate ough progress made over the past several decades, they â Hispanics must get by on about half the say. Race-conscious policies make white people individual income that Asian Americans and opean Americans are able to divvy up Eur r esentful, they argue, and at the same time, do or people o . , th stead . In f color ey say, such little f am on g th e bills rules promote low ambition by holding some And what happens when blacks and Latinos groups to a lower standard. go to the hospital with a heart problem? They ose wh Th o wan t d o away with race-based ar e less lik ely than whites to r eceive catheter- ograms point to the Human Genome pr on, be sent home with certain heart- izati Project. When researchers had completed a protecting medicines or even be advised to rough draft of all human genes in 2000, take aspirin to protect their health. they announced that race has no basis in ologists who study the reasons behind Soci bi ology. In a 1998 statement, the American Troy Duster Anthropological Association explained how these disparities have begun to develop a m n amework to understand racism and come up ew fr ern ideas of “race” started. The concept arose od with solutions. “It’s not just Archie Bunker in the 18th century as a way to justify status opean settlers and the en differ an ym or e,” says Troy Duster, a sociology professor ces between Eur slaved later azis e N d en ed an ey conquer Th at th e U niversity o d New people th . eley Berk a, orni f Calif , an York University. built on the idea to support the extermination of Jews, gypsies and others. ecen d other researchers say t books , Duster an In r Since race is not biologically “real,” the association overt prejudice and direct discrimination happen pr ould plan to stop sus sh e U.S. Cen oposed , th less o ay’s world as . But bi ften in tod , they contend, asking people about it by 2010. Instead, the term remains sewn into the fabric of work, school and “ethnic group” would provide a “more nonracist the medical system. They document policies and an d accurate” means to show U.S. diversity. actices throughout U.S. institutions that favor pr . And even the most well-intentioned white people e proposed to abolish the idea of “race” Soon, som white m an or woman, they report, benefits from , such as education and medicine. A as en ce built up over generations. en er ar efer in oth seen pr un oposition on the California ballot in 2004 would pr have stopped most state agencies from collecting These researchers give historical and social context race-based data. As the initiative headed toward to proposals for “color-blind” government policies the ballot, the American Sociological Association that might create a more equitable society. They attacked the suggestion as wrongheaded. The offer a way of thinking about ongoing racial professional society urged scientists to continue injustice that they hope will help U.S. society over- using race categories in order to study how these come a history of favoritism and bias. aily lives, access to gs affect people’s d oupin gr esources and overall well-being. “A vast body of r en legislators outlawed discrimination by Wh employers based on race, sex, religion or national (Continued on next page) origin, people assumed the practice would simply 41

42 CLOSE-UP: CLOSE-UP: subsidies built public housing, which would (Continued from previous page) contain black migrants from the South in urban areas. sociological research ... shows that racial hierarchies are embedded in the routine practices of social groups and institutions,” The GI Bill, enacted in 1944, deepened the the society wrote in a 2003 statement. race bias built into the economic provisions of the time. Millions of returning veterans . Barlow Andrew L The statement sparked some debate. and war industry workers could get low- interest mortgages and free access to California State University, Los Angeles, professor Yehudi Webster complained that sociolo- higher education. But white Americans benefited gists wh o use race terminology promote racial m ost, the book’s authors write. First, federal awareness and separatism. These in turn lead to lending rules favored segregated suburbs. And white people more often had the educational exclusion and discrimination. Journalists, govern- ent officials and educators should stop talking edentials to go to college. The policies of the m cr about race, too, he said. The human history of time created an economic advantage for many white families that continued to grow as each intermarriage, migration and genetic change make su g ch boundaries meaningless, Webster wrote in the eneration built upon the wealth of its parents. . ewsletter ety n soci Like interest on a bank deposit, children collect economic potential for themselves from the While race may not hold up as a biological concept, property and social standing of their parents, Duster others responded, its influence cannot be ignored. s es in housing, jobs, education . Privileg e xplain enetic,” says Pilar Ossorio, “N ot everythin g ‘r eal’ is g d other arenas, in turn, build upon one another. an a mi crobiologist and assistant professor of law and Disadvantages such as barriers to well-paying jobs, medical ethics at the University of Wisconsin. “We safe housing and fair-priced loans pass from parent use racial categories to interact with each other in to child, too. As a result, the racial hierarchy ways that have significant consequences.” eveloped over the middle of the 20th century has d pretty much held fast, he says. The association urged its members to study race- ata to understand disparities in a deeper elated d r Some think that the disparities built into American way and to develop policy ideas for greater social In Between soci owing worse. ety m ay even be gr ation on an individual level does . Discrimin justi ce on an , a book on globalizati , ace d r Fear and Hope , an in creasing number u ch an xplain m ot e n ym or e Barlow writes about this change. In the 1960s and of sociologists now say. They hope to unravel the ’70s, he says, business regulation, low-income ways racial privilege may be hidden inside the day- g, public-health measures and ainin g, job tr ousin h ay workin gs o stitutions from education to f in to-d other social programs began to undo the advantages public transportation to criminal justice. g h lon eld by white people . But in th e 1980s , the White-Washing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind economy started to change. Service jobs replaced , written by seven scholars including Duster, Society industry, businesses became internationally mobile, s the story in the 1930s with Franklin begin d deregulation and tax cuts became common. an Roosevelt’s N ew Deal, which was aimed to protect ages dropped, health benefits declined and many W e working class. Congress then revised the law to th jobs h eaded overseas. In 2004, household incomes egation, too. The Social Security al segr aci otect r pr g five consecutive years. urin oved d ot impr had n ct excluded domestic and agricultural workers A e U.S. Census Bureau said they had stayed stable Th from old-age pension and unemployment payments. only because people were working more hours. Three-quarters of the black population, from domestic workers to sharecroppers, fell through With more worries about jobs and pay, according the net. Similarly, the Wagner Act, which gave to Barlow, many white people began to feel power to unions, also allowed labor to shut out threatened. “Growing inequality makes more and black workers from closed shops. Loans under the more of the middle class experience a sense of ousing Act differentially provided whites al H er Fed emselves,” he says. ey try to buffer th , so th crisis e wherewithal to move into new suburbs. Federal th e points to attacks on affirmative action and H 42

43 THE HUMAN FACTOR THE HUMAN FACTOR tough-on-crime laws that have put more African Americans and Latinos in jail. “We need to think about racism in a new way,” Barlow contends. Scholars now are studying the effects of race in society in more detail. Julie Sze, an assistant professor at University of California, Davis, looks at links between health and policy decisions such as where city planners place garbage dumps. Some research explores segregation in housing and how it limits people’s job opti ons. Others are looking at hidden racial animosities and the ways teachers treat students of different races. Barlow, Duster and colleagues emphasize that whites may have no awareness of their privilege. They m ay not even know when they are trying to protect en ts d eci d e to fi ght to save funding for it. Say par suburban high schools. Their work helps create more advanced-placement classes and leadership oppor- tunities. Graduates can then more easily win a spot in th e best colleg es . But in urban ar eas, schools arely have parents pushing for more money. They r can’t offer the same academic advantages. And the parents and graduates of top-tier schools? They understandably consider their achievements solely th e result of the young peoples’ own hard work. ey m ay agree that race-based disparities While th exist, Barlow says, white people often know little about th d e history that tilts opportuniti es towar stead th em. In ften suspect a lack o f ambiti on th ey o or effort on the part of people of color. “You don’t need to be a racist to promote policies that are r ace-con sci ous ,” says David Wellman, a professor of community studies at University of California, White-W ashing Race d on e o f th e San ta Cruz an authors. Most whites don’t see white as a race, he says. “Like a fish in water, they don’t think about whiten ess because it’s so beneficial to them.” • Sally Lehrman – This article was adapted from a three-part series on race for the Institute for Justice and Journalism ornia’s Annenberg f Southern Calif the University o at f Communication. School o 43

44 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA CHAPTER THREE PRESSURES THE IN NEWSROOM 44

45 IN THE NEWSROOM PRESSURES im Kalich, editor and slaves in the country freed. publisher of The Greenwood Commonwealth, had just The Greenwood Commonwealth T hired his only black reporter. This was among the 346 papers that boosted the nine-member news- reported an all-white staff to the room to 11 percent African American Society of Newspaper American. “You hope coverage Editors in 2005. Though such pub- changes,” he says. “Common lications are small, together they Tim Kalich sense tells you that if you’re in a reach at least 3.3 million readers community that’s majority black, you’ll be across the country. The Commonwealth, more able to tap into that.” with its circulation peaking at nearly 7,800 on Sundays, serves one of the most diverse African Americans dominate city government areas on ASNE’s all-white newsroom list. Of and school board leadership in Greenwood, the 50,000 who live in or near Greenwood, Miss ., populati on 18,425. White people own cen t are black, Hispanic, Asian 66 per most of the businesses. Kalich says his American or Native American. At the paper, white reporters try to cover everyone, the number of journalists of color has sometimes by relying on the paper’s black ping-ponged between zero and one during circulation director for tips. Indeed, the the past 20 years. Though Kalich can offer paper has won awards for the best paper a starting salary of $22,000 to $25,000, he of its size in Mississippi for the past four says nonwhite reporters and editors are years. But coverage could be better, Kalich hard to attract and keep. “They’re in such acknowledges. “The stories you don’t get,” high demand,” explains Kalich, 47, editor he says, “are the ones passed on at the and publisher for 10 of his 23 years at the grocery story or at church, through daily paper. “When you take that small crop of interactions with people.” candidates attracted to journalism, we’re kind of on the bottom rung.” Kalich’s new hire was Charles ASTING OUR TIME’ ‘W Brown, 25 years old at the time and raised in a town an Many newsroom managers do make an hour away. Yes, some commu- effort to hire, promote and encourage nity members were more people of all backgrounds to succeed. Yet willing to talk to him. And Charles Brown America’s newsrooms have remained mostly he noticed different stories. white and male. Why? Sociologists and When a press release came in about June- dden ed hi ologists have discover psych xample, Brown learned that or e th, f teen barriers that help explain the glacial pace some of his colleagues didn’t know that f change within many an industry, even o unities across the country celebrate comm ons really exist. ti ten e best in en th ally wh ay U.S. slavery fin e d e 19 as th Jun Without realizing it, they say, people favor ended. They didn’t know that news of the ose most like themselves. These natural th ancipation Proclamation, which took Em to newsroom ocesses play in an pr um each Texas h ot r d n an. 1, 1863, di effect on J cultures and systems that tend to give slaves until two years later – June 19, 1865 white and male journalists an advantage. – when a Union regiment arrived in , to order the last remaining as x e Galveston, T 45

46 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Minority Employment in Daily Newspapers The American Society of Newspaper Editors has surveyed minority representation in U.S. newsrooms since 1978. The results of this annual census are shown here. The figures are based on newspapers’ responses to the survey, and are rounded off. Minority Percentage i n Total Minorities in Work Force Work Force Work Force 43,000 1,700 3.95 1978 1,900 4.22 1979 45,000 2,300 4.89 47,000 1980 1981 45,500 2,400 5.25 49,000 2,700 5.51 1982 50,000 1983 5.60 2,800 50,400 5.75 1984 2,900 1985 53,800 3,100 5.76 54,000 3,400 6.30 1986 1987 54,700 6.56 3,600 55,300 3,900 1988 7.02 1989 56,200 4,200 7.54 1990 56,900 4,500 7.86 1991 4,900 8.72 55,700 54,500 9.39 1992 5,100 1993 53,600 5,500 10.25 53,700 5,600 10.49 1994 1995 53,800 10.91 5,900 55,000 6,100 1996 11.02 1997 54,000 6,100 11.35 1998 54,700 6,300 11.46 1999 55,100 11.55 6,400 56,200 6,700 2000 11.85 2001 56,400 6,600 11.64 12.07 6,600 54,400 2002 6,900 12.53 2003 54,700 2004 54,200 7,000 12.95 13.42 7,300 2005 54,100 .S. Newsrooms, 2005 Source: American Society of Newspaper Editors Survey of Employment in U 46

47 IN THE NEWSROOM PRESSURES Kalich may think the Commonwealth is Yet they make up 51 percent of the popula- unusual. In aggregate, however, staffing at tion and more than two-thirds of the jour- nalism and mass communications graduates. the 926 daily newspapers that sent in their The proportion of women with executive numbers isn’t terribly different from his jobs is even smaller – about one out of own paper’s. ASNE’s leaders committed a quarter century ago to change their five people who head up newspaper or local television news departments. Perhaps newsrooms to reflect the U.S. population. worse, an American Press Institute/Pew Today, at newspapers across the country, survey found that one out of two female the share of journalists of color has reached editors plans to leave her job soon – and just 13.4 percent. (See chart Page 46, maybe leave the business entirely. Salaries which tracks minority representation in for women languish at $10,000 per year U.S. newsrooms since 1978.) less than those of their male counterparts. The U.S. public is now one-third Latino, si an American, African American and A “What we’r e d oing now is wasting our time,” Native American. The country will, the U.S. says Herbert Lowe, a Newsday reporter who Census says, be half “minority” by 2050. is immediate past president of the National Yet 40 percent of the daily papers that Association of Black Journalists. Newspapers reported on hiring and retention employ must integrate up and down the ladder if no journalists of color at all. they intend to change, he and other minor- ity journalist association leaders insist. Plus, not all editors provide data every “Fundamentally,” Lowe says, “it’s all about year. Of the papers that didn’t answer the who gets to hire whom.” 2005 survey, 275 had earlier reported all- ’ AKE A T O T ‘BEGIN T OLL white newsrooms. So the actual number of journalists of color at U.S. daily newspapers As it turned out, Charles Brown left The could be at least a point lower than ASNE Greenwood Commonwealth. While the believes. In 2002, when ASNE had for experience was great, he says, the hours several years been reporting close to 12 were brutal: 6:30 a.m. to 11 p.m. many a percent journalists of color in U.S. news- day. His new job involves covering the papers, Indiana University’s American campus and developing press materials for Journalist Survey made this estimate: just the historically black Mississippi Valley 9.5 percent. State University. Brown earns more money and enjoys a more reasonable schedule. Broadcast data is equally discouraging – e’s something else. “I feel more er d th e numbers for journalists of An f th ost all o alm comfortable here,” he says. He can relate color slipped last year, especially in radio. , and they can to his colleagues easily elevision newsrooms are nearly 80 percent T al o and Television ey can talk about person e Radi elate to him. Th g to th r din , accor white things. “It wasn’t a really big problem,” News Directors Association, while radio own goes on, hesitating as he tries to Br ewsrooms are 92 percent white. n ger hurts, it e your fin t’s lik xplain. “I e doesn’t really bother you, but it will begin Women now hold about 37 percent of print to take a toll.” and 39 percent of television editorial jobs. 47

48 CLOSE-UP: INSIDE THE NEWSROOM: CONSENSUS MATTERS In 2001, ASNE leaders reported that America’s daily newspapers had a retention The Poynter Institute’s News and Race Project problem. An ongoing exodus of journalists surveyed 970 journalists about their attitudes on of color was undermining efforts to build diversity. They found: racially diverse newsrooms. For every six â Journalists of color were more supportive of journalists of color that editors had hired diversity goals than white journalists. that year, seven had departed. The disillusioned émigrés complained about â Journalists of color were more critical of their limits to their professional challenge and y’s current diversity efforts. compan growth, according to a study by Lawrence â The smaller the differences of opinion between McGill, a sociologist now at Princeton journ alists of color and white journalists, the University. “Journalists of color are not greater the chance a newsroom is actually convinced that they have equal opportu- diversifying its staff and coverage. nities for advancement,” McGill wrote at e, “or that they are being judged by e tim th e is calculated clim ate” scor e chart below In th , th e “ as a mathematical ratio of how far apart journalists the same evaluative criteria as white of color and white journalists are on diversity journalists.” goals and efforts. A “newsroom diversity climate” ere was no disagreement scor e o f 0 would m ean th Which journalists get to serve on newsroom oals and efforts. Higher scores over diversity g committees, chase the best stories or write indicate greater disagreement. The full 2001 research report by Edward Pease, Erna Smith and for the front page? In survey after survey, Federico Subervi may be downloaded at journalists of color say they feel they are https://www .poynter.org/content/content_view.asp? the last to be chosen. “People who leave id=5045&sid=5 . the field tend to do so accompanied by the feeling that what they had to offer was not given a chance to bloom,” McGill wrote. Newsroom News organization diversity climate From assignments to daily news lineups, The Dallas Morning News 145 many newsrooms operate on the gut St. Louis P 234 ost-Dispatch instincts of managers. Journalists trust in quick reflexes and timeliness. Many see 35 San Jose Mercury News things like job descriptions and written The Seattle Times 141 assignments as a waste of time. A Maynard South Florida Sun-Sentinel 109 Institute for Journalism Education work- rancisco 238 KRON, San F book calls this approach “the closed news- 126 KTVA, Anchorage e’s little give-and-take between er .” Th paper KVIA, El Paso 108 editors and reporters. Editors assign, and WFLA, Tampa 290 eporters write what their editors expect. r WNBC, New York 70 es. oriti ews pri ctate n e bosses di Th 247 WXYZ, Detroit d of environment, both the way In this kin en biases can create d d d our hi we work an a culture that shuts people out. Even today, many editors will tell you they know exactly eal journalist”– d t in an “i ey wan what th 48

49 IN THE NEWSROOM PRESSURES in job postings on journalismjobs.com, Instead, Smith found that people in the they seek reporters who are “goal-driven” minority because of their gender, race or and “aggressive,” prepared to compete economic status felt isolated and under- with the “big boys.” Important qualities, valued. “It doesn’t feel like there’s any value certainly, but is male stereotype really all to having a diverse population,” one there is to it? What about being persistent, Latino medical student said. “You’re allowed verbally talented, or good at developing to succeed, but I bet most people feel that trust with sources? These skills, stereotyp- no one would cry very hard if they left.” ically female, are just as important. UNCONSCIOUS STEREO TYPES A T W ORK Because they operate at an unconscious When diversity remains unspoken and level, stereotypes have their most power invisible except when it’s time for staff when people make subjective choices or counts, the ambiguity creates lots of room must rely on incomplete information. Absent f or guesses an d misunderstandings. fessional personnel practices, that’s the o pr Scientists who study human interactions way newsrooms tend to assign and promote. say this is when unconscious expectations And so most women who do rise to execu- and imagery – the stories and assumptions tive jobs find themselves running depart- that everyone grows up with – can take ments such as marketing or community over. Implicit stereotypes begin to limit affairs. Here they can exercise those people’s opportunities, but may go unno- excellent communications skills – but are ticed and unquestioned. And those in the unlikely to be groomed for higher positions. minority – because of their sexual orienta- tion, disability, or any other reason – may David Lawrence Jr., former publisher of The turn to stereotypes as well as they try to Miami Herald and before that the Detroit interpret and anticipate their colleagues’ Free Press, put it this way when he accepted expectations. the 2004 Robert McGruder Diversity Award: When a stereotype is in play, the people “Surely we cannot keep good people if we affected by it tend to act unconsciously in do not encourage them ... if we do not give alignment with it. Their actual strengths them good role models ... if we do not and abilities don’t matter. Told that females give them good assignments ... if we do not usually perform poorly on a particular math give them real evidence of our commitment test, women are likely to do just that. to their personal and professional growth Otherwise they score just as well as white ... if good people do not have a sense of e thing happens when black e sam ed, wanted, fulfilled.” en. Th eed m g n bein people are asked to mark their race at the g of a difficult verbal test or are beginnin e organizations say they are “color- Som . al ability en what they tellectu air – wh es in g f easur eanin told that it m d” – m blin Or when a teacher starts talking about really are is blind to the issue of bias. When ales,” those students often begin “white m ght and actress Anna Deveare Smith playwri comfortable. d un es about diversity at ed an d eaten ed attitu to feel thr xplor e Social psychologists Claude Steele and Stanford University Medical School for its Joshua Aronson studied this phenomenon strategic-planning retreat, she did not run . In their research, niversity d U or at Stanf f overt racism or sexism. ces o stan oss in acr 49

50 CLOSE-UP: MENTORS MAKE A DIFFERENCE “people were very, very warm,” he recalls. Just one bad incident sticks in his mind – when he tried to Ray Marcano had dreamed of becoming an R&B get a haircut and the barber refused. star. He studied voice, percussion and piano while growing up in the Bronx. He even won a place at During his second year in Vinita, Marcano completed the esteemed High School for Music and Art in New his journalism studies. He would get off work, drive York City. But then he heard his fellow students about an hour and half to Northeastern State play, and began to doubt his own talents. That’s University in Tahlequah, return at about midnight, when an English teacher suggested journalism. sleep a few hours, then hit the desk at 7 a.m. He Marcano heeded that advice. He is now in his third was sports editor, lifestyle editor, then news editor. decade of journalism and one of only 14 black deputy managing editors in the country. “If you Marcano wanted to make it back to New York. He want it bad enough and if you’re willing to do the decided to go to a bigger paper and set his sights things that help you grow,” he says, “you’ll do OK.” ulsa. At the Tulsa World, Marcano covered on T night cops. He liked the demanding beat. Then, Marcano doesn’t credit his achievements to any one night, as he joined the news crew covering a special skills or connections. ering tornado, a police gath e says th e welcomin g But h e or d o ffi cer stopped him. H er ed environment he felt at Cox Marcano to turn around and Newspapers has made all the leave. When the reporter difference in the world. “Cox, protested, the cop slapped unlik e a lot of other newsrooms, han cuffs on him. d can o says , diversity ” M , ar gets explaining why he has remained Even though he was released at the Dayton (Ohio) Daily shortly afterwards, the incident ore than two decades. ews f N or m disheartened Marcano. He isn’t Brad Tillson Jr. Ray Marcano “I don’t think I could find sur e whether race had anything ortable.” e I’d feel as comf er ywh an to do with what happened. After a couple of close fri en ds left the paper, though, he decided to go, Marcano applied for his first newspaper job before too. “I said, I’m outta here,” he remembers. He he even finished his journalism degree at Lehman t out r esumes to newspapers of about omptly sen pr ork. H e spotted ew Y niversity in N f City U e o Colleg a. e size in Ohi o an d P enn e sam sylvani th the Vinita (Okla.) Daily Journal’s ad in Editor & Publisher and wrote in right away. Then he called Soon Marcano landed a minority affairs job in to ch eck on his application every week for a month. , after a week o aining at The f tr Dayton. An d Poynter Institute in St. Petersburg, Fla., he says, e publish er agreed to give Marcano a try. Vinita, Th d his . So di e qu ality o th f his work began to climb Okla., home to the annual Will Rogers Memorial level of responsibility. He began to fill in as an Rodeo and the World’s Largest Calf Fry Festival and editor on Sunday, next taking over the night assis- Cook-off, was originally the northern capital of tan t city editor slot. “I wanted to be in a position the displaced Cherokee nation. When Marcano got wh ere I could shape a newsroom, where I could be th ere in 1981, the town of 6,700 was about 12 er,” Marcano says. Every chance he could, he a lead ative American and 6 percent African t N cen per ove up. oals to m told his bosses about his g American – and, he recalls, segregated. They listened. Marcano rose through several depart- He arrived to join the six-person news and ment-level positions and finally became metro advertising staff sporting a Mod Squad-style Afro. editor. But then he hit a rough spot. That old self- It was culture shock both ways. To Marcano, the doubt began to set in. “It was a very, very demand- town felt “98 percent white.” Susan Ryals, who ing job and I seriously wondered whether I really runs the Vinita Public Library, remembers that had the stuff to run a newspaper,” Marcano says. d notice him. “Because he wasn’t from people di e decisions he had made. onize over th e would ag H here, he was a little more Yankee,” she says. e wondered what his boss would have done, what H Marcano didn’t know about local specialties like his boss’ boss would have done. “That’ll just eat ot dog – yet ed h ey” – a chili-cover con e “ th you up,” he says. 50

51 PRESSURES IN THE NEWSROOM A call from a recruiter changed everything. Before says now. They got together regularly, mainly over Marcano knew it, he had an offer. While he decided lunch. Marcano set the agenda with his questions not to go, his self-image was transformed. Like and concerns. “We developed a very open other managers of color, he had held himself to an relationship,” Tillson says. “If I thought he was incredibly high standard. “If a paper of that quality going about something the wrong way, I wouldn’t thinks I could be managing editor, I thought, I hesitate to tell him that.” must have something going for me,” Marcano says. “We all feel the same way, we can’t make a mistake: The conversations ranged from distribution to You’ve got to be perfect.” finance to how Marcano interacted with others. Marcano decided to go back to school for an Even th ough he’s not very good at doing so himself, MB A and graduated in March 2003. The exchanges Marcano advises other journalists of color to try to with Tillson continued informally even into the let go of that feeling. “That’s simply a byproduct of publisher’s retirement. When someone across the m y mother’s upbringing,” he says. “I’m only four table r eally cares about your development, Marcano generations removed from the slave plantations. says, “It makes a real difference.” • We’ve got another generation or so before black – Sally Lehrman people can walk in to any job situation and not feel lik d e th ey have to be better an d have to work har .” er With a renewed sense of his own potential, Marcano ADVICE FOR WOULD-BE MANAGERS applied to open several new bureaus as a regional ose to assistan t managing editor e r . Soon h editor Over 15 years, the percentage of journalists f or production. In 2000, he won the presidency of e Dayton Daily e staff at th f color on th o the Society of Professional Journalists. Then, much News increased from about 12 percent to to Marcano’s surprise, Brad Tillson Jr., at the time n early 14 per cen t in 2005, in a cir culati on the publisher of the Dayton Daily News and chief area that is 16 percent nonwhite. Gender xecutive over eight Cox papers, called him into e diversity has improved, too. his office and asked to be his mentor. “I was ed floor ,” Marcano says. “I’m thinking, how can I “Coverage has changed,” says deputy not screw this up?” g editor Ray M can agin an ar o. “People bring m different ideas to the table. You notice ship began as part o f a f orm al m Th e r elati on en toring things you didn’t before.” His advice for program that Cox was testing. (Cox, a national wom d people of color who want to be en an leader in newsroom training, ranks No. 5 on the managers: ewsroom diversity index of news- g n m an-Doi Ded paper companies.) Tillson recalls that Marcano ot to take care of yourself, you’ve ou’ve g “Y g f or had always m ad e it clear h e was lookin got to take care of your family. It’s not going opportunities. “There are people who never put to do anybody any good if you work your their hands up; and there are people who some- th hour on the seventh day of the week 14 tim es put their hands up,” Tillson explains. “And an d you have a heart attack coming home. th en there are people like Ray, who always have th eir hands up.” “You’ve got to hang on to your confidence. Stick to a right decision. Just because et Tillson feared that the relationship might be Y somebody disagrees with you doesn’t mean awkward because of the men’s relative positions you’re wrong. Talk it through and find out within the organization. He certainly couldn’t why they differ, but you can’t get down on share everything he knew about the company as a yourself and start judging yourself. top executive. He worried about perceptions of favoritism and the like. Plus there was the time e feeling that you’ve got f th o o ry to let g “T commitment. All these concerns fell away as the ot to work harder to be perfect; that you’ve g eet. two began to m than everyon e else . You can’t be anybody but who you are.’’ “I really looked forward to the time with him and felt it was an important part of the job,” Tillson 51

52 CLOSE-UP: THINGS NEWS MANAGERS CAN DO students’ scores reflected racial and sexual stereotypes 1. Set priorities for diversity and explain them when the test situation clearly. Evaluate assignments, promotions, pay and “primed” them in some way. other rewards to make sure they are fairly Otherwise, they fared the distributed among the staff. same as everyone else. 2. Use compensation and comparable rewards to Claude Steele hold managers accountable. The news media For journalists of color, Steele says, companies with the best diversity track records “stereotype threat” is often exhausting. r eward managers with bonuses for creating a Every grammatical mistake or misidentified diverse staff. source feels magnified, suggesting some oals and monitor progress by collecting 3. Set g deeper incompetence. “Every interaction is data on hiring and promotion, and by doing shrouded with this possibility of being regular content analyses. seen stereotypically and devalued,” he den of suspicion” can cause . This “bur says es and criteria for hiring are oced 4. M ak e sur e pr ur designed to include, not exclude. Review job a wearing self-consciousness that in turn qualifications to get rid of stereotype-laden ideals interferes with performance. and replace these with specific, equally relevant ed to r ender. Begin by ace or g skills that ar e less ti Our confidence can rise and fall along with selectin g from a diverse pool of qualified candidates. the limits and expectations that we believe 5. Encourage every staff member to create goals society places on us. Our race, gender, and objectives that include learning new skills, sexual orientation or physical characteristics, eveloping leadership and stretching into more d of course, help set the bar. The infamous creative or challenging assignments. Develop Jayson Blair, in the wake of his departure s to m system ake sure managers know about staff from The New York Times, has given a members’ ambitions. boost to stereotype threat for many young 6. En e sur ak g. M torin en ag cour e m e management journalists, especially those of color. While performance appraisals include demonstrable Stephen Glass of The New Republic and support for the advancement of people of color, Jack Kelley from USA Today also made up en, gays an an s, and people with wom d lesbi stories and faked sources, their misdeeds disabilities. Consider building in systems to mentor tor d own. up, as well as m en didn’t prompt the same kind of reaction. People in newsrooms didn’t start saying, 7. Make sure that the criteria for coveted assign- “Well, we better be more careful about m ents and promotions are explicit and defined by hiring those white guys.” Nor did you hear th e actual skills needed, not by a manager’s anyone saying, “As a white man, I feel subjective ju dgment. essure at work because of what e pr or m ake the Implicit Association test to understand 8. T Glass and Kelley did.” how unconscious stereotyping and reactions occur. Encourage others to take it, too. g o worry about bein e white people d Som stereotyped another way, though: as racist. You can find the test at: rug abuse, Blair clearly was felled by his d https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/index.jsp d plagiarism. His on an cati abri compulsive f .org/hidden_bias/02.html .tolerance http://www or bosses just as clearly failed to practice good management. They didn’t monitor the ents that would have eimbursem se r xpen e xt page) (Continued on ne 52

53 CLOSE-UP: (Continued from previous page) given him away. But Steele also gets the sense that both Blair and his bosses were 9. Include diversity in every aspect of professional- frantically combating felt stereotypes. At development training. Teach reporters, editors and least some of his editors may have avoided managers about the ways that unconscious stereo- confronting him because they were afraid typing and majority privilege influence every workplace. of being seen as unfair to African American reporters. Macarena Hernández, a former 10. Provide a forum for systematic and safe discus- colleague whose work Blair copied, took sion of race, gender, sexual orientation, disability this view a step further in an op-ed piece and class issues, both as news subjects and as they for the Los Angeles Times: “If The New York apply to news operations and life in general. Support intercultural dialogue with specific exchanges, and Times was sincerely committed to diversity, prepare to bring in a mediator for these. Blair’s editors would have chopped off his fingers at the first sign of trouble instead 11. Get feedback from employees and take it of helping him polish his claws.” seriously. Create safe places for staff members to voice their worries about unfairness or insensitivity. Provide opportunities outside of the day-to-day Stereotype threat can stand in the way of t for people to raise specific en work envir onm mentoring, an important means for less- complaints such as “You shouldn’t use this phrasing,” experienced journalists to develop their or “You never call on me in meetings or conference skills and climb the ladder. White men might calls.” Teach others how to respond to such avoid relationships with people of another concerns thoughtfully and well. gender, race, physical ability or sexual 12. Avoid labeling people who speak up about orientation for fear of making a misstep or r ace, generation, gender and other issues as being judged. Yet they are the ones most troublemakers. Know that successful discussion often in a position to offer support and ften involves conflict. about diversity o advice. In experiments at Stanford, when 13. Create intercultural experiences within news white men thought they’d be discussing teams as they work together on stories. Build in racial profiling with black men instead of odi xercises to support positive collaboration c e peri love and relationships, they moved their and exchange. Put diversity issues on the agenda chairs further away. “What’s interesting is g: fr o f every m om story conferences to news eetin that it’s not related to how prejudiced they budget meetings to sessions about the organiza- tion’s overall mission. are,” Steele says. es an 14. Support n . Help people sfers an d tr ew hir TE O COMMUNICA AILURE T A F wh o may feel they stand out as unusual in their communities by providing information about Journalists of color, women, people with ches, restaurants, cultural events and other ur ch resources relevant to their interests. Develop cross- d gays and lesbians enter a , an es disabiliti media or cross-company networks they can turn to double bind the moment they enter a for support and advice. • ewsroom. n – Sally Lehrman Suppose, for example, you become the o journalist in a newsroom in a only Latin on. You o populati e Latin g town with a lar aspire to be a political reporter. You know you’ll have to work up to it. The first job al assignment, and the er en et is g you g 53

54 IN A NEW AMERICA NEWS assigning editor is glad to see you. There production company. have been complaints about the news organization ignoring the Latino community. Race bias in newsrooms? Many news All your assignments are community managers, who are mostly white and male, stories, mostly about Latinos. You may be say there isn’t. But most journalists of new to this town, but you now have the color say there is. “Hispanic beat,” are expected to know what “the Latino community is thinking” Nonwhite broadcast producers, for example, and are further asked to help guard against say racial biases influence news decisions bias or insensitivity throughout the broad- on an on-going basis. Their managers cast or news pages. consistently deny such considerations. How can this be? After conducting more You now have three jobs: reporter, assigning than 120 interviews of television journalists editor and unofficial ombudsman. And, if in 1999, Freedom Forum Fellow Av Westin o on e else is hired, it looks like you’ll have n f oun d no blatant bigotry. But, he wrote in them forever. How do you feel? How do Nieman Reports: “The interviews reveal a your colleagues feel about you? Not only do clear sense among the rank and file that you become acutely aware of your minority news management’s attitudes about race status, but you are put in a position that play a role in story selection and content, naturally makes your colleagues defensive. editorial point of view, and the skin color of the person who will provide the ‘expert’ Newsrooms are no more immune to categor- sound bite.” ical thinking than other parts of society. We align with our in group, however our Such practices may go unspoken, but not minds unconsciously define it, and look for unnoticed. The dissonance can add a level distinctions with others. While the resulting of stress. “As a society, we want to live preferences lie outside our awareness, we the ideal of a color-blind society – don’t act on them all the time. Despite their best talk about it, don’t recognize it – and intentions, people in the dominant group that tends to suffocate dialogue and tend to resist letting go. Editors and discourse,” says former magazine writer producers may have a hard time digesting Meta Carstarphen-Delgado, who now studies unfamiliar approaches and ideas: they just race and gender in the media context at may not seem relevant or appropriate. And the University of Oklahoma. She interviewed because of the feedback loop they’ve 60 journalists after they attended a developed, they might swear, and possibly Poynter workshop on covering race and eir currently declining t, that th escriptions of news- gh eir d be ri ck by th was stru audience would agree. But how does this room silence. White journalists don’t want f working allow room for the ideas way o ons that make them look to ask questi ews fresh? eep n o d k t to let g d loyalty an f color wan xpan . Reporters o that e d stupi Whenever they pitched stories about people of their role as the caretakers of race f color or poor communities, African o . The result? Frustration. “Nearly all issues oducers Gregory Branch ews pr eved that discus- can n alists beli eri ese journ Am f th o and Claudia Pryor found they ran into sion about race on the job benefited them, even though only 33 percent said that it resistance. The pattern finally drove them eported. e r ,” sh egularly discussed eir own was r etworks to start th e n f th out o 54

55 PRESSURES IN THE NEWSROOM there’s no magic numerical formula. “You Good diversity training can work, but not can hire a black journalist who simply the quick and easy kind. “Racism is more doesn’t get it and that doesn’t do us any complicated than calculus, but we often good,” Lowe points out. Diversity, he think we can learn about it in one session,” argues, needs to be built into newsroom says Jack Dovidio, an expert on prejudice practices. “I’d like to see a top editor and and stereotyping at the University of publisher agree on a set of principles and Connecticut. “Most of us are well-intentioned post it throughout the newsroom,” Lowe and want to learn. People will want to says. “I’d like to see them set benchmarks come and will listen.” But programs that and measure progress. Managers’ success seem geared toward remediation – whether should be tied to their work in this area, and for women, people of color, or white men they should be fired if they don’t do it.” – can backfire, Steele’s work shows. A focus instead on challenge, achievement The San Jose Mercury News, for instance, and the affirmation of each staff member’s e journalists of color make up nearly a wh er ons will yield better results. con tributi third of the staff, announces its commit- ment to diversity in a news mission state- AKING ON THE CHALLENGE T ment every day on Page 2. The paper first focused attention on the area’s changing One way newsroom managers beat the demographics in 1992 when it created the retention problem is by nurturing an open, “change pod,” a team charged with covering creative environment. Then all journalists Asian and Latino immigrants. The race and can do their best work, says San Francisco demographics team continues today – plus State University journalism professor Erna every other beat aims to bring the pluralism Smith. The most successful news organiza- of Silicon Valley into its coverage as well. tion becomes an exciting place for everyone, The parent company of the Mercury News, concluded Smith and her colleagues, Knight Ridder, financially rewards executives Edward Pease and Federico Subervi, in the for recruiting journalists of color and ranks Poynter Institute’s News & Race Project. No. 2 after Gannett Co. in its newspapers’ They studied newsroom climate, ethnic average newsroom diversity. diversity and news content. “It’s the openness of a place, the willingness to Yet even the Merc faces challenges. As take on new things, the ability to keep diverse as it is, the newsroom staff has not people engaged through professional kept up with its community. For their development,” Smith says. A newspaper analysis of ASNE data, Stephen Doig and where she has consulted, the South Florida e up with a measure called an cam m Bill Ded derdale, allows el in Fort Lau tin Sun-Sen the “newsroom diversity index,” which reporters to rotate through special projects es staff counts to the population compar ent desks. “There’s always or switch to differ f 100 e o . A scor e ewspaper serves ,” says Smith. Th that a n d oun e opportunity ar som means the publication reflects at least in newspaper employs 28 percent journalists all terms the ratio of people of color over f color in a 36 percent nonwhite commu- o e than half of those or . M unity easing. in its comm cr ts diversity is in . I nity who live in the San Jose area are people of A creative, effective newsroom doesn’t just color, so the Mercury News came in with a f 61 in 2004-2005. x o e d , and diversity in ay’s Lowe ewsd ds N arise on its own, ad 55

56 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Another Knight Ridder paper, the Akron percent from just 10 percent in 2004. Beacon Journal, has a diversity index of A ‘THE W Y WE DO BUSINESS’ 177. At 20 percent journalists of color, its staff is nearly twice as diverse as the popu- lation it serves, which is about 12 percent Even as news corporations continue to nonwhite. The publisher, Jim Crutchfield, struggle to achieve staff diversity, the (a Knight Foundation trustee), and execu- organizations we cover seem to have tive editor, Debra Adams Simmons, are both progressed remarkably well. Many nonmedia African Americans. Simmons says Knight companies have built diversity into their Ridder’s commitment to diversity helped management framework, leading to accom- her leap headlong into a wild first year as plishments that leave news media trailing an executive there, and succeed. And yet, behind. Executives there view broad-based she writes in the March 2005 issue of The inclusion as a business imperative, and American Editor, that like others in her they make this clear up and down the on, she believes she must work twice situ ati m an agement ladder. They value diversity as hard as other executives. She feels every as a means to support creative exchange, step she takes – for better or worse – will stimulate ideas and enhance competitive- influence opportunities available for other ness. They see it as so critical, in fact, that African American editors. 65 businesses joined friend-of-the-court Gratz and Grutter v. Bollinger briefs in both . These parallel cases in 2003 v. Bollinger Whatever their newsroom climate, lots of involved law school and undergraduate small papers lose excellent reporters to admissions at the University of Michigan. bigger papers on an ongoing basis. Kathy Eighteen television, print and cable Spurlock, executive editor of The News- companies that are minority owned or Star in Monroe, La., must constantly recruit. target substantial minority communities The Gannett Co. paper serves a community joined in one amicus. They cited diversity that is nearly 40 percent people of color; as necessary for their success and essential 37 percent of the population is black. The to the public interest. The U.S. Supreme News-Star works with regional universities Court agreed. The justices decided that and provides year-round internships for programs must be “narrowly tailored,” but students of color. The paper has won they upheld the right of universities to grants to develop contacts at historically consider race. black colleges and universities that could feed into the staff. “Our staff is heavily Many top companies, Ford Motor Co., for committed to a newsroom that looks more , try to make inclusiveness a ce stan , yet we find ourselves in unity e our comm lik straightforward business priority. The filling the same positions over and over aker wants to make sure that people autom e not able to offer the finan- because we ar ounds buy its cars. gr f back ed by the major dailies,” ety o ffer om a vari ds o fr ewar al r ci Ford houses its powerful, $4.5 billion Spurlock says. Even so, The News-Star er diversity effort in the purchasing suppli eeps working to meet the challenge. The k ot in human resources. “It t, n en alists of color there epartm f journ d on o oporti pr really isn’t a program, it’s the way we do has fluctuated from 10 to 20 percent over business,” says Ray Jensen, former director the past decade. In the 2005 report, staff evelopment. “If you er d ority suppli f min o ost 16 diversity bumped back up to alm 56

57 IN THE NEWSROOM PRESSURES CLARITY W aren’t in a position ORKS where you can influ- Even with all this emphasis, pluralism ence who buys from doesn’t necessarily come easy. Ford still whom, you can’t do struggles with sexual harassment on the much.” Ford purchases assembly floor and settled a race discrimin- directly from certified ation lawsuit for $9 million in 2005. In minority-owned busi- that case, plaintiffs argued that a required nesses. The company test had blocked African Americans from also demands that its Ray Jensen its plant apprenticeship programs. In many 525 biggest parts and businesses, the problem comes down to service suppliers do the same – the staff, residual policies that encourage unconscious for instance, even tracks whether its outside stereotyping – not to outright prejudice or law firms bill at least 6 percent of hours to even ill will, says Teresa Demchak, managing attorneys of color. Ford also has a formal er f or Goldstein, Demchak, Baller, partn m en toring program that seems to align Borgen and Dardarian in Oakland. Her firm with psychologist Steele’s theories. It’s not has litigated civil rights cases involving just top-down, but bottom-up and cross- Denny’s, Home Depot and Metropolitan organizational, with one branch dedicated Life Insurance, among others. At Denny’s to helping senior male managers learn restaurants in California, a general demand about issues important to women. went out from headquarters to boost profits and cut losses. Down at the restau- Each year, the magazine Diversity Inc. rant level, the goals turned into a policy ranks the top 50 U.S. companies for best that black youth prepay for their meals, she practices in diversity based on advocacy says. Without information about the cause and management measures. Editors there of losses or suggested solutions, discrimin- have pinpointed common themes. Whether ation took hold. California managers, they sell consumer products, technology, acting on stereotype, assumed that African or financial services, the successful busi- American youths were most likely to leave nesses evaluated progress by using metrics. without paying. Servers began asking them Nine of the top 10 in 2004 tied managers’ for cash in advance. As part of a $34.8 salaries or bonuses to the result. They also million court settlement in 1994, Denny’s created pipeline initiatives to bring in trained employees not to discriminate and diverse hires, and to develop people for taught them how to serve a multicultural leadership posts. In newsrooms, the same customer base. The company set up a practices work. Instead of calling their system to ensure fair treatment. en openings appear, those who g ds wh onitorin en m fri profile the real qualities of the job and t Home Depot, managers had passed over ecruit widely have more success in creating A r ons. The company created or everyone. oti t f om en or pr onm en f g envir wom a welcomin job criteria and a formal means for employ- egister their interests as part of an des bringing diversity values to the ees to r Besi g and ese practices help remove the t in 1997. Hirin , all th en e on settlem or $87.5 milli f promotion decisions were no longer so subjective decision-making that supports subjective – and thus susceptible to guesses unconscious bias. d capabilities. ests an ter en’s in about wom 57

58 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA personnel practices as they apply to Metropolitan Life, which had ignored everybody, making them better and more complaints from women about their slim fair for everyone,” Demchak says. chances to win top jobs, discovered that a stereotype was at play. Managers had The best diversity programs do more than assumed that women were less willing to bring many varieties of human beings into work long hours or take on tough assign- the workplace. They embody the conviction ments because of family responsibilities. having trouble balancing were that diversity enhances the work environ- In fact, they home and work. So along with offering ment and the product itself – whether it better management training in a 2003 is a car, pancakes and syrup, life insurance, settlement, the company took steps to a newspaper or a news broadcast. Success- accommodate working parents – male and fully diverse companies find ways to infuse female alike. it into the operation until it becomes as unconscious a part of everyday work as impli cit ster eotyping used to be. “In m edi a, decision-making may well have • to be subjective,” says Demchak, whose firm works closely with companies to change their cultures as part of settlement agree- ments. “But there are ways to add objectiv- ity without reducing the artistic creativity that comes with the job.” Standard human resources practices that cut down uncon- scious discrimination in nonmedia com- panies are likely to work in newsrooms, too. Rather than allowing one person to decide on a new hire, she tells companies to build in some oversight. Hiring managers should articulate clear reasons for their choices. Instead of tapping promising staffers on the shoulder, she says, post opportunities for committees and plum beats in a timely fashion. Turn promotions, including those that require informal apprenticeship, into an open, competitive process. Make sure there’s a way for staff members to make s known. Create procedures on eir ambiti th that offer everyone an equal chance to be oomed for top positions. gr These practices limit unconscious stereo- g and go a step further by weakening typin t group’s predictable resistance. an omin e d th “These solutions change the company’s 58

59 59

60 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA CHAPTER FOUR REFRAMING DIVERSITY 60

61 DIVERSITY REFRAMING n May 2003, President George W. Bush handling of the war at the time. Nearly declared the military’s mission had been two-thirds of those from Latin America felt that way, too. But immigrants may have accomplished in Iraq. Many Americans I thought peace was around the corner, polls been more realistic about the conflict’s showed. But one diverse collection of U.S. outcome because of what they knew about residents had misgivings. Immigrants to the world. the United States from many parts of the world said it was too early to claim victory. Immigrants drew on their personal experi- In particular, those who had come from ence and global connections to family and the Middle East, China and Korea worried friends, as well as the news they generally about the war’s destabilizing effects on rely on. In a typical news program leading the region. Many expected the conflict to up to the 2004 election, for example, increase terrorism. A majority of immigrants Spanish-language networks devoted at least from nearly every national background five more minutes to world affairs than fear ed that th guage networks, according to a glish-lan e United States would lose En study by the Pew Hispanic Center and the international credibility unless soldiers found nuclear or biological weapons. USC Annenberg School for Communication. In a typical local news broadcast, Spanish- These immigrant views emerged in an 11- language stations offered one minute and language, 1,000-person poll by New America 44 seconds of foreign policy. Their English- only counterparts gave the subject just 17 Media, which was reported shortly after the president’s announcement. (See chart Page seconds. 63.) Unfortunately, few outside of the ethnic media heard these cautionary voices. New America Media, founded in San Francisco as New California Media, represents Public opinion polls typically exclude people more than 700 ethnic and community news who don’t speak English well, or at all. organizations. The consortium estimates that 29 million native and foreign-born Mainstream news outlets, relying on such surveys, reported broad optimism about the people of color turn first to ethnic media. These outlets generally cover international war. People in one ABC/Washington Post news more extensively than their main- poll a few weeks before Bush’s announce- stream counterparts. In five case studies ment, for example, fully expected the for the William and Flora Hewlett Founda- conflict to help stabilize the Middle East. tion, the consortium found that ethnic Only by December 2003 did the English-only media routinely offer analysis by those who U.S. public begin to worry that the invasion e world. The group’s ot have eased terrorism at all. t n e in th gh er mi live elsewh 2005 survey indicated two-thirds of Latinos e immigrants’ skepticism generally did d they turned first to ethnic media when Th sai e United on about politics and gs about th ati om misgivin orm esult fr ted inf ot r ey wan n th States. Three-quarters of Latin Americans U.S. government activities. d Asians – and half of the respondents an dle East – said they believe d report from d a simply write an e Mi om th edi fr c m “Ethni this country is a positive force in the world. a more global perspective,” says Sandy Close, executive director of New America Almost nine out of 10 Vietnamese and es to understanding en it com a. “Wh ents approved Bush’s edi d M espon o r Filipin 61

62 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA the U.S. role in the world, these prefer ethnic surveyed said they (news media) are definitely ahead media and use it frequently. of the curve.” Nationally, the black press now includes about 250 publications that reach 11 million readers THE ETHNIC MEDIA BOOM each week. The Chinese-language People look to the news to help juggernauts, the World Journal them decide what’s important – and Sing Tao Daily, each day Sandy Close to learn arguments about various reach 350,000 and 180,000 aspects of an issue. When journalists offer respectively. And, in five cities across the only the perspective of one demographic nation, more people ages 18 to 34 watched group, how can truth emerge? When stories Univision’s early evening news in 2004 are overlooked that affect large groups of than any other local newscast in English or people, how does that serve the Spanish. d em ocratic process? As America changes, members of a more diverse public will Loyal audiences like these helped inspire notice coverage that leaves them out. Viacom to buy Black Entertainment Instead of complaining, people can easily Television for $3.9 billion in 2000 and turn to entertaining web sites and blogs. make a failed run at Univision two years They may try to absorb whatever news later. The Washington Post bought El they might need from reality TV, comedy Tiempo Latino for an undisclosed price in and movies. They may or may not disengage 2004, while Time Warner picked up Essence from politics and such hotly debated issues for $170 million in early 2005. The New as health care, pensions and schools. But York Times announced plans that year to they will surely lose interest in traditional start its own African American newspaper news media if they don’t find it relevant to in Gainesville, Fla. America Online owns Blackvoices.com Africana.com , , and started their own experience. its own AOL Latino. Specialized news organizations, especially Are mainstream outlets smart to buy or the ethnic media, are booming. These start their own ethnic media? Depends outlets command loyalty and attention whom you ask. In a July 2005 essay, syndi- wildly out of proportion to their resources, cated columnist and editor George Curry which come nowhere close to those of pointed out that the black press is a trusted mainstream outlets. Such niche media source for alternative news and perspectives. reach more than half of the people in the t black and g to supplan er than tryin dentify themselves as “Rath o i nited States wh U Latino publications,” Curry wrote, “white- Hispanic or Latino, African American, ed media companies should show that own ative American, Arab American or Asian N age ced cover eir unbalan e 2005 New ove th g to th ey can impr din th can, accor eri Am and increase African-American presence at America Media survey of 1,895 individuals eir organizations.” all levels within th oss the country. (See chart Page 64.) acr sian Americans and Native f A arter o e qu On Certainly, the explosion of ethnic news Americans, about 40 percent of Arab sources does make a point: cover all of Americans and African Americans, and en your audiences and bloom. oad ca, br eri Am e half of the Hispanics on m or e than 62

63 REFRAMING DIVERSITY Immigrants’ Unease About the War Early in the Iraq war, the mainstream, English-language press reported that most Americans were optimistic, with many expecting the conflict to help stabilize the Middle East. But, as this chart shows, immigrants who relied on the ethnic media had their doubts. Among the questions answered by 1,000 immigrants in a 2003 survey: “Do you think the war with Iraq will improve the relations of the United States with the Arab and Islamic worlds or do you think it will create problems?” Their response: 60 55% 50 42% 40% 39% 37% 40 30 21% 20 10 0 in American sample Asian sample Lat Middle East sample Improve Relations Create Serious Problems ar in Iraq.” First Multilingual Poll of Immigrant Opinions on the W Source: “ Bendixen & Associates for New America Media, 2003. 63

64 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA The Reach of Ethnic Media When they want the news, a significant percentage of people who identify themselves as Hispanic, African American, Native American, Arab American or Asian American turn first to their ethnic media. This chart shows their preference between ethnic and mainstream media. 100 90 80 70 60 55% 50 45% 42% 40 40% 39% 34% 32% 32% 30 25% 25% 20 10 0 Asian Arab ican Afr Hispanics Native Americans Americans Americans Americans Prefer ethnic media over mainstream Prefer mainstream media but regularly access ethnic media Source: ”The Ethnic Media in America: The Giant Hidden in Plain Sight.” Study by Bendixen & Associates for New America Media, 2005. Based on 1,895 phone interviews in 10 languages. 64

65 REFRAMING DIVERSITY CK T O B ASICS: WHO LIVES HERE? B A explains how to think about a community in a more complex way. She helps journalists A news organization that decides to cover see the many human differences that its whole community often starts by taking influence how society sees us and how we a closer, systematic look at exactly who see society. These “fault lines” – race, class, lives there. This sounds elementary, but it generation, gender, geography and, many turns out to be a crucial first step. When diversity experts add, ideology – are always the American Society of Newspaper Editors there. It’s normal to try to ignore them asked its members to estimate the demo- or pretend they don’t exist. But the social graphics of their areas, most got it wrong. pressures caused by our differences can Nearly two-thirds of editors had no idea build, and, like the tectonic plates whose how diverse their cities and towns had movement causes earthquakes, make become. If journalists don’t really know themselves known in overpowering ways. their communities, how can they bring in ge of voices? an a full r Robert C. M ayn ard, the late owner of The Oakland Tribune and the inventor of Of course, many reporters and editors do the fault-lines concept, believed social realize that they live in racially mixed pressures can ease when people see their places. But that, the staff of The News- concerns reflected in a diverse news stream. Star in Monroe, La., learned, is also only a A good newspaper, in its fundamental role beginning. “We thought we knew what of supporting democratic debate, was an was what,” Kathy Spurlock, the executive “instrument of community understanding,” editor, wrote in Nieman Reports. Seeking he said. People and communities free to to improve, the paper tried civic journal- express themselves will more easily solve ism techniques. Reporters walked away their own problems. from their phones and computers. They spent time in barber shops, community Maynard urged journalists to better under- centers and coffee shops. They began stand themselves and how their experiences interviewing in a more conversational have changed the way they see the world. manner. An entirely new flow of stories Are you a woman or a man? What’s your began. The paper discovered how govern- sexual orientation? What race are you? ment agencies had been complicit in How old? How much do you earn? Do you economic discrimination, Spurlock wrote. live in a city, or a suburb, or a rural area? A reporter described firsthand the miseries What religious beliefs did you grow up of living downwind from an aging sewage with? Only if you know yourself, Maynard t plant. “Familiarity had instilled en eatm tr eally know enough to find , can you r d sai in us natural biases,” Spurlock explained, the sources who will help you tell the ding us.” “blin ole story. wh The Maynard Institute for Journalism Today the Maynard Institute works to help ucation in Oakland, Calif., starts its news- Ed alists see into their “blind spots” journ helping journalists find g by ainin oom tr r eir assumptions. A recent e th g d challen an out who lives in the regions they write example: Most coverage of the Social about. But participants don’t just look at Security debate has focused on the question or the primary wage-earner, ard, the institute’s president, on f ayn si ace . Dori M r f pen o 65

66 CLOSE-UP: A CHALLENGE FOR J-SCHOOLS Women make up about 40 percent of the teaching staff in journalism and mass com- Ralph Izard had grown up knowing few munications, although usually at lower ranks African Americans. Then his high school in and rates of pay than male faculty. Still, two southern West Virginia was integrated. The of every three students in these programs young man got a job cleaning up the black are female – taught by a faculty where nearly campus that was merging into his own. “It two of every three teachers is male. really hit me – my school building ... was alph Izard R a palace compared to theirs,” he says. “I wish we were doing a lot better,” says Jerry Ceppos, former vice president for news at Later, when Izard traveled around the globe as a Knight Ridder and immediate past president of the journalism educator, he was stunned at how little council. “We kind of know the way to do this: have he knew about other people’s lives. good critical mass on your faculty, and in every syllabus have specific items that deal with diversity.” T omorrow’s journalists shouldn’t have to work with such a handicap. But based on the track record of Recruiting women faculty should be easy, points today’s colleges and universities, they could very out Lionel C. Barrow Jr., immediate past chair of ost journalism schools lik ely start out that way . In m th on on th e Status of Minorities for the e Commissi and departments, students will meet mostly white Association for Education in Journalism and Mass people. Their professors will mainly be male. Many Communication. About 60 percent of doctoral students won’t experience America’s diversity until graduates in 2003 were women. “Are we ready to th ey step into a professional newsroom or out to hir e them?” Barrow asked in his August 2005 r eport a story . chair’s r eport. Newsrooms across the country clamor to hire The pipeline for professors of color needs more gr u ates who can cover a multicultural society. ad atten ti ow says. Only about one in five on, Barr Yet journalism schools themselves frequently fail receiving doctoral degrees were students of color, ards. First, only to m d eir own diversity stan eet th ose d o , very few were African American or an f th roughly 100 of the nation’s 450 journalism and Latino. “We should, we can and we must do better mass communications programs are accredited. than that,” he wrote. In an interview, Barrow said Second, of those that are, in accrediting reports schools simply aren’t actively recruiting these g up to 2003, m e 15 years leadin or e than over th en d stu e are a number of places the deans er . “Th ts one quarter of those cited for noncompliance and directors could be looking for minorities and missed the mark in diversity. they aren’t,” he said. If schools don’t have funds o their own recruiting, they could easily to d The Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism identify promising candidates from resources such an ass Communications created this standard d M cNair Scholars Program, which prepares e M as th because it believed the media must reflect and low-income, first-generation college students and serve the diversity of America. The council requires undergraduates of color for doctoral study. schools to hire women and faculty members of color. They must seek a wide mixture of students. In her 2003 study of the links between classrooms d in their teaching choices, professors must An d newsrooms, Mercedes Lynn de Uriarte described an ges to a spectrum of issues, voices eir char xpose th e atios affect much more than the faces aculty r ow f h and views. in the hallway. Some schools have managed to derance of epon espite a pr eir courses d e th g chan But the nation’s journalism school faculty does not white professors. But in most cases, these teachers reflect the nation’s population. For the past two continue doing things the way they always have. decades, less than one out of every 12 full profes- sors in journalism and mass communication was Even when faculty members start paying attention someone of color. Journalism and mass communi- to diversity, they can inadvertently set up a dichoto- on programs include a smaller proportion of cati y between “us” and the “other.” People of color, m faculty of color than the overall makeup of most those who are not Christian or Jewish or those who four-year colleges nationwide. have disabilities often remain the exception and . er d e outsi th 66

67 REFRAMING DIVERSITY The Accrediting Council doesn’t consider staff intellectual diversity. Readings and discussions diversity of student publications or broadcast should include more writings and research by outlets. But when Kathleen Woodruff Wickham at authors of color. New classes should educate the University of Mississippi reviewed demographics students about the history of race in America and in the Southeast Journalism Conference, she found the U.S. power structure, she says. Students could student newspaper staffs there to be overwhelmingly , A Short History of Racism read George Fredrickson’s white. The skew matters, because student newspaper for example, or Ronald Takaki’s A Different Mirror: alumni often help each other get newsroom jobs . A History of the Multicultural United States after graduation. Student media are indeed impor- tant stepping stones, educator and former Like newsrooms, journalism schools that commit Washington Post reporter Betty Medsger found in to do it can indeed diversify. The University of her study of journalism education, Winds of Change Alabama went from no communication professors . In a survey of 500 newsroom recruiters and of color in 1989 to about one in eight in 1998. The University of Florida more than doubled minority managers, more than half said they hired three- aculty from 9.4 percent to nearly 20 percent over qu arters of their interns from among people who f had worked in campus print or broadcast outlets. the same period. The University of Missouri quad- rupled its faculty of color to 12.2 percent and e accr d oubled its fem g council tried to give journalism Th editin ale f aculty to 40.8 percent during that time. schools some tools for change in a 2003 handbook of best practices. The teaching strategies ranged from bringing in guest speakers to integrating Lee Becker and his colleagues at the University of to every part of the school. In the most Geor gia studied the reasons behind such successes. diversity in es had tar ee colleg All thr om journ alism d k su ccessful classr oom s ept job , all courses – fr g an eted hirin g history to news values to ethics – include ideas descriptions flexible. They also developed student about diversity. recruiting and curriculum diversity at the same time. “You’re going to do a much better job with this if At LSU, Manship designed its action plan after it you m al part of everything you do,” orm e it a n ak e diversity standard six g on th r eceived a poor r atin says Izard, who is now Sig Mickelson/CBS professor years ago. The faculty began working harder to at the Louisiana State University Manship School recruit doctoral candidates of color, tapping histori- of Mass Communication. He is also professor cally black colleges and universities for leads. em e E.W . Scripps Sch ool o f J ournalism eritus at th o eveloped r elati on ships with high schools Pr fessors d at Ohio University. Newswriting classes should look in Baton Rouge and New Orleans to introduce at word choices that contain buried assumptions, journalism to the students. d says. Reporting courses ought to underline Izar the value of consulting multiple sources. Ethics Izard arrived at Manship as an associate dean two dy stereotypes, fairness and ars can stu semin years after th e wak e-up call. Under his leadership unconscious symbolism. And discussions can stop and that of Adrienne Moore, director of the Reilly assuming that the white, male, heterosexual Center for Media & Public Affairs, the school recently experience is the norm. founded Mass Communicating: The Forum on Media http://www.masscommunicating.lsu.edu ). Diversity ( Th e web site, the most comprehensive of its kind, any educators agree that teaching diversity well M f resources to support diversity in ost o ffers a h o epth and intensity. Students can absorb es d equir r newsrooms and academia. An impressive collection ideas about multicultural reporting more easily d editors improve eporters an elp r ch can h esear f r o ce, they stan . For in es es than lectur ough activiti thr news coverage on minority issues. The online can examine their own stereotypes in classroom library features searchable articles on media, gender, exercises. They can learn to identify media bias religion and race, including directories of scholars, through collaborating on projects. Story assignments courses and research centers. The site features and beats can help students meet people from more than 100 course syllabi. unfamiliar cultures and communities. Izard says he believes that both professional De Uriarte, who is an associate professor at the University of Texas at Austin, recommends changing t so that it supports en onm g envir e learnin th (Continued on next page) 67

68 : CLOSE-UP (Continued from previous page) who is usually assumed to be male. This seems absolutely right to daily newspaper journalists and faculty must commit themselves to editors – typically white, middle-aged diversity before much will change. In an audit of family men. They can’t help but think about 300 journalism and mass communication programs the story in relation to their own futures, across the country, the Forum found that only about one-third address the subject at all. “It’s not often that of the main wage-earner. The a racist attitude,” Izard says, “as much as ‘This issue of spousal and survivor benefits approach was good enough for me, why should I rarely gets covered. Yet these make up 14 do more?’ ” percent of Social Security payouts and go mostly to women – usually black women. He warns that any new emphasis in a university department, let alone diversity, takes more than Also cut are discussions about disability ce. “It’s a matter of total dedication and lip servi benefits, though these account for nearly absolute persistence,” Izard says. Then, and only 17 percent of payouts. And never mind then, he says, is it reasonable to expect a little working women, who as a group rely f progress. bit o • eavily on th e benefits. When you add it h – Sally Lehrman all up, more than half of those affected by proposed Social Security changes don’t find their concerns routinely addressed. Dori Maynard, Bob’s daughter, describes fault lines this way: “These are the prisms through which we view events, ourselves and each other.” Journalists who recognize them are able to see stories others may not. Newsrooms using the fault-lines system find they can develop more relevant angles, too. The fault lines provide a practical framework for better reporting and editing. Since everyone is on one side of a social fault line or another, journalists who look at diversity this way see why it’s an issue for all of us. THINKING ABOUT THE JOURNALISM ual journalists can do it, can d divi If in mainstream journalism as a whole get beyond stitutional fault lines? Despite its in , studies still show t years ecen ess in r ogr pr that America’s mainstream news organiza- ons tilt toward coverage of the group ti s both the ost part still run e m or th that f media and the country: white men. As outlined in Chapter 2, communications d that news media oun ch also has f esear r 68

69 REFRAMING DIVERSITY tend to frame stories from this group’s The New York Times ran a short metro story on the funeral. Yet the memorial lasted general perspective. Are we locked into a four hours. Thousands of mourners attended. way of thinking that makes it harder to New York public radio station WBAI offered cover today’s America? six and a half hours of live coverage – and created a web page with photos from the No, we aren’t. But change demands rigorous funeral and links to tributes. Despite tight honesty and an ability to look not just space, Jet magazine ran 1,200 words on at who journalists are but what they do. the event. Embedded in the daily journalistic process are many “fault-lines moments,” when The definition of a “credible” source also people who are operating openly and is worth thinking about. When we want deliberately can do things differently from authorities and experts to contribute facts those acting internally and instinctively. and analysis, reporters routinely call busi- xecutives, government officials and ess e n d Bu ding journalists learn a set of criteria others with high-powered titles. But what, in school that help them decide what is exactly, is “high-powered,” and who decides? newsworthy. They weigh the prominence of the people and institutions involved. They When the highly anticipated results from consider the event’s impact, its timeliness the first AIDS vaccine clinical trial came and its proximity to readers and listeners. out in 2002, medical reporters turned to They evaluate its currency in the public the heads of virology departments and discussion and whether it is surprising or national AIDS organizations for comment. involves conflict. The result? They spoke mostly to people who thought of the epidemic the old way But these measures are not as neutral as – as among white gay men. Most reporters they may seem. Take prominence. Promi- did not realize that the most important nence to whom? The whole community? target for a vaccine would now be people People who have lived there for generations? of color, because both black and Hispanic The readers of that particular newspaper? populations have much higher rates of The editor? If we don’t examine this AIDS than whites. The New York Times and question, we can easily overlook some of other papers pronounced the vaccine a the most important people in the commu- complete flop. The San Francisco Chronicle nities we cover. Editors who go to church reported, “AIDS vaccine mostly a failure: every Sunday morning, for instance, may Doesn’t help whites but may help some not know about an influential Muslim .” When they saw the headlines, es oriti ot know min ay n er in town. Reporters m lead “the African American community heaved a the funeral home director who follows the g, collective sigh ... this isn’t for us or bi es of the black community. Younger activiti cation uni , comm eard the d Dan Hlad ever have h ,” sai t n about us gh alists mi journ associate for the Black Coalition on AIDS names of many who led their community’s ancisco at the time. in San Fr ghts movements. civil or disability ri The sources we consult influence the Again, it sounds basic. But is it? When “truth” we learn and the story we tell. In a actor and racial justice champion Ossie alysis across all news media th an on e-m nin stance, or in ary 2005, f ed in Febru Davis di 69

70 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA types, the Project for Excellence in America, should, as Kevin Merida, an Journalism found that reporters were more associate editor at The Washington Post, than three times as likely to quote more puts it, “cross-pollinate the ‘experts’ with than one man in a story than more than the lived experience.” one woman. (See chart Page 71.) Three- quarters of news stories contained at least Just plugging people in like colors in a one male source. But only one third numbered painting doesn’t work, either. How people are quoted is important. Who included at least one woman. Media Tenor usually provides the analysis and authority? analysts studied nearly 19,000 news Are women, people of color, gays and reports on ABC World News Tonight, CBS lesbians, and people with disabilities Evening News and NBC Nightly News in treated as an emotional supporting cast? 2001. They found that 92 percent of news Look at the follow-up stories when Harvard sources on the network news were white, President Lawrence Summers said early in and 85 percent were men. When people of 2005 that wom en’s br ains just might not color an d wom en were included, they naturally be as capable in math and science. usually served as “ordinary people,” rather WTNH Channel 8 in New Haven, Conn., than as experts or authorities. interviewed several female high school seniors. The girls, all calculus students, People of color fared far worse as story said, “It’s scary,” “I was ... shocked,” and subjects. Media Tenor researchers looked at “I’m really upset.” Instead of asking what 170,212 reports in The Wall Street Journal, the young women thought of the math or two news magazines and on three network science of the issue (or even what they news shows over two years. They counted thought of Harvard), the interviews went just 322, or less than one percent, that right for what they felt. featured one or more U.S. ethnic minority groups as the main subject. The routine use of terms offered up by sources also gets journalists into trouble. Yet in the real world, the demographics Think of the assumptions conveyed by are far more diverse. For example, during language such as “underprivileged minority” the past eight years, native Hawaiians (when most of the nation’s poor are white); and Pacific islanders alone increased their and “ethnic cleansing” (a more correct business ownership by 67 percent – phrase is genocide). Why does an “inner- compared to 10 percent across the full city” group “threaten,” while rich people population. Companies owned by women make up a group that “cautions”? and every racial and ethnic group other er rates than the gh ew at hi than whites gr average, the U.S. Census announced in Journalists make many decisions on the fly. t is simply impossible, under extreme July 2005. I oughly reflect. Newsrooms or , to th es eadlin d can shape answers in seconds. In a fast- If journalists define the only “authorities” oving, high-pressure climate like this, m ess or politics as the big-company in busin d, unconscious oun ologists have f ominate Congress, al psych o d soci en wh e m CEOs or th belief systems come to the fore. Scholars well, we’re oversimplifying. Our country is who track news choices, such as Hemant more complicated than that. Journalists d expert on race alyst an a an edi Shah, a m e story of today’s t to tell th o r eally wan wh 70

71 REFRAMING DIVERSITY omen? e Talk To? Men or W Who Do W As sources for their news stories, reporters in all media are more than three times as likely to quote more than one man than more than one woman, an analysis in 2005 found. This chart reflects the percent of all stories in which the source’s gender could be determined. The numbers suggest that news sourcing has a long way to go to reflect the actual proportion of women in the work force, management, politics and other societal roles. 100 89% 88% 80 63% 59% 55% 60 53% 41% 36% 34% 40 27% 19% 17% 20 0 Cable Online Network PBS NewsHour Newspapers Network Evening Morning Male Female Source: Project for Excellence in Journalism (2005). 71

72 CLOSE-UP: REZNET: AN OUTLET, A MENTOR FOR NATIVE McAuliffe says the key to Reznet’s success is AMERICAN STUDENTS continuity, combined with attentive mentoring. “This particular setup puts me in close contact Denny McAuliffe Jr., who worked at The Washington with students, and I’m shoving opportunities down Post for 16 years, began his journalism career at their throats,” he says. Students usually apply age 15. In his first job, he earned $5 a story after they’ve completed the Freedom Forum American covering high school sports for the local paper. Indian Journalism Institute, a three-week boot “The way I learned was sitting next to my editor camp that McAuliffe also helped create. They may and watching my editor rip my stories apart,” have first learned about journalism careers in high recalls McAuliffe, who is a member of the Osage school at the Freedom Forum Native American tribe of Oklahoma. Newspaper Career Conference, held each spring in Crazy Horse Memorial, S.D. And each year, many of Now McAuliffe provides the same intensive, hands- them go on to become Chips Quinn Scholars, on training for young Native American journalists joining a Freedom Forum program that offers through Reznet, an online student newspaper students of color hands-on training in journalism ( www.reznetnews.org ) launched in 2002. A grant and mentoring by news veterans. from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation funds the project through the University of For the 2005-2006 school year, McAuliffe hired 24 Montana School of Journalism and the Robert C. staffers to write at least two stories a month, ayn ar d In stitute f or Journalism M ection of three e dir er th workin d g un Education. McAuliffe edits and mentors editors. Another 16 Reznet veterans through the Internet and on the contribute occasionally. The students one, reaching across long distances teleph earn $50 per story or photo shoot. They as if students were in his office. have produced news and features on ascots for sports teams, ch as m issues su The approach is working. As Reznet diabetes in rural areas, the war in Iraq enters its fourth year of publication, and the portrayal of Native Americans in more than 60 of 73 participating the media. ar landed intern- ts have so f en d stu Denny McAuliffe Jr. ships at publications including The “The success is just that they’re Washington Post, Minneapolis Star Tribune, writing,” McAuliffe says. With just a single Associated Press, Arizona Daily Star, Lincoln program like a boot camp or training, he laments, (Nebraska) Journal Star and Great Falls (Montana) “We got them all fired up about journalism then, Tribune. Reznet photographer Tetona Dunlap well, it’s ‘Have a nice life!’” (Eastern Sh osh on e) becam e th e first N ative American intern at The Post in the summer of With Reznet, McAuliffe builds a long-term support 2005. The paper liked her work so much that system. He edits stories with intensity and keeps er to stay an extra month. ed h editors ask after stu d ents to make sure they apply for intern- ships g f . While this is a con et, or Rezn diti f workin on o Durin g th e past two years , 10 graduates have e has f h d that he can’t just tell students about oun oved into full-time journalism jobs. That’s signi- m ese opportunities and leave it at that. “You have th t, at a tim e when daily newsrooms employ can fi er an d threaten,” he says. Other- to ask, beg, or d fewer than 300 Native Americans. wise, students will let a lack of self-esteem and con- fidence talk them out of their ambitions. McAuliffe , Dalton Walker, became a special corres- e writer On od and cajole when it xpects to have to pr also e pondent for The Post after the shootings at the comes time to searching for a job. “Once they’re in, Red Lake Chippewa reservation, where he is a they’re fine,” he points out. tribal member. The day after the tragedy, Walker flew back home from Mesa Community College in McAuliffe thought up Reznet when he was trying Arizona and contributed to stories written by to figure out how to get American Indian kids Post staff writers. “I returned to the reservation interested in journalism. The obvious answer? Give as a voice. I was on the Red Lake Reservation as them a chance to write. Some 25,000 Native or my people,” Walker wrote in an er f essen g a m ents from 550 recognized nations d can stu eri Am ences. xperi essay about his e es in “Indian Country.” d 32 tribal colleg atten 72

73 REFRAMING DIVERSITY Only one college has a printed newspaper, though anyway. Then she responded in an essay, using her – and it does not have any journalism classes. own heritage as an example. Her father is full- But all tribal colleges have Internet access. So blood Onondaga and her mother is English. Since McAuliffe created Reznet, which alows students to the Onondaga Nation defines membership through get journalism experience with a Native American- the mother, according to Deloria she would not be oriented publication. During one peak period in a “real Indian,” she wrote. March 2005, the Reznet site attracted 16,600 unique users. Reznet writers come from tribal Moses wasn’t particularly interested in writing for colleges, journalism schools, reservations and her college paper. White students dominate it and, urban areas. Their ages range up to 40. especially with her desire to write about Native Americans and other people of color, she felt that “Reznet allows them to build clips, to be engaged she wouldn’t fit in very well. “I jumped on Reznet in journalism, whether or not their school has a because it was a place I could write the kind of journalism program or a student newspaper,” says stories I want to write,” she says. Even better, Jack Marsh, executive director of the Freedom “people know what Reznet is, and that’s just the Forum’s Al Neuharth Media Center and founding greatest!” • director of the American Indian Journalism – Sally Lehrman Institute. With out th ese pr s, Marsh says, Native ogr am Americans simply wouldn’t be going into media jobs. In 2005, the American Society of Newspaper Editors sai d their members employed 295 Native American journalists, or about 0.5 percent of alists in all. With such a 54,000 n ewspaper journ large gap to fill, Marsh says, “We measure success one journalist at a time.” eally works th M cA uliffe r e Reznet stories, sometimes calling students about them several times in one day. If necessary, he’ll mail a phone card to make sure the student can stay in touch. “I’m a pretty heavy-duty editor,” McAuliffe says. “Other editors of Native American students are worried about agin am d . I don’t buy that.” He es agile psych g fr edits a lot like he did in The Washington Post newsroom. He may bounce a piece back a couple o f tim es for rewrites, asking for more quotes, more sour . or e evi d en ce to back up claim s ces or m “ A lot of my stories for Reznet I consider my best ah M oses, a senior at Syracuse clips ,” says Sar University in 2005 who interned at The Observer- Dispatch in Utica, N.Y., as a Chips Quinn Scholar. uliffe teaches while he edits, Moses explains. cA M He is straightforward about the realities of the business, but also very encouraging. She is especially proud of a pair of articles that she wrote after author Vine Deloria Jr. (who died in 2005) visited campus. In a question and answer session, he challenged the identity of people who are not enrolled in a tribe and did not grow up on . Moses felt hurt by Deloria’s attack on s on eservati r auds,” but wrote a fair story e called “fr what h 73

74 : CLOSE-UP TIPS FROM JOURNALISTS WHO BUILD STAFF and mass communication at the University DIVERSITY BY WORKING WITH HIGH SCHOOL of Wisconsin, find compelling evidence of AND COLLEGE PROGRAMS a “white” point of view in mainstream coverage. Yet as the U.S. population changes Find out if there’s a summer high school journalism and we become a nation of multiple program in your area. The Dow Jones Newspaper http:// Fund web site lists them all by state ( “minorities” – no single point of view can ). The American djnewspaperfund.dowjones.com dominate and still be relevant. “There Society of Newspaper Editors holds regional needs to be a readiness and a willingness training as well. to rethink the whole process of journalism,” Shah says. Visit English, art, marketing, design, writing and al studies classes and let the students and soci teachers know about the program. Recruit students VER COMMUNITIES W WE CO HO who applied to freelance or intern for you. Go to the clubs that focus on ethnicity, culture If the routine leads us astray, then the and gender at local campuses. Ask the students tr onal newsroom beat system is its aditi what’s wrong with the newspaper and tell them they can help change it by joining. Pied Piper. Let’s say there’s a protest. If the City Hall reporter is on duty, it might alism teach En cour ers to let students ag e local journ seem more of a story about disrupted r eport on the communities that they live in. Have government business. If the police reporter them tell their stories, their parents’ stories and is on it, street violence might be the their friends’ stories. It may not be hard news, but editorials and features are vital to a publication. focus. If it’s the community reporter, then we’ll learn about the leaders of the unrest Assign students to work in teams of two with and their demands. It doesn’t happen on someone completely different from themselves, or every story. But it happens often enough someone whom they do not normally hang out that experienced editors know that their g with each other om workin with. Th ey will learn fr on than n or e in comm that th ot. ey pr obably have m reporters are not interchangeable. Who you Find out if there is a local chapter of one of the assign affects what you get back. ethnic journalism organizations (Asian American on, National Association of ssoci alists A ourn J ati When a new crop of Baby Boom-generation Black Journalists, National Association of Hispanic editors began to take over in the mid- ourn , N ative Am eri can Journalists J alists Association) or the National Lesbian and Gay 1980s, some started to replace the old- Journalists Association in your area. Ask school beat systems. Editors created a epresentatives to visit. Invite students from other r “youth” beat, for instance, and found that . Th ose wh ested in journalism classes ter ot in e n o ar reporters would cover teens from more ey think it doesn’t represent them may because th varied perspectives. No longer did young change their minds. ding gs (accor ow up only as gan people sh When covering so-called “ethnic issues,” don’t to the crime beat), fad machines (business cover them just during a cultural event, such as es) or test-takers (education beat). pag Native American Heritage Month. Often, people complain that their cultures make it into the pages But the new reporting teams weren’t only during a special event or when a crime occurs. ough. Sometimes the stories they pro- en e finding their way into d tim ced had a har u d ork with English teachers. Ask them to assign W the paper. Sometimes the same old sources students to write editorials; promise to publish the showed up in new wrappers. Editors also . e system can cut both ways d that th oun f xt page) (Continued on ne 74

75 CLOSE-UP: (Continued from previous page) The women and gender team, the urban affairs desk and the aging beat can end up best ones. Encourage teachers to discuss student being the place where other reporters dump writing in class. Often, once students see their story ideas they don’t want or understand. bylines they get excited. Discussing the writing makes it real, makes it matter. In 1988, David Lampel, then senior vice Sponsor a high school journalism day. Show up. president of Inner City Broadcasting, Talk about why journalism matters and how the complained: “The black community is students are the type of people needed in news- covered (by the mainstream media) as ooms. r though you were covering a foreign Encourage students and teachers to talk to their country.” The Kerner Commission’s famous sch ool’s career counselors about the need for 1968 report on the urban uprisings of the journalists of color at news organizations. Get 1960s chided reporters for relying almost them to help encourage students to think about entirely on information from police and th e profession. local o ffi cials. As a result, the commission- Work with the ethnic media in your area. Often, ers wrote, the news media exaggerated the these organizations are interested in youth voices, scope, damage, and even the nature of the and your students can get published off campus. disturbances. Journalists didn’t just badly e stu dents that their voices count t also sh I ows th cover the riots, the commission found. Their in m any ways that mainstream media may not incomplete coverage of urban America consider. Ethnic media reporters, photographers and copy editors can serve as role models and contributed to the riots. mentors. Alas, journalists again made many of the Set up a coaching program between your news same mistakes when they went out to ganizati or on and local students. To find out more cover the more recent interethnic conflicts [email protected] to get a copy of its about this, write g m ual, “One-on-One, One-by-One.’’ an coachin in Washington, Miami and Los Angeles, ts , it can Alth ough g ear ed towar d colleg e stu d en according to studies by Shah and fellow work for high school journalism programs too. • researcher Michael C. Thornton. Mainstream news reporters asked city officials for state- – ector , dir By Cristina L. Azocar ments, for instance, and usually didn’t also Center for Integration and Improvement of ancisco State Univ er Journalism, San Fr sity get residents’ voices and views. Their stories ended up oversimplifying the events and their causes. They buried underlying issues such as racism and economic disparities. Their reports suggested that individual d so the best cts – an e confli acts caused th solutions, one might surmise, would take dividual level, too. place at an in In contrast, Shah and Thornton found, the c media more often pointed to ethni d societal underpinnings to al an on stituti in the disputes. Reporters for these outlets tended to talk to ordinary people. They evances f gri oup’s history o d etailed each gr 75

76 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA producers detailed child abuse in Mexico. and the conflicts between them. “The general circulation press seems more Another award went to an hour-long thoroughly bound than the ethnic minority Univision special that focused on religious press to a model of reporting that seems miracles, including the Catholic Church’s to result in misunderstanding interethnic process for determining sainthood. The conflict,” the authors concluded. Such National Black Programming Consortium experiences have led groups like the won two 2003 Peabody Awards for news National Association of Hispanic Journalists documentaries it helped produce. One to include the Spanish-language and explored the racial divide in Jasper, Texas, community press in their annual conven- where James Byrd Jr. was dragged to his tions. English-language sessions include death in 1998. The other described conflicts translators. Some panels take place in between two marginalized groups, gays and blacks, in the Olde Towne East district Spanish. The Society of Professional Journalists has begun encouraging and of Columbus, Ohio. These pieces, which on h oring collaborations between ethnic clearly m eet tr aditional standards of jour- nalism excellence, touch on fresh coverage and mainstream media with its New America Award. areas. They reach a depth of insight that producers for general audience outlets GETTING T YING ISSUES O THE UNDERL rarely attain. While it is fashionable for general-circulation These can be global, general interest news reporters to dismiss niche outlets stories anchored here at home: Siddharth as less professional, the ethnic media does Srivastava, reporting for Siliconeer, a know its territory. Sure, some in the ethnic monthly magazine for the Asian Indian press have a narrow focus. Many don’t community, reached beyond the usual hesitate to include an explicit point of outsourcing story angles to describe the view in news reports. But the way ethnic subcontracting of Roman Catholic Masses media frame stories, select sources and to India. U.S. and Western European include context and history suggests dioceses pass paid requests for “intentions” lessons for other journalists who want to to congregations in Kerala, India, where make their work more relevant. “They treat priests offer the desired Mass in the local the issues as a process, not as an event,” language. Sing Tao Daily and The Filipino Shah says. “They want to be a press that Express described how strict new rules to allows the community to understand itself.” identify customers could put small commun- ity banks out of business and block immi- edia are winning accolades ews m om sending money back home. c n ts fr Ethni an gr that once were the province of general dience journalists. Univision, for instance, au che media journalists often have a deep Ni e other major networks in d unity and a great gsi f comm ed alon e o ank g r owled kn the Radio and Television News Directors interest in providing social and historical ssociation’s 2004 Edward R. Murrow A text. Their stories about education, con e Spanish-language media giant . Th e, for instance, typically ds d crim war e an A ealth car h picked up two of the 11 honors in network provide background on past inequities that underpin revelations about disparities television. In its winning series, Univision 76

77 REFRAMING DIVERSITY today. A piece about the rising on “The Boy Monk” for The incidence of AIDS in the black Register, is an Asian affairs community might well mention a columnist there and also vice historic distrust of the public president of business for her health system by African family’s paper, Nguoi Viet Americans – because of its long- (Vietnamese People) Daily News. standing failure to serve them. The two papers partner on stories, This level of context can serve a weekly bilingual radio show and Anh Do mainstream media, too: It trans- on joint town hall meetings. Both formed a Minneapolis Star Tribune story the San Jose Mercury News and the Los about soul food into an engaging educa- Angeles Times bring in anchors from non- tional essay on black history in America. English television outlets to broadcast a It turned The Orange County Register’s sampling of budget lines and stories. At “The Boy Monk” into an intimate picture the Columbia Workshop, reporters and o etnamese-Americans’ cultural history. f Vi editors envisi ed content swaps, newsroom on That series told the story of Donald Pham, exchanges and informal meetings to talk a child from Laguna Niguel, Calif., whose stories and solve problems. parents felt he was destined to become a learned monk. Both works ranked among The results can transcend coverage that the 2004 award winners at the “Let’s Do It either outlet might accomplish alone. SPJ Better!” Workshop on Race, Ethnicity & gave the top New America Award prize for Journalism at Columbia University. 2005 to an outstanding series that combined the skills of investigative journalists at No matter their topic, nearly all the The Chicago Reporter with the knowledge Columbia Workshop winners emphasized and contacts of editors at the Residents’ the time they had spent building trust and Journal. Together they revealed the deadly, getting to a complicated story’s heart. unforeseen consequences of the city’s They described being open to surprising effort to relocate people from deteriorating ideas. They said they had to truly observe public housing projects into mixed-income and follow up. Inclusive coverage means neighborhoods. Second-place winners more than going to different parts of a Alyssa Katz of City Limits and Abu Taher city, participating in cultural activities or of Bangla Patrika also combined investigation building a comprehensive source list. It techniques with deep community connec- takes time to build trust, notes New tions. They conducted interviews jointly America Media’s Sandy Close: “You can’t in Bangla and English. Together they rive-by. You really have e exploitation of Bangladeshi e a d ed th o this lik cover d un to embed yourself.” push-cart food vendors in Central Park der city contracts. Eleven months after un ers won a $450,000 e work ARTNERSHIPS IN A NEW AMERICA NEW P on, th cati publi settlement for labor law violations. oping to widen their own awareness and H stream news operations ain s work best when both e m on , som ati access ch collabor Su are collaborating with ethnic and community partners benefit from the relationship, suggests Sandip Roy, who hosts outlets. Anh Do, who led the reporting , UpFront 77

78 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA workers. The emphasis on displaced New America Media’s weekly radio show. The ethnic journalist gains little by simply employees and explanations by company serving as a conduit into the community executives conveyed a sense of inevitability. for the mainstream outlet. But if the larger Indian-American outlets brought in a wider organization contributes resources and array of sources affected by the trend. They enterprise, coverage improves for everyone. more commonly described the practice as a In the Chicago public housing story, for two-way street, explaining its economic instance, Roy says, “the two sides, a paper roots and describing benefits to workers with investigative reporting capabilities and companies. Both depictions could be and one with on-the-ground connections, seen as equally true. Each also reflects an understanding based on a particular frame really complemented each other.” of reference. These new partnerships work because of the different institutional perspectives on If we are to think more about our biases, what d f both mainstream and ethnic e part o th o we d o when we are ready to admit that we have them? University of Washing- outlets. Our news organizations’ priorities ton professor David Domke thinks news and traditions lead us to certain coverage choices. Assignments and the stories that outlets should actively acknowledge the result reflect the people who work there. viewpoints and decisions that drive the The New America Media case studies showed news. And, he urges us to consider shaking this in the coverage of Severe Acute off some of the constraints of “objectivity.” Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The Chinese- “This notion binds journalists in a straight- language press, reporting for people for jacket I’d love them to be freed from – whom the disease struck close to ancestral home and family, generally focused on and I think it would be good for the public, solutions. Journalists covered an engaged too,” he says. If journalists could some- citizenry “intent on prevention, helping times write about the subjects they were others and defusing the panic,” wrote New really passionate about, their work might provoke more interest and debate, Domke America Media editor Pueng Vongs. News suggests. This isn’t as hard as it seems – outlets concentrated on dispelling rumors, educating the public and fighting discrim- writers express their opinions all the time ination. In contrast, Vongs concluded, The in columns clearly labeled as analysis or New York Times and Los Angeles Times commentary. described a frightening problem arising Recall the uproar when a lesbian couple from Asia. In episodic coverage that relied arriage story for the fficial comments, e gay m d o ts an g th coverin on case coun these journalists conveyed the image of an San Francisco Chronicle decided to get arried themselves in a private civil cere- erican populace helpless against a m Am em off the beat. eat. e paper took th ealth thr . Th e h d y on wi m world But many journalists argued that these other case study, mainstream journal- e of whom was the City Hall reporter, In an two, on g of jobs t that no one else gh cin si e outsour d in g about th ists writin had access an could match. Instead of declaring the to India focused on the losses to American 78

79 REFRAMING DIVERSITY wedding an insurmountable work is necessary. “That does conflict, the newspaper could increase diversity, but if you’re not have simply disclosed it in regular prepared for it, you’re not going taglines on news stories and to be able to deal with it. If you photos, some journalists said. don’t check in with yourself, it Others thought opinion columns can be a disaster.” Wagner sent would be a better idea. her students out to report on a primarily black neighborhood in “Knowledge and interests always San Francisco, but they came back Venise Wagner intersect,” wrote Theodore Glasser, empty-handed. After the group director of the journalism program at discussed the outcome, she realized that Stanford University, who criticized the the white students felt uncomfortable Chronicle’s decision on the Grade the News talking about race. web site. “The pretense of a disinterested etached press, an ‘objective’ press, an d d agner helps students think about ow W N doesn’t dissolve interests or distance the their own cultural autobiography – and press from them; it only makes journalists discuss their fault lines – before they less aware of their personal and institu- venture out. tional interests and unprepared to acknow- ledge and examine them.” By being more MAJORITY’S UNEASE THE open about who we are, journalists may create room to be more honest and fair. Wagner uses a “diversity wheel” developed by Poynter Institute photojournalist Kenny Civic journalism techniques championed in Irby that expands on the core fault lines the 1990s suggested comparable ways to of race, class, gender, generation and get closer to stories. Trainers at the Pew geography as described by Maynard. Students Center for Civic Journalism taught reporters mark down aspects of themselves that at daily newspapers things known for make them feel “different,” say, in their generations at community weeklies. They school, in their own neighborhood or on urged journalists to hang out in “third their beat. Among other things, their places,” or informal gathering places like choices include religion, nationality, physical cafes, parks or beauty salons, to find out abilities and intellect, and education and what people care about. They told reporters cultural heritage. As with fault lines, the to search out “connectors” within the tool sidesteps defensiveness. Using it, we community, instead of just leaders with all can see ourselves as part of the equation. em instead d to converse with th , an dents can more quickly notice titles er’s stu agn W of simply getting “both” sides of a story. their tendency to make assumptions. And en they feel uncomfortable, they may wh alism puts reporters c journ on to retreat. , civi ati e clin atur e in By its n esist th r in touch with lots of different kinds of , says Venise Wagner, an assistant people aynard’s framework and the Poynter Both M cisco State University. an able now, fessor at San Fr ally valu o e especi pr eel ar diversity wh But Wagner warns that another layer of as journalists try to cover a dramatically 79

80 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA In one training session, Dori Maynard changing nation. Some wonder, will the recalls, newspaper reporters went out into declining majority’s needs and contributions no longer be important? Concerns like this various communities and asked how they spark reactions ranging from tongue-in- could cover people better. “They said you cheek proposals to serious petition drives. could stop looking at us from your middle- The College Republicans at Roger Williams class point of view,” Maynard says. “You see two families in one house, with one car, University in Rhode Island offered a “whites-only” scholarship as a parody. And and you say we’re poor. We say we have a house. We have a car. We’re not poor.” some residents of the Cardinal Valley area of Lexington, Ky., began organizing When we recognize the historical, social against a proposed Hispanic center. and cultural roots that shape our own CAN DIVERSITY BE DIVISIVE? world, we can see how they both limit and enhance our understanding. ch Coloring the News In his book, , whi won a National Press Club Award in 2002, In their report on the ethnic media, Manhattan Institute Fellow William researchers Rufus Browning, Holley Shafer, McGowan argued that diversity initiatives John Rogers and Renatta DeFever from San were corrupting journalism. He said they Francisco State University sum up the promoted an orthodoxy of coverage importance of a vibrant, inclusive press favorable to people of color, women, and that knows how to report across fault lines: gays and lesbians. “Discourse in a democracy does not And in the medical arena, some physicians require agreement; rather, it requires have complained that training doctors to debate and the willingness to hear real interact with other cultures takes too disagreement. There must be some much time away from other parts of the common ground – some shared curriculum. Stanford University School of democratic values and some confidence Medicine clinical professor Wallace Sampson in democratic institutions – but beyond told The Chronicle of Higher Education that, there must be vigorous assertion that doctors can easily respond to people’s of interests, vigorous competition for differences. “Students don’t want to be attention, vigorous argument about lectured on how to be a human being,” he important issues.” said. “It’s insulting and demeaning.” Most journalists take our professional ously. We see ourselves as eatest advantage of Maynard’s es quite seri e gr uti erhaps th d P digging out the facts that shed light on fault-lines concept is that it allows equities, offer insight on social and cGowan, Sampson and others a place at in M c debate. an being willing to orm publi um d inf y h , an . An cal issues e table politi th As the Society of Professional Journalists be honest and self-aware has a place. es in its mission statement, we er than demanding agreement, the outlin Rath ent cture of overnm cept sets up a stru t to be g es con eve we ough ault-lin beli f watchdogs, advocates of free speech and integrity for every point of view, a basis instruments of communication. for civil debate and understanding. 80

81 REFRAMING DIVERSITY Today, as the population we serve grows ever more diverse, we must learn to cross the boundaries of our own history and upbring- ing in order to report fully and completely not just on events, but on the issues and ideas that shape society. Only then do we have a chance of covering a truly extraor- dinary story, the central story of our era: the rapid demographic change sweeping the United States. And only then can we reveal and record the conflicts and joys of the American people as our nation enters its third century of striving toward an inclusive, equitable society for all. • (Continued from previous page) 81

82 IN A NEW AMERICA NEWS WORD AFTER L. DOTSON JR. BY JOHN 82

83 AFTERWORD hen I was a 17-year-old high media are fighting for survival in a society school senior, my grandmother that is in technological transition. There is offered to pay my first year’s no way to predict the forms of media a W college tuition if I chose to go to nearby half century from now, let alone to suggest Temple University. She also promised a how diverse they will be. back bedroom in her ancient row house in the Little Harlem section of North The biggest diversity these days is in the Philadelphia. All she knew about Temple outlets for news, information and entertain- was that it was within walking distance of ment. What started as a trickling decline her home. in newspaper readers and network broad- cast audience has turned into a gusher as Several months later, when I told her that more Americans seek their news and infor- I had been admitted to Temple – the only mation online and through wireless devices. school I applied to – she asked what I Movie and music producers are crying foul dy. ed to stu plann as m or e and more of their product turns up free on the Internet. “Journalism,” I said proudly. Like other American institutions, main- “Journalism,” she sniffed incredulously. stream media have been forced by circum- “You’ll never make a dime in ‘journalism.’ ” stances and confrontation to adopt new ways of doing things. They hired blacks to That was 1954 and, for all intents and pur- cover urban disturbances and Latinos to poses in those days, she was right. There cover the burgeoning Hispanic population, were so few “Negroes” in journalism that no just as today they are hiring Arabs and one in my family could conceive of actually Asians to cover the Middle East. Where making a living in that field. Indeed, I newspapers, radio and TV had a virtual lock doubt that many blacks in the country could on news in former decades, it has become name a journalist outside of the local black a commodity today, dispensed in myriad newspaper or Ebony and Jet magazines. forms and myriad ways. In response, traditional media have joined the fray. Much has changed in the 50-odd years from that day. Today there are blacks, Latinos Out of such turmoil in a country as diverse and Asians working at newspapers, maga- as the United States, one would think that zines, television and radio in most of the lots of new voices would be heard. But, for larger cities in America. But the pace of the most part, that has not been the case om the days when e has slowed fr g chan . It is true that there are now more ar us f th integration and diversity were in vogue back Spanish-language television and radio e late 1960s and ’70s. in th ons and more ethnic newspapers, but stati ance of media are still er d epon e pr th As the first of those integration pioneers English-speaking and mostly white. And, epare to retire, they are leaving a business pr , the online and wireless worlds certainly oil that . f turm ated by whites ch a state o omin that is in su e d ar racial, ethnic and gender diversity are far Clearly, our media world is in such a state down on the list of concerns. Mainstream 83

84 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA of change that no one can predict what subject they reported. Indeed, we may not the landscape will look like 40 or 50 years be too far away from the wide-open days of from now. And so how can we predict what muckraking and yellow journalism. its racial, gender and sociological diversity will be? What we do know is that, compared That kind of turmoil sets the stage for with many other institutions, the media in entrepreneurs to sweep in with new ideas general have been slow to change. and new ways of doing business. But, that does not necessarily bode well for demo- Racism is so much a part of the fabric of graphic diversity. Though it doesn’t take America that it will be nearly impossible much funding to start a web site or blog, to rid the country of it altogether. America it does take know-how and, often, funding was settled as a white, Eurocentric nation to make a splash. And people of color are and for the most part, white males have not at the forefront of the nascent efforts. fought mightily to maintain it as such. Furthermore, the one startling fact that Even som e Eur opean immigrants had can’t be corr ected easily or qui ckly is that trouble fighting their way into the society 80 percent of poor households, many of when they arrived. And once again, immi- them made up of people of color, don’t gration is a flashpoint in America. So, even own a computer. there is little question that the nation will still be fighting bigotry in 2050. Just as newspapers and network broadcast- ing companies were merged and gobbled up Throughout most of our history, white by conglomerates in past decades, they men have clung to the levers of power as could get caught up in the globalization of tightly as Charlton Heston clutches his world business. Already, more viewers than rifle – until it is pried from his “cold, dead ever are reading foreign newspapers and hand.” Like government and business, watching foreign TV on the ’Net and satel- media have been one of the levers of power. lite TV. By the middle of this century, All the statistics about changing demograph- American news outlets may not even be ics and all the rationales about society’s owned by American companies, so the very need to be inclusive haven’t undermined nature of “diversity” may be entirely different. the basic human drive: to stay “in,” to get what you want for your family, your It has taken some time for the large, main- children, grandchildren and their progeny. stream media companies to get fully into It is a basic need. the Internet game, but as they do, they will move aggressively to regain dominance. e potential promise in the xpanding their platforms to e is som e e er ey ar Th Th tumult brought on by the electronic media. include every other medium. Newspapers s more readers and viewers turn to the ow have online outlets, bloggers and TV A n ews and commentary, oadcasters have eir n etwork br or th s; n et f on tern ati In oper many seek outlets that cater to their view- 24/7 online offerings of text and video. ts. In that way, the Internet is more e question is whether they can hold poin Th awn of American newspapering, ers, viewers and advertisers d ead e eir r e th to th lik on when most of the writers were polemicists, and thus their news staffs while they build a sizeable audience in the new media. arguing their points of view on every 84

85 AFTERWORD Like any new technology bubble, many of mainstream media that young journalists the new ventures will fail because they are trained in the traditional methods and won’t make enough money to keep going. ethics of the profession. However, those that succeed will be mighty challengers to the current media conglom- People of color and women are in a better erates. Regardless of the media structure, position than they were when newspapers, as mass audiences form of people with television and radio were considered the similar interests, advertising is sure to new media. Until the amorphous, new follow. And, make no mistake, the big guys electronic media take a definite form, as will move decisively to follow the money. will inevitably happen, people of color, women and those whites concerned about As new media are becoming established, diversity must broaden their interests to diversity won’t be of much concern in stump for changes in all aspects of the employment or reach unless there is a media. They must become bloggers and ark m et to be exploited. Thus far, beyond citizen journ alists alon gside their white Spanish-language outlets, there aren’t male counterparts, learning and experiment- many large-scale efforts to reach citizens ing and investing in all forms of the new of color. That does not bode well for media media. Only in that way will the nation’s multiculturalism in the short run. multiculturalism be reflected, as it should be, in our news media of the future. • Government can have a tremendous impact on the future of diversity. In the years immediately following the black riots and John L. Dotson Jr . is the civil rights movement, integration was publisher emeritus of the a front-burner issue in America. But, for Akron Beacon Journal, a decades now, ever since Ronald Reagan led co-founder of the Robert C. conservatives to the presidency, the Maynard Institute for federal government has pulled on the reins Journalism Education and a of diversity. It hasn’t halted progress, but member of Knight Foundation’s Journalism it has slowed the pace of change. As the Advisory Committee. Under his leadership, nation’s demographics continue to be the Beacon Journal won a Pulitzer Gold transformed, however, diversity is inexorable. Medal for Meritorious Public Service in 1994 for its series on race relations and the Newspapers, with their large local launch of Coming Together, a community reporting and editing staffs, are still the ews, just as network TV f local n organization dedicated to improving race orillas o g relations in Akron. He also won the diversity still dominates the way most people get or lifetime achievement by the eir national and international news. It’s award f th e on these essur e pr f Minority Media eep th ssociation o t to k National A importan large organizations to hire and promote Executives and the president’s award of the alists of color and women and to ssociation of Black Journalists. journ National A ey will e because th ag eir cover f just 24 large diversify th The Beacon Journal is one o dominate the news landscape for many newsrooms nationally that has attained racial parity with the community it covers. years to come. Further, it is mainly in the 85

86 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE 86

87 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE Fax: (510) 891-9565 This guide is designed to help everyone from high E-mail: [email protected] school students to professionals to recruiters find programs that suit their needs. Information may http://www.maynardije.org vary from year to year. The Robert C. Maynard Maynard Management @ Kellogg Institute for Journalism Education developed this was created to guide with the support of the McCormick Tribune increase the number of media managers of color in Foundation. both editorial and business departments. The four- week program at Northwestern University’s Kellogg Graduate School of Management immerses partici- If there is a program that should be included, pants in financial management, budgeting, organi- contact the Maynard Institute, which maintains .maynardije.org. www onal behavior, human resources, advertising, th e guide on its web site, zati Phone: (510) 891-9202. marketing, business operations, editorial process [email protected] E-mail: and technology and its effects on news. The total d covers on-campus tuition, fee is $12,000 an TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR PROFESSIONALS lodging, breakfast and lunch. For more, go to http://www.maynardije.org/programs/mtc. sian American Journalists Association A en in ok g is br ainin tr y d Media A Maynar cadem et St., Suite 320 ark 1182 M to San Francisco, CA 94102 two nine-day sessions during the year. This program Phone: (415) 346-2051 is open to news professionals and supervisors from Fax: (415) 346-6343 other industries looking to make a career change. [email protected] E-m ail: e all M ayn d programs, it is open to people of Lik ar .aaja.org http://www all r aces, though the emphasis is on training people of color. The total fee is $2,500. For more, go to Executive Leadership Program http://www.maynardije.org/programs/mediaacademy. is an annual AAJA leadership-development seminar for Asian American early 20 years d Editing Program Maynar alists. The two-day seminar focuses on an journ has n array of topics and issues with a different theme experience producing top quality copy editors. The ore information about the program, six-week sessi on imm erses participants in every- each year . For m [email protected] thing from the basics of headline writing, grammar, contact Albert Lee at .aaja.org/programs/pro or visit http://www fessional/ pag e d esi gn and story organization to interpersonal ecutive_leadership. x e skills that en able editors to work su ccessfully with reporters and other editors. The $6,000 fee Freedom Forum includes lodging, meals and access to all campus 1101 Wilson Blvd . en stu d t f acilities. This program gives participants Arlington, VA 22209 hands-on experience handling daily deadline on e: (703) 528-0800 Ph pr e alon g with pr od ucing for both print and essur Fax: (703) 284-3770 the web. They make the tough judgments editors [email protected] E-mail: face every day. The curriculum was developed by .freedomforum.org http://www an newspaper editors and includes classroom veter aily skills-building drills, evening seminars work, d , a state-o ersity Institute f-the-art educational Div an d practical experience working at an area eedom Forum’s First e Fr t to th acility adjacen f e, go to or . For m ewspaper n endment Center at Vanderbilt University in Am .maynardije.org/programs/editing. http://www Nashville, Tenn., works with daily newspapers, newspaper groups and others to identify and National Association of Hispanic Journalists develop new journalists of color, many of whom 1000 National Press Building come from different careers. For more, go to 529 14th St. N.W. http://www.diversityinstitute.org. Washington, DC 20045-2001 Phone: (202) 662-7145 / (888) 346-NAHJ or Journalism Education d Institute f Maynar Fax: (202) 662-7144 eservation Park Way ail: 1211 Pr E-m [email protected] Oakland, CA 94612 http://www.nahj.org Phone: (510) 891-9202 87

88 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA The Parity Project: The goal of the project is to Midcareer newspaper professionals of color are paired with senior-level executives for the News- double the percentage of Latinos employed by Breakthrough: daily newspapers and to boost the percentage of paper Association of America’s annual . In this James K. Batten Leadership Program Latinos working for local English-language television year-long program, senior executives serve as stations. NAHJ identifies cities where Latinos are mentors to junior colleagues and offer guidance underrepresented in the newsrooms but make up a and advice to help them develop leadership skills significant portion of the population. In those cities, NAHJ works jointly with print and broadcast and broaden their knowledge of the newspaper- industry. outlets, area journalism schools, foundations and Latino community leaders to develop comprehensive odel programs that will increase Latino newsroom m Th e Minority Fellowship program of NAA is a presence and influence. NAHJ’s first partner on the scholarship program for mid-level management. project was the E.W. Scripps Co. Since its inception, The program is designed to widen opportunities or professionals of color to enter or advance in f th e Parity Project has gained two more partners, newspaper management. Newspaper executives Lee Enterprises Inc. and Pulitzer Inc. For more, go to http://www.nahj.org/parityproject/parityproject.shtml. and journalism educators are asked to nominate didates who demonstrate managerial potential. can ecutiv es National A ssociation o f Minority Media Ex ecomm en Th e supervisors’ r d ati ons play a key role 1921 Gallows Road, Suite 600 in the selection of fellows. For more information, Vienna, VA 22182 contact Angela Winters at (703) 902-1727, or . [email protected] Phone: (888) 968-7658 e-mail Fax: (703) 893-2414 The P [email protected] inf ail: E-m oynter Institute 801 Third Street S. http://www.namme.org St. Petersburg, FL 33701 Phone: (888) 769-6837 This McCormick Tribune Fellowship Initiative: e .poynter.org http://www xecutive development program for senior managers and executives in the news media is administered ght fellows are selected ars ar Four semin e being offered in 2006 to help by NAMME. Each year , ei journalists deepen their understanding of diversity: (four from newspapers and four from television) to oundation-funded executive develop- g on End-of-Life Issues,” avo: Reportin d Schi “Beyon atten d two f en J ,” es told Stori n e U g th d Writin g an an. 9; “Reportin t pr ogr am s (A dvan ced Ex ecutive Program and m Feb. 26; “ Diversity Across the Curriculum,” May Management Development Seminar for Television 21; and “Beat Reporting: Covering Race Relations,” Executives, both conducted at the Media Manage- m orthwestern University in Evanston, ter at N t Cen en or orm Sept. 10. For m e inf ation, go to the web site Illinois). For more, go to and click on Diversity. The site also provides .org/journalism/ http://www .mccormicktribune x e , discussions, resources and eets t tip sh cellen fellowship.htm. diversity reports. is a lead ship Development Institute Leader TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR HIGH SCHOOL, ership d VISERS evelopment workshop for managers of color. The COLLEGE STUDENTS AND AD thr ee-day, hands-on program for new and middle s spaper Editor w f color is offered twice a year, in the f Ne ers o American Society o ag an m g and fall, in partnership with different media alley Drive sprin 11690B Sunrise V Reston, VA 20191-1409 organizations and associations. For more, go to Phone: (703) 453-1122 http://www.namme.org/programs/ldi. Fax: (703) 453-1133 [email protected] E-mail: Newspaper Association of America 1921 Gallows Road, Suite 600 http://www.highschooljournalism.org/ Vienna, VA 22182-3900 e: (703) 902-1600 on Ph The High School Journalism Institute is an tensive two-week summer newspaper journalism in Fax: (703) 917-0636 http://www.naa.org/ training program for high school teachers. Teachers who have never advised a school newspaper but 88

89 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE apprenticeship. While at the Free Press, students want to are encouraged to apply. Experienced receive four weeks of hands-on experience working teachers seeking to update their journalism skills with Free Press staffers who serve as their mentors. are also welcome. Most expenses are paid by the For information, e-mail Pat Hartley, high school High School Journalism Program. For more informa- journalism coordinator, at . [email protected] tion, contact Diana Mitsu Klos, ASNE Senior Project Director, at (703) 453-1125 or [email protected] Freedom Forum works to establish 1101 Wilson Blvd. ASNE Partnership Program links between daily newspapers and the high Arlington, VA 22209 schools in their communities. Its immediate goal is Phone : (703) 528-0800 to cr eate high school newspapers where none exist Fax: (703) 284-3770 E-mail: [email protected] or to dramatically improve existing papers; grant http://www.freedomforum.org/diversity/ money is available, if needed, to fund technology chases to help realize this goal. Partnerships .usd.edu/press/news/ http://www pur news.cfm?nid=153&uid=user are initiated by the daily newspaper. sian American Journalists Association A , South American Indian Journalism Institute ative Am AIJI gives N et St., Suite 320 ark 1182 M Dak ota. eri can colleg e San Francisco, CA 94102 journalism students the opportunity to train as Phone: (415) 346-2051 newspaper reporters, editors and photographers at Fax: (415) 346-6343 the Al Neuharth Media Center at the University of [email protected] ail: E-m South Dak ota. AIJI teach alism es journ .aaja.org http://www fun damentals in a four-credit course. Students attend classes, receive practical experience in J Camp is a free six-day training camp that brings journalism labs, go on field trips and produce two together a multicultural group of high school editions of an institute newspaper, The Native stu dents from across the nation to sharpen their J ournal. Follow-up programs for institute graduates journalism skills and work together in a learning include paid internships at three daily newspapers, onm ent. The curriculum consists of interactive envir furth ooling and assistance with eventual job er sch workshops, hands-on training and field trips. For placement. For more information, contact Jack on y questi s or inquiries about student-related an M arsh at (605) 677-6315 or . orum.org [email protected] ogr pr am s , con tact Br an d on Sugiyam a, student programs coordinator, at (415) 346-2051, ext. 102, . [email protected] Chips Quinn Scholars program offers students of or e-mail: color m en g an torin d hands-on training in journalism. Detroit Free Press High School Journalism The aim is to provide support and encouragement ogr Pr am eers an ews car oors to n g d brin that will open d Joe Grimm greater diversity to the nation’s newspaper 600 W. Fort St. newsrooms. oit, MI, 48226 Detr Geor Ph one: (313) 222-6490, ext.600 ge Washington University School of Media [email protected] and Public Aff airs ail: E-m oject overs Pr e M Prim .freep.com http://www othy Gilliam Dor 805 21st St. N.W. Specially prepared high school pages are part of Washington, DC 20052 Free Press editions. Those editions are delivered to Phone: (202) 994-0761 high schools and their feeder middle schools E-mail: (about 72,000 copies per month). In the summer [email protected] of 1991, the Free Press inaugurated an annual five- This project brings experienced journalists, particu- week summer apprentice program for high school gh school juniors and seniors from d women, into high school f color an . Hi alists people o journ larly ooms to help students launch school news- e Detroit and Flint areas receive intense journal- th classr ism instruction at the University of Michigan and papers, web sites, and television and radio broad- Oakland University before starting their Free Press casts. The program enables veteran journalists, or 89

90 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA “Prime Movers,” to share their knowledge and Los Angeles area who exhibit talent and interest in experiences with junior colleagues and high school journalism. The program helps prepare participants for print media careers, with an emphasis on students interested in creating student media in cultivating journalists of color who will reflect the high schools in underserved communities in the diverse communities of Southern California in the Washington, D.C., area. Four urban high schools newsroom. For information about specific events, have been selected to participate in the program call the Student Journalism Program Hotline at during the 2005–2006 school year. This project is (213) 237-5195. funded by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Native American Journalism Association oundation Hispanic Link Journalism F Hi gh School Project - Project Phoenix 1420 N St. N.W. 555 N. Dakota St. Vermillion, SD 57069 Washington, DC 20005 one: (605) 677-5282 Ph Ph one: (202) 234-0280 http://www.hispaniclink.org/foundation/ Fax: (866) 694-4264 fellowshipinternship.htm E-mail: [email protected] http://naja.com/phoenix/ Th e Hispani c Link J ourn alism Foun d ation offers Project Phoenix meets in the host city of the reporting fellowships on a continuing basis. They Native American Journalists Association’s annual include a one-year fellowship for an aspiring convention. Each year, 10 to 15 students gather to Hispanic print journalist to train as a reporter in d out what it tak fin es to put tog eth er their own on’s capital. I t offers a stipend of $20,800, ati e n th ewspaper. The students of Project Phoenix learn n efits. Other paid and unpaid internships, plus ben the basics of newswriting and photojournalism. including work-study, are available throughout the During the course of about a week they produce a year. Each placement is designed to provide a 12-page newspaper called Rising Voices. challenging work environment in which individuals can e xpand their expertise and develop new skills. The Poynter Institute d Str 801 Thir eet S. f Hispanic Journalists ssociation o National A 1000 National Press Building St. Petersburg, FL 33701 529 14th St. N.W . e: (888) 769-6837 on Ph .org/seminar/ .poynter http://www ashin gton, DC 20045-2001 W Phone: (202) 662-7145 / (888) 346-NAHJ seminar_view.asp?int_seminarID=3170 Fax: (202) 662-7144 shops e ar ork s W http://www Florida High School W .nahj.org/educationalprograms/ riter educationalprograms.shtml designed for high school students and teachers ampa Bay ar e T in th ea. This pr ogr am is modeled is built around a full Creating Future Journalists after Poynter’s highly successful National Writers day of activities held in conjunction with annual Workshops for professional journalists. Each tions of the NAHJ. Over the past three conven aylong workshop will be on a Saturday and will d years , the program has helped 300 middle school o ffer intensive sessions on writing, reporting and an d high school students and their journalism editin g taught by Poynter faculty and visiting efits of media careers. It e ben e th xplor als. Contact: Jeanne Nissenbaum, on advisers e fessi o pr .org. cludes post-convention events such as essay in [email protected] contests and field trips. Radio and Television News Directors Foundation 1600 K Street N.W., Suite 700 Los Angeles Times Student Journalism Program Student Journalism Program Hotline Washington, DC 20006-2838 Phone: (213) 237-5195 Phone: (202) 659-6510 http://www.latimes.com/extras/studentjournalism/ Fax: (202) 223-4007 ail: E-m [email protected] .rtnda.org/resources/highschool.shtml ogram is designed to support the education This pr http://www of high school and college students in the greater 90

91 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE P.O. Box 120191 The RTNDF High School Journalism Project , San Diego, CA 92112-1023 funded by a grant from the John S. and James L. Phone: (619) 293-1023 Knight Foundation, seeks to identify, inspire, train E-mail: [email protected] and challenge the next generation of diverse radio http://www.ccnmasd.org/ and television journalists and First Amendment advocates. Its mission is to develop scholastic Students spend two weeks each summer at a broadcast journalism programs and to strengthen journalism boot camp, guided by professional existing projects through collaborations with the journalists in the classroom and in the field. That professional journalists who are members of the field experience in a student’s journalism career is Radio and Television News Directors Association. comm only reserved for junior and seniors at the university level. The students produce a newspaper, a television newscast and a radio SUMMER JOURNALISM WORKSHOPS FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF COLOR n ewscast. They also attend classes on writing and grammar and participate in panel discussions on ethics in journalism and interviewing techniques. ALABAMA Th e workshop is open to high school junior and seni ors fr om San Di f Alabama o, Riversi d e, San Bernardino Univ er sity o eg 207 Student Media Building and Imperial counties. Applications are available Box 870172 in January and the workshop is usually held in Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 June at a local university. Con ullin s tact: Ed M Calif ornia Chicano News Media Association/San one: (205) 348-8592 Ph [email protected] Jose E-mail: Daniel Vasquez, director ARIZONA San Jose Mercury News 750 Ri dder Park Drive University of Arizona San Jose, CA 95190 en t of Journalism on e: (408) 920-5406 Departm Ph http://www.mosaicworkshop.org Tucson, AZ 85721 on e: (520) 621-7556 Ph cadem Bay Ar y al Media A ea Multicultur y D’ ath tact: K Con ssis A San Francisco State University [email protected] E-mail: Doris Y.S. Owyang, Program Manager http://journalism.arizona.edu ter f tegr ation and Improvement of or In Cen This serious, but fun, intensive summer journalism Journalism d worksh op is in ten ed to h elp high school students . ve olloway A 1600 H of color understand the demands of today’s and San Francisco, CA 94132-4082 tomorrow’s journalism, the opportunities for a Phone: (415) 405-0727 www .ciij.org hi gher education and the possibilities for success e newspaper field. The workshop covers in th Th e Bay Area Multicultural Media Academy is a eporting, interviewing, writing, editing, layout, r tial program built around develop- en d alism and visual communication. esi otojourn two-week r gn, ph esi d g journalism skills and careers for Bay Area high in dents will be introduced to state-of-the-art Stu school students. The Center for Integration and digital imaging and design. Each student will Improvement of Journalism at San Francisco State construct a web page. University has sponsored BAMMA since 1990. Its graduates work in print, radio, television and CALIFORNIA online journalism. BAMMA is dedicated to providing opportunities to youth from underserved communi- California Chicano News Media Association/San alists that will open evelop skills as journ es to d ti Diego oors for them in media careers and help the profes- d el Sanchez Leon sion do a better job covering news for everyone. The San Diego Union-Tribune 91

92 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA KENTUCKY DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Western Kentucky University Howard University Dr. Pam Johnson, director Department of Journalism 525 Bryant St. N.W. School of Journalism and Broadcasting Washington, DC 20059 1 Big Red Way Phone: (202) 806-7855 Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 http://www.howard.edu/schoolcommunications/ Phone: (270) 745-5837 [email protected] E-mail: http://www.geocities.com/wkumjw FLORIDA University of Kentucky Florida A & M University Professor Diane Hall, director Dr. Beth Barnes ool of Journalism Sch Sch ool of Journalism Tallahassee, FL 32308 107 Grehan Building Phone: (904) 599-3357 University of Kentucky ail: E-m .net [email protected] Le xington, KY 40506-0042 e: (859) 257-4275 x1.html .net/inde .sjgc http://www Ph on Fax: (859) 323-3168 [email protected] Florida International University E-mail: http://jat.uky.edu/indexALL.html North Campus eed o Pr fessor Don Sn , director ACHUSETTS MASS Sch ool of Journalism and Mass Communication 3000 N.E. 151st St. New England High School Journalism North Miami, FL 33181 Professor Carole Remick, director Phone: (305) 940-5625 niversity of Massachusetts http://jmc .fiu.edu/sjmc/ U Regis College sity of Miami Univ er 100 M orrissey Blvd . Professor Tsitsi Wakhisi, director Boston, MA 02125-3393 f Comm Sch unication ool o Ph on e: (617) 287-7932 [email protected] carole .edu x 248127 . Bo .O P ail: E-m http://www.mijohn.com/hsjc/index.htm Coral Gables, FL 33124-2030 Phone: (305) 284-6493 [email protected] MISSISSIPPI E-m ail: http://www.miami.edu/com/ Univ er sity o f Mississippi ILLINOIS 331 Farley, P.O. Box 1848 University, MS 38677 tact: Beth Fitts Eastern Illinois Univ ersity Con Pr ofessor Joseph Gisondi Ph one: (662) 915-7146 .olemiss.edu/depts/journalism/ http://www ent of Journalism Departm . ve coln A . Lin 600 W Charleston, IL 61920 MISSOURI http://www.eiu.edu/~journal/ University of Missouri Youth Communication/Chicago Dr. Anna Romero Phil Costello School of Journalism 76-K Gannett Hall Columbia College and Roosevelt University Columbia, MO 65211-1200 600 S. Michigan Ave. o, IL 60605 e: (573) 882-2422 cag on Chi Ph ail: one: (312) 922-7150 [email protected] E-m Ph http://www.journalism.missouri.edu/contact.html http://www.uiowa.edu/~journal/faculty/ 92

93 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected] NEW JERSEY http://www.naja.com/news.html Monmouth University TEXAS Dr. Eleanor Novek, director Communications Department San Antonio College 400 Cedar Ave. Irene Abrego, director West Long Branch, NJ 07764 Journalism Department Phone: (732) 571-4427 1300 San Pedro Ave. http://www.monmouth.edu/academics/deptlinks/ San Antonio, TX 78212-4299 comm.asp one: (210) 733-2870 Ph http://www.accd.edu/sac/j-p/jlsm.html NEW YORK exas Christian University T Ne w York University Elizabeth Faulk, director Professor Pamela Newkirk Department of Journalism Department of Journalism 294 M ashington Place 10 W oudy South Fort W N ork, NY 10003 ew Y orth, TX 76129 Phone: (817) 257-6274 Phone: (212) 998-7980 [email protected] E-mail: [email protected] E-mail: http://www.jou.tcu.edu/ http://journalism.nyu.edu/ujw/ OHIO ersity of Texas at El Paso Univ Zita Arocha, director Department of Communication Studies Kent State University 500 W. University Ave., Room 202 Gene Shelton, director El P aso, TX 79968-0550 Sch ool of Journalism and Communication P.O. Box 5190 Phone: (915) 747-6287 en K t, OH 44242-0001 [email protected] ail: E-m http://www.utep.edu/comm/ [email protected] E-mail: VIRGINIA PENNS YL V ANIA Virginia Commonwealth University The Pennsylvania State University J Jun ector olson, dir e Ni ch oseph M. Seld ssistant Dean and ector/A en, Dir School of Mass Communications Lecturer Offi cultur ce o f M ulti ain St. . M al Affairs, College of 901 W P.O. Box 842034 Communications Richmond, VA 23284 208 Carnegie Building Ph one: (804) 367-1260 niversity Park, PA 16802-5101 U [email protected] ail: E-m Ph one: (814) 863-6081 .has.vcu.edu/mac/ http://www http://my.highschooljournalism.org/pa/ universitypark/mhsjw ASHINGTON W SOUTH DAKOTA Seattle University Native American Journalists Association Tomas Guillen, director Communication Department Kim Baca, Interim Executive Director University of South Dakota Casey Building, Room 232 900 Broadway 414 E. Clark St.. on, SD 57069-2390 A 98122-4340 , W ermilli Seattle V one: (605) 677-5282 one: (206) 464-2045 Ph Ph Fax: (866) 694-4264 [email protected] E-mail: http://www.seattleu.edu/artsci/communication/ 93

94 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Poynter College Fellowships WISCONSIN Newswriting and reporting: Poynter is looking for Marquette University Rose Richard the best graduates in the arts and sciences and journalism who will become leaders in tomorrow’s College of Communication newsrooms. It seeks people who can write with 1131 W. Wisconsin Ave. Milwaukee, WI 53201 clarity and flair, who have the education and insight to understand the world they report on, who Phone: (414) 288-5227 http://www.marquette.edu/dept/comm/ recognize the important role the profession plays as a public service, and who have great ambition TI-STATE PROGRAMS MUL cceed in life. to su Hispanic Link Journalism Foundation Fellows will learn (or relearn) Visual journalism: th e fundamentals of visual journalism from Poynter 1420 N St. N.W . Washington, DC 20005 faculty and guest experts. This is a visual boot camp where students will explore typography, color Phone: (202) 234-0280 d architecture for news and feature page design; an http://www .hispaniclink.org orm inf aditional and photo cs; tr aphi on gr ati For 20 years, Hispanic Link Reporting Fellowships: illustration; documentary photojournalism; online has been the training host of 25 full-year fellows design; and interactivity. and provided shorter-term internships for more . P alists g journ than 100 aspirin The W ashington P ost articipants cover eet N.W. 1150 15th Str n ational news in Washington alongside correspon- Washington, DC 20071-0002 dents, with emphasis on how current events affect http://washpost.com/community/education/yjdp/ Hispanics. Their work is published in Hispanic Link index.shtml Weekly Report and distributed to subscribers ationally. Dozens of still-connected, Link-trained n Young Journalists Development The Post’s journalists continue to work and advance at major ogr ovi des a range of services to local high Pr am pr d es and broadcast outlets throughout the country. aili school journalism programs. They include ants for Native American High orum Gr eedom F Fr onation, printing services, technical t d en equipm School Journalism Students d worksh ars an d ce assistan , an ops , semin Dr. Richard W. Lee scholarships. For more information, contact Department of Journalism and Mass director Athelia Knight, (202) 334-7132 or on, cati . Comm uni [email protected] South Dakota State University COLLEGE PROGRAMS gs ookin Br , SD 57007 Phone: (605) 688-4171 eviated list of colleges and Th e f ollowin g is an abbr Fax: (605) 688-5034 universities that serve primarily students of color. .edu [email protected] ail: E-m For a complete list o f the historically black colleges and universities that have communications N ative American high school students may apply for programs, go to the Black College Communication e South Dakota State University d th ts to atten an gr www.bccanews.org. Association web site, er journalism institute held in mid-June. summ Grants cover transportation and workshop costs. , Fresno sity er ornia State Univ Calif ass Communication and Journalism M The Poynter Institute McKee Fisk Building, Room 238 801 Third Street S. 2225 E. San Ramon Ave. M/S MF10 St. Petersburg, FL 33701 Fresno, CA 93740-8029 Phone: (888) 769-6837 Phone: (559) 278-2087 .org/content/ .poynter http://www Fax: (559) 278-4995 .asp?id=9260 content_view http://www.csufresno.edu/MCJ/ 94

95 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE Phone: (202) 806-7690 Forty percent of the student population is Latino and Asian American. Graduates of the mass commu- http://www.howard.edu/schoolcommunications/ nication and journalism program have gone on to careers at The Washington Post, The Bakersfield Students gain critical, hands-on work experience Californian and The Record in Stockton, Calif. at WHUR-FM/WHBC (Howard University Radio) and WHUT-TV (Howard University Television), the only Florida A&M University African American-owned public television station Professor Diane Hall, director in the United States. School of Journalism Lehman College Tallahassee, FL 32308 Ph one: (904) 599-3357 ultilingual Journalism Program @ Lehman College M [email protected] Prof. Patricio Lerzundi E-mail: Phone: (718) 960-8161 AMU’s Division of Journalism became Fax: (718) 960-8218 In 1982, F the first journalism program at a historically black http://www.lehman.cuny.edu/depts/langlit/mlj/ university to earn accreditation by the Accrediting cil on Education in Journalism and Mass Commu- t this City University of New York campus in the Coun A s eaccredited in 1988, 1994 and on ore than 80 . I ni cati Br onx, stu d en t was r ts o f color comprise m 2000. percent of the student population. Lehman emphasizes multilingual media, a reflection of the Florida International University diversity on campus and in the community. The U ark Campus niversity P ourn onx J Br al, th e campus newspaper, is written in 11200 S.W . Eighth Street guages. 11 lan Miami, FL 33199 Norfolk State University Biscayne Bay Campus Mass Communications and Journalism 3000 N.E. 151st St. ark Ave. 700 P N orth Miami, FL 33181 http://jmc.fiu.edu/sjmc/ Norfolk, VA 23504 on e: (757) 823-8330 Ph Master’s Program in Spanish-Language Journalism Fax: (757) 823-9119 ogr am is d esigned for those who want to .nsu.edu/mcjr/contact.htm http://www This pr fessi work at th e pr e Spanish- al level in th on o About half of the students in the mass communi- language media in the United States, Latin America cations program at this historically black university or Europe. The program focuses on the development e m gini in Vir a ar en, a surprise given that women f th o cal thinking, analytic and ethical g, criti e writin outnumber men in many communications programs. skills necessary for a professional journalism career. ent newspaper, was d e stu o, th e Spartan Ech Th Hampton University named best biweekly in 2001 by the Black College School of Journalism and Communication Communications Association. ent of Mass Media Arts Departm HIST ORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND strong 117 Arm ampton University H UNIVERSITIES SCHOLARSHIPS A 23668 ampton, V H one: (757) 727-5405 Knight Ridder Ph Director, Corporate HR Services http://www.hamptonu.edu/arts_edu/arts_humn/ 50 W. San Fernando St., Suite 1500 mass_media/ San Jose, CA 95113 http://www.knightridder.com/career/internships.html This journalism and communications program trains students in print and broadcast journalism, public relations, advertising and media management. Knight Ridder provides scholarships in advertising, alism at two major historically d journ ess an busin es: Howard University, located in ward University School of Communications black colleg Ho Washington, D.C., and Florida A&M University in 525 Bryant St. N.W. Tallahassee, Fla. The scholarships are awarded to Washington, DC 20059 95

96 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Hispanic. Students at this lower Rio Grande Valley outstanding students entering their junior year. campus get newspaper experience at the Pan The scholars are awarded $2,500 for their junior American, which comes out twice weekly. The Pan year and work at a Knight Ridder company as a American web site is located at summer intern. The scholarship continues into the senior year if the student maintains a 3.0 GPA. If http://www.panam.edu/dept/panamerican. you are a student at one of these institutions, Wayne State University contact your college placement office. Department of Communication 585 Manoogian Hall University of North Dakota Detroit, MI 48201 School of Communication one: (313) 577-2943 elly Hall 7169 Ph O’K http://www.comm.wayne.edu/ P.O. Box 7169 Grand Forks, ND 58202 ayne State University’s W one: (701) 777-6388 or Journalism Institute f Ph trains high-achieving students of color Minorities Contact: Paul Boswell, Director, Native Media Center E-mail: for communication careers. Exceptionally talented [email protected] dents are recruited for the intensive four-year stu eer pr car is d am. Institute members ogr on pr gn ed to esi ati Th epar e Nativ e Media Center Pr ogr am increase communication skills of Native Americans, receive fully paid scholarships and gain professional the number of native people working in the media experience through internships with such local and the quantity and quality of coverage of Native newspapers as the Detroit News and Detroit Free can . Programs include Red Nation News, an s Am eri ew York Times, USA Today e N , as well as Th ess Pr onlin e news magazine and Native Community d the Chicago Tribune. Institute graduates are an Studio, a weekend during the school year when employed at the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Native American high school students come to the Journal, the Detroit Free Press and other news Native Media Center to work with professional organizations throughout the country. Institute journ alists on developing skills and gain exposure dents have received numerous awards, including stu of the profession. the Community Journalism Award of the Michigan ssociation. ess A Pr University of Texas, El Paso al Arts ce Univ or Wilberf ersity f Liber e o Colleg 1055 N. Bi ett Road ck 500 W ve niversity A . U . Wilberforce, OH 45384-1001 El Paso, TX 79968 Phone: (937) 376-2911 Phone: (915) 747-5129 http://www http://www orce .utep.edu/comm/ .edu/opencms/e xport/ .wilberf bulldog/home/home.html Th uni am in comm e UTEP pr ogr cation is a contem- This private, four-year historically black university porary blend of the humanistic and applied directions requires internships and practicums for graduates, of the field as the profession is challenged by a o can study journalism as a communications wh chan ging world order, new media and information ajor in the Humanities Division. Students can get m ology, and the new realities of the information- techn xperience at the biweekly campus paper, The e based soci ety. UTEP’s Department of Communication ce students have interned at the or . Wilberf ational Hispanic Press or e N Mirr ed with th er has partn enia Daily Gazette and the nearby Dayton local X dation to bring exposure and recognition to Foun Daily News. Five Wilberforce students have had university students’ research and writing abilities internships at The Philadelphia Inquirer. and increase the number of Hispanic professionals in communication fields. AWARDS, FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS University of Texas-Pan American 1201 W. University Drive Asian American Journalists Association et St., Suite 320 g, TX 78541 ark 1182 M Edinbur .panam.edu/ ancisco, CA 94102 http://www San Fr Contact: Albert Lee, professional programs About 88 percent of the student population is coordinator 96

97 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE given annually – one for newspapers with a Phone: (415) 346-2051 circulation of up to 75,000 and one for news- Fax: (415) 346-6343 [email protected] papers with more than 75,000 circulation. Each E-mail: award is $2,500. The awards go to individuals, newsrooms or teams of journalists who embody the AAJA supports and encourages the advancement spirit of McGruder, a former executive editor of the of mid-career journalists in the newsroom. It offers several fellowships to provide members the Detroit Free Press and a relentless champion of diversity. McGruder died of cancer in April 2002. opportunity to attend career-building programs. Columbia Scholastic Press Association AAJA Fellowships help members attend short-term .columbia.edu/cu/cspa/index.html pr http://www ofessional training and development programs. Grants of up to $1,000 are offered to provide assistance with tuition, travel, food, lodging and Services provided by the CSPA include written oth er program-related expenses. Applicants must evalu ations of student publications (annual critiques) as well as the planning and conducting of four be full or associate members wth at least three conferences and workshops. In addition, the CSPA years of professional experience. Applications are es a quarterly magazine called SPR, Student publish oughout the year. accepted thr est awards given to . Th e hi gh ess Revi ew Pr AAJA/Poynter Institute Fellowships help two publications by the CSPA each year are its Crown midcareer journalists attend selected management Awards. The association also judges more than training courses at the Poynter Institute in St. 10,000 individual entries in its annual Gold Circle g, Fla. Appli can ts should be full-time P etersbur A war ds f or stu dent journalists. More than 500 college employees o f a print, broadcast or online news stu dents and 500 high school students receive awards organization or journalism educators. Tuition and in the 75 categories of this competition. hotel costs are covered by Poynter, while Detroit Free Press Scholarships for High School transportation costs are covered by AAJA. s Senior Joe Grimm AAJA/Newspaper Association of America F 600 W ewspaper journalists attend the ello . Fort St. wship h elps n Detroit, MI, 48226 annual Executive Leadership Program. Applicants on e: (313) 222-6490, e xt.600 Ph sh e employees of a newspaper be full-tim ould [email protected] or on. Th e fellowship covers semin ganizati ar E-m ail: http://www.freep.com registration fees, travel, meals and hotel expenses. o ee Pr ship w ello A Business F AAJ oit Fr e Detr Th ffers m ce embers a chan ess High School Journalism to develop a better understanding of the challenges Program was conceived by former Free Press execu- o f runnin g a n ewspaper or m edi a company. Partici- forced et woes g d erry Tilis in 1985 after bu tive J pants can expect to observe and learn about the the school district to eliminate the journalism pro- operations in production, marketing, advertising, gram from most schools. Once a month, from culation and distribution. Previous fellowships cir ough May, each of 22 participating public October thr took place at th e St. Paul Pioneer Press and The sch ools produces one full-size newspaper page. N ew York Times. ssociation ess A Independent Pr eet, Second Floor f Newspaper Editors 65 Battery Str American Society o San Francisco, CA 94111 11690B Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, VA 20191-1409 Phone: (415) 445-0230, ext. 116 or 117 Phone: (703) 453-1122 Fax: (415) 445-0231 http://www.asne.org E-mail: [email protected] http://www.indypress.org Robert G. McGruder Awards For Diversity Leader- ssociated ellowship e A ashington Williams F ership with th ge W was ASNE, in partn ship: The Geor ess Managing Editors and the Freedom Forum, eated to encourage journalists with diverse back- Pr cr accepts nominations for the Robert G. McGruder grounds to pursue important social issues. Named Awards for Diversity Leadership. Two awards are for the 19th century African American journalist 97

98 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA the civil rights movement during the 1950s and who wrote the first history of African Americans 1960s and in 1972 became the nation’s first black from their own point of view, the fellowship funds female network commentator – with a commem- magazine stories about such issues as environment, orative 37-cent stamp. It was Payne’s work in global trade policy, health care, race and education. Fellows receive access to some research support, Africa as a foreign correspondent that prompted consultants, advanced professional training and a NABJ to create the fellowships. large network of journalists working in the public Given annually by NABJ and Ida B. Wells Award: interest sector. Any journalist with at least three the National Conference of Editorial Writers years of solid professional reporting and writing (http://www.ncew.org/) to a media executive or experience may apply. m anager who has made outstanding efforts to make Knight Ridder Scholarship for High School newsrooms and news coverage more accurately Seniors reflect the diversity of the communities they serve. th Th e award is named for the 19 cen tury journalist .knightridderscholars.com/index.html http://www who crusaded against lynching. It is administered by Northwestern University’s Medill School of Each $40,000 Minority Scholarship Program: ournalism. Contacts: Lisa Goodnight, NABJ J year , Knight Ridder offers four college scholarships cati to outstan gh sch ool gr comm uni ad an uates of color. Two g hi on s m din ager, (301) 445-7100, or [email protected] ; and Wendy Leopold, Medill School scholars are chosen for their interest in journalism; . of Journalism, [email protected] northwestern.edu two are chosen for their interest in business-side departments such as marketing, technology and , NABJ awar Ann u ships: NABJ Scholar ally ds g. Th advertisin e for $5,000 a year olarships ar e sch eserving students interested in pursuing a career d or four years. In addition, KR Scholars will work at f in journalism awards of more than $30,000 in a KR company each summer beginning after high scholarships. Each scholarship is worth up to $5,000. school, and continuing through their college years. Scholarships are open to any foreign- or American- After graduation, the scholars will work at a Knight born stu dents, currently attending an accredited Ri dder company for at least one year. The scholar- four-year college or university in the U.S. or those ships are intended for students in communities o ar wh e candidates for graduate school. t Ridder papers, and applicants must gh served by Kni win at the local level to go on to national judging. ssociation o f Hispanic Journalists National A A e chosen in January, local ers ar s local winn ess Buildin g al Pr on ati 1000 N ary . d d to be in December an d J an u eadlin es ten 529 14th St. N.W. National Association of Black Journalists Washington, DC 20045-2001 dergraduate and Graduate Students or U olarships f Sch n on Ph e: (202) 662-7145 / (888) 346-NAHJ University of Maryland Fax: (202) 662-7144 [email protected] elphi Road 8701-A A d E-m ail: Adelphi, MD 20783-1716 The Rubén Salazar Scholarship Fund program Phone: (301) 445-7100 ffers scholarships designed to encourage and o Fax: (301) 445-7101 [email protected] assist Latin o students to pursue journalism careers. ail: E-m http://www .nabj.org/media_institute/fellowships/ NAHJ o ffers scholarships to college undergraduates ate students pursuing careers as print, u ad x.html d gr inde an oto, broadcast or online journalists. Applicants ph must plan to attend a college or a university in the Ethel Payne Fellowships: NABJ annually seeks to award $5,000 fellowships to journalists wanting United States or Puerto Rico as a full-time student international reporting experience through self- for the entire academic year to be eligible. conceived assignments in Africa. The fellowships bear the name of the woman known as the “first Awards are presented in these categories ñ Awards: lady of the Black Press.” Ethel Payne (1911 – 1991) – Leadership, Emerging Journalist, Frank del Olmo dents as a journalist and alist of the Year, Broadcast Journalist of ourn esi t J ed seven U.S. pr Prin cover espondent for The Chicago Defender e Year, Photographer of the Year. The leadership was a war corr th and Sengstacke Newspapers. In 2002, the U.S. award is open, through nomination, to any indivi- Postal Service honored Payne – who reported on dual, organization or institution that has demon- 98

99 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE Fax: (317) 920-4789 strated an outstanding commitment to Latino http://www.spj.org/awards_NAA.asp concerns and is actively working toward promoting a better understanding of Latino issues or culture. The other awards are open through a nomination To encourage and honor New America Award: collaborations between ethnic and mainstream media. process to Hispanic journalists who have made a significant contribution to the Latino community This award honors collaborative public service journalism by ethnic and mainstream media working and brought awareness to issues affecting Latinos, together to explore and expose an issue of or Hispanic journalists who have achieved excel- importance to immigrant or ethnic communities in lence through their chosen media. the United States. The competition is open to any Ne w America Media ethni c media organization or journalist and a 275 Ninth St., Third floor mainstream media organization or journalist based on San Francisco, CA 94103 the quality and impact of their collaborative work. Ph one: (415) 503-4170 J welcomes nominations from media outlets, SP Fax: (415) 503-0970 journalists, community and issue advocacy groups, E-mail: [email protected] individuals and others concerned with ethnic and .newamericamedia.org http://www immi grant issues. Each entry must include a letter e xplainin ce of the issue, why it was can gnifi e si g th The recognize journalistic excellence NAM Awards chosen and how the collaboration between ethnic in ethnic media. They showcase news stories and and mainstream media came to be, including the people and media outlets that report them. obstacles encountered and benefits gained. J ourn alists fr om prin t, broadcast and online ethnic m edia are nominated by colleagues. Journalists Th e New America Award winner is honored at can also nominate their own work. the annual Sigma Delta Chi Awards banquet in Contact: Sandip Roy. Washington, D.C. s for Educational Opportunity elevision News Directors Foundation Radio and T Sponsor SEO Scholars Program RTNDA/RTNDF 126 E. 31st Str eet 1600 K St. N.W ., Suite 700 New York, NY 10016 Washington, DC 20006-2838 Ph on e: (212) 532-2454 Ph on e: (202) 659-6510 .seo-usa.org http://www Fax: (202) 223-4007 [email protected] E-mail: The SEO Scholars Program (formerly the College ati on or T raditional Program) is an out-of- ello Pr epar N.S. Bienstock F w ship: d A $2,500 awar established in early 1999 by N.S. Bienstock Inc. school academic enrichment program for promising own ers er and Carole Cooper. , Ri char d Leibn d stu en ts o f color in N ew York City public schools. Bienstock is a longtime member of RTNDA. This It works with motivated students from under- award recognizes a promising journalist of color resourced communities and has provided consistent, adio or television news management. in r geted services over several years. The Scholars tar Pr ogram offers a rigorous four-year plan of academic Michele Clark F ellowship: RTNDF’s first fellowship enri chment and standardized test preparation, ews correspondent who was or a CBS N ed f am is n entoring and summer learning g, m selin e coun colleg e crash while on assignment in killed in a plan xperiences. e 1972. Her family and colleagues at CBS created a fund in her name, endowing a permanent $1,000 Thomson Fellowships award for young, promising professionals of color Jim Jennings, Vice President and Editorial Director in television or radio news. Thomson Newspapers Metro Center Society of Professional Journalists 1 Station Place am National Journalism Center , CT 06909 d e S. Pulli en or Eug Stamf eridian St. (203) 435-2515 3909 N. M Indianapolis, IN 46208 http://journalism.berkeley.edu/jobs/ Phone: (317) 927-8000 details.php?cat=newswire&ID=1997 99

100 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Thomson Newspapers offers several paid three- Black College Wire month working fellowships for university juniors, c/o National Association of Black Journalists seniors and graduate students who plan to pursue University of Maryland careers in newspaper journalism. These fellowships 8701-A Adelphi Road are available to members of racial or ethnic Adelphi, MD 20783-1716 minority groups in the U.S. and Canada. Each (301) 445-7100 fellow works at a daily newspaper as a member of E-mail: [email protected] its editorial staff with training and evaluation. http://www.blackcollegewire.org Applicants should send a résumé, a one-page essay on the role of newspapers in their communities, Students work as Black Newspaper Internship: onreturnable samples of their work, three n eporters, copy editors, photographers, graphic r references and a cover letter describing what they artists or page designers at participating black news- hope to gain from the fellowship and what they papers. Interns are responsible for their own housing can brin g to the newspapers. d transportation; placements will take into an consideration the student’s summer living plans. INTERNSHIPS, PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMS AND WSHIPS FOR JOURNALISTS OF COLOR FELLO e Internship: Black College Wir terns work In or th as r eporters f e Black Colleg e Wire. They will Asian American Journalists Association report, write and file from their summer homes as Albert Lee, professional programs coordinator correspondents under the supervision of the wire’s 1182 Market St., Suite 320 editors . A teleph on e and Internet-accessible cisco, CA 94102 an San Fr computer are required. Ph one: (415) 346-2051 Fax: (415) 346-6343 Institute for Justice and Journalism [email protected] E-mail: University of Southern California http://www.aaja.org Annenberg School for Communication 1 Calif a Plaza orni AAJA Broadcast Mentor Program: Mentoring for 300 South Grand Ave., Suite 3950 o work in front of the camera or behind ose wh th Los Angeles, CA 90071 the scenes in television. Ph one: (213) 437-4410 Fax: (213) 437-4424 ewspapers o ffers Co x Reporting Internship: Co x N http://www .justicejournalism.org/inde x.htm a Washington, D.C., reporting internship to an AAJA member. The interns works for the summer as The institute provides professional fellowships, gnment reporter in the Cox Washington g en er al assi reporting tools and a network of colleagues and Bureau, helping cover all aspects of Washington, ce e justi epth cover age of xperts to support in-d . Co ouse e White H om Capitol Hill to th fr x will x justi comple ce issues . provide the intern with airfare and a furnished apartment in the DuPont Circle area of National Public Radio Internship ashington, as well as a $300 weekly stipend. W an Resour en ces Departm um H t Con tact: Lila Chwee at AAJA. 635 Massachusetts Ave. N.W. W ashington, DC 20001 on is elevisi oadcast Internship or T Siani Lee Br f Fax: (202) 513-3047 eld during the summer at CBS affiliate KYW-TV in h .org [email protected] ail: E-m Philadelphia. Interns must be at least 18 years of http://www .npr.org/about/jobs/intern/ age and enrolled in a post-secondary program that gives academic credit for internships. Qualified NPR offers internships at its national headquarters AAJA members are preferred. AAJA awards a in Washington and at its NPR West office in Los stipend of $2,500 to help defray internship costs Angeles. The internship program is designed to of travel and housing. AAJA created the internship provide students and recent graduates with an e late Siani Lee, a Philadelphia or th on to h e d th g an castin oad opportunity to learn about br on news anchor who died in 2001. televisi f NPR. A candidate must be a eas o g ar supportin aduate student, an undergraduate student or gr 100

101 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE Adelphi, MD 20783-1716 have graduated from college within 12 months of Phone: (301) 445-7100 beginning the internship. Interns are expected to Fax: (301) 445-7101 work between 20 and 40 hours a week during an 8- E-mail: to-10 week period. Internships are offered during [email protected] http://www.nabj.org/programs/internships/ the summer, fall and winter-spring semesters. Interns may receive academic credit if an agreement NABJ provides internships to African American is made between the NPR Human Resources journalism students. Students are placed in 10- Department and the intern’s college or university. week paid internships with newspapers, television More than two dozen internships are offered. See and radio stations and online news services across web site for details. e country. NABJ internships give students hands- th on reporting, editing, photography and design Kaiser Media Fellowships Program experience in professional settings. Interns have Penny Duckham, Executive Director e Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation ed at news outlets such as Bloomberg News, work Th The Associated Press, The Seattle Times, The News 2400 Sand Hill Road & Observer in Raleigh, N.C., CBS, National Public Menlo Park, CA 94025 o and The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Radi Ph one: (650) 234-9220 Fax: (650) 854-4800 or (650) 854-7465 [email protected] The Philadelphia Inquirer E-mail: P.O. Box 8263 http://www.kff.org/about/mediafellowships.cfm Philadelphia, PA 19101 Ph ogr e: (215) 854-4975 am on Th e K aiser Media F ello w ships is a summ er pr or young journalists of color interested in f Fax: (215) 854-2578 [email protected] E-mail: specializing in urban public health reporting. There (only for questions) is no application form. Applicants should submit a http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/contact_us/ detailed letter describing their reasons for applying, 2480089.htm a r esume, examples of recent work and one or more letters of support. Please refer to the specific dents of Art P eter s Program: Seven colleg e stu am area for complete application instructions. pr ogr color are selected for 10-week internships, four in oom Internships w sr Knight Ridder Ne ee in reporting. After an g an copyeditin d thr .com/career/internships .knightridder .html http://www od tati on peri en ori , r eportin g in tern s are assigned This is a guide to newsroom internships at Knight to the metropolitan, business, features or sports Ridder newspapers. Apply directly to the newspapers. desks. Students from all college classes are Each n dently, so mass ewspaper acts in epen d . Appli ts should submit five to seven eli gible can applications are not possible. clips, a resume and cover letter, and references. Minority Graphic Arts Internship: One person is Minorities in Broadcasting Training Program chosen to work in the art department. Applicants Patrice Williams sh ould submit five to seven samples of their work P .O. Box 39696 ed or unpublished), a resume and cover (publish Los An geles, CA 90039 Ph one: (818) 240-3362 , and references. letter et ail: [email protected] E-m e .thebroadcaster.com http://www On Minority Photojournalism Internship: person is chosen to work in The Inquirer’s photo department. Applicants should submit 20 to 40 This nonprofit organization provides training opportunities to college graduates of color in radio images of news, features, sports, environmental portraits or a photo story, a resume and cover and television news reporting and news management. letter, and references. Contact Ed Hille, Inquirer director of photography, E-mail: f Black Journalists ssociation o .com National A [email protected] Internships University of Maryland Acel Moore Minority Career Development Workshop: This program for high school students 8701-A Adelphi Road 101

102 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA requires little or no experience. METPRO provides of color seeks to introduce them to journalism. training as reporters, photographers and copy They are taught reporting, writing, editing and editors at daily newspapers. Reporting and photog- photography by Inquirer editors. The program runs raphy trainees spend the first year at the Los Angeles for four Saturdays in February at The Inquirer. The Times; editing trainees spend the first year at students help write, edit and produce their own Newsday, Melville, N.Y. The second-year trainees are newspaper, First Take, and create a web site of assigned to newsrooms of Times Mirror newspapers. their stories on philly.com. To receive an application [email protected] contact Acel Moore, Send an e-mail to receive an application packet. Phone: (215) 854-4975 Applications for both METPRO/Editing and METPRO/ Fax: (215) 854-2578 g are available beginning in October. Reportin For reporting and photography applications, e-mail St. Louis Post-Dispatch Summer Internship [email protected] Program g applications, e-mail thia Todd, director of newsroom recruitment For editin Cyn [email protected] 900 N. Tucker Blvd. UNITY: Journalists of Color St. Louis, MO 63101 .unityjournalists.org/Fellowships/ http://www one: (314) 340-8282 Ph ail: E-m [email protected] fellowships .html Thirteen-week, paid internships in all areas of the A resource guide for a variety of internships, fellow- newsroom are available on the metro, business, ships and scholarships for journalists of color. es sports , featur , d esign, graphics, photography and DIVERSITY T OOLS copyeditin g staffs. Center for Integration and Improvement of The salary is $393 per week. Applicants must be Journalism seniors or graduate students enrolled in a degree ancisco State University San Fr pr ogram at the time the internship begins. Students Humanities 307 also must have taken basic journalism courses as olloway A 1600 H ve. alized courses in the students’ y speci well as an San Francisco, CA 94132 areas of interest. on e: (415) 338-2083 Ph ship, or a r eportin g or copyeditin g in o apply f T tern Fax: (415) 338-2084 [email protected] E-mail: send six clips; an autobiographical essay; a resume; and the names, telephone numbers and titles of ons and resources can ganizati f or sive lists o Exten our r f efer en ces. To apply for other internships, submit http://www.ciij.org/resources/ be found at a portfolio of work (20 images for photography); cal essay; a r esum ogr e; and the names, aphi an autobi Journalism Institute for Minorities (JIM) telephone numbers and titles of four references. Wayne State University Applicants also must submit official transcripts, but anoogian Hall 191 M ose may be sent under separate cover. th Detr oit, MI 48201 Times Mirr or Minority Editorial Training Program one: (313) 577-6304 Ph .edu [email protected] (METPRO) ail: E-m .comm.wayne.edu/JIM.html eb site: geles Times Los An W http://www 202 W. First St. Los Angeles, CA 90012 Latinos and Media Project 6304 Colina Lane Phone: (800) 283-6397, ext. 77397 Fax: (213) 237-4749 Austin, TX 78759 [email protected] E-mail: Phone: (512) 250-0487 http://www.metpronews.com/ E-mail: [email protected] .latinosandmedia.org/resources/ http://www-new raining Program x.html ffers 18 The Minority Editorial T inde o aspiring journalists an opportunity to train for two years at Times Mirror newspapers. The paid program Information and resources about a variety of issues 102

103 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE handling) and “Latinos in the United States: A related to Latinos and the media. Resource Guide for Journalists” ($8.50 shipping included) can be ordered at Mass Communicating: The Forum on Media Diversity http://nahj.org/nahjproducts/nahjproducts.shtml , or call NAHJ at (202) 662-7483; Manship School of Communication fax, (202) 662-7144. Reilly Center for Media & Public Affairs Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Native American Journalists Association Phone: (225) 578-2223 Red Report 2002, a content analysis on coverage Fax: (225) 578-2125 of Native Americans by the largest U.S. newspapers, [email protected] E-mail: http://www an .masscommunicating.lsu.edu/about d Red Report 2003, a report about recognizing racism in sports team nicknames and mascots, can Provides information about diversity in higher be found at education and professional journalism and mass http://www In . .naja.com/resources/publications/ comm unication. addition, two books can be ordered: “The American Indian and the Media’’ and “Pictures of our Nobler Radio and Television News Directors Foundation f Native American Contributions Selves: A History o 1600 K St., N.W. Suite 700 e M ’’ a. edi to th ashin W gton, D.C. 20006-2838 Phone: (202) 659-6510 National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Fax: (202) 223-4007 Association: Get a copy of RTNDF’s “Diversity Toolkit” at http://www .nlgja.org/pubs/style .html .rtnda.org/diversity/toolkit.shtml http://www JOB FAIRS Society of Professional Journalists Rainbow Sourcebook Journalism Opportunities Conference http://www.spj.org/diversity_search.asp .ccnma.org http://www E-mail: [email protected] The SPJ Rainbow Sourcebook, a searchable database of experts compiled by and for journalists, This annual job fair, organized by the California akes it easy to step beyond the narrow demo- m Chi can ews Media Association, is the largest on o N graphic band usually seen in stories. The sourcebook, t is h alists o f color or journ est Coast f th . I eld e W sear chable by comm on news topics, features every October. The conference annually attracts back alified on on qu ati orm tact inf d con d an oun gr more than 100 news media recruiters representing experts from demographic groups historically ews for jobs and tervi . In es about 75 compani underrepresented in the news. internships are a combination of scheduled sessions . W ews tervi d walk-up in an orkshops on video tape SPJ Diversity Toolbox critiques, and resume-writing and interviewing tips http://www .spj.org/diversity.asp are held during the conference. The SPJ Diversity Toolbox offers essays and links PSI (P ersonnel Strategies Inc.) to valuable resources to help journalists broaden 1809 S. Plym outh Road, Suite 350 the perspectives in their work. a, MN 55305-1977 etonk Minn air.com/ http://psijobf STYLE GUIDES Working with such groups as the NAACP and Urban National Association of Black Journalists League, PSI conducts a number of diversity job http://nabj.org/newsroom/stylebook/index.html fairs throughout the year and across the country. Asian American Journalists Association Spirit of Diversity http://www.aaja.org/resources/apa_handbook/ o.htm .freep.com/jobspage/toolkit/spinf http://www f Hispanic Journalists ssociation o National A The Spirit of Diversity job fair is designed to g and ($14.95 plus shippin Manual de Estilo connect newspaper recruiters with African American, 103

104 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Hispanic, Asian-American and Native American job Journalismnext.com candidates. Most of the job seekers are college http://journalismnext.com students seeking internships and newer professionals Journalism.org seeking full-time jobs. The Spirit of Diversity has been held annually since 1993. It is hosted by the http://www.journalism.org/resources/tools/newsroo Detroit Free Press, The Detroit News and Detroit m/diversity/online.asp Newspapers. Hotel accommodations for one night Maynard Institute for Journalism Education are provided for students who live more than 75 http://www.maynardije.org miles from Detroit. Media A wareness Network JOURNALISM DIVERSITY ORG ANIZATIONS http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/index.cfm American Press Institute http://www Minorities in Br oadcasting Training Program .americanpressinstitute.org/ http://www.cwire.com/pub/orgs/Minorities.in.Broad casting/default.asp Associated Press Managing Editors http://www .apme.com/index.shtml National A f Black Journalists ssociation o http://www.nabj.org/ American Society of Newspaper Editors http://www.asne.org/ National Association of Hispanic Journalists vision .nahj.org/ omen in Radio and T http://www ele American W .awrt.org/ http://www National Association of Minorities in Cable Asian American Journalists Association http://www.namic.com/ http://www.aaja.org/ ssociation of Minority Media National A Association for Women in Communications Executives .namme .org/ http://www http://www .womcom.org/ s Media Association w ornia Chicano Ne Calif National Center on Disability in Journalism x.php .ccnma.org/ http://www .ncdj.org/inde http://www National Diversity Newspaper Job Bank Center for Integration and Improvement of .com/ .newsjobs Journalism http://www http://www.ciij.org/ ation o National F eder f Pr ess W omen http://www.nfpw.org/ Coloring the News http://www.cmpa.com/ National Lesbian & Gay Journalists A ssociation .nlgja.org/ http://www Emma L. Bo wen Foundation for Minority ests in Media Inter oundation.com/ ssociation .emmabowenf e American Journalists A http://www Nativ .naja.com/ http://www Freedom Forum News and Views by Native American Students http://www.freedomforum.org/diversity/ http://www.reznetnews.org/ International Women’s Media Foundation http://www.iwmf.org/ News Watch – Center for Integration and Improvement of Journalism .ciij.org/newswatch omen Symposium http://www Journalism and W .jaws.org/ http://www 104

105 DIVERSITY RESOURCE GUIDE Newspaper Association of America Editor and Publisher http://www.editorandpublisher.com http://www.naa.org/ New America Media New Voices in Independent Publishing http://www.indypress.org/programs/nvip.html http://news.ncmonline.com/news/ Northwestern University Media Management National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association Center http://www.nlgja.org/ http://www.mediamanagementcenter.org/ acific News Service P PBS http://news.pacificnews.org/news/ http://www.pbs.org/ Univ ersity of Missouri Television & Radio News P oynter Institute for Media Studies http://www.poynter.org/default.asp Research http://web.missouri.edu/%7Ejourvs/index.html elevision News Directors Foundation Radio and T .rtnda.org/diversity/inde f Journalism x.shtml sity o http://www f Missouri School o Univ er http://journalism.missouri.edu/ Society of Professional Journalists http://www.spj.org sian Journalists Association South A http://www.saja.org/index.html UNITY: Journalists of Color .unityjournalists.org/ http://www W omen in Journalism http://www.leisurejobs.net/wij/ O THER RESOURCES American Journalism Review .org/ .ajr http://www Ball State (J-IDEAS) http://www.jideas.org/ Provides materials for high school journalism pr ograms nationwide, aimed at revitalizing journalism and First Amendment education in high schools, particularly city schools with a majority enrollment of students of color. s air or Media and Public Aff Center f .cmpa.com/ http://www Columbia Journalism Review http://www.cjr.org/ Columbia School of Journalism http://www.jrn.columbia.edu/ 105

106 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA APPENDICES 106

107 APPENDIX I: DEDMAN-DOIG REPORT On the Road to a Diverse Work Force, Most Newspapers Have Stumbled Report for Knight Foundation shows trends at 1,410 U.S. newspapers By Bill Dedman and Stephen K. Doig adds context to an annual survey by the American Society of Newspaper Editors. Newsroom diversity has dropped from its Each year ASNE surveys its members, and peak levels at most of the country’s daily each year the editors bemoan the industry’s newspapers, including three-fourths of the slow progress in employing journalists of largest, according to a study of newspaper black, Hispanic, Asian or Native American employment from 1990 to 2005 for the descent as newsroom supervisors, reporters, John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. copy or layout editors, or photographers. While the newspaper industry may be But ASNE shows neither the year-by-year slowly adding journalists of color overall, changes for individual newspapers, nor the gains have been uneven. In most which newspapers are meeting ASNE’s goal newsrooms, large and small, the share of of parity between newsroom and community. journalism jobs held by people of color has receded from its high-water mark. That gap is filled by this report, done for Knight Foundation by journalists Bill Among the 200 largest newspapers, 73 Dedman and Stephen K. Doig. Their report percent employ fewer people of color, as a traces the historical record of nonwhite share of the newsroom jobs, than they did employment at 1,410 newspapers and in some earlier year from 1990 to 2004. compares the employment at each with Only 27 percent of these large dailies were the racial makeup of the area it serves. at their peak as 2005 began. APERS SLIP LARGEST NEWSP Looking more broadly at all daily news- The nation’s four largest newspapers have papers, only 18 percent were at their peak, fallen from their peak: Gannett, the while 44 percent have slipped. And those company with the best overall record on are the papers that employ any people of diversity, has seen nonwhite employment color at all. The remaining 37 percent of the at its flagship USA Today slide since the daily newspapers that divulged their t at year-end en eport (employm gures reported all-white 1994 r t fi en employm 1993). The Wall Street Journal peaked in newsrooms. e New York Times in 2003 and The 2000, Th es in 2000. eles Tim or Knight Foundation g eport f Los An al r u d ann This thir 107

108 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA employment at America’s four largest DIVERSE? W APERS: NEWSP BIGGEST THE HO newspapers as a percentage of newsroom staffs since 1990. The charts on these pages trace nonwhite USA Today Yea r of peak minority employment: 1994 Nonwhite population of circulation area (national): 30.9% % 25 20 15 10 5 0 1990 2003 2004 2005 1992 1993 1994 1995 1991 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 The Wall Street Jour nal Yea r of peak minority employment: 2000 % Nonwhite population of circulation area (national): 30.9% 25 20 15 10 5 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 1990 1991 108

109 APPENDIX I: DEDMAN-DOIG REPORT New York Times The Yea r of peak minority employment: 2003 % Nonwhite population of circulation area (national): 30.9% 25 20 15 10 5 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Los Angeles Times Yea r of peak minority employment: 2000 Nonwhite population of circulation area: 58.2% % 25 20 15 10 5 0 2002 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1992 2003 2004 2005 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 109

110 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA a newspaper’s newsroom diversity. Gannett Other papers in the top 25 that are below Co. continues to be the leader, measured their peak level of employing journalists of by a Newsroom Diversity Index that com- color are New York Daily News (peaked in pares the share of jobs held by journalists 1995), The Washington Post (2004), The of color with the nonwhite share of the Dallas Morning News (2004), San Francisco population in the newspaper’s circulation Chronicle (1998), Newsday, Long Island area. Gannett’s index is 89 (100 equals (2002), The Star-Ledger, Newark (1998), Star parity with the circulation area). Tribune, Minneapolis (2001), The Philadel- phia Inquirer (2004), The Plain Dealer, Among the larger newspaper groups, Cleveland (1995) and The Miami Herald the average index of all their newspapers (1999). (weighted by circulation) is: Papers in the top 25 that reached their peak employment of nonwhites in 2005 are Rank Newspaper Company Average Newsroom th e Chi cago Tribune, Houston Chronicle, Diversity The Boston Globe, The Arizona Republic Index (Phoenix), The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, (100 =parity) Detroit Free Press, The Oregonian (Portland), 1 Gannett Co. (Va.) 89 St. Petersburg Times and The San Diego Knight Ridder (Calif.) 76 2 Union-Tribune. (Papers in the top 25 that .) McClatchy Co. (Calif 3 71 did not respond to the 2005 ASNE survey 4 New York Times Co. (N.Y.) 69 were the New York Post and Chicago Sun- 5 Cox Enterprises (Ga.) 66 Times.) 6 Advance (Newhouse) (N.Y 63 .) 7 59 Freedom Communications (Calif.) FEW REA CH P ARITY 7 P ulitzer (Mo.) 59 9 Scripps (Ohio) 56 Comparing newspapers with their commu- T 10 ribune Co. (Ill.) 55 nities, only 13 percent of those responding 11 Dow Jones (N.Y.) 52 to the survey have reached ASNE’s goal of ashington P .C.) 48 12 ost (D W parity between newsroom and community. Lee Enterprises (Iowa) 13 47 That’s the same share as 2004. 47 MediaNews Group (Colo.) 13 45 .) Hearst Newspapers (N.Y 15 Even that figure gives an optimistic portrait, Copley Press (Calif.) 16 43 because the researchers use figures from Community Newspaper Holdings 17 the 2000 Census. The nonwhite population 41 (Ala.) ow rapidly, putting ued to gr tin has con Belo (Texas) 40 18 ASNE’s goal of parity farther out of reach 39 19 Media General (Va.) . In most communities, a news- each year 32 20 Liberty Group Publishing (Ill.) e percentage of e sam g th tainin ain paper m 24 Journal Register (N.J.) 21 nonwhite staff would be losing ground Hollinger International (Ill.) 22 22 . each year 21 Morris Communications (Ga.) 23 19 24 Horizon Publications (Ill.) TTERS ANY MA COMP 18 Paxton Media Group (Ky.) 25 12 a.) .V Ogden Newspapers (W 26 actor in determining e f g ership is a lar Own 110

111 APPENDIX I: DEDMAN-DOIG REPORT of color, or whether the percentage (How the index is calculated: The Newsroom increased as white journalists left. Diversity Index is the percentage of non- white newsroom staff divided by the percent- age of nonwhite residents in the circulation Many newsrooms have downsized in recent area. Parity equals 100.) years through involuntary layoffs, voluntary buyouts or attrition. Those cuts would The list is led by companies with well-known tend to affect an older, and therefore more programs that reward managers—with white group of journalists. If the newsroom bonuses – for the recruitment of journalists shrinks, and whites leave, the nonwhite of color. percentage can increase without a single additional journalist of color being hired. Some of the larger chains appear to have In 2005, ASNE reported that newsrooms a farm team of journalists at their smaller have lost more than 2,200 journalists newspapers, ready to move up to the larger since 2001, a 4 percent decline, while the ewspapers n . Leaving out USA Today, f journalists of color has increased n umber o Gannett’s other newspapers have a combined by 700, or nearly 11 percent. score of 103 – greater nonwhite employment than the nonwhite share of their circula- Without the industry contraction, presum- tion areas. ably the records on nonwhite hiring would look worse at many newspapers. Even with IT COULD BE W ORSE the contraction, most newspapers are below their peak nonwhite employment, as a How can the industry generally show share of the staff. improvement in the ASNE surveys, even though many papers are falling behind? ALL-WHITE NEWSROOMS It is clear that the increase in the employ- The number of newspapers reporting an ment of journalists of color at some news- all-white newsroom declined a bit. There papers is masking a decline at others. were 346 such newspapers in 2005 and 374 the year before. Their editors reported And some papers that are below their no journalists of color. As a share of all historic peaks have made small gains in newspapers responding to ASNE’s survey, recent years. Fifty-seven percent of the the all-white papers were 37 percent in largest 200 papers increased their percent- 2005, down from 40 percent in 2004. age of nonwhite staff in 2004, while 32 f the broader list of all newspapers t o y of these all-white news- cen an per ough m Alth increased. (These figures reflect only those papers are small, they have a combined esponding to the surveys.) r day circulation of 3,337,478 – about week oday and The New York A T S f U e total o th Times combined. Another factor is that ASNE does not e the raw number of nonwhite divulg eports only the percentage e the 486 t r d . I clu alists oesn’t in journ That all-white list d of a newspaper’s staff that is nonwhite. daily newspapers that ignored the annual ASNE survey. Of those, 275 papers reported So it is difficult to know whether a paper eport eir latest r oom on th ewsr umber of its journalists an all-white n e n eased th cr truly in 111

112 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA in a previous year. So the latest evidence Sumter, S.C., and Liberal, Kan.? These five from 44 percent of all newspapers (621 out communities have a majority of nonwhites of 1,410) showed entirely white newsrooms. in the newspapers’ circulation areas, and all their editors reported having an entirely white newsroom. Another 40 all-white Many of these all-white papers are in newsrooms serve communities where at least relatively white communities, but not all: a quarter of the population is nonwhite. What do Greenwood, Miss., and Rocky Ford, Colo., have in common with Plainview, Texas, Here are the top five U.S. daily newspapers reporting no journalists of color, ranked by nonwhite population in their circulation areas: Circulation Newspaper, Weekday Source Ownership Rank Staff for area State nonwhite circulation nonwhite percentage circulation area percentage 7,607 ZIP Codes 66.2 1 The Greenwood Commonwealth, Emmerich Newspapers 0.0 Mississippi (Miss.) Rocky Ford Daily Gazette, 3,013 Home City 59.7 2 Rocky Ford Publishing 0.0 Colorado Plainview Daily Herald, T Hearst Newspapers 0.0 6,481 Home 54.9 3 exas County (N.Y .) . 54.3 .C. H.D . Osteen Jr , S 0.0 21,389 ZIP Codes 4 The Item, Sumter 50.6 Southwest Daily Times, Lancaster family 0.0 4,250 Home 5 County Liberal, Kan. Nor are all the all-white newsrooms in tiny communities. The all-white newsrooms with the culati aily cir est d g lar e: on ar Ownership Newspaper, Circulation Weekday Rank area State circulation nonwhite percentage Billings Gazette, Lee Enterprises 47,105 1 10.8 (Iowa) Montana The Pantagraph, Pulitzer 9.5 47,083 2 (Mo.) Bloomington, Ill. 8.2 Journal Register 42,463 3 The Macomb Daily, (N.J.) Mount Clemens, Mich. Northrop family , eporter -R Observer 5.1 33,714 4 a. ashington, P W The Scranton Times Times-Shamrock 4.0 32,745 5 (Pa.) ribune, and The T ennsylvania P 112

113 APPENDIX I: DEDMAN-DOIG REPORT reports by ZIP code, the report shows the WHY THIS REPORT? racial and ethnic breakdown in each ZIP code, the household income, and sales per Since 1978, the American Society of household. Newspaper Editors has urged editors to improve news coverage by employing at The Knight Foundation report is intended to least enough journalists of color to reflect help journalists, newspaper readers and com- their diverse communities. ASNE asks munity leaders discuss such questions as: papers to report the percentage of editors, reporters, copy and layout editors, and â In which communities and neighborhoods photographers who are black, Hispanic, does our newspaper sell well? Or poorly? Asian or Native American. In 2005, ASNE â Are the low-sales neighborhoods again reported slow progress in total explained by household incomes? By nonwhite employment, as a result falling competition from other papers? Do race, further behind the growing nonwhite city an ethni d language play a role? f the nation. populati on o â Does our newspaper have more readers in nonwhite areas than we had thought? Although ASNE’s report shows each news- Or fewer? paper’s nonwhite employment, it does not Is our newspaper missing a business â disclose how close that paper is to ASNE’s opportunity? Would having more reporters goal, nor which papers are moving closer and editors of color help the paper get to the goal. more news of interest to readers of color? Even with the current staff, what steps The Knight Foundation report builds on the can the newspaper take to raise its aware- ASNE survey by showing which newspapers, ness of news of interest to all readers? and newspaper chains, are closer to the â When did our newspaper’s nonwhite ASNE goal than others. It compares the news- staffing reach its peak? What has hap- room staffing, as reported to ASNE, with pened since? What are the barriers to the circulation area population, using hiring and retaining journalists of color? figures from the Audit Bureau of Circulations â What explains the persistent number of and the U.S. Census. all-white newsrooms, even in communities with many readers of color? The report – on the web at – http://powerreporting.com/knight includes a separate web page for each of 1,410 daily newspapers, showing its history white employment from 1990 to on f n o 2005; a Diversity Index comparing the ewsroom nonwhite employment with its n y- on; a compan ea’s populati on ar culati cir wide Diversity Index; a role model (another ewspaper of similar size and circumstance n ex) and details d er Diversity In gh with a hi on the race and ethnicity of the circulation area and the home county. In addition, dited sales e 866 papers that file au or th f 113

114 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA parity between the newsroom and DISCUSSION T OPICS community, unchanged since the 2004 1. How close are most newspapers to report and up slightly from the 11 percent parity with their circulation areas? in 2003. Only 36 percent of newspapers are even The rarities are still the dailies reaching halfway to the goal, up from 34 percent ASNE’s goal. Only 13 percent of newspapers 2004. responding to the survey have reached H ere’s how newspapers were dispersed by Newsroom Diversity Index, which compares the newsroom nonwhite percentage with the community nonwhite percentage. (100 = parity.) Percent of Newspapers reporting Number of Newspapers Reporting 2004 2005 2005 2003 2004 2003 101 123 120 13% 11% 100 percent parity or better 13% 8% 61 61 75 to 99 percent 7% 7% 74 14% 129 132 136 50 to 74 percent 14% 15% 21% 169 191 18% 195 25 to 49 percent 21% 6% 75 73 57 1 to 24 percent 8% 8% 37% 372 374 346 40% 40% All-white newsrooms 114

115 APPENDIX I: DEDMAN-DOIG REPORT 2. How many newspapers are at their and many of those had never reported a high-water mark? nonwhite employee. For a historical perspective, the study looked Of those 924 papers: at ASNE surveys from 1990 through 2005. 168 papers (18 percent) were at their â peak, and reported at least one Of the 200 largest papers, 176 reported nonwhite journalist. their employment figures for the latest 410 papers (44 percent) were below â year. Each of these reported at least one their peak, and reported at least one nonwhite employee. Of those 176 papers: nonwhite journalist. â 48 papers (27 percent) were at their peak. 187 papers (20 percent) had at some â 128 papers (73 percent) were below â point employed a nonwhite journalist, their peak. but fell back to an all-white newsroom in 2005. Of all 1,410 papers, 924 reported their 159 papers (17 percent) reported an â employment for the latest year. The picture all-white newsroom, and have not for those papers is more complicated reported a nonwhite employee for any because so many had all-white newsrooms, year since 1990. Here are the peak years of nonwhite employment for the 75 largest newspapers, along with th eir peak n onwhite staff percentage and their latest percentage. The 2005 ASNE report, issued in April 2005, reflects employment at the end of the previous year. Rank Peak Newspaper, Community Peak Latest Latest year by State nonwhite nonwhite nonwhite year of size nonwhite population staffing staffing reporting (% of staff) staffing % (% of staff) 1 1994 17.2 2005 USA Today (Va.) 30.9 21.4 The Wall Street Journal 18.2 16.7 2005 2000 2 30.9 (N.Y.) 17.1 30.9 3 16.7 2005 2003 The New York Times (N.Y.) 4 2000 Los Angeles Times 58.2 20.6 19.0 2005 (Calif.) 17.2 2005 20.9 65.0 .) Daily News (N.Y 1995 5 6 2004 The Washington Post (D.C.) 43.2 22.6 21.4 2005 7 1994 New York Post (N.Y.) 40.3 17.3 13.9 2001 28.5 17.7 17.7 2005 ribune (Ill). Chicago T 2005 8 2005 9 2005 Houston Chronicle (Texas) 51.2 21.3 21.3 115

116 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Peak Newspaper, Peak Latest Latest Rank Community State by nonwhite year nonwhite year of nonwhite staffing staffing size nonwhite population reporting (% of staff) staffing % (% of staff) 40.9 20.2 14.8 2005 2004 10 The Dallas Morning News (Texas)* San Francisco Chronicle (Calif.) 46.8 11 16.8 2005 1998 20.7 2002 33.9 26.1 25.7 2005 12 Newsday, Long Island (N.Y.) The Boston Globe (Mass.) 20.0 20.0 2005 2005 13 16.9 2005 32.8 24.2 24.2 2005 14 The Arizona Republic (Phoenix, Ariz.) 1996 Chicago Sun-Times (Ill.) 50.3 15 23.0 1996 23.0 16 The Star-Ledger (Newark, N.J.) 36.8 23.4 19.8 2005 1998 2005 The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (Ga.) 23.0 23.0 2005 17 38.1 Star Tribune (Minneapolis, Minn.) 2005 14.6 14.5 2001 18 14.6 2004 a.) 22.3 18.5 17.2 2005 19 The Philadelphia Inquirer (P 1995 The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio) 24.5 20 14.8 2005 17.9 21 Detroit Free Press (Mich.) 28.1 29.2 29.2 2005 2005 2005 18.8 18.2 22 18.8 2005 The Oregonian (Portland, Ore.) 23 St. P etersburg Times (Fla.) 15.8 16.5 16.5 2005 2005 24 1999 The Miami Herald (Fla.)* 70.1 46.8 29.9 2005 25 2005 45.5 17.1 17.1 2005 The San Diego Union-Tribune (Calif.) 2005 The Orange County R .) 48.8 27.4 27.4 2005 26 egister (Santa Ana, Calif The Sacramento Bee (Calif.) 30.4 2004 29.2 2005 27 35.0 2005 21.4 16.4 16.4 2005 28 St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Mo.) 2004 The Kansas City Star (Mo.) 29 17.9 17.3 2005 20.4 30 The Denver Post (Colo.) 27.5 18.5 18.5 2005 2005 2005 14.1 25.0 31 14.1 2005 Rocky Mountain News (Denver, Colo.) 32 The Sun (Baltimore, Md.) 33.9 19.6 15.9 2005 1991 33 2003 San Jose Mercury News (Calif .) 52.6 33.2 32.1 2005 34 1992 32.0 20.5 18.9 2005 Orlando Sentinel (Fla.) 2005 43.6 17.1 17.1 2005 35 The Times-Picayune (New Orleans, La.) 2005 The Indianapolis Star (Ind.) 20.0 36 14.4 2005 14.4 The Columbus Dispatch (Ohio) 17.8 5.5 5.5 1991 1991 37 38 1995 Boston Herald (Mass.) 24.1 11.2 5.5 2003 39 2005 22.5 19.2 19.2 2005 Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Wis.) Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pa.) 13.2 10.8 9.6 2005 1993 40 41 2005 South Florida Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale) 36.1 28.3 28.3 2005 42 1998 The Seattle Times (Wash.) 24.7 23.6 20.9 2005 *The diversity numbers do not include the journalists working for the newspaper’s separate Spanish-language publication. 116

117 APPENDIX I: DEDMAN-DOIG REPORT Newspaper, Rank Latest Latest Community Peak Peak nonwhite nonwhite year year of by State nonwhite reporting staffing size nonwhite population staffing % (% of staff) (% of staff) staffing 9.8 9.8 2005 The Tampa Tribune (Fla.) 2005 43 32.4 57.9 31.2 30.6 2005 44 2004 San Antonio Express-News (Texas) 27.2 The Charlotte Observer (N.C.) 16.3 2005 45 2001 17.1 21.6 26.2 2005 The Detroit News (Mich.) 26.2 46 2005 32.8 22.5 21.0 47 2004 Fort Worth Star-Telegram (Texas) 2005 The Courier-Journal (Louisville, Ky.) 15.7 13.8 13.8 2005 2005 48 The Virginian-Pilot (Norfolk, Va.) 39.1 14.0 13.7 2005 49 2000 2005 24.4 25.5 25.5 2005 50 The Oklahoman (Oklahoma City) The Buffalo News (N.Y.) 51 10.9 2005 16.5 2003 12.1 orld-Herald (Neb.) 2005 6.8 6.5 Omaha W 52 2003 12.1 21.1 16.3 11.1 2005 1999 53 Hartford Courant (Conn.) St. Paul Pioneer Press (Minn.) 13.9 18.0 54 2005 2002 17.9 2005 36.6 12.9 12.9 2005 55 Richmond Times-Dispatch (Va.) The Cincinnati Enquirer (Ohio) 11.8 16.2 1993 2005 56 15.6 2005 49.4 25.0 25.0 2005 57 The Press-Enterprise (Riverside, Calif.) 2005 Contra Costa Times (Walnut Creek, Calif.) 39.0 19.9 19.9 2005 58 1991 59 ock) 21.7 14.1 8.5 1992 Arkansas Democrat- Gazette (Little R Los Angeles Daily News (Calif.) 60 16.7 2005 52.3 1999 17.8 37.9 23.6 2005 Austin American-Statesman (Texas) 23.6 2005 61 ecord (Hack 62 34.9 16.5 15.5 2005 2003 The R ensack, N.J.) The Tennessean (Nashville, Tenn.) 19.5 20.9 63 2005 1994 20.2 2004 19.0 17.6 2005 64 The Palm Beach Post (West Palm Beach, Fla.) 30.9 The P 2001 17.3 9.4 5.4 1997 65 rovidence Journal (R.I.) 1998 ochester Democrat and Chronicle (N.Y .) 17.9 16.7 15.3 2005 66 R 1997 The Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville) 29.6 18.8 10.4 2004 67 2005 68 21.0 21.0 2005 The News & Observer (Raleigh, N.C.) 30.8 The Commercial Appeal (Memphis, Tenn.) 14.8 10.6 2005 69 2000 48.1 Asbury Park Press (Neptune, N.J.) 15.3 13.3 2005 11.2 1997 70 71 2003 The Fresno Bee (Calif.) 57.6 30.6 25.0 2005 1993 Las Vegas Review-Journal (Nev.) 39.3 8.2 8.2 1993 72 8.3 12.5 12.3 2005 The Des Moines Register (Iowa) 2004 73 2005 Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, Ill.) 22.6 7.7 7.7 2005 74 1995 Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Wash.) 27.0 15.3 14.0 2005 75 117

118 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Three-year trend (163 papers reporting in 3. How many newspapers are increasing both 2005 and 2002): their employment of journalists of color? More than half of the largest newspapers â 69 percent moved higher â 29 percent moved lower employed a higher percentage of journalists 2 percent stayed the same â of color in 2005 than a year earlier. Five-year trend (165 papers reporting in Looking at the raw ASNE figures for the both 2005 and 2000): top 200 newspapers, there were 164 reporting employment for those two years. â 67 percent moved higher Their trend: 30 percent moved lower â â â 57 percent improved, raising newsroom 2 percent stayed the same nonwhite percentages in the previous year â t declined, lowering nonwhite cen 39 per end (152 papers reporting in en-year tr T percentages both 2005 and 1995): 4 percent stayed the same â 68 percent moved higher â â 32 percent moved lower Among newspapers of all sizes, gainers and 0 percent stayed the same â losers were about even. There were 777 newspapers reporting employment for both All newspapers 2005 and 2004. Their trend: Improvement has been slower among 32 percent improved, raising nonwhite â smaller newspapers, with fewer than half journalist percentages of all the papers showing gains, even over a decade. â 22 percent declined, lowering nonwhite percentages 46 percent stayed the same â One-year trend (777 papers reporting in 2005 and 2004): Taking a longer view, newspapers can be 32 percent increased their nonwhite â compared on their trends over one year, staffing percentage three years, five years and 10 years: â 22 percent moved lower â 46 percent stayed the same Largest 200 daily papers A steady one-third of the large newspapers oving, even over 10 years. d (730 papers reporting in ot impr en e n ee-year tr ar Thr both 2005 and 2002): e-year trend (164 papers reporting in On er gh oved hi d 2004): t m both 2005 an cen â 43 per 25 percent moved lower â cent stayed the same cent moved higher, increasing 32 per â â 57 per g percentage white staffin on eir n th Five-year trend (715 papers reporting in â 39 percent moved lower both 2005 and 2000): â 4 percent stayed the same 118

119 APPENDIX I: DEDMAN-DOIG REPORT heavily as well. Ownership of the 46 percent moved higher â newspaper clearly is one. But some other 28 percent moved lower â factors that can’t readily be measured play â 26 percent stayed the same a role, such as desire to meet the goal, desirability of the community as a place to Ten-year trend (691 papers reporting in live, racial change in the community, the both 2005 and 1995): reputation of a newspaper, the supply of nonwhite journalists in that area, and the 45 percent moved higher â extent of the newspaper’s recruiting. 27 percent moved lower â 29 percent stayed the same â 4. How many of the largest newspapers have staffs that are as diverse as their A final way of examining the pattern is a communities? statistical analysis of the data, which does offer evidence that many newspapers are s this chart sh A ows, there was some sen sitive to buildin g newsrooms that look improvement at the top for the largest 100 something like the communities they newspapers in 2005, with three more serve. The analysis shows a moderately newspapers reaching at least 75 percent of strong relationship between the parity, for a total of 28. But more than one percentage of nonwhite employees in the out of every four large newspapers newspapers’ circulation areas and the remained below half of parity. percentage of nonwhite journalists. In other words, the greater the nonwhite Among the top 100, the Newsroom percentage of the community, the more Diversity Index at these 14 newspapers likely a newspaper is to have a larger reached or exceeded parity: proportion of nonwhite journalists. But the analysis shows that the pattern Rank Newsroom Name Diversity across the industry does not come near the Index ASNE ideal of parity. Of the newspapers (100=parity) that reported to ASNE, the analysis shows 1 The Akron Beacon Journal 177 that every 10-point increase in community The Knoxville News-Sentinel 2 160 nonwhite percentage is accompanied by 3 The Des Moines Register 148 only about a 4 point increase in newsroom 129 St. Paul Pioneer Press 4 percentage. But this is an overall view; 5 The Post-Standard (Syracuse, N.Y.) 127 there is a great deal of variation from . The outliers are ewspaper ewspaper to n n 121 The Detroit News 6 the few newspapers that have reached the 119 7 The Boston Globe oal of parity and the many others still g 105 The Oklahoman (Oklahoma City) 8 alists. white journ on o n ck at zer stu 104 St. Petersburg Times 9 Detroit Free Press 104 10 e analysis also shows that about 41 per- Th 11 103 The Tennessean (Nashville) ation in newsroom percentage e vari f th t o cen 103 12 The Oregonian (Portland) across newspapers can be predicted by the 13 Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 102 corresponding community percentage, but 14 102 Lexington Herald-Leader actors figure er f s that oth ean that m 119

120 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA ABOUT THE RESEARCHERS Bill Dedman is managing editor for The Telegraph in Nashua, N.H. He is a former correspondent for The Boston Globe, where he wrote investigative articles, helped other reporters and editors, and trained the staff in computer-assisted reporting. While at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, he received the 1989 Pulitzer Prize in investigative reporting for “The Color of Money,” a series of articles on racial discrimination by mortgage lenders. His Power Reporting site on the web is used by many journalists as a starting point for research, and he has led . seminars in more than 100 newsrooms [email protected] . E-mail him at Stephen K. Doig holds the Knight Chair in Journalism, specializing in computer-assisted reporting at Arizona State University. Bef ore joining ASU in 1996, he was research editor of The Miami Herald, where he worked for 19 years . V arious computer-assisted projects on which he worked at The Herald have won the Pulitzer Prize for public service, the Investigative Reporters and Editors A ward, the Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting, and other awards. He is on the board o f directors o f Investigative Reporters and Editors. E-mail him at . [email protected] ormation e inf e to find mor Wher e web at eport is on th e full r Th http://powerreporting.com/knight/ 120

121 APPENDIX II: RADIO-TELEVISION REPORT Minority Broadcasters: No Progress in TV; Falling Behind in Radio By Bob Papper at 7.9 percent, compared with 11.8 per- cent the year before. Except for last year, minority numbers in radio news have SUMMARY generally slipped since stringent Equal Employment Opportunity rules were Television news departments are holding eliminated in 1998. steady in their employment of minorities, according to a 2005 survey of broadcast The numbers for news directors were mixed, journalists. But radio news is falling behind, with the percentage of minority TV news the annual survey by the Radio and Tele- directors down slightly to 12 percent (from vision News Directors Association and Ball 12.5 percent for 2004), while minority State University shows. radio news directors rose substantially to 11 percent (from 8 percent). In television, the minority work force remained largely unchanged at 21.2 percent, The bigger picture remains unchanged. compared with 21.8 percent in the 2004 Over the past 15 years, the minority work survey. force in TV news has risen 3.4 percent. At th e same time, the minority population in At non-Hispanic stations, the minority the United States has increased 7.3 percent. work force also remained largely steady at Overall, the minority work force in TV has 19.5 percent, compared with 19.8 percent been at 20 percent – plus or minus 3 the year before. percent – for every year in the past 15. Some years it edges up, sometimes down, After a jump in the 2004 minority radio but there has been no consistent change. numbers, the percentage fell for 2005. The Radio is worse, with the minority percentage minority work force in radio news came in in news down from 15 years ago. Minority P opulation vs. Minority Broadcast Work Force 2005 2004 2000 1995 1990 Minority Population in U.S. 32.8% 30.9% 27.9% 25.9% 33.2% Minority TV Work Force 21.2 21.8 21.0 17.1 17.8 Minority Radio Work Force 7.9 11.8 10.0 14.7 10.8 . Census Bureau .S Source for population data: U 121

122 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Broadcast News Work Force 1995 2000 2004 Television 2005 79.0% 78.2% 78.8% 82.9% Caucasian 11.0 10.1 10.3 10.3 African American Hispanic 8.7 8.9 7.0 4.2 3.0 2.2 2.2 1.9 Asian American 0.6 0.3 Native American 0.5 <1.0 1995 Radio 2005 2004 2000 90.0% Caucasian 85.3% 88.2% 92.1% African American 0.7 7.3 5.7 5.0 Hispanic 6.0 3.0 7.5 3.9 1.0 Asian American 0.6 0.7 0.2 1.0 1.0 0.4 0.5 Native American The minority TV news work force is down elimination of the strict EEO guidelines. slightly – 21.2 percent for 2005 compared The employment of Hispanics, Asian with 21.8 percent the year before. African Americans and Native Americans in radio Americans remained the same, but all news increased over 2004, but African- other minority groups dropped slightly. American employment all but disappeared. Among non-Hispanic stations, the minority Unfortunately, even as the number of radio percentage was essentially unchanged at stations contacted for the survey goes up 19.5 percent, down slightly from the each year, the number returning the survey previous year’s 19.8 percent. continues to fall. That means the radio numbers tend to fluctuate, depending on The percentage of minorities in radio news which stations return the surveys and dropped from 11.8 percent to 7.9 percent. where those stations are located. And That puts the number more in line with radio consolidation makes year-to-year past minority percentages since the s even m comparison cult. or e diffi 122

123 APPENDIX II: RADIO-TELEVISION REPORT Broadcast News Directors 2000 Television 2005 1995 2004 92.1% 88.0% 87.5% 86.0% Caucasian African American 3.2 3.9 3.0 1.6 9.0 Hispanic 5.8 6.7 3.8 Asian American 1.3 1.3 2.0 1.5 <1.0 1.3 1.0 Native American 1.0 2005 2004 2000 1995 Radio 94.0% 92.0% Caucasian 89.0% 91.4% African American 0.0 2.7 3.0 5.4 Hispanic 8.8 2.7 2.0 2.4 Asian American 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.7 2.2 Native American 0.8 Minority news directors were most likely to The percentage of minority TV news directors work in the biggest markets but were also slid to 12 percent from 12.5 percent in most likely to be in the smallest news 2004, although it’s still the third highest departments. CBS affiliates were the most ever. The percentage of African-American likely to have minority news directors, and news directors rose and Asian-American minorities were most likely to be news news directors held steady, but the percent- directors in the South and West. age of Native American and Hispanic news directors dropped. In radio, the percentage of minority news directors rose from 8 percent in 2004 to 11 At non-Hispanic stations, the minority percent the next year. Minorities in radio percentage actually rose from 8.1 percent were a little more likely to be news directors in 2004 to 8.4 percent. Excluding Hispanic at noncommercial than commercial stations stations, Hispanic news directors make up and more likely to be in the biggest 2.8 percent of TV news directors. That’s up markets and in the Northeast. They were 0.4 percent from last year. African-American ed stati ons. oup-own ose even m ore, from 3.2 less lik ely to be at gr ectors r ews dir TV n percent to 3.9 percent. Asian-American news directors held steady at 1.3 percent, ectors fell ews dir can n eri ative Am but N from 1.3 percent to 1 percent. 123

124 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Women in the Local Broadcast Work Force Women News Women as Average News Staffs TV News With Women Directors Percentage of Number of Work Force Women on Staff 39.3% All Television 99.0% 21.3% 14.3 Network affiliates 99.1 15.1 38.9 20.8 Independents 100.0 17.6 39.4 11.9 DMA* 1-25 96.8 39.0 39.0 22.7 19.2 21.5 DMA 26-50 100.0 40.0 38.0 100.0 DMA 51-100 18.0 14.2 DMA 101-150 98.6 17.1 40.7 11.3 7.3 18.2 98.2 DMA151+ 39.0 Staff 51+ 31.5 100.0 26.4 40.0 Staff 31-50 14.9 37.7 16.9 100.0 100.0 17.2 38.1 9.6 Staff 21-30 100.0 Staff 11-20 24.4 42.1 6.7 3.3 Staff 1-10 91.2 47.8 19.4 Radio News Women as Women News News Staffs Average Directors Percentage of Number of With Women Work Force Women on Staff All R adio 47.6% 24.7% 27.5% 1.1 2.9 30.8 33.7 90.0 et Major Mark Large Market 80.0 35.3 32.3 2.0 40.7 23.8 0.7 25.0 Medium Mark et 0.4 Small Mark et 23.3 16.1 18.6 *Designated Market Area, the term A.C. Nielsen uses to rank the country’s television markets. The numbers refer to the size of the market, with DMA 1-25, for example, indicating the largest market in the nation. M ajor markets are those with one million lar gest markets and at the largest news or m ore listeners. Large markets are from departments. NBC affiliates were the most edium markets on; m e milli 250,000 to on likely to have women news directors, and are 50,000 to 250,000; and small markets they were most likely to be in the Northeast. ers. e fewer than 50,000 listen ar Radio news numbers were also little The numbers for women in TV news were changed. Generally, the bigger the market, ged from 2004, although women little chan the greater the likelihood of finding a or the second year opped f r ectors d ews dir n woman news director and the higher the in a row (from 25.2 percent to 21.3 percent percentage of women in the news e other hand, women were in 2005). On th department. Women in the radio work force e very ectors in th ews dir ely to be n ost lik m were most likely to be in the South and 124

125 APPENDIX II: RADIO-TELEVISION REPORT Minorities in the Local Broadcast Work Force Minorities as Minority News News Staffs TV News Average With Minorities Directors Percentage of Number of Work Force Minorities on Staff All Television 21.2% 12.0% 87.2% 7.4 Network affiliates 7.7 5.3 20.0 87.2 5.6 18.6 20.0 96.4 Independents 29.0 DMA* 1-25 90.3 14.3 16.9 11.9 22.1 12.0 DMA 26-50 100.0 6.7 DMA 51-100 9.4 93.0 18.0 4.8 DMA 101-150 85.7 13.6 17.4 7.0 67.3 DMA 151+ 2.7 14.7 17.2 21.8 28.1 98.2 Staff 51+ Staff 31-50 97.8 14.6 19.1 7.5 4.2 16.7 8.6 83.3 Staff 21-30 Staff 11-20 74.5 9.8 22.7 3.6 33.6 Staff 1-10 64.7 3.9 2.3 Radio News News Staffs Average Minorities as Minority News With Minorities Directors Percentage of Number of Minorities on Staff W ork Force 0.3 All R adio 11.0% 7.9% 17.1% 10.5 Major Mark 7.7 40.0 et 0.9 et 40.0 11.8 9.7 0.6 Large Mark Medium Mark et 7.4 12.9 2.5 0.1 Small Mark et 6.7 10.0 7.1 0.2 *Designated Market Area, the term A.C. Nielsen uses to rank the country’s television markets. The numbers refer to the size of the market, with DMA 1-25, for example, indicating the largest market in the nation. West; women news directors were less There were few consistent trends for minori- ties in radio news, although minorities were likely to be in the West. ally most likely to be in larger markets er en g – a pattern that has been true for years. Minorities were most likely to be found in e biggest TV markets, with their numbers th et size fell. That has been ark g as m oppin r d the overall pattern in the past. The smallest ews departments were also the most n est percentage of gh e hi ely to have th lik minorities. Minorities were most likely to be in the South and West, but there was etwork affiliation. ce by n en n o differ 125

126 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA ABOUT THE SURVEY The 2005 RTNDA/Ball State University Annual Survey was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2004 among all 1,624 operating, nonsatellite television stations and a random sample of 1,509 radio stations. Valid responses came from 1,223 television stations (75.3 percent) and 103 radio news directors and general managers representing 417 radio stations. Data for women TV news directors are a complete census and are not projected from a smaller sample. apper is pro fessor o f telecommuni- Bob P cations at Ball State University and has ed e xtensively in radio and TV news . work Data entry and tabulation were done by the Bureau of Business Research at Ball State. This research was supported by the Department of Telecommunications at Ball State University and the Radio-Television ssociation. News Directors A Where to find more information e web at eport is on th e full r Th http://rtndf.org/news/2005/071105.shtml 126

127 APPENDIX III: AMERICAN JOURNALIST SURVEY The American Journalist in the 21st Century 1982, even though more women than ever By David Weaver and G. Cleveland Wilhoit are graduating from journalism school and entering the profession. Among journalists This survey continues the series of major with fewer than five years of work experi- national studies of U.S. journalists begun ence, 54.2 percent are women, outnumbering in 1971 by sociologist John Johnstone and men for the first time. Among all journalists, continued in 1982 and 1992 by David the largest proportion of women work for Weaver and G. Cleveland Wilhoit. Much as newsmagazines (43.5 percent) and the the U.S. Census does for the general popu- smallest for the major wire services (20.3 lation, these studies provide an important percent) and radio (21.9 percent). Women measure of the pulse of U.S. journalism compose 37.4 percent of television journal- . every 10 years ists , 36.9 per cent of weekly newspaper journalists, and 33 percent of daily news- The latest survey, the fourth, was conducted paper journalists. in 2002 by researchers at Indiana University School of Journalism. Here are some of Compared to the U.S. civilian work force their key findings: in 2000, journalists are considerably less likely to be women (33 percent vs. 46.5 W OMEN JOURNALISTS: NO G AIN percent) and even less likely when compared to the overall U.S. managerial and profes- Women are still one-third of all full-time sional work force, which included 49.8 journalists working for the traditional main- percent women in 2000. Retention, then, stream media, as they have been since is an issue. Journalists of Color Gender centage of all journalists centage of all journalists Per Per 8.2% 79.7% 67.0% 66.2% 66.0% 5.0% 3.9% 34.0% 33.8% 33.0% 20.3% 1992 1992 2002 1971 1982-83 1982-83 1971 Female Male 127

128 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA IS PROGRESS LO MINORITY W the past few years have made a difference. Television employs the largest percentage Overall, full-time journalists of color working of people of color (14.7 percent) and for traditional news media have increased weekly newspapers the lowest (5.6 percent). slightly during the past decade. Still, the Daily newspapers are second with 9.6 percentage of full-time journalists of color percent, followed by the major wire services working for traditional news media is well (8.7 percent), radio (8.6 percent) and news- below the overall percentage of people of magazines (8.2 percent). color in the U.S. population (30.9 percent JOURNALISTS GRO W OLDER according to the 2000 U.S. Census). A more appropriate comparison may be with The median age of full-time U.S. journalists the percentage of college degree holders is increasing. In 1992, the average age of who are people of color (24 percent accord- journalists was 36; in 2002, it was 41. The ing to the 2000 U.S. Census), considering Gender tr d, which applies to journalists at daily en that a f our-year bach elor’s degree is now Per centage of all journalists and weekly newspapers, radio and television, the minimum educational requirement for newsmagazines and wire services, reflects U.S. journalists. Among people of color, the aging of the baby boom generation. Asians are the most likely to hold college During the 1970s, boomers inflated the 25- degrees (43.9 percent), followed by blacks 79.7% to 34-year-old age bracket in the American (16.5 percent) and Hispanics (10.6 percent). 67.0% 66.2% 66.0% Journalist Survey. In the 1980s, they No separate census figures are reported for 5.0% inflated the 35- to 44-year-old group. In Native Americans or Pacific Islanders. 34.0% 33.8% 33.0% the 1990s, the boomers moved into the 20.3% 45- to 54-year-old age group, which Journalists of color are more likely to be increased from 14 percent of all journalists women (50 percent) than are white jour- to 28 percent. nalists (31.5 percent). Among all journalists 1992 1971 1971 2002 1982-83 with less than five years experience, 16.9 Male Female Compared to the 2000 U.S. civilian labor percent are people of color, suggesting that force, journalists in 2002 are considerably increased efforts to hire people of color in Journalists of Color Democratic Party A Age centage of all journalists Per Median for all journalists, in years 9.5% 41 8.2% 37 36 35.5% 32 5.0% 3.9% 2002 1971 1982-83 1992 1971 1982-83 1992 1971 2002 128

129 APPENDIX III: AMERICAN JOURNALIST SURVEY less likely to be younger than 24 years of with the Republican Party (31 percent, age (4.4 percent vs. 16.1 percent), more according to the Gallup poll mentioned likely to be 25 to 34 (29.3 percent vs. above). About one-third of all journalists 22.5 percent), about as likely to be 35 to (33.5 percent) said they were Independents, 44 (27.9 percent vs. 26.9 percent), more which is very close to the figure for all likely to be 45 to 54 (28.3 percent vs. U.S. adults (32 percent). Journalists in 21.6 percent), slightly less likely to be 55 2002 were much more likely than the to 64 (7.8 percent vs. 9.9 percent), and general public, however, to say that they about as likely to be 65 and older (2.3 were something other than Democrat, percent vs. 3 percent). Republican or Independent (10.5 percent vs. 1 percent). FEWER JOURNALISTS ARE DEMOCRA TS Compared with 1992, the percentage of Journalists of Color e journ full-tim alists who claim to be centage of all journalists Per Democrats had dropped 7 percentage points in 2002 to slightly above 37 percent, moving this figure closer to the overall 9.5% The survey at Indiana University School population percentage of 32 percent, 8.2% of Journalism was funded by the John S. according to a July 29-31, 2002, Gallup and James L. Knight Foundation. The authors national telephone poll of 1,003 adults. 5.0% are David Weaver, the Roy W. Howard This is the lowest percentage of journalists 3.9% 33.0% professor in journalism and mass commu- saying they are Democrats since 1971. nication research; G. Cleveland Wilhoit, professor emeritus of journalism; Randal Slightly more journalists said they were Beam, associate professor of journalism; Republicans in 2002 (18.6 percent) than 1982-83 1992 2002 1971 2002 Bonnie Brownlee, associate professor of in 1992 (16.3 percent), but the 2002 journalism; and Paul Voakes, associate figure is still notably lower than the professor of journalism. percentage of U.S. adults who identified ffiliation Democratic Party A Median for all journalists, in years centage of all journalists Per 44.1% 41 38.5% 37.1% 35.5% 2002 2002 1992 1982-83 1971 129

130 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA Study and Discussion Questions Afterward, write or discuss how you felt. A AMERICA NEW IN CHAPTER 1: NEWS Was it hard to strike up conversations? 1. The Society of Professional Journalists 2. Do you think you have biases? What asks journalists to seek “truth,” not “the are they? In what ways do they hinder you? Truth” in its ethics policy in the belief that Are they useful to you in some way? a universal, shared Truth does not exist. How might people have different ideas about 3. If your best sources on a general- the “truth” of an event, situation or idea? interest topic all come from the same To what extent, and with what substantia- demographic group, is it necessary to look tion, can journalists conclude that some- for more? Are there times when seeking thing is an impartial truth? diverse sour ew news coverage? ces can sk 2. Does an increase in newsroom staff 4. Producer Tom Jacobs and media analyst diversity always change coverage? What Hemant Shah assert that the news media else is necessary for inclusive journalism? covers events from a “white” point of view. What do you think? Would we see different 3. Based on trends today, what do you types of stories if it did or didn’t? What think the news media will look like in 2020? about an “able-bodied” point of view that In 2050? What kind of stories will be impor- assumes everyone is nondisabled? tant, and who will report them? 5. If The New York Times’ Bill Keller is right, 4. Look up the census data on your state how should large, mainstream newspapers and some of its major cities (See American http://www.census.gov/main/ stretch beyond their urban, culturally FactFinder at ). Does it meet your www/cen2000.html liberal orientation? own perceptions of the people who live there? Why or why not? 6. Should journalists think about the unconscious biases or viewpoints that they 5. Do you think that the news media in might trigger with their reporting, as homogeneous communities – where people documented by David Domke, Franklin D. are almost all the same race or ethnicity, Gilliam Jr., Shanto Iyengar and others? Or class, religion or age group – need to cover would that be another form of introducing f the prevailing group? e o d people outsi es? to stori as in bi Why or why not? refugee o you think of the term 7. What d s? ew Orlean OR F A CT om N HUMAN e evacuees fr THE escribe th CHAPTER 2: to d Based on Mahzarin Banaji’s findings, how o you think the coverage of Hurricane d ry going to a neighborhood or commu- 1. T t affect nonblack people’s un- gh e people are really a mi er atrin g wh K erin nity gath conscious perceptions of African Americans? different from you – because of their race, politics, language or disability, for instance. 130

131 Y AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS APPENDIX IV: STUD culture in the classroom? How can student THE PRESSURES IN NEWSROOM CHAPTER 3: publications create a welcoming environ- ment for all types of people? 1. Many newsroom employees feel they do their best to make journalists of color, those with disabilities or those who are DIVERSITY REFRAMING CHAPTER 4: gay, lesbian or bisexual feel comfortable. What questions would you ask these 1. Pick up a copy of a publication written reporters and editors to find out if hidden for immigrants, a community of color, biases are at work? homeless people, the older generation, people with disabilities, or gay, lesbian, 2. Do you think that white people are ever bisexual or transgender people. What stereotyped as racist, or men as sexist? differences from general circulation news How should they respond in that do you notice? Thinking as a reporter, did situation? Are there ways for them to ask you get any story ideas? questi on s or discuss their thoughts about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation or 2. Describe your own background. How do other social categories without offending you think your own personal history – your others or seeming biased? race, class, gender, generation, ideology or the place you grew up – might limit the 3. Most newsrooms are trying to add stories you see and the ways you report diversity to their staffs by paying attention them? As a journalist, how might they help to hiring women and people of color. or hurt your reporting? How do you think Should they also be working actively to you might expand your vision? hire gay, bisexual, lesbian or transgender people? What about people with disabilities? 3. Chapter Four makes the case that stan- Conservatives? Religious people? dard news values and priorities tilt news coverage toward a white, male, heterosexual 4. Look up some of the newsroom staffing and middle-class world. What do you data on newspapers in your region in think? Are there fresh ways to think about Stephen Doig and Bill Dedman’s database news values and editorial priorities that ). (http://www.powerreporting.com/knight/ might change this? Do they meet your expectations? Are these outlets’ demographics reflected in coverage? 4. William McGowan worries about a “diver- sity orthodoxy” in the news media. Is this 5. Do you worry about being stereotyped? something to be concerned about? How o you use In what ways? What techniques d actors could e? What f ag could it affect cover to influence what you think are other cause it, and what would the risks be? ceptions about you? people’s per dents er’s white stu agn enise W ow could V 5. H 6. Erna Smith and Herbert Lowe emphasize have asked their sources about race e importance of newsroom culture in th out having firsthand experience with with d openness. How can eativity an g cr osterin f on? ati discrimin students and professors create an open 131

132 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA 6. Do you agree with David Domke that journalists should stop trying to be fully objective? Where would you draw the line on conflict of interest? How would news coverage change? 7. Do you think there are important issues in society today that are not discussed because of the way the news media chooses to cover or not cover them? Thank you to professors Cristina Azocar, Beth Haller, Teresa Moore, Erna Smith and Venise Wagner and to author and inde- pendent journalist P eter Sussman f or their feedback on these questions. 132

133 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX Further Reading ranks top companies for recruitment and retention There are many excellent resources, from scholarly to news-based to personal essays, that can broaden and other aspects of a diverse work force, explaining journalists’ understanding of inclusive news coverage. their tactics for success in its pages. Many of those consulted for this book are listed Davey, Monica. “Decades After First Refugees, here, by chapter. Readying for More Hmong.” The New York Times, April 4, 2004. This article details the anticipated CHAPTER 1: NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA f 15,000 Hmong refugees in St. Paul, Minn., arrival o Newsroom American Society of Newspaper Editors and cities in California, Wisconsin and North . Carolina. The Hmong refugees, who had lived for Census. http://www.asne.org/index.cfm?id=5145 ofessional association for newspaper d after being driven years in a camp in Thailan (2004). This pr from their homes in the final days of the Vietnam editors each year surveys newspapers’ staff counts War, hoped to integrate into family and communi- of journalists of color and women. In 2005, out of ties established in the United States nearly 30 54,000 journalists across the country, 12.94 percent years ago. were journalists of color. Only one-third of super- visors , one-third of copy editors and reporters, and Dedman, Bill, and Stephen K. Doig. one-fourth of photographers were women. ASNE’s ewsr “N oom Diversity Has Passed its Peak at Most web site also in clu des information about its diversity Newspapers, 1990-2005 Study Shows.” John S. and initiatives, including the Time Out for Diversity James L. Knight Foundation (2005). and Accuracy program. . http://www.powerreporting.com/knight/ m d Doi g take the ASNE diversity numbers ssociation. sian American Journalists A A an an Ded http://www .aaja.org an d e them to the diversity in the popula- d compar an http://www.aaja.org/news/mediawatch/. tion that the newspapers serve. The report includes AAJA’s mission is to encourage Asian Americans a separate document on each paper, tracing its ders to become journalists, to work an d P acifi c I slan unity composi- staffin g history in r elati on to comm for fair and accurate coverage of Asian Americans tion. The authors also analyze the track record of and Pacific Islanders, and to increase the numbers newspaper companies. o f Asian American and Pacific Islander news The Black Entman, Robert, and Andrew Rojecki. managers. The AAJA web site features news about Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. th e or ganization, community news and reports on U cag niversity o f Chi ess , 2000. o Pr ews cover n ag e o cans. You’ll also find eri an Am si f A . This influential http://www.raceandmedia.com/ a stylebook for covering Asian Americans and its book documents how news and entertainment Media Watch page, which offers AAJA perspectives oad cast m edi a both reflect and help create the br on r an eports on n ews coverage concerns. d acti public’s perceptions of race. The authors, scholars e Top 10 Companies for Diversity: “Th Cole , Yoji. in comm unications and journalism, found overwhelm- What Makes Them Exemplary.” Diversity Inc. June- ingly negative portrayals of African Americans July 2004, 56-76, and other articles. The magazine across the media. As the publisher describes their and web site Diversity Inc. says its editorial conclusions: “While the authors find very little in mission is “to provide information and clarity on the media that intentionally promotes racism, they f diversity.” Its readership efits o al harmony. They ess ben aci e busin ces r th d even less that advan fin cludes senior management at large companies in eveal instead a subtle pattern of images that, r and smaller companies owned by women and while making room for blacks, implies a racial people of color. Diversity Inc. has developed a set hierarchy with whites on top and promotes a sense of benchmarks to help companies measure their of difference and conflict.” progress in diversity. In 2005, 203 companies Frey, William. http://www.frey-demographer.org/ participated in its in-depth diversity survey, which usdata.html . Demographer and sociologist William laid the foundation for its annual ranking of the Frey follows international and domestic migration most diverse U.S. companies. The magazine also 133

134 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA 2000. in the United States and its implications. His http://www.wilder.org/research/reports. This reports include looks at segregation, intermarriage, 20-page report summarizes the findings of a survey of 1,119 immigrants from a random sample of more and the shifting influence of age in the population. than 12,000 households in Twin Cities areas known His web site features a tool that enables users to to have a high portion of immigrants. It offers rare get a snapshot of population trends in their chosen city, state or region. insight into how and why they came to Minnesota, how they work and play there, and their hopes and Greenwald, Anthony. feelings of stress. The survey was part of a seven- http://faculty.washington.edu/agg/bydate.htm. week series on immigration that ran in the St. Paul Greenwald, a social psychologist at the University Pioneer Press. For the Pioneer Press projects page, o f Washington, and one of the inventors of the whi ch includes several series on immigrants, see http://www.twincities.com/mld/twincities/news/ Implicit Association Test, is an expert in social special_packages/special_projects/. cognition, learning, and unconscious attitudes and associ ations. The web site lists his many articles and books. Acceptance Speech, Helen McGruder, Robert. Thomas Diversity Award. Detroit Free Press (Jan. 26, Ho ward, Ina. 2002). “P ower Sources: On Party, Gender, Race an , TV N d Class owerful .htm. .freep.com/mcgruder/bgm_thomas ost P http://www e M ews Looks to th The Helen Thomas Spirit of Diversity Award is Groups.” Extra (May-June 2002). http://www.fair.org/extra/0205/power_sources.html. given annually by Wayne State University to honor In this study written for Extra by Media Tenor leadership in promoting diversity in the news d cover age of the issues of race in America. a an m edi In tern ati on al, an international media analysis firm t winners include former New York Times Recen based in Germ any, researchers reviewed the use of managing editor Gerald M. Boyd in 2003, retired sources in 18,765 news reports from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 2001. The scope included 14,632 sources on Detroit Free Press publisher Heath Meriwether in three network evening news programs: ABC World 2004 and Poynter Institute dean Keith Woods in ews Tonight, CBS Evening News and NBC Nightly N cGruder introduced listeners 2005. In his speech, M News. Researchers looked at political tilt as well as to three strong black women who “taught me what g I kn der and race. Women made up 15 percent of ow about diversity ,” and explained the Detroit en Free Press diversity initiatives. In conclusion, he the sources and men and women of color made up poin ething you have to fight for ted out, “I about 8 per cen t. t’s som each d ccessful.” ay to be su “Report of the National Kerner Commission. Media Tenor. Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders.” “It’s a Man’s World – Even More in the M ashin W gton: U.S. Governm t Printing Office, 1968. en edi a.” M edi a Tenor Quarterly 4 (September 2003), . This Media http://www.mediatenor.com http://historymatters.gmu.edu/search.php?function 36-37. oject =print&id=6553 al History Pr can Soci eri e Am . Th e portrayal of women alysis look ed at th T en or an and their use as sources in international broadcast on the web (CUNY and George Mason University) offers a rich resource of American history, from news. In his summary of the findings, Roland ginal documents to course syllabi. In its section ori Schatz, chi ef executive of Media Tenor, concluded, “Fem e Kerner Commission, the authors explain: on th ale politicians, scientists, entrepreneurs and “Pr esident Lyndon Johnson formed an 11-member ops only appear in one out of six news stories. bish can news dvisory Commission on Civil Disorders in d South Afri al A an an on ati us U.S., British, Germ N Th xplain the riots that plagued cities ormats do not even remotely reflect the real July 1967 to e f power distribution in their respective parliaments, each summer since 1964 and to provide recommen- governments and universities; let alone the question dations for the future. The Commission’s 1968 report, informally known as the Kerner Report, concluded of the effects that this type of news selection has on the perception of the developments inside and that the nation was ‘moving toward two societies, one black, one white – separate and unequal.’” outside of these countries.” ally Viable, But ci ch Center), and . aul (Wilder Resear er Mock, Ray “Gays on TV – Comm Mattessich, P ot Newsworthy?” Media Tenor Quarterly. (October, aul Pioneer Press). “Speaking for ate Parry N (St. P K Themselves: A Survey of Hispanic, Hmong, Russian 2003). http://www.mediatenor.com . This study of and Somali Immigrants in Minneapolis-Saint Paul.” gays on television news broadcasts found that 134

135 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX advancement of Hispanics in the news media and “before the nomination of the first openly gay media research. It emphasizes fair treatment in the Episcopal bishop in New Hampshire and the same- news and in newsrooms, including a greater under- sex marriage debate, there was no coverage of any standing of Latino journalists’ cultural identity, issues surrounding homosexuality on the news at interests and concerns. Its web site includes organ- all, neither in the U.S. nor in the U.K.,” Mock wrote. ization news, the Network Brownout Reports on Latinos in the news, a resource guide for covering Morrison, Peter. Latinos and a stylebook for Spanish-language http://www.rand.org/news/experts/bios/expert_ media. morrison_dr_peter_a.html . Morrison, founding director of RAND Population Research Center, is a soci ologist who tracks demographic trends and National Center on Disability and Journalism. This organization strives to envisions their consequences. You can find his http://www.ncdj.org. research and contact information on his web site. improve accuracy and fairness in the coverage of people with disabiliti es. Visit its web site for Th e RAND Population Matters Program focuses on information on its educational resources, internship population policy issues. programs and a discussion group for journalists http://www.rand.org/labor/popmatters/index.html. with disabiliti es. You’ll find a style guide on the atricia, David Domk xten d an e an site eith Stamm. , P e and K esources related to f r sive list o Mo y “The Spiral of Silence and Public Opinion on Affir- disability coverage among the links. mative Action.” Journalism and Mass Communication 78:1 (2001). 7–19. National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association. .nlgja.org .com.washington.edu/Program/Faculty/ http://www http://www . NLGJ A supports gay , lesbi an, . M oy, an associate professor of Faculty/moy.html xual and transgender journalists, aiming to bise communication at the University of Washington, enhance opportunities and fairness in the newsroom. and her colleagues evaluated attitudes about The organization also works for fair and accurate affirmative action using the “spiral of silence” treatment of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender eory developed by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann. th people in th e news, on issues such as same-sex This theory holds that people are less likely to marriage, parenting and adoption, gays in the xpr e ess opinions when they believe themselves to x education, civil liberties, gay-related military , se be in the minority. The team collected surveys ballot initiatives, gay bashing and anti-gay gton state ferry riders to find out their ashin om W fr . The NLGJA web site includes a stylebook ce vi olen willin ch al issue su oversi tr ess to speak on a con gn . ology on termin as affirmative action, then explored how it was Native American Journalists Association. associated with their use of the news media. The .naja.com. ove A works to impr NAJ http://www ch sugg team’s r esear ested that by givin g people communication among native people and between the information necessary to articulate their ideas N d the nonnative public. It acts s an can eri ative Am , “the news media have the on swer objecti d an an s and offers programs to enrich journalism and to potential to encourage more open and widespread promote native cultures. Its web site includes participation in political discussion.” ation news, member news, community links associ ssociation of Black Journalists. National A d the Reading Red reports on news coverage of an embers make .nabj.org http://www . NABJ’s 3,300 m ative Americans. “The American Indian and the N ganization for journalists of color est or g e lar thony Rolo, offers back- it th ark An a,” edited by M edi M e United States. NABJ focuses on strengthening in th ound on native issues and coverage concerns. gr ties among black journalists, supporting their work and efforts to climb the newsroom management Papper, Bob. “Running in Place: Minorities and ladder, and encouraging fairness in newsrooms. The Women in Television See Little Change, While NABJ web site includes news about the organization, Minorities Fare Worse in Radio.” Communicator information on workshops and awards, and resources (July-August 2005), 26-32. including an online stylebook and a code of ethics. http://www.rtnda.org/news/2005/071105.shtml d link to the report and its elease an ews r (n eakdowns by job category and market size). Each ssociation of Hispanic Journalists. br National A year, Bob Papper, professor of communications, http://www.nahj.org . With its 2,300 members, leads the Radio and Television News Directors/Ball NAHJ supports the recognition and professional 135

136 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA teristics. In American FactFinder you can look up State University broadcast newsroom survey. In fact sheets on communities down to the size of a 2004, all 1,624 operating, nonsatellite television census tract, which can range from 1,500 to 8,000 stations and a random sample of 1,509 local radio people. Details include race, age, gender, languages stations cooperated. He found that journalists of spoken, whether people rent or own their houses, color made up 21.2 percent of television newsrooms, how many cars they own and whether they have down slightly from 21.8 percent in 2003. Women plumbing. made up 39.3 percent, about the same as 39.1 in 2003. In local radio, the portion of journalists of Weaver, David, Randal Beam, Bonnie Brownlee, color dropped to 7.9 percent from 11.8 percent in “Journalists Paul Voakes and G. Cleveland Wilhoit. 2003. Women in radio rose to 27.5 percent from f Color Are Slowly Increasing.” The American o cent. (These proportions include the 22.4 per Journalist Survey, Indiana University, 2003. Spanish-language media.) http://www.poynter.org/content/content_view.asp? Th e percentage of journalists of color id=28787. ew Research Center for the People and the Press P “Media Credibility Declines: News Audiences remains well below that of the general U.S. Increasingly Politicized.” (2004). http://people- population. Among news operations, television .org/reports/display.php3?PageID=833 press e most; weekly newspapers the least. employs th .org/reports/ f th e stu d (overvi http://people-press d ew) an Oth y in clude information on er parts o display.php3?PageID=838 (credibility data). gender, income, education and political This report analyzes where people go for news and persuasion. how they feel about the quality of the information CHAPTER 2: THE th ettin e g g. News habits have remained fairly ey ar CTOR A F HUMAN stead y over the past couple of years, although New The Nature of Prejudice. Allport, Gordon. more people are watching cable television news York: Perseus Books Group, 1954, 25th anniversary and consulting the Internet than before. Credibility edition 1979. In this influential book, Harvard is slumping in both broadcast and print outlets. soci al psychologist Allport examined the roots of hostilities, rivalries and hateful ideologies. He Society of Professional Journalists. The SPJ Code xplain ed stereotyping, ethnic division, group e . Th .asp e http://www cs. f Ethi o .spj.org/ethics Rainbow Sourcebook and Diversity Toolbox, a search- behavior and other core aspects of bias both within e it easier for journalists to us an d in our soci able d onment. al envir atabase to m ak d voi . ews e n ces in th en perspectives an oad br SPJ is http://www.spj.org/rainbowsourcebook. American Association of Medical Colleges. dedicated to a free press, open government and Diversity Initiatives. 2004. hi gh journ http://www alisti c stan dards in the service of .htm. .org/diversity/initiatives .aamc The AAMC says it is working to increase diversity democracy. Diversity in journalism is a core cati in m edi cal ed u on and advance health care fessi o g with pr on, alon missi onal development, equality through programs for high school and freedom of information and ethics. college students considering medical school; sus Bureau Projects eau. U.S. Census Bur “Cen m edical school students; medical school faculty, T ripling of Hispanic and Asian Populations in 50 d administrators and graduates. staff, an Y ears; Non-Hispanic Whites May Drop to Half of ority ess release. 2004. e AMA Min ssociation. on.” Pr American Medical A Th opulati otal P T ealth Consortium monitors both professional H .census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/ http://www issues and public health-care issues. Statistics on The Census archives/population/001720.html. the number of female physicians can be found at projects: “Overall, the country’s population would http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/ continue to grow, increasing from 282.1 million in Statistics on physicians by 12928.html. 2000 to 419.9 million in 2050. From 2000 to 2050, race/ethnicity are at http://www.ama-assn.org/ the non-Hispanic white population would increase ama/pub/category/12930.html. from 195.7 million to 210.3 million, an increase of t.” The Census Bureau cen on or 7 per 14.6 milli ovides regular releases on population trends and wame Anthony, and Henry Louis Gates pr Appiah, K offers a useful database that can help you identify , eds. Jr. Africana: Civil Rights, an A-Z Reference of who lives in your area and some of their charac- . Philadelphia: the Movement that Changed America 136

137 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX Asian and white) with the category “American.” Running Press, 2004. A rich reference guide to the They asked for people’s conscious beliefs about people, events and places connected to the U.S. American identity, then checked both implicit and civil rights movement. explicit associations with the word. Astudillo, Rene. “Michelle Kwan Headline Continues to Haunt Us.” AAJA News Media Watch, 2002. For Dolhun, Eduardo Peña, Claudia Muñoz and Kevin “Cross-cultural Education in U.S. Grumbach. more discussions on coverage of Asian Americans, Medical Schools: Development of an Assessment http://www.aaja.org/news/mediawatch/. see Details about AAJA are in the Chapter 1 resources. Tool.” Academic Medicine 78:6 (2003), 615-622. The authors asked medical schools to submit osen, Alfred and Ruth. “In tentional Job course m Blumr aterials on cross-cultural medicine and found considerable variation in teaching and Discrimination in Metropolitan America.” Rutgers http://www.eeo1.com/ content. Most courses emphasized general themes, University Law School, 2002. su eport analyzes EEOC data on ch as the doctor-patient relationship, x.htm. This r inde socioeconomic status and racism. They also employees’ race, ethnicity and gender to help provided specific cultural information about the employers, government and others identify obable intentional employment discrimination. ethni c communities they served. pr , pr s osen e Blumr Th o fessors at Rutgers University Domke, David, Kelley McCoy and Marcos Torres. Law School, found that two million minorities “News Media, Racial Perceptions, and Political and women were affected by intentional job Cognition.” Communication Research 26:5 (1999), discrimination, mainly by what they call hard-core 570-607. discrimin cen t of large ators , while about 75 per aculty.washington.edu/domke/research.html. http://f ents did not appear to discriminate. establishm The authors write, “News coverage of political issues not only influences people’s thinking about Briggs, Kara, Tom Arviso, Dennis McAuliffe and “The Reading Red Report. the issues but also activates associated stereo- Lori Edmo-Suppah. types an d influences whether these perceptions are N ative Americans in the News: A 2002 Report and applied in politically meaningful ways.” To test Content Analysis on Coverage by the Largest News- nited States.” http://www .naja.com. th ese i papers in th e U deas, the authors systematically altered the This report reviewed coverage by the nine largest news frame of immigration – as either material or U.S. n . 1, 1999, through Feb. om Feb ewspapers fr e – within a controlled political ethi cal in n atur 1, 2002. M ative Am eri can s es about N ews stori ost n ow people inf orm ati on envir onm en t to see h fell into three areas, the authors reported: casino process, interpret and use news information when gaming by tribes, mascot team names and stories forming political judgments. d atelin ed “on th es.” e r “Racial Cues and Political Ideology: Domke, David. urri can e is f A on o ati ssociative Priming.’’ amin An Ex Cunningham, Dwight. “M edi a H Communication Research 28:6 (2001), 772-801. Spinning Out of Control.” National Newspaper http://faculty.washington.edu/domke/research.html. Publishers Association, Sept. 7, 2005. .louisianaweekly.com/weekly/news/ Domk http://www e studies the racial cues – references that call gham, a special up im ages tied to particular racial and ethnic articlegate .pl?20050907b. Cunnin con tributor to the NNPA, begins: “Watching TV oups – in political coverage and political state- gr e Katrina’s devastation, I am xperiment, he altered the description can . In this e ts urri en ewscasts on H n m f crime in a controlled set of news stories to ck by the media’s obvious tilt to covering the o stru story of lawlessness, rather than the bigger story sometimes include these cues and sometimes not in order to examine how they may influence of people who had little in the way of material things before Hurricane Katrina – and who now political judgments. have been reduced to having nothing at all.’’ http://dovidio.socialpsychology.org/. Jack Dovidio. Devos, Thierry, and Mahzarin R. Banaji. Dovidio studies prejudice, stereotyping and oup behavior. His books include can = White?” Journal of Personality and gr eri Am ter in “ On the al Psychology 88 (2005), 447-466. In six studies, f Prejudice: Fifty Years after Allport Soci Nature o (edited the authors tested how closely participants with Peter Glick and Laurie Rudman, 2005), associated three primary U.S. ethnic groups (black, (with Samuel Gaertner, Reducing Intergroup Bias 137

138 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA affirmative action had a significant effect on The Social Psychology of Helping and 2000) and social comparisons, and led to both groups being Altruism (with David A. Schroeder, Louis A. Penner less likely to blame African Americans for the and Jane A. Piliavin, 1995). hardships they endure. Gandy is author of the influential Communication and Race: A Structural Entman, Robert. “The American Media and Race . The book explores race by analyzing Perspective Relations in an Interdependent World: A report on media institutions and how they operate; the Shorenstein Center Conference on Race and symbolism, coverage themes and story lines; and the Press,” Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, social constructions. In it, Gandy applies Politics and Public Policy. (June 28, 2001). http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/presspol/Research_ behavioral science, political economy and cultural Publications/Reports/Entman.pdf. En tman summarizes dies to information media. stu a thought-provoking discussion on key issues such as how well the news media covers a progressively Gilliam, Franklin D., Jr., and Shanto Iyengar. ore diverse society; if there are deficiencies, how m e Suspects: The Influence of Local Television “Prim News on the Viewing Public.’’ American Journal of can they be fixed; and if race and ethnicity should Political Science 44:3 (2000), 560–573. The be taken into account when choosing and reporting ors assessed the impact of the “crime script’’ auth e news. th on n ews . Wh en racial on vi ewers o f televisi Fiske, Susan, Amy J.C. Cuddy, Peter Glick and elements were included in the crime report, white “A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Jun Xu. (but not black) viewers expressed more support for Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively punitive approaches to crime and heightened d Competition.” ceived Status an er om P Follow Fr n d egative attitu es about Afri can Americans. ournal of Personality and Social Psychology 82:6 J Global Language Monitor. http://fiske.socialpsychology.org/. (2002), 878–902. . Founded by http://www.languagemonitor.com/ Susan Fiske, social psychologist at Princeton former high-tech marketer Paul JJ Payack, this University, studies the ways people categorize or er based on perceived warmth and compe- ganization analyzes word use in media, politics each oth and workplaces around the world. The site offers tence, then react accordingly. Fiske has found that tim ely upd r eporters f ollow predictable patterns of group ates on buzzwords and a place to report categorization in their writing. In a study of 200 in to the “language police.” cations over two years, cles in 35 publi ews arti n ery . w a, and Brian Lo aham, Sandr Gr “Primin g e r als wer on fessi o d black pr feminists an ely outin Unconscious Racial Stereotypes About Adolescent depicted as stereotypically competent, but cold. Offenders.” Law and Human Behavior 28:5, This was accomplished through descriptions that di (2004)483–504. In two stu e with police , on es emphasized ambiti on, confi d en ce and independence, officers and one with juvenile-probation officers, but also illustrated insincerity, aggression or ers tested h acial “priming” might ow r ch esear r in ce an toler . P ortrayals of housewives and elderly influence decisions about punishment. As hypoth- people cast them as warm but not competent. esized, officers who had been unconsciously Word choices in their case highlighted a lack of Harlem, homeboy ace with words such as alerted to r competiti on, ambition, independence or confidence, e more likely to make judgments wer s dreadlock d an but also un derlined the subjects’ sincerity, good about n egative traits such as hostility, find greater ature, altruism or family ties. n ffenses. They epeat o xpect r d e culpability an , Oscar H., Jr., and Jonathan Baron. dorsed harsher punishment than did officers who en Gandy hadn’t been given racial cues. The effects were “Inequality: It’s All in the Way You Look at It.” Communication Research 25:5 (1998), 505-527. unrelated to consciously held attitudes. This paper looks at the differences in the ways black people and white people perceive inequalities, “AIDS at 21: Media Kaiser Family Foundation. including their severity and what causes them. The Coverage of the HIV Epidemic, 1981-2002.” (2004) This authors performed a secondary analysis of phone http://www.kff.org/kaiserpolls/7025.cfm. es about race collected by ucted with Princeton Survey Research d d ata on attitu eport, con survey d r e Washington Post, the Henry J. Kaiser ssociates, examines aspects of media coverage, Th A Foundation and Harvard University. They found including key events, domestic versus international that exposure to news stories on race and focus, the portrayal of affected populations, story 138

139 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX Media and Disability Resources. topics and tone, story length and placement, and http://saber.towson.edu/%7Ebhalle/disable.html. consumer education components. A project of the Media & Disability Interest Group Kaiser Family Foundation and Robert Wood of the Association for Education in Journalism and Johnson Foundation. “Why the Difference?” Mass Communication, this web site includes an http://www.kff.org/whythedifference/. (2002). extensive bibliography and a page of mass media Recent research and news on disparities in cardiac and disability links, including accessibility resources, care with an eye toward educating physicians. disability-oriented news outlets, publications by disability organizations and research groups. Longmore, Paul. Why I Burned My Book and Other Compiled by Beth Haller, associate professor of Essays on Disability. T emple University Press, 2003. journ alism at Towson University. Longmore breaks down the social, political and “Coverage of ethnic Media Tenor International. historical place of disability in U.S. society for d racial groups in U.S. Media: 01/02 - 8/04.” an eaders, revealing both hidden bias and structural r http://www.mediatenor.com/index1.html. 2004. discrimination. One essay addresses stereotypes Media Tenor, an independent media analysis in television and movie imagery, and the discussion thr oughout exposes the limitations created by stitute, analyzed all news reports in five major in fr ary 2002 an ugust 2004 in d A u an outlets between J gmore . Lon cal issue edi g disability solely as a m amin which a member of a selected number of ethnic directs the Institute on Disability Studies at San Francisco State University. and racial groups was the main protagonist of the story. The survey included Time, Newsweek, The Maass elli and Samantha , Roberta Ceccar , Anne ourn eet J all Str W al, and the NBC, ABC and CBS guistic Intergroup Bias: Evidence for “Lin Rudin. ni ghtly news shows. The authors reported that In-Group-Protective Motivation.” Journal of coverage of ethnic and racial groups in leading Personality and Social Psychology 71:3 (1996), U.S. media presents trends that, more than 512-526. Linguistic intergroup bias refers to our representing various groups of the society, may ten dency to describe positive behavior in our own h elp feed stereotypes. group – but negative behavior in a group of “outsi y otiation of Sociopolitical eg “N , Letha J. Mosle ers” – with more abstract terms. Bad d Issues in Medical Education Program Planning That behavior in our own group, but good behavior by A d d an outsi d resses Racial and Ethnic Disparities.” , gets more concrete language. As a er U a, gi f Geor niversity o e’s own on, U eon s by som on esult, positive acti r ed dissertati npublish e in on group seem a part of their nature, but negative 2005. Mosley studied the qualities of successful actions seem unusual. The authors tested this diversity programs in medical schools and their cy am ten ong hunters and environmentalists in d en g – an ost challen d often hidden – roadblocks. gin m Italy. When members of one group were presented w Y oup. The Ne ork Times Cr edibility Gr om th ostile statem with h e other, the effect ts fr en “Preserving Our Reader’s Trust.” The New York Times, intensified. The results were comparable in tests 2005. http://www.nytco.com/pdf/siegal-report with northern and southern Italians. The authors 050205.pdf. This 16-pag e report to the executive con cluded that when a group felt its identity ocuses mainly on developing a dialogue editor f thr eatened, their use of biased language that eaders, limiting the use of unidentified with r f avored their own kind increased. ucing factual errors. In a section ed d r ces an sour , Wilma, Vine Deloria Jr., Barbara e news-opinion divide, the committee Mankiller on th Deloria, Kristen Foehner and Sam Scinta , eds. recommends holding strong to diversity goals in Spirit and Reason: The Vine Deloria Jr. Reader. gender, race and ethnicity, as well as pursuing Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1999. Deloria diversity in other dimensions of life to ensure a wrote many classics on American Indian law, broad range of viewpoints. history, politics and spirituality. This book, a series Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard of informative and thought-provoking essays, is an t way to introduce yourself to his thinking . an Country.” Nieman di cellen sity er x g In “Coverin e Univ y, education, Indian affairs, religion Reports 59:3 (Fall 2005), 5-41. on philosoph and science. http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/. A collection of 14 articles and essays that challenge stereotypes, 139

140 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA offer practical tips, and introduce journalists off Blogs, libraries and http://www.mediacircus.org. the reservation to the tribal press. political commentary from a disability rights perspective. Visit the “Language and Usage Guide Nosek, Brian A., Mahzarin R. Banaji and for Reporters and Editors” in the Media Circus section. Anthony G. Greenwald. “Harvesting Implicit Group Attitudes and Beliefs From a Demonstration Web http://www.journalism.wisc.edu/ Shah, Hemant. Site.” Group Dynamics 6:1 (2002), 101-115. The Shah is a professor of faculty/shahhbio.html. researchers tabulated responses by users of their communication at the University of Wisconsin- Implicit Association Test Internet site. Over the Madison. He specializes in global media and cultural study period from October 1998 to April 2000, dentity, development theory and history, and mass i users completed m ore than 600,000 tasks to media representation of race and ethnicity. measure their attitudes toward social groups and the stereotypes they hold. The researchers break y, Brian, Adrienne Stith and Alan Nelson. Smedle own the data to learn more about the operations d Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic of attitudes and stereotypes, including the Washington: National Disparities in Health Care. strength of unconscious attitudes, the association cademies Press. 2003. A between con scious and unconscious attitudes or an d .iom.edu/report.asp?id=4475 http://www d th f, an e effects of feeling part of th e lack th er eo http://www4.nationalacademies.org/onpi/webextra. a particular group. Racial and ethnic nsf/web/minority?OpenDocument. minorities tend to receive a lower quality health Noveck, Jocelyn. “Use of Word ‘Refugee’ Stirs Race e than n ess. Sept. 7, 2005. es, even when access-related ated Pr oriti onmin car Debate .” A ssoci http://news .yahoo.com/s/ap/20050906/ap_on_re_ actors, such as insurance and income, are f The Associated Press us/katrina_refugees__hk4. controlled. explains its position on the use of the word refugee in the context of Hurricane Katrina. Smedley, Brian. Sm http://www .opportunityagenda.com. edley is Olsson, Andreas, Jeffrey P. Ebert, Mahzarin R. now research director of The Opportunity Agenda, e Role o escribes itself as cy think tank that d a poli “Th f . Banaji and Elizabeth A. Phelps “devoted to expanding opportunity and human Social Groups in the Persistence of Learned Fear.” gh ts in th e United States.” Its first projects will ri Sci en ce 309:5735 (July 29, 2005), 785-787. http://www .sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/ al justi ate on crimin tr ce an cen con d access to The authors looked at fear 309/5735/785. health care. conditioning and how it may apply when humans T ak A Different Mirror: A History o d out-group f oup an al in-gr aki, Ronald. learn to associ ate soci Reissue edition. New York: Multicultural America. members with a fearful event. They concluded, d Back Bay Books , 1994. This importan t an duals from a racial cate that in divi di esults in “Our r engaging book takes readers through the story of group other than one’s own are more readily America from the perspectives of all the peoples associated with an aversive stimulus than individuals o have been part of this country’s history. wh f one’s own race, among both white and black o P acked with the authentic voices of the Indian, ericans. This prepared fear response might be Am can American, Mexican, Japanese, Chinese, Afri educed by close, positive interracial contact.” r erica, it’s an essential f Am ewish people o d J Irish an , Scott, ed. Understanding Prejudice and Plous tribution to every journalist’s bookshelf. Takaki con New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Discrimination. is a professor of ethnic studies at UC Berkeley. Education, 2003. Watson, Brendan. “Stalemate, Xenophobia and the http://www.understandingprejudice.org. A compila- tion of readings from a broad range of scholarly Framing of the Immigration Debate.” Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, disciplines. The web site includes interactive exer- Aug. 10-13, 2005, San Antonio, Texas. cises and demonstrations, streaming video clips alysis esources. .org. t an er r .aejmc ten d oth http://www This con an eviewed newspaper coverage of Hispanic immi- r gration from Jan. 7, 2004, to May 14, 2004. The Ragged Edge Magazine. search identified 166 articles, and then reviewed and http://www.raggededgemagazine.com 140

141 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX why racial disparities, interracial tensions and news frames, reporter ethnicity, story and source segregation continue to exist. He describes the tone, and source affiliation. The author found realities of income, employment, education, family significant differences in the ways Hispanics and life and other aspects of life that separate racial non-Hispanics report on immigration topics. groups and forecasts their ongoing impact. Westin, Av. “You’ve Got to Be Carefully Taught: Thernstrom, Stephen, and Abigail Thernstrom. Racist Encoding in Television Newsrooms.” Nieman America in Black and White: One Nation Indivisible. Reports. 1:55 (Spring 2001), 63. http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/reports/contents.html. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997. This study of race in the United States takes a historical Based on 120 interviews with broadcast newsroom perspective to m ake the argument that the United staffers , Westin’s report concluded that while States is becoming a more just and cohesive blatantly racial bigotry was absent, news decisions society. The authors argue against affirmative were guided by an understanding about race that on and comparable policies that they say acti played a r ole in story selection and content, the editorial point of view and who served as expert heighten racial consciousness and division. sources. PRESSURES IN THE NEWSROOM CHAPTER 3: CHAPTER 2 CLOSE-UP Alwood, Edward. Straight News: Gays, Lesbians and Between Fear and Hope: New York: Columbia University the News Media. Barlow, Andrew. Press, 1996. http://www.asne.org/index.cfm?id=5145. Globalization and Race in the United States. ent Alwood brings a news- d espon er CNN corr Form , 2003. In this Lanham, Md .: Rowm an & Littlefi eld xamines race from a structural and book Barlow e m an’s perspective to the history of coverage of gays historical perspective, exploring how market global- and lesbians from World War II to the ’90s. He ization both reinforces and challenges existing introduces readers to battles both inside and out- side the newsroom as the news media struggled social stratification. with its own fears an d assumptions when represent- Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. Racism Without Racists: ing LGBT issues and lives. ersistence o f Racial Color-Blind Racism and the P American Society of Newspaper Editors . Lanham, Md.: Inequality in the United States. ent Drops Again; Diversity oom Employm “N eld an & Littlefi Rowm ewsr , 2003. Bonilla-Silva elease ess r acism s that r on y people’s assumpti an es m g challen .” Pr s , 2004. See Chapter 1 r esour Gain ce list for full description. has been eliminated from U.S. society. He details subtle forms of discrimination that work to s , Peter. Andr al T eamin ou Don’t Know e w g: Y “Virtu d calls for change. tain white privileg ain m e an Me, But ... Executive Technology Report.” New wn, Michael, Martin Carno o Br y , Elliott Currie , ess In Y ork: IBM A dvan stitute, 2004. ced Busin http://www-1.ibm.com/services/us/index.wss/mp/ Troy Duster, David B. Oppenheimer, Marjorie M. A report imc/xt/a1001285/1?cntxtId=a1000401. Whitewashing Race: Shultz and David Wellman. eley: Berk f a Colorblind Society. The Myth o g teams effectively. on buildin niversity of California Press, 2003. This book also U Arnold, Mary , Marlene Lozada Hendrickson and attacks th e idea that racial discrimination and ewspapers 2003: en in N es are things of the past. The authors om eologi “W d acist i Cynthia C. Linton. r ging the Status Quo.” Media Management Challen ologists, political scientists, economists, – soci Center, Northwestern University, 2004. http:// criminologists and legal scholars – detail inequities www. mediamanagementcenter.org/publications/ that persist in wages, income, access to housing, win2003.asp. health care and the like and describe the ways The 57-page report profiles six these have been built into the structure of U.S. women executives, detailing how they benefited society. They close by offering ways to renew from mentors and broke the glass ceiling. It includes an essay on women’s leadership styles. America’s commitment to social equality. wo Nations Black and White: er, Andrew anch, Gregory, and Claudia Pryor. T . Hack Br “Race Plays a Separate, Hostile and Unequal. Decisive Role in News Content.” Nieman Reports, New York: 55:1 (Spring 2001), 65. Ballantine Books, 1992. Hacker tackles the reasons 141

142 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/reports/contents.html Fiske, Susan, Amy J.C. Cuddy, Peter Glick and Jun Xu. “A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype The story behind Network Refugees, the nonprofit film and documentary production company Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively dedicated to telling stories about people of color Follow from Perceived Status and Competition.” and the issues that affect them. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82:6 (2002), 878–902. http://fiske.socialpsychology.org/. Carney, Susan. Susan Fiske, social psychologist at Princeton “Battling Bias in the Factory: Automakers Struggle to Stem Harassment.” The University, studies the ways people categorize each other based on perceived warmth and Detroit News, 2002. http://www.detnews.com/2002/autosinsider/0210/ competence, then react accordingly. For more ons of harassment Allegati 09/a01-605292.htm. d escription, see Chapter 2 resource list. remain a fact of life in car and truck assembly Glick, Peter, and Susan Fiske. “An Ambivalent plants, The Detroit News reports. About 500 Alli ance: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism as complain ts of racial or sexual harassment and discrimination were filed to government regulators Complementary Justifications for Gender Inequality.” American Psychologist 56 (2001), each year between 1992 and 2001. 109-118. Fisk e and Glick review research on sexism e T alk? Raci al Discourse “Can W d en, an d wom ostility towar anifested as h that is m Car starphen, Meta. as a Community-Building Paradigm for sexism that idealizes women. The article shows Journalists.” Paper for the Association for how paternalistic attitudes, which are sometimes Education in Journalism and Communication, embraced by women themselves, help enforce K an , M o., Aug. 2, 2003. sas City in equ ality an d conven tional gender roles. http://web2.unt.edu/news/print.cfm?story=7291. Carstarphen was a Poynter Research Fellow in The Greenwood (Miss.) Commonwealth. 1997-98 and is the author of Writing PR: A Multi- http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?brd=1838. media Approach . Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2004. Grutter v , U.S. Supr eme Court (2003). . Bollinger 3M, et al (Fortune 500 Corporations): Brief for Demchak, Teresa. More information on Teresa Ami ae. ci Curi Dem ghts and employment discrimina- chak’s civil ri http://www.umich.edu/~urel/admissions/legal/ tion cases can be found on the web site of her law gru_amicus or these parallel cases . Ami cus bri efs f gen & Dardarian. chak, Baller firm, Goldstein, Dem , Bor http:// involvin g affirm ool an ative acti on in law sch d Civil ri gh ts: www.gdblegal.com/whatwedo.php?menuItem=32. undergraduate admissions at the University of Grutter v. Bollinger http:// Employment: Michigan. For an overview of g d supportin gs an , court filin . Bollinger Gratz v d an .gdblegal.com/whatwedo.php?menuItem=33. www Media reports: http://www.gdblegal.com/press.php. research, see .umich.edu/ urel/admissions . ~ http://www “Does Your Dedman, Bill, and Stephen K. Doig. Newspaper Reflect its Community?” John S. and Haiman, Robert. “Best Practices for Newspaper ournalists,” Freedom Forum (2000). ames L. Knight Foundation (April 2003 and May J J http://www 2004). .freedomforum.org/templates/document. de to journalistic A gui .powerreporting.com/knight/2003/. http://www asp?documentID=12828. ates ewspaper editors’ estim eporters, editors and others; part of or n or r e web site f ess f See th airn f f the diversity in their communities. For Dedman o e Free Press/Fair Press Project. th and Doig’s data on The Greenwood (Miss.) Commonwealth, go to “Difference is Power.” Fast Hammonds, Keith. Company (July 2000), 258. A profile of Ted Childs, http://www.powerreporting.com/knight/ms_the_ IBM’s vice president of global workforce diversity, For a description greenwood_commonwealth.html. of the project, see the Chapter 1 resource list. who explains why diversity is good business. d Motor Co.’s work- f For vidio, Jack. . e o Do An outlin http://dovidio.socialpsychology.org/. Jensen, Ray orce diversity programs. dio studies prejudice, stereotyping and inter- f Dovi group behavior. See Chapter 2 resource list for more http://www.ford.com/en/company/about/corporate information. Citizenship/report/principlesRelationshipsDiversity.htm. 142

143 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX For an interesting history of diversity programs at National Association of Female Executives. Ford, starting with its hiring of immigrants in http://nafe.com/. The largest women’s professional association and the largest women business 1913, see Charles E. Ramirez, “Ford Motor Pioneers owners’ organization in the United States. Owned Diversity.” The Detroit News (June 9, 2003). by Working Mother Media, it provides resources, http://www.detnews.com/2003/specialreport/0306/ networking opportunities and public advocacy for . 09/f18-187024.htm members, publishes magazines and runs a Jones, Charisse, and Kumea Shorter-Gooden. conference division. Shifting: The Double Lives of Black Women in America (2005). See the Chapter 1 resource list. . New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Papper, Bob. http://www .harpercollins.com/global_scripts/ Pease, Edward, Erna Smith and Federico Subervi. product_catalog/book_xml.asp?isbn=0060090553. “The News and Race Models of Excellence Project – This book is based on the African American Women’s oices Project, an interview and questionnaire V ew Connecting Newsroom Attitudes Toward Overvi study of 400 women across the United States. USA Ethnicity and News Content.” (2001). http://www.maynardije.org/resources/industry_ Today staff writer Charisse Jones and psychologist umea Shorter-Gooden document the ways black e report examines the link This 46-pag studies/. K oom attitudes ewsr d n t an ten ews con between n g en chan wom d outwardly as they dly an war e in respond to race and gender expectations. The price toward race and ethnicity. Background on Edward Pease can be found at can include anxiety, low self-esteem and even self- http://www.usu.edu/communic/faculty/pease/ hatred, the authors say. tpease For a Q&A with Ern f a Smith as part o .html. d “2003 Salary Survey: Behin son, Christine. Lar olm University project, see a Stockh http://jolo.jmk.su.se/students/global04/other/ the Numbers.” NAFE Magazine (2003). plural/ernasmithquestions.htm. Her San Francisco http://www.nafe.com/ef_fall.shtml. While the State University faculty web page is overall gender gap in wages is 76 cents on the d .journalism.sfsu.edu/departmentinfo/ http://www ollar, it’s wider in some industries. Federico Subervi runs the Latinos and e_smith.htm. edi M Lawr a Project, which features a database of news , David. Robert G. M cGru der Lecture and ence Award. Kent State University. 2004. media articles on Latinos, research articles, web- http://imagine .k ent.edu/media/content/press .asp? ormation. d oth er inf site links an o d to th t State m en K .latinosandmedia.org/contact.html. ose wh ak http://www es this awar id=373. share McGruder’s passion and commitment to Rendall, Steve and Will Creeley. “White Noise: diversity in the news media. While Lawrence was V oi ces o f Color Scar ce on Urban Public Radio.” publish erald, the paper won five ami H e Mi er at Th Extra! (September-October 2002). Pulitzer Prizes. Before that, he was publisher at .f .html. xtra/0209/white-noise .org/e http://www air e Detr oit Fr ee Pr th ess . He has won several national According to this 2002 survey, the voices on public honors for his achievements in the diversity area. radio in seven major urban markets are overwhelm- Lawrence retired in 1999 and began working on in gly white and male. ood development initiatives. early childh McGill, Lawr “I t’s a Great Time to Be “What Resear ence. Simmons ch Tells Us About , Debra Adams. alists of Color: A meta- e American Editor (March 2005). ourn .” Th an Editor ewspaper J om g N a W Retainin alysis of 13 studies conducted from 1989 to .asne.org/kiosk/editor/tae.htm. an http://www 2000.” ASNE and Freedom Forum (2001). Simmons tells her story in a special issue of The McGill American Editor about women editors. The ASNE http://www.asne.org/index.cfm?id=1477. writes, “Across different surveys, between one-fifth magazine also includes stories about “being the only woman in the room,” and “the thrill and the and one-third of journalists of color interviewed nightmare” of being a publisher. The Akron (Ohio) have indicated that they do not expect to remain Beacon Journal has an outstanding track record in in journalism over the long term.” Their biggest ts are lack of professional challenge er, Jim Crutchfield, and editor, en ts publish . I tm disappoin diversity d lack of opportunities for advancement. ons, are African American. Under the guidance Simm an of former publisher John Dotson Jr., the paper won a Pulitzer Gold Medal for meritorious public service 143

144 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA workers from promotion. in 1994 for its broad examination of local racial attitudes and its effort to promote improved and “Census Bureau Projects U.S. Census Bureau. ongoing communication about race. Tripling of Hispanic and Asian Populations in 50 Years; Non-Hispanic Whites May Drop to Half of “Performance puts diversity Smith, Anna Deavere. Total Population.” Press release (2003). center stage at retreat.” Stanford Report (Feb. 2, http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/ http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/ 2005). (See Chapter 1 Playwright and archives/population/001720.html. february2/med-retreat-020205.html. actress Anna Deveare Smith interviewed 14 faculty resource list.) members, alumni and students at the Stanford “Hispani cs and Asians U eau. U.S. Census Bur niversity School of Medicine on the subject of diversity. She portrayed her findings through a Increasing Faster than Overall Population.” Press http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/ release (2004). performance of their words, speech patterns and www/releases/archives/race/001839.html estures at the school’s strategic planning retreat. g Medical school dean Philip Pizzo said the idea was (See Chapter 1 resource list.) to generate questions and discussion, to start a eartfelt conversation about race and class. For e. Visconti, Luk h .com/public/main.cfm. .scils e on Smith, see or .diversityinc http://www m .rutgers .edu/ http://www Visconti, a former Fortune magazine sales represen- ~cybers/smith2.html tative, co-founded Diversity Inc. to track diversity “A Threat in the Air: How in corporations, including news developments, Steele, Claude. Ster al I tellectu easures. Diversity Inc. ark m chm d ben lawsuits an dentity and eotypes Shape In publish P erformance.” American Psychologist 52:6 (June es a web site and magazine. (See Chapter 1 resource list.) 1997), 613-629. Stanford University social and experimental psychologist Steele developed the Wallace, Linda. “Reaching Cultural Competency.” concept of stereotype threat, which is now widely a Journalism Review (July-August 2003). Columbi accepted . The term captures the powerful effects http://archives.cjr.org/year/03/4/wallace.asp. of feeling judged negatively, even when the only e auth Th or of this piece on newsroom diversity r eason is m embership in a group. Steele is now is a cultural coach and consultant; she spoke on studying how social identity can influence individ- al Competen “Cultur cy” at th e 2004 “Let’s Do it u oi ces such as education and career. An over- al ch orksh Better!” W . niversity a U op at Columbi d dized ar f stan xt o te vi ew o f Steele’s work in th e con testing and affirmative action can be found in his Weaver, David, Randal Beam, Bonnie Brownlee, http:// : Grutter v. Bollinger expert report for xpert/ es and G. Cle veland Wilhoit. .umich.edu/~urel/admissions/research/e www aul V oak P Steele directs the Center for Advanced “Journalists of Color Are Slowly Increasing.” The steele.html. Stu can J ourn alist Survey , Indiana University e Behavi Am al Sciences at Stanford. or eri y in th d http://www.poynter.org/content/content_ (2003). Steele, Claude, and J. Aronson. The percentage of journalists view.asp?id=28787. “Stereotype Thr eat and the Intellectual Test Performance of f color remains well below that of the general o U.S. populati on. Among news operations, television Afri can Americans.” Journal of Personality and employs th Soci al Psychology 69:5 (1995), 797-811. For more e most; weekly newspapers the least. evement in schools, see can achi f this list. eri on o can Am See Chapter 1 secti on Afri oung, Gifted and Black: Promoting High Y by “You’ve Got to Be Carefully Taught: Westin, Av. Achievement Among African American Students Theresa Perry, Claude Steele and Asa Hilliard III. Racist Encoding in Television Newsrooms.” Nieman Reports 1:55 (Spring 2001), 63. (See Chapter 2 Boston: Beacon Press, 2003. resource list.) Truby, Mark. “New Bias Lawsuit Hits Ford, Visteon.” The Detroit News (April 14, 2003). .com/2003/autosinsider/0304/ .detnews http://www f an age discrimina- . Details o 14/a01-136079.htm tion suit against Ford Motor Co. in which employees say that educational requirements blocked older 144

145 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX protest affirmative action. Applicants had to write CHAPTER 3 CLOSE-UP an essay about their pride in their white heritage and enclose a recent picture. Dayton Daily News. http://www.daytondailynews.com/. Bendixen & Associates, New California Media Poynter Institute for Media Studies. and the University of Southern California. http://www.poynter.org. The Poynter Institute is a “First Multilingual Poll of Immigrant Opinions on school for journalists, future journalists and War in Iraq. New California Media and University of journalism teachers. Poynter offers seminars in Southern California Survey.” (2003). multiple subjects within broadcast/online, http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article. ucation, ethics and diversity, leadership and html?article_id=e2fe7ad5d135b75aa6835f3ebf6f70 ed This survey of 1,000 immigrants included U.S. 20. management, reporting, writing and editing, and visual journalism. The web site features articles residents who were born in Asia (China, Vietnam, orea, the Philippines and India), the Middle East d essays to help journalists do a better job. an K and Latin America. Sponsors included NCM, a Society of Professional Journalists. national association of ethnic news organizations, .spj.org. http://www SC Annenberg School for Communication’s U stitute f d J ce an or Justi ce list.) In (See Chapter 1 r esour alism and the Chinese ourn American Voter Education Committee. Each commu- Tulsa World. http://www.tulsaworld.com/. nity was found to have distinct opinions about the war and its effects. “Immigrants living in the Vinita (Okla.) Public Libr ary . e war in Ir U nited States worry that th aq will http://www .vinitapl.okpls.org/ e library has . Th eighten the threat of terrorism and lead to h information and links to resources such as the increased economic instability and government Cherokee Nation web site, the Will Rogers Memorial harassment,” the multilingual poll concludes. Rodeo, the library genealogy department and the Eastern T rails museum. Bendix en & Associates, New California Media “First- and the University of Southern California. titative Study on the Reach, Impact and an Ever Qu DIVERSITY CHAPTER 4: REFRAMING Potential of Ethnic Media.” “Ben http://news .newamericamedia.org/news/view_article . eath ABC Ne w s and The W ashington Post. an, Br si f 2,000 A . This survey o oad Support f or W ar Ar e Sharp Divisi on s in html?article_id=796 Hispanic and African Americans, conducted in 12 Intensity.” Press release for War Update IV – April 7, http://abcnews.go.com/ languages over five months ending in March 2002, 2003, ABC News Poll Vault. ault.html ollV . This teleph on e ault/P sections/us/P ollV ed to qu an e reach, impact and potential tify th tri poll of more than 1,000 adults found that general of media targeted to the three largest ethnic support f or th e war r em ain ed high, at 77 percent. ority gr a. min orni oups in Calif Fifty-seven percent said they supported the war Bendixen & Associates and New California Media. “strongly.” c Media in America: The Giant Hidden in Plain “Ethni ABC Ne Si ght.” (2005). http://news ws and The Washington Post. .newamericamedia.org/ “Both Confi dence and Concerns Greet the Sudden Fall of .html?article_id=0443821787ac02 news/view_article elease for ess r f Baghdad – .” Pr The Fall o . This poll surveyed 1,895 ad Baghd 10cbecebe8b1f576a3 can American, Hispanic, Asian American, Arab Afri April 9, 2003 .go.com/sections/us/ . http://abcnews American and Native American adults in the United . Nearly two-thirds of the PollVault/PollVault.html States on their news media habits. Interviews took 509 adults polled by telephone said they thought place in 10 languages. The researchers concluded, the war would produce a more stable Middle East. “the ethnic media reach 51 million ethnic Americans Public support for the war was 80 percent. – almost a quarter of all (or one in four) American adults. Of these media consumers, 29 million “New Scholarship Created for Associated Press. can adults, or 13 percent of all adult eri c Am ethni .cnn.com/ .” (April 18, 2004) http://www Whites Only ericans, not only use ethnic media regularly but Am e TION/02/15/whites.only.ap/ . Th 2004/EDUCA prefer ethnic media to its mainstream media College Republicans at Roger Williams University in counterparts.” Survey sponsors included The Center Rhode Island created this $250 scholarship to 145

146 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA for American Progress and the Leadership This annual report on newsroom minority employ- Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund. ment compares editor assessments of the percentage of minorities in their primary circulation area to Browning, Rufus, and Holley Shafer, John Rogers U.S. Census Bureau data for those ZIP code areas. and Renatta DeFever. “News Ghettos, Threats to “Essence of the Deal.” Democracy and Other Myths about the Ethnic Media: Dingle, Derek. Black Enterprise (March 2005), 69. Lessons from the Bay Area News Media Survey,” . Dingle analyzes http://www.blackenterprise.com/ San Francisco State University Public Research the takeover by Time Inc. of an enduring black http://pri.sfsu.edu/ Institute (June 2003),118-119. institution and one of the nation’s largest black- This report is based on a phone ethnicmedia.html. own f 1,600 adults of Chinese, Hispanic, African ed businesses. survey o and European origin in Cantonese, Mandarin, Do, Anh, and Teri Sforza , with photography by Spanish and English. The authors estimate the au dy Yamanaka. “The Boy Monk.” The Orange dience and assess the role of ethnic media, Cin including its political and social impact. Funded http://www.ocregister.com/ County Register (2003). “There was something features/monk/index.shtml. by the Ford Foundation. very differ ent about Donald Pham,” said the in tr od u cti on to this f alism, Chuang, Angie . Columbi a W orksh op on J ourn our-part, multimedia series. “Even as a child, he seemed strangely wise. His Race, and Ethnicity. Columbia University (June http://www.oregonian.com/ . parents came to believe that he was a monk in his 10-12, 2004). Chuang, a reporter at The Oregonian, outlined tips previous life and should study in India. We follow f eportin ccessful beat r or su g on minority his ar d u ddhist monk.” ous path as a Tibetan Bu comm unities. http://www.com.washington.edu/ Domke, David. Close, Sandy. . Domke is an Program/Faculty/Faculty/domke.html New America Media. associate professor at the University of Washington, Close directs http://www.newamericamedia.org. ew America Media (formerly New California Media) Seattle N . He specializes in political elites and the news media, individual values and cognition, and and Pacific News Service in San Francisco. For an al chan f her contributions to journalism and ew o overvi ge. soci her philosophy, see a profile by the National Fine en Rich. “State o f th , Laur e In dustry: An A ati ssoci on of Minority Media Executives, which t Y en ear .” J ourn alism & Busin ess V alues Investm en e Lawr er th ed h d awar g Br eakthrough oun ce Y http://www.namme.org/programs/awards/ section, Poynter Online (2004). Award. http://www.poynter.org/content/content_view.asp? award-winners/2004_close/. . In an e id=61400 cerpt o er annual industry f h x Columbia Workshop on Race, Journalism and forecast, Fine reviews the loss of ad share and Ethnicity . http://www .jrn.columbia.edu/events/race/ cir on by n otes the launch of d n ewspapers an culati mission.asp. These workshops, directed by Arlene targeted publications to Hispanic and youth Notoro Morgan, associate dean of prizes and markets as one popular response. These niche pr ograms, highlight excellent and courageous ay not be as profitable as mass market outlets m cover age of race and ethnicity and provide a forum ewspapers, but they could attract new readers n or journalists to discuss and learn from each f to the fold, she says. Fine is an advertising/ in cludes excellent resources on e web site in . Th er alyst at Merrill Lynch. oth ustry an d g in publishin file/0,,3704,00.html. owing your own,” “growing your (newsroom) “gr http://askmerrill.ml.com/res_pro culture,” and “growing your content.” Poynter Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. Institute Dean of Faculty Keith Woods, who is http://www.glaad.org. Most reporters know GLAAD highly regarded for his training and analysis on coverage of race, contributed the in-depth “Status from the organization’s activist missives or media Report on Race and Ethnicity.” awards. But true to its tagline, “Fair, Accurate and Inclusive Representation,” GLAAD also offers an ay of media tools to help journalists sive arr xten our “Does Y Dedman, Bill, and Stephen K. Doig. e derstand and cover gay, lesbian, bisexual and ewspaper Reflect its Community?” John S. and un N James L. Knight Foundation (2003). transgender issues more accurately. Its Media Reference Guide provides a glossary of terms, http://www.powerreporting.com/knight/2003/. 146

147 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX with attention to local issues and events as well. including those the organization recommends and the ones it views as offensive or defamatory. The American Indian Studies. Johnson, Troy. site features tip sheets on topics such as sports, http://e.experience.uces.csulb.edu/AmericanIndian crime, and “conversion therapy,” and resource kits This web reference page com- on LGBT communities of color, inclusive holidays Studies/index.html. piled by California State University Long Beach pro- and hot news topics. fessor Troy Johnson features a wealth of web sites . (2004). “Make the Call: Should Glasser, Theodore with news, history and background information by Two Gay Journalists Who Marry Be Allowed To and about American Indians. Includes tribal and Cover The Same-Sex Marriage Story?” Grade the nation homepages, as well as other online, print, .gradethenews.org/feat/ http://www ews (2004). N deo, visual and audio references. Go to “Troy vi San Francisco makethecall/gaymarriage.htm. Johnson” under “Activities” to find the reference list. Chronicle Public Editor Dick Rogers says reporters aplan, Martin (Norman Lear Center), Ken K lose cr edibility when they are participants in a Goldstein (University of Madison-Wisconsin) developing story. But Stanford University journalism Matthew Hale (Seton Hall University) and professor Ted Glasser argues that objectivity is a etense. He says the photographers’ interest in “Spanish Roberto Sur pr o (Pew Hispanic Center). aterialize with their e o ag e TV Cover ag gu Lan dn’t m f the 2004 Campaigns.” gay an d lesbi an ri gh ts di http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID wedding. In fact, Glasser says, the diversity =38. This study monitored and analyzed 29 days movement is important precisely because it brings of nightly half-hour network news on Telemundo, journalists with a variety of backgrounds and d NBC leadin U nivisi on, ABC, CBS an g up to the ter e newsroom. The argue their case to th in ests in ov. 2, 2004, election. It also documented and N on Gr ade the News, a media research project and compared local evening news from 5 to 11:30 p.m. web site that aims to be a Consumer Reports for on affiliates of ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, Telemundo and San Francisco Bay Area news. Univision in three markets. The Spanish-language Heider , Don. White News: Why Local News Programs n etworks carried nearly as much campaign news as Don’t Cover People of Color . New Jersey: Lawrence their English-language counterparts and more world Erlbaum A ssoci ates, 2000. Former television news- n , but focused less coverage on the Iraq War. ews man Heider was floored when he visited Hawaii “Report o erner Commission. e N K ational f th an d saw only “pink” people on th e local televisi on d dvisory Commissi A ers” on on Civil Disor ews n on on th e diverse populati e ast to th tr , in con (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, streets. His shock led to studies of local coverage 1968). President Lyndon Johnson created the by two newsrooms in Honolulu and Albuquerque. dvisory Commission on Civil Disorders to al A on ati N e n This book discusses th ews pr od uction practices study the reasons behind the uprisings that had and decisions that Heider concluded lead to a upset m es each summ er sin ce 1964. ajor U.S. citi c e system on of certain groups of people. clusi x ati In its report, the commission chastised the media Independent Press Association. for its failure to report on the lives of African e Independent Press Association offers support Th ericans and for helping to deepen the racial Am to in dependent publications, including the ethnic de. (See Chapter 1 resource list.) divi ) pr ovides http://indypressny.org edia. IPA-NY ( m ewell to Ossie . d Far d community press in ds Bi y c an ousan e e ethni Kilgannon, Cor “Th ce to th assistan .” The New York Times (Feb. 13, 2005), 44. Davis e New York region, while IPA-Chicago th ( http://indypress.org/site/chicago/index.html ) http://www.nytimes.com . The Times ran a 1,700- does the same in its area, also offering a guide word obituary on Feb. 5 and covered the Harlem to more than 200 publications in Chicago. For a public viewing with about 800 words on Saturday, compilation of news by member publications Feb. 12. The funeral itself, with eulogies by Harry Belafonte, Maya Angelou, Alan Alda and Bill Clinton, translated into English, see Voices That Must Be Heard at the IPA web site. among others, received 414 words on p. 44. e Color of Supremacy: Beyond do, Zeus. oday. Leonar . “Th Indian Country T http://indiancountry.com/ the discourse of ‘white privilege.’” Educational This 22-year-old newspaper, the largest of its kind, Philosophy and Theory, 36:2 (2004), 137-151. This covers American Indians from a national perspective, 147

148 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA article, written for educators, introduces ideas . News Writing and Reporting Mencher, Melvin. about white privilege, then goes beyond to show New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072564970 how the active participation of white people in accumulating unearned advantages amounts to A popular text for basic journalism courses. white supremacy. Leonardo challenges the ways in Morgan, Arlene Notoro, Alice Pifer and Keith which discussions about race often tiptoe around The Authentic Voice: The Best Reporting on the matter of white responsibility. Woods. Race and Ethnicity . New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. The first of its kind, this multimedia Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me: textbook of case studies offers a practical teaching Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong ew York: The New Press (distributed by tool on coverin g race and ethnicity for both print . N W.W. Norton), 1995. This critique of high school and broadcast. The book, developed by three out- standing trainers in inclusive coverage, includes textbooks details the omissions and distortions taugh e t in school that may have led to journalists’ xamples of excellent work, essays by the reporters involved, a DVD with interviews of the writers, own misunderstandings about Native Americans – correspondents and producers, discussion questions, and at the same time, provides a helpful retelling links to r elated material and a web site offering f a more accurate American history. o d a teach er’s gui de. ad diti on al work an Malveaux, Suzanne. “Bush to Declare End of “The Structure of Media in New Moss, Mitchell. Combat in Iraq: President Will Address Nation York City,” Thursday.” CNN.com (May 1, 2003). . John Dual City: Restructuring New York ull M H http://www ollenk op f and Manuel Castells, eds. New .cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/04/30/ ews report on the end of . N sprj.irq.bush.combat/ Y ork: Russell Sage Foundation, 1991. http://www.mitchellmoss.com/books/nycmedia.html. major combat in Iraq. Describes the complex print, radio and television media infrastructure that has arisen to serve New Mangan, Katherine S. “Horse Sense or Nonsense?’’ Y ork City’s ethnically and culturally diverse popula- Chr onicle of Higher Education 48:43 (2002), A8. tion. Reviews the differing images of New York http://chronicle.com/ . Mangan focuses on the conveyed by vari m ovem ent to teach medical students’ communica- ous m edia and the populations they serve. tion skills so they can interact more skillfully with ts en pati , including those from a different cultural e con f sortium o Ne d wi on ati A n w America Media. ous curri culum initi atives d . Describes vari gr oun back over 700 ethnic media. For regular news summaries under way. from member publications, see the NAM Editorial http://www d, Dori J. Maynar .org/ .newamericamedia.org/news/. .maynardije http://news chan g e: Ex Maynard, president and columns/dorimaynard/. atter P x ecutive o f th e Robert C. Maynard Institute chi eapolis d Soul.” Minn eart an “H . egory ef e son, Gr Star-Tribune (Feb. 6, 2003). An essay on the for Journalism Education, heads the Fault Lines culinary legacy of soul food from a personal and Project and is a well-known advocate for diversity. cal perspective, with recipes. histori d Institute for Journalism Robert C. Maynar .maynardije.org P eabody Awards Archives. http://www . Foun ded Education. cated to training edi .peabody.uga.edu/archives/. stitute is d http://www e in in 1977, th alists of color and to increasing diversity in aries of “POV Flag Wars” and “POV Two journ For summ news staffing, content and business operations. Towns of Jasper,” search by year for 2003. Its web site has a wealth of diversity news, analysis and resources, including Richard Prince’s Poynter Institute for Media Studies. “Journal-isms” column. http://www.poynter.org/subject.asp?id=5 . The Poynter Institute is a school for journalists, future “A Primary Source Outside Meier, Barry. journalists and journalism teachers. Poynter offers t tip sheets, discussions, resources and eam.” New York Newsday (April 13, 1988), 26. cellen str ain x e M eports on its web site, along with infor- .newsday.com. diversity r http://www mation about its diversity seminars. 148

149 V: FURTHER READING APPENDIX of Univision Communications Inc.’s programming. Program on International Policy Attitudes. Televisa’s web site is “Public Impatient with Iraq Reconstruction: 7 in http://www.esmas.com/ 10 Now Say UN Should Take Lead.” Press release http://www.univision. and Univision’s is televisahome/ net/corp/intro.jsp. for a PIPA/Knowledge Networks poll of 712 people (Dec. 3, 2003). http://www.pipa.org/online_ Srivastava, S. Respondents said the processes of “Outsourcing God: Mass in Kerala.” reports.html. creating a government and developing a police Siliconeer (July 20, 2004). . Roman Catholic http://www.siliconeer.com/ force to maintain security were going too slowly. parishes in India receive instructions by e-mail Only 43 percent said that the U.S. presence in Iraq and payment from dioceses in the United States would improve the prospects for democracy ffer Masses or prayers in someone’s or some- to o thr oughout the Middle East. thing’s honor. Project for Excellence in Journalism. T apaoan, Emelyn. “Stri ct new guidelines affect . http://www .stateofthemedia.org/2005/index.asp undocumented Filipinos.” Filipino Express (Nov. 24, An in-depth annual report on eight forms of news media and their content, audience, business http://www.filipinoexpress.com/ 2002). Cover age on the new bank regulations from the outlook, own ership and other essential factors. clu d Also in . alists f journ es a survey o perspective o f Filipin os in N ew Y ork. Radio and Television News Directors Turner, Beauty, Mary C. Johns and Brian J. Rogal. Association. “Deadly Moves: A Special Report on Chicago’s http://rtnda.org/asfi/awards/ er Rate by Resi on nivisi dents’ Journal and The Chicago e 24, 2004). U (Jun murrowshow2004.asp M ur d http://chicagoreporter .com/ won a n ational award in the news series category .” (2004). Reporter and 2004/8-2004/8-2004toc.htm Mis padres, mis verdugos (My Parents, My for En busca de un Tormentors) and in videography for http://www.wethepeoplemedia.org/Backgrounder/ Special.htm . As the mainbar of the story summarizes: milagro (In Search of a Miracle) . A full list of the t investigation, Residents’ Journal and “In a join ds is on web site. awar The Chicago Reporter found ... that the murder f Newspaper Coverage o ate in (Chi r cago Housing Authority) developments Shah, H., and M. Thornton. . has nearly doubled since 1999, the year before the Interethnic Conflict: Competing Visions of America ousan Th d Oaks , Calif.: Sage Publications, 2003. or Transformation, a 10- ed its Plan f ch city laun . A http://www .sagepub .com/book.aspx?pid=9723 on r , $1.5 billi year ch ed evelopm ort, in whi t eff en study on general circulation and ethnic minority the CHA moves nearly 25,000 families.’’ For the media coverage of interethnic conflict in Miami, Residents’ Journal story on the award, see x.html http://www W ashin gton an d Los An geles. The authors investi- .wethepeoplemedia.org/Inde and for the SPJ press release, http://www.spj.org/ gate the roles of these media in defining, construct- .asp?ref=459. news in g an d challen gin g r acial ideology and race relations. “Patriot Act devastates Chinatown Wagner, Venise. Sing Tao Daily. http://www.journalism.sfsu.edu/ o/wagner.htm departmentinf agner is an assistant g,” translated from Chinese by Xiaoqing bankin . W pr oices that Must be Heard: V ofessor at San Francisco State University and a g (Sept. 26, 2003). Ron f f New York’s Immigrant and Ethnic Press. The Best o ormer reporter at several newspapers. She d coverage of a alism an c journ .php3?ArticleID= alizes in civi .indypressny.org/article http://www speci ost of Abacus Federal Savings Bank’s unity. . M diverse comm 1073 60,000 clients are undocumented Chinese immi- http://www.wtnh.com/Global/ grants, who now must provide official U.S. photo WTNH.com. story.asp?S=3011372 identification to open an account. Sing Tao USA: (2005). News Channel 8 in New Haven, Conn., goes to a New England prep http://www.singtaousa.com/. school to talk with students and their math teacher about Harvard president Lawrence Summers’ “Can Televisa Conquer the U.S.?” Smith, Geri. ew en and their capabilities for eek 3902 (Oct. 4, 2004), 70. An overvi arks about wom em ess W Busin r ath and science. f the ambitions of the world’s largest media empire, m o Grupo Televisa. The Mexican company supplies most 149

150 NEWS IN A NEW AMERICA CHAPTER 4 CLOSE-UP Mass Communicating: The Forum on Media Diversity. http://www.masscommunicating.lsu.edu/ Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism (2005). Offers resources and programming to about enhance media diversity education at the college . Diversity: Best Practices and Mass Communication. Lawrence, Kansas: Accrediting Council on Education level. The web site aims to be a principal source of in Journalism and Mass Communications, 2003. information about scholarship on diversity in higher http://www.ku.edu/~acejmc/index.html . Provides education, journalism and mass communication. an explanation of the diversity standard, the Winds of Change: Challenges reasons for it and compliance history. Tabulates Medsger, B. the best practices in creating a faculty, student . Arlington, Va.: Confronting Journalism Education Th e Freedom Forum, 1996. A study of journalism on and campus environment supportive of populati diversity. education and how well it prepares journalists to meet newsroom challenges and cover a multicultural er, Lee, with Aswin Punathambekar and Beck soci ety. Includes informative surveys of educators, “Evaluating the Outcomes of Diversifi- Jisu Huh. newsroom recruiters and supervisors, and new cation Initiatives: Stability and Change in Journalism journalists. ass Communication Faculties, 1989-1998.” & M J . Cen am or International Mass ter f es M. Co Reznet. www .reznetnews .org . An onlin x Jr e n ewspaper for Native American students to share their views Communication Training and Research, Grady College and report news about tribal communities and of Journalism and Mass Communication, University http://www.grady.uga.edu/ colleges. of Georgia (2001). alysis o f data annualsurveys/. A r eport on an d an http://www . .splc.org Student Pr ess Law Center. om the Cox Center’s Annual Survey of Journalism fr The Tartan at Carnegie Mellon University shut down & Mass Communication Enrollments. The authors voluntarily after complaints about a racially conclude that if journalism programs do not charged cartoon and poems about rape and change their practices, the faculty will not be as s stu dent population until the year utilation, while administrators at the University m today’ diverse as 2035. The situation is likely to become far worse, of Scranton closed The Aquinas for a parody of the , because the student body is likely to The P e, ovi m assion o dent Press e Stu h . Th f the Christ owever Law Center advocates free speech for student grow more diverse. on publi s and provides free advice, information cati De Uriarte ynn, with Cristina cedes L , Mer d legal support. an Bodinger-de Uriarte and José Luis Benavide. Wickham, K. “An examination of diversity issues Diversity Disconnects: From Class Room to News dation, 2003. ourn ork: For ew Y . N Room alism Confer ence Newspapers.” d Foun at South east J http://journalism.utexas.edu/faculty/deuriarte/ Newspaper Research Journal 25:3 (2004), 103-109. y o s . A stu diversity.html oom f diversity in both classr d y on atten A stu d g demographics and on to staffin ti and newsrooms, including analysis on the historical guidelines that call for a commitment to diversity. and institutional reasons for resistance and failure Wickham found that student newspapers are eet goals. to m elmingly white and female, and that there overwh ar e few stated guidelines about the need for to the 21st Century: The Hines “In , Barbara Bealor. diversity . Presented at Association for Education in ournalism and Mass Communication f J es o g Challen ass Communication convention in d M alism an ourn J ucation.” .aejmc.org. Ed http://www Journalism and Mass Communication ansas City, Mo., in 2003. K , (March 2001), 29-50. Education: 2001 and Beyond http://www.aejmc.org/pubs/2001.html . This report from the Subcommittee on Inclusivity, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communica- tion, provides an analysis of the status of diversity on the faculty and in the curriculum, followed by f resources. sive list o xten an e 150

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