They Also Dug! Archaeoiogist's Wives and Their Stories


1 They Also Dug! Archaeoiogist's Wives and Their Stories Author(s): Norma Dever Source: Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 67, No. 3 (Sep., 2004), pp. 162-173 Published by: The American Schools of Oriental Research Stable URL: Accessed: 11-06-2018 15:22 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at The American Schools of Oriental Research is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Near Eastern Archaeology This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

2 447 by Norma Dever stunningly beautiful Greek woman, "What we need most Sophie is principally remembered today for serving as a "model" for displaying of all is a wife." her husband's more spectacular finds- but she might have played a more active Ifirst heard this statement some role than that in retrieving the ancient forty years ago from the well- treasures of Troy. known classical archaeologists She married Heinrich Schliemann, who Saul and Gladys Weinberg when Saul was already an established archaeologist, in 1869. Schliemann was a wealthy was Archaeological Director of the man, and he used his great resources to Hebrew Union College in Jerusa- look for Homer's Troy, a task that soon lem. As an academic couple, they absorbed Sophie as well. The day before appreciated how difficult it was to do the last dirt was to be removed at Troy, everything on a dig, and wished they Heinrich was accompanied by his wife, had a "wife" to handle all the non- when he saw gold. He seized her arm academic excavation responsibilities. and said, "Get your red shawl," which In addition, in those early days of co- he proceeded to fill with gold that he thought was Priam's. The Schliemanns ed excavation, directors' wives were took the gold to their hut and spread it also burdened with the roles of house- This photo of Sophie Schliemann wearing out, and it was then that he adorned his mother and chaperone. Accordingly, "the gold of Troy" has made her a wife with his discovery. Aided by his wife's Albright advised in his Archaeology of familiar face in the world of archaeology. relatives, they smuggled the gold out of Reportedly, Schliemann decorated his Palestine that "where expeditions are the country to Athens. According to C. beautiful wife with these treasures almost mixed it is highly desirable to have W Ceram, Sophie continued to work with immediately after finding them. Sophie and the Director's wife present, both to her husband in Mycenae, digging with a her relatives are credited with smuggling pocket knife for almost a month, to help provide a feminine social arbiter and the jewelry out of Turkey. Photo courtesy of to avert scandal."1 him dig up the famous gold masks, as well the Gennadius Library, Athens. as other more mundane objects.2 I have spent many years in the role of Recently, it has been suggested that much of Schliemann's Director's wife and, during this time, I was able to get to know account was fictitious and that Sophie was in Athens the day that other women in the same position.The achievements of many "Priam's treasure" was discovered.3 Although the truth may never famous male archaeologists in the ancient Near East have be known, it is clear that Sophie provided much of the inspiration depended a great deal on their wives' contributions to their work, for her husband's more spectacular archaeological triumphs. which have gone largely unacknowledged, until now. In contrast to the enigmatic Sophie, Agatha Christie was an archaeologist's wife whose renown exceeded her husband's when they met. Agatha ran across Sir Max Mallowan at Ur Famous Women-Sophie Schliemann and in 1928, and within three years they married, when Agatha Agatha Christie was forty years old. Agatha spent three or four months at a Sophie Schliemann's face is more recognizable than time on digs in Syria and Iraq, where she washed pottery, took her contribution to Schliemann's archaeological work. A 162 NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

3 Agatha Christie met Sir Max Mallowan at Ur in 1928 and within three years they married, when Agatha was forty. Agatha spent three or four months at a time on digs in Syria and Iraq where she washed pottery, took photographs, and worked on her mystery novels. Agatha Christie and Max Mallowan posed for this photo in the late 1960s. Photo by David Stronach. photographs, and worked on her mystery novels. It is said that when Mallowan asked her if she minded that he spent his time "digging up the dead," she replied, "Not at all, I adore corpses and stiffs."4 Famously, Mallowan also quoted her as saying that "an archaeologist is the best husband any woman can have; the older she gets, the more interested he is in her."5 But she never admitted to having said that herself. Agatha loved Ur, the tells, and the ancient sites of Nineveh and Nimrud in Iraq and Chagar Bazar and Tell Brak in Syria. She shopped in the bazaars for Persian rugs, bedspreads, furniture, and ornaments, which she took back to England. At Chagar Bazar, Agatha was responsible for the food for the expedition, even for cooking. Her mystery novels-including Appointment Lady Hilda and Sir Flinders Petrie were at the Albright Institute when with Death and Murder in Mesopotamia-give much of the flavor this photo was taken. Hilda Petrie became famous at the Institute of the Middle East of her time. for refusing to throw food away and hoarding sugar. Photo by Victor Gollancz Ltd. The Early Days-the Petries and the Albrights A woman whose labor unquestionably contributed sites. She also copied two thousand signs in the cemetery of to archaeology is the indomitable Lady Hilda Petrie. Dendereh. Acknowledging this, Sir Flinders Petrie's dedicated his book In 1935, the Petries moved into the American School of Seventy Years in Archaeology, "To my wife on whose toil most Oriental Research, which is now the Albright Institute in of my work has depended."6 Petrie noticed Hilda for the first Jerusalem, where they lived until 1942 when Sir Flinders died. time when she was a young woman (he was 42 at the time) at It seems that Hilda's training in Egypt, as the one individual University College, London, where she was studying with the responsible for controlling the purse-strings of her husband's famous artist Henry Holiday. They were attracted to each other excavations, stayed with her. The long-term cook of the and talked about going to Egypt, and for a year thereafter he American School in Jerusalem, Omar Jibril, said that Lady sent his journals to her. In 1897 they married, spending their Petrie would keep canned foods in the back until they spoiled honeymoon in Egypt. and exploded and that she hoarded sugar by taking it from the He wrote later about Hilda's work that "I will only say that dining room.8 She was Petrie's loyal companion to the end. it was entirely due to my wife that the resources of the British When William Foxwell Albright heard Ruth Norton read a School were raised, to enable work to be carried on by me and paper on "The Life-Index in Hindu Fiction" at the American our students."' Hilda drew many of his plates and plans for Oriental Society meetings in Philadelphia, he became interested publication and was the chief manager of Petrie's excavations, in her, mentioning to his mother her intellect, attractiveness, paying hundreds of workers at Abydos and other Egyptian good upbringing and vivaciousness. Ruth was two years away NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) 163 This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

4 when Ernest became the advisor to Gezer, however, Emily did not participate in the excavation. When I asked her why she had not gone with Ernest, she replied, "there were no proper bathrooms."'1 Emily was a loyal, supportive wife, but the rigors of the field were obviously not for her. It seems to me significant that, even after much research, the first name of Elihu Grant's wife could not be found. In 1930, Grant decided to return to Beth Shemesh (Ain Shems) and found it too late to recruit staff from America or Europe, so he proceeded with staff from Palestine. Dr. Grant appreciated the "pleasant air of home and housekeeping" that his wife brought to the excavation, but he worried about her overworking, and suffering from exhaustion. Speaking of his wife he wrote, "with a woman about camp and field, a pleasant air of home and housekeeping quality was lent to the expedition." Nevertheless, William Dever took this photo of Ruth Albright in 1973, when she was he was worried that she might overdo and suffer from visiting the Institute in Jerusalem that had only recently been named exhaustion if she helped with the "real" archaeologic after her deceased husband. Ruth Albright's primary role was taking care of William, shielding him from the mundane facts of life, and Speaking of his wife he wrote, she did many errand raising their sons. Photo by William G. Dever. city, watched over our interests in camp, marked many hundred pieces of pottery and performed secretarial services, besides from getting her Ph.D. in Sanskrit at Johns Hopkins, when taking charge of the women's payroll."" Mrs. Grant also sent she came to Jerusalem to marry William at the St. George's three hundred cucumbers to the camp to give some variety to school in 1921. In 1925, the Albrights moved into a wing of the breakfast, and she added soap and a towel as a gratuity to the American School-alternating their living quarters between wage of each woman working on her husband's excavation. Jerusalem and Baltimore. They had two sons born in each city. In contrast to the Wrights and the Grants, Helen and Ruth Albright's primary role was taking care of William (who Nelson Glueck were a professional couple-albeit in did not live in the real world) raising their sons, and shielding markedly different professions. Albright said that their him from the mundane facts of life. After he died, Mrs. Albright marriage in 1931 was the most important event in Nelson's came to visit the Jerusalem school in 1972 and told us wonderful life.12 Helen Glueck was not involved in Nelson's career stories of her life with him. A beautiful Bezalel silver box was as an archaeologist. However, she helped him achieve his given to the Albrights by the Palestine Oriental Society when goals as an explorer and adventurer. Shortly after their they left Jerusalem in 1935, and Mrs. Albright brought it back marriage, Nelson went to Palestine, but Helen stayed behind to the Jerusalem school. During that visit, she told us that she to complete her medical degree and only joined Nelson in had, characteristically, protected William from visitors who 1934. They lived at the American School, and Helen took wanted to see him in his last days because she couldn't let an interest in the Director's house and in other parts of the them see William when he was ill. She also said Albright had school. She bought several pieces of furniture, rugs, and wall two categories for Hopkins' Ph.D.s, one for degrees that were hangings that remain there to this day. real-namely those for his students-and one for doctorates received under the direction of "others." On one of his last Women Present at the Birth of Israeli lucid days, while Ruth was with him in the hospital, she told us Archaeology that he said, "But yours wasn't a real Ph.D., was it?"9 Yigael Yadin, perhaps the most famous Israeli archaeologist in the world, met his wife Carmella in high school. They American Archaeological Couples married at a young age and had two daughters. In 1963-1964, Unlike some other archaeologists' wives, Emily Wright Carmella helped to organize a volunteer dig at a site that had (the wife of G. Ernest Wright) was not comfortable in field been previously unexplored-Masada. She handled all the archaeology. She did work with Ernest in founding and producing requests for volunteers, and Yadin wrote in his book on the this journal under its original title, The Biblical Archaeologist, site, "I should like to thank Carmella, my wife, who single- which was launched in 1938 but, as far as I know, Emily did not handedly in our 'rear headquarters' in Jerusalem dealt with all travel to the Near East with Ernest until 1964, when she came our correspondence and thousands of volunteer applications. to the Hebrew Union College in Israel. Coincidentally, this was That this book in its present form is better than when I wrote it also my first year there. That was a wonderful year with Ernest, is mainly due to her.""' Emily, and two of their four children, Danny and Carolyn. In In other books, Yadin expressed similar sentiments writing the fall of 1964, when the first small Gezer dig took place, the in Bar Kochba that, "I am grateful to Carmella my wife, who sherds were brought back to Hebrew Union College for Emily not only shared the prosaic worries of pre-and post-expedition and me to wash and dry. The following spring and summer burdens, but rendered my poor English style readable""' and in 164 NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

5 Near Eastern Archaeologists - Who Were with regular sermons at Friends Meetings. Grant received Their Husbands? his Ph.D. from Boston University in 1906 in Philosophy, but his dissertation entitled Village Life in Palestine Sir Max (Edgar Lucien) Mallowan (1904-1978) is was a classic ethno-historical study and he is often listed known primarily for his work in Mesopotamia. While among anthropologists for this and other cultural studies he working for the British School of Archaeology and the British performed in Palestine. Museum, Mallowan surveyed hundreds of sites in Iraq and excavated at Nimrod as well as many other places. He was Nelson Glueck (1900-1971) was an internationally a Professor of Archaeology at London University and also prominent rabbi and archaeologist who is known outside the served as the director of the British School of Archaeology field for having delivered the benediction at President John E in Iraq from 1947-1961. Kennedy's inauguration and for having graced the cover of Time Magazine in 1963. As a result of his famous surveys, Sir William Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) was a pioneer Glueck uncovered more than one thousand ancient sites in of systematic methodology in archaeology. After surveying Jordan and another five hundred in the Negev in Israel. He British prehistoric monuments, including Stonehenge, Petrie was born in Cincinnati in 1900 and spent most of his life went to Egypt to excavate at many of the most important looking to Cincinnati as his home base. He was ordained archaeological sites there, including Abydos and Amarna. a rabbi at Hebrew Union in 1923 and joined its faculty By linking styles of pottery with periods, he developed five years later. His archaeological work in the Middle East seriation, a revolutionary method for establishing the began in the twenties. During World War II Glueck put his chronology of a site. Petrie left Egypt for Palestine in 1926. intimate knowledge of the Middle East to work for the OSS, Here he excavated a series of frontier sites between Egypt the predecessor to the CIA. and Canaan and died in Jerusalem where he is buried in the Protestant cemetery on Mount Zion. Albert Glock (1925-1992) is known for being both the founder and the Director of Birzeit University's Institute William Foxwell Albright (1891-1971) was an of Archaeology in Palestine. He was among the first archaeologist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on archaeologists to promote and foster research into the ceramics. He was born in Chile to Protestant missionaries. archaeological record of Palestinian Arabs. Among the Albright is considered to be one of the primary figures in the excavations he directed in the West Bank, his work with development of biblical archaeology and was responsible Palestinian students at Ta'anach is best known. Glock began for so many major discoveries in Israel and Jordan that his career like many others in biblical archaeology as a it is difficult to find a major site there with which he was minister. His life was ended tragically in 1992 by a gunman. not at one time involved. He presided over the creation of the Jerusalem research center of the American School of Yigael Yadin (1917-1984) was born in Jerusalem. He Oriental Research which is today called the W F Albright became a key figure in the leadership for Israeli independence. Institute of Archaeological Research in his honor. He was named the second Chief of Independence. He was also named the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense George Ernest Wright (1909-1974) was a leading Forces (IDF), and served in that capacity from 1949 to biblical scholar and archaeologist. He was ordained in the 1952. He left the army in 1952 to study archeology at Presbyterian church when he began to study with William the Hebrew University of Jerusalem earning his Ph.D. in Foxwell Albright at The Johns Hopkins University. Wright 1955. Fifteen years later, he became head of the Institute excavated at a number of sites including Gezer in Israel of Archeology at the Hebrew University. Yadin's fieldwork and Idalion in Cyprus and is responsible for creating the encompassed many of the most important excavations in journal Biblical Archaeologist, the precursor to Near Israel, including Hazor, the caves of the Judean Desert, Eastern Archaeology. Masada and Meggido. In addition to his career in archeology, he held several public offices in Israel, including that of Elihu Grant (1873-1942) of Haverford College Deputy Prime Minister. (Haverford, Pennsylvania) directed excavations principally at Beth Shemesh in Israel. A devoted and lifelong Quaker, Nachman Avigad (1906-1992) is known inter-nationally Grant later in life interspersed his teaching of archaeology for his excavations of Jerusalem's Jewish Quarter. He was NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) 165 This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

6 born in Czechoslovakia and was a Professor of Archaeology his personal views of biblical sites and the field in general. at Hebrew University in Jerusalem for many years. In For a thorough treatment of Callaway's contribution to addition to his Jerusalem excavations, Avigad is renowned for the field, see "Searching for Benchmarks in the Biblical his publication of the Baruch bullae, Hebrew seals and seal World: the Development of Joseph A. Callaway as a Field impressions that provide numerous details about life in the Archaeologist," Biblical Archaeologist 58/1 (March 1995). kingdom of Judah before the Babylonian Exile. Avigad was also the discoverer of the "Broad Wall," which suggested to John S. Holladay, Jr. is Professor Emeritus of the University scholars that the city ofJerusalem had been greatly expanded of Toronto in Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations. He was during the reign of King Hezekiah. the director of the University of Toronto excavations at Tell el-Maskhuta. A biblical scholar and archaeologist, Holladay Yigal Shiloh (1937-1987) was an Israeli archaeologist has worked at sites in Israel, Jordan and Egypt and has who directed the excavations at the City of David in written and edited many books on the archaeology of the Jerusalem from 1978 to 1985. He revealed important finds, ancient Near East. thus providing a clearer picture of the 586 BCE destruction of Nebuchadnezzar and of early post-exilic Jerusalem. James Strange is a Professor of New Testament Studies Between 1983 and 1986 Shiloh served as director of the at the University of South Florida. Since 1983, Strange Hebrew University's Institute of Archaeology. In 1984 he has directed excavations at Sepphoris, Israel. Strange has published an interim assessment of the results from the City been a field archaeologist in 1969 when he began working of David excavations. at Gezer. Later, he served as Co-Director of the Meiron Excavation Project and was at the Albright Institute in Robert Bull is professor emeritus of Drew University. 1970 and again in 1980. Between 1956 and 1973 he excavated at Shechem with G. Ernest Wright. Beginning in 1970 he began work with an William G. Dever is Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern American and Canadian expedition at Caesarea. One of the Archaeology at the University of Arizona. He began his most notable discoveries of that expedition was a Mithraeum archaeological career under the direction of G. Ernest (a place of worship of the god Mithras), the Hippodrome and Wright at Gezer and since that time has become one of a complex of public buildings south of the Crusader City. the primary scholars recognized in the field today. He has served as director of the Albright Institute and of the Gus Van Beek has been associated with the Smithsonian Archaeological Institute of Hebrew Union College. His Institution, where he has been Curator of Old World publications include over 250 articles and 17 books. His Archaeology for more than thirty years. Van Beek's work most recent book is Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology has a geographical range that encompasses the entire ancient and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel. Near East. He played a major role in excavations in Yemen in the 1950s. He worked for twelve seasons at Tel Jemmeh, Jim Sauer (1945-1999) was for many years the Director Israel between 1970 and 1990. The excavations employed of the American Center of Oriental Research in Amman, a new methodology in which every artifact was saved, Jordan, leading it to the preeminent place it now occupies including fragments of wall plaster and even waste flakes. as a research institution dedicated to the archaeology and He made a thorough study of Old World mud architecture, history of Transjordan. He also had a long association examining methods of construction and varieties of designs with the Horn Archaeological Museum and the Hesban in contemporary as well as ancient structures in Morocco, Expedition. Particularly well known for his ceramic Egypt, Yemen, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and India. analyses, a mainstay of Near Eastern Archaeology, Sauer's work was instrumental in filling in gaps in the knowledge Joseph A. Callaway (1920-1988) was a professor of Middle Eastern ceramics of all periods. At the time of at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary for almost his his death Dr. Sauer was working on the final publication entire career. Callaway became interested in archaeology in of Hesban pottery. 1960, joining Kelso's team at Bethel. In addition to Bethel, Callaway excavated at most of the well-known biblical sites -Editor in the West Bank, including Shechem and 'Ai, where he directed an expedition that had far-reaching effects both on 166 NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

7 Bar Kochba and The Cave of Letters that "I am grateful to my wife ... for editing the first draft but also for her help in clarifying some of the problems concerning the weaving techniques of the textile finds."'5 In The Temple Scroll he wrote, "Carmella typed the initial draft of my manuscript, polished it, and devoted considerable efforts to translate the text of the scroll into English. For nearly nine years we worked together on this text."'6 As these grateful acknowledgements attest, Carmella was a good copyeditor, a job that has been performed by other archaeologists' wives over the years, but she was useful to her husband in many other ways. According to Josef Aviram, a close friend of the Yadins, Yadin, responding to criticism at times, would write angry letters to editors or others, but Carmella would convince him to wait and not mail the letters until he cooled off. Yigael Yadin is shown here with his wife, Carmella, and parents. Aviram says that Yadin did not take one step without her, that Yigael was the son of archaeologist Eleazer Sukenik and Hasya she was "in the picture one hundred percent," and that she was Sukenik. Yadin was known for his irate responses to criticism and on clever, honest, and a considerable partner in Yadin's work.'7 many occasions Carmella had to convince him not to fire off letters Josef Aviram was well acquainted with the Avigads, as well in the heat of anger. Reportedly, Yadin did not take one step without as with the Yadins and said that Shulamit Avigad accompanied her. Her contribution to his work was considerable. Photo courtesy of her husband everywhere and was very helpful in his work. the Israel Exploration Society. She worked from 1953 to 1955 at Beit Shearim and typed and Guns and Guffahs-Dangerous Archaeology from a usual, Ruth was still protecting him. She shook her finger at Woman's Perspective these two men, then in their mid-30s, and said, "Now you had better not harm a hair on William's head! "2 The early days of archaeology in the ancient Near East In 1980 when Seymour Gitin became Director of the were times of great struggle-both from the standpoint of Albright, he asked Helen Glueck, Nelson Glueck's wife, the labor involved and because of the adverse and even for advice. In response, she said, "When you have a cocktail dangerous conditions under which scholars had to work. party, make sure that you have the lights off in the front of Lady Hilda Petrie managed workers in Egypt in 1898 and the building. ""2 The story goes that, at the first party Helen was no stranger to the rigors of the field. On one seemingly Glueck gave after Nelson became director of the Institute, a ordinary workday, she received a blunt reminder that guest leaving by the front door was gunned down. there were other hardships involved in fieldwork in the The last major incident involving an archaeologist is Middle East. She was shot at while working at her desk, much more tragically recent and serves as a reminder fortunately by an inexpert marksman. Unharmed and that archaeology in this politically-unstable region is still undaunted, she saw no reason not to continue working at perilous. In 1980 Lois and Al Glock moved the Ta'anach her husband's side. archaeological collection to Birzeit University as well Ruth Norton Albright was ever-conscious of the hazards as their home Beit Haninah. In 1991, they decided to of working in the Middle East. When the Albrights set move the material yet again to a rented space nearby. Lois up housekeeping in the American School on Abbyssinian customarily accompanied Al on his Sunday afternoon Street, plans were made and carried out to build the present visit to the house at which he would later be shot, but building, but when Ruth saw the plans drawn by a Yale on that Sunday in January of 1992 she stayed behind to architect, she knew they were unsuitable for a school in continue packing materials. We will never know if Lois, Jerusalem (for example, the building was to have eleven too, would have been a target but the fact is that Al was entrances) and assisted in revising them. Ruth saw herself as killed that day in Ramallah. After Al's death, Lois moved standing between her husband and possible harm in many the materials three more times and continued as curator respects. In the late sixties, the Albrights came to Jerusalem. of the Ta'anach and Jenin collections for three years. Joe Seger and William Dever picked them up from the King Then, she sold Al's library to Birzeit University and left David Hotel to take William Albright to Gezer, and, as permanently for the United States.-- NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) 167 This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

8 Shulamit Avigad (shown here is the middle of the picture) accompanied her husband everywhere and was very helpful in his work. She worked in 1953-1955 at Beit Shearim. From 1969 to 1984 she worked on the Ein Gedi Judean Caves volumes, as well as the she worked on the oin Gedi Judean Caves volumes, as well as the Jerusalem excavation publications, typing and selecting illustrations. Photo by the author. retyped the manuscript for the excavation, as well as helping with food for the staff. She also worked in 1969-1984 on the Hazor. Tami caused their tents to sink into the mud forcing them to live in the VW Ein Gedi Judean Caves volumes, as well as the Jerusa A-alem Ein Gedi Judean Caves volumesn as well as the Jerusalemtimesr excavation publications, typing and selecting illustrations."6 Tamar (Tamit i) and Yigal Shiloh met when they were in school Robert and Vivian Bull shown here have worked together for ) accompanid worked together on the excavations at Arad, Nagilah and their married lives In the spring of 1967 Vivian was the camp manager Jerusalemalmost studied archaeology, but she decided to for the expedition at Pella an exceptionally rough season as rainsillustrations. for the expedition at Pella, an exceptionally rough season as rains study Bible instead since she thought that two married people bus Photo courtesy of Vivion Bull d with the same vocation a healthy relationship. with the same vocation could not have a healthy relationship. When Yigal became the director of the archaeological dig of worked again at Shechem and Tel er-Ras at various tim the City of David in 1978 for eight summers, Tami became the City of David in 1978 for eight summers, Tami became 1960 to 1968, helping to buy supplies, working on the iiustrations.stry, caused their tents to sin k into the mud, forcing them to live in the VW I completely involved. She was in charge of the staff,chool Robert and assisting in Bull, shown hereating medical problems in together for most ofvill completely involved. She was in charge of the staff, the wastudy Bible instead since she thoughtrked in the at two married people bus. Photo courtesy of Vivithisn Bull. and assisting in treating medical problems in the village. In registered finds, and the dig camp, ordering supplies and helping the spring of 1967, Vivian was camp manager at Pella, whichnager in public relations. People found their own lodging and brought proved to be exceptionally rough, as rains caused their with her in 2001 that she d irector of the archaeological 1970, Bob became Director of the Albright and receivedof their own breakfast. Drinks were provided, however anided lunch sink into the mud, forcing the Bulls to live in their VWto workexavation of the City of David was in progress, she organized much help from Vivian. FroShechem 1971and Tel er-Ras1994 andt various times from1996, sink into the mud, forcing the Bulls to live in their VW bus. It to1960 to 1968, in helping to buy supplies, working on the registry, took tremendous organization, especially as the personnel and registered finds, and the United Statesdig camp, ordecturing abosupplies and he Clpingty ofring o an manag t el, Davtheir own breakfad. Tami state. Drinks that were provided, however,"hot and dirtylunch togewas sther," she felor thatos e who worked in t he afternoon. All of this not true that he was named of s"Camper" after the bus! (Heon was Amwith her ican "Arc2001 that she and Yigical Couplwere a team. While the three weeks old, Vivian went back to the excavation, and she 1960s, 1970s and 1980S contIn 1970, Bob be cam e Director of the Albright and receivedwork. Viviamarried, Vivian joined the group excavating at Shechem taking from Jericho, Tell en Nitla and other sites and told Lois to sortea D avid. Tami stated th e adm i nistration of the camp. Vivian them and find parallels. For the next twenty years, Lois did Bob and Vivian Bull met in Jerusalem in 1957, and after they In 1958, Al Glock brought home a number of trays of sherds 168 NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

9 Gus and Ora Van Beek are in the center of this photo and Tamar Shiloh on the left. (Yigal Shiloh was deceased when this photograph was taken.) Ora Van Beek trained as an ethnologist and put her background to the test when she helped her husband with research about earthen architecture. Traveling to Iran, Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, and Yemen, Ora collected data about the interiors of women's quarters, while Gus researched the buildings' exteriors. Tamar Shiloh was famous for her "hands-on" participation in archaeological work and said that when she and Yigal were "hot and dirty together" she felt that it gave an extra quality to their life. Photo by outhor. was establishing a Department of Archaeology. She worked

10 Sara Callaway is shown here in the garden of the Albright Institute. She said that she cried when she first learned that Joe was going to teach archaeology since it meant that he would be gone each summer for long periods of time. When she asked Joe to take her with him, she reported that he had responded by asking, "But what can you do?" She promised that, if he would take her, she would find a place on the dig and she did, subsequently doing everything from mending and cooking to sorting pottery. This family photo was taken by Joe Callaway. the director of his own dig at 'Ai, Sara ran the dig house and cooked for eleven people on two primus burners. When the number of workers on that excavation increased to seventy- five people, Sara got a bit more help, but she managed mostly on her own. After their first experience, Joe never thought of For sixteen years, from 1985 to 2001, James and Carolyn Strange leaving her at home, undoubtedly because, as she recalls, "I worked together on the University of South Florida's excavations think my greatest contribution was being flexible and able to fit at Sepphoris, where she was especially involved in arranging for into the situation."25 food. In addition to her many day-to-day duties, she was also a Jack and Phyllis Holladay always worked together, beginning memorable "hostess" for parties and recreational activities for both with his seminary days, but Phyllis began to take a more active the volunteers and the members of the kibbutz. Photo courtesy of the role in archaeology in 1971, processing the pottery of the Gezer Sepphoris Excavations. Gate while Jack was in Jerusalem working at Hebrew Union College on a grant. In 1972 Phyllis went to Egypt with Jack recreational activities for both the volunteers and the members and Donald Redford, where she helped to process the pottery of the kibbutz. There was the "First Friday Party" and "Fourth from the Akhnaten Temple Project, and from 1977 to 1985, of July" party, the latter complete with costumes, parade and she helped to plan the project at the Wadi Tumilat. While apple pie with ice cream for all the "kibbutzniks."27 Each working full-time on a tremendous corpus of Egyptian pottery, Friday night, Carolyn also bought wine, bread and candles she was also responsible, for all but two years, for running the for Sabbath blessings. She made all of the arrangements for camp and the kitchen. During the eight years following the weekends in Jerusalem and provided food for two Saturday or last field season in 1985, Phyllis ran the Wadi Tumilat Project Sunday educational trips to other archaeological sites. Laboratory at the University of Toronto and also worked on Sue and Jim Sauer met in Jordan at the Hesbon excavation in older material from Shechem and Gezer, all the while battling the summer of 1973, when Sue was only nineteen years old, and cancer, to which she finally succumbed in 1993. In Jack's own they quickly decided that they wanted to get married. Sue went words "a quiet, determined feminist, she was also a loving wife, to the United States to speak with her parents, returning to incredible mother, loyal friend to hundreds, and an outstanding Jordan in September to marry Jim, who was the Annual Professor archaeologist in her own right."26 at the American Center for Oriental Research (ACOR) in For sixteen years, from 1985 to 2001, Carolyn Strange worked Amman. In July of 1974, Jim became the Acting Director of the as the camp manager for the University of South Florida's center and, later, the Director. Sue helped Jim start the hostel at excavations at Sepphoris, where she was especially involved in ACOR and establish its library, beginning with the G. E. Wright arranging for food (including the second breakfast in the field collection. She became the librarian in addition to managing every day). She was also a memorable "hostess," for, in addition the hostel. When Mohammed Adawi, the cook, took a vacation to her many day-to-day duties, she arranged for parties and or was absent, she shopped and cooked for the group. When the 170 NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

11 school was moved to new quarters in 1977, Sue was responsible for moving and setting up the library. The Sauers' two children, Tom and Katie, were both born in Jordan. Sue recalls that when Katie was only two days old she gave a dinner for the Board of Trustees. When Jim was away in Yemen or on lecture tours, Sue was left in charge of the Institute, but after they returned to the United States, she said she did not get much involved in Jim's work.28 The Devers-My Own Story Bill and I met in college and were married almost two years later, at the age of nineteen. For the next five years, I taught school in Tennessee and Indiana, while Bill got a B.D. and an M.A. at the Christian Theological Seminary in Indianapolis. In the summer of 1957, Bill went to Israel, visiting the dig in progress at Hazor. He was not particularly interested in archaeology at that time but became interested in the writings of G. E. Wright at Harvard. We moved to Boston in 1959. Bill began his studies at Harvard in the fall of 1960, and I taught school (again!). "Dig wives" in the twentieth century had many active roles to play on excavations. These photos from the Gezer exavations show Norma Dever identifying pottery with William Dever and G. Ernest Wright (top), working on reports with William Dever (middle), washing pottery with Carolyn Wright, Marion Beegle and an unidentified woman (bottom left), and sorting sherds (below). NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) 171 This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

12 year, mostly-unpaid job with the Gezer excavation, joining the core Staff as Pottery Registrar, Camp Manager, and Financial Officer. In the spring of 1965, we cleaned out a large building that the kibbutz did not use. That season was successful, so a larger excavation was planned. The kibbutz gave us another building to clean and use that summer. We had to build a camp or renovate the entire kibbutz! After one year back in the United States, where I taught school (again!) and typed Bill's thesis (despite the fact that I said I never would), we returned to Jerusalem for Bill to direct the Gezer dig. I worked full- time in the Gezer office in the off-seasons from 1966-1971. In 1969 Sean William was born, and we later moved to Cincinnati for the school year. In addition to taking care of infant Sean, I ran the Gezer volunteer office from home, recruiting over 120 volunteers for the next season. Sean often played in the wastebasket while I worked, or amused himself with his toys. Returning to Jerusalem in 1970, I once again went back to Gezer, while Sean stayed with an American family in Jerusalem during the week. In the summer of 1971, we moved to the Albright Institute in East Jerusalem. Bill went to Gezer, and I basically managed the Albright for the summer. For the next four years, I was Bill's secretary, was in charge of the day-to-day running of the hostel and entertained many visitors to the school in the Director's house. After moving to Tucson, Arizona, I went back to the third season of Be'er Resisim in 1980 to run the camp, supervise the schedule and handle the money. For the first time, we took Sean to the dig. This was certainly a challenging season in the Negev Desert. William G. Dever, the author, and their son, Sean, at Gezer in 1971. Over seventy people lived in tents, three hours from Beersheba, where we purchased In the summers of 1962 and 1964, Bill went to Shechem all our food, and one hour from the Israeli army camp that with Wright. In 1964, I joined him in Beirut, and we drove gave us water, which we hauled constantly. to Jerusalem, which was a thrill for a girl from southwestern In 1984 we went back to Gezer with a large group, camping Virginia. We crossed the Mandelbaum Gate to be at the on the edge of the kibbutz. While in Arizona, I worked a great Hebrew Union College in Israel for the school year. While deal for Bill, typing articles and helping with the Bulletin of in Israel, I helped Bill with research on his Ph.D. thesis and ASOR when he was editor. On Bill's sabbatical in 1981-1982, I that fall Wright and Glueck thought that it would be great typed the manuscript for Gezer IV at the Hebrew Union College to probe the site of Gezer. Bill, Darrell Lance, and Wright in Jerusalem. In the last few years since our divorce, I am again located the tell and started a small dig, driving out every typing for Bill, but now he pays me! day from Jerusalem with several volunteers, bringing the Of course these are only a few of the many resolute women material finds back to Hebrew Union College. This was of the past century who braved the rigors of dig life. I think I my first involvement with what turned out to be a seven- can speak for all the wives mentioned here, as well as others 172 NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

13 unnamed, that being involved in archaeology has been both 17. J. Aviram (personal communication, 2001). challenging and rewarding. We would not exchange these 18. J. Aviram (personal communication, 2001). experiences for any others. Now that archaeology is trying to 19. T. Shiloh (personal communication, 2001). understand the role of women in ancient societies more and 20. W. G. Dever and J. Seger (personal communications, 1969). more, I want the names of these modern women to be added 21. S. Gitin (personal communication, 1980). to those of their better-known husbands, who were the primary 22. L. Glock (personal communication, 2001). archaeologists, and say "They also dug!" 23. V. Bull (personal communication, 2001). 24. G. Van Beek (personal communication, 2001). Acknowledgment 25. S. Callaway (personal communication, 2001). I wish to thank Dr. Beth Alpert Nakhai for asking me to give this paper 26. J. olladay (personal communication, 2001). at the 2001 ASOR Meetings in Boulder, Colorado. My thanks to William 27. C. Strange (personal communication, 2001). 28. S. Sauer (personal communication, 2001). Dever for several of the slides used in my lecture and this paper and also to Seymour Gitin for his encouragement. Also, I thank Gila Aispuro, intern References and Further Reading for the Arizona Center for Judaic Studies at The University of Arizona, for converting my slides into pictures and putting them on CD-Rom. Albright, W F 1949 The Archaeology of Palestine. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Notes Penquin. t Andrews, R., M. Biggs and M. Seidel, et al. 2. Albright (1949: 13). 1996 The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia 2. Ceram (1966: 51-60). University Press. 3. Trail (1999: 14-21). 4. Mason (2001: 46-52). Ceram, C.W (ed.) 4. Mason (2001: 46-52). (1966 The World of Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson. 5. Andrews, Biggs, Seidel, et al. (1996: 123-31).S. . Petrie (1969: Drower). 1985 Flinders Petrie. London: Victor Gollancz. 7. Petrie (1969: 176). 8. 0. Jibril (personal communication, 1970). Grant, E. 9. R. Albright (personal communication, 1972). 1931 Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine) 1928-1929-1930-1931. Part I: Biblical and Kindred Studies, 3. Haverford, PA: Haverford 10. E. Wright (personal communication, 1965). 11. Grant (1931: 57). College. 12. Running and Freedman (1975: 422-34). King, P J. 13. Yadin (1966: 8). 1983 American Archaeology in the Middle East. Philadelphia: 14. Yadin (1971: 13) Eisenbrauns. 15. Yadin (1963: x). Mason, S. 16. Yadin (1977: xii). 2001 The Strange Case of Agatha Christie. Delta Magazine (May 2001): 46-52. Meyers, E., and C. Meyers 1985 An Interview with Mrs. Emily Wright. Biblical Archaeologist 50: 5-12. Petrie, W. E Norma Dever has taught junior high 1969 Seventy Years in Archaeology. New York: Greenwood Press school, high school and, for the past (reprint of 1932 edition, Henry Holt). twenty-eight years, has been Adjunct Running, L., and D. N. Freedman Faculty of Pima Community College in 1975 William Foxwell Albright. New York: The Two Continents Tucson, Arizona. Using her talents for 1975 William Foxwell Albright. New York: The Two Continents fund raising, she has headed an Alumni Publishing Group, Ltd., Morgan Press. and Friends Campaign for the Albright Trail, D. Institute for the past twelve years, raising 1999 Priam's Treasure: The 4,000-Year-Old Hoard of Trojan Gold. money for many practical projects for Odyssey July/August: 14-21. the Jerusalem school. Norma has been Yadin, Y. Editorial Assistant for the Bulletin of 1963 The Finds from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters. the American Schools of Oriental Norma Dever Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society. Research and has served on the Board of 1966 Massada. London and Jerusalem: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Trustees of the Albright Institute since 1996. Norma and William Dever have established the Sean William Dever Memorial Prize for pre-Ph.Dv students of archaeology and related subjects in honor of 1971 Bar-Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Last their son who died in April, 2001. Norma has traveled extensively Jewish Revolt against Imperial Rome. London and Jerusalem: in the Middle East, and her genuine interest in the history of the Weidenfeld and Nicolson. region, both modem and ancient, is one of her main passions. 1977 Temple Scroll, Vols. 1-3. Yerushalayim: ha Heverah le-hekireh eretz Yi'srael ve-atikoleh. NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 67:3 (2004) 173 This content downloaded from on Mon, 11 Jun 2018 15:22:47 UTC All use subject to

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