Jesus' Nazareth House Dark

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1 Has Jesus’ Nazareth house been found? Article Published Version Dark, K. (2015) Has Jesus’ Nazareth house been found? Biblical Archaeology Review, 41 (2). pp. 54­63. ISSN 0098­ 9444 (40th Anniversary Issue) Available at http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/39424/ It is advisable to refer to the publisher’s version if you intend to cite from the Guidance on citing . work. See Published version at: http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/bar­issues/march­april­2015/#toc Publisher: Biblical Archaeology Society, Washington DC All outputs in CentAUR are protected by Intellectual Property Rights law, including copyright law. Copyright and IPR is retained by the creators or other copyright holders. Terms and conditions for use of this material are defined in the End User Agreement . www.reading.ac.uk/centaur CentAUR Central Archive at the University of Reading Reading’s research outputs online

2 Has Jesus’ Has Jesus’ nazareth Ho nazareth Ho Been ound Been Found? Ken Dark What was Nazareth like when Jesus lived there? The evidence is sparse but intriguing. Surprising as it may seem, very little archaeological work has been done in Nazareth itself. However, a site within the Sisters of Nazareth Convent, across the street from the Church of the Annunciation, may contain some of the best evidence of the small town that existed here in Jesus’ time. Although known since the 1880s, this had never previously been properly published or even studied by professional archaeologists—until the Nazareth Archaeo - 1 logical Project began work here in 2006. ARK The story begins with the chance dis- D EN K covery of an ancient cistern in the 1880s,

3 use ouse ? ?

4 J E h ous E sus’ K E N d a r K HOME OF JESUS? Pictured (previous pages) is the rock-cut doorway of the first-century house at the Sisters of Naza- N 0 15 mi reth Convent. The combination of rock-built construction Chorazin and quarried-rock construction can be seen clearly. The Capernaum door opens to the “Chambre Obscure,” another part of the original house structure partly cut out of the natural rock. MEDITERRANEAN SEA SEA OF The rock overhang in the corner is naturally occurring and GALILEE was likely left in its current form to support the roof. In Sepphoris front of the doorway, a fragment of the original floor sur- Nahal Zippori vives. The east side of the structure (above) originally had Nazareth rock built walls, as this part of the house was built away from the naturally occurring rock cave. The visible wall was rebuilt in the Crusader period but may incorporate remains of the first-century A.D. wall. considered holy, or at least of some importance, at various periods after Jesus’ time? Was this per - haps founded on a belief that the site was somehow shortly after the convent was built. Excavations r were then undertaken by the nuns, their workmen elated to Jesus’ home? and even children from their school. They exposed In 1936, the Jesuit Father Henri Senès, who a complex sequence of unusually well preserved had been an architect before entering the Church, recorded the previously exposed structures in great archaeological features, including Crusader-period walls and vaults, a Byzantine cave-church, Roman- detail and undertook some further, though limited, period tombs and other rock-cut and built structures. excavations. Unfortunately Senès never published his The nuns made a small museum of the pottery, coins, work (apart from a brief guide pamphlet). But he did glass and other portable artifacts that they recov leave a substantial archive of notes and drawings, - little known outside the convent, to which the nuns ered. Then construction of the new convent buildings have graciously given us access. r evealed the walls of a large Byzantine church with In 2006, we began to reexamine the site. It soon a triple apse, polychrome mosaic floors and white became clear that there was a lengthy chronological marble fittings, rebuilt in the Crusader period. sequence of well-preserved structures and features. Did all this ancient construction, including This included the successive Crusader and Byzantine churches and burials, indicate that the site was R ch/Ap AR M il 2015 56

5 J E h ous E sus’ N a M F o h EM T o r WITHIN THE SISTERS OF NAZARETH CONVENT (above) is the first-century “courtyard house.” While excavation in this area was initiated in 1880, it was not until the Nazareth Archaeological Project began their investigation in 2006 that the site was studied by professional archae- r o ologists. A modern statue of the “Holy Family” (right) is T EM featured in the courtyard of the convent, reflecting the h o F nuns’ belief that this was the location of the house in M a N Nazareth where Jesus grew up. therefore the rectilinear structure must have been churches, two Early Roman-period tombs, a phase built earlier than this time. That this structure also of small-scale quarrying and, of particular note, a dated to the Roman period was confirmed by the rectilinear structure with partly rock-cut and partly Kefar Hananya-type pottery (standard domestic pot stone-built walls. - The rectilinear structure was cut through by tery of Roman-period Galilee; see photo p. 62), the 2 the forecourt of a tomb dated to the first century; date of which is otherw ise known. Probable frag - - ments of limestone vessels indicate that the inhab D itants were very likely Jewish. Limestone vessels Mary’s Well ar e not subject to impurity under Jewish law and Apostles’ E NAZARETH. The excavation site in the cellar of the Sisters Fountain of Nazareth Convent (A) may reveal the childhood home of Jesus. Finds from this site and those in the vicinity of International Marian Center the Church of the Annunciation (B) and the International Sisters of Marian Center (C) suggest that the town of Nazareth was C Nazereth somewhat larger and wealthier than often portrayed. A Convent N Ancient Nazareth was served by three to seven Basilica of the B springs, two of which, the Apostles’ Fountain (E) and Annunciation 0 500 ft Mary’s Well (D), are still known. lical archaeology review B Bi 57

6 J E h ous E sus’ A D B C K E N d a r K AMATUER ARCHAEOLOGISTS. In the 1880s, the nuns of the Sisters of Nazareth Convent discovered an ancient cistern, and this led to a series of archaeologi- cal discoveries. The nuns, workmen and even school children undertook amateur excavations. The nuns then housed a collection of finds in a small museum. Pic- tured here are a spindle whorl (A), a fragment from a perfume bottle (B), a glass bead (C) and a Roman glass vase (D). The e were therefore very popular in Jewish communities xcellent preservation of this rectilinear at this time. structure or house can be explained by its later his - What sort of building was this rectilinear struc tory. Great efforts had been made to encompass the - r emains of this building within the vaulted cellars of ture? It had been constructed by cutting back a lime- both the Byzantine and Crusader churches, so that stone hillside as it sloped toward the wadi (valley) it was thereafter protected. belo w, leaving carefully smoothed freestanding rock Initially puzzling was the use of the site for Jew walls, to which stone-built walls were added. The - structure included a series of rooms. One, with its ish burial. Although domestic occupation was of doorway, survived to its full height. Another had a course pr ohibited by Jewish law on burial sites, stairway rising adjacent to one of its walls. A rock burial on a disused domestic site was another mat - overhang had been carefully retained in one room, ter. The burials were also separated from domestic its upper surface worked to support part of a roof or occupati on by a phase of quarrying. It is clear the upper story—which otherwise must have been built house was already disused before the site was used of another material, probably timber. Just inside the for tombs. The immediate area was mostly destroyed surviving doorway, earlier excavations had revealed before the tombs were constructed. Consequently, part of its original chalk floor. Associated finds, the apparent conflict between domestic occupation including cooking pottery and a spindle whorl, sug and burial is an illusory one. The house must date - from the first century A.D. or earlier. No stratified gested domestic occupation. pottery earlier or later than the Early Roman period T aken together, the walls conformed to the plan 3 was discovered in layers associated with the house. of a so-called courtyard house, one of the typical architectural forms of Early Roman-period settle - In 2009, another first-century courtyard house ments in the Galilee. was discovered nearby—in a salvage (or rescue) il 2015 R ch/Ap AR M 58

7 J h E sus’ E ous W ell is perhaps the best known of these. Another excavation directed by Yardenna Alexandre of the is the so-called Apostles’ Fountain near the mod Israel Antiquities Authority prior to the construc - - tion of the International Marian Center next to the ern Mensa Church. We found another spring in the 4 Chur ch of the Annunciation. f our fieldwork at the Sisters of Nazareth course o - This reveals a struc Convent; it remains accessible through its Crusader- ture similar to the Sisters of Nazareth house. The period wellhead. Another water source is implied by principal differ ence between the two structures is an unpublished plan of about 1900 in the convent that the Marian Center structure has fewer rock-cut archive, where a water channel is shown leading components as it was built on relatively flat ground from the so-called Synagogue Church, north of the farther away from the side of the hill. convent. According to Gottfried Schumacher, in the Consequently, we now have two first-century 19th century local people knew of another spring courtyard houses from central Nazareth. These, 5 located to the south. together with the other earlier discoveries at the The Palestine Exploration Church of the Annunciation, provide evidence for ROLLING TOMB STONE. The forecourt of this tomb cuts an Early Roman Jewish settlement that was larger, through the courtyard house that may have once been and perhaps slightly wealthier, than is often envis - Jesus’ home. Initially this was confusing, as Jewish law aged. Such evidence would be consistent with what would not permit burials to take place near habitations, ar chaeologists of the Roman provinces elsewhere but the courtyard house had been abandoned prior to conventionally term a “small town”: a large village, the installation of the tombs as evidenced by a period of perhaps perceived by contemporaries as a small quarrying. Both structures date to the first century A.D. urban center, serving as a focus for smaller agricul - The rock “door” would be similar to the stone that cov- tural communities nearby. ered the entrance to the tomb of Jesus, which was rolled N azareth was served by at least three, and pos - away at the resurrection (Mark 16:3; Matthew 28:2; Luke 24:2; John 20:1). sibly as many as seven, springs or wells. St. Mary’s K r a d N E K Bi lical archaeology review B 59

8 J h ous E E sus’ ci M d N It may be possible to say something of the cultural A RESCUE EXCAVATION done in 2009 prior to the con- struction of the International Marian Center, pictured here, identity of those living in the Nahal Zippori at this revealed the remains of another first-century courtyard time. All the sites on the south side of the valley, house from the time of Jesus. Featured in the photo is nearer to Nazareth, featured Kefar Hananya-type the dome of the center’s chapel. pottery. Some also had the type of limestone ves - sels associated elsewhere with Jewish settlements. H owever, all of those on the north side of the valley, in the Fund’s famous Survey of Western Palestine nearer Sepphoris, had a much wider range of arti 1870s recorded a well within the Franciscan precinct - of the Church of the Annunciation. Finally, in his facts, including red-slipped imported Eastern Terra Das Land Der Bibel , Paul Range says he saw 1923 Sigil lata pottery and imported amphora. Communi - another spring west of the Old City of Nazareth. ties closer to Sepphoris apparently embraced the The hinterland of Nazareth is oriented to the cult ural world of the Roman provinces; those closer north. To the south a high rocky ridge cuts off to Nazareth chose a strictly Jewish material culture, easy movement by foot or animal-drawn cart. To perhaps denoting a more conservative attitude to the north, however, a relatively gentle walk leads religious belief and concepts of purity and rejecting to the Nahal Zippori, the broad valley between “Roman” culture as a whole.* Nazareth and the Roman town of Sepphoris (Zip Nowhere else in the Roman Empire is there such - a seemingly clear-cut boundary between people pori in Hebrew). This valley is well watered by the accepting and those rejecting Roman culture, even s tream that flows along its center and by numerous along the imperial Roman frontiers. This suggests springs and a few rivulets on its slopes. The part of that the Nazareth area was unusual for the strength Nahal Zippori closest to Nazareth was probably the of its anti-Roman sentiment and/or the strength of agricultural hinterland of the settlement. its Jewish identity. It also suggests that there was no Between 2004 and 2010, the Nazareth Archae - close connection between Nazareth and Sepphoris in ological Project surveyed a wide transect across N ahal Zippori. We identified a series of previously unknown Early Roman-period sites, probably farms ols of Sepphoris: *Eric M. Meyers, “The p o tual Baths or Bathtubs? r i y e s, They c hancey and Eric M. Meyers, ugust 2000; Mark a re,” BAR , July/ a and small villages, which (with just two exceptions) “Spotlight on Sepphoris: h ow Jewish Was Sepphoris in Jesus’ Time?” had no pre-Roman material. At a few sites we also eiss, “The Sepphoris Synagogue Mosaic,” a ugust 2000; Zeev W BAR , July/ found evidence of quarrying. o , September/ BAR tober 2000. c M AR ch/Ap R il 2015 60

9 J ous E E sus’ h the Early Roman period. Perhaps these places occu - pied focal roles in separate “settlement systems” on eith er side of the valley. Some recent scholarship has argued that the Roman culture of Sepphoris, closer than 5 miles from Nazareth, would have played an important part in Jesus’ youth. Sepphoris, with its shop-lined streets, mosaic-floored townhouses and monumental public buildings, might initially appear to support this contention. But the Sepphoris seen by visitors today is largely a later construction. Very little of what is known of Sepphoris may be assigned with certainty to the early first century. ANOTHER COURTYARD HOUSE, although with a few differences from the courtyard house found underneath the Sisters of Nazareth Convent, was excavated near the International Marian Center by Yardenna Alexandre of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Across the street from the courtyard house is the Church of the Annunciation (top of photo). CISTERNS built into the courtyard of the house allow the occupants regular, easy access to water. The opening to the cistern (below) is one of two that would have served the courtyard house. The watercolor reconstruction shows the cisterns in relation to the house. N d M ci N d M i c F o y ES T r U co T r E B i l a ci M d arc N M B Bi lical archaeology review 61

10 J sus’ h ous E E N a M F o h EM T o r The first-century evidence that we do have from MARY’S WELL. Modern construction covers the ancient water source known as Mary’s Well. It is one of three to Sepphoris suggests an urban center with an admin - seven wells that served the ancient town. istrative function, domestic occupation and public buildi ngs. It may have been relatively cosmopolitan, in the sense that it was open to Roman provincial description in the Gospels of the N - azareth syna culture, but it remained a Jewish community. gogue (Mark 6:1–6; Matthew 13:54–58; Luke 4:16– By contrast, Nazareth was a local center without xactly the sort of building we would expect 30) is e the trappings of Roman culture, perhaps analogous in an Early Roman provincial “small town.” Such a to nearby Capernaum or Chorazin in its facilities small town was also exactly the sort of place where and scale, rather than to Sepphoris (which, inciden tekton one might expect to find a rural craftsman—a - (Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:55)—like Joseph. tally, is not mentioned in the New Testament). The HIGH CLASS. Eastern Terra Sigillata ware is smooth and EVERYDAY DISHES. Known as Kefar Hananya pottery, it shiny as well as elegantly designed. These elements made is associated with Jewish settlements in the Galilee and it appeal to the higher classes of society, which could is common in the area surrounding Nazareth. It is charac- afford to buy imported goods. As its name suggests, East- terized by its warm orange-brown color and smooth thin ern Terra Sigillata ware began to be produced in the east- walls. It gives a clink when bumped due to the hard firing ern Mediterranean region around 200 B.C. On this vessel, process used to create it. The clay is dense and homog- the light-colored areas are modern plaster reconstructions. enous with rare inclusions of black or white. iS r a E l a NT i Q U i T i E S a UT h ori y T T y / p h ori o h T o UT a B S y E i y T o i lo U Q i V i T NT c a h l y E a a E r l iS ch/Ap AR il 2015 R M 62

11 J sus’ ous E E h ROMAN CULTURE becomes dominant in the later develop- ment of Sepphoris. Fourth- and fifth-century A.D. remains reveal elaborate architecture and mosaics with a dis- tinctly Roman influence. Yet even at this stage Sepphoris still has a strong Jewish presence, as demonstrated in a zodiac mosaic, recovered in the fifth-century A.D. syna- gogue. Here (right), Scorpio is identified by its Hebrew , reflecting the adaptation of the signs of the Akrab name, zodiac to Jewish culture. This evidence suggests that Jesus’ boyhood was spent in a conservative Jewish community that had little contact with Hellenistic or Roman culture. (It is extremely unlikely to be the sort of place where, as some have argued, one would have encountered “cynic” philosophy.) None of this, of course, has any explicit con - - nection with Jesus. There is one possible connec tion, however. A seventh-century pilgrim account kno De Locus Sanctis written by Adomnán wn as , of Iona, describes two large churches in the center of Nazareth. One is identifiable as the Church of Z E V the Annunciation, located just across the modern r a do street from the Sisters of Nazareth Convent. The V a N other stood nearby and was built over vaults that / Bi B l also contained a spring and the remains of two E l a N in Adomnán’s “Insular Latin.” Between tumuli tombs, d pic these two tombs, Adomnán tells us, was the house T U r E in which Jesus was raised. From this is derived the S . co more recent name for the church that Adomnán M describes: the Church of the Nutrition, that is, “the church of the upbringing of Christ,” the location of 6 which has been lost. evidence of a large Byzantine church with a spring and two tombs in its crypt. The first-century house At the Sisters of Nazareth Convent there was described at the beginning of this article, probably STAYING PURE. Limestone vessels were common in a courtyard house, stands between the two tombs. first-century Israel because they were not subject to Both the tombs and the house were decorated with impurity according to Jewish law; thus a stone cup mosaics in the Byzantine period, suggesting that they like the one pictured here could be continually reused were of special importance, and possibly venerated. rather than destroyed, unlike vessels of pottery that Only here have we evidence for all the characteris - had contracted impurity. ascribes to the Church of De Locus Sanctis tics that the Nutrition, including the house. Was this the house where Jesus grew up? It is impossible to say on archaeological grounds. On the other hand, there is no good archaeological reason why such an identification should be discounted. What we can say is that this building was probably where the Byzantine church builders believed Jesus had spent his childhood in Nazareth. a M E l a 1 S - The Nazareth Archaeological Project is a British archaeo U r logical project, sponsored by the Palestine Exploration E J , Fund and the Late Antiquity Research Group. The project is directed by the author. SEUM 2 U D. Adan-Bayewitz, “On the Chronology of the Common M l Pottery of Northern Roman Judaea/Palestine,” in G.C. Bottini, E a r iS A continues on p ge 72 Bi B lical archaeology review 63

12 of literature encompassed in the many causing this reader to raise his eye - Israel Antiquities Authority Report 49, 2012). 5 G. Schumacher, “Recent Discoveries in notes. But it is good to read this genuine brows in some surprise at what beliefs Galilee,’’ Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly attempt to explain why the Bible speaks about Genesis 1–2 are being maintained. 21 (1889), p. 68. Statement 6 with such power and truth. What does he mean by a “young earth” The present Franciscan Church of St. Joseph (the “Church of St. Joseph’s Workshop’’) (p. 290)? Does Isaiah 40:22 really imply within the Church of the Annunciation James D.G. Dunn is Emeritus Lightfoot that the earth was spherical (p. 297)? compound is a Crusader foundation with no Professor of Divinity formerly in the To disparage millennia of evolutionary evidence of an earlier church on its site. Department of Theology and Religion at development by arguing that you could Durham University in England. His latest not envisage a dog developing wings The Oral Gospel Tradition book is (2013). (p. 306) is an astonishing argument. And Biblical Views he seems to imply that Genesis 1 and 2 requires belief in specific acts of cre - continued from page 26 ation—of sun, animals, etc. (pp. 307–308). Jesus’ House ap’ (meaning “away”) a combination of The title is rather misleading (in what kulio and ... yes, (meaning “to roll”). sense is Jesus “on trial”?), and the sub - continued from page 63 According to Matthew 27:60, we read title (“... affirms the truth of the gospel”) L. di Segni and L.D. Chrupcala, eds., One that, after the death of Jesus, “he [Joseph seems to imply a very loose definition of Land—Many Cultures: Archaeological Studies in of Arimathea] placed it [the body] in his - “gospel.” The jacket blurb, “How the crit (Jerusalem: Honour of Stanislao Loffreda OFM new tomb that he hewed in the rock ics’ arguments against Christianity are Franciscan Printing Press, 2003). 3 For further details, see Ken Dark, “Early Roman- and, having rolled a large rock up to infected with ideological bias,” seems to Period Nazareth and the Sisters of Nazareth the door of the tomb, he went away.” imply that the author has no “ideological al 92 (2012), p. 1. The Antiquaries Journ Convent,” The verb here is the same as the one in bias.” And outside the USA many will be 4 Mary’s Well, Nazareth: The Late Y. Alexandre, . The text further reads proskulio Mark, surprised at the relatively narrow range (Jerusalem: Hellenistic to the Ottoman Periods New from Bloomsbury and T&T Clark Constantine Tischendorf Introducing the New Testament The Life and Work of a 19th Henry Wansbrough “...at once accessible, scholarly, and theological. Century Bible Hunter With Father Wansbrough as their guide, readers Stanley E. Porter can be assured that they are engaging the tough This is a biography of Constantin von Tischendorf questions of history even as they enrich and in celebration of the bicentennial of his birth. deepen their understanding of the meaning and The volume also includes a re-publication and world of the New Testament.” re-consideration of one of Tischendorf’s own Candida Moss, University of Notre Dame, USA — groundbreaking works in the fi eld of biblical studies. March 2015 | PB 9780567656681 | 424pp | $29.95 February 2015 | PB 9780567658029 | 200pp | $29.95 Into the World of the Theology, History, and Biblical Interpretation New Testament Modern Readings Greco-Roman and Jewish Darren Sarisky Texts and Contexts Gathers together several classical and Daniel Lynwood Smith contemporary statements of the differences “This companion to the New Testament offers and similarities between historical and students an opportunity to read the New theological approaches to the interpretation Testament intelligently... I heartily recommend of the Bible. it for use in introductory courses.” Greg Sterling, Yale Divinity School, USA — March 2015 | PB 9780567459800 | 504pp | $48.95 March 2015 | PB 9780567657022 | 256pp | $24.95 • 1-888-330-8477 • Available from all fine bookstores www.bloomsbury.com M il 2015 R ch/Ap AR 72

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