Negative Beliefs About Worrying: "Worrying is Dangerous"

Transcript

1 What? Me Worry!?! What? Me Worry!?! What? Me Worry!?! Module 5 Negative Beliefs About Worrying: “Worrying Is Dangerous” Introduction 2 2 Changing Your Belief Challenging Your Belief 3 5 Worksheet: Challenging Your Belief An Important Word on “Factual Evidence” 6 ule Summary Mod 9 About the Modules 10 The information provided in the document is for information purposes only. Please refer to the full disclaimer and copyright statements available at regarding the www.cci.health.gov.au The information provided in the document is for information purposes only. Please refer to information on this website before making use of such information. www.cci.health.gov.au regarding the the full disclaimer and copyright statements available at information on this website before making use of such information. entre for C linical 1 Page Module 5 : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – “Worrying is Dangerous” C nterventions I • Training • Research • Psychotherapy

2 What? Me Worry!?! Introduction if you believed your worrying couldn’t harm you or wasn’t dangerous Ask yourself the question: Chances are you , how much would your worrying bother you? (either mentally or physically) wouldn’t feel harmless mental activity, as opposed as bad if you thought your worrying was a your worrying can hurt you. to believing Also, if you didn’t see worrying as being such a bad and dangerous thing, then chances are you wouldn’t feel the need to suppress your worrisome thoughts when they pop into your head. Remember, we have mentioned before that really unhelpful, because it backfires and makes you thought suppression can be think even more about whatever you are trying not the think about, hence leading to m ore worrying. So, the looking at your belief that worrying is dangerous is really important in order to get out of ‘thought suppression trap’ . In this module we will look at changing beliefs like : “Worrying will make me go crazy” l have a nervous breakdown” “If I keep worrying I wil “I’ll get sick if I don’t stop worrying” “Worrying will damage my body” “I’ll go nuts if I keep worrying” “Worrying will make me ill” Changing Your Belief Before we start changing your belief that worrying is dangerous and ha rmful, we need to know how much you believe it. How much do you believe your worrying is dangerous/harmful? (Circle the percentage that best describes the strength of your belief) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 90% 100% 80% If you do not think you ho ld this belief at all, still work through this module just to be sure, but chances are you can move on quickly from this module to the next. To change your belief that your worrying is dangerous, you need to do something you are already familiar with fr om Module 3. That is, challenge or dispute your belief. This means dissecting the belief that your worry will cause you physical or mental harm, by evaluating if it really is accurate and true, and examining what evidence you s way you will be like a detective, trying to get to the facts of base your belief on. In thi whether worrying really is dangerous to you. We would encourage you to be curious and open minded about changing this belief. entre for C linical 2 Page : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” C nterventions I • Training • Psychotherapy • Research

3 What? Me Worry!?! Challenging Your Belief really Below is a list of questions you c is dangerous. an ask yourself to challenge whether worrying Remember, you are a detective examining the evidence for and against your belief. An example is given below of how to use these questions to challenge your belief, and on page 5 you will find a worksheet to help you do this for yourself. Evidence For  What makes you think worrying is dangerous/harmful? What’s the evidence for your belief?   Exactly how does worrying cause mental/physical harm (be specific)? Is the evidence for your belief g ood/solid/reliable?  Is there another way the evidence for your belief could be viewed?  Evidence Against Is there any evidence that goes against your belief?   How long have you worried for? What specific physical or mental harm has resulted over this time? During a worry episode have you ever become ill or gone crazy?  Are there other explanations or greater risk factors for the illnesses you are concerned worry ing will  . cause? (e.g., genetics, diet, exercise, lifestyle, smoking, alcohol, etc)  Can you think of other people/professions that are constantly under intense stress or anxiety, have all suffered physical or mental harm ? (e.g., students studying for exams, people in stressful jobs – they army officers, police, emergency department staff, etc). How can you believe that worrying is both dangerous on the one hand and has many positive benefits  (motivates, prepares, prevents, etc) on the other hand? EXAMPLE: Evidence Against Evidence For I don’t know exactly how it will make me sick, How can something be both dangerous and ess isn’t good for you, so it helpful at the same time? but I have heard str [My beliefs about worrying don’t match up. Maybe I need to re - must be something to do with that. think.] [I haven’t got a very strong, specific or scientific argument for worrying being harmful. Maybe I need to look into it more, and get the facts.] I have never actually gone crazy or gotten really sick from worrying. [What I am worried about has never actually happened.] It just feels like I am going to go crazy, therefore I must be. [This isn’t very solid evidence that worrying is going to harm Plenty of people have worry and stress in their me. It has never actually happened, it is just that it feels so bad lives. While it doesn’t feel great, these people at the time, so I assume something bad will happen. Just sically or mentally. break down phy all don’t because I feel it is true, isn’t really eviden ce it is true.] [It doesn’t tend to happen to other people, so why should it happen to me.] When I worry a lot, I get a cold, so worrying must be bad for my health. When it comes to my health, making positive [There have been times when I haven’t worried and have gotten changes to my diet, exercise and lifestyle sick. Also when I have worried a lot and gotten sick, I guess I might be more important to focus my energy haven’t been sleeping well, eating righ t or exercising. So I guess on. it might not be the worrying itself that caused it, but how my out worrying.] [Rather than worrying ab lifestyle changes when I worry.] entre for C linical 3 Page : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” C nterventions I Research • Training • Psychotherapy •

4 What? Me Worry!?! Additional ideas to consider... adrenalin, which Sometimes people think that things like increased heart rate, blood pressure, tension, or can often accompany worrying, are the culprit in explaining how worrying might pose a danger. H owever, they all occur when we exercise another way to think about these things is that most people would , yet consider exercise as something that is good for you. Aren’t we told to get our heart pumping 30 minutes a more than 30mins ? In addition, a drenalin is often used to save day? And surely athletes would do a lot people’s lives during cardiac arrest! part of the ‘fight or flight’ response, which from an Also, the physical symptoms just mentioned are all ects us. How can something that has helped us survive as a evolutionary perspective is something that prot be harmful to us? species also The fact that worrying can cause some very real physical sensations in our body (e.g., heart rate increase, tension, headaches, gastro intestinal symptoms, etc), this is often used by people as evidence of harm and ven though danger. However, e sensations feel unpleasant or distressing , are the sensations actually these dangerous ? People may use the argument that “stress is bad for you”. But Stress , are stress and worry t he same thing? ing is then orry occurs when we perceive the demands placed on us are too much. W an unhelpful coping strategy in response to stress , and we can learn other more helpful ways to handle stress. sely worried excessively right now would the danger occur? If the Another idea to consider is, if you purpo no’, why not? T answer is ‘ may suggest there are other factors involved in mental or physical illness, not his just . At the end of the day, mental and physical health is complex, multifaceted, and often not well worrying understood , and it is unlikely that worrying itself causes direct mental or physical harm. In conclusion... The beliefs we hold that worrying is dangerous are often the ‘stickiest’ to challenge. They have built up gradually o ver time from things we may have heard from family, friends, the media, etc. If you are having ... trouble challenging this belief, don’t despair. Instead consider the following Question ing is dangerous? : What is the consequence of believing that worry : It increases my worry Ans wer ing, by giving me something else to worry about, and making me want to , which just makes them push back harder. push away my negative thoughts caus So , the belief that worrying is dangerous is really unhelpful because it es the very thing you don’t want...more worry! Knowing this, what could you do when thoughts about mental or physical harm then Given t don’t help you, they too can be postponed thoughts from worrying come to mind? hese along with all your other worries. One Final Qu estion : If worry ing is controllable (via postponement), what’s the danger? If we can control our worry . ing by getting good at postponement, any perceived danger is irrelevant above points were helpful in seeing your worry in a less danger ous light, make sure you include If any of the ‘evidence against column ’ of your page 5 worksheet. them in the entre for C linical Page 4 “Worrying is Dangerous” : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 C nterventions I • Training Research • Psychotherapy •

5 What? Me Worry!?! Challenging Your Belief ing is dangerous Belief: My worry Evidence Against Evidence For entre for C linical 5 Page : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” C nterventions I Research Training • Psychotherapy • •

6 What? Me Worry!?! ” An Important Word on “Factual Evidence Some people may check their concerns regarding the impact worrying will have on their mental or physical health by researching this, particularly on the internet. Spending too much time researching your worries can just keep you preoccupied with your worry, and the about your health may be unhelpful, as it information you gather may not always be reputable. With the wealth of information readily available to us via the media and internet search engines, it is important for us to remain smart consumers of the information we receive. Unfortunately, not all health information available in magazines, newspapers and on the internet goes through the same quality control processes. Some websites, for example, may look quite convincing on the surface, but not a ctually represent the best practice and most up to date health- related information. This can be both confusing and dangerous for us. It can be confusing when we receive mixed messages about whether or not we need to make changes to important things such as our diets, medications, or other lifestyle choices. It can also be confusing when we receive mixed messages about the importance of particular symptoms, their relevance to serious health problems, and the need to continue to seek help ssionals. It can be potentially dangerous when we do make decisions from health profe about our health or changes based on information that is not reliable or factual. Fortunately, by changing the way we search for and evaluate health information, we can start to reduce any confusion and risks and begin to take a more helpful and critical stance. Information seeking Quite often we can turn the very thing we are thinking about into the phrase we type into an internet he impacts of worrying on our potential for a search engine. For example, if we are concerned about t heart attack, we may type “worry and heart attacks” and hit Search . This type of searching can be problematic as it can lead to biased results. That is, you will most likely • talk about there being links between worry and heart attacks, and filter in web pages that do • talk about or debunk such links. filter out any that do not This unhelpful searching can therefore reinforce your worrisome belief that there is a link!! There are two steps you can take to change the way you gather and filter information from the internet. Step 1: Practice using more helpful and less biased search phrases to find out what you want to know. For example, Instead of: You could try: “What causes heart attacks?” or “Leading causes of heart attacks” “Worry and heart attacks” Less helpful More helpful More biased filt Less biased filtering ering Step 2: Look for ways of filtering in alternative view points. You can do this by typing in mismatching statements. For example, you could try: “Is coffee bad for you?” and “Is coffee good for you?” These strategies can lead to you coming up with some very different health information! entre for C linical 6 Page : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” C nterventions I Research Training • Psychotherapy • •

7 What? Me Worry!?! If you are someone who has or is thinking about using the internet to search for health information, take a moment to think about some alternative ways you could search for that information: Instead of: I could (also) try: Evaluating health information Even with good search strategies we will often come across unhelpful or e ven conflicting information (e.g., one magazine article stating that coffee is good for you whilst another states that coffee is bad for you). Unfortunately, in this day and age, anyone with access to the internet can send information around the world and claim it to be factual. Some website or magazine articles can also appear to contain useful information from reputable sources. So how do we know what is good information and what is not so good? Ten questions to ask... Is this written by a qualified an d registered health professional (e.g., GP, Psychologist)? Does the author represent an established and reputable health organisation (e.g., government body, university, major hospital)? to sell you a product or Is the author free of commercial interests (i.e., they are not trying sensationalise a story to sell a magazine)? Does the article include multiple pieces of evidence to back up it’s claims (i.e., discusses the results of several research studies conducted by reputable organisations rather than anec dotal stories or one -off studies)? Is enough information provided for you to check the background research for yourself? Was the background research based on people similar to yourself (e.g., similar age, height/weight, gender, diagnosis, comorbid problems etc)? Was the background research based on many people? Are statistics clearly explained? Is this information consistent with health information you have read from other reputable sources, (e.g., other government bodies, universities, major hospitals)? -to-date? Is a review date provided so that you can tell the information is up The more ticks you have above, the better your health information is likely to be. However, it is important to remember that information from the internet and media is one resource only, and should never alone be used to diagnose a medical or psychological condition, or to make changes to your medication, diet, or other lifestyle choices. Your GP or local important health clinic can assist you in understanding the specific risks and benefits of such changes based on your full personal medical and/or psychological history. entre for C linical 7 Page : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” C nterventions I Research • • Psychotherapy • Training

8 What? Me Worry!?! So the focus of this module has been on challenging your belief that worrying is dangerous, trying to look at the factual evidence. people can experiment In addition, with th e belief that worrying is dangerous too, just as you did in Module 3. Such an experiment might involve pushing your worrying to the ‘max’. This means trying your hardest to lose control of your worrying, seeing if you truly can ‘worry yourself sick’. Typically people predict that trying to push their worrying to the limit will be awful, and that something terrible will happen. Often people are surprised that nothing bad actually happens when they allow their negative thoughts to come and don’t suppress them. In fact, sometimes people actually get bored of whatever they are worrying about. Doing this can take the fear and power out of their worries, and allow people to experience their done very worry as harmless. However, this approach is best with the guidance of a mental strategically health professional , and so it is not part of this information package. to gain maximum benefit Now that you have challenged your belief that worrying is dangerous/harmful: Rate again how much you believe your worrying is dangerous/harmful? (Circle the percentage that best describes the strength of your belief) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% ompared to If there is some weakening (however small) of your belief that your worrying is dangerous c what it was at the start of this module, congratulate yourself. If there’s no change yet, that’s okay. Remember, changing your beliefs takes time and persistence. Just going over the evidence for and against your belief once may not be enough. You need to practice this strategy until the evidence for your belief is weak and the evidence against your belief is strong. A good gauge of when you have done enough work on this belief may be when your belief is relatively weak – say about only 20%. entre for C linical Page 8 : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” C nterventions I • Training Research Psychotherapy • •

9 What? Me Worry!?! Module Summary to your mental or physical health make your Negative beliefs regarding worrying being dangerous • worrying worse To change these beliefs you can: • Challenge them – look at the evidence for and against the beliefs.  • In order to change your belief that worrying will cause you harm, you need to persist until: The evidence for your belief is weak.   The evidence against your belief is strong. • Once you have achieved this ask yourself:  What does all this say about my worrying? Hopefully you can star t to entertain t he idea that  , it may in fact , whilst worrying doesn’t feel good be harmless.  You can then start to deal with these old danger beliefs by postponing them if they still arise for you, and recognise that i f worrying is controllable via postpon ement, then it can’t pose any danger to you. If you are someone who likes to research your worries about your mental or physical health, watch  how much time you spend doing this , and ensure your research is unbiased and from reputable sources. Coming up next ... In the next module you will learn how to change the positive beliefs you hold about worry. entre for C linical : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” 9 Page C nterventions I Psychotherapy • Research • • Training

10 What? Me Worry!?! About The Modules CONTRIBUTORS 1 2 1 2 ) (MPsych Dr Helen Correia (MApp Psych ; PhD ; PhD Dr Lisa Saulsman ) Centre for Clinical Interventions Centre for Clinical Interventions 1 1 2 ) Paula Nathan Dr Rebecca Anderson (MPsych (MPsych ; PhD ) Centre for Clinical Interventions Director, Centre for Clinical Interventions 1 Adjunct Senior Lecturer, School of Psychiatry and Clinical Bruce Campbell (MPsych ) Neuroscience, The University of Western Australia Ce ntre for Clinical Interventions 3 Dr Louella Lim ) (DPsych Centre for Clinical Interventions 1 2 3 Masters of Psychology (Clinical Psychology) Doctor of Psychology (Clinical) Doctor of Philosophy (Clinical Psychology) Some of the materials in the modules of this information package were taken from: rson, R., Campbell, B., & Swan, A. (2015). Working with Worry and Rumination: A Saulsman, L., Ande . Perth, Western Australia Metacognitive Group Treatment Programme for Repetitive Negative Thinking : Centre for Clinical Interventions. BACKGROUND The concepts and strategies in the modules have been developed from evidence based psychological practice, primarily Metacognitive Therapy (MCT). MCT is a type of psychotherapy developed by Professor Adrian Well’s at the University of Manchester. MCT is an extension of Cognitive -Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and is based on the theory that repetitive negative thinking, such as chronic worry in generalised anxiety, is a result of problematic metacognitions (i.e., beliefs about thinking) and behaviours. There is good scientific evidence to sup port that targeting metacognitions and behaviours in therapy can help many people to overcome generalised anxiety. Examples of this evidence are reported in: McEvoy, P. M., Erceg- Hurn, D. M., Anderson, R. A., Campbell, B. N. C., Swan, A., Saulsman, L. M., Summers, M., & Nathan, P. R. (2015). Group metacognitive therapy for repetitive negative thinking in primary and Journal of Affective Disorders, 175 , 124 non- primary generalized anxiety disorder: an effectiveness trial. - 132. REFERENCES e professional references used to create the modules in this information package. These are some of th nd ed.). Barlow, D.H. (2002). Anxiety and Its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic (2 London: Guilford Press. 2004). Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Advances in Research and Heimberg, R.G., Turk, C.L., & Mennin, D.S. ( . New York: Guilford Press. Practice Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders: A Practice Manual and Conceptual Guide . Chichester, Wells, A. (1997). UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Wells, A. (2008) . Metacognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression . New York: Guilford Press. “WHAT? ME WORRY!?!” This module forms part of: Saulsman, L., Nathan, P., Lim, L., Correia, H., Anderson, R., & Campbell, B. (2015). What? Me Worry!?! Mastering Your Worries . Perth, Western Australia: Centre for Clinical Interventions. We would like to thank Mandy Nathan, Psychologist, Oxfordshire, England, for the suggestion of a "worry puss" for the theme character of this Information Package -9751985 -9-9 Created: Jun e, 2015 ISBN: 0 entre for C linical : Negative Beliefs about Worrying – Module 5 “Worrying is Dangerous” 10 Page C nterventions I • Training • Psychotherapy Research •

Related documents

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Update

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Update

201 8 Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals U pdated Tables, March 2018 , Volume One

More info »
NB18

NB18

Table of Contents National Board Pressure Relief Device Certificati ons NB-18 FOREWARD... 1 NATIONAL BOARD PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE CERTIFICATION... 2 DETERMINATION OF CERTIFIED RELIEVING CAPACITIES... ...

More info »
JO 7400.11C   Airspace Designations and Reporting Points

JO 7400.11C Airspace Designations and Reporting Points

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORDER FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION 7400.11C JO Air Traffic Organization Policy August 13, 2018 SUBJ: Airspace Designations and Reporting Points . This O rder, publ...

More info »
Order 7360.1D Aircraft Type Designators

Order 7360.1D Aircraft Type Designators

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION ORDER Air Traffic Organization Policy 7360.1D JO Effective Date: 05/24/2018 SUBJ: Aircraft Type Designators This directive provides ai...

More info »
How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Walter Rodney 1973

How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Walter Rodney 1973

How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Walter Rodney 1973 Walter Rodney 1973 How Europe Underdeveloped Africa Published by : Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications, London and Tanzanian Publishing House, Dar-Es-Sa...

More info »
RIE Tenant List By Docket Number

RIE Tenant List By Docket Number

SCRIE TENANTS LIST ~ By Docket Number ~ Borough of Bronx SCRIE in the last year; it includes tenants that have a lease expiration date equal or who have received • This report displays information on ...

More info »
WEF GlobalInformationTechnology Report 2014

WEF GlobalInformationTechnology Report 2014

Insight Report The Global Information Technology Report 2014 Rewards and Risks of Big Data Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, Soumitra Dutta, and Bruno Lanvin, Editors

More info »
vol9 organic ligands

vol9 organic ligands

C HERMODYNAMICS HEMICAL T OMPOUNDS AND C OMPLEXES OF OF C U, Np, Pu, Am, Tc, Se, Ni and Zr O ELECTED WITH RGANIC L IGANDS S Wolfgang Hummel (Chairman) Laboratory for Waste Management Paul Scherrer Ins...

More info »
dbi

dbi

REGISTERED DEPUTY BUILDING INSPECTORS LICENSE TYPE LICENSE NO. EXPIRE DATE DEPUTY BUILDING INSPECTOR P002118 ABBATOYE, CHRIS J. CASTAIC, CA 91384 (661) 312-9347 CONCRETE 09/01/2019 CONSTRUCTION 03/12/...

More info »
catalog 2019

catalog 2019

2019 ® HARLEY-DAVIDSON GENUINE MOTOR PARTS & ACCESSORIES

More info »
DER Directory

DER Directory

FAA CONSULTANT DER DIRECTORY May 9, 2019 AIR-6F0, Delegation & Organizational Procedures Branch This directory is generated from information in the FAA Designee Information Network (DIN). If you are a...

More info »
UNSCEAR 2008 Report Vol.I

UNSCEAR 2008 Report Vol.I

This publication contains: VOLUME I: SOURCES SOURCES AND EFFECTS Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly OF IONIZING RADIATION Scie...

More info »
OCS Operations Field Directory

OCS Operations Field Directory

Gulf of Mexico OCS Region OCS Operations Field Directory (Includes all active and expired fields and leases) Quarterly Repor t, as of March 31 , 201 9 U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Ocean E...

More info »
Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns Evaluation: Year 5 Project Synthesis Volume 1: Cross Cutting Findings

Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns Evaluation: Year 5 Project Synthesis Volume 1: Cross Cutting Findings

g Star t f or Mothe rs and Newbor ns Evaluation: Stron YNTHESIS ROJECT S AR 5 P YE Volume 1 indings -Cutting F ross : C Prepared for: ss Caitlin Cro -Barnet Center fo HS nd Medicaid Innovation, DH r M...

More info »
CompleteBusBook

CompleteBusBook

February 10, 2019 $ 1 BUS BOOK EFFECTIVE THROUGH JUNE 8, 2019 OCBus.com EFECTIVO HASTA EL 8 DE JUNIO 2019 EASY JUST GOT EASIER. Upgrade to version 2.0 See back for cool new features! CHANGE HIGHLIGHTS...

More info »
Eli Hertz Reply 11 6 05c

Eli Hertz Reply 11 6 05c

R Even the most sacred precepts of international law can be manipulated to e pervert the truth. In its Advisory Opinion of 9 July 2004, the UN's Interna - p l tional Court of Justice ruled that Israel...

More info »
CityNT2019TentRoll 1

CityNT2019TentRoll 1

STATE OF NEW YORK 2 0 1 9 T E N T A T I V E A S S E S S M E N T R O L L PAGE 1 VALUATION DATE-JUL 01, 2018 COUNTY - Niagara T A X A B L E SECTION OF THE ROLL - 1 CITY - North Tonawanda TAX MAP NUMBER ...

More info »
Men VAW report Feb2015 Version6

Men VAW report Feb2015 Version6

" Working with Men and Boys to End Violence Against Women an d Girls Approaches, Challenges, and Lessons February 2015 This report is made possible by the generous support of the Americ an people thro...

More info »
doj final opinion

doj final opinion

UNITED STAT ES DIS TRICT COURT IC F OR THE D ISTR T OF CO LU M BIA UNITED STAT F AMERICA, : ES O : : la in t if f, P 99 No. on cti l A vi Ci : 96 (GK) -24 : and : TOBACCO-F UND, : REE KIDS ACTION F : ...

More info »