WEF GlobalInformationTechnology Report 2014

Transcript

1 Insight Report The Global Information Technology Report 2014 Rewards and Risks of Big Data Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, Soumitra Dutta, and Bruno Lanvin, Editors

2 © 2014 World Economic Forum

3 Insight Report The Global Information Technology Report 2014 Rewards and Risks of Big Data Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, World Economic Forum Soumitra Dutta, Cornell University Bruno Lanvin, INSEAD Editors © 2014 World Economic Forum

4 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 is World Economic Forum a special project within the framework of the World Geneva Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network and the Industry Partnership Copyright © 2014 Programme for Information and Communication by the World Economic Forum and INSEAD Technologies. It is the result of collaboration between the World Economic Forum and INSEAD. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, Professor Klaus Schwab in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, Executive Chairman photocopying, or otherwise without the prior permission of the World Economic Forum. Espen Barth Eide Managing Director, Centre for Global Strategies ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-63-0 ISBN-10: 92-95044-63-0 EDITORS Associate Director and Senior Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, This report is printed on paper suitable for recycling and Economist, Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking made from fully managed and sustainable forest sources. Network, World Economic Forum Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig. Dean, Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate Soumitra Dutta, School of Management, Cornell University page at The Global Information Technology Report Visit Executive Director, European Bruno Lanvin, www.weforum.org/gitr Competitiveness Initiative, INSEAD We thank Hope Steele for her excellent editing work and GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS AND BENCHMARKING Neil Weinberg for his superb graphic design and layout. NETWORK Chief Economist, Head of the Global Jennifer Blanke, and The terms nation as used in this report do country Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state Associate Director Ciara Browne, as understood by international law and practice. The Roberto Crotti, Quantitative Economist terms cover well-defined, geographically self-contained Gemma Corrigan, Project Associate economic areas that may not be states but for which Junior Quantitative Economist Attilio di Batista, statistical data are maintained on a separate and Project Associate Gaëlle Dreyer, independent basis. Margareta Drzeniek-Hanouz, Director, Senior Economist, Head of Competitiveness Research Associate Director, Economist Thierry Geiger, Community Manager Tania Gutknecht, Caroline Ko, Economist Cecilia Serin, Senior Associate INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES TEAM Alan Marcus, Senior Director, Head of Information and Communication Technology Industries Aurélie Corre, Team Coordinator, Telecommunication Industry Aurélien Goutorbe, Senior Content Manager, Telecommunication Industry Qin He, Associate Director, Telecommunication Industry William Hoffman, Associate Director, Head of Personal Data Initiative Dimitri Kaskoutas, Senior Community Associate, Telecommunication Industry Danil Kerimi, Director, Government Affairs, Information and Communication Technology Industries Manager, Information Technology Elena Kvochko, Industry Derek O’Halloran, Associate Director, Head of Information Technology Industry Senior Partnership Development, Michele Petruzziello, Global Leadership Fellow Alexandra Shaw, Senior Community Associate, Information Technology Industry Bruce Weinelt, Director, Head of Telecommunication Industry © 2014 World Economic Forum

5 Contents Preface 67 1.6 Rebalancing Socioeconomic v Asymmetry in a Data-Driven Economy Jennifer Blanke and Alan Marcus (World Economic Forum) Peter Haynes (Atlantic Council) and M-H. Carolyn Nguyen (Microsoft) Foreword vii 73 1.7 Building Trust: The Role of John Chambers (Cisco Systems) Regulation in Unlocking the Value of Big Data Foreword ix Scott Beardsley, Luís Enríquez, Ferry Grijpink, Sergio Sandoval, Cesare Mainardi (Booz & Company) Steven Spittaels, and Malin Strandell-Jansson (McKinsey & Company) xi Executive Summary 1.8 From Big Data to Big Social Beñat Bilbao-Osorio (World Economic Forum), Soumitra Dutta 81 and Economic Opportunities: Which (Cornell University), and Bruno Lanvin (INSEAD) Policies Will Lead to Leveraging Data- Driven Innovation’s Potential? xix The Networked Readiness Index Rankings Pedro Less Andrade, Jess Hemerly, Gabriel Recalde, and Patrick Ryan (Public Policy Division, Google, Inc.) Part 1: The Current Networked 1 87 1.9 Making Big Data Something Readiness Landscape and Rewards More than the “Next Big Thing” and Risks of Big Data Anant Gupta (HCL Technologies) 1.1 The Networked Readiness Index 2014: 3 Benchmarking ICT Uptake in a World 95 Part 2: Country/Economy Profiles of Big Data How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ...97 Beñat Bilbao-Osorio and Roberto Crotti (World Economic Forum), Index of Countries/Economies ...99 Soumitra Dutta (Cornell University), and Bruno Lanvin (INSEAD) Country/Economy Profiles ...100 1.2 The Internet of Everything: How 35 the Network Unleashes the Benefits Part 3: Data Tables 249 of Big Data Robert Pepper and John Garrity (Cisco Systems) How to Read the Data Tables ...251 Index of Data Tables ...253 Data Tables ...255 43 1.3 Big Data Maturity: An Action Plan for Policymakers and Executives Bahjat El-Darwiche, Volkmar Koch, David Meer, Ramez T. Shehadi, Technical Notes and Sources 323 and Walid Tohme (Booz & Company) 329 About the Authors 53 1.4 Big Data: Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven Public Policy 335 Partner Institutes Alex Pentland (MIT) Acknowledgments 343 1.5 Managing the Risks and Rewards 61 of Big Data Matt Quinn and Chris Taylor (TIBCO) The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | iii © 2014 World Economic Forum

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7 Preface ALAN MARCUS and JENNIFER BLANKE World Economic Forum contributed outstanding chapters. We also wish to thank The 13th edition of The Global Information Technology the editors of the Report —Soumitra Dutta at the Samuel is released at a time when economies need Report Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management at to solidify the recovery of the past year and leave the Cornell University, Bruno Lanvin at INSEAD, and Beñat worst financial and economic crisis of the past 80 Bilbao-Osorio at the World Economic Forum—for years behind. Developed economies need to sustain their leadership in this project, together with the other their incipient economic recovery and find new areas members of the GITR team: Roberto Crotti, Danil Kerimi, of growth and employment creation; emerging and and Elena Kvochko. Appreciation also goes to members developing economies need to build their resilience of the Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking against turbulence in the markets and foster their Network team: Ciara Browne, Gemma Corrigan, Attilio innovation potential in order to sustain the rapid di Batista, Gaëlle Dreyer, Margareta Drzeniek-Hanouz, economic growth they experienced in the past decade. Thierry Geiger, Tania Gutknecht, Caroline Ko, and Cecilia Against this backdrop, information and Serin. Last but not least, we would like to express our communication technologies (ICTs)—in their role as gratitude to our network of over 160 Partner Institutes key enablers of innovation and new employment around the world and to all the business executives who opportunities—are drawing more attention than ever participated in our Executive Opinion Survey. Without before. As the benefits of ICTs increasingly materialize their valuable input, the production of this would Report into tangible assets, building and strengthening digital not be possible. ecosystems becomes increasingly important. The GITR series has been published by the World Economic Forum in partnership with INSEAD since has accompanied and monitored ICT 2002. The Report progress for more than a decade and raised awareness of the importance of ICTs for long-term competitiveness and well-being. Through the lens of the Networked Readiness Index (NRI), the driving factors and impacts of networked readiness and ICT leveraging have been identified, highlighting the joint responsibility of all social actors—individuals, businesses, and governments. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 features the latest results of the NRI, offering an overview of the current state of ICT readiness in the world. This year’s coverage includes a record number of 148 economies, accounting for over 98 percent of global GDP. In addition, it features a number of essays that inquire into the rewards and risks accruing from big data, an unprecedented phenomenon in terms of the volume, velocity, and variety of sources of the creation of new data. These essays also advise on the changes that organizations, both public and private, will need to adopt in order to manage, make sense of, and obtain economic and social value from this vast quantity of Report newly generated data. In addition, the presents a wealth of data, including detailed profiles for each economy covered and data tables with global rankings for the NRI’s 54 indicators. We would like to convey our sincere gratitude to the industry and academic organizations’ experts who The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | v © 2014 World Economic Forum

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9 Foreword JOHN CHAMBERS Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Cisco Systems In our 30-year history, our success has been based I never cease to be amazed by the speed of innovation. on our ability to see around corners, identify market Change is the only true constant, and each year the transitions, and make big bets on what is next—such as pace of change only accelerates. Transitions that once the emergence of the Internet of Everything. We have took place over three or five years now happen in 12 to seen this before, in the transitions from bridged networks 18 months. to routed networks, shared networks to switched ones, I believe we are currently experiencing the biggest circuit switching to packet switching, fixed connectivity to fundamental change the world has seen since the initial mobile connectivity, dedicated resources to virtual ones, development of the Internet as people, processes, data traffic to voice and video traffic, PC connections to data, and things become increasingly connected. any-device connections, and physical data centers to the We call this the Internet of Everything (IoE), and it is cloud. having a profound impact on individuals, businesses, We see the network as the critical accelerator communities, and countries. According to analysis and enabler in all of these transitions, transforming conducted by Cisco, the Internet of Everything processes to increase efficiency and decrease costs. In represents a US$19 trillion global opportunity to create data centers, for example, the network is the common value over the next decade through greater profits for element for intelligence, scale, and flexibility. Data businesses as well as improved citizen services, cost centers have evolved as more intelligence has been built efficiencies, and increased revenues for governments into the network—from networking virtual machines and and other public-sector organizations. developing a platform optimizing computing to scaling Several major transitions in technology—each applications and decoupling them from the server or important in its own right—are combining to make data center in which they live. the Internet of Everything possible. These include the The network also facilitates the growth of emergence of cloud and mobile computing, the growth applications, a key driver of the Internet of Everything. of big data and analytics, and the explosive development Applications already provide an integral way that of the Internet of Things (IoT). These transitions are consumers experience the Internet of Everything, with changing the role of information technology (IT), with the number of applications growing from 10 billion Internet protocol (IP) networks playing an increasingly downloads in 2010 to 77 billion by 2014. central part by seamlessly connecting disparate IT As this trend continues, we expect the Internet of The environments. Cisco’s contribution to this edition of Everything to drive massive gains in efficiency, business focuses on the Global Information Technology Report growth, and quality of life, helped along by thousands how IP networks facilitate new information flows through of new IoT applications. These applications will require the interaction between two of these transitions: IoT and building new end-to-end IoT infrastructures, which will data analytics. enable the deployment of even more IoT applications. The explosive expansion of IoT, or connections We are pleased to collaborate again with the World between context-aware machines and other physical The Global Economic Forum and INSEAD to produce objects, is changing how we utilize devices to improve Information Technology Report and the Networked our daily lives. And the shift in data and analytics— Readiness Index (NRI). The NRI provides policymakers, from being centralized, structured, and static to being business leaders, and concerned citizens with valuable distributed, mixed structured and unstructured, and real- insights into current market conditions and the state time—is leading to a new era of real-time processing and of connectivity across the world, and helps to identify decision-making. where more can be done to accelerate the Internet of More industries are moving their systems and Everything’s positive impact on the world in which we processes to IP networks, and the rapid growth of IP- live. connected devices is driving exponential increases in data traffic. The migration to IP networks and the ability to turn “big data” into valuable, actionable information have demonstrable benefits—both economic and social—as well as positive financial impacts for firms. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | vii © 2014 World Economic Forum

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11 Foreword CESARE MAINARDI Chief Executive Officer, Booz & Company market—the distinctive way they create value for their The report in your hands is a compilation of wisdom customers. about the relationship between digitization and corporate Consider, for example, the threats, distractions, strategy. This is a relationship of enormous promise, and benefits of one current element of digitization: big because digitization—the mass adoption of connected data. This is comprised of large datasets often gathered digital services by consumers, enterprises, and in unstructured forms from the behavior of people and governments—provides dramatic power and reach to the groups. For example, as individuals search online, shop, companies that understand it. express their opinions, communicate with each other, But there is also enormous tension in the and move from one place to another, their aggregate relationship between digitization and strategy. Digital behavior can be tracked and inferences drawn from it. media and technologies are inherently subject to change. New technologies, such as analytic engines and cloud- A company’s strategy, its way of winning in the market, based storage, have made it possible to gather these is most effective when it is tied to its identity. And data in unprecedented amounts and interpret them in corporate identities—and the capabilities and cultures novel ways. Insights from old forms of market research, that go with them—are by nature slow to change. It such as asking customers what they liked or did not takes years to develop the kind of proficiency that no like in a commercial transaction, now become part of other company can easily master. a larger pattern of awareness, with both the scale and We have found in our research on capable granularity to give business people a much clearer view companies that the most consistently successful are of their market. those that master this tension. They base their strategies In capable companies, big data is aligned with their on their distinctive capabilities: the things they do strategies. They invest only in the data gathering that better than any other company. These are consistent gives them privileged access to the customers they care throughout their lifetimes. Apple competes on its unique about, or that contributes to the capabilities that make approach to design, which no other company can them distinctive. Without that discipline, companies match; IKEA on its unparalleled prowess in making and can be overwhelmed by big data. They can collect a selling low-priced but appealing home furnishings; and huge volume of information without any predetermined Haier on its remarkable ability to translate its customers’ purpose, and then struggle to make sense of it. In short, needs into innovative new appliances. These successful the prevalence of massive amounts of new information companies then learn to adapt to new challenges and has only highlighted the importance of the old strategic opportunities within the context of their constant identity. verity: to change successfully, you must stay true to your They become rapid innovators, able to shift to new identity and seek the customers who you can serve well. products, markets, and geographies, but they adapt only The next few years will see many companies when their existing capabilities can give them the right to struggling to resolve the tension between change and win. identity. Those who master the new digital technologies For most companies, digitization is a great enabler. in a disciplined way, in the service of their focused But it is also a great disruptor. It enables competitors as strategies, will become more successful in the market— well, including competitors from other sectors who might and the economies around them will thrive accordingly. enter your business arena. This can present a threat that can often turn a company’s advantage into a weakness. Digitization is also distracting: it can present a bewildering array of potential opportunities, all of which look compelling. But pursuing them all is both financially unfeasible and strategically distracting. It leads to incoherence, which can lead an enterprise into decline. How then do capable companies handle the opportunities and challenges of digitization? They are rigorously and prudently selective. They invest in those areas that are in line with their chosen way to play in the ix The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

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13 Executive Summary , World Economic Forum BEÑAT BILBAO-OSORIO SOUMITRA DUTTA , Cornell University , INSEAD BRUNO LANVIN been fueled by both technological advances (such as the (GITR) When The Global Information Technology Report spread of radio-frequency identification, or RFID, chips) and the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) were created and social trends (such as the widespread adoption of more than 13 years ago, the attention of decision social media). Our collective discussions, comments, makers was focused on how to develop strategies that likes, dislikes, and networks of social connections are Time Magazine would allow them to benefit from what now all data, and their scale is massive. What did we had described as “the new economy”: a new way of search for? What did we read? Where did we go? With organizing and managing economic activity based on whom do we associate? What do we eat? What do the new opportunities that the Internet provided for 1 we purchase? In short, almost any imaginable human businesses. At present, the world is slowly emerging interaction can be captured and studied within the realm from one of the worst financial and economic crises of big data. in decades, and policymakers, business leaders, and Big data has arrived. It is changing our lives and civil society are looking into new opportunities that changing the way we do business. But succeeding can consolidate growth, generate new employment, with big data requires more than just data. Data-based and create business opportunities. Information and value creation requires the identification of patterns from communication technologies (ICTs) continue to rank high which predictions can be inferred and decisions made. on the list as one of the key sources of new opportunities Businesses need to decide which data to use. The to foster innovation and boost economic and social data each business owns might be as different as the prosperity, for both advanced and emerging economies. businesses themselves; these data range from log files For more than 13 years, the NRI has provided and GPS data to customer- or machine-to-machine decision makers with a useful conceptual framework data. Each business will need to select the data source to evaluate the impact of ICTs at a global level and it will use to create value. Moreover, creating this to benchmark the ICT readiness and usage of their value will require the right way of dissecting and then economies. analyzing those data with the right analytics. It will require knowing how to separate valuable information EXTRACTING VALUE FROM BIG DATA from hype. Data have always had strategic value, but with the This world of big data has also become a source magnitude of data available today—and our capability to of concern. The consequences of big data for issues process them—they have become a new form of asset of privacy and other areas of society are not yet fully class. In a very real sense, data are now the equivalent understood. Some prominent critics, such as Jaron of oil or gold. And today we are seeing a data boom 2 L a n i e r, rivaling the Texas oil boom of the 20th century and the call on us to be cautious about readily believing San Francisco gold rush of the 1800s. It has spawned any result created by the “wisdom of the crowd.” an entire support industry and has attracted a great deal Moreover, applications of big data in military intelligence of business press in recent years. have created a growing concern for privacy around the This new asset class of big data is commonly world. described by what we call the “three Vs.” Big data is Indeed, we are now living in a world where anything high volume, high velocity, and includes a high variety of and everything can be measured. “Data” could become sources of information. Next to those traditional three Vs a new ideology. We are just at the beginning of a long we could add a fourth: value. This is what everyone is journey where, with the proper principles and guidelines, looking for, and this is why big data today gets so much we should be able to collect, measure, and analyze more attention. In the quest for value, the challenge facing us and more information about everyone and everything is how to reduce the complexity and unwieldiness of big in order to make better decisions, individually and data so that it becomes truly valuable. collectively. Big data can take the form of structured data such as financial transactions or unstructured data such as photographs or blog posts. It can be crowd-sourced or obtained from proprietary data sources. Big data has The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | xi © 2014 World Economic Forum

14 Executive Summary year they feature among the top 20. Overall, their PART 1: THE CURRENT NETWORKED performance in terms of ICT readiness, with excellent READINESS LANDSCAPE digital infrastructures and robust innovation systems, Part 1 of this presents the latest findings of Report allows them to score very highly both in ICT use—with the NRI, offering a comprehensive assessment of the almost universal Internet use, for example—and in present state of networked readiness in the world. innovation performances. The —composed Asian Tigers Furthermore, a number of expert contributions inquiring of Singapore, Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, into the role of big data and how to extract value from it and Taiwan (China)—also perform very strongly, all of are also included. These contributions relate to (1) how them positioned at the forefront of the NRI and with the network unleashes the benefits of big data; (2) how Singapore, Hong Kong SAR, and Korea featuring among and why policymakers and business executives need the top 10. All these economies continue to boast to develop action plans to extract value from big data; outstanding business and innovation environments that (3) balancing the risks and rewards of big data from a are consistently ranked among the most conducive to public policy perspective; (4) managing these risks and entrepreneurship in the world. Finally, the top 10 includes rewards; (5) rebalancing socioeconomic asymmetry in a some of the most advanced Western economies —the data-driven economy; (6) the role of regulation and trust Netherlands, Switzerland, the United States, and the building in unlocking the value of big data; (7) turning the United Kingdom—that have recognized the potential of potential of big data into socioeconomic results; and (8) ICTs to embark in a new economic and social revolution, defining organizational change to take full advantage of and thus have substantially invested in developing their big data. digital potential. In evolutionary terms, this year the rankings remain Insights from the NRI 2014 on the world’s very stable, with no movement in the top 6 and negligible networked readiness changes in the rest, with the exception of the significant Chapter 1.1 provides an overview of the networked improvement by six positions of Hong Kong SAR, which readiness landscape of the world as assessed by the climbs to 8th place. NRI 2014. It presents the results of the top 10 performers Finland For a second consecutive year, tops and selected countries by region, in the following order: the rankings with a strong performance across the Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, board. It ranks 1st in the readiness subindex thanks Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, to an outstanding digital ICT infrastructure—the best sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East and North in the world—and 2nd in both the usage and impact Africa. subindexes, with more than 90 percent of its population Tables 1 through 5 report the 2014 rankings for using the Internet and high levels of technological and the overall NRI, its four subindexes, and its 10 pillars. In non-technological innovation. The country also comes addition, the Country/Economy Profile and Data Tables in 3rd in the environment subindex, with a very robust sections at the end of the present the detailed Report Singapore innovation system. continues to follow results for the 148 economies covered by the study and closely in the rankings, remaining in 2nd place. With the 54 indicators composing the NRI. To complement the best pro-business and pro-innovation environment the analysis of the results, Box 1 presents a classification worldwide, the city-state continues to obtain the top rank of countries based on their NRI 2014 scores and the in terms of ICT impacts, notably on the social dimension. change rate of this Index over a two-year period; Box Supported by a government with a clear digital strategy 2 assesses the nature of the digital divide in Europe; that offers the best online services in the world, an ICT and Box 3 discusses the challenges large emerging infrastructure that is relentlessly being improved over economies must overcome if they are to keep moving time (16th), and one of the highest quality educational forward in integrating ICTs into more robust innovation systems in the world (3rd), notably in terms of math and ecosystems that could help them transition from what science (1st), Singapore has become one of the most appears to be a mid-life crisis toward a knowledge- knowledge-intensive economies globally (2nd) and is an based society. Finally, Appendix A of Chapter 1.1 details (3rd) maintains ICT-generation powerhouse. Sweden the structure of the NRI and describes the method of its position this year despite a slight improvement in its calculation. overall score, unable to regain the top position it held Top 10 two editions ago. Overall, the very strong performance The top 10 spots continue to be dominated by Northern of Sweden reflects its world-class, affordable (11th) ICT European economies, the Asian Tigers, and some of infrastructure (3rd) and a stable and pro-business and the most advanced Western economies. Three Nordic innovation environment (15th), despite its high tax rate economies —Finland, Sweden, and Norway—lead the (123rd). These strengths result in outstanding uptake rankings and are positioned among the top 5. Denmark and use of ICTs by individuals (1st), businesses (3rd), and and Iceland, the remaining two Nordic economies, government (7th) and one of the highest technological also perform strongly, and despite small slips this and non-technological innovation performances in the xii | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

15 Executive Summary regarded only in terms of access to ICT infrastructure, world (2nd), making Sweden a truly knowledge-based but also in terms of the impacts that using ICTs can society. provide for the economy and society in general. Within The United States moves up two positions to several Commonwealth of Independent States, the 7th place, thanks to slight improvements in many countries improve their performances, reflecting the areas of the Index. These include the country’s already key importance and hopes they have placed on ICTs to good business and innovation environment (7th) and diversify their economies and lead them toward more improvements in its ICT infrastructure (4th), notably in knowledge-intensive activities. terms of wider access to international Internet bandwidth With three economies from the region in the top per user. Overall, the country exhibits a robust uptake 10 of the NRI rankings and several countries showing of ICTs by all major stakeholders—businesses (9th), improvement, Asia and the Pacific is very dynamic government (11th), and individuals (18th)—who manage and active in developing its ICT agenda. Yet a significant to leverage well one of the best and more affordable digital divide persists between the most advanced (20th) ICT infrastructures (4th). Coupled with a pro- economies—such as the Asian Tigers and Japan— business and pro-innovation environment (7th), these and emerging economies and other trailing countries. result in a strong innovation capacity (5th) and significant Regardless of their position on the development ladder, ICT-related economic impacts (9th). The ranking of the however, all Asian economies have much to gain from United States, the largest economy in the world, in the increased networked readiness. It will allow populations top 10 shows that fully leveraging ICTs is not dependent of the least advanced among them to gain access to on small or medium-sized economies, but instead much-needed basic services, to improve government depends on undertaking the right investments and transparency and efficiency, and—for the most creating the right condition for it. Despite a drop of two advanced—it will contribute to boosting their innovation places, the continues to exhibit a very United Kingdom capacity and allow them to attain higher levels of strong performance in 9th position. As a service-based competitiveness. economy, the country early recognized the importance Latin America and Improving the connectivity of of ICTs to support its innovation and competitiveness continues to represent one of the the Caribbean performance. As a result, it has managed to build a well- region’s main challenges despite the recent efforts developed ICT infrastructure (15th), exhibiting one of the of many countries to develop and update their ICT highest population uptakes (8th) and a well-developed infrastructures. Countries such as Chile, Panama, e-commerce (1st), which, coupled with a strong pro- Uruguay, and Colombia have made significant progress business environment, has resulted in solid economic in developing and ensuring more and better access to (14th) and social (9th) impacts. ICT infrastructure, ensuring higher ICT usage across Regional results stakeholders. However, persistent weaknesses in Europe has been at the forefront of developing a digital the broader innovation system hinder the overall ecosystem as a key ingredient that fosters innovation capacity of the region to fully leverage ICTs to foster its and competitiveness. As a result, several European competitiveness potential, highlighting the rise of the countries lead the NRI rankings, with six European new digital divide—that is, the divide between countries economies—Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, that are achieving positive economic and social impacts Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom—in the related to the use of ICTs and those that are not. top 10. In addition, in order to maximize the positive Sub-Saharan Africa slowly continues to develop impacts of ICTs throughout the European Union and its ICT infrastructure, especially by expanding the share create synergies and positive spillover effects, the of the population covered by, and having access to, European Commission has developed its Digital Agenda mobile telephony and by expanding the number of as one of seven flagship initiatives under its growth Internet users, which in some countries—such as South strategy Europe 2020. Despite these efforts, important Africa—has almost doubled. These improvements have differences remain across European economies, led to many important innovations that provide more with Southern and Central and Eastern European and better services that were previously unavailable, economies continuing to lag behind. A deeper analysis such as financial services. Notwithstanding this of the root causes of these differences shows that, in progress, the region overall continues to suffer from a general, ICT infrastructure and individual uptake is more relatively poor ICT infrastructure, which remains costly to homogeneous across EU Member States. However, less access, although some notable exceptions exist. More favorable conditions for innovation and entrepreneurship importantly, severe weaknesses persist in the region’s across European countries result in starker disparities in business and innovation ecosystems, which result in very terms of the economic impacts—for example, innovation low positive economic and social impacts. Addressing performance—accruing from their use, which illustrates these weaknesses, not only by developing a more solid the changing nature of the digital divide in Europe and ICT infrastructure but also by improving the framework in the rest of the world. The digital divide should not be conditions for innovation and entrepreneurship, will be The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | xiii © 2014 World Economic Forum

16 Executive Summary What matters is to reshape internal decision-making crucial to avoid the emergence of a new digital divide culture so that executives base their judgments on data that will be evident in a disparity of the economic and rather than hunches. Research already indicates that social impacts associated with what has been called the companies that have managed this are more likely to be digital revolution. productive and profitable than their competition. Middle East and North As in previous years, the Organizations need to understand where they are in depicts a highly diversified outlook in terms of Africa terms of big data maturity, an approach that allows them the capacity of countries to leverage ICTs to boost to assess progress and identify necessary initiatives. competitiveness and well-being. On the one hand, Judging maturity requires looking at environment Israel and several Gulf Cooperation Council states readiness, determining how far governments have have continued their efforts to improve ICT uptake provided the necessary legal and regulatory frameworks and integrate ICTs better in more robust innovation and ICT infrastructure; considering an organization’s ecosystems in order to obtain higher returns. On the internal capabilities and how ready it is to implement big other hand, many countries in North Africa continue data initiatives; and looking also at the many and more to lag behind and suffer from important weaknesses complicated methods for using big data, which can in their framework conditions and overall innovation mean simple efficiency gains or revamping a business capacity that prevent them from fully leveraging ICTs and model. The ultimate maturity level involves transforming obtaining higher returns. the business model to become data-driven, which requires significant investment over many years. The Internet of Everything: How the Network Policymakers should pay particular attention to Unleashes the Benefits of Big Data environment readiness. They should present citizens Chapter 1.2, contributed by Robert Pepper and John with a compelling case for the benefits of big data. Garrity from Cisco Systems, details how Internet protocol This means addressing privacy concerns and seeking (IP) networks underpin the concept of the Internet to harmonize regulations around data privacy globally. of Everything (IoE) and explores how IP networks Policymakers should establish an environment that accelerate big data’s transformational impact on facilitates the business viability of the big data sector individuals, businesses, and governments around the (such as data, service, or IT system providers), and world. they should take educational measures to address the As exabytes of new data are created daily, a rising shortage of big data specialists. As big data becomes share of this data growth is flowing over IP networks ubiquitous in public and private organizations, its use will as more people, places, and things connect to the IoE. become a source of national and corporate competitive Proprietary networks are increasingly migrating to IP, advantage. facilitating the growth of big data, and networks are fast becoming the key link among data generation, analysis, Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven processing, and utilization. Public Policy The authors highlight four major trends driving Alex “Sandy” Pentland from the Massachusetts Institute data growth over IP networks and detail how networks of Technology (MIT) highlights in Chapter 1.4 that we are central to maximizing analytical value from the are entering a big data world, where governance is data deluge. The chapter identifies critical technology far more driven by data than it has been in the past. and public policy challenges that could accelerate, Basic to the success of a data-driven society is the or encumber, the full impact of big data and the IoE protection of personal privacy and freedom. Discussions including standards and interoperability, privacy and at the World Economic Forum have made substantial security, spectrum and bandwidth constraints, cross- contributions to altering the privacy and data ownership border data traffic, legacy regulatory models, reliability, standards around the world in order to give individuals scaling, and electrical power. unprecedented control over data that are about them, while at the same time providing for increased Big Data Maturity: An Action Plan for Policymakers transparency and engagement in both the public and and Executives private spheres. In Chapter 1.3, Bahjat El-Darwiche, Volkmar Koch, We still face the challenge that large organizations, David Meer, Ramez T. Shehadi, and Walid Tohme of and in particular governments, may be tempted to abuse Booz & Company argue that big data has the potential the power of the data that they hold. To address this to improve or transform existing business operations concern we need to establish best practices that are in and reshape entire economic sectors. Big data can the interests of both large organizations and individuals. pave the way for disruptive, entrepreneurial companies This chapter suggests one path by which potential and allow new industries to emerge. The technological abuses of power can be limited, while at the same time aspect is important, but technology alone is insufficient providing greater security for organizations that use to allow big data to show its full potential and to prevent companies from feeling swamped by this information. xiv | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

17 Executive Summary many cases, the use of distributed data stores and big data. The key policy recommendations for all large management are already part of current practice, and organizations, commercial or government, are that: so the entire system will be simpler and cheaper to 1. Large data systems should store data in a implement than a centralized solution: all that is really distributed manner, separated by type (e.g., new is the careful use of provenance, permissions, and financial vs. health) and real-world categories (e.g., auditing within a legal or regulatory framework such as a individual vs. corporate), managed by a department trust network. Most importantly, these recommendations whose function is focused on those data, and will result in a data ecosystem that is more secure and with sharing permissions set and monitored by resilient, allowing us to safely reap the advantages of personnel from that department. Best practice using big data to help set and monitor public policy. would have the custodians of data be regional and use heterogeneous computer systems. With Managing the Risks and Rewards of Big Data such safeguards in place, it is difficult to attack In Chapter 1.5., Matt Quinn and Chris Taylor from TIBCO many different types of data at once, and it is more argue that expert handling of big data brings the reward difficult to combine data types without authentic of being able to react to world-changing events, both authorization. big and small, at an unprecedented rate and scope. Epidemics can be tracked and miracle drugs developed, Data sharing should always maintain provenance 2. for example, but at the same time, big data brings risks and permissions associated with data and support that require balancing those benefits against privacy automatic, tamper-proof auditing. Best practice concerns raised by the potentially unsettling correlation would share only answers to questions about the of personal information. data (e.g., by use of pre-programmed SQL queries Organizations are awakening to the reality that an known as “Database Views”) rather than the overwhelming amount of high-volume, wide-variety, and data themselves, whenever possible. This allows high-velocity data creates three key trends: improved internal compliance and auditing, and helps minimize the risk of unauthorized information • Big data leverages previously untapped data leakage. sources to liberate information from places where it was previously hidden. Systems controlled by partner organizations, and 3. not just a company’s own systems, should be • Big data management requires automation wherever secure. External data sharing should occur only possible, because volume and complexity eliminate between data systems that have similar local the ability of humans to intervene and reprogram control, permissions, provenance, and auditing, processes in real time. and should include the use of standardized legal Big data forces us to create adaptable, less • agreements such as those employed in trust fragile data systems because the sheer variety of networks. Otherwise data can be siphoned off at structured and unstructured data breaks the old either the data source or the end consumer, without computational and transactional ways of writing the need for attacking central system directly. logic. 4. The need for a secure data ecosystem extends to These trends create two main challenges: the private data of individuals and the proprietary data of partner companies. As a consequence, best • Big data holds unseen patterns, which need to be practice for data flows to and from individual citizens visualized using analytics tools and techniques. and businesses is to require them to have secure Insights gained must be used at the right time, in personal data stores and be enrolled in a trust the right context, and with the right approach. network data sharing agreement. The challenge of systematically discovering, • 5. All entities should employ secure identity credentials capturing, governing, and securing ever-larger at all times. Best practice is to base these amounts of data is much more complicated than the credentials on biometric signatures. relatively simple problem of marshaling storage and computational resources. 6. Create an “open” data commons that is available to partners under a lightweight legal agreement, These elements are the driving forces behind such as the trust network agreements. Open data making use of big data in increasingly sophisticated can generate great value by allowing third parties to ways. The chapter cites examples in healthcare, improve services. logistics, and retail where big data is being tackled with a systems approach that takes into consideration Although these recommendations might at first information streaming constantly as well as what is found glance seem cumbersome, they are for the most part in historical databases that cut through the mystique of easily implemented with the standard protocols found within modern computer databases and networks. In xv The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

18 Executive Summary The chapter outlines a few suggestions for big data and get to the core of understanding big data’s regulators and companies about how to tackle these risks and rewards. issues, and suggests that regulators should work closely with industry stakeholders and across regions to achieve Rebalancing Socioeconomic Asymmetry in a technology-neutral high-level regulatory principles that Data-Driven Economy last and promote industry self-regulation. Chapter 1.6, contributed by Peter Haynes of the Companies should, after an initial assessment, Atlantic Council and M-H. Carolyn Nguyen at Microsoft, implement necessary changes into their organization and explains that an increasing amount of data is being cooperate with the regulators and industry stakeholders. generated by individuals who are handing potentially Key, however, is to empower the customer. With clear valuable information to commercial enterprises in and transparent privacy policies outlining practices, exchange for “free” services. Moreover, they are doing enabled services, and trade-offs, consumers are this without realizing—or being recompensed for—their empowered to make their own choices while the trust of data’s monetary value, and with little or no control over the industry is preserved. its immediate or future use. These socioeconomic asymmetries in the broad data ecosystem are a potential From Big Data to Big Social and Economic threat to the emerging data-driven economy, since Opportunities: Which Policies Will Lead to they may reduce overall output as more and more Leveraging Data-Driven Innovation’s Potential? economic activity is predicated on the use, exchange, Chapter 1.8, contributed by Pedro Less Andrade, Jess and analytics of data. The authors argue the need for a Hemerly, Gabriel Recalde, and Patrick Ryan at Google, data ecosystem based on fair value exchange and the focuses on the social and economic value of data, ability of users to control the use of data related to them. but from the point of view of use and purpose rather The chapter also considers potential technology and than volume. As it has become axiomatic that more policy approaches by which this might be achieved, and data are produced every year, commentators have present the need for significant additional research and been driven to call this revolution the “age of big data.” new thinking, in both technology and policy, to enable a However, what is commonly known as “big data” is sustainable data-driven economy. not a new concept: the use of data to build successful products and services, optimize business processes, Building Trust: The Role of Regulation in Unlocking and make more efficient data-based decisions already the Value of Big Data big data has an established history. Moreover, the term In Chapter 1.7, Scott Beardsley, Luís Enríquez, Ferry is ambiguous: the main features of big data (quantity, Grijpink, Sergio Sandoval, Steven Spittaels, and Malin speed, variety) are technical properties that depend Strandell-Jansson from McKinsey & Company highlight not on the data themselves but on the evolution of the expectation that big data will create great benefit computing, storage, and processing technologies. What for society, companies, and individuals in the coming is important about big data is not its volume but how it years. For this to fully materialize, however, a number of may contribute to innovation and therefore be used to factors must be in place. There must be robust high- create value. This is why this chapter uses data-driven speed Internet networks, an educated workforce, and innovation to frame the discussion. consumer trust in the services, especially regarding the High-value solutions that may not have quantifiable protection of personal data and privacy. economic value are being developed using data, and The increasing importance of protecting personal many sectors, from businesses to governments, benefit data and privacy is being recognized by countries and from data-driven innovation. Apart from producing organizations across the world. There are, however, a and using data for better policymaking processes, the range of diverging views about how to tackle the issue. public sector can also play its part in promoting and These range from the light-touch approach of the United fostering data-driven innovation and growth throughout States, which leaves the issue mainly to the industry economies by (1) making public data accessible through to solve, to the strict ex ante regulatory framework as open data formats, (2) promoting balanced legislation, advocated by the European Union. and (3) supporting education that focuses on data No matter which approach is taken, a few issues science skills. remain unclear across the frameworks. These issues might hamper public trust in big data applications and Making Big Data Something More than the “Next Big companies and hinder the development of big data to Thing” its full potential. The issues of concern include how to In Chapter 1.9., Anant Gupta, Chief Executive Officer at define personal data, how to treat anonymous data, HCL Technologies Ltd, argues that big data analytics is whether to allow the right to be forgotten, and the need not a passing fad. It will be a central means of creating to clarify the relevant jurisdictions and liabilities between value for the organization of tomorrow—almost literally, parties. tomorrow. It represents a major change in the way that xvi | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

19 Executive Summary businesses and other organizations will operate, and using it successfully will require a new mind-set and new capabilities. Given that, many organizations are struggling to even know where to start in becoming big- data competent. A step-by-step approach can make the transition seem less daunting and minimize the stumbles that are bound to occur along the way. PARTS 2 AND 3: COUNTRY/ECONOMY PROFILES AND DATA PRESENTATION Parts 2 and 3 of the feature comprehensive Report profiles for each of the 148 economies covered this year as well as data tables for each of the 54 variables composing the NRI, with global rankings. Each part begins with a description of how to interpret the data provided. Technical notes and sources, included at the end of Part 3, provide additional insight and information on the definitions and sources of specific quantitative non- Survey data variables included in the NRI computation this ye a r. NOTES Alexander 1983. 1 See Lanier 2010; see also Kakutani 2010. 2 REFERENCES Alexander, C. P. 1983. “The New Economy.” Time Magazine, May 30. Available at http://content.time.com/time/magazine/ article/0,9171,926013,00.html. Kakutani, M. 2010. “A Rebel in Cyberspace, Fighting Collectivism.” January 14. The New York Times. Available at Books of the Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/15/books/15book.html?_r=0. Lanier, J. 2010. You Are Not a Gadget. New York: Vintage Books, Random House. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | xvii © 2014 World Economic Forum

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21 The Networked Readiness Index Rankings © 2014 World Economic Forum

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23 The Networked Readiness Index 2014 2013 rank 2013 rank (out of 144) Country/Economy (out of 144) Value Country/Economy Rank Rank Value 75 3.95 75 Romania 1 6.04 1 Finland 69 3.94 Sri Lanka 76 5.97 2 Singapore 2 77 77 Moldova 3.89 3 3 Sweden 5.93 3.89 78 Philippines 86 4 Netherlands 4 5.79 79 Mexico 3.89 63 5 5 Norway 5.70 80 Serbia 87 3.88 6 5.62 6 Switzerland 73 81 Ukraine 3.87 5.61 United States 7 9 82 Ecuador 91 3.85 8 Hong Kong SAR 5.60 14 68 83 India 3.85 United Kingdom 5.54 7 9 84 84 Vietnam 3.84 Korea, Rep. 10 5.54 11 3.78 85 Rwanda 88 11 Luxembourg 16 5.53 86 Jamaica 3.77 85 5.50 12 Germany 13 3.77 87 Tunisia n/a 5.50 8 13 Denmark 88 Guyana 100 3.77 5.47 14 10 Taiwan, China 3.73 Cape Verde 81 89 5.42 15 Israel 15 103 90 Peru 3.73 16 Japan 5.41 21 91 Egypt 80 3.71 17 Canada 5.41 12 92 3.71 92 Kenya 18 18 Australia 5.40 3.69 93 90 Dominican Republic 17 19 Iceland 5.30 94 n/a Bhutan 3.68 5.27 New Zealand 20 20 3.66 83 95 Albania 22 21 Estonia 5.27 95 96 Ghana 3.65 22 Austria 19 5.26 3.64 97 Lebanon 94 23 5.22 23 Qatar 98 El Salvador 3.63 93 24 United Arab Emirates 25 5.20 99 Morocco 3.61 89 25 France 26 5.09 100 Argentina 3.53 99 26 Ireland 27 5.07 101 Guatemala 3.52 102 24 27 Belgium 5.06 102 Paraguay 3.47 104 28 Malta 28 4.96 103 Botswana 96 3.43 29 29 Bahrain 4.86 3.42 104 101 Iran, Islamic Rep. 4.83 30 Malaysia 30 105 Namibia 3.41 111 4.78 31 Lithuania 32 106 Venezuela 3.39 108 32 4.78 31 Saudi Arabia 3.38 Gambia, The 98 107 4.73 33 33 Portugal 108 Cambodia 3.36 106 34 Spain 4.69 38 109 n/a Lao PDR 3.34 35 Chile 4.61 34 110 Zambia 115 3.34 36 Slovenia 4.60 37 3.33 105 111 Pakistan 35 4.60 37 Cyprus 112 Nigeria 113 3.31 43 4.58 38 Kazakhstan 113 Suriname 117 3.30 39 Latvia 41 4.58 107 3.30 114 Senegal 4.56 40 40 Oman 110 3.25 115 Uganda 41 4.54 Puerto Rico 36 116 Honduras 109 3.24 42 42 Czech Republic 4.49 116 117 Zimbabwe 3.24 46 43 Panama 4.36 3.22 118 118 Kyrgyz Republic 44 Jordan 4.36 47 3.21 114 119 Bangladesh 4.34 Brunei Darussalam 45 57 119 3.21 120 Bolivia 4.34 51 46 Croatia 97 3.19 121 Liberia 4.32 47 Hungary 44 122 120 3.14 Côte d'Ivoire 48 Mauritius 4.31 55 126 3.09 123 Nepal 4.31 49 Azerbaijan 56 125 3.08 124 Nicaragua 4.30 50 Russian Federation 54 125 Tanzania 127 3.04 45 51 Turkey 4.30 136 126 Swaziland 3.00 4.27 52 Montenegro 48 127 Mali 3.00 122 Costa Rica 53 53 4.25 121 128 Gabon 2.98 49 54 Poland 4.24 131 2.98 129 Algeria 55 Barbados 4.22 39 130 Ethiopia 2.95 128 4.22 56 Uruguay 52 131 Cameroon 124 2.94 4.19 Macedonia, FYR 67 57 129 132 Malawi 2.90 50 4.18 58 Italy 133 Lesotho 2.88 138 61 4.12 59 Slovak Republic 134 Sierra Leone 2.85 143 60 Georgia 65 4.09 123 135 Benin 2.82 4.07 61 Mongolia 59 2.78 Burkina Faso 130 136 62 China 58 4.05 137 Mozambique 2.77 133 66 4.05 63 Colombia 138 Libya 132 2.75 76 4.04 64 Indonesia 137 139 Madagascar 2.74 4.03 65 Armenia 82 139 2.73 140 Yemen 4.02 79 66 Seychelles 134 141 Timor-Leste 2.69 67 Thailand 74 4.01 2.61 142 Mauritania 135 Bosnia and Herzegovina 68 78 3.99 141 2.52 143 Haiti 3.98 69 Brazil 60 2.52 n/a 144 Angola South Africa 3.98 70 70 140 145 Guinea 2.48 3.97 71 72 Trinidad and Tobago n/a 2.35 146 Myanmar 3.96 62 72 Kuwait 2.31 144 147 Burundi 73 Bulgaria 3.96 71 148 Chad 2.22 142 64 3.95 74 Greece xxi The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

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25 Part 1 The Current Networked Readiness Landscape and Rewards and Risks of Big Data © 2014 World Economic Forum

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27 CHAPTER 1.1 (GITR) The Global Information Technology Report When and the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) were created more than 13 years ago, the attention of decision The Networked Readiness makers was focused on how to develop strategies that Time Magazine would allow them to benefit from what Index 2014: Benchmarking had described as “the new economy”: a new way of organizing and managing economic activity based on ICT Uptake in a World of the new opportunities that the Internet provided for 1 businesses. At present, the world is slowly emerging Big Data from one of the worst financial and economic crises in decades, and policymakers, business leaders, and , World Economic Forum BEÑAT BILBAO-OSORIO civil society are looking into new opportunities that ROBERTO CROTTI , World Economic Forum can consolidate growth, generate new employment, SOUMITRA DUTTA , Cornell University and create business opportunities. Information and , INSEAD BRUNO LANVIN communication technologies (ICTs) continue to rank high on the list as one of the key sources of new opportunities to foster innovation and boost economic and social prosperity, for both advanced and emerging economies. For more than 13 years, the NRI has provided decision makers with a useful conceptual framework to evaluate the impact of ICTs at a global level and to benchmark the ICT readiness and usage of their economies. EXTRACTING VALUE FROM BIG DATA Data have always had strategic value, but with the magnitude of data available today—and our capability to process them—they have become a new form of asset class. In a very real sense, data are now the equivalent of oil or gold. And today we are seeing a data boom rivaling the Texas oil boom of the 20th century and the San Francisco gold rush of the 1800s. It has spawned an entire support industry and has attracted a great deal of business press in recent years. As explained in more detail in Chapter 1.3, this new asset class of big data is commonly described by what we call the “three Vs.” Big data is high volume, high velocity, and includes a high variety of sources of information. Next to those three Vs we could add a fourth: value. This is what everyone is looking for, and this is why big data today gets so much attention. In the quest for value, the challenge facing us is how to reduce the complexity and unwieldiness of big data so that it becomes truly valuable. Big data can take the form of structured data such as financial transactions or unstructured data such as photographs or blog posts. It can be crowd-sourced or obtained from proprietary data sources. Big data has been fueled by both technological advances (such as the spread of radio-frequency identification, or RFID, chips) and social trends (such as the widespread adoption of social media). Our collective discussions, comments, likes, dislikes, and networks of social connections are now all data, and their scale is massive. What did we search for? What did we read? Where did we go? With whom do we associate? What do we eat? What do 3 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

28 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Figure 1: The Networked Readiness Index framework DRIVERS IMPACTS Environment Economic Infrastructure Individual Affordability Skills Business Government Social Usage Readiness Moreover, creating this value will require the right way we purchase? In short, almost any imaginable human of dissecting and then analyzing those data with the interaction can be captured and studied within the realm right analytics. It will require knowing how to separate of big data. valuable information from hype. Chapter 1.7 provides Big data has arrived. It is changing our lives and guidelines for businesses to make this transition. To a changing the way we do business. Some examples large extent, mastering big data can also be compared include the following: to irrigation. It is not enough to “bring water” to where it • Google uses big data to predict the next wave of can create fertility and value. Flooding can destroy crops 2 influenza. and even drive precious nutrients away. Mastering water resources requires the delicate management of how IBM uses data to optimize traffic flow in the city of • 3 much is needed and when, and often requires complex Stockholm, and to get the best possible air quality. and interconnected systems of channels, levees, and • Dr. Jeffrey Brenner, a physician in New Jersey, uses regulation. Success with these resources is what made medical billing data to map out hot spots where ancient Egypt a brilliant civilization and turned China into you can find his city’s most complex and costly a unified country. The stakes are not dissimilar when healthcare cases as part of a program to lower applied to big data, but this is a resource that could 4 healthcare costs. benefit the entire planet instead of just one country. For many, “data-driven” has become the new • The National Center for Academic Transformation management philosophy. The Economist Intelligence is using data mining to help understand which Unit released survey data showing that approximately college students are more likely to succeed in which 5 two-thirds of executives feel that big data will help find courses. 6 new market opportunities and make better decisions. But succeeding with big data requires more than Nearly half of the surveyed respondents feel big data will just data. Data-based value creation requires the increase competitiveness, and more than a third believe identification of patterns from which predictions can be it will boost financial performance. inferred and decisions made. Businesses need to decide This world of big data has also become a source which data to use. The data each business owns might of concern. The consequences of big data for issues be as different as the businesses themselves; these of privacy and other areas of society are not yet fully data range from log files and GPS data to customer- or understood. Some prominent critics, such as Jaron machine-to-machine data. Each business will need 7 L a n i e r, call on us to be cautious about readily believing to select the data source it will use to create value. any result created by the “wisdom of the crowd.” 4 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

29 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 faster services, which, in turn, yield significant Moreover, applications of big data in military intelligence benefits. have created a growing concern for privacy around the world. 2. An enabling environment determines the Indeed, we are now living in a world where anything capacity of an economy and society to benefit and everything can be measured. “Data” could become The success of a country from the use of ICTs. a new ideology. We are just at the beginning of a long in leveraging ICTs and achieving the desired journey where, with the proper principles and guidelines, economic and social benefits will depend on its we should be able to collect, measure, and analyze more overall environment—including market conditions, and more information about everyone and everything the regulatory framework, and innovation- in order to make better decisions, individually and prone conditions—to boost innovation and collectively. entrepreneurship. 3. ICT readiness and usage remain key drivers and THE NETWORKED READINESS FRAMEWORK: A Despite preconditions for obtaining any impacts. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO MEASURE ICT ACCESS the increasing availability of ICTs, the question of AND IMPACTS access and usage remains important especially for Because of the potential high returns that ICTs can developing countries, given their need to narrow provide in transforming a nation’s economy and the digital divide. Even within developed nations, increasing its citizens’ well-being, assessing ICT the need to provide high-speed broadband to all developments has been the object of much academic segments of the population has acquired greater and policy attention over the past decade. Several importance in recent years. Some features of the organizations have exerted significant effort toward NRI are related to access and usage; these cover measuring and benchmarking ICT deployment and not only affordable ICT infrastructure but also digital uptake, but few have tried as hard to assess the returns resources, including software and skills. Moreover, that ICTs can actually provide to both the economy and ICT impacts can arise only if ICTs are widely used society. Although data are still scarce in terms of ICT by all key actors—individuals, businesses, and impacts, policy interest in measuring ICTs has shifted governments. It is a society-wide effort. Those from measuring ICT access to measuring ICT impacts. actors demonstrating better preparedness and In 2012, after two years of research and greater interest are likely to use ICTs more and consultations with ICT practitioners, policy and industry more effectively, contributing to a greater impact on experts, and academia, the Networked Readiness Index competitiveness and development. (NRI) introduced a new subindex on ICT impacts that aimed at holistically assessing the way that countries 4. All factors interact and co-evolve within an ICT go about leveraging ICTs and benefiting from them in Those societies that can count on ecosystem. terms of enhanced competitiveness and well-being. better-prepared actors and an enabling environment This evolution ensures that the NRI framework remains are more likely to benefit from higher rates of ICT at the forefront of ICT measurement. As one of the use and more extensive impacts. At the same time, most authoritative assessments of its kind, it has been those societies that benefit from higher rates of adopted by several governments as a valuable tool for ICT use and positive impacts will, in turn, be more informing their competitiveness and policy agendas. likely to benefit from a push on the part of the The design of the framework for the calculation of different stakeholders to be better prepared and the NRI (Figure 1) has been guided by five principles: keep improving the framework conditions that will allow for more and stronger benefits to accrue. As a 1. Measuring the economic and social impacts of result, a virtuous circle starts, where improvements The NRI must include aspects of ICTs is crucial. in one area affect and drive improvements in other the way ICTs are transforming both the economy areas. Conversely, lags in one particular factor also and society. In several economies, the ICT industry affect the evolution of the other factors. has become increasingly important and now accounts for a significant share of value-added and 5. The framework should provide clear policy employment. In addition, ICTs interact closely with orientations and identify opportunities for many other sectors, thus enabling innovations to The NRI facilitates public-private collaboration. accrue and affecting productivity. Moreover, the the identification of areas where policy intervention— impacts of ICTs are also evident in the development through investment including public-private of new skills that are important in knowledge- partnerships, smart regulation, or the provision based, information-rich societies and that are crucial of incentives—could boost the impacts of ICTs. for employment. In society, ICTs allow citizens to This is important because the development and participate more actively and steadily in social and general uptake of ICTs depend on the capacity political debates and make the government more of a country to provide an institutional framework accountable. They improve access to better and 5 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

30 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 to which the national legal framework facilitates ICT with reliable and efficient rules and regulations; penetration and the safe development of business favorable business conditions for the founding and activities, taking into account general features of the growth of new (social and commercial) enterprises; regulatory environment (including the protection afforded an innovation-prone environment, capable of to property rights, the independence of the judiciary, and developing and absorbing new knowledge; and an the efficiency of the law-making process) as well as more ICT-friendly government policy. ICT-specific dimensions (the passing of laws related to ICTs and software piracy rates). ELEMENTS OF THE NETWORKED READINESS The business and innovation environment pillar INDEX (nine variables) gauges the capacity of the business The networked readiness framework translates into the framework’s conditions to boost entrepreneurship, NRI, comprising four subindexes: these measure the taking into account dimensions related to the ease of environment for ICTs; the readiness of a society to use doing business (including the presence of red tape ICTs; the actual usage of all main stakeholders; and, and excessive fiscal charges). This pillar also measures finally, the impacts that ICTs generate in the economy the presence of conditions that allow innovation to and in society. The three first subindexes can be flourish by including variables on the overall availability regarded as the drivers that establish the conditions for of technology, the demand conditions for innovative the results of the fourth subindex, ICT impacts. These products (as proxied by the development of government four subindexes are divided into 10 pillars composed of procurement of advanced technology products), the 54 individual indicators in total, according to the following availability of venture capital for financing innovation- structure (see also Figure 2): related projects, and the presence of a skilled labor A. Environment subindex force. 1. Political and regulatory environment 2. Business and innovation environment Readiness subindex The readiness subindex, with a total of 12 variables, B. Readiness subindex measures the degree to which a society is prepared to 3. Infrastructure and digital content make good use of an affordable ICT infrastructure and 4. Affordability digital content. 5. Skills The infrastructure and digital content pillar (five variables) captures the development of ICT infrastructure C. Usage subindex (including mobile network coverage, international Internet 6. Individual usage bandwidth, secure Internet servers, and electricity 7. Business usage production) as well as the accessibility of digital content. 8. Government usage The (three variables) assesses affordability pillar the cost of accessing ICTs, either via mobile telephony D. Impact subindex or fixed broadband Internet, as well as the level of 9. Economic impacts competition in the Internet and telephony sectors that Social impacts 10. determine this cost. The final NRI score is a simple average of the four skills pillar The (four variables) gauges the ability composing subindex scores, while each subindex’s of a society to make effective use of ICTs thanks to score is a simple average of those of the composing the existence of basic educational skills captured by pillars. In doing this, we assume that all NRI subindexes the quality of the educational system, the level of adult make a similar contribution to networked readiness. literacy, and the rate of secondary education enrollment. Appendix A includes detailed information on the composition and computation of the NRI 2014, while we Usage subindex briefly describe the different subindexes below. The usage subindex assesses the individual efforts of the main social agents—that is, individuals, business, Environment subindex and government—to increase their capacity to use ICTs The environment subindex gauges the friendliness as well as their actual use in their day-to-day activities of a country’s market and regulatory framework in with other agents. It includes 16 variables. supporting high levels of ICT uptake and the emergence The individual usage pillar (seven variables) of entrepreneurship and innovation-prone conditions. A measures ICT penetration and diffusion at the individual supportive environment is necessary to maximize the level, using indicators such as the number of mobile potential impacts of ICTs in boosting competitiveness phone subscriptions, individuals using the Internet, and well-being. It includes a total of 18 variables households with a personal computer (PC), households distributed into two pillars. with Internet access, both fixed and mobile broadband political and regulatory environment pillar The subscriptions, and the use of social networks. (composed of nine variables) assesses the extent | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 6 © 2014 World Economic Forum

31 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Figure 2: The Networked Readiness Index structure Component subindexes Pillars Political and regulatory environment Environment Business and innovation environment Infrastructure and digital content Readiness Affordability Skills Networked Readiness Index Individual usage Usage Business usage Government usage Economic impacts Impacts Social impacts Impact subindex The business usage pillar (six variables) captures the The impact subindex gauges the broad economic extent of business Internet use as well as the efforts of and social impacts accruing from ICTs to boost the firms in an economy to integrate ICTs into an internal, competitiveness and well-being and that reflect the technology-savvy, innovation-conducive environment that transformation toward an ICT- and technology-savvy generates productivity gains. Consequently, this pillar economy and society. It includes a total of eight measures the firm’s technology absorption capacity as variables. well as its overall capacity to innovate and the production (four variables) The economic impacts pillar of technology novelties measured by the number of measures the effect of ICTs on competitiveness thanks Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) patent applications. to the generation of technological and non-technological It also measures the extent of staff training available, innovations in the shape of patents, new products which indicates the extent to which management or processes, and novel organizational practices. In and employees are more capable of identifying and addition, it also measures the overall shift of an economy developing business innovations. As we did last year, toward more knowledge-intensive activities. we split the e-commerce variable to distinguish the (four variables) aims to social impacts pillar The business-to-business dimension from the business-to- assess the ICT-driven improvements in well-being that consumer one, because some noticeable differences result from their impacts on the environment, education, between the two dimensions exist in several countries. energy consumption, health progress, or more-active (three variables) government usage pillar The civil participation. At the moment, because of data provides insights into the importance that governments limitations, this pillar focuses on measuring the extent place on carrying out ICT policies for competitiveness to which governments are becoming more efficient in and to enhance the well-being of their citizens, the the use of ICTs and provide increased online services to effort they make to implement their visions for ICT their citizens, and thus improving their e-participation. development, and the number of government services It also assesses the extent to which ICTs are present in they provide online. education, as a proxy for the potential benefits that are associated with the use of ICTs in education. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 7 © 2014 World Economic Forum

32 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Figure 3: Breakdown of indicators used in the Networked Readiness Index 2014 by data source INDICATORS FROM EXECUTIVE OPINION OTHER SOURCES SURVEY TOTAL: 54 INDICATORS 27 INDICATORS 27 INDICATORS (50%) (50%) 15,000 business leaders in all economies included in In general, measuring the impacts of ICTs is 8 Report. the a complex task, and the development of rigorous The Survey represents a unique source of quantitative data to do so is still in its infancy. As a result, insight into many critical aspects related to the enabling many of the dimensions where ICTs are producing environment, such as the effectiveness of law-making important impacts—especially when these impacts are bodies and the intensity of local competition; into ICT not directly translated into commercial activities, as is readiness, such as the quality of the educational system the case for the environment and for health—cannot yet and the accessibility of digital content; into ICT usage, be covered. Therefore this subindex should be regarded such as capacity to innovate and the importance of as a work in progress that will evolve to accommodate government vision for ICTs; and into impacts, such as new data on many of these dimensions as they become the impact of ICTs on developing new products and available. services and improving access to basic services. The NRI’s coverage every year is determined by the Survey coverage and data availability for COMPUTATION METHODOLOGY AND DATA indicators obtained from other sources, mostly In order to capture as comprehensively as possible all Report international organizations. This year the relevant dimensions of societies’ networked readiness, includes 148 economies, four more than the 2013 the NRI 2014 is composed of a mixture of quantitative edition. The newly covered countries are Bhutan, Lao and survey data, as shown in Figure 3. PDR, and Myanmar. We have also re-instated Angola Of the 54 variables composing the NRI this year, and Tunisia into the Index, two countries that were not 27—or 50 percent—are quantitative data, collected included in last year’s edition. Tajikistan is not covered primarily by international organizations such as in the 2014 Report because Survey data could not be International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World collected this year. Bank, and the United Nations. International sources More details on variables included in the Index and ensure the validation and comparability of data across their computation can be found in Appendix A and in the countries. Technical Notes and Sources section at the end of the The remaining 27 variables capture aspects that Report. are more qualitative in nature or for which internationally comparable quantitative data are not available for a large enough number of countries, but that nonetheless are THE CURRENT NETWORKED READINESS crucial to fully measure national networked readiness. LANDSCAPE: INSIGHTS FROM THE NRI 2014 These data come from the Executive Opinion Survey (the This section provides an overview of the networked Survey), which the Forum administers annually to over readiness landscape of the world as assessed by the 8 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

33 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Figure 4: The Networked Readiness Index map Value n 5.4–7.0 (best) 5.0–5.4 n n 4.0–5.0 3.3–4.0 n n 1.0 (worst)–3.3 Not covered n TOP 10 NRI 2014. It presents the results of the top 10 performers As in previous years, the top 10 spots continue to be and selected countries by region, in the following order: dominated by Northern European economies, the Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States; Asian Tigers, and some of the most advanced Western Asia and the Pacific; Latin America and the Caribbean, economies. Three Nordic economies —Finland, sub-Saharan Africa; and the Middle East and North Sweden, and Norway—lead the rankings and are Africa. positioned among the top 5. Denmark and Iceland, Tables 1 through 5 report the 2014 rankings for the remaining two Nordic economies, also perform the overall NRI, its four subindexes, and its 10 pillars. In strongly, and despite small slips this year they feature addition, the Country/Economy Profiles and Data Tables among the top 20. Overall, their performance in terms of present the detailed Report sections at the end of the ICT readiness, with excellent digital infrastructures and results for the 148 economies covered by the study and robust innovation systems, allows them to score very the 54 indicators composing the NRI. To complement highly both in ICT use—with almost universal Internet the analysis of the results, Box 1 presents a classification use, for example—and in innovation performances. The of countries based on their NRI 2014 scores and the —composed of Singapore, Hong Kong Asian Tigers change rate of this Index over a two-year period; Box 2 SAR, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan (China)—also assesses the nature of the digital divide in Europe; perform very strongly, all of them positioned at the and Box 3 discusses the challenges large emerging forefront of the NRI and with Singapore, Hong Kong economies must overcome if they are to keep moving SAR, and the Republic of Korea featuring among forward in integrating ICTs into more robust innovation the top 10. All these economies continue to boast ecosystems that could help them transition from what outstanding business and innovation environments that appears to be a mid-life crisis toward a knowledge- are consistently ranked among the most conducive to based society. Figure 4 presents an intensity map of the entrepreneurship in the world. Finally, the top 10 includes world; economies are color-coded based on their NRI some of the most advanced Western economies —the overall score measured on a 1-to-7 scale, with best- and Netherlands, Switzerland, the United States, and the worst-performing economies appearing in dark green United Kingdom—that have recognized the potential of and red, respectively. Finally, Appendix A of the present ICTs to embark in a new economic and social revolution, chapter details the structure of the NRI and describes and thus have substantially invested in developing their the method of calculation. digital potential. In dynamic terms, this year the rankings remain very stable, with no movement in the top 6 and negligible 9 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

34 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Table 1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 2013 r ank 2013 r ank e (out o Grou p* f 144) p* Grou f 144) (out o e Valu try/Economy Coun Rank Valu try/Economy Coun Rank 75 nia 3.95 75 CEE ADV 1 6.04 and Finl 1 Roma ADV 69 3.94 Sri La 76 DEVA 2 Sing 2 5.97 apore nka SIA Swed en 5.93 3 ADV 77 Mold ova 3.89 77 CIS 3 Neth Phil 78 ADV 4 5.79 4 3.89 86 DEVA erlands ippines SIA Norw Mexi co 3.89 63 LATA ADV M 5 5.70 ay 5 79 ADV Serb 80 CEE 6 Swit 5.62 6 3.88 87 ia zerland 81 Ukra ine 3.87 73 CIS 7 Unit ed States 5.61 ADV 9 82 Hong K LATA 5.60 14 ADV Ecua 3.85 91 8 dor ong SAR M ed Kingdom 5.54 7 ADV 9 83 Indi a 3.85 68 DEVA SIA Unit Kore ADV 10 DEVA 84 3.84 Viet 84 11 5.54 a, Rep. SIA nam 16 5.53 SSA 88 3.78 mbourg Luxe da Rwan 85 ADV 11 Germ 85 LATA 86 Jama ADV 12 3.77 13 5.50 any M ica 13 Denm ark MENA 5.50 n/a 3.77 sia Tuni 87 8 ADV Guya Taiw 3.77 100 LATA 5.47 10 ADV 14 88 M an, China na 3.73 ADV 15 5.42 el 15 rde Cape Ve 89 81 SSA Isra Peru 3.73 103 LATA 21 5.41 90 Japa 16 ADV n M 5.41 12 ADV 80 3.71 t Egyp 91 MENA 17 Cana da Keny 3.71 92 SSA ADV 92 18 5.40 18 Aust ralia a 5.30 17 ADV 90 3.69 Domi 93 19 Icel LATA and M nican Republic 3.68 an Bhut 94 SIA n/a 20 New Ze aland DEVA 5.27 20 ADV 83 3.66 nia Alba 95 ADV CEE 21 Esto nia 5.27 22 ADV a Ghan 96 3.65 22 Aust ria 5.26 19 95 SSA 23 Qata MENA 5.22 23 MENA 94 3.64 Leba 97 r non M LATA 93 3.63 vador El Sal 25 5.20 MENA ed Arab Emirates Unit 24 98 26 5.09 ce Fran 25 ADV 99 Moro cco 3.61 89 MENA ADV LATA 26 Irel and 5.07 27 100 Arge ntina 3.53 99 M Guat LATA 102 3.52 101 27 Belg 5.06 24 ADV emala M ium 28 4.96 a Malt 28 ADV 102 Para guay 3.47 104 LATA M 4.86 29 MENA Bahr 29 103 Bots 96 3.43 SSA wana ain 30 3.42 Mala 4.83 30 104 Iran 101 MENA DEVA , Islamic Rep. ysia SIA Lith SSA 111 3.41 4.78 Nami 105 32 CEE 31 uania bia MENA 3.39 108 LATA 31 4.78 Saud 32 Venez 106 M uela i Arabia 33 ADV ugal Port 33 SSA 107 Gamb ia, The 4.73 3.38 98 3.36 Camb odia 34 Spai n 4.69 38 ADV 108 SIA DEVA 106 3.34 Lao PD 109 35 Chil DEVA LATA n/a 4.61 34 R SIA e M 110 37 4.60 Slov 36 ADV SSA 115 3.34 Zamb ia enia MENA 105 3.33 stan Paki 111 Cypr 37 us 4.60 35 ADV 43 4.58 Kaza 38 3.31 113 SSA 112 Nige CIS khstan ria 39 Latv 4.58 41 CEE LATA 113 3.30 117 Suri name ia M 3.30 Sene 114 107 SSA MENA 40 4.56 Oman 40 gal 4.54 36 ADV 41 Puer to Rico 115 Ugan da 3.25 110 SSA LATA 3.24 Hond 116 ADV 42 4.49 Czec 42 109 h Republic M uras 3.24 LATA Zimb 117 116 SSA 43 Pana 4.36 46 ma abwe M 118 CIS 118 Kyrg 44 3.22 Jord 4.36 47 MENA yz Republic an 4.34 Bang Brun 45 DEVA 57 119 3.21 DEVA 114 SIA SIA ladesh ei Darussalam 119 3.21 Croa Boli 120 4.34 51 CEE 46 LATA via M tia 3.19 97 SSA CEE 44 4.32 121 Hung 47 Libe ria ary 122 48 Maur SSA 4.31 55 SSA 120 3.14 Côte d itius 'Ivoire Azer 126 3.09 Nepa 123 49 DEVA 4.31 56 CIS SIA l baijan 125 3.08 ragua Nica 124 M LATA 50 Russ ian Federation 4.30 54 CIS Turk 127 3.04 Tanz 125 SSA 51 4.30 45 CEE ania ey Mont 52 SSA 136 3.00 Swaz 126 4.27 48 CEE iland enegro 122 3.00 Mali 127 53 SSA Cost 4.25 53 LATA a Rica M SSA 121 2.98 Gabo 128 54 Pola 4.24 49 CEE nd n MENA 4.22 Barb 55 LATA 39 129 Alge 131 2.98 ria ados M Urug uay 4.22 56 52 LATA M 130 Ethi opia 2.95 128 SSA 57 Mace CEE 4.19 SSA 131 Came 124 2.94 67 roon donia, FYR 50 ADV 4.18 Ital 58 SSA 132 Mala 129 2.90 wi y ADV 61 59 Slov 4.12 133 Leso 138 2.88 SSA tho ak Republic CIS 60 Geor 4.09 SSA 134 Sier 143 2.85 65 ra Leone gia Mong 61 SSA CIS 59 4.07 135 Beni 123 2.82 n olia SSA 4.05 58 DEVA Chin 62 136 Burk 130 2.78 ina Faso a SIA LATA 63 Colo 133 4.05 SSA 66 137 Moza 2.77 mbique M mbia SIA nesia a 4.04 MENA Indo 64 76 DEVA 138 Liby 2.75 132 82 nia 4.03 CIS 65 Arme 139 Mada gascar 2.74 137 SSA SSA 66 Seyc MENA 79 140 Yeme 139 2.73 4.02 n helles land Thai SIA 67 SIA DEVA 74 4.01 141 Timo r-Leste 2.69 134 DEVA CEE 3.99 Bosn 68 78 142 Maur 135 2.61 MENA itania ia and Herzegovina 60 LATA 69 Braz LATA 3.98 143 Hait 141 2.52 i M il M 70 Sout SSA 70 SSA 144 Ango n/a 2.52 3.98 la h Africa SSA 72 3.97 Trin 71 LATA 140 145 Guin 2.48 ea M idad and Tobago MENA 62 72 Kuwa DEVA 3.96 146 Myan n/a 2.35 mar it SIA aria ndi 71 73 Bulg CEE SSA 147 Buru 2.31 144 3.96 74 ADV 64 3.95 SSA Gree 148 Chad 2.22 142 ce No te: Group classification follows the International Monetary Fund’s classification (situation as of October 2013). * Groups: ADV = Advanced economies; CIS = Commonwealth of Independent States and Mongolia; DEVASIA = Developing Asia; LATAM = Latin America and the Caribbean; MENA = Middle East and North Africa; SSA = Sub-Saharan Africa. 10 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

35 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Table 2: Environment subindex and pillars Business and Political and Political and Business and innovation regulatory innovation regulatory environment environment environment environment ENVIRONMENT SUBINDEX ENVIRONMENT SUBINDEX Score Country/Economy Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Rank Score Rank Score Country/Economy Rank 85 3.68 70 3.88 Mexico 75 1 Singapore 5.87 1 5.90 1 5.84 4.07 4.17 43 3.87 Bhutan 76 5.88 8 5.37 2 2 New Zealand 5.63 3.57 123 3.76 5.37 9 5.86 3 5.62 Finland 3 77 China 3.87 56 115 3.97 78 2 5.40 11 5.56 Hong Kong SAR 4 5.72 Kuwait 3.85 75 3.61 81 4.09 5 5.50 United Kingdom 5 3.62 82 4.08 5.33 10 5.66 79 Sri Lanka 3.85 74 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.44 5 5.53 8 5.48 Netherlands 6 80 4.08 83 3.59 76 3.83 78 4.12 81 Ecuador 3.81 89 3.51 7 Norway 5.46 7 5.54 6 5.38 Liberia 82 4.15 75 3.45 92 3.80 8 Sweden 5.45 6 5.63 15 5.26 83 Armenia 3.80 104 3.32 67 4.28 12 5.31 5.51 9 Switzerland 5.41 9 88 Canada 5.39 12 5.31 3 5.46 84 Morocco 3.79 81 3.56 4.03 10 4.20 72 3.38 101 11 Luxembourg 5.31 4 5.73 29 4.90 85 Romania 3.79 12 5.25 16 5.29 13 4.04 86 5.27 3.53 86 3.79 Iran, Islamic Rep. 86 Ireland 13 100 3.78 Russian Federation 87 Qatar 5.23 14 5.23 17 5.23 3.39 4.17 73 5.17 Italy 3.77 3.39 76 4.15 88 21 5.23 15 5.20 Australia 14 99 64 4.32 3.76 Greece 89 15 United States 5.19 22 5.00 7 5.38 114 3.20 3.76 87 4.01 92 5.16 3.51 18 5.21 Philippines 90 19 5.19 Denmark 16 17 10 5.41 31 5.14 4.87 3.76 73 3.64 103 3.87 Germany India 91 18 United Arab Emirates 5.10 24 4.91 92 Kenya 5.28 13 3.75 71 3.67 110 3.83 4.39 5.14 93 3.75 119 3 .10 61 19 Belgium 5.08 21 5.01 22 Peru 4.81 4.01 91 3.45 93 3.73 Trinidad and Tobago 19 27 5.01 Iceland 20 5.21 94 95 21 Japan 4.99 16 5.23 40 4.75 4.31 65 3 .14 117 3.72 Albania 14 Vietnam 3.68 91 3.47 100 3.88 5.27 96 4.67 28 4.97 Israel 22 97 4.97 Austria 23 4.75 39 5.19 18 4.12 79 3.24 110 3.68 Dominican Republic Cambodia 3.66 95 3.43 98 3.90 Malaysia 4.95 25 4.84 24 5.07 98 24 108 3.84 99 Lesotho 3.66 90 3.48 25 Taiwan, China 4.94 34 4.43 4 5.45 Estonia Senegal 3.64 106 3.26 89 4.02 100 26 4.93 28 4.83 26 4.88 3.87 5.12 23 4.59 31 4.86 Saudi Arabia 101 27 Colombia 3.64 96 3.41 104 5 3.83 9 Rwanda 4.83 17 5.22 55 4.4 102 28 10 3.44 94 3.64 Tunisia 38 4.83 Chile 29 Lebanon 3.63 142 2.62 48 4.63 103 11 4.34 5.32 3.59 Uganda 104 47 4.67 3.61 30 France 4.82 23 4.97 121 3.57 77 105 3.59 123 3.02 74 4.16 4.48 Guatemala 53 5.05 20 4.76 South Africa 31 4.64 29 4.75 Puerto Rico 32 106 Serbia 3.58 118 3 .11 87 4.04 4.86 33 3.70 69 3.57 Malawi 107 4.84 3.43 33 Oman 4.69 32 4.54 36 130 108 4.68 42 4.18 20 5.19 34 3.55 124 3.55 82 3.55 Sierra Leone Korea, Rep. 109 5.00 25 4.26 39 4.63 Portugal 35 Nigeria 3.54 112 106 3.85 3.23 36 4.62 49 4.63 30 4.62 Malta 110 El Salvador 3.53 121 3 .10 95 3.96 Mauritius 4.61 33 4.48 43 4.75 3.87 102 3 .16 116 3.52 Côte d’Ivoire 111 37 3.64 42 4.42 35 4.58 Barbados 38 4.75 112 Ethiopia 3.50 102 3.37 120 84 3.49 Swaziland 113 3.44 4.98 3.55 4.16 45 4.57 Cyprus 39 129 26 Ukraine 3.48 130 2.89 4.96 27 4.07 48 4.52 Bahrain 84 4.08 40 114 3.47 132 3.54 85 Tanzania 115 3.39 41 Jordan 4.45 44 4.16 41 4.75 Brazil 4.01 116 32 4.86 53 4.44 Latvia 42 3.33 135 3.57 78 3.45 43 3.65 119 3.23 111 3.44 Mali 117 4.79 37 4.02 52 4.41 Lithuania 118 3.88 Turkey 4.38 55 4.00 38 44 Pakistan 3.44 124 3.00 101 4.77 119 Egypt 3.44 115 3 .18 117 3.69 4.54 45 Spain 4.31 47 4.09 51 2.90 94 3.97 Madagascar 129 120 4.85 35 3.76 62 4.31 Panama 46 3.43 Slovenia 4.28 72 3.66 30 4.89 3.85 47 105 2.98 126 3.42 Moldova 121 3.39 Kyrgyz Republic 122 66 3.89 99 2.89 4.28 4.19 41 4.23 Ghana 48 131 51 Czech Republic 4.23 4.05 60 4.41 3.78 113 2.99 125 3.39 Nepal 123 49 124 126 3.22 113 3.36 Mozambique 3.49 50 Hungary 4.22 54 4.00 56 4.44 Uruguay 4.21 57 3.96 54 4.46 3.83 111 51 2.87 132 3.35 Cameroon 125 52 4.86 34 3.56 80 4.21 Montenegro 3.45 128 3.24 108 3.35 Burkina Faso 126 3.41 Benin 3.33 107 3.25 131 127 53 4.67 46 3 .74 67 4.21 Macedonia, FYR 69 Nicaragua 4.15 46 4.20 Brunei Darussalam 54 4.25 128 3.31 136 3.32 103 3.32 55 3.67 118 2.95 128 3.31 Honduras 129 Poland 4.12 65 3.75 52 4.49 56 Thailand 4.12 79 3.56 45 4.69 3.94 96 2.66 130 Paraguay 3.30 136 4.1 Kazakhstan 57 131 Bolivia 3. 61 3.80 58 3.20 4.42 1 22 109 3.24 139 4.10 Croatia 58 4.69 3.51 88 132 Bangladesh 3.21 138 2.65 114 3.77 44 112 4.38 37 4.10 Namibia 59 133 3.35 133 3.06 122 3.20 Zimbabwe 3.81 3.30 4.07 59 3.82 63 4.33 Zambia 137 3 .10 120 3.20 Gabon 134 60 2.78 122 135 3 .19 Argentina 135 61 Botswana 4.05 40 4.26 107 3.84 3.61 4.05 49 4.07 90 4.02 141 3 .17 Libya 136 62 2.64 116 3.69 Seychelles 63 Indonesia 4.04 68 3.71 62 3.48 127 2.84 134 3 .16 Suriname 137 4.36 4.24 3.33 3.76 63 4.00 Costa Rica 64 70 138 Timor-Leste 3 .14 127 2.95 134 139 71 3.30 138 2.58 143 4.23 2.94 3.76 64 4.00 Guyana 65 Yemen 50 4.06 97 3.92 2.86 133 2.91 Mauritania 2.95 143 140 66 Lao PDR 3.99 4.10 141 2.84 14 4 2.58 141 3.09 Haiti 80 3.82 60 3.96 Jamaica 67 125 4.39 36 3.95 Gambia, The 68 142 Guinea 2.77 139 2.65 14 4 2.89 3.50 2.87 145 2.64 140 2.76 Algeria 143 93 69 Cape Verde 3.94 58 3.91 3.98 70 Azerbaijan 3.94 66 3.75 77 3.03 14 4 Burundi 2.73 146 2.43 142 4.13 140 2.30 148 2.72 Venezuela 145 50 4.59 71 Bulgaria 3.94 105 3.29 3 .15 72 146 Myanmar 2.68 137 2.66 146 2.71 Mongolia 3.91 98 3.39 57 4.43 4.42 3.40 97 3.91 Georgia 73 2.65 2.52 145 2.59 Angola 147 59 147 3.55 83 3.90 Slovak Republic 74 Chad 2.40 147 2.43 148 2.36 68 4.25 148 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 11 © 2014 World Economic Forum

36 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Table 3: Readiness subindex and pillars Infrastructure Infrastructure and digital and digital content content Affordability Skills Affordability Skills READINESS SUBINDEX READINESS SUBINDEX Score Rank Score Rank Score Score Country/Economy Rank Rank Rank Country/Economy Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Bulgaria 4.75 6.88 1 6.61 Finland 1 34 5.26 119 3 .74 56 5.26 18 1 6.55 75 6.41 56 2 Iceland 6.44 2 6.88 13 6.44 13 5.99 76 Brazil 4.71 4.62 91 4.97 91 4.53 21 4.68 88 6.59 8 2.69 121 4.65 3 Vietnam 77 Sweden 6.39 3 6.85 10 6.48 5.83 17 Brunei Darussalam 4.65 37 5.15 129 3 .12 30 78 5.69 4 Norway 6.28 6 6.80 28 6.18 5.86 32 5.41 45 4.62 99 3.86 77 4.63 Lebanon 5.62 5 United States 6.27 4 6.83 21 6.36 79 80 Guyana 4.62 98 3.32 70 5.37 60 6.42 2 5.88 46 6.30 16 6.20 Singapore 6 5.18 75 5.24 69 5.07 6.17 5 6.81 53 5.74 14 5.96 Philippines 81 7 Taiwan, China 4.60 89 3.51 6.16 11 6.48 43 5.94 12 6.05 3.89 105 5.81 50 4.10 72 4.60 Germany Paraguay 82 8 Ecuador 83 9 Australia 6.15 8 6.79 49 5.83 20 5.85 4.59 75 3.94 92 4.89 4.94 75 3.63 84 Bhutan 4.58 67 4.22 45 114 6.36 3 5.40 66 6.69 9 6.15 Switzerland 10 5.89 1 2.72 119 4.57 6.09 22 5.79 85 India 11 Austria 6.14 10 6.53 34 4.00 101 7. 0 0 5.16 86 Albania 4.57 90 3.49 87 5.07 62 6.08 10 6.36 22 5.88 26 6.11 Hong Kong SAR 12 3.59 83 4.55 Tunisia 87 6.79 13 Canada 6.10 7 65 5.41 8 6.10 4.80 81 5.25 73 Jamaica 4.71 87 5.03 89 3.81 79 4.52 88 14 Denmark 6.06 20 6.15 29 6.17 5.85 18 Puerto Rico 15 5.97 14 6.42 69 5.37 7 6.12 4.68 90 n/a n/a 4.24 66 4.46 Netherlands 89 11 6.00 39 5.80 28 5.95 Cyprus 6.05 16 90 Peru 4.43 95 3.37 59 5.65 99 4.27 Korea, Rep. 17 91 Barbados 4.40 35 5.25 14 4 1.9 9 15 5.95 5.66 31 5.72 57 6.42 13 5.93 5.08 77 4.86 5.73 27 5.73 56 6.29 17 5.91 Luxembourg 18 92 Suriname 4.40 101 3.25 86 93 5.84 21 6.09 54 5.73 29 5.69 Egypt 4.35 99 3.30 16 6.44 120 3.32 Japan 19 39 5.51 4.42 95 4.89 93 3.72 81 4.34 Mexico 94 6.05 35 5.71 29 5.76 Israel 20 21 4.31 93 3.42 51 5.78 111 3.73 95 United Kingdom 5.74 15 6.36 79 5.16 28 5.69 Morocco 5.76 25 5.51 61 5.94 25 3 24 102 3 .15 3.85 107 5.73 55 22 Estonia 5.7 El Salvador 96 4. 16 5.90 5.73 18 23 6.28 90 4.99 97 Malta Zimbabwe 4.20 128 2.42 24 6.33 108 3.85 4.32 3.97 112 4.21 68 4.17 South Africa 98 97 5.78 23 6.45 12 4.85 45 5.69 Lithuania 24 6.34 4 4.59 101 6.04 22 5.66 Belgium 25 99 Kenya 4.14 94 3.39 97 4.73 98 4.29 3.69 121 3.86 78 4.13 Argentina 100 Ireland 5.65 19 6.17 98 4.68 9 6.09 26 4.85 79 5.85 101 Algeria 4.12 127 2.43 42 5.96 3.99 19 5.27 72 5.80 27 5.64 France 27 102 106 3.06 107 4.09 5.74 Cape Verde 102 28 Slovenia 24 5.60 4.76 82 4.45 5.95 82 5.12 26 95 3.52 87 4.05 Dominican Republic 103 3.88 106 4.75 29 Latvia 5.60 41 5.03 26 6.21 35 5.56 Bangladesh 2.84 128 6.34 23 2.88 112 4.02 104 30 Spain 5.60 32 5.48 41 5.99 50 5.33 31 Pakistan 2.54 136 6.40 19 2.97 110 3.97 105 5.32 51 6.88 2 4.50 58 5.57 Kazakhstan 32 4.68 89 3.83 116 3.35 96 3.95 Kyrgyz Republic 5.23 Bahrain 5.52 39 5.05 25 6.29 58 106 6.09 32 4.91 42 5.49 Italy 33 5.47 3.31 43 122 5.17 78 3.29 100 3.92 Guatemala 107 108 37 6.88 3 4.06 74 5.49 Ukraine 34 5.54 Honduras 3.89 115 2.83 77 5.18 112 3.67 35 49 5.09 84 6.04 23 5.49 Czech Republic 5.33 109 Ghana 3.89 124 2.50 64 5.41 110 3.75 5.48 Qatar 36 4.73 6.26 85 5 4.59 100 5.60 31 110 Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.87 103 3 .14 118 3 .74 141 3.82 Nepal 111 Russian Federation 37 5.46 47 4.81 14 6.44 64 5.13 3.32 121 6.49 9 1.65 38 5.62 33 5.09 85 5.62 30 5.44 United Arab Emirates 112 Uganda 3.80 113 2.87 58 5.68 127 2.86 48 5.34 39 Poland 5.40 38 3.34 119 4.50 105 3.35 97 3.73 Cambodia 113 5.07 52 5.78 40 5.39 59 4.50 4 6.82 78 4.85 114 Liberia 3.70 145 1.57 5 6.78 131 2.75 Georgia 41 Croatia 5.38 54 4.57 5.55 36 6.03 36 115 Bolivia 3.58 114 2.83 126 3.36 93 4.54 3 .10 4.85 80 6.43 17 4.78 48 5.35 Turkey 42 116 Namibia 3.46 106 125 3.37 104 3.91 43 113 4.09 109 2.28 132 3.34 Gabon 3.66 117 5.40 46 5.47 62 5.18 36 5.35 Portugal 69 5.31 Mongolia 44 Botswana 118 109 3.01 14 3.32 7 4.19 6. 92 61 4.57 2 5.12 65 2.39 6 2.71 132 4.42 107 2.81 117 3.24 New Zealand 5.27 12 6.42 3.31 Nigeria 119 127 6.14 45 46 6.12 30 4.38 2.41 138 5.12 83 2.39 129 5.25 57 3.31 Yemen 120 63 5.25 Bosnia and Herzegovina 47 5.22 76 3.88 11 6.47 52 5.32 3.76 121 Mauritius Nicaragua 3.30 82 3.66 140 2.48 109 3.58 Jordan 48 122 84 3.23 Libya 145 1.73 96 4.37 6 6.64 38 5.51 3.51 88 5.22 123 129 4.03 111 2.70 120 5.09 66 5.99 2.77 40 4.55 55 5.21 Azerbaijan 49 3 .17 Tanzania 3.43 92 5.21 Costa Rica 50 Côte d’Ivoire 124 3.70 3 .11 105 3 .15 2.65 5.76 24 6.44 15 133 120 125 3.25 123 3 .13 5.37 47 5.45 63 4.58 53 128 Armenia 51 3.05 108 3 .14 Rwanda 5.13 52 Romania 5.11 51 4.69 68 5.39 54 5.26 3.59 117 3.40 124 2.37 130 3 .12 Zambia 126 127 2.64 134 3.78 117 2.83 116 3.08 Senegal 53 Serbia 5.11 49 4.77 67 5.39 63 5.15 54 4.14 100 2.28 143 2.79 118 3.07 Swaziland 128 Saudi Arabia 5.11 33 5.32 96 4.73 55 5.26 55 118 3 .10 130 2.46 125 3.03 Lao PDR 129 3.51 4.74 84 6.12 31 4.44 60 5.10 Moldova 5.09 57 4.52 74 5.25 42 5.49 Trinidad and Tobago Lesotho 56 130 3.95 103 2.66 138 2.37 131 2.99 57 73 6.09 33 4.14 70 5.07 Oman 4.99 3.20 124 2.75 137 2.60 123 2.85 Gambia, The 131 Timor-Leste 132 2.61 58 135 2.83 133 2.97 111 2.80 4.72 86 6.20 27 4.28 65 5.06 Panama 59 Malaysia 5.03 71 4.12 48 5.88 67 5.09 2.08 145 4.53 104 1.72 139 2.78 Mauritania 133 5.02 71 5.13 81 4.86 44 5.01 Chile 60 Benin 2.76 122 2.69 134 2.82 130 2.76 134 61 135 2.30 140 3.85 115 1.95 135 2.70 5.62 34 4.54 103 4.81 46 Ethiopia 4.99 Montenegro 3.03 62 4.97 40 5.04 102 4.59 53 5.29 Greece 125 2.62 139 2.43 126 2.70 Malawi 136 116 2.77 136 1.58 143 2.65 Cameroon 137 63 Thailand 4.97 73 4.07 47 5.88 74 4.95 3.60 138 64 141 4.07 110 1.55 146 2.63 Angola 2.26 Kuwait 4.95 52 4.65 76 5.18 70 5.03 2.17 142 3.69 122 2.01 134 2.63 Guinea 139 65 Indonesia 4.92 85 3.58 37 6.03 61 5.16 71 5.31 72 5.01 4.0 108 1.6 3 142 2.61 Haiti 140 66 Slovak Republic 4.91 62 4.40 143 2.11 9 H 67 1.85 138 2.59 Sierra Leone 5.50 41 2.03 4.80 3.88 94 4.35 64 4.89 ungary 114 146 141 5.14 80 4.76 50 4.88 Uruguay 68 142 2.00 147 3.06 132 1.86 137 2.31 Mozambique 4.75 83 69 143 Sri Lanka 4.88 104 3 .12 38 6.02 40 5.51 Mali 2.29 140 1.69 135 2.78 139 2.41 4.89 70 Colombia 4.85 80 3 .74 44 5.93 76 14 4 Madagascar 2.29 14 4 1.57 141 2.42 126 2.88 n/a 2.12 133 5.04 88 4.43 61 4.85 Macedonia, FYR 71 68 5.07 2.45 137 n/a 145 Burundi 2.28 1.39 91 4.78 Venezuela 72 146 Chad 2.24 148 123 3.44 148 1.89 3.44 20 6.39 94 4.50 5.18 1.41 131 3 .10 14 4 2.11 147 Burkina Faso 2.21 147 73 China 4.76 86 3.53 60 5.57 59 1.88 146 1.0 0 115 3.60 5.44 44 3.92 113 4.91 43 4.76 Seychelles 74 148 Myanmar 2.16 136 12 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

37 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Table 4: Usage subindex and pillars Governent Governent Business Individual Business Individual usage usage usage usage usage usage USAGE SUBINDEX USAGE SUBINDEX Country/Economy Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Country/Economy Rank Rank 1 Sweden 6.06 1 6.59 3 5.99 7 5.60 75 Georgia 3.63 76 3.43 110 3.21 55 4.24 2 Finland 6.01 6 6.42 2 6.02 8 5.57 76 Philippines 3.63 91 2.94 43 3.89 67 4.06 3.26 4.26 57 3.62 Argentina 77 3.33 121 99 5.85 3 5.48 10 6.32 9 5.89 Korea, Rep. 3 4 10 78 Vietnam 3.60 84 3 .18 88 5.87 3.43 58 4.19 6.26 1 5.21 15 6.13 Singapore 3.59 Bosnia and Herzegovina 79 70 5 Netherlands 5.86 4 6.48 6 5.71 14 5.40 3.69 99 3.42 92 3.67 5.44 15 5.36 80 Thailand 3.58 85 3 .17 59 3.70 84 3.88 12 6 Norway 5.79 2 6.57 81 Sri Lanka 43 3.80 50 2.38 112 3.54 4.44 5.01 26 5.66 7 6.57 3 5.75 Denmark 7 Morocco 8 82 3.76 Luxembourg 92 3.21 111 3.63 72 3.53 5.73 5 6.43 13 5.27 10 5.48 73 3.53 Moldova 83 3.99 75 3.05 125 3.55 9 Japan 5.69 16 5.92 4 5.99 22 5.15 84 6.07 11 5.64 Switzerland 10 35 4.74 Tunisia 3.51 81 3.25 103 3.30 6.10 77 3.98 1 3.04 90 3.50 Mongolia 85 71 83 4.02 11 5.47 5.56 9 5.76 18 5.60 United States 11 3.45 8 6.33 17 5.06 17 5.35 4.41 46 3.76 54 2.30 113 3.49 Kenya 86 12 United Kingdom 5.58 13 Germany 4.97 27 5.85 5 5.72 19 5.51 3.95 87 Dominican Republic 3.49 93 2.92 67 3.60 81 Israel 14 3.31 79 106 3.25 86 3.82 3.46 Botswana 88 5.19 19 5.66 8 5.51 26 5.45 89 5.13 Hong Kong SAR 5.41 12 6.03 71 3.45 Egypt 15 3.66 112 3.21 5.07 24 113 3.49 16 90 2.93 136 3 .19 116 4.23 5.34 18 4.81 21 5.98 13 5.37 New Zealand 16 58 3.45 Lebanon 91 5.34 28 5.44 14 5.24 16 5.36 Taiwan, China India 17 3.45 121 2.08 51 3.78 41 4.48 18 Qatar 5.33 21 5.69 26 4.53 4.31 50 3 .19 115 2.84 97 3.45 5.77 92 Cape Verde 4 19 5.28 15 5.92 24 4.75 21 5.17 Australia El Salvador 3.44 96 2.85 80 3.47 74 4.00 93 20 5.71 11 5.44 36 4.65 20 Austria 5.27 94 Jamaica 3.43 87 3 .10 72 3.58 104 3.62 6.06 2 4.37 29 5.30 29 5.24 United Arab Emirates 21 95 Albania 3.41 82 3.25 107 3.24 93 3.75 99 3.57 12 4.38 28 84 41 5.45 2.77 42 3.90 109 5. 17 5.22 Estonia 22 96 Guatemala 3. 4.96 4.96 29 3.52 76 1.6 8 138 3.39 Rwanda 97 23 France 5.16 22 5.65 20 4.88 28 98 3.36 94 2.91 89 3.43 94 3.75 Peru 24 Iceland 5.16 7 6.39 22 4.80 53 4.28 5.62 4.24 99 Gambia, The 3.35 120 2.12 60 3.69 25 Bahrain 5.13 14 5.96 49 3.81 5 56 Ghana 100 5.05 85 3.88 3.42 90 2.74 100 3.34 26 Canada 5.04 27 5.46 25 4.63 25 129 Ukraine 3.34 75 3.49 93 3.40 3 .12 101 27 Belgium 5.02 25 5.52 18 5.05 42 4.47 63 5.40 3.66 87 3.81 102 Guyana 3.34 103 2.54 28 Malta 5.01 24 5.55 32 4.09 13 Namibia 2.69 103 68 3.59 116 3.47 101 3.25 29 Ireland 4.92 23 5.57 23 4.75 45 4.43 104 3.97 79 3.51 77 2.04 123 3 .17 Zambia 30 Malaysia 4.83 49 4.49 27 4.45 9 5.55 105 31 Saudi Arabia 4.78 44 4.67 34 4.04 6 5.62 111 3.55 73 2.42 110 3 .17 Nigeria 3.54 4.04 35 4.83 42 4.56 Portugal 4.81 32 33 88 3.45 85 2.26 115 3 .17 Senegal 106 3.80 114 3.48 78 2.51 105 3 .16 Cambodia 107 32 4.53 Spain 33 40 3.96 44 4.44 5.21 3.48 4.60 108 Venezuela 3 .13 88 3.07 119 3 .15 127 3 .18 37 4.09 33 4.83 41 4.51 Lithuania 34 120 3.27 105 2.79 98 3 .13 Paraguay 109 35 Slovenia 4.44 34 5.09 37 4.02 57 4.20 3.33 63 4.03 19 4.04 70 2.99 130 5.05 114 3 .10 Bhutan 110 63 4.12 2.28 36 Puerto Rico 4.40 3.91 82 4.40 56 4.30 57 3.72 20 5.18 37 Oman 111 Mali 3.08 118 2.14 114 3 .19 1.87 129 3.07 Lao PDR 112 38 5.12 23 Kazakhstan 4.39 51 4.42 66 3.61 3.80 89 3.54 74 4.83 39 Chile 4.37 52 4.40 45 3.89 32 113 Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.05 111 2.39 129 3.00 91 3.76 3.72 96 4.10 31 5.26 30 Czech Republic 40 4.36 114 Suriname 3.04 86 3 .11 108 3.23 141 2.78 115 41 Brunei Darussalam 4.36 50 4.47 56 3.73 30 4.86 Côte d’Ivoire 3.04 117 2.17 96 3.37 107 3.58 118 2.44 108 3.02 Bolivia 116 115 3.47 42 Latvia 4.35 31 5.25 48 3 .16 3.97 78 3.81 72 117 Honduras 2.95 106 2.46 4.01 91 3.77 53 5.11 33 4.30 Barbados 43 3.42 2.98 133 3 44 Azerbaijan 4.24 61 4.19 52 10 118 Zimbabwe 2.93 107 2.45 4.77 .78 3.22 9 3 .14 128 34 4.04 45 119 Cameroon 2.93 130 1.78 95 3.38 102 3.64 Hungary 4.21 40 4.91 62 3.67 69 120 Bangladesh 2.91 134 1.72 127 3.00 73 46 Croatia 4.18 39 4.99 81 3.46 65 4.08 4.00 47 121 3.43 118 3.36 97 1.93 126 2.91 Pakistan Brazil 4.27 54 3.92 41 4.21 59 4.13 122 48 3.26 4.13 45 4.62 58 3.71 66 4.07 Gabon 2.90 109 2.43 126 3.02 122 Cyprus 3.25 49 123 3.20 113 2.08 122 2.84 Nicaragua 123 Slovak Republic 3.60 106 3.66 65 5.09 35 4.11 50 3.99 39 3 .74 68 4.10 Panama 3.69 137 2.84 Tanzania 124 98 3 .13 120 1.69 4.56 39 Uganda 125 3.75 95 3 .12 122 1.6 3 140 2.83 3.49 112 3.68 61 5.05 37 4.07 Italy 51 3.00 52 4.07 55 4.32 69 3.59 51 4.30 Montenegro 132 2.88 137 2.55 102 2.81 Kyrgyz Republic 126 3.65 101 2.88 135 1.67 139 2.73 Burkina Faso 127 53 Russian Federation 4.06 46 4.61 84 3.45 61 4.13 128 54 140 3 .19 117 2.13 119 2.72 Swaziland 2.84 Poland 4.06 36 5.08 75 3.52 108 3.57 3.22 126 3.32 100 1.60 141 2.71 Madagascar 129 55 Uruguay 4.05 48 4.55 86 3.43 59 4.16 Macedonia, FYR 4.03 53 4.38 101 3.31 47 4.41 3.90 83 2.77 141 1.4 6 146 2.71 Ethiopia 130 56 131 57 64 4.01 38 3.95 64 4.02 Costa Rica 4.12 Mozambique 2.70 14 4 1.50 124 3.06 110 3.55 Kuwait 58 124 3.60 105 3.40 94 5.01 38 3.24 3 .10 123 1.69 136 2.68 Liberia 132 4.00 59 133 Nepal 2.66 125 1.9 6 132 2.95 130 4.28 3.07 52 3.81 47 3.79 67 3.96 Jordan 60 134 2.47 147 2.54 104 2.66 Algeria 134 2.97 Mauritius 3.95 66 3.86 64 3.66 48 4.34 135 Sierra Leone 2.64 135 1.70 134 2.88 119 3.35 61 China 3.91 4.58 38 3.89 44 3.27 80 3.23 125 3 .12 121 Colombia 1.55 142 2.63 Malawi 136 62 3.91 77 3.40 79 3.47 31 4.86 63 137 137 3.00 128 1.98 124 2.63 Benin 2.90 Turkey 3.90 69 3.69 46 3.87 60 4.14 138 135 2.93 2.88 136 1.92 127 2.57 Lesotho 64 Seychelles 3.90 65 3.87 55 3.76 68 4.06 65 139 Libya 2.56 92 2.92 14 4 2.63 148 2.13 Bulgaria 3.87 47 4.61 104 3.29 97 3.71 66 3.86 60 4.20 87 3.43 80 3.9 140 Mauritania 2.54 116 2.24 139 2.8 Trinidad and Tobago 2.53 146 5 6 2.89 Timor-Leste 128 1.9 0 142 2.66 138 2.48 3.45 67 141 Greece 3.83 43 4.74 102 3.30 117 131 2.64 143 1.74 133 2.48 Angola 142 3.34 98 4.17 62 3.76 Romania 68 3.77 90 3.07 69 143 2.57 145 2.95 131 1.78 131 2.44 Yemen Indonesia 3.75 95 2.90 36 4.03 49 4.31 14 4 70 South Africa 3.72 78 3.39 30 4.15 103 3.62 2.84 139 2.85 138 1.47 145 2.39 Guinea 145 3.59 70 3.07 89 3.72 Mexico 71 4.50 40 Haiti 2.34 132 1.78 140 2.77 147 2.46 133 4.36 54 3.66 Serbia 72 100 3.69 2.93 146 Myanmar 2.22 143 1.51 145 2.50 143 2.65 3.98 73 147 Chad 2.18 147 1.3 4 146 2.50 142 2.70 76 3.45 82 3.52 74 3.65 Armenia 148 14 4 2.64 2.42 148 1.30 148 2.12 Burundi 74 Ecuador 3.63 83 3 .18 71 3.59 62 4.13 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 13 © 2014 World Economic Forum

38 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Table 5: Impact subindex and pillars Social Economic Social Economic impacts impacts impacts impacts IMPACT SUBINDEX IMPACT SUBINDEX Score Score Rank Score Country/Economy Rank Score Rank Rank Score Rank Score Country/Economy Rank 96 2.98 3.41 Singapore 1 Vietnam 75 6 1 6.24 5.63 5.93 3.85 62 3.03 72 3.76 5.78 7 6.04 1 5.91 Finland 76 Tunisia 3.39 2 90 3 6.06 5.63 5 5.85 Netherlands 3 77 Seychelles 3.39 77 3 .16 79 3.63 3.39 4 Sweden 5.82 2 6.03 10 5.62 78 62 3.42 88 3.36 Poland 6.09 2 5.25 7 5.67 Korea, Rep. 5 79 Gambia, The 3.39 67 3.27 84 3.50 5.52 80 Ecuador 3.38 95 2.99 71 3.78 4 5.64 14 5.40 Israel 6 81 Taiwan, China 5.43 12 5.08 6 5.79 7 Peru 3.37 84 3.08 75 3.67 8 United States 5.39 9 5.20 12 5.58 82 Italy 3.37 58 3.40 94 3.34 Thailand 104 5.72 9 5.01 14 5.36 United Kingdom 9 83 3.83 68 2.88 3.35 70 3.78 84 El Salvador 3.31 109 2.84 10 Hong Kong SAR 5.32 13 5.03 11 5.62 3 .10 86 3.48 85 Senegal 82 3.29 11 Switzerland 5.30 3 4.96 26 5.64 86 Norway 5.29 15 5.58 13 12 3.35 93 3.20 73 3.27 Bulgaria 5.00 5.88 88 3.04 85 3.49 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.27 87 13 Estonia 5.23 22 4.58 4 5.20 Germany 14 5.17 20 3.35 92 3 .18 74 3.27 Lao PDR 88 5.22 8 5.17 113 15 Luxembourg 3.02 3.48 49 3.25 South Africa 89 5.17 10 5.16 19 Greece 3.24 91 3.03 87 3.45 16 Japan 5.12 11 5.12 23 5.13 90 99 3.25 16 4.87 17 5.10 Canada 17 5.33 3.20 72 3.23 Nigeria 91 4.19 5 5.84 3.41 89 3.02 92 3.21 Trinidad and Tobago 92 18 United Arab Emirates 5.01 27 93 3 .19 3.38 90 3.00 93 Serbia 5.05 24 4.94 16 4.99 Denmark 19 20 Australia 4.95 23 4.57 15 5.33 94 Jamaica 3 .18 3.24 100 3 .13 78 21 5.72 8 3 .10 109 3.25 69 3 .18 Mali 95 3.95 32 4.84 Qatar 96 3 .18 87 3.07 98 3.29 5.18 17 4.44 26 4.81 New Zealand 22 Argentina 3.56 81 2.78 112 3 .17 Bhutan 97 23 France 4.73 19 4.77 35 4.68 4.83 98 Ukraine 3 .16 79 3 .12 102 24 Austria 4.67 24 4.51 31 3.20 2.99 4.72 3.32 99 Guatemala 3 .16 94 25 Iceland 4.61 25 4.51 34 95 2.96 97 3 .13 Romania 100 96 26 Puerto Rico 4.56 21 4.66 38 4.46 3.30 27 4.53 28 4.11 27 4.96 3 .17 106 3.08 85 3 .12 Ghana 101 Lithuania 0 3.37 91 7 4.01 30 4.51 Malaysia 28 5.0 102 Guyana 3 .12 106 2.8 25 4.33 3.50 29 Belgium 4.50 20 4.67 40 103 Kuwait 3.04 127 2.58 82 4.94 28 4.03 29 4.49 Malta 30 104 Bolivia 3.01 111 2.79 101 3.24 105 55 4.83 18 4.43 Ireland 31 4.03 Pakistan 2.99 98 2.96 112 3.03 32 3.65 22 5.14 37 4.40 3.20 104 2.78 113 2.99 Zambia 106 Saudi Arabia Portugal 107 114 2.77 105 3 .17 33 2.97 4.36 34 3.87 Iran, Islamic Rep. 30 4.85 Albania 2.95 125 2.60 97 3.30 3.97 31 4.30 Spain 36 4.63 108 34 63 2.94 Venezuela 3 .12 5.17 18 3.35 115 4.26 Bahrain 35 2.76 108 109 60 4.26 Kazakhstan 36 3 .12 110 Botswana 2.90 120 2.68 107 5.15 21 3.38 110 Chile 4.23 43 3.55 29 4.91 37 2.70 117 2.90 Cambodia 3 .10 111 Brunei Darussalam 38 Ethiopia 112 3.20 103 2.57 128 2.88 4.82 32 3.48 51 4.15 39 43 3.92 33 4.07 Slovenia 4.22 113 Nicaragua 2.87 122 2.65 111 3.08 114 2.87 101 2.92 40 Oman 4.07 56 3.41 33 4.73 121 2.81 Lebanon 3.49 37 4.48 125 2.95 46 99 2.86 Paraguay 2.78 115 Panama 41 3.99 3.97 36 3.68 42 4.26 Cameroon 2.85 103 2.88 123 2.81 116 42 Hungary 117 45 Namibia 2.85 105 2.88 122 2.81 4.17 3.71 35 3.94 Latvia 43 118 120 2.85 108 2.84 Burkina Faso 2.84 41 3.56 41 3.91 Russian Federation 44 4.27 3.63 38 3.87 Czech Republic 45 119 Côte d’Ivoire 2.84 102 2.92 127 2.76 4.12 47 Honduras 119 2.75 116 2.80 2.85 4.15 46 3.55 42 3.85 Azerbaijan 46 120 3.60 39 3.81 Montenegro 47 115 2.94 2.64 123 2.79 Morocco 121 4.02 56 2.98 Jordan 3.81 44 3.53 51 4.09 48 114 2.60 126 2.79 Uganda 122 124 2.67 121 2.73 Mozambique 123 49 Colombia 3.79 75 3 .16 39 4.42 2.79 124 Costa Rica 3.75 52 3.47 54 4.04 50 2.76 126 2.70 118 2.73 Swaziland 110 51 Rwanda 3.75 53 3.45 53 4.05 2.64 131 2.79 2.72 Malawi 125 52 2.92 116 2.50 131 2.71 Kyrgyz Republic 126 Cyprus 3.73 45 3.49 57 3.97 61 2.50 2.91 118 130 2.71 Bangladesh 127 53 Uruguay 3.73 3.36 50 4.10 40 3.69 2.91 117 2.45 132 2.68 Tanzania 128 54 Croatia 3.56 66 3.83 3.68 2.38 138 2.86 107 2.62 Suriname 129 55 Macedonia, FYR 65 3.31 52 4.06 China 2.61 133 2.63 124 2.62 Sierra Leone 130 56 3.67 81 3 .11 44 4.22 57 2. Zimbabwe 131 Brazil 3. 61 64 64 3.94 3.34 58 129 2.54 130 2.69 3.84 64 3.40 57 3.62 Barbados 58 2.47 132 Benin 2.58 119 2.69 136 4.11 Mexico 3.62 80 3 .12 48 59 133 Liberia 2.57 134 2.43 128 2.71 2.61 3 .74 60 India 3.61 50 3.48 134 Madagascar 2.52 135 2.42 132 73 61 2.70 65 3.38 3.83 59 3.61 Egypt 135 Nepal 2.51 141 2.32 129 76 Philippines 3.57 48 3.49 62 3.66 136 Gabon 2.49 136 2.41 134 2.58 89 2.34 49 4.10 63 Mongolia 3.57 137 Algeria 2.39 133 2.44 140 3.04 3.88 Dominican Republic 64 2.36 61 3.22 71 3.55 138 Angola 2.38 137 2.40 139 3.27 Turkey 3.55 68 65 67 3.83 139 Timor-Leste 2.34 143 2.30 137 2.39 Slovak Republic 3.54 2.30 3.44 78 3.63 66 140 Myanmar 2.33 139 2.37 141 54 2.31 Lesotho Armenia 67 3.58 80 3.49 47 3.53 2.53 135 2.08 147 141 2.30 Haiti 142 3.89 68 Moldova 3.52 76 3 .16 60 143 2.39 138 2.22 3.30 66 3.47 Sri Lanka 69 143 77 Yemen 2.24 140 2.35 145 2.13 3.64 Mauritania 14 4 70 Mauritius 3.47 70 3.25 74 3.69 2.14 14 4 2.32 142 2.23 3.42 55 3.46 Kenya 71 145 Guinea 2.15 148 2.04 142 2.27 83 3.50 72 3.84 63 3.07 86 3.46 146 Burundi 2.09 14 4 2.18 147 2.00 Indonesia 2.08 146 2.12 146 2.05 147 3.81 Chad 73 Cape Verde 3.45 83 3.09 69 2.03 145 2.12 148 1.9 4 2.95 100 3.44 Georgia 74 3.93 59 148 Libya 14 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

39 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 very respectable 5th globally. The country, as a service- changes in the rest, with the exception of the significant based economy, has quickly and skilfully recognized improvement by six positions of Hong Kong SAR, which the importance of ICTs to boost its innovation and climbs to 8th place. Box 1 presents and analyzes the competitiveness potential; this is reflected in virtually position and evolution of different economies in the all the indicators, where the country ranks among the rankings over the past two years, highlighting different best in the world. ICTs have permeated all stages of dynamics in building and leveraging their digital society in the Netherlands, with nearly all individuals ecosystems. having access to a computer (1st) with an Internet tops For a second consecutive year, Finland connection at home (3rd), a large number of government the rankings with a strong performance across the services are online (5th), and businesses use extensive board. It ranks 1st in the readiness subindex thanks e-commerce in their transactions with other businesses to an outstanding digital ICT infrastructure—the best (11th) and with consumers (4th). These scores, coupled in the world—and 2nd in both the usage and impact with an environment highly conducive to innovation and subindexes, with more than 90 percent of its population entrepreneurship, result in very high levels of ICT-based using the Internet and with high levels of technological innovations and the highest citizen e-participation in the and non-technological innovation. The country also world (1st). Although the affordability (67th) of a well- comes in 3rd in the environment subindex, with a developed ICT infrastructure and digital content (14th) very robust innovation system. This positive digital still remains an unresolved issue, it does not seem to landscape has been created over the years, as Finland interfere in the capacity of the country to fully leverage decidedly started investing in building its ICT ecosystem ICTs to obtain meaningful economic (5th) and social (3rd) in the mid-1990s as an answer to its financial and impacts. economic crisis at that time. Since then, the active continues to leverage Norway Stable at 5th place, role of all stakeholders—government, businesses, and ICTs effectively. With a well-developed and affordable individuals—has resulted in the positive outcome we see (28th) ICT infrastructure (6th), ICT uptake is virtually today. universal among Norway’s population: 95 percent are continues to follow Singapore As in past years, Internet users and more than 90 percent have access to closely in the rankings, remaining in 2nd place. With a personal computer (5th) and Internet (4th) at home. In the best pro-business and pro-innovation environment addition, the country benefits from a stable pro-business worldwide, the city-state continues to obtain the top rank and innovation environment (6th) and a government that in terms of ICT impacts, notably on the social dimension. is aware of the importance of ICTs for the economic and Supported by a government with a clear digital strategy social development of a geographically vast nation with a that offers the best online services in the world, an ICT widely dispersed population. Despite these many assets, infrastructure that is relentlessly being improved over compared with its Nordic neighbors, Norway depicts time (16th), and one of the highest quality educational poorer results in terms of technological innovation (12th), systems in the world (3rd), notably in terms of math and notably in the domain of ICTs (16th); improving the quality science (1st), Singapore has become one of the most of the overall educational system (18th), notably in the knowledge-intensive economies globally (2nd) and is an area of math and science (47th), may represent part of ICT-generation powerhouse (9th). Improving the already the solution. very high number of Internet users (29th) or households revalidates its 6th position of the Switzerland with a personal computer and Internet access (11th) previous edition. The country benefits from very good, to the level of some Nordic countries, coupled with albeit expensive (66th) ICT infrastructure (9th) and a reducing the cost of accessing fixed broadband Internet good educational system that provides the necessary (now at 87th), would allow Singapore to lead the overall skills to create a knowledge-based, technology-rich rankings. economy. Those assets, coupled with a stable political (3rd) maintains its position this year despite Sweden and regulatory environment (9th) and excellent conditions a slight improvement in its overall score. Overall, the very for innovation and entrepreneurship (12th), have resulted strong performance of Sweden reflects its world-class, in outstanding uptake and use of ICTs by businesses affordable (11th) ICT infrastructure (3rd) and a stable (1st) in all their transactions and in their ability to foster and pro-business and innovation environment (15th), innovation. In this process of digitization, the government despite its high tax rate (123rd). These strengths result in appears to be lagging slightly behind (35th): government outstanding uptake and use of ICTs by individuals (1st), online services (32nd) continue to be relatively reduced businesses (3rd), and government (7th) and one of the compared with those of other countries of its economic highest technological and non-technological innovation and social level of development, which partially affects its performances in the world (2nd), making Sweden a truly overall social impacts (26th). knowledge-based society. United States The moves up two positions to Netherlands The retains its 4th position despite a 7th place, thanks to slight improvements in many slight decline in its score driven by a small drop in the areas of the Index. These include the country’s already economic impacts pillar, where it nevertheless ranks a 15 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

40 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Box 1: Which countries are bridging the digital divide and which countries are not? An evolutionary analysis of the NRI results race of developing and leveraging its digital ecosystem. In The GITR series, through its Networked Readiness Index (NRI), depicts how countries leverage ICTs to boost addition, and in order to identify with more precision those competitiveness and well-being. A constant finding in the countries that have experienced the starkest changes over time, the figure includes an upper and a lower band. These NRI analysis, and one that gets reflected in the overall rankings, is that developed economies continue to lead the bands are calculated based on the standard deviation of the NRI change of the past two years; the upper band is the way in creating robust and impactful digital ecosystems while many developing and emerging economies have remained sample average change plus 1 standard deviation, and the lower band is the sample average change minus 1 standard comparatively stagnant. This stagnation persists despite deviation. some improvements to their ICT infrastructures—specifically, Based on this classification, and following the logic of a ensuring more and better mobile telephony access and slightly modified Boston Consulting Group (BCG)’s “Growth- services. As a result, there has been little progress in bridging 1 Share Matrix,” the digital divide across nations. This lack of progress casts we can identify four groups of countries: doubts about the capacity of developing and emerging 1. Rising stars: Those countries whose NRI scores are economies to embrace the full potential that ICTs have to above the sample average and whose scores are also of fe r. growing more quickly than average. Armenia, Georgia, However, the NRI rankings reflect the situation only at a Kazakhstan, Panama, Qatar, and the United Arab particular moment in time. They do not take into account the Emirates belong to this group. evolution that different countries experience over time. 2 2. Those countries whose NRI scores are Sliding stars: Figure A presents the situation of each analyzed above average, but in which evolution seems to be economy based on both its current NRI score and its NRI lagging behind. Barbados and Denmark belong to this evolution over the past three years. The position of each group. economy is then determined according to whether it falls above or below the NRI average in 2014, and whether it falls Question marks: 3. Those countries whose NRI scores are above or below the average change in the NRI score over below average but that are quickly catching up. Bolivia, the past two editions. As a result, each country’s position Ecuador, Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru, Suriname, Swaziland, in the figure reflects its placement in relation to the sample and Yemen belong to this group. average—that is, whether it has an above- or below-average Those countries whose NRI is below average 4. Laggards: ICT capacity. Each country’s position also indicates whether and that are lagging increasingly behind. Benin, it is growing above or below the sample average—that is, Botswana, Burundi, Chad, Malawi, Mozambique, whether it is catching up or lagging behind in the long-term Timor-Leste, and Tunisia are in this group. Figure A: The NRI 2014 compared with its evolution since 2012 20 Zimbabwe Suriname Bolivia Armenia 15 Kazakhstan Georgia Yemen Ecuador Swaziland Peru Indonesia Tunisia 10 United Arab Emirates Nicaragua Panama Qatar Bosnia and Herzegovina 5 Average 0 Senegal Malawi Denmark Timor-Leste Botswana –5 Albania NRI change, 2012–2014 Honduras Mozambique Azerbaijan Benin Barbados –10 Burundi Chad Average –15 2 7 6 4 1 5 3 NRI 2014 value Source: Authors’ calculations. (Cont’d.) | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 16 © 2014 World Economic Forum

41 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Box 1: Which countries are bridging the digital divide and which countries are not? An evolutionary analysis of the NRI results (cont’d.) From this classification, we can learn several interesting are particularly lagging behind are making significant strides things. First of all, several oil- and gas-rich economies to improve their digital potential. The rest of the countries in the region remain fairly stable. Panama, as an exception, is in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Gulf Cooperation Council are quickly improving their digital one of the leading countries in the region that relentlessly continues to strengthen its digital potential. Fourth, Barbados, ecosystems. The governments in these countries have and especially Denmark (which has always scored at the recognized the importance of investing in ICTs as a way to forefront of the rankings), should not be complacent but diversify their economies and are quickly developing their should address any weaknesses in the conditions that may digital infrastructure in order not to miss the digital revolution. Second, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are lagging hamper their potential to take advantage of their ICT capacity. behind, with no sign of improvement over time. This gap may Notes hamper their capacity to support further economic and social 1 See the BCG matrix, available at http://www. development as the positive impacts of ICTs become more strategicmanagementinsight.com/tools/bcg-matrix-growth-share. and more apparent; this can have important consequences html. for their future economic development if actions are not 2 In the original Boston Consulting Group’s classification, this group adopted urgently. Third, in Latin America, those countries that would be the “cash cows.” highest population uptakes (8th) and a well-developed good business and innovation environment (7th) and e-commerce (1st), which, coupled with a strong pro- improvements in its ICT infrastructure (4th), notably in business environment, has resulted in solid economic terms of wider access to international Internet bandwidth (14th) and social (9th) impacts. per user. Overall, the country exhibits a robust uptake moves up one position, Republic of Korea The of ICTs by all major stakeholders—businesses (9th), entering the top 10 this year. A country that has largely government (11th), and individuals (18th)—who manage based its economic success on the ICT industry, Korea to leverage well one of the best and more affordable benefits from a strong ICT infrastructure (13th) and an (20th) ICT infrastructures (4th). Coupled with a pro- excellent ICT uptake by individuals (9th), businesses business and pro-innovation environment (7th), these (10th), and especially government (3rd), which ranks 1st result in a strong innovation capacity (5th) and significant in the world in terms of online services. The country’s ICT-related economic impacts (9th). The ranking of the strong focus on developing its technological capacity United States, the largest economy in the world, in the as part of its economic development strategy has also top 10 shows that fully leveraging ICTs is not dependent resulted in a sturdy technological innovation performance on small or medium-sized economies, but instead (8th), notably in the field of ICTs (4th). Improvements depends on undertaking the right investments and in the conditions needed to support innovation and creating the right condition for it. entrepreneurship (34th) could help Korea to leverage With the most pronounced improvement among further its significant effort to become a leading climbs six positions to Hong Kong SAR the top 10, knowledge-intensive economy. 8th place. The sharp improvement in its score is driven by improvements in conditions for innovation and EUROPE AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF entrepreneurship (2nd) that were already very positive, a INDEPENDENT STATES robust skills base (10th), and stronger business (16th) and Europe has been at the forefront of developing a digital government usage (24th). Overall, Hong Kong SAR enjoys ecosystem as a key ingredient that fosters innovation a fairly well developed ICT infrastructure that, coupled and competitiveness. As a result, several European with a stable environment conducive to innovation countries lead the NRI rankings, with six European and entrepreneurship (4th), results in good economic economies—Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Norway, (13th) and social (11th) impacts. Notwithstanding these Switzerland, and the United Kingdom—in the top 10. strengths, individual uptake remains lower than it is in the In addition, in order to maximize the positive impacts Nordic countries that lead the rankings. of ICTs throughout the European Union and create United Kingdom Despite a drop of two places, the synergies and positive spillover effects, the European continues to exhibit a very strong performance in 9th Commission has developed its Digital Agenda as one position. As in the Netherlands, as a service-based of seven flagship initiatives under its growth strategy economy, the country early recognized the importance 9 Europe 2020. of ICTs to support its innovation and competitiveness Despite these efforts, important performance. As a result, it has managed to build a well- differences remain across European economies, developed ICT infrastructure (15th), exhibiting one of the with Southern and Central and Eastern European The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 17 © 2014 World Economic Forum

42 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 this good performance, in comparison with other Nordic economies continuing to lag behind. A deeper analysis economies, there is some concern about the decreased of the root causes of these differences shows that, in ability of businesses to fully leverage ICTs to generate general, ICT infrastructure and individual uptake is more new services and products (33rd) and innovate by homogeneous across EU Member States. However, less offering new organizational models (29th). These issues favorable conditions for innovation and entrepreneurship can potentially have a negative impact on an innovation- across European countries result in starker disparities in reliant country’s ability to support further economic terms of the economic impacts—for example, innovation growth and social development. performance—accruing from their use, which illustrates moves up one place to 21st position thanks Estonia the changing nature of the digital divide in Europe and to improvements across many dimensions of the Index, in the rest of the world. The digital divide should not be notably ICT usage (22nd) by both individuals (17th) and regarded only in terms of access to ICT infrastructure, businesses (28th). Following the model of neighboring but also in terms of the impacts that using ICTs can Finland, the country has recognized the crucial role provide for the economy and society in general. Box 2 that ICTs have to play in the local economy and for develops this analysis further and provides some social development. The result is that Estonia ranks recommendations for policies that would help to bridge Lithuania 1st among the Baltic Republics, followed by the European digital divide. Latvia at 31st place and at 39th; it is also 1st among in 11th place, climbs five places Luxembourg, Central and Eastern European countries and well ahead thanks to continued improvements across the board. of Southern European nations. With a well-developed The country continues to reap the benefits of significant ICT infrastructure (25th) and a good environment for past efforts made to develop the ICT sector as a key business and innovation (28th), private companies have economic strategy for diversifying its local economy. developed well-functioning e-commerce strategies (6th) With one of the best ICT infrastructures in the world and the country is managing to yield good economic (17th), Luxembourg counts on a high ICT uptake (22nd) and social (4th) ICT-related results. Going (8th), with both businesses (13th) and individuals (5th) forward, Estonia should follow the examples of its Nordic using these technologies extensively. Combined with neighbors in developing a robust innovation system that optimal business conditions and a reliable and efficient can help further its decisive transition into a full-fledged political and regulatory environment (4th), the country knowledge-based society. has persisted in improving economic impacts, thanks drops three Austria Moving out of the top 20, to more technological and non-technological related places to land at 22nd position, despite its very stable innovations (10th) and the highest share of the workforce profile. Overall, the country boasts a very strong ICT working in knowledge-intensive jobs in the world. In infrastructure (10th) with high levels of business usage order to maintain this good momentum, the country (11th), especially when interacting with other businesses should persevere in enhancing its overall innovation (9th). Coupled with other innovation-related investments, system (29th) so that it can fully leverage its ICT potential. such as research and development (R&D) and a Germany continues to rise, this year by one favorable business environment (23rd), this results in a position, to reach 12th place, thanks to persistent good technological performance both in the ICT sector improvements in its overall business environment (17th) (13th) and in the economy in general (10th). Further and the perceived quality of its educational system improvements in the entrepreneurial environment by (14th), which seems to provide the right set of skills to easing the procedures to open new businesses (103rd), engage in an innovation-driven globalized economy. With and in the quality of education in important areas for a very good ICT infrastructure (11th), which translates innovation, such as mathematics and science (39th), into high levels of individual (11th) and business (5th) ICT could help Austria leverage its digital potential better and uptake, Germany benefits from high levels of ICT-driven obtain an even more robust innovation performance. economic impacts (8th), as reflected in the excellent moves up one position to 25th place, thanks France innovation capacity (3rd) of local companies. to slight improvements in all three pillars of the readiness Despite a drop of five places this year, driven mainly subindex: ICT infrastructure, affordability, and skills. by a slight deterioration of its business environment Overall, the country presents a very harmonious uptake now at 13th place, continues to benefit Denmark, (16th), of ICTs across all agents, exhibiting one of the highest from one of the highest rates of ICT usage (7th), with all broadband Internet subscription rates in the world (4th), stakeholders using ICTs in their everyday activities. More a fairly good development of e-commerce (27th), and a precisely, ICT uptake among individuals (3rd) is one of vast number of government services online (8th). Although the highest in the world: almost the entire population some concerns about the business and innovation system has access to a computer and an Internet connection (47th) exist—France has one of the highest tax systems at home and uses the Internet; businesses use ICTs in the world (136th) and relatively low levels of venture for their communication and transactions with other capital availability (49th)—the country manages to obtain businesses (18th) and clients (14th); and governments offer a large share of their services online (13th). Despite 18 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

43 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Box 2: The digital divide in Europe Europe is slowly emerging from one the worst financial Figure A: The NRI 2014: European Union and economic crises in decades, but growth prospects remain unstable and unemployment stubbornly high in many countries, notably those most severely hit by the 1. Political and regulatory environment crisis. Technological progress and digitization can represent 7 one of the main sources of potential economic growth and 2. Business and innovation 10. Social 6 environment impacts employment generation for Europe, as has been recognized 5 1 by the European Commission. 4 However, the level of digitization is not the same across 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure 3 European Union (EU) Member States, and thus the potential impacts and digital 2 content to benefit from ICT adoption remains uneven. An analysis 1 of the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) results shows that, while many European countries are leading in the rankings 8. Government 4. Affordability and several Nordic and Western countries are within the usage top 10, many others continue to lag behind. A digital divide persists within the European Union. Although it is difficult to create homogeneous groups 7. Business 5. Skills usage of European countries in terms of their level of digitization 6. Individual usage and the benefits accruing from it, a broad classification by geography would show that Northern and Western Europe depicts much stronger results than Southern and Central Northwestern Europe and Eastern Europe, even if the situation differs broadly Central and Eastern Europe within these groups. For example, within Central and Eastern Southern Europe Europe, Estonia presents values similar to those of some of the countries in Western Europe; within Southern Europe, Source: Authors’ calculations. Portugal and Spain outperform Greece. Note: Southern Europe includes Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain; Northwestern Europe Figure A presents the NRI results for each of the 10 includes Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom; and Central and Eastern Europe pillars for these three groups of EU Member States. Based on includes Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, this analysis, a number of key findings can be highlighted: Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. The gap between Northwestern European economies 1. and the rest of the Member States is reflected in all of These findings have several policy implications both the 10 pillars of the NRI, from the market and regulatory conditions that support high levels of ITC uptake to for EU Member States and for the European Commission’s levels of usage by all stakeholders and the economic effort to build a common Digital Agenda that stimulates a and social impacts accruing from ICTs. virtuous circle of investment in ICT infrastructure, higher uptake levels, and stronger impacts for all. Arguably the Overall, most countries depict fairly well developed 2. main implication is that digital strategies should focus not ICT infrastructures. Although some countries should only on developing ICT infrastructure but also on creating continue strengthening these infrastructures, they may the right conditions for an effective use of ICTs to boost not be the main source of the digital divide in Europe. innovation, competitiveness, and greater social inclusion. In 3. The cost of accessing ICTs is similar in all EU Member order to do all that, public policies and company strategies States and thus should not be regarded as a primary are needed to improve the digital literacy of the population; source of different levels of ICT uptake. to boost the overall skills capacity of the workforce through effective educational and training systems; and to encourage 4. The gap in ICT usage across countries is bigger for an effective integration of ICTs with other sources of businesses and narrower across governments. Overall, innovation, such as R&D investments or higher levels of governments in most EU Member States have on-the-job training. To maximize their impact, these activities recognized the importance of developing ICTs and offer a fairly large number of public services online. will need to be coordinated across stakeholders, so creating However, the differences among countries in the and strengthening public-private collaborations will be key. capacity of their businesses to develop and integrate Note ICTs in their business models are much starker. European Commission 2013. 1 5. The gap in terms of social and especially economic impacts is the widest of the four subindexes, illustrating the new nature of the digital divide in Europe. Because the benefits of ICTs increasingly permeate all activities, the digital divide within Europe becomes starker when viewed by considering the impacts that benefit different stakeholders. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 19 © 2014 World Economic Forum

44 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 In Central and Eastern Europe, the Czech Republic good economic impacts (19th) and a large share of its repeats last year’s position at 42nd place, despite population is employed in knowledge-intensive jobs (10th). sharp improvements in rendering a fairly good ICT Benefiting from a fairly well developed ICT infrastructure (23rd) more affordable (84th), which has infrastructure (19th) and a pro-business and innovation resulted in a slightly higher ICT uptake by individuals Ireland moves up one position to environment (16th), (30th). However, this improvement is set off by a slight 26th place. Since the early days of the Internet revolution, deterioration in the political and regulatory environment Ireland has identified ICTs as one of the key industries (51st) that does not allow for better ICT-related economic that could help diversify its economy and has attracted (38th) or social impacts (47th). Overall, the country many global ICT companies thanks to its favorable continues to depict strong ICT uptake by individuals, environment for business. As a result, the island boasts reflected by the fact that a large share of its population good levels of digital connectivity that, coupled with a uses the Internet (28th) and e-commerce is well skilful labor force, has resulted in good economic impacts developed (9th). However, the government continues to (18th) derived from technology-related innovations. On a lag behind in supporting and promoting the use of ICTs less positive note, the government seems to lag behind in in their activities (96th), and weaknesses in the innovation embracing ICTs in their offerings of online services (55th), and entrepreneurial systems (60th) hinder the country’s which affects the country’s capacity to fully leverage ICTs capacity to fully leverage ICTs for improving innovation, to increase their social impacts (55th). competitiveness, and well-being. at 33rd and 34th position and Spain, Portugal Other countries in Central Europe—such as Hungary respectively, present fairly stable profiles. As in past and at 48th and 55th place respectively—have Poland, editions, both countries have managed to develop good lost some ground in the rankings because of the relatively ICT infrastructures (36th and 32nd, respectively) and Slovak faster progress of other countries, while the ICT uptake has permeated among their populations, Republic improves its position by two places to reach particularly in Spain where almost three-quarters are 72nd 59th position. In addition, Bulgaria and Romania, Internet users (34th). In addition, both governments have and 76th respectively, drop one position each, depicting made significant attempts to increase the number of relatively stable profiles. services they offer online. Despite these efforts, both Despite a slight improvement in many indicators countries continue to struggle to fully leverage ICTs related to ICT infrastructure (42nd) and uptake (37th), to boost innovation (42nd and 57th, respectively), and which gives rise to a stable score, suffers from a Italy weaknesses in their innovation ecosystems persist, significant drop of eight places in the rankings to reach notably in Spain (51st). Addressing these weaknesses and 58th place: other countries progress faster in building integrating ICT investments better with other innovation- and fully utilizing their digital ecosystems. Persistent enhancing investments, such as R&D, would result in weaknesses in Italy’s political and regulatory environment more robust economic outputs, which are needed for the (99th), coupled with some significant challenges in its economic transformation of these countries. innovation system, hinder the country’s capacity to fully Slovenia, In Southeastern Europe, once again leverage ICTs to boost innovation, competitiveness, and despite its current economic difficulties, continues to well-being. lead the rankings, moving up one position to reach suffers from a Greece As in the case of Italy, 36th place. The country boasts a fairly robust ICT notable drop of 10 ranks despite a slight improvement infrastructure (24th), along with good ICT uptake by in its overall score, coming in at 74th place this year. individuals (34th) and government in its offering of Continued improvements in its ICT infrastructure (40th) online services (35th). Despite these positive features, and the uptake of its citizens (43rd), as well as a rising Slovenia does not manage to completely leverage the number of broadband Internet subscriptions (27th) full economic potential of ICTs for boosting innovation, and Internet users (53rd), are not reflected in better, where it continues to lag behind other EU countries. innovation-led economic (91st) or social (87th) impacts. Weaknesses in Slovenia’s innovation system, with low Weaknesses in the country’s political and regulatory levels of venture capital (127th), a limited capacity to environment (114th) coupled with a low capacity to innovate (54th), and low levels of on-the-job training innovate (117th) and scarce access to venture capital (105th) result in low levels of innovation, in terms of both (146th) affect the country’s capacity to introduce new new products and services (69th) and organizational services and products (129th) or organizational models models (68th), which hinder the productivity-enhancing (128th) that could help to transform its national economy Croatia potential of the economy. Within the region, and lead it toward more productive activities. Bosnia and Herzegovina follows at 47th place, with Within the Commonwealth of Independent States, (79th) lagging behind because of Serbia (68th) and several countries improve their performances, reflecting insufficient development of their ICT infrastructures, the key importance and hopes they have placed on ICTs weak ICT uptake, and weaknesses in their innovation to diversify their economies and lead them toward more systems that hinder their potential to fully enjoy the knowledge-intensive activities. benefits that can accrue from ICT. | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 20 © 2014 World Economic Forum

45 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Box 3: Challenges faced by BRICS economies to fully leverage ICTs Since the beginning of the worst financial and economic crisis of the past 80 years, the global economy has Figure A: The NRI in BRICS economies, 2012 and 2014 experienced a change in its traditional growth patterns. Advanced economies exhibited negative or sluggish 1. Political and growth, while emerging markets, and notably the BRICS regulatory environment economies—Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, 7 2. Business and innovation 10. Social and South Africa—continued to show robust growth. 6 environment impacts Several different reasons may explain these growth patterns 5 for emerging markets; among them are the development 4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure of stronger domestic markets, an increase in the price of 3 impacts and digital commodities, and access to more and better financing 2 content thanks to higher capital in-flows. 1 Notwithstanding this progress of the BRICS, we have 8. Government recently observed that many of these emerging economies 4. Affordability usage are experiencing difficulties in maintaining the rapid economic growth of these past years. Many of the favorable conditions fueling that growth have begun to fade away; this can 7. Business 5. Skills have consequences not only for these particular countries, usage 6. Individual usage but—given their size and increasing importance in an interconnected world—also for the global economy. In order to support sustained and stable growth in the BRICS 2012 long term, emerging markets must increase their levels of BRICS 2014 productivity, which they can do in two ways: by introducing the necessary reforms that will improve the functioning Source: Authors’ calculations. of their markets and boost their innovation potential, and by better leveraging their digital ecosystems. In terms of the latter, an analysis of the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) results for the past years shows that, in general, little progress has been achieved. Table A: The NRI in BRICS economies, 2012 and 2014 RUSSIAN FEDERATION INDIA CHINA SOUTH AFRICA BRAZIL 2014 2012 2014 2012 2014 2012 2014 2012 2014 2012 Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Value Networked Readiness Index 65 3.9 69 4.0 56 4.0 50 4.3 69 3.9 83 3.8 51 4.1 62 4.1 72 3.9 70 4.0 64 Environment subindex 3.4 100 3.5 87 3.8 78 3.7 91 3.8 116 3.9 77 3.9 34 4.6 31 4.8 101 3.5 1. Political and 77 3.6 78 3.6 102 3.2 100 3.4 71 3.7 73 3.6 46 4.1 56 4.0 23 4.9 20 5.0 regulatory environment 2. Business and 121 3.5 135 3.3 83 3.8 73 4.2 91 4.5 103 3.9 105 3.7 115 3.8 50 4.4 53 3.8 innovation environment 85 Readiness subindex 4.7 76 4.7 32 5.4 37 5.5 64 4.8 72 4.6 66 4.8 73 4.8 94 4.1 98 4.2 3. Infrastructure and 47 4.8 68 68 4.0 56 4.5 40 4.2 4.8 100 3.2 119 2.7 87 3.5 86 3.5 82 3.6 digital content 4. Affordability 5.3 91 5.0 17 6.2 14 6.4 1 6.9 67 7.0 42 5.7 60 5.6 94 4.6 112 4.0 1 5. Skills 86 4.7 91 4.6 53 5.2 64 5.1 100 4.3 101 4.0 57 5.2 59 5.2 101 4.3 97 4.3 91 Usage subindex 47 4.1 60 3.7 53 4.1 78 3.4 3.8 3.4 51 3.8 61 3.9 76 3.4 70 3.7 54 3.4 66 3.3 59 4.2 52 3.9 46 4.6 117 2.0 121 2.1 82 2.9 80 3.3 96 2.6 78 6. Individual usage 47 7. Business usage 33 4.0 41 3.9 83 3.4 84 3.4 4.2 3.8 51 3.8 37 4.0 44 3.9 34 4.0 30 4.5 8. Government usage 54 4.3 71 3.7 61 4.1 46 4.3 41 4.0 33 4.6 38 4.6 89 3.6 103 3.6 59 3.7 53 3.7 57 3.6 73 3.4 44 3.9 52 3.3 60 3.6 41 4.0 56 3.7 81 3.3 89 Impact subindex 3.6 9. Economic impacts 3.5 64 3.3 53 3.4 41 3.6 41 52 50 3.5 79 3.2 81 3.1 59 3.4 49 3.5 3.0 10. Social impacts 54 3.9 58 3.9 89 3.4 41 4.3 65 3.8 73 3.7 30 4.8 44 4.2 98 3.3 113 (Cont’d) 21 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

46 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 (cont’d.) Box 3: Challenges faced by BRICS economies to fully leverage ICTs Figure A compares the NRI scores by pillar for the and social impacts, where only the Russian Federation manages to improve in both score and rank. BRICS economies in the 2012 and 2014 editions. Overall, the Reversing this situation will require the adoption of results have remained stable in virtually all pillars, and notably holistic strategies that support better development of ICT so for the economic and social impacts accruing from ICTs. infrastructure and higher uptake of ICTs throughout these The only exception has been a slight improvement in the countries, including in rural areas. Although the vast expanse individual usage score, which reflects the significant effort made to facilitate a broader access to ICTs for a wider share of these nations may represent a challenge, they should of the population. continue to invest in strengthening their ICT infrastructures In comparative terms, however, this stability in the and facilitating wider access to them. In addition, and very scores represents a drop in the global rankings because importantly, the conditions needed to better leverage ICTs need other economies are progressing faster in developing and to be improved by integrating these technologies better into leveraging their ICT potential. Table A shows that since 2012— more robust innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems that can support higher economic and social returns. Strengthening with the exception of the Russian Federation, which rises six places in the rankings—all other BRICS economies have the institutional framework to support the development of ICTs, improving the quality of the educational systems and of the dropped over time, in some cases significantly, and are now scientific and technological base in the country, and supporting classified around the middle of the overall rankings. A more nuanced analysis of the different subindexes confirms that interactions between research institutions and local companies will be thus be key going forward. this drop in rankings is particularly important for economic enter the top 50 this year. Slight improvements in the Kazakhstan is one of the most prominent of this country’s ICT infrastructure, which has become more group, leading the regional rankings at 38th, five positions affordable, along with higher rates of individual uptake up from the last edition. The country has improved its (46th), have resulted in this positive outcome. Despite ICT infrastructure (58th), which remains one of the most this progress, the country continues to suffer from a affordable to access in the world (2nd)—an advantage fairly inefficient political and regulatory environment that is also reflected in stronger ICT uptake by individuals (100th) and weaknesses in its innovation system, (54th), with more than half of its population using the including a poor quality educational system (85th) that Internet or owning a computer with an Internet connection hinders its capacity to fully leverage ICTs to innovate, at home. The effort to upgrade the digital capacity of either through new products and services (113th) or new the country has been led by a strong government vision organizational models (93rd). It is also worth noting that, (27th) that recognizes the importance of promoting ICTs to although individual ICT uptake is rather good (46th), both diversify an economy that otherwise continues to be very government usage (61st) and a poor government vision reliant on the extraction of fossil fuels. Going forward, the for developing ICTs (102nd) as well as inferior business country needs to continue building and strengthening its uptake (84th) to support its innovation potential (64th) innovation system and the capacity of local companies and business activity (94th) remain in need of attention. to innovate (now 74th) to improve the economic impacts Georgia at 60th place and Within the region, accruing from an increasing uptake of ICTs. Armenia —which has one of the sharpest especially With a similar profile, Azerbaijan follows Kazakhstan improvements and reaches 62nd place this year— closely in the rankings as it positions itself at 49th place, continue on their positive path toward higher positions seven places up since the last edition. Improvements in in the rankings. In contrast, Ukraine, in the middle of a the country’s ICT infrastructure (55th), giving rise to much difficult political and social context, drops to 80th place, higher ICT uptake—especially by individuals (61st)—have Kyrgyz Republic while the repeats its 118th position of yielded this positive result. Despite this advance, the the past edition. country continues to lag behind in terms of fostering technological innovation, exhibiting low levels of overall ASIA AND THE PACIFIC and ICT-related patents (75th). To some extent this lag With three economies from the region in the top 10 reflects the severe impediments existing in an incipient of the NRI rankings and several countries showing innovation system (77th) and the insufficient quality of improvement, Asia and the Pacific is very dynamic and its educational system (114th). Addressing these long- active in developing its ICT agenda. Yet a significant term challenges over the coming years will be crucial digital divide persists between the most advanced for Azerbaijan to diversify its economy and make it less economies—such as the Asian Tigers and Japan—and dependent on oil revenues while transitioning toward a emerging economies and other trailing countries. knowledge-based society. Regardless of their position on the development Similar to other countries in the region, and in ladder, all Asian economies have much to gain from sharp contrast to other BRICS economies (see Box 3) increased networked readiness. It will allow populations Russian Federation the moves up four positions to 22 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

47 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 (20th) shows a stable New Zealand Neighboring of the least advanced among them to gain access to performance in the rankings with a slight advancement much-needed basic services, to improve government in score. The country’s regulatory and business transparency and efficiency, and—for the most environment remains its strongest competitive advantage advanced—it will contribute to boosting their innovation (2nd overall in the environment subindex, just behind capacity and allow them to attain higher levels of Singapore). New Zealand ranks 1st for the independence competitiveness. of its judicial system and 1st in both the number of days Taiwan, China, slips to 14th place in this edition and the number of procedures to start a business. The despite a stable performance in terms of score. This excellent skill base of its population (6th) also contributes relative drop in the rankings is primarily the result of to the country’s ability to properly use and leverage a improvements in other countries. Taiwan remains at fairly good ICT infrastructure, although it remains rather the frontier both as a high-tech manufacturer and as pricy (127th), constituting New Zealand’s main weakness. a technology-driven economy, with strong usage of is also stable (30th) and confirms its Malaysia ICTs among all society’s stakeholders. In addition, the leadership as the highest ranked economy in Developing economy manages to improve its already developed Asia. Malaysia maintains relatively competitive infrastructure (5th) by, for example, expanding its regulatory (25th) and business (24th) environments, international Internet bandwidth by a significant amount and its government continues to use ICTs extensively and by making access to ICTs more affordable (53rd). (9th), highlighting the high priority of this sector in the Consequently, the economy scores strong social (6th) government’s agenda. Business usage (27th) is also and economic impacts (12th), although these could be strong, as firms invest to adopt new technologies and increased further by addressing some weaknesses in its make the effort to become increasingly innovative. The political and regulatory environment (34th). This remains combination of a favorable environment and an overall Taiwan’s main area for improvement, especially with its high level of ICT usage results in high positive economic lengthy procedures to enforce contracts (131st). (30th) and social (25th) impacts. However, individual moves up five positions to attain 16th place Japan usage (49th), although improving in many dimensions, this year. Although a link between this improvement and has yet to expand so that ICTs become a widespread its current economic outlook cannot be established, technology in Malaysian households. This will certainly renewed business confidence in the political environment increase as the economy develops, but further may have contributed to this progress. In addition, investment in infrastructure and digital content (71st) are Japan has achieved marginal improvements in its ICT needed to ease access and foster even higher economic infrastructure, which has become more affordable, and social impacts. and maintains its competitive advantage in the high falls four places in the rankings this year and China innovation capacity of local firms (4th). Technology and occupies the 62nd position overall, despite an increase innovation continue to play a key role in making Japan in its overall score. The country is slowly improving its one of the most productive economies worldwide; innovation potential but still lags behind in leveraging these have managed to extend to society, as social the full potential of ICTs. For example, despite an impacts have continued to improve (23rd). Yet further increase in patent applications, the overall level remains improvements in social and economic impacts could be relatively low (32nd) with just 11.5 applications per achieved by incentivizing a more dynamic environment million population. Individual usage is also growing, that could, for example, foster innovation through which explains most of the progress in China’s score. new organizational models (37th). A more conducive However, only just over 40 percent of individuals use the institutional framework, especially the general business Internet on a regular basis and there are only 13 fixed and innovation environment (40th), could contribute to broadband Internet subscriptions for every 100 people delivering better results and boost competitiveness. (51st). Mobile broadband Internet has registered more Australia occupies the 18th rank and is stable since substantial growth, but its penetration is still low, with 17 last year, despite an improved score. The country registers subscriptions per 100 population (76th). Consequently, a sharp improvement in the affordability of ICTs (49th) and individual usage in China still ranks low (80th), trailing in some notable aspects of individual usage, such as the behind the level of ICTs used by other stakeholders: penetration of broadband subscriptions. According to business (44th) and government (38th). Certainly the vast ITU, the increase in smartphone usage is leading to more size of the country and its proportion of rural population handset data download because owners of smartphones does not allow for rapid improvement in ICT usage are more likely to purchase goods, access video and 10 and infrastructure build up, yet China needs to fill the audio content, pay bills, and use other online services. gap to meet its ICT potential. Some of the constraints This increased usage is partially reflected in some aspects to better leverage ICTs that have been faced by the of their economic impacts through the creation of new country in the past are not improving. The institutional services, new products, and new organizational models. framework does not lead to higher ICT uptake (56th), Compared with individuals, businesses and government and the business environment (115th) witnesses a relative are less dynamic in taking up ICTs. 23 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

48 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 with a secondary education enrollment rate of 81 worsening because of excessive bureaucracy and red percent. Yet readiness can be further enhanced by tape, high taxes (135th), and delayed availability of new continuing investing in education and especially in ICT technologies (107th), at least at the national, aggregate infrastructure, where the capacity of secure Internet level. In terms of readiness, China is making an effort to servers (105th) and electricity production (104th) remain improve its infrastructure, with augmented production insufficient to sustain future ICT development. Usage, of electricity and higher international Internet bandwidth also on a positive trend, has stayed more stable. capacity and server security. Yet performance in these Across stakeholders, businesses (36th) lead, with dimensions is still relatively low because improvements companies quickly absorbing the latest technologies hardly keep up with the country’s rapid development. and increasingly integrating ICTs in their daily activities. Moreover, progress on the construction of hard ICT Businesses are followed by the government (49th), infrastructure is counterbalanced by a diminished while households continue to lag behind (95th). The accessibility of digital content (67th). And although the penetration of mobile phones passed 100 subscriptions skill base of the workforce is growing (for instance, per population a few years ago, mobile broadband participation in secondary education is growing to subscriptions are rapidly evolving, and social networks reach 86.6 percent of its population), it is not growing are popular. However, the low usage of the Internet as quickly as in other competing economies, and the (112th) and the scarce availability of personal computers country attains a relatively low 59th position on the skills (103rd) and home Internet connections (117th) still pillar. Furthermore, the affordability of ICTs has dropped reflect gaps in the fulfilment of Indonesia’s ICT agenda. to 60th place, representing the main area of decline. All Consequently, economic and social impacts (86th and these limitations combine to realize only low economic 63rd, respectively) are increasing but still low compared impacts (81st), allowing a limited impact of ICTs on new to the tremendous improvements registered in the few services and products and a low share of the workforce years. It is hoped that the benefits of ICTs are building up employed in knowledge-intensive activities. Further and will be secured in the near future. and sustained efforts should be made to unleash the similar to most other ASEAN members, Thailand, innovative potential of ICTs, both through investment in improves its performance this year, reaching 67th place capacity building and infrastructure and through a more in the rankings. Despite the wide gap vis-à-vis Singapore open and creative environment that could foster new and, to a lesser extent, Malaysia, Thailand exhibits ideas and business models. progress in all the subindexes. Its main strengths lie in climbs Indonesia Since the last assessment, its relative affordability of ICTs (47th) and its business 12 places to attain 64th position, the third best result and innovation environment (45th). However, in both among members of the Association of Southeast Asian 11 these pillars Thailand alternates good results with areas Nations (ASEAN) after Singapore and Malaysia. This for improvement. For example, in terms of affordability, result is achieved thanks to balanced improvements the accessible mobile phone tariffs (30th) are across the board rather than to a sharp increase in one counterbalanced by less competitive broadband Internet particular area, although more significant progress takes prices (86th). Similarly, the business and innovation place in the environment subindex. Both the political environment includes a high level of local competition and regulatory environment (68th) and the business (41st) as well as low government procurement of environment (62nd) are improving. The former is driven advanced technology (105th). Business usage is another by stronger perceptions about the effectiveness of the area of relative strength (59th), thanks to the widespread country’s institutions, with enhanced intellectual property use of ICTs for consumer transactions (50th) and also protection (55th), a more efficient legal system (49th), to active technology absorption (50th). Individual usage and better-developed ICT regulations (46th). The latter of ICTs still lags behind (85th), yet it shows significant is driven by stronger local competition (66th, up several improvement with a good penetration of mobile positions since last year) and the greater availability phones (38th) and usage of virtual social networks of the latest technologies (60th), while venture capital (49th), comparable to those of advanced economies. availability remains high (17th) and slightly improving as Yet, aside from mobile telephony, other technologies well. However, further advancements can be achieved remain relatively scant, especially the breadth of in this area, as excessive red tape continues to limit the mobile broadband technologies (132nd). Moreover, the creation of new businesses. Indonesia’s readiness also institutional environment does not seem to be particularly improves. While affordability remains one of its main conducive (79th) and the government does not appear strengths (37th), progress in skills and infrastructure to be particularly eager to push the digital agenda add to the country’s fairly solid performance. After nationwide (84th). The resulting economic impact is having achieved full mobile network coverage last year, therefore not yet satisfactory (104th), with few ICT PCT its international Internet bandwidth capacity improves applications, few organizational models, and a low share significantly to reach 77th place. In terms of skills, the of the workforce in knowledge-intensive activities. quality of its educational system is improving as well as its population’s participation in higher education, 24 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

49 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 of ICT tariffs (1st) and its businesses’ capacity to adopt Sri Lanka, another ASEAN economy, drops new technology (48th). The government continues to seven places to take the 76th position in the rankings, emphasize ICTs as a promising tool to address some of but its score continues on a positive upward trend. the country’s priorities such as job creation, corruption, The environment subindex, both in its political and red tape, and education. However, this vision has yet regulatory component and in its business and innovation to translate into a structural transformation of India’s component, loses some ground, yet this is compensated economy and society. for by stronger usage, especially among business (50th) Improving its position both within the ASEAN group and government (43rd) stakeholders. Individual usage is climbs eight places to Philippines and overall, the also improving, but because it is starting from a very low reach the 78th position. With a significant improvement base (112th) it still needs to fill important gaps across the in its overall score, the country continues its positive board, while the country’s infrastructure (104th) demands trend. The scores of all the 10 networked readiness sustained investments to support the ICT sector pillars register an increase. A significant improvement adequately. in the perceived efficiency in the country’s legal system India is the least performing of the BRICS and property rights protection drive the political and economies and is continuing on its declining trajectory regulatory environment up to 87th place. ICT readiness to arrive at 83rd place in this edition. The drop in is the other area where the Philippines improves the rankings can be traced back mainly to difficulties in most, thanks to a more affordable (75th) access to ICT improving historical limitations and keeping up with other infrastructure and better skills (69th), despite the need emerging economies in several dimensions. Overall, for higher quality in the educational system. Business India’s networked readiness profile remains hindered usage is, as in many other Asian economies, at a more by the quality of its political, regulatory, and business advanced stage (43rd) than individual usage (91st). environment (91st) and its lack of digital infrastructure Progress made in terms of economic impacts registered (119th), which is reflected in low individual usage (121st) last year continues this year, moving up eight positions and wide gaps in education participation that limit and reaching 48th place. The role of ICTs in fostering the creation of a wide skill base (101st). Red tape and innovation by creating new products and services (42nd) corporate tax continue to create a difficult environment and organizational models (28th) is confirmed and for businesses to operate, with almost no improvements contributes to this promising result. since the last assessment. On this dimension— is overtaken Vietnam With a stable performance, despite the positive availability of venture capital (27th), by the Philippines in the ASEAN group but remains competitive local markets (24th), the availability of the 84th overall and marginally improves its score. The latest technologies (58th), and improving perceptions affordability pillar is corroborated as the main strength of judicial independence (40th)—bureaucracy and of Vietnam’s performance (8th), jumping 30 positions administrative costs are extremely burdensome. For since the last assessment. The business and innovation example, enforcing contracts remains a long process, environment is the other main area where Vietnam both in terms of number of procedures (134th) and time progresses significantly, albeit from a low base (100th (146th). In terms of readiness, the development of the this year). The other many shortcomings endure: the country’s infrastructure proceeds slowly: for example, poor overall quality of the political and regulatory electricity production expands, but remains insufficient environment (91st) and ICT infrastructure (121st) limit the overall (101st); the number of secure Internet servers also expansion of the ICT sector, while available skills (88th) increases but remains low (108th). However, the most show no signs of development. The usage of ICTs by worrisome signals of insufficient progress on the digital individuals (84th), businesses (88th), and government agenda come from the lack of skills buildup, with dismal (58th) remain stable, with little progress registered since progress made in secondary education participation the last assessment. Such a lack of dynamism not (68.5 percent, ranking 105th) and literacy rate (127th). only is detrimental to the development of ICTs, but also The inadequate diffusion of basic skills required seriously undermines the country’s competitiveness in a knowledge society is certainly a drag on ICT going forward. development and hinders leveraging the yet-untapped The eight ASEAN members covered by the NRI innovation potential of large, young Indian human in the last edition improve their overall scores and a resources. The low level of ICT usage by households and majority make progress in the rankings as well, although individuals reflects the strong human, infrastructure, and some continue to be located toward the lower end: digital divides that characterize India. The penetration (108th), the newly covered (109th), Lao PDR Cambodia of mobile phones is low (69.9 percent) and not growing, and Myanmar (146th) close the regional rankings. while the numbers of Internet users (12.6 percent), assessed for the first time this Bhutan, Finally, households with a personal computer (10.9 percent), year, ranks 94th; Pakistan is ranked 105th, down three and mobile broadband subscriptions (5 percent) are is 114th, losing one position; and places; Bangladesh disappointing (all ranking below the 102nd position). Nepal is 126th. The main strength of India lies in its very affordable set The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 25 © 2014 World Economic Forum

50 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 (63rd)—notably in the effectiveness of law-making LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN bodies (140th) and the number of days to enforce a Improving the connectivity of the region continues to contract (123rd), as well as the conditions needed to represent one of its main challenges despite the recent boost innovation and entrepreneurship (70th)—affect efforts of many countries to develop and update their the country’s capacity to leverage its ICT potential to ICT infrastructures. Countries such as Chile, Panama, foster innovation and ensure the transition toward a Uruguay, and Colombia have made significant progress knowledge-based economy (65th). in developing and ensuring more and better access to suffers a significant drop in the rankings, Barbados ICT infrastructure, ensuring higher ICT usage across falling 16 positions to arrive at 55th place. This decline stakeholders. However, persistent weaknesses in is driven by sharp increases in the price of accessing its the broader innovation system hinder the overall ICT infrastructure and a drop in the economic impacts capacity of the region to fully leverage ICTs to foster its derived from ICT usage (57th). Overall, the Caribbean competitiveness potential, highlighting the rise of the island continues to boast an excellent educational new digital divide—that is, the divide between countries system (6th) that, coupled with a relatively favorable that are achieving positive economic and social impacts environment for business (38th), could result in higher related to the use of ICTs and those that are not. economic impacts than those yet achieved. However, Despite a slight increase in its overall score, Chile weaknesses in its innovation system, where companies drops one notch to 35th place while still leading the report low levels of capacity to innovate (81st) and regional rankings. As mentioned above, the country difficulties in accessing venture capital financing relentlessly continues to develop its ICT infrastructure (98th), along with long and cumbersome procedures and ensure higher ICT usage across stakeholders, to start a business (94th), continue to hamper its with one of the highest rates of Internet users (45th), innovation potential and thwart its ability to leverage e-commerce (35th), and online government (24th) the digital ecosystem. Going forward, addressing services in the region. Despite this important progress, these weaknesses while continuing to improve its weaknesses in its innovation system, which are reflected ICT infrastructure and uptake would result in greater in the relatively low capacity of Chilean companies to economic and social impacts. innovate (63rd) and concerns about the quality of its Despite the improvement in score that reflects the educational system (74th), especially math and science has made to boost its ICT infrastructure Uruguay effort education (107th), continue to hinder Chile’s capacity and uptake over the past years, because other countries to fully leverage ICTs to support innovation and the are progressing more quickly the country drops four transition to a knowledge-based economy. places to land at 56th place. As in past years, Uruguay Panama continues its ascent in the rankings, continues to improve its ICT infrastructure (50th), which moving up three spots to 43rd place. The country has has become more affordable (80th), resulting in higher recognized the importance of ICTs as one of the key levels of uptake by individuals (48th). Notwithstanding sources of economic growth for the future both as an this progress, the country continues to suffer from industry and as an enabler for innovation, notably in weaknesses in its overall innovation system: of concern the service sector. This governmental vision (22nd) is is the quality of its educational system (120th) and its reflected in higher rates of ICT uptake by businesses capacity to provide the necessary skills for a changing (39th) and individuals (68th), even if the reported figures economy, as well as its low capacity to innovate (88th). do not reflect the government’s efforts to provide This situation results in modest economic impacts (61st) free universal Internet access. Notwithstanding this in terms of fostering innovation and ensuring a faster progress, the country still suffers from weaknesses in transition toward a knowledge-based economy (66th). its educational system (75th), notably in important areas Colombia moves up three positions to reach 63rd for innovation such as math and science (114th), and in place this year. Improvements in its ICT infrastructure, its political and regulatory environment (62nd). Panama’s which has become relatively more affordable (44th), overall capacity to innovate is also still low (50th). These and in individual uptake (77th)—with a larger number of weaknesses hinder its ability to fully leverage its digital Internet users (66th) and households with a personal potential to foster higher levels of competitiveness. computer (74th) and an Internet connection (75th)— Stable at 53rd place, Costa Rica exhibits some have allowed for this positive result. Notwithstanding progress in ensuring higher ICT uptake, with an this progress, the country continues to suffer from important increase in the number of households with poor framework conditions for entrepreneurship access to an Internet connection (59th) and a higher and innovation (104th) and from weaknesses in its proportion of its population with mobile broadband educational sector, notably in the quality of math and subscriptions (70th), thanks to efforts to guarantee science education (108th), resulting in a poor capacity affordable (15th) access to the ICT infrastructure. to innovate (83rd) and a small share of its population Notwithstanding these strengths, overall individual (64th) engaged in knowledge-intensive jobs (89th). and government (64th) usage remain a bit low, and some weaknesses in the political and regulatory environment 26 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

51 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 for innovation (93rd), along with a weak political and Despite a slight increase in NRI score thanks to regulatory environment (119th) and an excessive number improvements in its ICT infrastructure (56th), Brazil of days to open new businesses (103rd), result in a drops nine positions to arrive at 69th place because poor innovation capacity (106th) and an economy that other economies have been faster to embrace the digital is not able to offer many knowledge-intensive jobs revolution. Overall, the country exhibits relatively high (94th). Improving the development of ICT infrastructure levels of ICT usage, with about half of its population and access to it, coupled with better conditions and using the Internet, a well-developed e-commerce interaction with other innovation-related investments— industry (30th), and a government committed to offering such as education, training, and R&D—would help to a significant number of its services online (32nd), improve the situation going forward. resulting in fairly good citizen e-participation (31st). drops one position to reach 100th place. Argentina However, a poor business and innovation environment In general, the country boasts few changes since last (135th), coupled with weaknesses in its educational year. Although the development of an expensive (121st) system (121st)—notably in the area of math and science ICT infrastructure (78th) and uptake by individuals (57th) (136th)—hampers the full attainment of the economic present values above the Latin American average, the impacts that ICTs can provide (64th). Only a small severe weaknesses in its business environment (135th) proportion of its population is engaged in knowledge- and concerns about the quality of its educational intensive jobs (75th). system (104th) and its ability to provide the workforce After a couple of years of important improvements with the necessary skills for the economy result in this in the rankings, Mexico does not consolidate past disappointing position. gains and falls 16 positions to reach 79th place. Paraguay Finally, Venezuela (106th), (102nd), Despite some progress in expanding and upgrading Nicaragua (120 th), Bolivia (117t h ), Honduras (124th), its ICT infrastructure (81st) and uptake by individuals and Haiti (143rd) close the regional rankings. These (89th), this is insufficient to catch up with advances in countries all suffer from both important weaknesses in other economies, and thus Mexico does not manage the development of their ICT infrastructures and a lack of to digitally converge with more-advanced economies. the innovation and entrepreneurial conditions that could The cost of accessing its existing ICT infrastructure help them fully leverage them. remains high (93rd) and the quality of its educational system (119th) continues to pose a severe challenge SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA to providing the country with the skills necessary Sub-Saharan Africa slowly continues to develop its ICT required for a changing and more digital economy. All infrastructure, especially by expanding the share of the this results in low ICT usage levels by both individuals population covered by, and having access to, mobile and businesses, in spite of the government’s significant telephony and by expanding the number of Internet efforts to offer many of its services online (28th), thereby users, which in some countries—such as South Africa— enabling good rates of citizen e-participation (25th). In has almost doubled. These improvements have led addition, its innovation ecosystem needs strengthening to many important innovations that provide more and and, in general, Mexican companies have a low capacity better services that were previously unavailable, such to innovate (75th), resulting in low economic impacts as financial services. Notwithstanding this progress, (80th) and a population that concentrates largely on the region overall continues to suffer from a relatively low-productivity activities and few jobs considered to be poor ICT infrastructure, which remains costly to knowledge intensive (97th). A full implementation of the access, although some notable exceptions exist. More country’s digital agenda and addressing the persistent importantly, severe weaknesses persist in the region’s weaknesses in the innovation system should help in business and innovation ecosystems, which result in very resolving several of these persistent challenges. low positive economic and social impacts. Addressing jumps 13 places to attain 90th position, Peru these weaknesses, not only by developing a more solid thanks to some improvement in its ICT infrastructure— ICT infrastructure but also by improving the framework for example, greater access to international Internet conditions for innovation and entrepreneurship, will be bandwidth and higher individual uptake. Despite this crucial to avoid the emergence of a new digital divide progress, the country continues to lag significantly that will be evident in a disparity of the economic and behind in terms of its capacity to fully leverage ICTs to social impacts associated with what has been called the build its competitiveness and modernize its economy, digital revolution. which continues to rely heavily on mining. Overall, recovers the ground lost last year and Mauritius weaknesses in its educational sector (134th), which does moves up seven positions to attain 48th place. Gains not seem to provide the right set of skills, coupled with across the board—most notably in terms of a better ICT relatively low deployment of its ICT infrastructure (95th), infrastructure and skills base, along with a higher level result in low levels of ICT uptake by both individuals of individual usage—have led this improvement. Overall, (94th) and businesses (89th). In addition, weaknesses the government’s vision (31st) to develop ICTs as a key in enabling conditions for leveraging digital capacity The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 27 © 2014 World Economic Forum

52 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 it. The situation is similar in West Africa, where many sector to support the economic development of the countries—such as Senegal (113 t h ), Gabon (128th), and island, coupled with a positive political and regulatory (131st)—remain at the bottom of the rankings Cameroon environment, have resulted in improvements in an as a consequence of both the insufficient development affordable (11th) ICT infrastructure and higher levels of of their ICT infrastructures despite important progress ICT users, even if less than half of its population uses the made in their mobile telephony uptake, and weaknesses Internet or has a computer with an Internet connection at in their innovation systems that result in a low capacity to home. Improving the economic impacts (70th) accruing boost their overall competitiveness. Efforts to close the from a higher use of ICTs will require resolving some digital divide in these countries should focus not only on important weaknesses in the innovation system, such developing their ICT infrastructures but also on improving as the capacity of local companies to innovate (72nd), the framework conditions for innovation in order to avoid which is still considered low. the perpetuation of the gap in economic and social Despite some important improvements in the impacts that constitute the new digital divide. penetration of ICTs among individuals, which is reflected South Africa remains stable at in a higher NRI score, THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA 70th place. In the past year, an expensive (112th) ICT As in previous years, the region depicts a highly infrastructure (68th) has exhibited little progress. In using diversified outlook in terms of the capacity of countries ICTs, the business community (30th) seems to have to leverage ICTs to boost competitiveness and well- taken the lead, using ICTs vigorously in interactions with being. On the one hand, Israel and several Gulf other businesses (30th); this business-to-business use Cooperation Council states have continued their efforts seems much more developed than interactions with to improve ICT uptake and integrate ICTs better in consumers (62nd). On the other hand, the government more robust innovation ecosystems in order to obtain (103rd) lags substantially behind in embracing ICTs, 12 higher returns. offering few online services (80th), which in turn results in On the other hand, many countries low social impacts (113th). Weaknesses in the innovation in North Africa continue to lag behind and suffer from system, notably in terms of skills development (97th), also important weaknesses in their framework conditions and affect the country’s economic potential (49th) despite its overall innovation capacity that prevent them from fully fairly robust political and regulatory environment. leveraging ICTs and obtaining higher returns. Rwanda moves In the bottom half of the rankings, Israel repeats its position at 15th place, leading up three positions to reach 85th place, regaining some the regional rankings with a stable profile. The country of the ground lost last year. Overall, the country depicts continues to boast a fairly good ICT infrastructure (29th) a profile similar to that of previous years. It makes little that remains affordable (35th) and results in very high progress in improving its very expensive (128th) ICT levels of ICT usage (14th) across all agents. Around infrastructure (108th), which results in a low uptake three-quarters of the country’s households count on a by its population (138th) despite the clear vision of personal computer (21st) and Internet connection (29th) the government (5th) to promote ICTs in the country. at home and are Internet users (31st), and more than Weaknesses in its innovation system and the low half of its population has access to mobile broadband share of its population that graduates from secondary (26th). The government has also made a significant education (139th) also affect its capacity to fully effort to offer its services online (15th), and e-commerce leverage ICTs to boost innovation (93rd) or increase its (23rd) is fairly well developed. In addition, the country population’s online participation (112th). benefits from a rather skilful labor force (39th), despite Despite some very significant efforts to boost its some concerns about the quality of education (56th), ICT infrastructure and ICT uptake by its population, that—coupled with favorable conditions for innovation Kenya remains stable at 92nd place. As in the case and entrepreneurship (14th) and a high capacity of Rwanda, despite a strong government vision (26th) of companies to innovate (4th)—result in very high to develop ICTs, the actual uptake by its population technological capacity, as evidenced by the high number (113rd) continues to remain very low, albeit increasing: of overall patents (5th), notably in ICT-related fields (4th). only around 10 percent of households have a computer Qatar remains stable at 23rd place and leads (113th) or an Internet connection (103rd). Weaknesses in the rankings in the Arab world. In the past year, the the innovation and entrepreneurial environment (110th) country has continued to improve and upgrade its and a fairly low skills base (98th) also affect the capacity ICT infrastructure (31st) and uptake (18th), thanks of the country to fully achieve the potential benefits to a decisive effort led by the government’s strong accruing from ICTs. vision (3rd) that has identified ICTs as one of the key In East Africa, Zambia Uganda (110th) and industries that will diversify the local economy and Tanz ania (115th), swapping places from last year, and boost the productivity of all sectors. Qatar is among (125th) continue to lag behind in developing their ICT the top 10 in the world in terms of Internet users (9th) infrastructures, promoting higher ICT uptake, and finally and households having access to a computer (8th) and benefiting from the economic yields associated with Internet connection (10th), which has become almost 28 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

53 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 and business uptake (34th), with a limited development universal and has helped to achieve very high social of e-commerce (54th), lag a bit behind. Notwithstanding impacts (8th). Economic impacts (32nd), while improving, a fairly business friendly environment (23rd) that should could be higher. Technological innovation (46th) remains continue its efforts to cut red tape (107th), weaknesses in modest, and just a quarter of its population is employed its innovation system do not allow the economic impacts in knowledge-intensive jobs (61st). Continuing to address that ICTs could bring (37th). Going forward, strengthening some of the weaknesses in its innovation system, which its innovation system through more and more efficient is quickly evolving and strengthening, would result in a investments to foster the scientific and technological higher technological potential. capacity of the country will be important to increasing United Arab Emirates The continues to move the share of its population working at knowledge- up in the rankings, this year by one position, to reach intensive jobs ( 67th) and helping the transition from a 24th place. Improvements in its ICT infrastructure resource-based economy toward an innovation-driven (30th) and ICT uptake by individuals (29th) have led to one. greater economic impacts (27th) and thus the rise in Lebanon Jordan In the Levantine, both and the rankings. As in Qatar, the government has a strong improve their scores, but while Jordan moves up three vision (1st) to develop ICTs as one of the key industries positions to 44th place, reaffirming its leadership in the to diversify the local economy; this is reflected in the area, Lebanon drops three to 97th place. already high and rapidly increasing levels of ICT uptake In North Africa, countries—except Algeria—suffer across all stakeholders. More precisely, 85 percent of its significant drops and are positioned in the lower half of population use the Internet (14th) and have access to a the rankings, illustrating the difficulties they face if they personal computer at home (18th); government services are to fully develop their ICT potential and leverage it to are largely available online (9th) and e-commerce is at Tunisia, obtain great social and economic impacts. relatively well established (20th). Benefiting from a 87th place, leads the area, followed by Egypt, Morocco, pro-business environment, the country also obtains and Algeria at 91st, 99th, and 129th place, respectively. fairly good economic impacts (27th), even though its at 91st place, falls 11 positions despite a Egypt, technological innovation capacity remains low (49th). slight improvement in individual ICT uptake (71st), which Sustaining efforts to strengthen its innovation ecosystem has nevertheless been smaller than the improvement will be important going forward in order to boost seen by other countries that have evolved faster. Overall, the potential results of a fairly well developed digital Egypt continues to lag behind in terms of developing ecosystem. its ICT infrastructure (99th), although it remains Bahrain continues to depict Stable at 29th place, fairly affordable (16th). ICT uptake by government is a robust performance. Although ICT infrastructure, average (42nd), but penetration among citizens (71st)— especially in terms of international Internet bandwidth with less than half its population using the Internet (74th), may not be as well developed in Bahrain as in (75th)—and businesses, in their interaction with other other countries, it is less costly to access (25th) and businesses (81st) and consumers (70th), remain modest. uptake by individuals is one of the highest in the world Weaknesses in the political and regulatory environment (14th), with a very high number of Internet users (10th); (115th) and the business and innovation environment the number of households with a personal computer (117th) result in a low innovation capacity by Egyptian (3rd) is similar to that of the Nordic countries. As for companies (111th) and thus limited economic (59th) and other countries in the region, the government has a social (65th) positive outcomes. strong vision to develop the sector (14th) and offers a at 99th place, barely Morocco, Falling 10 positions, wide range of services online. Notwithstanding these ranks among the first 100 analyzed economies. As in strengths, Bahrain suffers from an overall low capacity to the case of Egypt, ICT infrastructure (93rd) has slowly innovate (82nd), which reflects persistent weaknesses in improved. This is also the case of individual ICT uptake, its innovation system. Along with some concerns about although progress in Morocco has been slower than the quality of its educational system (48th), notably in in other countries that are moving faster. Overall, the math and science (77th), these weaknesses hamper country’s economic (123rd) and social (115th) impacts the country’s capacity to obtain higher economic remain very low, partly as a consequence of the relatively impacts (63rd) and transition toward a knowledge-based low ICT uptake, partly because of the poor conditions for economy (74th). boosting innovation and entrepreneurship (88th) in the Despite some significant improvement in the country, and partly because of its low skills base (111th). uptake of ICTs by individuals and development in its In comparative terms, individuals are more advanced in Saudi Arabia falls one position to reach infrastructure, using ICTs, with more than half of its population using 32nd place. Overall the country depicts a very stable internet (57th), than both businesses, where e-business profile compared with that of previous editions. Similar to still lags behind, and the government, which notably others in the region, the government (6th) is leading the scores poorly in terms of its offerings of online services effort to digitally connect and advance the country, while (125th). individual uptake (44th), despite recent improvements, 29 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

54 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 quality Internet connections or to expand ICT uptake has After a sharp drop in the past edition, Algeria been slower, especially in the least-developed countries. manages to move up two positions to reach 129th In addition, these countries suffer from unfavorable place. With very poor general conditions for business business and innovation conditions and weaknesses in and innovation development (145th), a poorly developed their educational systems, hindering their capacity to fully ICT infrastructure (127th), and very low ICT penetration leverage the existing ICT uptake and resulting in lower across all stakeholders, it is not surprising that the innovation and competitiveness capacity. This situation is country does not achieve higher economic (133rd) and particularly worrisome in sub-Saharan African countries. social (140th) impacts. On a more positive note, some countries, notably in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Gulf CONCLUSIONS Cooperation Council, have made significant progress With the advent of the information revolution, ICTs have over the past years, channeling many of the fossil become ubiquitous and the world hyperconnected, fuel revenues toward ICT investments as a strategy to deeply transforming the economic and social diversify their economies and make them less dependent relationships across stakeholders. In this environment on volatile international energy prices. of fast-paced change, a new form of asset that can Another trend that is confirmed by the results is that be thought of as the gold or oil of previous economic large intra-regional disparities persist across all regions: revolution periods has emerged: data. Large amounts from Latin America to Asia and the ASEAN countries, of data, often referred to as are constantly big data, from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe and generated both in a structured and non-structured the EU countries. In Latin America, the regional rankings manner. Thanks to advances in ICTs, the volume and continue to be led by Chile, Panama, Costa Rica, and velocity of generation of these data are unprecedented, Uruguay—countries that portray relatively good results, as is the capacity of organizations to capture and treat albeit with some weaknesses in their overall innovation them, potentially generating great economic and social systems, in terms of increasingly developing their value. However, success in extracting this value requires digital ecosystems. On the other hand, little progress is more than just the generation of or access to big data. recorded for countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Organizations, both public and private, need to decide Bolivia, and Venezuela. Within Asia and the ASEAN how to acquire, treat, and interpret these data. This countries, the differences are also stark. Although will frequently require new management philosophies Singapore continues to be at the forefront of the global and organizational structures capable of adapting and rankings, Malaysia is the only other economy from the benefiting from the new market opportunities. At the region that manages to score within the top 30, followed same time, the potential of big data to be misused is distantly by Indonesia and Thailand just above the top also increasingly becoming a source of concern. Privacy half of the rankings; Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal issues, and sometimes concerns about geopolitical and come in toward the bottom of the rankings. In the Middle strategic matters regarding national security, have been East and North Africa, the differences have become even raised. Measures that can build resilience and avoid more pronounced. While many countries from the Gulf these perils will need to be developed. Cooperation Council, especially Qatar and the United Against this backdrop, for the past 13 years, the Arab Emirates, have continued their decisive progress Networked Readiness Index (NRI) of the GITR series has toward strengthening their digital and innovation contributed to better understanding and measuring the ecosystems, countries in North Africa continue to suffer determinants and impacts that ICTs can make, analyzing from significant challenges to promoting ICT uptake national conditions and stakeholders’ readiness to fully and from poor conditions that present obstacles to leverage the potential that ICTs unveil. An analysis of integrating ICTs and leveraging them to boost innovation the digital landscape confirms some of the key findings and competitiveness. Finally, in Europe, notably even that have been presented in previous editions. Overall, within the European Union, the differences are also the digital divide between advanced economies and significant. A deeper analysis reveals that differences emerging and developing ones persists. This is notable in terms of fostering ICT infrastructure and uptake are especially in terms of the economic and social impacts not so prominent—to a large extent, this is thanks to the that ICTs can provide and that characterize the changing efforts of the European Commission to develop a robust nature of this digital divide. The NRI results show that digital infrastructure throughout the Union. However, many developing and emerging countries have made differences across countries in the conditions under significant attempts to develop their ICT infrastructure— which innovation can occur affect their capacity to fully mainly by increasing mobile telephony, which has take advantage of the existing infrastructure. Efforts to become increasingly available for a large share of the continue bettering these conditions for innovation will be population and has resulted in new services, such as key to reducing this new digital divide going forward. financial services, that were previously unavailable. Finally, of special importance given their size and However, progress in building and upgrading the influence in the global economy, is the situation of the enabling infrastructure to allow for more and higher 30 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

55 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2013. “In Search of Insight and BRICS economies—more precisely, their inability to Foresight: Getting More out of Big Data.” White Paper, sponsored make decisive progress in developing and leveraging by Oracle and Intel. London, New York, Hong Kong, and Geneva: The Economist Intelligence Unit. Available at http://www. their ICT potential. Overall, although the situation managementthinking.eiu.com/sites/default/files/downloads/In%20 differs across the five economies, they all seem to face search%20of%20insight%20and%20foresight_0.pdf. difficulties in developing and benefiting from their digital European Commission. 2010a. Digital Agenda for Europe: A Europe potential. While their vast geographical expanse may March. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/digital- 2020 Initiative. a g e n d a /. hinder their capacity to quickly and more economically develop their ICT infrastructure and reach out to larger ——— . 2 0 1 0 b . March. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/ Europe 2020. europe2020/index_en.htm. shares of the population, weaknesses in their innovation ——— . 2 0 1 3 . Commission Staff Digital Agenda Scoreboard, 2013. systems persist despite the many efforts to mitigate Working Document. Brussels: European Commission. Available these limitations. This situation hampers their potential to at https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/sites/digital-agenda/files/ DAE%20SCOREBOARD%202013%20-%20SWD%202013%20 benefit from the economic and social benefits that ICTs 217%20FINAL.pdf. could bring about to boost their competitiveness and Gawande, A. 2011. “Doctor Hotspot.” PBS Frontline. WGBH Educational allow them to transition toward full-fledged knowledge- Foundation. Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ based societies. doctor-hotspot/. The GITR series and the NRI provide a Google. No date. Available at Explore Flu Trends Around the World. comprehensive analytical framework for assessing not http://www.google.org/flutrends/. only the progress made in raising ICT connectivity in ITU (International Telecommunication Union). 2013. Measuring the Information Society. Geneva: ITU. different countries, but also—and more importantly—the progress made in obtaining the desired economic and Kakutani, M. 2010. “A Rebel in Cyberspace, Fighting Collectivism.” January 14. The New York Times. Available at Books of the Times, social impacts that higher connectivity and the rise of http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/15/books/15book.html?_r=0. big data can yield in generating growth and high-quality New York: Vintage Books, Lanier, J. 2010. You Are Not a Gadget. employment in a rapidly changing context. Designed Random House. and produced as a framework for multi-stakeholder Parry, M. 2012. “College Degrees, Designed by the Numbers.” The dialogue, it also serves to identify and define policies Chronicle of Higher Education, July 18. Available at https:// chronicle.com/article/College-Degrees-Designed-by/132945/. and measures that can catalyze change toward better Smarter Schaefer, S., C. Harrisonh, N. Lamba, and V. Srikanth. 2011. leveraging ICTs and achieving their full potential. Cities Series: Understanding the IBM Approach to Traffic Management. Redguides for Business Leaders. IBM. Available at NOTES http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpapers/pdfs/redp4737.pdf. Alexander 1983. 1 Google, no date, Explore Flu Trends Around the World, available at 2 http://www.google.org/flutrends/. 3 Schaefer et al. 2011. 4 Gawande 2011. Parr y 2012. 5 The Economist Intelligence Unit 2013. 6 See Lanier 2010; see also Kakutani 2010. 7 8 Browne et al. 2013. See European Commission, 2010a, b. 9 10 ITU 2013, Box 2.4. 11 The members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 12 The six Gulf Cooperation Council states are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. REFERENCES Alexander, C. P. 1983. “The New Economy.” May Time Magazine, 30. Available at http://content.time.com/time/magazine/ article/0,9171,926013,00.html. BCG (Boston Consulting Group). 1970. “BCG Growth-Share Matrix: Strategic Management insight, Strategy Tools. Definition.” May 1. Available at http://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/tools/ bcg-matrix-growth-share.html Browne, C., T. Geiger, and T. Gutknecht. 2013. “The Executive Opinion The Global Survey: The Voice of the Business Community.” In Geneva: World Economic Competitiveness Report 2013–2014. Forum. 83–92. Available at www.weforum.org/gcr. 31 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

56 © 2014 World Economic Forum

57 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 Appendix A: Structure and computation of the Networked Readiness Index 2014 This appendix presents the structure of the Networked NETWORKED READINESS INDEX 2014 Readiness Index 2014 (NRI). As explained in the chapter, the NRI framework separates environmental factors Networked Readiness from ICT readiness, usage, and impact. That distinction Index = 1/4 Environment subindex 1/4 Readiness subindex + is reflected in the NRI structure, which comprises four + 1/4 Usage subindex subindexes. Each subindex is in turn divided into a + 1/4 Impact subindex number of pillars, for a total of 10. The 54 individual indicators used in the computation of the NRI are distributed among the 10 pillars. ENVIRONMENT SUBINDEX In the list below, the number preceding the period Environment subindex = 1/2 Political and regulatory indicates the pillar to which the variable belongs (e.g., environment + 1/2 Business and innovation indicator 2.05 belongs to the 2nd pillar; indicator 8.03 environment belongs to the 8th pillar). The numbering of the indicators matches the numbering of the data tables at the end of 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment the Report . 1.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* The computation of the NRI is based on successive 1.02 Laws relating to ICTs* aggregations of scores, from the indicator level (i.e., the 1.03 Judicial independence* c 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* most disaggregated level) to the overall NRI score (i.e., Efficiency of legal system in challenging 1.05 the highest level). Unless noted otherwise, we use an c regulations* arithmetic mean to aggregate individual indicators within 1.06 Intellectual property protection* each pillar and also for higher aggregation levels (i.e., 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed a d pillars and subindexes). 1.08 Number of procedures to enforce a contract d Throughout the , scores in the various Report Number of days to enforce a contract 1.09 dimensions of the NRI pillars are reported with a 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment precision of two decimal points. However, exact figures 2.01 Availability of latest technologies* are always used at every step of the computation of the Venture capital availability* 2.02 NRI. Total tax rate, % profits 2.03 e Variables that are derived from the World Economic 2.04 Number of days to start a business e 2.05 Number of procedures to start a business Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey (the Survey) are Intensity of local competition* 2.06 identified here by an asterisk (*). All the other indicators 2.07 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % come from external sources, as described in the 2.08 Quality of management schools* Technical Notes and Sources section at the end of the 2.09 Government procurement of advanced technology . These variables are transformed into a 1-to-7 Report products* scale in order to align them with the Survey’s results. We apply a min-max transformation, which preserves the b order of, and the relative distance between, scores. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 33 © 2014 World Economic Forum

58 1.1: The Networked Readiness Index 2014 IMPACT SUBINDEX READINESS SUBINDEX 1/3 Infrastructure and digital content 1/2 Economic impacts Readiness subindex = Impact subindex = 1/3 Affordability + + 1/2 Social impacts 1/3 Skills + 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content 9.01 Impact of ICTs on new services and products* Electricity production, kWh/capita 3.01 PCT ICT patent applications per million population 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % population 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* International Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 Employment in knowledge-intensive activities, % 9.04 Secure Internet servers per million population 3.04 workforce Accessibility of digital content* 3.05 10th pillar: Social impacts f Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* 10.01 4th pillar: Affordability Internet access in schools* 4.01 Mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. 10.02 ICT use and government efficiency* 10.03 4.02 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) Internet and telephony sectors competition index, 0–2 4.03 (best) 5th pillar: Skills NOTES Quality of educational system* 5.01 a Formally, for a category i composed of indicators, we have: K Quality of math and science education* 5.02 When two individual indicators are averaged (e.g., indicators 1.04) Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 5.03 K 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % indicator  k =1 k category  i K and 1.05 in the 1st pillar), each receives half the weight of a normal USAGE SUBINDEX indicator. Usage subindex = 1/3 Individual usage Formally, we have: b + 1/3 Business usage 1/3 Government usage + country score – sample minimum + 1 6 x ) ( sample maximum – sample minimum 6th pillar: Individual usage sample minimum The and sample maximum are, respectively, the Mobile phone subscriptions per 100 population 6.01 lowest and highest country scores in the sample of economies Percentage of individuals using the Internet 6.02 covered by the GCI. In some instances, adjustments were made Percentage of households with computer 6.03 to account for extreme outliers. For those indicators for which 6.04 Households with Internet access, % a higher value indicates a worse outcome (i.e., indicators 1.07, 1.08, 1.09, 2.03, 2.04, 2.05, 4.01, and 4.02), the transformation Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions per 100 6.05 formula takes the following form, thus ensuring that 1 and 7 population still corresponds to the worst and best possible outcomes, Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions per 100 6.06 respectively: population country score – sample minimum 6.07 Use of virtual social networks* + 7 – 6 x ) ( sample maximum – sample minimum 7th pillar: Business usage c For indicators 1.04 and 1.05, the average of the respective scores Firm-level technology absorption* 7.01 is used in the computation of the NRI. Capacity for innovation* 7.02 7.03 PCT patent applications per million population For indicators 1.08 and 1.09, the average of the respective d g normalized scores is used in the computation of the NRI. 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* g Business-to-consumer Internet use* 7.05 For indicators 2.04 and 2.05, the average of the respective e 7.06 Extent of staff training* normalized scores is used in the computation of the NRI. The affordability pillar is computed as follows: the average of the f 8th pillar: Government usage normalized scores of indicators 4.01 mobile cellular tariffs and Importance of ICTs to government vision of the future* 8.01 4.02 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs is multiplied by a competition , the value of which is derived from indicator 4.03 Internet factor Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) 8.02 and telephony sectors competition index. It corresponds to the 8.03 Government success in ICT promotion* score achieved by an economy on this indicator normalized on a scale from 0.75 (worst) to 1.00 (best), using the min-max transformation described above. A normalized score of 0.75 is assigned to an economy with a competition index score of 0, which means that a monopolistic situation prevails in the 19 categories of ICT services considered. A normalized score of 1.00 is assigned to an economy where all 19 categories are fully liberalized. Where data are missing for indicator 4.03 (i.e., Puerto Rico and Timor-Leste), the score on the affordability pillar, which is simply the average of the normalized scores of indicators 4.01 and 4.02, is used. The competition index score for Taiwan, China, was derived from national sources. For indicators 7.04 and 7.05, the average of the respective scores g is used in the computation of the NRI. | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 34 © 2014 World Economic Forum

59 18 CHAPTER 1.2 ) of new data are created every single Exaby tes (10 day. Much of this information is transported over Internet protocol (IP) networks. First described by Clive Humby 1 The Internet of Everything: as the “new oil,” this data growth is fueling knowledge economies, sparking innovation, and unleashing waves How the Network of creative destruction. But most of these data are unstructured and underutilized, flowing at a volume and Unleashes the Benefits of velocity that is often too large and too fast to analyze. If data do, in fact, comprise the new raw material of Big Data business, on par with economic inputs such as capital 2 and labor, then deriving insight and added value ROBERT PEPPER from this new input will require targeted transmission, JOHN GARRITY processing, and analysis. Cisco Systems A rising share of this data growth is flowing over IP networks as more people, places, and things connect to this Internet of Everything (IoE). Proprietary networks, built on industry-siloed standards such as those in manufacturing or electric utilities, are increasingly migrating to IP networks, facilitating the growth of big data, and fast becoming the key link among data generation, processing, analysis, and utilization. How can we effectively maximize value from this data explosion and avoid the pitfall of diminishing marginal data value? This chapter details how IP networks underpin the IoE and can accelerate big data’s transformational impact on individuals, businesses, and governments around the world. After first highlighting four major trends driving data growth over IP networks and detailing how networks are central to maximizing analytical value from the data deluge, the chapter identifies critical technology and public policy challenges that could either accelerate or encumber the full impact of big data and the IoE. ACCELERATING DATA PRODUCTION AND DATA TRAFFIC Data growth is skyrocketing. Over 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created each day; 90 percent of the world’s 3 stored data was created in the last two years alone. To put this into context, one hour of customer transaction data at Wal-Mart (2.5 petabytes) provides 167 times the amount of data housed by the Library of Congress. The research consultancy IDC estimates that the digital universe—all digital data created, replicated, or consumed—is growing by a factor of 30 from 2005 to 2020, doubling every two years. By 2020, there will be over 40 trillion gigabytes (or 40 yottabytes) of digital 4 data—or 5,200 gigabytes for every person on earth. Much of this data growth is traversing IP networks. Cisco’s Visual Networking Index estimates that, from 2012 to 2017, total traffic over IP networks will grow threefold, rising at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 23 percent. Mobile data traffic, however, is growing at an even faster pace: over the same period, mobile data will grow 13-fold, with a CAGR of 66 percent, capturing a greater share of all data created and 5 transmitted (Figure 1). The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 35 © 2014 World Economic Forum

60 1.2: The Internet of Everything Figure 1: Growth rates and rising share of mobile data 2,000 Mobile data traffic — 1,500 — Total data universe — Total IP traffic 1,000 500 Indexed data traffic series, 2010 levels of bytes = 100 0 2013 2010 2011 2012 2015 (forecasted) 2014 (forecasted) ² 2013; authors’ calculations. Sources: Cisco 2013b; EMC increase efficiency in the delivery of public services such Despite the rapid growth in data production and as municipal traffic systems that incorporate real-time transmission, however, only a small fraction of all remote monitoring to streamline traffic flows. physical objects in the world are currently connected to As more people, places, and things connect to the IP networks. Cisco estimates that less than 1 percent 6 IoE, the data universe will continue to grow rapidly. The of physical objects are connected to IP networks. But IoE will not only fuel the expansion of big data and data the IoE is expanding as more devices and users are transmission, but can also provide targeted, automatic, connecting to IP networks every day, conducting more data-driven analysis for our day-to-day lives. transactions and processes online. For individuals, the impacts of the IoE are felt CRITICAL DRIVERS OF DATA GROWTH daily. Sensors embedded in shoes, for example, In 1944, the first digital computer, the Colossus, track the distances that fitness enthusiasts run and was deployed in the United Kingdom to decipher automatically upload information to social media profiles codes during World War II. The Colossus was able to immediately compare athletic achievements with those to process data at 5,000 characters per second (~25 of friends. Internet-enabled alarm clocks gather data on 7 Kb/s). weather and traffic, combining that information with a Currently the world’s fastest supercomputer, 12 user’s schedule, determining the optimal time to wake the MilkyWay-2, can process 54,902 × 10 operations 8 local residents. And applications on smart phones can per second (54,902 TFlop/s). This intensive growth in control home electronic devices, adjusting heating and data processing power continues today, coupled with cooling levels as well as arming (or disarming) security extensive growth in data production. This data growth settings remotely. also supports four major trends that lead to a rising At an industrial level, applications using sensor share of data transmission over IP networks in the world technologies are capturing vast amounts of data to of the IoE, as described below. improve decision-making. Sensors embedded in Internet protocol (IP) is becoming the common • agricultural fields monitor temperature and moisture language for most data communication. levels, controlling irrigation systems. Devices in oil fields Proprietary industrial networks are migrating to IP, and deep well rigs track all aspects of drilling and fuel bringing previously isolated data onto public and delivery, increasing production efficiency. And sensors in managed IP networks. The Internet’s history is vehicles are able to monitor usage, informing decisions built on the migration of proprietary networks to IP. around refueling and repair as well as vehicle design. Proprietary data networks such as AppleTalk and For governments, IoE and big data applications IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) have are helping to monitor pandemics and environmental migrated to IP over time, and traditional time-division conditions, improve public safety and security, and multiplexing (TDM) voice networks are migrating to 36 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

61 1.2: The Internet of Everything Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Today electricity Box 1: Big data: Huge and growing data volume grids, building systems, industrial manufacturing, from industrial applications oil systems, and a multitude of other sectors with networks that were previously built with proprietary Industrial applications of the Internet of Everything (IoE) protocols are increasingly migrating to IP as generate immense data flows, which are increasingly industries and enterprises recognize the value of shifting over to Internet protocol (IP) networks. One reason interoperability and scale. Each migration shifts a for the shift is that IP networks have increased reliability. large amount of data production and transmission Industrial networks have traditionally been concerned with uptime and latency, and IP networks have evolved to be onto IP networks (see Box 1). able to handle industrial demands and the data flows that • Previously unconnected places, people, things, come with them. In the oil and gas industry, for example, data are and processes are connecting to networks for utilized across the entire value chain, from exploration, the first time. Billions of people and devices will production, refining, and distribution to marketing and come online in the next five years, adding heavily retail. Sensors and computing are used to capture and to the endpoints collecting data and to the devices monitor seismic data, borehole activity, environmental consuming information. Cisco’s Visual Networking readings, weather, production utilization, storage capacity, spot pricing (trading), transportation, inventory levels, Index estimates that, between 2012 and 2017, 7 demand and forecasts, and location data. In seismic billion more devices will connect to the Internet, exploration, the cost, size, and speed of data are all reaching a total of 19 billion connected devices. rising as exploration moves to 3D imaging. Data capture These figures are conservative projections; other amounted to around 300 megabytes per square kilometer estimates of the total number of connected devices in the 1990s. By 2006, data per square kilometer 9 range from around 20 billion to 50 billion by 2020. amounted to 25 gigabytes, while today the amount per 1 According to Chevron square kilometer is in the petabytes. By 2017, nearly half of the world’s population (3.6 and industry-wide estimates, a “fully optimized” digital oil billion out of 7.6 billion people) will be connected field based on data utilization results in 8 percent higher to the Internet. Of the world’s total inhabited areas, 2 production rates and 6 percent higher overall recovery. mobile network coverage will increase to 85 percent In electric utility grids, data utilization also improves 10 in 2017, up from 79 percent in 2012. In addition, a efficiency. Current grids monitor data to control electricity flows (both to and from the grid) based on real-time diversity of processes are migrating online. These demand, thus improving generator efficiency and ensuring include transactional activities (such as payments more-sustainable energy sources. Upgrading standard and requests), environmental monitoring (such as electric meters to “smart meters” allows information to be environmental sensors and remote monitoring), and communicated over a network back to a control center and government interactions (including census taking, increases the amount of data captured. While traditional tax collections, and benefit distributions). meters are read once a month, some smart meters can report usage rates in 15-minute intervals. For every million Existing physically stored information is being • meters, this leads to 96 million measurements per day, 3 digitized in order to record and share previously an estimated 3,000-fold increase in data collection. Conservative estimates of the total amount of data that will analogue material. Over the last decade, the be generated by smart meters by 2019 in the United States digital share of the world’s stored information has alone (assuming only two readings per day, and below full 11 increased from 25 percent to over 98 percent. deployment) yields measurements in the order of hundreds Information previously stored on other media—such 4 of petabytes per year. as paper, film, and other analogue formats—is In an example from another industry, aircraft being digitized, along with meta-information about manufacture and operation, sensors on General Electric (GE)’s jet plane turbines illustrate the vast amount of data the data itself (e.g., descriptive statistics, frequency, generated daily. GE estimates that each sensor on a GE distribution, dispersion, etc.). This digitization of turbine generates approximately 500 gigabytes of data information is leading to greater exchange of stored every day. Each turbine has 20 sensors, and globally GE media and data over the Internet. owns approximately 12,000 turbines. This aggregates to 5 petabytes of data daily. • The introduction of Internet protocol version 38 Notes 6 (IPv6) allows for trillions of trillions (10 ) of Beals 2013; see also note 4 at the end of this chapter. 1 IPv6 is the devices to connect to the Internet. latest update to the protocol that underpins the 2 Leber 2012. Internet. It defines the system for routing traffic on 3 IBM Software 2012. the Internet by giving identification and location to 4 Danahy 2009; Fehrenbacher 2009. all points connected to the global IP network. The Lopez 2013. 5 previous version of the protocol, IPv4, enabled only approximately 4 billion IP addresses. But IPv6 provides more than 340 trillion, trillion, trillion, 12 addresses, ensuring no immediate exhaustion of IP 37 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

62 1.2: The Internet of Everything Figure 2: Turning data into insight Insight Process optimization (wisdom) Benefits to society via improved outcomes Decision-making Knowledge Metrics and scorecards Information Individual data Data points Sources: Ackoff 1989; authors’ interpretation. US$210 billion. A reconstituted electricity grid would addresses or limits to the number of IP connections. be based on an architecture driven by “technology The sheer number of available addresses allows for selections to fully harness the convergence of data, every single star in the known universe to have 4.8 17 controls and transactions.” trillion addresses. According to Bradley et al. in a recent Cisco White THE GAP BETWEEN DATA GROWTH AND DATA Paper, harvesting data for critical decision-making VALUE though the IoE can create approximately US$14.4 trillion Current estimates suggest that only half a percent of dollars of added value in the commercial sector over 18 13 all data is being analyzed for insights; the next 10 years across a wide range of industries. furthermore, This opportunity exists in the form of new value created the vast majority of existing data are unstructured and 14 machine-generated. by technology innovation, market share gains, and Applying analytics to a greater increasing competitive advantage. It translates into share of all data can lead to productivity increases, an opportunity to increase global corporate profits by economic growth, and societal development through the approximately 21 percent, driven by improvements in creation of actionable insights. asset utilization (reducing costs and improving capital Data alone are not very interesting or useful. It is efficiency), employee productivity (improved labor when data can be used and become actionable that efficiency), supply chain logistics (eliminating waste and they can change processes and have direct positive improving process efficiency), customer experience impact on people’s lives. The IoE generates data, and (adding more customers), and innovation (reducing time adding analysis and analytics turns those data into to market). actionable information. Building on the framework of 15 Similarly, research by the Economist Intelligence the knowledge hierarchy, aggregated data become Unit and Capgemini indicates that big data analytics information that, when analyzed, become knowledge. were responsible for a 26 percent improvement in Knowledge can lead to insights and informed decision- business performance among a cohort of companies making, which at the highest level is wisdom (Figure 2). examined, and forecasts that the impact could increase For example, society at large can benefit from 19 to 41 percent in three years. tracking trends observed from metadata such as Capturing these gains, anonymized mobile phone data used to track population however, may require concurrent investment in resources migration after the earthquake and cholera outbreaks in to manage the rise in data. It is forecasted that by 2020, 16 Port-au-Prince, Haiti. an average business will have to manage 50 times Likewise, analyzing social media more information than it does today, while the average discussions can identify crises or flu outbreaks. information technology (IT) staff is expected to rise only At an industrial level, big data analysis can yield very 20 by 1.5 times. large benefits. For example, the value of modernizing the US electricity grid to be data-driven is estimated at 38 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

63 1.2: The Internet of Everything Figure 3: Policy and technical issues facing big data and the IoE POLICY TECHNICAL Standards & Reliability interoperability Cross-border data traffic Privacy & Scaling security Legacy regulatory models Spectrum & bandwidth Electrical power constraints Source: Authors. delays in processing caused by latency as well as EQUIPPING IP NETWORKS TO DELIVER BIG DATA delays caused by network congestion. INSIGHTS Moving up the knowledge pyramid from data to insights TECHNICAL AND POLICY CHALLENGES and informed decisions is a critical challenge facing Building a network that will maximize the impact of big businesses and governments. Equipping IP networks data requires powerful and seamless interactions among to better transmit data to processing centers as well as sensors, devices, computing, storage, analytics, and enabling the network to create, analyze, and act on data control systems. insights is one comprehensive approach. Building this But although IP networks are primed to support the capability will require improving network infrastructure, expansion of big data and the IoE, technical and policy building analytical capabilities and “intelligence” into challenges exist in the ability of current IP networks to the network, and distributing computing and analytical fully exploit big data expansion (Figure 3). An approach capabilities throughout the network, particularly at the that tackles these issues concurrently will help to edge. Specifically, these are: create the right ecosystem. The discussion below • These Network infrastructure improvements. highlights specific issues that will need to be addressed improvements include connecting all things, thoughtfully. including unintelligent ones (those that are capable interoperability issues span both the Standards and only of transmitting data, not receiving them); technical and policy domains. Agreement on standards securing infrastructure; improving inter and intra- is critical to develop economies of scale by encouraging data center traffic flows; and increasing the ability to product and service innovation around a common manage private and public networks. language, and generally accepted global standards allow for greater interoperability between devices. This will • Building intelligence into the network. Requirements differ for closed critical networks (such require building in the ability to compute data as utilities) and open networks (for example, those that in motion and host partner applications in an may monitor parking space availability), but common ecosystem where applications can be built to standards allow information to be exchanged within, and analyze data inflow, particularly enabling machine- among, these networks when those needs arise. to-machine (M2M) services. arise with the growth of data, Privacy issues Efficient Distributing computing and storage. • particularly with regard to data generated by or about distribution will require moving the ability to analyze individuals. Policymakers must identify the appropriate data only in the data center to add processing at the balance between protecting the privacy of individuals’ edge (or near the edge) of the network, to prevent data and allowing for innovation in service delivery and product development. New technologies and services, The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 39 © 2014 World Economic Forum

64 1.2: The Internet of Everything from IPv4 to IPv6. Other challenges include determining such as location-based services, are bringing these how virtualized computing environments may support a privacy issues to the forefront, offering users enhanced reallocation of computing resources. And new sources experiences while raising concerns of identity protection. of electrical power (advanced batteries, simple chemical Some policies—such as transparency in the use of reactions, etc.) will be needed to power the multitude of data and effective mechanisms for consumer control of new devices that will emerge. personal data—can help in this regard. The key security IoE applications that collect and handle data across for big data include the reliable prevention of issues sovereign jurisdictions could be negatively affected by hacking and access by unauthorized and unwanted policies restricting cross-border data traffic and global users to large databases and data flows. In order to trade in IoE-related services. Emerging cross-border ensure a healthy ecosystem where users, consumers, issues include national data protection rules and data and businesses feel safe in engaging in big data transfers, data portability and interoperability standards, activities, network security is essential. and liability costs for cloud service providers. Furthermore, Over the next five years, the growth of mobile data trade in some IoE services may fall under existing traffic will require greater radio spectrum to enable international trade agreements, while others do not. wireless M2M, as well as people-to-people (P2P) and As the IoE permeates across business sectors, the people-to-machine (P2M), connectivity. Ensuring device application of IoE technology in traditional industries connectivity and sufficient bandwidth for all of the uses presents new challenges to legacy regulatory models. of wireless sensors will require careful planning. The IoE technology is impacting business models, input/ spectrum requirements are going to be heterogeneous output markets, and end users in markets ranging and will include narrowband and broadband frequencies, from healthcare to utilities. The heavily regulated short haul and long haul spectrum, continuous data energy markets, in particular, face a range of issues transmission and short bursts of data transmission, from “connected energy” technologies. At the and licensed spectrum in addition to license-exempt consumer level, smart meters may present privacy and Bandwidth constraints spectrum. will also be an security challenges. However, at the aggregation and obstacle in transmitting data over existing networks. distribution levels, utility companies face the new reality The examples cited in Box 1 reflect the volume of data of a changing energy source mix and must adapt to being generated by proprietary networks, resulting in transactional loads and markets along with existing grid the need to move computing close to the network edge control that needs to adapt to distributed intelligence as in a distributed intelligence architecture. Data loads will well as challenges to traditional regulated utility pricing. be lumpy across various applications of the IoE, and matching bandwidth needs to bandwidth availability will THE CENTRALITY OF THE NETWORK be a continuous challenge. Since the beginning of our species, humans have been As more critical processes are conducted as processing data. We have been our own primary data part of the IoE, the need for in IP networks reliability machines. But today, with the advent of vast arrays increases. Healthcare applications that require instant of computing power, we increasingly rely on data communication between end users and medical processed by others, and the IoE and the era of big data professionals, safety and security applications, utility are transforming our lives. functions, and industrial uses are examples where Data flows and the ability to capture value from data continuous, uninterrupted, real-time communications are changing industries, creating new opportunities while require reliable and redundant connectivity. Low latency impacting others. For example, the “app economy”—the (the time required for round-trip data transmission) business created by software applications running on is already required for advanced cloud computing smartphones—has created hundreds of thousands of applications such as high-definition video conferencing 21 jobs. and industrial collaboration. Any interruption to the One recent study estimates that the marginal transmission of data over networks negatively impacts impact of data utilization in the IoE could raise US gross 22 these processes. domestic product by 2 percent to 2.5 percent by 2025. Constraints on the technological limits of electrical The IoE—where more data are being captured efficiency and on computer memory and processing by more devices, interacting with more people and limits to computing and data analysis. Data already pose changing the processes by which we live, learn, work, centers, for example, exemplify the boundaries where and play—is having a profound impact on the world. electrical power, cooling resources, and space design But the value derived from the IoE can be measurably are constantly redesigned and re-imagined to advance increased if IP networks are able to facilitate the rise of current capabilities. As the IoE expands into tens of big data and generate added positive impact for society. billions of connected devices, the technological aspects of IP networks have to be able to manage the huge scale NOTES 1 Palmer 2006. of device connectivity. One aspect of this expansion, Internet addressing, is being resolved with the migration The Economist 2010. 2 40 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

65 1.2: The Internet of Everything 3 IBM 2013. Cukier, K. and V. Mayer-Schoenburger. 2013. “The Rise of Big Data: How It’s Changing the Way We Think about the World.” 4 Gantz and Reinsel 2012. A useful reminder in the sequence of Foreign Affairs May/June. Available at http://www.foreignaffairs. data storage and memory is that the measure increases by the com/articles/139104/kenneth-neil-cukier-and-viktor-mayer- thousands and the sequence is from byte, kilobyte, megabyte, schoenberger/the-rise-of-big-data. gigabyte, terabyte, petabyte, exabyte, zettabyte and beyond. Danahy, J. 2009. “The Coming Smart Grid Data Surge.” October 5. Cisco 2013b 5 Available at http://www.smartgridnews.com/artman/publish/ News_Blogs_News/The-Coming-Smart-Grid-Data-Surge-1247. Cisco 2013a. 6 html. McLellan. 2013. 7 De Martini, P. and L. von Prellwitz. 2011. “Gridonomics: An Introduction Top500.org 2013. 8 Cisco to the Factors Shaping Electric Industry Transformation.” White Pape r. 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67 CHAPTER 1.3 The total volume of structured and unstructured data generated by individuals, enterprises, and public organizations is multiplying exponentially; 90 percent Big Data Maturity: of the total data stored today is less than two years 1 old. So-called big data has the potential to improve An Action Plan for or transform existing business operations and reshape entire economic sectors. It can also pave the way for Policymakers and disruptive, entrepreneurial companies and allow new industries to emerge. Executives THE BIG DATA IMPER ATIVE BAHJAT EL-DARWICHE If they are to capitalize on this potential, organizations VOLKMAR KOCH should avoid a common misapprehension. Much debate DAVID MEER has focused on the need to develop the technology to RAMEZ T. SHEHADI store and analyze the deluge of data that threatens to WALID TOHME drown companies. Although this technology is indeed Booz & Company necessary, it is not sufficient to enable big data to be exploited fully. Organizations must instead remold their decision- making culture so that senior executives make more judgments based on clear data insights rather than on intuition. They must build the necessary internal capabilities, deploying the technical and human resources to interpret data in an astute manner. Moreover, because they rely on governments to provide the requisite environment, they must ask policymakers to create the regulatory framework and information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure to remove external obstacles. We propose a Big Data Maturity Framework that is based on the experiences of organizations that have undergone a big data transformation. This framework will allow organizations to assess their progress in this arena and determine what they need to do to extract greater business and organizational benefits from the vast volume of data. The framework incorporates three elements: (1) environment readiness; (2) internal capabilities; and (3) the various, steadily more sophisticated, ways to use big data that range from increased efficiency in existing operations to a complete change in an organization’s business model. WHAT IS BIG DATA? Big data represents the newest and most comprehensive version of organizations’ long-term aspiration to establish and improve their data-driven decision-making. It is characterized by what are known as the “three Vs”—large data volumes, from a variety of sources, at high (i.e., real-time data capture, velocity storage, and analysis). Besides structured data (such as customer or financial records), which are typically kept in organizations’ data warehouses, big data builds on unstructured data from sources such as social media, text and video messages, and technical sensors (such The authors wish to thank Dr. Andreas Deckert for his contribution to this chapter. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 43 © 2014 World Economic Forum

68 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity Figure 1: Evolution of data-driven decision-making Anticipatory analytics Real-time analytics Data Advanced analytics visualization Video analysis BIG DATA Contextual marketing Image Machine learning analysis Social media monitoring Speech recognition Predictive modeling Artificial intelligence Operational Text mining User activity tracking intelligence Discrete- event Yield management simulation Natural language Decision Businesss intelligence processing support systemts Forecasting Data mining Telematics Sentiment analysis Expert systems Statistical analysis Knowledge discovery Neural networks Web search Industry 4.0 Analytics: Degree of sophistication Data cubes/drill down Web analytics Ad-hoc reporting Heuristic Customer Web crawling Internet of Things Nonlinear problem- relationship Alerting programming solving management Crowd-sourcing Risk modeling Cloud storage Operations Management information Credit scoring research systems/dashboards Monte Carlo Data clusters simulations Data warehouses Standard reporting Data marts Linear programming 2000 1990 Now and future 1970 2010 1980 Volume/complexity of data Source: Booz & Company. as global positioning system, or GPS, devices)—often EVOLUTION, NOT REVOLUTION originating from outside the organization itself. Despite the rapid growth of big data, organizations The magnitude and complexity of data being should keep its influence in perspective. Although produced far exceed the typical capacities of traditional remarkable, the big data phenomenon is merely databases and data warehouses for the purposes of the continuation of a journey in which ever-more- storing, processing, analyzing, and deriving insights. elaborate data have influenced decision-making. From Usage statistics emanating from social media sites organizations’ first attempts at data analytics in the illustrate the sheer volume of unstructured data. For 1960s and 1970s, this journey has proceeded through example, in 2012 Facebook reported that it was various stages, described by buzz words such as data processing around 2.5 billion new pieces of content mining all of which sought business intelligence, and 2 daily. to transform raw data into meaningful information for business purposes (Figure 1). Big data has the potential to infuse executive The latest development, big data, may appear decisions with an unprecedented level of data-driven all-enveloping and revolutionary. However, the essential insights. However, research indicates that many principles for exploiting its commercial benefit remain organizations are struggling to cope with the challenges exactly the same as they were in previous moves toward of big data. For example, in 2012 the Aberdeen Group increased data-driven decision-making. Executives found that the proportion of executives who reported must harness this recent data explosion by focusing on that their companies were unable to use unstructured carefully formulating the business questions that enable data, and who complained that the volume of data was the swift and accurate identification of those nuggets of growing too rapidly to manage, had increased by up to 3 data that they believe can improve their organization’s 25 percent during the previous year. 44 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

69 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity sector, and there is far more implementation of big data performance or allow them to gain access to new initiatives in the United States than in the Asia Pacific revenue pools. region. Meanwhile, the Economist Intelligence Unit found This continuation of a trusted managerial approach that big data is most frequently enlisted to assist financial does not, however, imply an endorsement of inertia. management and marketing/sales, and deemed least Rather, organizations must foster a new decision-making 8 valuable in human resources management. culture to exploit the opportunities presented by big data and prepare their own internal capabilities to handle this new era. At the same time, they must encourage How big data is used governments to nurture an environment conducive to the The big data maturity stages (Figure 2) depict the exploitation of big data. various ways in which data can be used, from selective adoption to large-scale implementation. Depending on THE BUSINESS IMPACT OF BIG DATA the maturity of an organization’s big data capabilities, Many organizations are still in the early stages of reaping big data can significantly increase top-line revenues the benefits of big data. Writing in the Harvard Business and markedly reduce operational expenses. The path Review, Andrew McAfee and Erik Brynjolfsson explored to business model transformation, the highest level the impact of big data on corporate performance. The of maturity, promises potential high returns but often authors interviewed executives in 330 publicly traded involves major investment over many years. companies in the United States. They then examined The first maturity stage, performance management, relevant performance data, enabling them to measure enables executives to view their own business more the extent to which corporate attitudes toward big data clearly through, for example, user-friendly management correlated with how the respective companies were information dashboards. This stage typically relies on faring. internal data, with an organization establishing key McAfee and Brynjolfsson’s conclusions were performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate its success at remarkable for establishing a connection between achieving stated goals. big data and performance: “The more companies During stage 2, functional area excellence, characterized themselves as data-driven, the better organizations start to experiment with internal and they performed on objective measures of financial external data to improve selected facets of their and operational results.” The advantage gained by business. This may involve sales and marketing these companies over their rivals was also marked: “In techniques such as customer segmentation and particular, companies in the top third of their industry targeting, or entry-stage analytical methods for product in the use of data-driven decision-making were, on recommendations. For example, one retailer analyzed average, 5 percent more productive and 6 percent more data recounting the past purchasing behavior of 4 profitable than their competitors.” individual customers in conjunction with the company’s most recent sales to predict and recommend each Despite these findings, broad adoption of advanced customer’s most likely next purchase. This resulted in a big data practices has not yet materialized. A 2013 revenue increase of up to 5 percent, depending on the Gartner survey found that less than 8 percent of customer segment. companies surveyed have actually deployed big data 5 Advances in operational efficiency through big data, technology. such as the efficient deployment of staff resources and Investment in forthcoming projects is much more the optimization of the supply chain, also reside within widespread; the research firm IDC has forecasted that this maturity stage. Recent examples include a German the market for big data technology and services will car manufacturer that used real-time performance reach US$16.9 billion by 2015, up from US$3.2 billion monitoring of production machinery to trigger a 20 in 2010. This represents a 40 percent annual growth 6 percent increase in productivity. Each machine was rate, seven times the rate for the overall ICT business. tightly monitored to highlight downtime and plan around This trend is affecting all regions. For example, over 40 those production disruptions to optimize the utilization of percent of chief information officers in the Middle East, the overall plant. In the public sector, a Canadian hospital according to IDC, are considering big data technology observed previously unseen patterns in streaming investment in 2013. Although few have actually data from monitoring of newborns, enabling detection undertaken large-scale big data or analytics programs of dangerous infections 24 hours before symptoms to date, IDC forecasts investment in this area to grow at 9 appeared. a compound annual growth rate of over 20 percent over 7 the coming five years. At the value proposition enhancement stage (stage 3), organizations start to monetize big data, positioning it Both expenditure and implementation vary as a value driver of the business that offers a new source substantially across regions, industries, and functional of competitive advantage beyond the mere improvement domains. For example, highly digitized industries such of operations or services. In many instances this as telecommunications and travel still tend to spend involves obtaining data from external sources and substantially more on big data projects than the energy 45 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

70 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity Figure 2: Big data maturity stages and related use cases Maturity stages Typical use cases/applications Financial reporting • • Performance measurement via Stage 1: • Regulatory/compliance key performance indicators/ Performance reporting metrics management Dashboards for management • reporting Experimenting/ • Smart pricing • Supply chain balancing Stage 2: selective adoption Targeted mailings • • Facility optimization Functional area • Customer segmentation • Optimization of staff utilization excellence Customer value analysis • • Route optimization for fleet • Choice analysis Fraud monitoring/prevention • • Website clickstream analysis Patient treatment control • Loyalty schemes • • Traffic optimization • Customer satisfaction opt. • Crime monitoring Targeted advertising/ • Data monetization • Stage 3: customized recommendations Online telematics services • Value proposition in real time • Personalization of customer enhancement BIG DATA • Preventive health monitoring & experience/products disease detection • Selling of data to open new • Quantitative management of Stage 4: revenue pools investment funds Business model • Data-centric business models Crowdsourcing to augment • transformation (e.g., web search, web adver - internal data tising) Large-scale implementation Source: Booz & Company. able to increase its profit per customer by 37 percent deriving insights from it. This may include innovations by applying advanced customer analytics, such as such as customized, real-time recommendations or the behavioral segmentation, to identify its best customers personalization of services to augment the customer and provide them with personalized offers. The experience. frequency of those target customers’ purchases rose by For example, one leading European bank tailored approximately 25 percent, and the average basket size its website content to trigger an increase of 12 percent increased by around 10 percent. in sales. After customers logged in, the bank presented Another instructive case involved the US city of Los one of several alternative websites based on the relevant Angeles, which introduced demand-responsive pricing individual’s transaction history and segment and the for parking. The city sets specific prices for hourly company’s overall product portfolio. The content was parking in each street, varying according to the time specific to the predicted needs of the customer to and day. These prices are based on in-depth choice maximize sales potential. modeling, fed with data from parking sensors, surveys, Data-rich organizations, such as retailers or weather forecasts, information about holidays, local telecommunications companies, are better equipped business activities, and other information. The goal is than others to utilize their internally generated data in to reach a steadily high, but not excessive, utilization this way. For instance, a global mass merchant was 46 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

71 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity Obstacles to progress of parking space at all times. The initial results are Despite widespread interest in data-driven decision- impressive. Although city parking revenues increased making in one form or another, companies face many by 2.4 percent due to higher utilization, 60 percent of potential pitfalls in extracting the maximum commercial parking rates actually fell and congestion during peak 10 benefit from big data usage. Some of these relate to their hours decreased by 5 percent. own internal systems and culture; others are tied to the In the final maturity stage, business model external environment. transformation, big data permeates the whole The most prominent obstacle is the shortage of organization. It becomes deeply embedded within the available talent specializing in data analytics—data operation, determining the nature of the business and scientists with an advanced education in mathematics or the mode of executive decision-making. statistics who are also able to translate raw data material This stage can be reached by both product and into exploitable commercial insights. Although many services organizations alike. One example of the latter educational institutions have now started to establish involves the recent merger of the two large advertising courses to address this scarcity, the market demand is companies Omnicom and Publicis. Their industry is already considerable. moving away from the creative “Mad Men” approach, Many organizations also suffer from poor-quality where a catchy phrase was the pinnacle of aspiration, data that are fragmented across various systems, toward a more science-based, data-driven business geographies, and functional silos. Embracing the that aims to personalize ads. The ultimate goal is to potential of big data as a concept will take organizations deliver the right message to the right person at the right only so far. First and foremost, they must get the basics time. The Internet and mobile devices play a major role right. Internal data has to be of high quality—consistent, in this development. This new “ad tech” world will be accurate, and complete—and available across the dominated by those major players that possess the most organization. comprehensive data about consumers and are thus The prevailing decision-making culture presents able to understand them better—who they are, where a major internal obstacle—the one that is the least they are, what they like, who their friends are, and so on. straightforward to identify and then overcome. To Omnicom and Publicis believe that their combined size complicate matters, changing this culture may impinge will produce the desired volume of data. on personal concerns relating to status. Companies General Electric (GE) provides a prominent example and public institutions typically rely on the intuition of of a product organization placing great faith in big data. senior managers for important decisions. As big data GE expects that machinery and equipment will soon extends its reach, executive instinct is challenged by the be loaded with sensors, making in-depth status data facts of hard data. However, while data can be of great available both in real time and across longer time spans. assistance in solving an actual problem, it still holds true To be at the forefront of this development, GE is investing that senior management has to ask the right questions. more than US$1 billion in building up its data science Many of the external challenges that companies capabilities to provide data and analytics services across 11 face revolve around data privacy considerations. For business functions and geographies. example, very specific details of an individual’s lifestyle Another showcase for the transformative potential preferences and buying habits are now captured and of big data comes from the public sector. Regional analyzed by companies through their own websites and national-level policymakers around the world are or by monitoring social media. These details are all launching “open data” initiatives, making data available collected without that person’s explicit consent, leading to the public via integrated web portals and automated to significant public reservations about big data. Such interfaces. Recent examples involve the United Kingdom 12 concerns about privacy will strengthen demands for and New York City. Although originally conceived as tighter regulatory control, potentially limiting companies’ a way of increasing the transparency of government ability to exploit big data opportunities or exposing them decisions, the release of public data is an important to threats of legal and regulatory intervention. environmental factor enabling organizations to use big data, creating novel applications and services. HOW TO REACH BIG DATA MATURITY However, some organizations do not have to Our big data maturity framework (Figure 3) comprises progress through all the big data maturity stages. three elements: the enablers of environment readiness, A data-driven business model has been integral to the organization’s internal capabilities, and the different companies such as Google, Facebook, and Twitter, stages of maturity and sophistication in which big data which have burst on to the scene in recent years and can be used. The framework enables organizations to are introducing new technologies to capture the digital view the extent of their success in overcoming obstacles, advertising market. Such companies actually started and identifies what more can be done to promote big operations at the final stage. By doing so, they have data maturity and reach the desired destination. prompted others to proceed through the earlier stages to keep up. 47 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

72 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity Figure 3: Big data maturity framework Regulatory framework Education/training ICT infrastructure for data privacy Enablers of Public perception environment readiness Big data ecosystem and awareness Technical capabilities/infra- Data-driven Data availability decision-making culture structure and governance Success factors Organizational capabilities for internal capabilities Sponsorship and resources Stage 2: Stage 1: Stage 3: Stage 4: Functional area Performance Value proposition Business model management excellence enhancement transformation Maturity stages in the usage of big data What can we learn How can we make How can we use data What can we from the data data a value driver to fundamentally read from the data? to become better? of our business? reinvent our business? Traditional applications New horizons of big data (getting more out of data you already have) Source: Booz & Company. the risk of losing competitive advantage vis-à-vis other The environment readiness dimension considers countries. how far the relevant governments have enabled Policymakers must therefore: organizations in their jurisdiction to use big data freely and productively. This is achieved through appropriate formulate a vision for the usage of data consistent • regulations and a supportive infrastructure. with the public interest, fostering a common The organization’s internal capabilities dimension understanding with citizens and obtaining their sheds light on a company’s readiness to execute big -in; buy data. By building up these capabilities and integrating enable a big data ecosystem by establishing policies • them effectively, organizations move further along to facilitate valid business models for third-party the path of data-driven decision-making and position data, service, and information technology system themselves to extract greater benefits from big data. providers; and While environment readiness serves as an enabler for big data usage, internal capabilities act as critical speed and scale up the education of talent to • success factors for organizations seeking to progress address the likely significant shortage of talent through the maturity stages. with the requisite skills to leverage and handle big The following two sections explain the full range data—from both a business and an IT perspective, of actions that governments and organizations need to potentially in public-private partnerships (PPPs). undertake and which of these take precedence. Such PPPs can avoid having students in tailored university programs graduate with outdated learning Environment readiness: Priorities for policymakers by fostering and exploiting private contributions to Big data will soon become ubiquitous practice in the educational agenda. PPPs can involve public both the public and private worlds. Policymakers sponsorship of private education programs, and therefore need to act in a timely manner to promote an private support for university education in terms of environment that is supportive to organizations seeking knowledge transfer and financial endowments. to benefit from this inevitable progression. Failure to develop comprehensive environment readiness carries 48 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

73 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity which Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data, Priorities for policymakers will vary in different were revised and updated in 2013, may represent a parts of the world. Developing countries, for example, 14 practical step in the direction of harmonization. will concentrate on building up the required ICT In the infrastructure and education programs to prepare for absence of binding rules, a common understanding for large-scale demand from organizations intent on using data privacy and data protection regulation on the basis big data. In more developed countries, however, the of guidelines and recommendations from a high-profile government’s primary concerns should be ensuring international organization is the most sensible option transparent regulation and promoting a public-interest currently available. argument for big data. The OECD guidelines follow a best-of-breed approach. They formulate basic principles around Policymakers must make the case for big data the limitation of collection of personal data, the In particular, policymakers should set clear rules specification of the purpose of data collection, the regarding data privacy so that organizations know which protection of collected data, the prevention of data loss personal data they can store and for how long, and or unauthorized access, and the right of individuals to which data are explicitly forbidden by privacy regulations. obtain information about collected data. The guidelines If the scope of permissible data is to expand, have in the past influenced national legislation, including skeptical citizens must first be persuaded that big data privacy acts in Australia, Japan, Mexico, and New will work in their favor by paving the way for better Zealand. We encourage both OECD members and non- products and services. Forward-thinking governments members to review and adopt those basic principles and will initiate and inform this public debate about the recommendations to establish common ground. benefits of big data. Indeed, Jules Polonetsky and article (2013), Stanford Law Review Omer Tene, in their An organization’s internal capabilities: Priorities for argue that finding the right balance between individuals’ executives legitimate privacy concerns and the overall rewards There is no general rule dictating how organizations offered by big data practices may be the greatest should navigate the stages of big data maturity. They 13 contemporary public policy challenge. must each decide for themselves, based on their The outcome of this debate will vary depending on own situation—the competitive environment they are the country. Cultural factors will have a strong bearing on operating in, their business model, and their existing the decision about the right level of data privacy in any internal capabilities. In less-advanced sectors, with given country, and this decision will result in a regulatory executives still grappling with existing data, making regime appropriate for citizens and organizations. On a intelligent use of what they already possess may have a regional level, groups such as the European Union allow substantial impact on decision-making. possible harmonization of data privacy regulation across The main priorities for executives are to: borders, given that the constituent countries may share develop a clear (big) data strategy; • attitudes on this issue. prove the value of data in pilot schemes; • Policymakers should promote harmonization identify the owner for “big data” in the organization • On a global level, though, no binding agreement to and formally establish a “Chief Data Scientist” harmonize regulation around data privacy currently looks position (where applicable); likely in the short to medium term. Because countries have legitimate differences on this issue, this lack of • recruit/train talent to ask the right questions and harmonization threatens the adoption of big data on an technical personnel to provide the systems and tools international scale. to allow data scientists to answer those questions; The prevailing patchwork situation accentuates position big data as an integral element of the • the lack of clarity on lawful data usage—especially the operating model; and question of which jurisdiction holds sway for certain cross-border cases. For example, if data are owned establish a data-driven decision culture and launch • by a company in the European Union, but hosted on a communication campaign around it. servers in the United States, which privacy law applies? Legal inconsistency between countries can even inhibit Quick wins free commerce across borders. This problem arises, for Organizations should resist expensive upfront example, when an organization plans to outsource data infrastructure investments for overly ambitious big data operations to a foreign provider, yet some personal data projects. Instead, they should select opportunities for are prohibited from being transferred out of the country high business impact and adopt pilot schemes that also concerned. allow for periodic refinements along the way. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Seeking out proprietary data that can be Guidelines on the Protection of Development (OECD) immediately exploited for commercial gain may provide The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 49 © 2014 World Economic Forum

74 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity medium term, anticipate which trends will lead there, and one such quick win. For example, a mobile phone position their organization accordingly. operator can collect anonymized real-time travel Within the next five years, big data will become the patterns, which are of value for navigation system norm, enabling a new horizon of personalization for both operators that want to provide up-to-date traffic products and services. Wise leaders will soon embrace information to their customers. the game-changing opportunities that big data affords Help from outside for their societies and organizations, and will provide the External data providers can offer all types of data to necessary sponsorship to realize this potential. Skeptics organizations and can therefore complement existing and laggards, meanwhile, look set to pay a heavy price. data-gathering efforts. Typical datasets offered by external providers include contact, lifestyle, and NOTES demographic information on (market segments 1 IBM, no date. “What Is Big Data?” of) individuals. Social media platforms are also Constine 2012. 2 demonstrated to be great sources of relevant big data— Aberdeen Group 2013. 3 for example, for sentiment analysis (to determine the McAfee and Brynjolfsson 2012, p. 6. 4 voice and desires of the consumer) or for personalizing 5 Gartner 2013. product offerings. In addition to sourcing data from 6 The New York Times 2012. outside the organization, the selective use of external analytics service providers can also prove instrumental 7 ITP.net 2013. in establishing big data maturity quickly, while potentially The Economist Intelligence Unit 2013. 8 training employees to take on these tasks themselves. 9 This chapter contains examples from many clients whose identities are not stated due to confidentiality reasons. CONCLUSION 10 Munford 2013. We currently see big data as poised to have significant 11 Cat ts 2012. impact in public and business spaces alike. Large- 12 In the UK, the initiative is available at http://data.gov.uk/; in scale investment is flowing into establishing big data New York City it is available at https://data.cityofnewyork.us/. capabilities in many organizations, despite the limited 13 Polonetsky and Tene 2013. number of cases in which it has been successfully used 14 OECD 2013. in completed projects and initiatives. Decision makers already acknowledge the future influence of data-driven REFERENCES decision-making. Aberdeen Group. 2013. “Big Data Trends in 2013,” February 1. Available However, organizations confront vast differences at http://www.aberdeen.com/Aberdeen-Library/8244/RA-big-data- in their ability to utilize big data to good effect, as seen trends.aspx. in their stages of big data maturity. These differences Catts, T. 2012. “GE’s Billion-Dollar Bet on Big Data.” Bloomberg April 26. Available at http://www.businessweek. Businessweek, range from adopting big data practices for operational com/articles/2012-04-26/ges-billion-dollar-bet-on-big-data. improvement in selected functional areas or building Constine, J. 2012. “How Big Is Facebook’s Data? 2.5 Billion Pieces of or revamping an organization’s value proposition to Tech Crunch Content and 500+ Terabytes Ingested Every Day.” completely transforming their business model based on August 22. Available at http://techcrunch. Conference Highlights, com/2012/08/22/how-big-is-facebooks-data-2-5-billion-pieces-of- big data. At the more advanced stages, organizations content-and-500-terabytes-ingested-every-day/. learn to monetize big data far beyond simply getting The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2013. “The Evolving Role of Data in better at what they are currently doing; learning Decision-Making.” Available at http://www.economistinsights.com/ this lesson is an accomplishment that can mean a analysis/evolving-role-data-decision-making. fundamental shift for them. Environment readiness Gartner. 2013. “Survey Analysis: Big Data Adoption in 2013 Shows Substance Behind the Hype.” Available at http://www.gartner.com/ plays a pivotal role in enabling such success, because id=2589121. its effect is far greater than the evolution of individual IBM. No date. “What Is Big Data?” Available at http://www.ibm.com/ organizations’ internal capabilities and usage levels of big big-data. data. ITP.net. 2013. “DWTC to Highlight Big Data at GITEX: Event Organiser to Nonetheless, policymakers and organizations in Host First Ever Big Data Conference on October 22,” September 29. Available at http://www.itp.net/595102-dwtc-to-highlight-big- general still have much to do if they want to realize the data-at-gitex#.UkrZ9oasiSo. full potential of big data. For their part, governments McAfee, A. and E. Brynjolfsson. 2012. “Big Data: The Management throughout the world need to create a supportive October. Available at Revolution.” Harvard Business Review, environment for the usage of big data to attract business http://hbr.org/2012/10/big-data-the-management-revolution. to their region. Meanwhile, organizations must act Munford, M. 2013. “Don’t Follow the Leaders, Watch the Parking in a timely manner to determine how they can most Meters.” The Daily Telegraph, September 15. Available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/10307926/Dont- effectively deploy big data. They will have to predict follow-leaders-watch-the-parking-meters.html. what the world of data-driven insights will look like in the 50 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

75 Chapter 1.3: Big Data Maturity The New York Times. 2012. “IDC Sizes Up the Big Data Market,” March 7. Available at http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/idc- sizes-up-the-big-data-market/?_r=0. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2013. OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data. Available at http://www.oecd.org/internet/ieconomy/oecdguidelinesonthe protectionofprivacyandtransborderflowsofpersonaldata.htm. Polonetsky, J. and O. Tene. 2013. “Privacy and Big Data: Making Ends Meet.” 66 Stanford Law Review 25, September 3. Available at http://www.stanfordlawreview.org/sites/default/files/online/topics/ PolonetskyTene.pdf. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 51 © 2014 World Economic Forum

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77 CHAPTER 1.4 In June 2013, massive US surveillance of phone records and Internet data was revealed by former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Big Data: Balancing the Snowden, who called these activities the “architecture of oppression.” His disclosures ignited an overdue Risks and Rewards of public debate on the balance between personal privacy and our growing digital capabilities regarding Data-Driven Public Policy the collection and use of personal data. Finding this balance is an issue of vital and urgent interest to ALEX PENTLAND corporations and governments as well as to ordinary MIT citizens around the world. This chapter will outline both the risks and the rewards of this new age of big data, address policy issues in this area, and provide practical recommendations for a way forward. Data about human behavior, such as census data, have always been essential for both government and industry to function. In recent years, however, a new methodology for collecting data about human behavior has emerged. By analyzing patterns within the “digital breadcrumbs” that we all leave behind us as we move through the world (call records, credit card transactions, and global positioning system, or GPS, location fixes, for example), scientists are discovering that we can begin to explain many things—such as financial crashes, revolutions, panics—that previously appeared to be random events. These new tools, with the perspective they provide on life in all its complexity, shape the future of social science and public policy. Just as the microscope and telescope revolutionized the study of biology and astronomy, “socioscopes” have the potential to revolutionize regulation and public policy. The risk of deploying this sort of data-driven policy and regulation comes from the danger of putting so much personal data into the hands of either companies or governments. Fortunately, new approaches to regulation and technology that can help protect personal privacy from exploitation have been developed. These approaches can mitigate the problem of government overreach as well. Both regulation and technology must continue to evolve in order to provide more scientific, real-time public policy while protecting citizens from the dangers of exploitative companies or an all-knowing authoritarian government. This chapter will provide practical recommendations to achieve these goals. A BIG DATA TA XONOMY It is probably hopeless to try to provide a detailed taxonomy of data types and uses because the technology is progressing so quickly. But it is possible to provide a broad taxonomy framed in terms of control. The three main divisions within the spectrum of data data commons, which are available to control are: (1) all, with at most minor limitations on use; (2) personal or proprietary data, which are typically controlled by individuals or companies, and for which legal and technology infrastructure must provide strict control and auditing of use; and (3) the secret data of governments, The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 53 © 2014 World Economic Forum

78 Chapter 1.4: Big Data: Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven Public Policy (D4D) initiative, 90 research organizations from around which typically has less direct public oversight and more the world reported hundreds of results from their analysis stringent controls. The issues of data commons will be of data describing the mobility and call patterns of the addressed first, followed by concerns about personal 1 citizens of the entire African country Côte d’Ivoire. and proprietary data, and, finally, issues of secret The government data. data were donated by the mobile carrier Orange, with The preferred lens for examining these issues is help from the University of Louvain (Belgium) and the experimentation in the real world rather than arguments MIT Human Dynamics Laboratory (United States), along from theory or first principles, because using massive, with collaboration from Bouake University (Côte d’Ivoire), live data to design institutions and policies is outside of the United Nation’s Global Pulse, the World Economic our traditional way of managing things. In this new digital Forum, and the GSMA (the mobile carriers’ international era we cannot rely only on existing policy, tradition, or trade association). The D4D program was led by Nicolas even laboratory science, because the strengths and De Cordes (Orange), Vincent Blondel (Louvain), Alex weaknesses of big data analysis are very different Pentland (MIT), Robert Kirkpatrick (UN Global Pulse), and from those obtained through standard information Bill Hoffman (World Economic Forum). sources. To begin to manage our society in a data- The research projects conducted by the 90 driven manner requires us to move beyond academic participating organizations explored the use of this data debate and laboratory question-and-answer processes. commons, covering many different aspects of better Instead, we need to try out new policy ideas within living governance. An example of using the D4D data to laboratories—real, diverse communities that are willing to improve social equality was highlighted by work done try a new way of doing things—in order to test and prove by researchers at the University College of London, our ideas. This is new territory and so it is important for who developed a method for mapping poverty from us to constantly try out new ideas in the real world in the diversity of cell phone usage. As people have order to see what works and what does not (see Box 1). more disposable income, they explore or sample their environment more, and their patterns of movement Data commons and patterns of phone calls become increasingly data The first entry in the data taxonomy is the diverse. Measurement of this additional exploration commons. A key insight is that our data are worth more allows us to make a surprisingly accurate estimate of when shared because they can inform improvements their disposable income. Another example of using the in systems such as public health, transportation, and D4D data to enhance social equality is the mapping of government. Using a “digital data commons” can ethnic boundaries by researchers from the University potentially give us unprecedented ability to measure how of California, San Diego. This method relies on the our policies are performing so we can know when to act fact that ethnic and language groups communicate far quickly and effectively to address a situation. more within their own group than they communicate We already have many data commons available: with other groups. This project is significant because, maps, census data, and financial indices, for example. while we know that ethic violence often erupts along With the advent of big data, we can potentially develop such boundaries, the government and aid agencies are many more types of data commons; these commons usually uncertain about the geography of these social can be both accessible in real time and far more detailed fault zones. than previous, hand-built data commons (e.g., census The D4D data were also utilized to understand and data, etc.). This is because the new digital commons promote operational efficiency through an analysis of depend mostly on data that are already produced as a Côte d’Ivoire’s public transportation system by IBM’s side effect of ongoing daily life (e.g., digital transaction Dublin laboratory. This analysis showed that, for very records, cell phone location fixes, road toll records, etc.), little cost, the average commute time in Abidjan—Côte and because they can be produced automatically by d’Ivoire’s biggest city—could be cut by 10 percent. computers without human intervention. Other research groups demonstrated similar potential for One major concern with these new data commons operational improvements in the areas of government, is that they can endanger personal privacy. Another, commerce, agriculture, and finance. secondary, concern involves the tension between Finally, examples of using D4D data to improve proprietary interests, both commercial and personal, social resiliency include analysis of disease spread and the goal of putting data in the commons. Acceding by groups from Novi Sad University (Serbia), École to these proprietary interests might tend to reduce the Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL, richness of such a commons, which would diminish the Switzerland), and Birmingham (United Kingdom). These ability of such a data commons to enable significant research groups showed that small changes in the public public goods. health system could potentially cut the spread of flu by To explore the viability of a big data commons, what 20 percent as well as significantly reduce the spread of is perhaps the world’s first true big data commons was HIV and malaria. unveiled on May 1, 2013. In this Data for Development 54 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

79 Chapter 1.4: Big Data: Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven Public Policy Box 1: The future of big data and governance The Data for Development (D4D) data commons is only a Figure A compares social science living labs with small first step toward improving governance by using big traditional experiments. The horizontal axis presents the data. Much more can be accomplished because our current duration of the data collection; the vertical axis shows the understanding of policy and human society is based on richness of the information collected. very limited data resources. Currently, most social science If we had an all-seeing view, we could potentially is based either on analysis of laboratory experiments or on arrive at a true understanding of how society works and develop scientifically proven methods to fix our problems. survey data. These approaches miss the critical fact that it is the details of which people you interact with, and how Unfortunately, as illustrated in Figure A, almost all data from you interact with them, that truly matter. Social phenomena traditional social science (labeled “1” in the figure) are near the (0,0) coordinate, meaning that these datasets represent are made up of billions of small transactions between individuals—people trading not only goods and money but information gathered from under a hundred people and for also information, ideas, or just gossip. There are patterns in only for a few hours. The studies labeled “2” and “3” are 1 those individual transactions that drive phenomena such as some of the largest social science studies to date. In the financial crashes and Arab Springs. We need to understand last decade, computational social scientists have begun these micro-patterns because they do not just average out to discover how to leverage big data and have been using to the classical way of understanding society. Big data gives datasets from companies such as cell phone carriers and social media firms. Typical examples of these studies are us—for the first time—a chance to view society in all its complexity, composed of millions of networks of person-to- labeled “4.” person exchanges. Figure A: Qualitative overview of social science living labs and traditional experiments 10 l Traditional social science studies l Social physics studies Where the world is headed l 7 6 5 8 9 No. of measurements per person, per minute 4 1 3 2 Duration of observation, log scale from minutes to years Note: Datasets identified in the figure are derived from the following: 1 = most social science experiments, 2 = the Midwest Field Station Study, 3 = the Framingham heart study, 4 = large call record datasets, 5 = reality mining, 6 = social evolution, 7 = friends and family, 8 = sociometric badge studies, 9 = the D4D dataset, and 10 = where the world is headed (see text for explanation). Unfortunately, even these large datasets are Importantly, the point labeled “10” shows where the impoverished because they measure only a few variables world is headed. In just a few short years we are likely to have at a time, thus providing only a very limited view of human available incredibly rich data about the behavior of virtually nature. Recently data scientists have developed living lab all of humanity on a continuous basis. The data mostly technologies for harvesting digital breadcrumbs, and are now already exist in cell phone networks, credit card databases, obtaining much richer descriptions of human behavior. The and elsewhere, but currently only technical gurus have studies labeled “5,” “6,” “7,” and “8” are living lab studies that access to them. As these digital data become more widely use smart phones or electronic name badges (sociometers) available for scientific inquiry, we will be able to understand 2 to collect data. The point labeled “9” is the D4D dataset that and manage ourselves in ways better suited to our complex, 3 covers the entire country of Côte d’Ivoire. interconnected, and networked society. Just a brief examination of Figure A makes it easy to see Notes that these living lab datasets are many orders of magnitude See Barker 1968; Dawber 1980. 1 richer than previous social science datasets. These large, digital datasets contain extraordinary amounts of objective, For details about these living lab studies, see Pentland 2 continuous, dense data that allow us to build quantitative, 2014; Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL), available at http://www. mobileterritoriallab.eu/. predictive models of human behavior in complex, everyday situations. 3 See the D4D challenge, available at http://www.d4d.orange.com/ home. 55 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

80 Chapter 1.4: Big Data: Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven Public Policy permissions, including the provenance of the data, These selected results are just a small sample of allows automatic auditing of data use and allows the impressive work that is made possible by this rich individuals to change their permissions and withdraw and unique data commons. These results and others like their individual data. them are available at http://www.d4d.orange.com/home. Today, long-standing versions of trust networks have Each of these D4D research projects has demonstrated proven to be both secure and robust. The best known the great potential of a big data commons for improving example is the SWIFT network for inter-bank money people’s living conditions. From the point of view of transfer; its most distinguishing feature is that it has Orange, it also demonstrates the potential for new never been hacked. When asked why he robbed banks, lines of business that combine this data commons with bank robber Willie Sutton famously said, “Because customers’ personal data: imagine phone applications that’s where the money is.” In today’s world, the SWIFT that advise commuters about which bus will get them to network is where the money is—trillions of dollars are work quickest, or that help citizens reduce their risk of moved through the network each day. This trust network catching the flu. has not only kept the robbers away, but it also makes The work of these 90 research groups also sure the money reliably goes where it is supposed to go. suggests that many of the privacy fears associated Until recently, such systems were available only to the with the release of data about human behavior may be “big guys.” To give individuals a similarly safe method generally misunderstood. In this data commons, the of managing personal data, the MIT Human Dynamics data were processed by advanced computer algorithms Laboratory (http://hd.media.mit.edu), in partnership (e.g., sophisticated sampling and the use of aggregated with the Institute for Data Driven Design (http://idcubed. indicators) so that it was unlikely that any individual could org), have helped build openPDS (open Personal Data be re-identified. In fact, no path to re-identification was Store)—a consumer version of this type of system. discovered even though several of the research groups We are now testing it with a variety of industry and studied this specific question. 3 government partners. In addition, although the data were freely available for any legitimate research in which a group was A major concern about trust networks is the cost interested, the data were distributed under a legal associated with keeping track of permissions and contract that specified that they could be used only supporting the capability for automated auditing. Since for the purpose proposed and only by the specific many companies already maintain such data structures people making the proposal. A similar technology- in order to support internal compliance and auditing legal framework is used in trust networks described in functions, the cost concern does not appear to be a the next section. The use of both advanced computer major barrier. Another more serious concern, however, algorithms and contract law to specify and audit how is the extent to which incidental data about human personal data may be used and shared is the goal of behavior must be included in the permissions and new privacy regulations in the European Union, the auditing framework. Such data are typically collected United States, and elsewhere. in the course of normal operations in order to support those operations (e.g., the location of a cell phone is Personal and proprietary data required to complete phone calls), but without specific personal The second category in the data taxonomy is informed consent. A final concern is that a trust network and proprietary data, which are typically controlled system may be too complex for average people to use, by individuals or companies, and for which legal and or that it will not inspire (or deserve) the sort of user trust technology infrastructure that provides strict control and that the name suggests. auditing of use is needed. The current best practice is In order to investigate these concerns, a living 2 trust networks. a system of data sharing called lab has been launched with the city of Trento in Italy, Tr ust supported by Telecom Italia, Telefonica, the MIT Human networks are a combination of a computer network Dynamics Laboratory, the Fondazione Bruno Kessler, that keeps track of user permissions for each piece of the Institute for Data Driven Design, and local companies personal data and a legal contract that specifies both within Trento. Importantly, this living lab has the approval what can and cannot be done with the data and what and informed consent of all its participants—they know happens if there is a violation of the permissions. This that they are part of a real-world experiment whose goal is the model of personal data management that is most 4 is to invent a better way of living. frequently proposed within the World Economic Forum Personal Data Initiative. The objective of this living lab is to develop In such a system, all personal data have attached new ways of sharing data to promote greater civic labels specifying what the data can, and cannot, be engagement and information diffusion. One specific goal used for. These labels are exactly matched by terms is to build upon and test trust-network software such in a legal contract between all the participants stating as the openPDS system by deploying a set of “personal penalties for not obeying the permission labels and data services” designed to enable users to collect, giving the right to audit the use of the data. Having store, manage, disclose, share, and use data about 56 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

81 Chapter 1.4: Big Data: Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven Public Policy locations, using many different types of computer themselves. For example, the openPDS system lets systems and encryption. Similarly, human resources the community of young families learn from each other should be organized into cells of access and permission without the work of entering data by hand or the risks that are localized both spatially and by data type. associated with sharing through current social media. Both computer and human resources should always These data can then be used for the personal self- be redundant and fragmented in order to avoid overly empowerment of each member, or (when aggregated) powerful central actors. for the creation of a data commons that supports The logic behind this observation is that databases improvement of the community—for example, a map that have different types of data that are physically and that shows disposable income for each neighborhood logically distributed, and that also have heterogeneous can stimulate better distribution of community services. computer and encryption systems, are hard to attack, The ability to share data safely should enable better idea both physically as well as through cyberattack. This flow among individuals, companies, and government; is because any single exploit is likely to gain access we want to see if these tools can in fact increase to only a limited part of the whole database. Similarly, productivity and creative output at the scale of an entire the resilience of organizations with a heterogeneous city. cell-like human and permissions structure is The Trento living lab will also investigate how to familiar from intelligence and terrorist organizations. deal with the sensitivities of collecting and using deeply Importantly, resistance to attack by adopting a personal data in real-world situations. For example, it distributed organization is a particularly pressing issue will explore different techniques and methodologies for authoritarian governments, because unfettered to protect the users’ privacy while at the same time access to data about citizen behavior can be a major being able to use personal data—typically mobility, aid to organizing a successful coup to overthrow the financial, and medical records—to generate a useful data government. commons. It will also explore different user interfaces What does all this have to do with the danger that for privacy settings, for configuring the data collected, a big data government will trample individual freedoms? for the data disclosed to applications, and for those The key insight is that for these types of data systems, data shared with other users, all in the context of a trust each type of data analysis operation has a characteristic framework. Although the Trento experiment is still in its pattern of communication between different databases early days, the initial reaction from participating families and human operators. As a consequence, it is possible is that these sorts of data-sharing capabilities are to monitor the functioning of the data analysis process valuable, and they feel safe sharing their data using the without gaining access to, or endangering, the analysis openPDS system. content. In short, one can use “metadata about of metadata, use metadata” in order to monitor the Government data and with some reasonable confidence one can ensure secret government The third category in the taxonomy is that only normal and usual analysis operations are A major risk of deploying data-driven policies and data. being conducted without reference to specific content. regulations comes from the danger of putting so much Governments that structure their data resources in this personal data into the hands of governments. But how manner can more easily monitor attacks and misuse of can it happen that governments, especially authoritarian all sorts. governments, choose to limit their reach? The answer is As a concrete example, let us assume a system that unlimited access to data about the citizen behavior in which different types of databases are physically is a great danger to the government as well as to its distributed. In this case one can observe the amount citizenry. Consider the NSA’s response to the recent and pattern of traffic between the different databases. Snowden leaks: These patterns are characteristic of the analysis being performed, and so deviations from the normal patterns “This failure originated from two practices of communication between databases are cause for that we need to reverse,” Ashton B. Carter, concern. In this manner, an open civil authority can the deputy secretary of defense, said perform substantial, fairly effective monitoring of the recently. “There was an enormous amount functioning of a classified agency. In most cases it is of information concentrated in one place,” sufficient that each element of the system monitor only he said. “That’s a mistake.” And second, local traffic. no individual should be given the kind of A familiar example of this type of monitoring is 5 access Mr. Snowden had, Mr. Carter said. the “many eyes” security strategy. When patterns of communication among different departments are visible (as with physical mail), then the patterns of normal That is, the government must organize big data operations are also visible to many employees, even resources in a distributed manner, with each different though the content of the operations (the content of type of data separated and dispersed among many The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 57 © 2014 World Economic Forum

82 Chapter 1.4: Big Data: Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven Public Policy 1. Large data systems should store data in a the requested records) remains hidden. For example, a distributed manner, separated by type (e.g., financial health official responsible for maintaining health records vs. health) and real-world categories (e.g., individual will be able to see if those records are suddenly being vs. corporate). These systems should be managed accessed by the finance records office with unusual by a department whose function is focused on frequency, and may inquire if that is proper. In contrast, those data, with sharing permissions set and when copies of all the data types are all in one place (as monitored by personnel from that department. when all the records are located in one filing cabinet), it Best practice would have the custodians of data be is easy for people to conduct unauthorized analyses. regional and use heterogeneous computer systems. The computer architecture for the type of system With such safeguards in place, it is difficult to attack that relies on multiple, distributed types of oversight many different types of data at once, and it is more is very similar to that of the trust networks described difficult to combine data types without authentic in the previous section: distributed data stores with authorization. permissions, provenance, and auditing for sharing among data stores. In this case, however, the data 2. Data sharing should always maintain provenance stores are segmented by their referent—for example, and permissions associated with data, and should tax records for individuals, tax records for companies, support automatic, tamper-proof auditing. Best import records from country X to port Y, and so practice would share answers only to questions on—rather than having one data store per person. about the data (e.g., by using the pre-programmed Because the architecture is so similar to the citizen- structured query language, or SQL, queries centric personal data stores, it enables easier and safer known as “Database Views”) rather than sharing sharing of data between citizens and government. For the data themselves, whenever possible. This this reason, several states within the United States are allows improved internal compliance and auditing beginning to test this architecture for both internal and and helps to minimize the risk of unauthorized external data analysis services. information leakage by providing the minimum Finally, it should not escape the reader’s attention amount of information required. that all of these lessons also apply to companies with 3. Systems controlled by partner organizations, and large, complex databases. Misbehavior by employees, not just one’s own systems, should be secure. industrial espionage, and cyberattack are among the External data sharing should take place only greatest dangers that companies face in the big data between data systems that have similar local era. A distributed architecture of databases joined with control, permissions, provenance, and auditing, a network that supports permissions, provenance, and should include the use of standardized legal and auditing can reduce risk and increase resilience of agreements such as those employed in trust companies’ internal data analysis functions. networks, as described earlier. Without such safeguards, data can be siphoned off at either the SUMMARY data source or at the end consumer, without even We are entering a big data world, where governance attacking central system directly. is far more driven by data than it has been in the past. Basic to the success of a data-driven society is the 4. The need for a secure data ecosystem extends to protection of personal privacy and freedom. Discussions the private data of individuals and the proprietary at the World Economic Forum have made substantial data of partner companies. As a consequence, best contributions to altering the privacy and data ownership practice for data flows to and from individual citizens standards around the world in order to give individuals and businesses is to require them to have secure unprecedented control over data that are about personal data stores and be enrolled in a trust them, while at the same time providing for increased 6 network data sharing agreement. transparency and engagement in both the public and private spheres. 5. All entities should employ secure identity credentials We still face the challenge that large organizations, at all times. Best practice is to base these 7 in particular governments and corporations, may be credentials on biometric signatures. tempted to abuse the power of the data that they 6. Create an “open” data commons that is available hold. To address this concern, we need to establish to partners under a lightweight legal agreement, best practices that are in the interest of both large such as the trust network agreements. Open data organizations and individuals. This chapter has can generate great value by allowing third parties to suggested one path that can limit potential abuses of improve services. power while at the same time providing greater security for organizations that use big data. The key policy Although these recommendations might seem recommendations for all large organizations, commercial cumbersome at first glance, they are for the most part or government, are that: easily implemented with the standard protocols already 58 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

83 Chapter 1.4: Big Data: Balancing the Risks and Rewards of Data-Driven Public Policy found within modern computer databases and networks. In many cases, the use of distributed data stores and already part of current practice, and management are so the entire system will be simpler and cheaper to implement than a centralized solution: all that is really new is the careful use of provenance, permissions, and auditing within a legal or regulatory framework such as a trust network. Most importantly, these recommendations will result in a data ecosystem that is more secure and resilient, allowing us to safely reap the advantages of using big data to help set and monitor public policy. NOTES See the D4D challenge, available at http://www.d4d.orange.com/ 1 home. For examples of trust networks, see Pentland 2009; World 2 Economic Forum 2011; and the Institute for Data Driven Design, available at http://idcubed.org. 3 For details about openPDS, see http://idcubed.org/open-platform/ openpds-project/. 4 For information about the Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL), see http://www.mobileterritoriallab.eu/. Sanger 2013. 5 Pentland 2009; World Economic Forum 2011; http://idcubed.org. 6 7 See http://openid.net/connect/. REFERENCES Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Barker, R. 1968. Studying the Environment of Human Behavior. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. The Framingham Study: The Epidemiology of Dawber, T. 1980. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Atherosclerotic Disease. Press. ID3 (Institute for Data Driven Design, or idcubed). Available at http://idcubed.org. MTL (Mobile Territorial Lab). Available at http://www.mobileterritoriallab.eu/. OpenID Connect. Available at http://openid.net/connect/. Orange. D4D Challenge. Available at http://www.d4d.orange.com/home. Pentland, A. 2009. “Reality Mining of Mobile Communications: Toward a New Deal on Data.” In The Global Information Technology . Geneva: World Report 2008–2009: Mobility in a Networked World Economic Forum. 75–80. Available at www.insead.edu/v1/gitr/wef/ main/fullreport/files/Chap1/1.6.pdf. ——— . 2 0 1 4 . Social Physics: How Good Ideas Spread—The Lessons New York: Penguin Press. from a New Science. Sanger, D. E. 2013. “A Washington Riddle: What Is ‘Top Secret ‘?” The New York Times Sunday Review, August 3. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/04/sunday-review/a-washington- riddle-what-is-top-secret.html?_r=0. World Economic Forum. 2011. Personal Data: The Emergence of a Geneva: World Economic Forum. New Asset Class. Available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_ITTC_ PersonalDataNewAsset_Report_2011.pdf. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 59 © 2014 World Economic Forum

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85 CHAPTER 1.5 is One of the biggest challenges of the term big data deciding on a standard definition of what those words really mean. For many companies that have worked in an Managing the Risks environment of large datasets, fast-moving information, and data that lack traditional structure, working in an and Rewards of Big Data environment of big data is just business as usual. In this chapter we will discuss how managing the growing MATT QUINN challenge of data is not new for a regional healthcare CHRIS TAYLOR organization in the Midwestern United States, a global TIBCO logistics company, and a major American retailer. But for a majority of organizations, which have neither integrated data nor built a strategy around its use, the term big itself is a way to express the sudden digitization data of many things that have been with us forever but were not previously captured and stored as data. For most companies, big data represents a significant challenge to growth and competitive positioning. In some cases, it represents the survival of the business. BIG DATA: RISKS AND REWARDS Digitization itself is not new, but the maturation and availability of the Internet; the rapid growth of mobile computing; and, more recently, the addition of sensor data (data derived from devices that sense their environment) to the mix have all pushed the boundaries of how we think about data and its uses. The term big data represents the need for a new way of thinking but also implies new tools and new ways of managing data. Like many things, data can be used to do positive things for the world, but it can also be used to manipulate, embarrass, or repress. Data can be highly accurate and efficiently structured or unstructured, fragmented, and highly suspect. Data can also be managed well or carelessly. Big data, in its outsized properties, amplifies those effects. It is in those extremes that the risks and rewards of big data are decided. THREE KEY BIG DATA TRENDS As the world becomes more familiar with big data, three key trends that have a significant impact on those risks and rewards are emerging. First and foremost, big data leverages previously untapped data sources. Those sources are of several types. The first includes wearable devices that stream data about an individual and his or her surrounding environment on a moment- by-moment basis—such sensors include the applications on a smartphone that sense movement. The sensor in a runner’s shoe is a very consumer-facing example, but business-facing sensors, which track all kinds of things, are proliferating very quickly. A pacemaker is a sensor that has been around a while (the newer models give feedback to healthcare workers). The next type comprises connected sensors that instantly digitize and report what is happening in any moment and in any location. Examples of this type include the global positioning system (GPS) device that reports location back to a central computer or a user, The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 61 © 2014 World Economic Forum

86 Chapter 1.5: Managing the Risks and Rewards of Big Data complexity is the increasing access to real-time data and devices in the soil of a farm that sense when and that leaves organizations in some industries attempting how much to irrigate. There are also sensors in trains, to reduce their response time to microseconds, for example, that watch for signals that maintenance is understanding that this is a crucial part of being necessary before a human could ever see them, such successful in their business. as brake heat, brake wear, movement in the rails, and so The value-time curve challenge makes big data on. This new breed of sensors is coming into service and management a function of creating automation wherever is connected to the Internet, making big data even bigger possible. Machines have always been humanity’s friend than human-generated information. in making work more efficient, and big data follows the The third type of sensor provides constant same path. Big data’s growth in each of its dimensions reporting by machines that perform the work critical eliminates the ability for humans to intervene and to our security, health, and lifestyle. Machines can be reprogram processes in real time, opening the door for something as large as an aircraft or locomotive or they better and better tools that can manage data far more can be components of one of those things. Some of quickly and efficiently than a human can. Data exist in the most interesting of these sensors are the ones a moment, ready for decision and action, but there is a that measure the way an aircraft engine is performing higher-level purpose for information. Data comprise the mid-flight. Machines used to be purely mechanical but digital representation of events, or things that happen in are increasingly computer controlled. Those computer patterns that occur over time, in conjunction with other controls mean not only that data are constantly being events or in isolation, and even with things that may be fed into machines but that they are also coming out of expected but do not occur (such as when a patient fails machines at a quickly increasing rate. to pick up a prescription after being discharged from a We have reached a point of information discovery hospital, starting a likely string of events that will lead to that reveals correlation before causation, leaving readmission). researchers scratching their heads to find the underlying The idea of keeping track of what does not occur is causes for correlations that data analysis clearly a level of complexity higher than the old ways of waiting demonstrates. TIBCO’s chief executive officer, Vivek for data to arrive or change. Automation is especially Ranadive, is fond of saying that we have reached a point well suited to the complexity of predicting, and then where we may know the “what” without knowing the anticipating, events. In many organizations, automation “why.” is also a significant part of the actions that events The previously untapped information sources create precipitate. a data ecosystem that can be modeled in a way that The big data conversation often centers on the use blends historical with in-the-moment information and of machines as the best resource for the storage and is remarkably useful for anticipating the future. These analytic processing of vast amounts of data, but this is models accurately predict such diverse outcomes as the only a piece of the story. Automation is increasingly a spread of disease, the failure rate of aircraft components, logical response to the need to find, filter, and correlate and consumer behaviors. Big data’s effectiveness is each piece of data as it flows over the enterprise so tightly coupled to an organization’s ability to bring the that decisions can be made—some through automation right data together in the right moments that allow for the and some using a hybrid approach combining human right response and outcome. Whatever we may know and machine. Once decisions are reached, automation today, the continued discovery of previously untapped becomes the path for taking action in the shortest time data sources will continue to change and improve our frame possible before the value of data decays further. models, allowing us to better anticipate future events The third trend being driven by big data is the and to continue to increase our ability to affect desired necessity for adaptable, less fragile systems. For outcomes. big data to leverage previously untapped sources of The desire to affect outcomes brings about the information, organizations need to quickly adapt to second trend of big data: the need for automation the opportunities and risks represented by these new technologies. Richard Hackathorn wrote about the value- sources. Automated systems that manage big data time curve of information back in 2004 in “Real-Time to ecosystems cannot be developed around rigid schemas Real-Value,” just as the world was becoming broadly and 1 that require redevelopment for each new stream of acutely aware of the explosion of data. Hackathorn’s information. Instead, systems need to absorb new curve describes the decreasing value of data over time information in an adaptable way that also adds value to as it passes through stages of use (Figure 1). existing data that have already been collected. Adaptable The challenge of the decreasing value of data over systems treat new sources of data coming constantly as time has become even more meaningful in the age of the means to improve analytical models, create better big data. Today, the volume, velocity, and variety of data decisions, and drive more appropriate actions. continue to push the curve down and to the right as organizations struggle to capture, analyze, and decide in a gradually more difficult environment. Added to this 62 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

87 Chapter 1.5: Managing the Risks and Rewards of Big Data Figure 1: The value-time curve Business event Process entry and exit l Process intermediate steps l D A T A L A T E N C Y Data stored Value A N Information delivered A L Y S I S L A T E N C Y Action taken D E C I S I O N L A T E N C Y Time Source: Hackathorn 2004. complexity. Unfortunately, when people talk about “big RESOLVING TWO PRIMARY CHALLENGES OF data” they often use the term to compartmentalize it and BIG DATA give it boundaries. This is a natural reaction and harkens Most organizations need to overcome two primary to the beginning of computerization when data were challenges before becoming productive with big data. processed as batches of transactions that represented a The first is the need for powerful visualization that finite amount of information. Thinking of big data in those allows the business to explore data to find questions terms fails to take into account all of the data being worth answering. This stands the traditional business created everywhere, every day. This compartmentalized intelligence model on its head, as the pre–big data view can also deprecate data that may not appear model began with the business asking a question and useful or valuable or may be difficult to process. At a ended with information technology structuring data point in the future, organizations will very likely look back to answer those questions in a very repeatable way, and wish they had considered all data when deciding typically as dashboards. Visualization instead begins with what to store. When we consider data without specific capturing all data available so that multi-structured and boundaries, we can focus our efforts on linking data iterative discovery can take place that reveals information together and analyzing them more broadly. We will with or without having the right question. Visualization probably find the data have value for a wider range of lets the data speak for themselves. people in the organization than originally anticipated. Humans are extremely well suited to visual analysis. When we consider all data, we can see the value Our brains are wired to very rapidly assimilate what we of discovering the connectivity of data. This brings into see and spot patterns. Using our eyes, we can spot a consideration different data types that are used to adorn trend or an outlier in a fraction of a second, far faster our original data and make them more valuable as a than we can by sifting through numbers on a screen. If a source of visual, predictive, and operational analytics. picture is worth a thousand words, visualization is worth Why does that matter? We have grown accustomed to petabytes, terabytes, and more of raw data. Visualized having instantaneous answers to our questions. As data data and the human mind make for a highly efficient grow, they have the very real likelihood of slowing down combination. Most importantly, visualized data have the how decisions are made. Nonlinear growth taxes our effect of engaging the non-technical but business-savvy systems and creates the scenario that every day we get human in the iterative process of discovering exploitable bogged down more as untapped data sources become insight. This lessens the organization’s reliance on newly available, our clever automations become less technical resources and, specifically, on data scientists. effective, and our systems seem less adaptable than The second hurdle that organizations face is the before. An all-data approach allows the organization need to manage ever-larger amounts of data. Systems to see today’s information as the best we have in the scoped for today’s needs quickly become insufficient moment, knowing that we will continue to layer on more when the data are increasing in size, speed, and The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 63 © 2014 World Economic Forum

88 Chapter 1.5: Managing the Risks and Rewards of Big Data STRIKING A PRIVACY BALANCE data—not with the goal of having a larger dataset, but We have watched the sharing of personal data increase instead with the goal of using all of the data available to year after year since people first connected across gain the best outcome. Rather than slowing down the the Internet. Many of the risks and rewards of big data results, using all available data takes into account data are coupled tightly to the use of all of those data. On linkages and permits a broad analysis that allows the the reward side, data can be used to create far better most organizational clients to constantly arrive at the customer service by knowing the customers’ needs and best possible outcome. histories. They can be used to create more personalized Enabling the organization with visualization and the offers based on customers’ preferences and their loyalty constantly additive benefits of all data allows experts to a brand. From this perspective, data can be used to to be able to explore data to find their value. For a engage the customer and to create a better relationship retailer, that means being able to explore diverse data that serves everyone’s needs. Healthcare-related that include historical visits to the website as well as personal information improves treatment and saves lives transactions completed or shopping carts abandoned; both at the individual level and in aggregate, as clinical with the addition of geographical information from a trials of sample patients give way to all data about every mobile society, the retailer has an ability to understand patient. the ambient circumstances at the time decisions are Personalization and healthcare offer two standout being made. opportunities for big data to reward us. At the same time, big data comes with privacy concerns that are ENSURING THAT HUMANS STAY IN THE LOOP not simply related to technology but are also about very For exactly this reason we need to take a very careful human things such as privacy, all-knowing “creepiness,” approach to how big data is being used and apply the and personal security. Given enough personal data, right level of oversight. There are two specific reasons for information can be correlated that can be both unsettling having an appropriate governance model, each tackling and unwanted. Today’s public, legislative, and legal the problem from the opposite perspective. The first is sentiments may not be tomorrow’s, and these attitudes a need to ensure that data are not being used in a way tend to diverge by government and region of the world. that goes against the organization’s best interests. Such What is standard practice in terms of collecting personal unfortunate (even inappropriate) uses can be the result of information in the United States is frowned upon in rogue individuals with no checks and balances on their many parts of Europe. Managing the “Facebook Effect,” access and actions, or it can be the result of individuals where people willingly share ever-increasing amounts of acting with the best intentions but incurring unintended personal information, is a challenge for individuals and consequences that go against the goals of the governments as well as for the software companies that organization. Data are very powerful, and organizations sit in the middle, confronted with inconsistent norms and need to ensure that information is being collected, laws across different locations in the world. stored, analyzed, and acted upon in ways that can be Privacy paradigms are in constant flux, but the need audited and that raises alarms when necessary. for a consistent approach to meet privacy expectations The second need for governance is demonstrated never changes. Protecting privacy has, at its roots, by the danger of having machines talking to machines the need to protect data both at a discrete level and, without a human supervising the conversation. Systems maybe even more importantly, at an aggregate level. need to leave an aperture for control by humans to avoid Learning a great deal about a person by combining the problems of passive neglect or runaway processing. factors that may seem harmless at a discrete level but, Finding the right balance is the challenge, and it involves when taken together, may give away information that looking at the value of the decisions being reached and the person would not want generally known is one such the risk associated with the decision. There is a broad example. This could happen, for instance, by combining spectrum of judgments that covers small, incremental someone’s Facebook status with the location where he decisions that have moderate impact on an overall or she logged in to pay an electric bill with the home risk profile versus large, occasional decisions that can zip code; this could target wealthy people by knowing have enormous impact. Machines are exceptionally that they are not at home, making them vulnerable to good at monitoring and executing detail, but the burglaries. Each discrete piece of information is not need for humans to focus on the macro decisions is meaningful, but in the aggregate can make someone a significant. Consider the car analogy: a human cannot potential victim. be involved in every firing of every cylinder. The human Systems exist that can manage the access, has absolute responsibility, however, for the speed of the movement, and dissemination of data, but in our haste car under the current conditions, monitoring the engine to build out the largest datasets and the maximum temperature, and a host of other variables. computational power, the need to put the right controls in place has been consistently overlooked. Some of this has been naiveté, and some has been a deliberate 64 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

89 Chapter 1.5: Managing the Risks and Rewards of Big Data sensitive cargos that require constantly monitoring all stretching of the boundaries of individual expectations. data. A global logistics company must monitor discrete Throughout the evolution of big data, the capability data such as package temperature, location, and time to to govern data appropriately has existed, but unless delivery that continually describe a shipment’s ambient organizations make the choice themselves or are pushed conditions; furthermore, these data must be available by legal or public pressure, the protection of personal alongside expiration data and acceptable data ranges. privacy remains a low priority. Those aggregate data form the basis for ensuring non-stop compliance to local and international SHOWING BIG DATA’S SOPHISTICATED SYSTEMS standards for moving items that require special handling. Gaining benefits from big data while mitigating risks is Those same data ensure that contract terms are entirely a matter of data systems sophistication. This being respected and provide the basis for improving section will explore three examples that demonstrate the profitability while decreasing waste and inefficiency successful use of big data. within a contracted service. It is a gift that keeps on The first example of that sophistication is on display giving, as detailed historical shipment data allow better at a major network of hospitals in the Midwest to pricing of potential new contracts, making the logistics address the problem of sepsis—the systemic infection carrier more competitive and reducing the risk of of the body—which is a constant threat to hospitalized negotiating and accepting poor contracts. Without the patients. Sepsis is usually acquired in the healthcare ability to manage all relevant data, logistics companies facility; it is not the reason a patient arrives. Instead, and their customers would be unable to effectively move sepsis appears somewhere between a patient’s travel cargoes that bring enormous benefits to all parts of the between the emergency room, the laboratory, the planet. radiology department, and any other department where The third example is seen in retail markets. In retail, treatment is given. If not treated immediately, sepsis the management of big data supports a brand’s ability usually results in the death of the patient. to predict the best product offering and to establish This healthcare company realized that, in order effective marketing and loyalty programs. It also supports to tackle the sepsis problem, they had to create better ways to sell and greatly improves customer a sophisticated system that could follow a patient 4 service execution. throughout his or her stay. The system needed to track Big data offers an enormous reward patient data despite that patient’s location within the to retail because successful selling is ultimately about hospital and despite the siloed information technology having an excellent understanding of customers and the systems that are all too common in healthcare. Most circumstances in which they buy. Even more importantly, of all, the system needed to bring data together in a successful retail is about creating the circumstances way that allows high-speed correlation, based on prior that A fan feels a personal turn a customer into a fan. analysis of sepsis data, so that medical staff can be connection to the brand and is much more likely to be an alerted within life-saving time frames. This company’s advocate. From a revenue perspective, a fan has a much sophisticated system was successful at significantly greater total lifetime value. shortening time frames for response to sepsis and But creating a fan is not a simple exercise in better significantly decreased the mortality rate in their facilities. customer service. Predictive analytics, heavily dependent They were successful enough, in fact, to allow their on powerful visualization, form the basis for knowing the system to be turned into a Software-as-a-Service and best moments and the best ways to engage with the 2 contracted to other facilities. customer. Understanding the past is key to predicting the future, and visualization reveals the meaningful The second example is one of logistics. Like patterns in data that tell us what happened under a host healthcare, logistics is an age-old practice undergoing of variables in the past. Visual analytics tell the retailer big data transformation. It has become far more what can be anticipated in today’s real-time situations complicated in recent years because of the explosion and set the stage for blending information streaming of data that connect the customer’s customer and the constantly from the website, store, and logistical supplier’s supplier. We are able to know significantly systems, along with data coming from mobile devices. more in the form of digital data that not only allow the That information is vitally important to knowing not only prediction of outcomes but that also allow us to make how to provide information and offers to help a customer operational decisions at any point along the supply through a purchase, but also how to best serve a chain. For a global package delivery company, knowing customer’s needs after products have been purchased. their business means being able to access all available The brand that knows its customers using this approach data to monitor not just the arrival and departure of is leaps and bounds ahead of the one that lacks these aircraft but also the aircraft altimeter and attitude in capabilities. order to provide additional layers of data that provide 3 Although the rewards are clear, a risk remains in better insight on the nuanced status of the flight. In a gaining the customer’s favor while requiring access to similar fashion, today’s complex contracts encompass so much personal information. Loyalty programs are the the global movement of pharmaceuticals and other The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 65 © 2014 World Economic Forum

90 Chapter 1.5: Managing the Risks and Rewards of Big Data Union. Those steps may include obtaining approval, ideal way to gain that access and avoid the creepiness either by asking permission or by gaining permission factor. Focused customer loyalty management elicits in exchange for tangible benefits for the collection and the customer’s permission through a system of rewards use of personal data—a common technique used by and exclusive offers that provides benefit back to the customer loyalty programs. Organizations should also customer, mitigating the risk of a brand being perceived consider the use of anonymization techniques to mask as stalking the customer or invading their privacy. personal identities where that is the appropriate path. Organizations, both public and private, must ENSURING THE BENEFITS, MITIGATING THE RISKS balance the risks and rewards of big data—especially as Managing the three key trends of leveraging previously big data moves from low impact “experiments” to driving untapped data sources, using automation wherever real-time operations and decision-making. Although possible, and creating less fragile data systems are social acceptance of what data can and will be shared crucial parts of ensuring the benefits of big data while is changing and evolving, its impact on privacy and mitigating its risks. Accomplishing these three objectives personal security and the introduction of the creepiness requires successfully meeting big data’s two main factor are all things to consider. Big data is a fast-moving challenges: the need to visualize by using analytics tools technology space that will affect all aspects of our lives. and the need to systematically discover, capture, govern, Transparency about what, how, and why data will be and secure ever-larger amounts of data. used will become more important as organizations Big data has a remarkable ability to change the seek to provide better services and products at both world. Its benefits need to be considered as a function the government and private levels. Taken together, the of how well its risks are managed. Truly expert handling trends and challenges will shape the path forward for of big data brings the reward of being able to react organizations that wish to be deliberate and wise about to world-changing events, both big and small, at an their use of big data. unprecedented rate and scope. Epidemics can be tracked and miracle drugs developed, but at the same NOTES time, there is a need to ensure that humans are not cut 1 Hackathorne 2004. out of the loop. Organizations need to carefully plan for the right level of oversight that gives an aperture of 2 The website for the service is http://mercytelehealth.com/services/ safe-watch/. control to humans—after all, big data should be working Confidential client example. 3 for the benefit of humans, not the other way around. Organizations that manage big data have an 4 Confidential client example. obligation to monitor security device, server, and application logs, all of which generate machine data REFERENCES that provide insight into how, when, and why machines Hackathorne, R. 2004. “The BI Watch: Real-Time to Real-Value.” January (2004). Available at http://www.bolder.com/ DM Review, are communicating with other machines. Monitoring the pubs/DMR200401-Real-Time%20to%20Real-Value.pdf. activities of machines allows organizations to watch for Mercy Services. Telehealth Services, Safe Watch. Available at patterns and avoid runaway transactions or manipulation http://mercytelehealth.com/services/safe-watch/. that can lead to fraud and other unintended results. Server logs also provide indications of who accessed data and how these data were used, affording critical oversight into potential illegal or unethical access and use of data. Machine data are monitored by healthcare organizations to show compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) standards, banks to prevent credit card fraud, and governments and corporations to watch for and prevent data loss. Today’s public, legislative, and legal sentiments may not be tomorrow’s; these attitudes will continue to diverge by government and region. Governments and other organizations need to balance the Facebook Effect, which entails the deliberate sharing of more and more personal information, with the requirements of security and what the marketplace can use for better customer service and marketing. Organizations, both public and private, need to proactively take steps to prevent privacy intrusion whether the public demands such measures or not. European governments provide an example with the “right to be forgotten” for minors across the European 66 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

91 CHAPTER 1.6 It is more than half a century since economist Fritz The Production and Distribution of Machlup, in his book 1 Knowledge in the United States, developed the concept Rebalancing a term later popularized of the knowledge economy, 2 by management theorist Peter Drucker. Both used Socioeconomic Asymmetry the phrase to differentiate between an economy based largely on goods and services produced by manual labor in a Data-Driven Economy and an economy based on the production of new ideas, information, and knowledge. PETER HAYNES, Atlantic Council The wide availability of low-cost information and Microsoft M-H. CAROLYN NGUYEN, communication technologies (ICTs)—which started in the early 1980s but gained real traction in the mid- 1990s with the advent of the public Internet—drove the economic transformation that Machlup and Drucker envisioned. Research by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shows how rapidly the combination of personal computers, digital telecommunication devices, and the Internet impacted economic growth in the early years of that troika. A 2004 OECD paper estimates that inflation-adjusted investment in ICTs accounted for an average of 0.5 percentage points of annual growth in real GDP in OECD countries 3 between 1995 and 2001. This represents about 20 percent of total growth in real GDP—a significant impact. And a 2002 OECD study demonstrated that corporate investment in networked computer systems is consistently associated with increased labor productivity—for example, productivity was found to be 11 percent higher in US manufacturing plants that have 4 computer networks. It took about 80 years for steam engines to increase labor productivity by approximately that amount, about 40 years for electricity, and more 5 than 20 years for pre-Internet ICTs. Yet it could be argued that what we saw in the years from the early to mid-1990s was less the emergence of knowledge economy than an information economy. a Early Internet-era ICTs enabled more efficient and effective processing and use of data, resulting in information that was, for the most part, used to improve the performance of existing processes, businesses, and industries. Although in some cases that information transformed businesses completely (e.g., Amazon), these are still traditional businesses. To describe what was created during this period as a knowledge economy would be an exaggeration. Much information has been generated from the raw data collection made possible by advances in ICTs, and significant new knowledge has been created, but neither is yet the foundation on which the global economy is built. That honor still belongs to physical goods and services. The recent emergence of big data, along with what is being called the “data-driven economy,” may finally make possible a true knowledge economy—by which we mean entirely new classes of economic activity predicated on insights and value derived from analyzing, contextualizing, and commingling vast datasets in ways that were previously either unknown or impossible. For The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 67 © 2014 World Economic Forum

92 Chapter 1.6: Rebalancing Socioeconomic Asymmetry in a Data-Driven Economy if not impossible, for individuals to give express consent companies (and entire economies) to keep growing, for all the data that may be generated about them. the development of such an economy is an imperative: Together, the above factors necessitate a change in battered by global competition, commoditization, and policy approach from a collection-based model toward a shrinking product/service cycles, corporations seeking use-based model, where individuals give permission for to maintain or grow their profit margins will increasingly of data related to them. the use rely on creating new (and hard-to-emulate) products and What is increasingly clear about an economy services based on insights derived from the datasets based on the collection, use, and analytics of big data that they own or can gain access to, especially those is how little we actually know about it—its potential risks pertaining to their customers. and rewards, as well as its implications for individuals, Two decades after the emergence of the consumer organizations, policy development, and growth. The rest Internet, the world is awash in data. By one estimate, of this chapter will focus on some core challenges that almost 3 zettabytes (3 billion terabytes) of information the authors believe could be particularly problematic— had been created by 2012, a digital deluge that is 6 and that may threaten to impede the development of a growing at around 50 percent a year. By the end of promising 21st-century knowledge economy. 2013, the number of wirelessly connected devices, at an estimated 8 billion, will have exceeded the 7.2 7 THE DEMISE OF FAIR VALUE EXCHANGE billion people on the planet. By 2020, as many as 50 All previous economic revolutions have been based billion devices could be wirelessly connected to the 8 on the idea of an explicit (i.e., transparent) fair value Internet, while the world population is forecast to be 9 exchange. For example, in return for $850, early 20th- fewer than 8 billion people. At the same time, from century consumers could obtain a 1909 Ford Model 2012 to 2017 machine-to-machine data traffic is set to 17 T; $1,565 bought a base-model 1981 IBM PC; and grow an estimated 24 times, to reach 6 × 10 bytes today, a hardback edition of Adam Smith’s The Wealth per month—an astonishing compound annual growth 10 of Nations is available for a price of about $17. The rate of 89 percent. Indeed, the majority of big data will costs and benefits to those on both sides of this value be collected passively and automatically, via machine- equation (usually an individual and a corporation) are to-machine transactions, and users will not be actively both clear and easily discoverable. The process by involved in the majority of those transactions. which the transaction is executed is well established in Big data, analytics, and machine learning promise modern economics: rational, self-interested economic new solutions to previously intractable problems (e.g., actors determine the price they are willing to pay for a in healthcare, disaster response, the environment, and good or service based on their subjective perception transportation); new businesses will be able to create of its utility—something that is usually quite simple for innovative services by selecting, combining, and parsing them to determine. Assuming that the market in which data in groundbreaking ways; and individuals will be the economic actors are engaging is not subject to empowered because they will be able to draw on a monopolistic or other distortions, prices tend to settle at wide range of yet-to-be-invented data-based services the point where supply equals demand. and tools to improve the quality of their lives. Big data, Research sponsored by Microsoft and published then, truly does promise to create new knowledge—and last year by the International Institute of Communications kinds of knowledge—on which an entirely indeed new found that, among other things, users consider do new economy can be founded. 11 fair value exchange in allowing the use of their data. However, the knowledge economy relies on the availability of an adequate supply of data to enable They have some expectation of what they will receive the discovery of new knowledge. This requires policy in return—for example, discounts, better service, an frameworks that permit data—including personal data—to improved product, or potential benefits to the larger be collected, analyzed, and exchanged freely, across community in which they live. geopolitical boundaries, while minimizing risks and Retailer loyalty cards are an example of this harms to individuals and enterprises globally. Existing type of transaction, and they also illustrate one of the regulatory approaches that are based on the principles challenges of the data-driven economy. Most consumers of notice and consent to restrict the collection of data understand that the discounts they receive via a loyalty personal pre-designated as may overly restrict the supply card are provided in exchange for data they supply to of data available, hampering the foundation for the new primary the retailer. But very few realize that the value economy. Furthermore, what is considered personal to the retailer is the ability to track and analyze the are individual decisions, subject to and acceptable use spending patterns of both individuals and aggregated context, perceived value, and social and cultural norms— datasets of groups of consumers. In other words, all of which are in a constant state of flux. significant information asymmetries are embedded in collection of data that is the In reality, it is not the the transaction, and the average consumer lacks all the source of potential harm, but its unconstrained use. information required to make a rational decision about Moreover, in the world of big data, it would be impractical, whether he or she should participate in it. 68 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

93 Chapter 1.6: Rebalancing Socioeconomic Asymmetry in a Data-Driven Economy As the global economy becomes increasingly Box 1: Potential approaches for estimating the grounded in the exchange of data, the ways in which value of personal data those data are collected and analyzed will become even more opaque to the consumer and the value The following methods for valuing personal data have been exchange even harder to discern; trust will decrease identified, but each has important drawbacks. Possible correspondingly. An individual may have only a vague approaches include: idea of what data exist about him or her and what determining the market capitalizations of firms with • is being done with these data. Some will have been business models predicated on personal data; actively volunteered by the consumer; some will have • ascertaining the revenues or net income per data been obtained passively, with or without his or her record; explicit knowledge; and yet more may have been inferred • establishing the market prices at which personal data by commingling a range of public and private, personal are offered or sold; and non-personal datasets in ways that might expose • establishing the economic cost of a data breach; new information or knowledge about each consumer’s habits, lifestyle, health, or financial situation. Although • determining prices for personal data in illegal markets; the individual may receive something in return for this reviewing economic experiments and surveys that • information, the real values of both the data provided attempt to establish the price companies would need to pay for individuals to give up some of their personal and the service returned (in other words, the underlying information; and exchange of value) may be almost impossible to determine. ascertaining how much individuals would be willing to • pay to protect their data. Today little agreement exists about how best to value online data. The most comprehensive survey of Source: OECD 2013. valuation methodologies was presented in a recent OECD study (on which the authors of this chapter consulted) that identified numerous ways in which 12 be valued in the market (refer to Box 1). might data However, each of these methods has significant flaws, medical protocols. However, because the value created and none addresses the potential social and economic does not involve explicit market transactions, attributing benefits of personal data. For example, corporate this benefit directly to data involves some inspired revenues per record/user are problematic because approximation. And even though one estimate puts the revenues contribute to economic growth only insofar 13 savings in this case at up to US$300 billion, as they generate added value (or surplus). Revenue of most of $4 per record/user with near-zero profitability is very the ways in which data are valued today would consider different from $4 per record/user with 40 percent net such benefits an externality to be ignored. profit. Similarly, the vast amount of personal data on For many people, however, the various ways in Facebook have a relatively low per-person value because might which data be valued are largely irrelevant today, the company, while making significant profits from the because they have already given away their digital crown sheer scale of its data holdings, has yet to find the Holy jewels for free. Individuals are passing massive amounts Grail of social-media data monetization. Amazon, by of personal and other data to large corporations with contrast, collects far less personal information from little or no thought to its potential monetary value—and individuals, but its business model is predicated on those corporations are making significant profits as a advanced purchase analytics. Thus, on a per-user level, result, because their cost of materials is essentially zero. its inferred personal data (which are at present mostly The concept of fair value exchange no longer exists, at outside the user’s control) are more valuable than least not in any conventional sense. Facebook users, for Facebook’s volunteered personal data (which the user example, provide it with data that have the potential to has painstakingly assembled, and over which she or he generate immense long-term value for the company; in has at least nominal control). return they receive a “free” service, but the transaction Distinguishing personally beneficial uses of data is wholly asymmetrical. As the computer scientist Jaron from socially beneficial uses is a further challenge Lanier has observed, “[T]he dominant principle of the because each creates separate and significant value. new economy, the information economy, has lately been personal value of using an electronic For example, the to conceal the value of information... We’ve decided health record is improved treatment for the patient—and not to pay most people for performing the new roles this undoubtedly has direct monetary value in the form of that are valuable in relation to the latest technologies. socially reduced costs, better outcomes, and so on. But Ordinary people ‘share,’ while elite network presences uses also create (or could create) value— beneficial generate unprecedented fortunes.” And if an individual’s for example, by facilitating research into new drugs, information is not valued in economic terms, Lanier 14 identifying new epidemiological trends, or improving adds, “a massive disenfranchisement will take place.” The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 69 © 2014 World Economic Forum

94 Chapter 1.6: Rebalancing Socioeconomic Asymmetry in a Data-Driven Economy In other words, under the current model, the greater But the use of metadata does not stop at enabling the role that data play in the global economy, the less the enforcement of user permissions and related the majority of individuals will be worth. This could mean policies. It can also be utilized to track and capture the monetary value produced by personal data, over time, that a data-driven economy may become a contracting in a decentralized data ecosystem—and consequently economy. Like Lanier, we believe that if a truly provides a foundation for both trustworthy data sustainable data-driven economy is to be established, and fair value exchange. Consider: metadata enables the way in which data are traded between individuals individuals to change their personal data preferences and corporations will require a major reset. For a data- and permissions over time, prevent undesirable use of driven economy to thrive, individuals would have to previously collected data, address unanticipated uses, receive fair/appropriate monetary compensation for each specific datum they provide, perhaps with additional and adjust to changing norms. Thus, if we consider payments whenever that datum produces incremental personal data to be the product of an individual’s online “labors,” and if we further consider that, in order profits for the entity to which it has been given (a to introduce the concept of fair value exchange (and concept popularized by Lanier). Such an arrangement sustainability) into a data-driven economy, those data would be complex: a specific datum might gain value only when commingled with other data, for example, and must be assigned monetary value, then metadata is the mechanism that will enable individuals to “direct” their any payment/micropayment system would have to be labors and reap the related benefits for the duration of capable of keeping track of such complexities (assuming its existence in the data ecosystem—enabling a more the individual has given permission for this to happen). enlightened society in the digital space. How such And a sustainable data-driven economy might also entail individuals paying fees (likely modest) for services they an approach would incorporate machine-to-machine generation and use of data remains unanswered, now consider (erroneously) to be “free.” however, and requires considerably more research. Such systems, or similar approaches that address these concerns, will be essential to establish the Such an approach is technologically non-trivial. A primary challenge is security: although metadata can be concept of fair value exchange in the world of big data. bound to data, it can also be by bad The importance to our economic future—to the entire logically unbound concept of a data-driven economy—of undergoing actors (a situation similar to the vulnerability of today’s financial systems to hackers). Thus a strong legal and this evolution cannot be overstated. Without it, the policy framework will be required to ensure that criminals consumers who today are the engine of economic are discouraged from doing this (again analogous to growth will increasingly lose their ability to participate in the laws governing today’s financial systems). Another the economy. Without fair value exchange for data along with inherent trust in the data ecosystem, everyone will challenge lies in specifying the user permissions and policies that would govern how data can be used ultimately lose—consumers, corporations, and countries within—and shared across—trust boundaries, and how alike. Establishing a system of fair value exchange will those permissions and policies would be negotiated and require new thinking on how technology policy can work in parallel. among the multiple parties with claims on the data 16 or claims to its monetary value. Yet another, highly DESIGNING A TRUSTWORTHY—AND significant challenge is developing the appropriate ECONOMICALLY VIABLE—DATA ECOSYSTEM interfaces that will enable individuals to specify their We believe that an essential element of the foundation permissions, either directly or through other means (such that can enable user trust and fair value exchange as recommender systems or data intermediaries). is an interoperable metadata-based architecture. In Achieving all this will require the specification of such an architecture, data are logically accompanied an interoperable metadata-based architecture that can by a “metadata tag” that contains references to the function at Internet scale. The development of such permissions and policies associated with the data, an architecture needs to be a collaboration between along with related provenance information, specified multiple data stakeholders to ensure its feasibility in an extensible and interoperable markup language. and inherent security, as well as its ability to enable to the data and The metadata is logically bound alternative policy frameworks. cannot legally be unbound or modified for the entire A metadata-based architecture offers value to all data lifecycle by any parties other than the user or as stakeholders in the data ecosystem, not only users. Data specified by, for example, a related policy or rules of a controllers and processors can more easily understand “trust framework.” More comprehensive consideration of and comply with permissions and policies defined Realizing the Full Potential these issues can be found in for specific data. They can also establish a dynamic, of Health Information Technology to Improve Healthcare economically viable and sustainable “marketplace” in Digital and the for Americans: The Path Forward data that would ideally mirror the way in which fair value 15 Enlightenment Yearbook 2013. exchange is established in the physical world. Solution providers can create applications and services that 70 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

95 Chapter 1.6: Rebalancing Socioeconomic Asymmetry in a Data-Driven Economy 10 Cisco 2013. produce new business value and track the associated value chain, yet still use data in privacy-preserving 11 International Institute of Communications 2012. ways. Companies can develop metadata schemas that 12 OECD 2013. fully describe data use, codes of conduct, and relevant 13 Manyika et al. 2011. policies to meet industry and regulatory requirements. 14 Lanier 2013, p. 15. And regulators can take advantage of greatly improved 15 See PCAST 2010 and Nguyen et al. 2013. When two or more auditability of data, along with a stronger and better- entities agree to abide by a common set of legal rules, codes defined connection between the data and those policies of conduct, other business and technical rules, and operational rules, they are generally referred to as belonging to the same trust that govern its use. framework. Although metadata can help facilitate a data-driven 16 In some respects, this is no more complicated than guarantee that entities handling the economy, it cannot the agreements that have existed for years among telecommunications carriers—the scale and scope are different, data will honor the permissions and policies associated the principles similar. with them. However, when implemented as part of a principles-based policy framework that provides REFERENCES guidance on trustworthy data practices—supplemented Ahmad, N., P. Schreyer, and A. Wölfl. 2004. “ICT Investment in OECD by voluntary but enforceable codes of conduct and Countries and its Economic Impacts.” In The Economic Impact underpinned by legal redress—this is a flexible approach of ICT: Measurement, Evidence and Implications. Paris: OECD Publishing. 61–83. that holds the promise of satisfying the interests of regulators, individuals, and industry. In addition, as Astrotic, B. K., P. Boegh-Nielsen, K. Motohashi, and S. Nguyen. 2002. IT, Productivity and Growth in Enterprises: New Results from noted above, the authors believe that metadata could International Micro Data. Paper presented at the OECD Workshop also be a key to establishing a viable and sustainable on ICT and Business Performance, OECD, Paris, December 9. Available at http://www.rieti.go.jp/it/productivity/docs/DJUS_ economic ecosystem in a data-driven economy, enabling OECD_.pdf. the monetary value generated by data to be tracked, Bughin, J. and J. Manyika. 2013. “Measuring the Full Impact of Digital captured, and realized as payments to and from the July. Available at http://www. McKinsey Quarterly, Capital.” ecosystem’s participants. mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/measuring_ the_full_impact_of_digital_capital. Cisco. 2013. Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic CONCLUSION AND WAYS FORWARD Forecast Update, 2012–2017, February 6. Cisco. Available at There are many challenges here, and today we have http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.pdf. more questions than answers. But what is clear is that, in order to create a sustainable data-driven ecosystem, The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Drucker, P. F. 1969. New York: Harper and Row. Changing Society. technology and policy must work symbiotically. For Ericsson More Than 50 Billion Connected Devices. Ericsson. 2011. that to happen, governments and their regulatory White Paper 284 23-3149 Uen, February. Available at http://www. representatives need to partner closely with industry, ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/wp-50-billions.pdf. academic researchers, and consumer groups to gain a IDC Predictions 2012: Competing for 2020. Gens, F. 2011. IDC better understanding of the issues and to jointly develop #231720, Volume 1. Framingham, MA: IDC. Available at http://cdn.idc.com/research/Predictions12/Main/downloads/ innovative and evidence-based approaches to policy IDCTOP10Predictions2012.pdf. frameworks that address the above needs. Similar to Personal Data International Institute of Communications. 2012. evolution of new technologies, such approaches will Management: The User’s Perspective. International Institute of need to be iterative. Communications. Available at http://www.iicom.org/open-access- resources/doc_details/226-personal-data-management-the-users- only Indeed, our view is that governments are the perspective. entities with the ability to convene the broad societal Who Owns the Future? Lanier, J. 2013. New York: Simon & Schuster. coalition that will be required if the promise of a data- The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the Machlup, F. 1962. driven knowledge economy is to be fully realized. Such Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. United States. dialogues will, of course, need to be conducted on a Manyika, J. M. Chui, B. Brown, J. Bughin, R. Dobbs, C. Roxburgh, and global level. A. Hung Byers. 2011. Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition and Productivity. McKinsey Global Institute Report, May. Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_ NOTES technology/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation. Machlup 1962. 1 Nguyen, M.-H. C., P. Haynes, S. Maguire, and J. Friedberg. 2013. 2 Drucker 1969. “A User-Centred Approach to the Data Dilemma: Context, Architecture, and Policy.” In Digital Enlightenment Yearbook 2013. Ahmad et al. 2004. 3 IOS Press Ebooks. 227–42. Available at http://ebooks.iospress.nl/ publication/35146. Astrotic et al. 2002. Data are for value-added labor productivity. 4 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 5 Bughin and Manyika 2013. 2013. “Exploring the Economics of Personal Data: A Survey of 6 Gens 2011. Methodologies for Measuring Monetary Value.” OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 220. OECD Publishing. Available at http:// Cisco 2013. 7 www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/exploring-the- economics-of-personal-data_5k486qtxldmq-en. Ericsson 2011. 8 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2013. 9 71 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

96 Chapter 1.6: Rebalancing Socioeconomic Asymmetry in a Data-Driven Economy PCAST (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology). Realizing the Full Potential of Health Information Technology 2010. to Improve Healthcare for Americans: The Path Forward, December. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/ files/microsites/ostp/pcast-health-it-report.pdf. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2013. Available at http:// World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision. esa.un.org/wpp/. 72 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

97 CHAPTER 1.7 “Data is a precious thing. . .” and “...that’s why I’ve called data the new oil. Because it’s a fuel for innovation, 1 powering and energizing our economy.” These were the Building Trust: The Role of words of Neelie Kroes, Vice-President of the European Commission responsible for the Digital Agenda, when Regulation in Unlocking the speaking about the value of big data earlier in 2013. As Kroes noted, data comprise a fuel we have only just Value of Big Data begun to tap. This “new oil” is certainly plentiful. Trillions of bytes SCOTT BEARDSLEY of data are generated by companies that capture LUIS ENRIQUEZ information about their customers, suppliers, and FERRY GRIJPINK operations. Networked sensors and software embedded SERGIO SANDOVAL in devices and appliances are further energy generators, STEVEN SPITTAELS as are the growing volumes of media content. These MALIN STRANDELL-JANSSON sources of data do not even include the billions of McKinsey & Company individuals around the world generating the same fuel on their smartphones, personal computers, and laptops. And the volumes of data are exploding. McKinsey recently estimated that the data collected globally will grow from some 2,700 exabytes in 2012 to 40,000 2 exabytes by 2020. To put this into context, a single exabyte of data equals a hundred thousand times all the printed material of the Library of Congress. Definitions of big data vary greatly. Rather than put a number on what qualifies as “big,” McKinsey defines it as datasets so large that typical database software tools are unable to capture, store, manage, and analyze them. Such a definition allows for the fact that the size of datasets regarded as “big” will also grow with the 3 advance of technology. Whatever the precise definition, big data is widely acknowledged to create value in four ways. It creates greater transparency by making more and better information available more quickly. It helps organizations create highly specific segmentations, enabling them to tailor products and services more precisely. It helps improve decision-making by providing better tools for analysis. And it supports innovation in the form of new products and services. Big data can create significant value for the whole economy. McKinsey research shows that companies that use big data can deliver productivity and profit gains that are 5 to 6 percent higher than those of competitors. The private sector is not the only beneficiary, however. Big data can also enhance productivity and effectiveness of the public sector and create economic surplus for consumers. For example, the McKinsey Global Institute estimates that US healthcare expenditure could be reduced by 8 percent by using big data to drive efficiency and quality. No wonder, then, that governments and political institutions are promoting big data on their agendas and adopting initiatives such as the European Union’s open data directive, which aims to give both citizens and member governments access to a raft of government Please note: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of McKinsey and Company. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 73 © 2014 World Economic Forum

98 1.7: Building Trust: The Role of Regulation in Unlocking the Value of Big Data Figure 1: Consumers’ privacy protection concerns of Europeans think that disclosing personal data is increasingly part of modern life 74% Companies that breach protection rules should be* of US citizens think that companies collecting personal fined 78% information online are invading consumers’ privacy 51% of Internet users are worried about giving away too banned from using 72% much personal data such data in the future 40% of Europeans believe that their data would be better compelled to 88% protected in large companies that are obliged to name 39% compensate the victims a data protection officer Sources: USC Dornslife/Los Angeles Times 2012; European Commission 2011. * These data are taken from the Special Eurobarometer poll published in 2011. Respondents were asked to select 4 out of 12 possible responses to the question of what should happen to companies that breach protection rules. We present the top 3 responses here. companies can take themselves to promote consumer data. Governments understand that big data’s economic trust. and social potential can grow only alongside continued innovation in the underlying technologies, platforms, and CONSUMER TRUST AS AN ENABLER OF BIG DATA analytic capabilities for handling data, as well as the Research reveals that consumers are increasingly evolution of behavior among its users. Recent McKinsey concerned about how their personal data are used research shows that enabling “open data” or “liquid (Figure 1), although the level of concern varies according data” across seven domains—education, transportation, to the type of data being considered. Consumers care consumer products, electricity, oil and gas, healthcare, more about their financial transactions and health- and consumer finance—can generate more than US$3 4 related information than about their online habits, for trillion in additional value a year. example. The recent revelations by Edward Snowden There is no guarantee, however, that this potential disclosing US government data collection practices and will be fully realized. Several obstacles lie in the way. The the extraction of data from a number of large Internet uptake of big data will depend on the adoption of next- companies have further raised public awareness about generation telecommunications infrastructure, which is privacy issues and data protection in the online world. still in its early development in many parts of the world. If big data is to deliver on its promise, companies Another prerequisite is a large enough pool of talent with will need both to create customer trust in big data the advanced analytical skills needed to put the data to applications and their use and to help customers feel good use. This workforce will need to be trained. Equally, safe about the protection of their personal data and big data uptake will hinge on whether ways can be privacy. Governments and regulators will need to frame found to protect information technology infrastructures data protection policies that safeguard the privacy of and the data they carry from cyberattacks. A further both customers and citizens. At the same time, these imperative is to build the trust of citizens, who are policies must not stifle the innovation that big data can growing increasingly suspicious about how information deliver, or its attendant economic and social benefits. about them is being used. Regulation plays a role in tackling all these DATA PROTECTION ARCHETYPES ACROSS THE obstacles. This chapter focuses only on the need to WORLD build trust. It examines the various broad types of The protection of personal data has long been viewed regulatory frameworks that are emerging to protect as a fundamental right, enabling individuals to be in privacy. Furthermore, it identifies the key issues that control of data about their own person and preventing regulators will need to consider as their policies evolve if unnecessary listings and discriminatory behavior. their aim is to foster trust while not stifling the enormous Individuals can exercise this control by explicitly giving potential of big data, and it outlines some actions or withholding consent before their personal data are 74 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

99 1.7: Building Trust: The Role of Regulation in Unlocking the Value of Big Data or have recently introduced them (e.g., China and used. They have a right to be informed if those data India), others—such as Japan—have well-developed are to be used, and for what purpose. Companies laws. Examples of minimum-level principles are the and organizations using their data are also required requirement that individuals (where appropriate) to protect it from unauthorized use. There are strict should be able to exercise choice about the measures in place to protect medical data and credit collection, use, or disclosure of their data, and that information. the data collected should be accurate, complete, But the issue has become more complicated in 6 and up to date. the Internet era. Some argue that this right should be safeguarded more strongly than ever when so many • Strict ex-ante requirements. Ex-ante requirements companies and organizations are seeking access to apply in Europe, where both the Council of Europe personal data and can gain that access more easily. On and the EU Commission have developed extensive the other hand, as we have seen, economic, social, and frameworks to protect data and privacy in their personal benefits can arise from sharing data, and many 7 respective member countries. These frameworks consumers are perfectly happy to give up some of their not only define what is regarded as personal data privacy in return for certain goods or services. and how such data can and cannot be used, but Data protection laws are evolving not only in an they also set organizational and technological attempt to keep pace with technological developments requirements. Companies should, for example, and new ways of using, collecting, and sharing implement technological and organizational personal data, but also to keep pace with attitudes measures to protect the data gathered. Furthermore, toward privacy. To better understand the state of play, strict liabilities are in place relating to both McKinsey has conducted extensive research into the companies and cooperation frameworks for data protection regulatory frameworks of more than 20 regulators. The frameworks stipulate that data countries worldwide, identifying the key principles and from the European Union may be transferred requirements (Figure 2). only to countries that have an appropriate level of From our research we have identified three main 8 protection. archetypes of the level of regulation imposed around the world: from the least to the most extensive, these All three regulatory archetypes are constantly are regulations with a light touch, those with a minimum evolving. One example of this evolution is that the standard, and those with strict ex-ante requirements. European Union is currently updating the existing data protection directive from 1995 to better meet the • This is the approach Light touch/self-regulation. 9 requirements of today’s data-intensive world. In the used in the United States, where there is no general United States, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has federal data protection law. Instead, different increased its focus on data protection issues and has sectors—such as healthcare, telecommunications, published several reports and recommendations on the and finance—are regulated by specific laws applying topic in the past few years. It has also taken on a stricter only to these sectors. These laws are enforced by role regarding the enforcement of companies’ own sector-specific authorities. Separate states can also 10 privacy statements. The APEC framework was set up stipulate their own general regulations. Generally in 2004 and has evolved over the past 10 years. the onus is on industries and the companies Opinions on the best approach to data protection within them to build trust with their customers, and privacy regulation differ. Some experts argue either by issuing and following codes of conduct that it is better to adopt a light-touch approach in a or via contractual arrangements. Companies are technologically dynamic world because detailed, specific responsible for the privacy statements issued to regulation could quickly become obsolete and even their customers and can face judicial sanctions for hinder technological and business development. Others non-compliance. Facebook and Google are two argue that increasingly powerful technology makes 5 recent cases in point. a stricter regulatory approach necessary to protect privacy. Whatever approach is taken, we believe data Minimum standard setting. • In Asia, the Asia- protection and privacy regulation is becoming more and Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC, a forum of more important across the world, and countries and 21 Asia-Pacific economies) has developed a self- companies need to embrace it to create competitive regulatory framework setting out the principles that advantages for them in the future. economies should implement and companies then follow to ensure a common, minimum level of data KEY REGULATORY AREAS FOR BIG DATA UPTAKE protection across member economies. The aim is to Whatever approach any single government or regulator enable the easier transfer of data among economies chooses to adopt, all will need to pay particular where the level of data protection regulation varies attention to key areas that require further clarification to greatly. Although some Asian economies (such support the kind of innovation and prosperity that big as Pakistan) still lack data protection laws entirely 75 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

100 1.7: Building Trust: The Role of Regulation in Unlocking the Value of Big Data Figure 2: Variation in data protection regulation across markets Regulation maturity n High Mid n n Low EUROPEAN UNION UNITED STATES SOUTH AMERICA Tradition of “habeas data”—the right to No federal law exists to date Existing regulation is already the strictest find out if personal data is processed and globally Some state- and sector-specific laws have the right to file a complaint if it is misused stricter regulations Regulations cover all industry sectors After amendments, regulation in Argentina Case-by-case enforcement of privacy Regulation requires “adequate and Uruguay is at the EU level of strictness statements protection”—that is, the same level No specific data protection law exists in of protection for transmission to third Brazil, but the country has constitutional countries protection and sector-specific data A safe harbor agreement with the United protection legal provisions States enables free data transfer between compliant companies in the two regions MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ASIA PACIFIC A few countries (Morocco, Tunisia, the Data Protection Acts exist in some countries The level of protection ranges from strong (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine) United Arab Emirates) already have data protection in Japan and the Republic of protection laws Korea to weaker protection in Bangladesh, Enforcement is low (relevant mechanisms China, Pakistan, Indonesia, for example and authorities are not always in place) Morocco signed the Council of Europe data protection convention in 2013,* Recent awareness of data protection establishing a general data protection issues has resulted in several new laws in regime economies such as India, Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, as Most countries are unregulated or have well as other efforts, such as the APEC single points in sector laws (e.g., Algeria, Cross-Border Privacy Rules System, Egypt) enhancing protection Sources: Council of Europe 2013a, b; European Commission 1995, 2002, 2012; IAPP 2013a, b. * The convention was initiated and signed by Member States of the Council of Europe in 1981. See Council of Europe, Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (ETS No. 108), available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/108.htm. | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 76 © 2014 World Economic Forum

101 1.7: Building Trust: The Role of Regulation in Unlocking the Value of Big Data hard to build a profile of a person without traditional data can drive, while maintaining customer trust and means of identification such as a name or address. data protection. These areas include: consent before For example, a team at Harvard was able to identify anonymization, personal data, collection, a definition of individuals from anonymized data in a genetics database the right to be forgotten, relevant jurisdiction, and liability by cross-referencing it with other public databases. issues. Each of these key areas is discussed below. The accuracy rate was 42 percent based on the use A key principle Consent before data collection. of only three types of information—zip code, date of in the European regulatory framework is the need to birth, and gender—and rose to 97 percent when the obtain personal consent before data are gathered. 13 first name or nickname was added. Anyone wanting to use an individual’s data must Another example first seek his or her permission. But with so much is the use of de-anonymization tools by researchers information now available and being gathered, seeking from Texas University on 500,000 Netflix users who that approval can be a slow, tedious process for had anonymously voted for their preferred movies back companies and consumers alike and can hinder big in 2007. In this case, the researchers also managed to data development. Cookies on the Internet are a simple identify users by linking the anonymized ratings with 14 example. Surfing the web would be more convenient another public database with movie ratings. It can without cookie notifications and approvals. The APEC therefore be argued that the use of anonymous data can framework recognizes this, and the framework states potentially constitute an intrusion of privacy. that “where appropriate, individuals should be provided Another question related to data anonymization is with . . . mechanisms to exercise choice in relation the right of companies to use the personal data already to the collection, use and disclosure of their personal in their possession and turn them into anonymized data 11 information.” that they sell to others. Some companies are selling their However, determining where such choice customer data—such as location and application data is appropriate is open to interpretation. of telecommunications companies—to other companies The definition of personal data. The suggested in anonymized and aggregated form for marketing personal data EU framework defines as “any data that purposes. Companies can target their marketing more can be attributed to an identifiable person either directly effectively by using these data to learn about their personal or indirectly.” The APEC framework describes customers. Internet companies are also matching their as “information about an identified or identifiable data customer data and online habits with data from other individual.” Both these definitions mean that not only 15 companies to better target their online advertising. data clearly identifying a person with information such as a name or address is considered to be personal Several questions arise from a privacy perspective. data, but also data that can be attributed to a person When can data be considered anonymized? Does using indirectly through some other measure, such as via a pseudonym make data anonymous? Are companies a mobile phone number or an identity code. In a big allowed to use anonymized data without the customer’s data world where a lot of data are interlinked, it can be consent, or must customers give their prior approval? difficult to know exactly when data become “personal.” Should that consent be granted before use, or is it Is it only data that identify a person with certainty, or enough to allow customers to opt out? does it also include data that identify someone with The right to be forgotten. The new EU data high probability? How about a person’s actions? protection framework proposes introducing a right Performance? Or buying behavior? To give a concrete for users to request that data controllers remove their example, a US retail chain identified new parents as a personal data from their files. Although on paper it very lucrative market segment. The chain analyzed their sounds easy to remove personal data relating to an customers via characteristics such as their shopping individual upon request, this may not be so easy habits, age, or marital status to spot customers who in the real world. The European Union Agency for were pregnant. They then sent those customers direct Network and Information Security (ENISA) states that marketing material for their baby products ahead of their a great deal of data are stored in different places in competitors, who sent their material only after the child’s the cloud for security reasons, and these data may 12 birth. have been aggregated or amended into new forms, However, information on pregnancies is extremely such as statistical data. Thus removing some specific sensitive, and such material could risk disclosing a data from all systems upon request may be entwined pregnancy that has not yet been announced. This could with the aggregated data. Clearly this is not such a clearly be seen by some as an intrusion of privacy, but straightforward task in a virtual environment, and there is the issue is not entirely clear from a legal perspective. 16 no single technical method to enable this easily. Closely linked to the dilemma Anonymization. of how to define which data are personal is the issue Relevant jurisdiction. Data are increasingly used of data anonymization or sanitization. Traditionally, and stored across borders, but regulation is still largely anonymous data have not been subject to data national in its scope and regulators lack jurisdiction protection laws. However, in a big data world where in markets outside their own. The uncertainty about anonymized data can easily be linked up, it is not very jurisdictions creates problems for companies and 77 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

102 1.7: Building Trust: The Role of Regulation in Unlocking the Value of Big Data companies to transfer data between the two regions consumers alike. Which regulations apply to companies without further approval from EU-based regulators. from another country? Which judicial authority has the These safe harbor provisions are currently being revisited. right to intervene in disputes? What happens in cases US and Asian regulators are cooperating around the where a company breaches laws across many markets? APEC framework; the United States is the first non- In its recent proposal on the new EU data protection APEC market to sign the minimum standard framework. regulation, the European Union extends the applicability An even a wider take on data protection issues in the big of its regulation to companies outside the European data environment would be beneficial for all parties. Union that are handling data relating to European Union– Whatever their approach to regulation, governments based individuals. should promote industry self-regulation. Self-regulation Liability issues. In today’s world, companies is the best way to achieve a commonly accepted code often cooperate to produce big data applications and of conduct for a specific industry. This has already solutions. One company orders software from another, been done in specific areas—for example, the use of which in turn uses a third company as a contractor, personal data in mobile marketing—but so far efforts which stores its data within a cloud service operated by have occurred mainly at the country level, in markets yet another. If data are leaked, it can be very difficult to such as the United States and the United Kingdom. An decide which company is liable. international industry standard specifically concerning The above remaining gray areas must be considered the use of personal data protection in big data would and clarified so that both consumers and companies certainly be beneficial to establish a higher level of trust using big data clearly know what the rules are in order among consumers and create a clear data protection to ensure a certain environment that is conducive to standard for companies. The weakness of industry investment and market growth. In the next sections we self-regulation is obviously enforcement, because self- propose several options for regulators and companies to regulation is not normally legally binding. make the big data environment more certain. By efficiently managing all stakeholders, regulators can establish a transparent legal framework that helps IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATORS AND promote industry growth rather than hindering it with POLICYMAKERS unnecessary legal burdens. Regulators will need to address all the above issues when shaping their personal data protection policies. IMPLICATIONS FOR COMPANIES Although not prescribing any single solution, certain The onus is not just on regulators to build an principles will help guide regulators in their deliberations environment of trust where citizens feel their privacy and ensure the necessary regulatory balance. These will be properly protected. Companies also have a key principles include the need to establish regulatory role to play. If they develop an efficient data protection stability, cooperation with members of industries strategy, companies may also gain competitive and different countries, and promoting industry self- advantage in the form of cost savings, organizational regulation. Each of these principles is discussed below. efficiency, and—importantly—reputational advantage. To Regulation in any field always works best if it maximize the benefits of big data and to build trust, a creates a stable environment in which companies and number of actions could be considered. other organizations can operate. When it comes to data The first action a company should take is to protection, companies and other organizations will need assess its regulatory and operational starting point. regulatory certainty if innovation is to be encouraged. Understanding customer concerns and regulatory Providing that stability is likely to be easier if regulators issues early will help companies determine the areas focus not on specific regulations that may quickly of risk they need to start tackling. It will also outline become obsolete, but instead on establishing non- the company’s strengths and determine the best way discriminatory technology-neutral high-level regulatory to leverage those strengths to develop their big data principles that last. strategy. For example, a company may wish to build Regulators should cooperate with companies and on its reputation as a reliable company that safeguards other stakeholders within the industry when revisiting customers’ personal data or position itself as an their regulatory frameworks. This will help to understand innovative company with cool services based on its the business issues and allow them to be at the users’ behavior and habits or preferences. forefront of developments without hampering industry A company should also build a privacy-by-design development. mentality. It goes without saying that companies will Regulators should also cooperate internationally need to comply with relevant regulations. But gaining to establish common international norms and clarity consumers’ trust is a question of mentality, too. Many around applicable legislation. International discussions companies may find they need to implement changes are already taking place on specific issues. Regulators in across the organization as well as in relevant processes the European Union and the United States have a safe and technology applications to protect consumer privacy. harbor framework, for example, that allows US-based 78 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

103 1.7: Building Trust: The Role of Regulation in Unlocking the Value of Big Data clarification, ideally in cooperation with players across Companies should strive to make data protection part of the industry value chain and at an international level. the company culture. They can avoid costs occurring at Above, a number of suggestions about how a later stage (when compliance measures are needed) companies might respond to these concerns were by implementing data protection in their processes from outlined. Initially companies should conduct an the start. assessment of their regulatory and operational status Companies must also cooperate with regulatory quo to identify risks and opportunities. They should authorities. Privacy and data protection regulation is consider implementing a privacy-by-design mentality constantly evolving. This means that companies will to avoid unnecessary costs while ensuring compliance. need to establish a close relationship with national Companies should also consider cooperating both with regulators to ensure compliance and to make certain regulators and others within their industry to create that the regulators and policymakers understand the trust of their specific sector. Key for gaining customer business issues at hand and the benefits of big data for trust will, however, be the empowerment of customers society. by clearly communicating their privacy policies to them, Furthermore, companies need to cooperate with giving them options for their privacy settings, and other industry participants. Cooperating to develop requesting consent declarations. Companies need to industry-specific norms and standards will help to ensure that their customers understand what choice create an industry norm that enables consumers to have means in terms of service performance and make sure greater trust. their services are providing more value to the customer Importantly, companies also should empower than the loss of privacy is worth. customers. Customers’ concerns about privacy are It is only by addressing customer concerns at often alleviated if they are able to make their own different levels within the industry that the big data decisions about what data they do or do not share. industry can eventually evolve to its full potential. Providing transparent privacy policies or simply informing the customer of the scope of data handling as well as NOTES requesting clear consent declarations from customers 1 Kroes 2013a, b. also helps create customer trust without sacrificing big data business opportunities. Technological tools help, as 2 Lund et al. 2013. they can allow customers to adjust their privacy settings Manyika et al. 2011. 3 and choose whether to opt in or out of services. One Manyika et al. 2013. 4 example of this is British Telecom’s cookie settings, FTC 2010–14; see www.ftc.gov/opa/reporter/privacy/ 5 which allow the customer to set the level of cookies privacypromises.shtml. allowed and choose the level of privacy they are ready to 6 APEC 2005. sacrifice for better services or service quality. Council of Europe 1981; European Commission 1995, 2002. 7 Companies have a key role to play in creating 8 European Commission 1995. consumer trust. Success in this area is not only about 9 European Commission 2012. managing regulators and compliance, but also about creating a reputation as trustworthy and reliable in terms 10 FTC 2010-2014; see www.ftc.gov/opa/reporter/privacy/ privacypromises.shtml. of both secure operations and fair commercial practices. 11 APEC 2005. 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105 CHAPTER 1.8 Over the last few years, myriad examples of innovation in data analysis have emerged, creating new business models for data-driven innovation. For example, From Big Data to Big businesses are developing ways for real-time weather information to be communicated to devices in the field Social and Economic that can advise farmers on pest activity, water supply, 1 and inclement weather. The Royal Netherlands Opportunities: Which Meteorological Institute has found a way to generate extremely accurate rainfall information using nothing 2 Policies Will Lead to more than existing data from cell-tower installations. The next phase of the Internet’s evolution has us on a 3 Leveraging Data-Driven clear path toward a “revolution of data.” Every year, the costs associated with the production, collection, Innovation’s Potential? storage, and dissemination of data come down, making those data more readily available. This process PEDRO LESS ANDRADE is fomented by the increasing migration of many social 4 JESS HEMERLY and economic activities to the web. More data are GABRIEL RECALDE generated today than ever before; this is a positive PATRICK RYAN trend that will inevitably continue: 90 percent of the Public Policy Division, Google, Inc. world’s information generated through the history of 5 mankind has been generated over the last two years, while data generated per year is growing at a rate of 6 40 percent. In this chapter we will focus on the social and economic value of data, but from the point of view of use and purpose rather than volume. We will therefore talk about data driven-innovation instead of “big data,” and will provide case studies from different areas, with a special consideration of how data-driven innovation in the public sector could improve policymaking. We will finish the chapter by describing the main issues that should be addressed by policymakers, who can leverage the potential of data-driven innovation in their communities through forward looking policies. WHY SPEAK OF DATA-DRIVEN INNOVATION INSTEAD OF BIG DATA? It has become axiomatic that more data are produced every year, and somehow this phenomenon has driven commentators to call this revolution “the age of big data.” However, what is commonly known as big data is not a new concept, as the use of data to build successful products and services, optimize business processes, or make more efficient data-based decisions already has an established history. Innovative uses of data have been key to developing new products and making more efficient decisions for quite a long time, and these activities have become more common and more efficient with the availability of modern computing. Crunching data, statistics, and trends in new ways has always helped change the way that entire sectors operate. Agriculture is one of the first major sectors to have benefitted from the aggregation and analysis of data: in 1793, the Farmer’s Almanac found a The opinions here are the views of the authors and do not represent the views and positions of their employer. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 81 © 2014 World Economic Forum

106 1.8: From Big Data to Big Social and Economic Opportunities economic development is headed), to name a few. In niche when it published its first report more to provide one example, a philanthropic research center stores landowners with guidance for what they might expect 7 and analyzes the cancer genome and the sequences in the coming year and to plan their crops accordingly. and mutations of more than 10,000 cancer cases to It took 183 years for paper-based, manpower-intensive 15 understand the complexity of the disease. analysis to become automated, but in 1950, a team In another of meteorologists used the Electronic Numerical recent project, a university-based group of academics Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) computer to make mined data from 60 years of historical weather 8 the first successful numerical weather prediction. records to identify the factors that are most predictive 16 of hurricane activity. Moreover, the term is ambiguous, and it In the private sector, PayPal big data sets up data as a negative because of the implication has developed a system that screens payments and combines them with IP addresses, browser information, that “big” is “bad.” Indeed, many common definitions of and other technical data to identify and prevent big data usually focus not on size but instead on various fraudulent activity in online payments, bolstering trust characteristics, including the frequency of production, 17 speed, volume, variety, and capacities needed to for commercial exchanges on the Internet. A startup 9 manage and process information. firm has developed a no-cost platform for users that McKinsey, for helps travelers predict flight delays using an algorithm big data as “datasets whose size is example, describes that scours data on every domestic flight for the past 10 beyond the ability of typical database tools to capture, 18 10 years and matches it to real-time conditions. store, manage and analyze.” The implications of this Finally, the United Nations is working with governments around definition are that the main features of big data (quantity, the world to understand global trends related to hunger, speed, variety) are technical properties that depend 19 not on the data itself, but instead on the evolution of poverty, disease, and job loss. 11 computing, storage, and processing technologies. However, because data-driven innovation takes What may look like big data today will not likely be as place across various sectors of the economy and society, it is sometimes difficult to quantify its full “big” in the near future. Thus, what is important about data is not their economic impact. For example, using any traditional measure of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Wikipedia volume, but how they may contribute to innovation 20 does not contribute any economic value. and therefore be used to create value. Data alone do This makes not possess inherent value; instead it is the processing no sense in today’s world, as economists are now of data in innovative ways that brings new economic demonstrating that a fundamental problem exists in and social benefits, and this value creates a virtuous our ability to quantify the value of data, and this gap circle to feed into more use of data-based decision- misleads policymakers in their drive to maximize 12 21 making and analysis. economic surplus. As Michael Mandel has observed, In other words, it is the use of 13 “economists have been systematically trained to think data that really matters. One way to measure this of the economy as divided into two big categories: value is to measure the socioeconomic metrics (or 22 ‘goods’ and ‘services.’” to estimate the future potential) obtained from the Data are neither a good nor use of data. The excitement that we are seeing with a service and so they escape traditional economic new deployments of data to fuel innovation is not just analysis. This highlights the complication of discussing because of the volume of data, nor is it about the data: although the value often creates an economic data themselves. As pointed out by the Software and reward, such measurements are not easy to make. Information Industry Association, “transformative data The Internet itself has been a strong contributor to can be big or small or even the ‘needle’ of data found economic growth for more than two decades, but 14 in a giant haystack.” only in the past couple of years have economists undertaken serious attempts to quantify the Internet’s The truth is that data are data, and that has not 23 impact on the world’s economies. changed for centuries. When “big data” is no longer a trendy concept, data will continue to drive innovation, One example of innovative data use that has a and solutions for new problems will come from new difficult-to-quantify economic value proposition is ways of analyzing and interpreting data, regardless of Google’s Flu Trends, which provides near real-time volume or our technological capacities to manage it. estimates of flu activity for a number of countries around In the next section, we will address what we see in the the world. Flu Trends provides its analysis based on 24 future for data-driven innovation. aggregated search queries. Some of these estimates have been compared with official historic influenza data THE BENEFITS OF DATA-DRIVEN INNOVATION from relevant countries with surprisingly high levels Many sectors benefit from data-driven innovation: of accuracy, and in some cases Flu Trends provided healthcare (e.g., diagnosis and treatment), financial information weeks ahead of official records. In the case services (e.g., analyzing market trends and economic of H1N1, the world’s citizens were searching online long 25 conditions), and transportation and public administration before official statistics were available. Additionally, the (e.g., metrics on what citizens want and where data from Flu Trends are open, available for everybody 82 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

107 1.8: From Big Data to Big Social and Economic Opportunities to download and use. A group of researchers from the Box 1: Hong Kong Efficiency Unit Johns Hopkins University, for example, used these data to develop a practical influenza forecast model designed The Hong Kong Efficiency Unit acts as a single point to provide medical centers with advance warning of the of contact for handling public inquiries and complaints expected number of flu cases, thus allowing sufficient on behalf of many government departments. After 26 time to implement interventions before outbreaks. This collecting thousands of complaints each year, its staff example illustrates how the openness and accessibility of recognized the social messages hidden in the complaints data are crucial to keeping the wheel of innovation rolling data, which in fact provided important feedback on public service. Using a platform called the “Complaints by allowing others to access and manipulate the data in Intelligence System,” they now use the complaints transformative ways. information collected to gain a better understanding of Similarly, the rapid collection and processing of daily issues by uncovering trends, patterns, and information has helped in recent natural disasters. After relationships inherent in the complaints. a devastating earthquake hit Haiti in 2010, a group of researchers from the Karolinska Institute and Columbia Source: Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong Efficiency Unit, 2013. University analyzed calling data of over 2 million mobile phones to detect the pattern of population movements across the country. This information was then handed to humanitarian agencies to allocate relief resources in a 27 more efficient way. The findings of the project, called roads are traveled, to determine trends in utility Flow Minder, suggest that population movements during consumption and the provision of government services disasters may be more predictable than had previously 28 (Box 1), and to promote creativity and new ideas within been understood. 32 government agencies. Statistical agencies inside of These examples show that there are ethical governments, such as census departments, have long and responsible ways of analyzing big sets of data been established to maintain data about the nation. and equally ethical and responsible ways of using Thus data-driven policymaking is not new, but the them to provide high-value solutions for citizens, whether opportunities brought by the advances on information or not they have a clear quantifiable economic value and communication technologies make data-driven at the outset. More efficient preparation for outbreaks policymaking increasingly accessible to government and better understanding of post-disaster movement officials. Further, open government initiatives put ultimately mean more cost-effective deployment of these data into the hands of the public, facilitating a public services. new kind of transparency and civic engagement for High-value products and services and more efficient curious and interested citizens. Data can benefit society deployment of resources are not the only outcomes of 33 when they are open. data-driven innovation. Studies suggest that there is a By providing a way to check assumptions, detect direct connection between data-driven decision-making problems, clarify choices, prioritize resources, and in business and improved firm performance. Firms that identify solutions, data-driven policymaking injects data- adopt data-driven decision-making have an output and based rationality into the policymaking process, all of productivity that is 5 percent to 6 percent higher than 34 which could also create economic benefits. According would be expected, given their other investments and 29 to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and their information technology (IT) usage. Another study Development (OECD), by fully exploiting public data, has shown that the use of Internet computing tools can governments in the European Union could reduce also help firms reach decisions more efficiently, across a administrative costs by 15 percent to 20 percent, broad range of industries, as they allow firms of all sizes 35 creating the equivalent of €150 billion to €300 billion. to leverage data-driven analysis without needing to make 30 In other words, data-driven policymaking moves huge investments in their IT infrastructure. policymaking out of the realm of intuition and dogma by As is the case for businesses, policymakers are creating a sound evidentiary basis for decisions. entrusted to make decisions for the citizenry with very However, studies suggest that the public sector little information. Politicians recognize the need to base still does not fully exploit the potential of the data it their recommendations on objective information, and generates and collects, nor does it exploit the potential they are expected to move quickly, just as business of data generated elsewhere. The “revolution of data” managers are. still needs to make its way within government agencies. In fact, the public sector is one the most data- Although the government is one of the sectors with the intensive sectors of all. According to McKinsey, the US greatest potential to capture value from data-driven government had over 848 petabytes of data stored 31 innovation, it also has one of the lowest productivity in 2009—second only to the manufacturing sector. growth rates because it lags behind business and What is usually known as “data-driven policymaking” industry in fully embracing data. involves the collection of information related to how 83 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

108 1.8: From Big Data to Big Social and Economic Opportunities How to get the best of data-driven innovation Box 2: Harvard Transparency Project The increasing ease of linking and analyzing information usually raises concerns about individual privacy The Transparency Policy Project at Harvard’s Kennedy protection. Personal data are the type that has drawn the School studied the relationship between transit data most attention, from a regulatory point of view, in relation format and accessibility and the number of applications to data-driven innovation. The challenge is to achieve a for that system. Of the five transit agencies they studied, reasonable balance between individuals’ right to privacy the TriMet in Portland, Oregon, and the Massachusetts and the emerging opportunities in data-driven innovation. Bay Transit Authority (MBTA) in Boston have generated the highest ratio of applications per transit rider (1 to 7,000 For this reason, in order to capitalize on and 1 to 27,000, respectively). Meanwhile, the most opportunities for economic growth via innovation, flexible reluctant agency to adopt open data, Washington DC’s and adaptable policies are needed. We need to focus on Metro, had only 10 applications serving its customers in using datasets responsibly and ensuring that personally 2012 (1 to 121,400). identifiable information is accessible only by those who are authorized to do so, without limiting innovation. Rojas, 2012. Source: In other words, privacy protection frameworks should support secure and reliable data flows while enhancing responsible, risk-reducing behavior regarding the use of personal data. Legislation should take into account the tension between data-driven innovation and the principle of SETTING THE STAGE FOR A DATA-DRIVEN data minimization. This principle essentially states that ECONOMY the collection of personal data should be limited to Apart from producing and using data for better what is relevant and necessary to accomplish a specific policymaking processes, the public sector can also purpose, and for only as long as necessary. This tension play its part by promoting and fostering data-driven usually materializes in two regulatory discussions: first, innovation and growth throughout economies. To realize the definition of and second, the model of personal data; the potential of data-driven innovation, policymakers consent by users. These considerations are both critical, need to develop coherent policies for the use of data. but framing things in this way leads to the inevitable This could be achieved by: (1) making public data conclusion that fewer data are better. accessible through open data formats, (2) promoting A key dividend of data-driven innovation is the balanced legislation, and (3) supporting education that possibility of finding new insights by analyzing existing focuses on data science skills. data and combining them with other data. This can sometimes blur the lines between personal and non- Open data initiatives personal data, as well as the uses for which consent The use of data across sectors can drive innovation and 36 may have been given. economic growth. However, many generators of data— A practical definition of personal including governments—do not share their data. As we data should be based on the real possibility of identifying 37 have seen, the public sector is one of the main producers an individual during the treatment of data. This is why and collectors of data. Open data initiatives that applying existing approaches to personal data may result make data in the public sector accessible to everyone in overly broad definitions that can have unintended contribute to data-driven innovation and create value for negative consequences for data-driven innovation. governments. For example, aggregate public transport For the same reason that combining and correlating data may be used by developers to create useful datasets is a key feature of data-driven innovation, the full applications for passengers (see Box 2). This access to potential of data collected may not be clear at the time real-time information could result in a greater number of collection. A consent model that is appropriate to the of passengers and, subsequently, to more income for data-driven economy should provide a path for individuals the transport authorities. In addition, accessible public to participate in research through informed consent. In data usually lead to better data because data users this model, they would become aware of the benefits of can test structure and help to fix mistakes (see Box 3). their participation as well as potential privacy risks. For this Improvements in the quality of data mean better data- reason, the legislative considerations for data collection based solutions and, ultimately, better policy. should not assume that less is always more and should It is important to note that opening up public data take into consideration the data-intensive direction of does not necessarily lead to the disclosure of personal some of the economy’s growing sectors. data. Public data that may contain personal information of citizens should be shared in an aggregate or fully Building skills for the future de-identified way to protect citizens’ privacy. We will go An economy where both the public and private into more detail around the discussions on privacy and actors who base their decisions on data analysis will personal data in the following section. demand highly skilled workers with backgrounds in 84 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

109 1.8: From Big Data to Big Social and Economic Opportunities of privacy and data protection, but fail to consider Box 3: Can open data lead to better data? economic and social benefits that regulation could preclude. It is by looking at the big picture surrounding Moscow’s city government published about 170 big data that we can create the right environment datasets with geo coordinates at the Moscow opendata for data-driven innovation, and that the individuals, portal. After examining the data, Russian members organizations, and economies that may benefit from it of the OpenStreetMap community found many errors can thrive. and mistakes, including wrong geo coordinates. After publishing their research, most of the issues were solved by Moscow state officials. NOTES Clinicians from the Imperial College London, while 1 Gray 2013. reviewing open statistical data from the United Kingdom’s 2 The Economist 2013a. National Health Service, found that records said that 3 Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier 2013. 20,000 male patients required midwifery services between 2009 and 2010. After this research was published, data 4 OECD 2013. systems were improved. IBM 2013. 5 6 Manyika et al. 2011. Open Knowledge Foundation, 2013. Source: 7 The Old Farmer’s Almanac, no date, “History of the Farmer’s Almanac.” 8 Platzman 1979. 9 Hemerly 2013. data analysis, information science, metadata and data visualization. The demand for engineers who specialize 10 Manyika et al. 2011. in technologies such as machine learning and natural 11 OECD 2013. language processing will also increase, and a gap 12 According to Hilbert (2013, p. 4), “the crux of the ‘Big Data’ between the supply and demand for these types of paradigm is actually not the increasingly large amount of data itself, but its analysis for intelligent decision-making.” skills may hinder data-driven innovation’s full potential. 13 Hemerly 2013. The United States itself will need up to 190,000 more 38 workers with deep analytical expertise by 2018. This 14 SIIA 2013. clear demand for skilled workers is further evidence of 15 Burke 2012. data-driven innovation’s potential benefits for economies. 16 McCormick University 2012. See also Chen 2013. 17 Sims 2011. CONCLUSION 18 See www.flightcaster.com. We have already begun to see the impact technology 19 United Nations 2012. has had on the volume and speed at which data may 20 Tapscott and Williams 2007. be generated, analyzed, and put to use. Thirty years ago we needed an army of data-entry clerks to feed 21 Pélissié du Rausas et al. 2011. an information into a system; today, the information is Mandel 2012, p. 1. 22 already available in a machine-readable format. We A collection of studies that quantify the contribution of the Internet 23 carry devices with sensors that can provide incredible to GDP is available at www.valueoftheweb.com. amounts of information in real time. Every day, the world 24 The Economist 2013b. adds petabytes of information into social networks and 25 The Economist 2011. other Internet platforms. 26 Dugas et al. 2013. Talking about this phenomenon as “big data,” 27 Lu et al. 2012. however, misses the true potential of data. Instead, we 28 Talbot 2013. data-driven innovation, should focus our discussion on as this relates to the results and outcomes of data 29 Brynjolfsson et al. 2011. use—from generating innovative products and service 30 Cacciola and Gibbons 2012. to improving business and government efficiency. Many 31 Manyika et al. 2011. other examples provided earlier have shown that data- 32 Esty and Rushing 2007. driven solutions have transformative social impact as well. 33 Rojas 2012. However, achieving the full potential of data-driven Esty and Rushing 2007. 34 innovation demands challenging the outdated paradigms 35 Manyika et al. 2011. established in a significantly less data-intensive world. To achieve the maximum benefits from data-driven Hemerly 2013. 36 innovation, policymakers must take into account the 37 For example, an IP address, by itself, cannot be linked to nor identify an individual, because it identifies only a device connected possibility that regulation could preclude economic to a network. and societal benefits. Decisions that affect data- Manyika et al. 2011. 38 driven innovation are usually focused on the problems 85 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

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111 CHAPTER 1.9 Big data is the business buzzword du jour. But how can you turn this hot topic into a real source of business value? Making Big Data You have certainly heard the breathless spiel: The Something More than the world today is being flooded with digital data, in myriad manifestations and washing over us at such incredible “Next Big Thing” speed that making sense of it is dauntingly difficult. Yet this tidal wave of data—when channeled and filtered by ANANT GUPTA an array of new information technologies—holds untold HCL Technologies value for organizations, whether they are small not-for- profits or Fortune 500 companies. Or so we are told. But despite the sometimes exaggerated hype surrounding “big data,” the fundamental assertion is true: data—and the decisions driven by those data—now represent the next frontier of innovation and productivity. Estimates of the potential benefits of leveraging big data are indeed staggering: productivity-led savings worth US$300 billion a year for the US healthcare industry and €250 billion for the European public sector, a 60 percent potential increase in retailers’ operating 1 margins. And technology seems poised to deliver these benefits. One small example: data storage technology has advanced to the point that only US$600 is all it takes to purchase storage space that can accommodate the 2 entire world’s music! Some large companies have indeed used emerging technologies to extract significant value from big data. Visa recently announced that increasing from 40 to 200 the number of attributes it analyzes in each credit card transaction has saved 6 cents in every $100 worth of 3 transactions. Wal-Mart uses a self-teaching semantic search tool that, honed by the monthly clickstream data of 45 million online shoppers, tailors offerings to online shoppers, raising the rate of completed transactions by 4 more than 10 percent. But for most businesses, the promise of big data is nowhere close to being fulfilled. For one thing, spending on it is polarized. While the telecommunications, travel, retail, life sciences, and financial services industries are making significant strides in big data technologies, other 5 industries, such as manufacturing and government, are in a wait-and-watch mode. The lack of major big data initiatives across industries can be seen in the numbers from service providers. In 2012, the global top 20 big data players made less than 1 percent of their total revenues from big data. The total market for big data hardware, software, and services in 2012 was US$11.5 billion, whereas the combined overall revenue of those 20 big data players was more than US$1.2 trillion. The disparity between a few success stories and the lack of action elsewhere has created a high level of anxiety within firms that have not yet begun to explore big data. But it is important that they not rush thoughtlessly into the fray. An organization should make The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 87 © 2014 World Economic Forum

112 1.9: Making Big Data Something More than the “Next Big Thing” WHY IS EXTRACTING VALUE FROM BIG DATA Box 1: A user’s glossary of key big data terms SO HARD? First, though, we examine some of the barriers to As an organization plans its big data strategy, the following realizing big data’s promise. terms are likely to be used with increasing frequency. Hadoop: • A batch-oriented programming framework Volume, velocity, and variety that supports the processing of large data sets in a Big data is often said to be characterized by 3 Vs: its distributed computing environment. Hadoop is written tremendous volume, the velocity at which it needs in the Java programming language and is a top-level to be processed, and the variety of data types it Apache project (Apache is a decentralized community of developers supporting open-source software). encompasses. The first two characteristics are fairly obvious: technology has made it possible to capture A non-relational, column-oriented distributed • HBase: increasingly large amounts of information and make it database written in Java. A column-oriented database stores data tables as sections of columns of data available for analysis in real time. rather than as rows of data, as in most relational But mining the value of big data also is difficult databases, providing fast aggregation and computation because it requires simultaneously analyzing various of large numbers of similar data items. types of information—transactions, log data, mail • A distributed, scalable, and portable file system HDFS: documents, social media interactions, machine data, written in Java for the Hadoop framework. geospatial data, video and audio data, to name just a • Hive: A data warehouse infrastructure built on top few—much of which is “unstructured.” Traditional types of Hadoop, providing data summarization, query, of business data were available in a format that was and analysis. It permits queries over the data using a structured and could have been automatically analyzed— familiar SQL-like syntax. for example, a spreadsheet quantifying customer • A tool for collecting, aggregating, and moving Flume: returns of different products at different stores over large amounts of log data from applications to Hadoop. time. However, much of the value in big data exists in unstructured information—for example, the transcript of a Mahout • : A library of Hadoop implementations of common analytical computations. chat session between a retail customer and a customer service representative. • Oozie: A workflow scheduler system developed to Synthesizing unstructured data from numerous manage Hadoop jobs. sources and extracting relevant information from it can • Pig: A platform for analyzing large datasets that be as much art as science. consists of a high-level language (Pig Latin) for expressing data analysis programs, coupled with infrastructure for evaluating these programs. Talent scarcity Much has been said and published about the looming R is a free software programming language and • R: software environment for statistical computing and talent gap. Estimates suggest that the United States graphics. The R language is widely used among alone faces a shortage of 140,000 to 190,000 people statisticians and data miners for developing statistical with deep analytical skills, as well as 1.5 million analysts software and data analysis. and managers to analyze big data and make decisions • A tool facilitating the transfer of data from Sqoop: 6 based on those findings. Another report predicts that relational databases into Hadoop. only one-third of 4.4 million big data jobs created by • Zookeeper: A centralized service for maintaining 7 2015 will be filled. Unlike traditional analytics, mining big configuration information, naming, providing distributed data requires an extremely diverse set of skills—deep synchronization, and providing group services for distributed applications. business insights, data visualization, statistics, machine learning, and computer programming. Policy should Source: HCL 2013b. work to mitigate this talent shortage through forward- looking education and immigration policies. Flawed data governance a big data investment only if it has well-defined and Big data is not a substitute for—much less a solution realizable business objectives. for—flawed information management practices. We offer here nine steps that companies can take If anything, it requires much more rigorous data to begin turning big data talk into action, buzz into governance structures. Without those improvements, business benefits. information technology (IT) systems that have not been upgraded to handle large volumes of data are likely to collapse under the sheer weight of the data being processed. Surveys suggest that business leaders are often more excited about the potential of big data 88 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

113 1.9: Making Big Data Something More than the “Next Big Thing” function. In order to drive the big data program, the than their IT counterparts. That may be because of IT team may want to appoint a big data program sponsor executives’ understanding of the realities on the ground. for each function and work closely with him or her to discover and locate the types of information that would Lack of a data-driven mind-set improve business outcomes. Most importantly, however, Because mind-set can be hard to pin down, its power the program sponsor would try to get functional buy-in is often underestimated. That is a mistake when it and identify big data opportunities within the function. comes to assessing the prerequisites to successful analytics deployment. It is virtually impossible for big Step 2: Get the business functions to ask the right data investments to deliver value if business leaders do questions. not have a data-driven mind-set—that is, if they do not Senior executives will have an easier time winning believe that it is important for decisions to be based on buy-in from business functions if they demonstrate how cold, hard numbers rather than gut feel and experience. big data might be valuable to them. Simple questions But once the right mind-set takes hold, other good such as “What would you really like to know about things will follow: data-driven business leaders will have your business, and how can data help you with it?” a tremendous incentive to treat data, and therefore the are a good place to start. Such questions can spur the IT and analytics professionals who help deliver it in an functional experts themselves to start asking the more understandable form, as a strategic asset. And these fundamental questions that can unlock the value of data. leaders will make it a priority to ease the flow of data For instance, marketing professionals could ask, “What across organizational silos. is the value of a ‘tweet’ or a ‘like’? Are our investments in customer service paying off? What is the optimal price Lack of technical know-how for our product right now?” The ability to ask the right Big data represents a convergence of IT and data science. questions is key to succeeding with big data. It also Technologies include Hadoop (which enables large- about data pays to keep in mind that big data is not scale processing of diverse datasets), R (a programming themselves; it is about using data to discover insights language for statistics), and in-memory databases that can lead to valuable outcomes. (where data reside on main memory as opposed to disk storage). Data science includes, among many other areas, Step 3: Take stock of all data “worth analyzing.” machine learning (systems that learn from data) and data Valuable business insight can come from many sources, warehousing. Big data professionals are expected to be including social media feeds, activity streams, and familiar with both disciplines, but this combination is rare, “dark data” (data that are currently unused but that despite the training courses that are sprouting up globally. have already been captured), machine instrumentation, (For descriptions of some of the technologies that enable and operational technology feeds. It is important to the analysis of big data, see Box 1.) explore these sources and to experiment with new ways of capturing information, such as complex- NINE STEPS TO BIG DATA VALUE CREATION event processing, video search, and text analytics. The barriers to extracting business value from big data Organizations’ data typically fit into four buckets: can seem daunting. But they can be overcome through a systematic plan, one that breaks down the challenge Operational data, such as data emanating from • into a series of nine sequential steps that will enable smart grid meters, embedded systems (examples organizations to take advantage of this valuable and include microwave sensors and chips inserted in growing asset. We will consider each of these steps automobiles), transactions logs (such as payment individually here. transactions), radio-frequency identification chips (RFID), navigation and location sensors, networks, Step 1: Define responsibilities. and servers. Who collects, who analyzes, and who drives value? Streaming data, such as computer network data, • The onus of collecting data should be shared by the phone conversations, and so on. IT and analytics teams, but analysis must be the sole responsibility of analytics professionals. Similarly, only • Documents and content, such as PDFs, web functional leaders—for example, the Chief Marketing content, and legal discovery elements (electronic Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, and the Chief information exchange in civil litigations). Procurement Officer—should be responsible for Rich media, including audio and video tracks, • identifying areas within their respective functions where electronic images, and so on. big data could drive value. However, getting this level of support from functional leaders is not easy, especially if the team—IT and analytics or a dedicated big data center of excellence—reside outside of the business The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 89 © 2014 World Economic Forum

114 1.9: Making Big Data Something More than the “Next Big Thing” Figure 1: Potential payback of big data initiatives Most opportunity for analysis 50 Easy pickings Invest here Customer service Data systems least fit for purpose Marketing 40 Strategy & business development 30 Sales General management Information & research Finance Operations & production 20 R&D Procurement Risk/security Human resources Supply chain management Data systems most fit for purpose 10 IT Legal Regulatory compliance Not ready but who cares? Overeager Operations, real estate planning 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Least opportunity for analysis Source: Gartner, 2013. supported credit risk assessments that factor in Step 4: Select the business functions best hundreds or even thousands of indicators. positioned to lead the way. It is smart to launch big data initiatives in business • Supply chain and procurement can use big data functions that are most ready to collect and analyze for dynamic route optimization because big data data and for which the potential payback is high. technologies that are faster than conventional Functions such as marketing, customer service, supply systems allow more iterations and faster route chain management, and finance are poised for maximum planning in real-time. growth. If system readiness is not an issue, these are usually the right places to direct initial investments Step 6: Determine whether big data will yield (see Figure 1). valuable information unavailable through traditional business analytics. Step 5: Match big data initiatives with compatible Making the business case for a big data initiative business functions. clearly will be easier if it can be shown that it creates Some big data programs can be implemented in a new value. For instance, if a marketing department is variety of settings, but most are suited to specific currently segmenting customer profiles using standard functions. For example: demographic indicators, would there be additional benefit in analyzing attitudes and preferences (at a • Customer functions (such as marketing, granular level) through text and speech analysis? e-commerce, and customer service) can use Similarly, if a traditional business intelligence program big data for targeted advertising that provides is currently analyzing financial market sentiments personalized offers to consumers based on their using structured stock information, would it make the socio-demographic characteristics, and for loyalty sentiment analysis more refined by including social management that extends channel reach from media feeds, news sites, and so on? point of sale, web, and call center to include mobile In comparing views of data from a traditional and social capabilities. business intelligence perspective versus a big data Finance functions (such as finance, risk, and • one, consider the following the questions: What data treasury) can use big data for intraday liquidity are we capturing today? What are the limitations of this management, providing real-time monitoring of kind of structured data? What extra value will we get by price movements in relation to positions, to make collecting external, context-specific, and unstructured trading and rebalancing decisions, and for improved data? Where will we find data and how will we collect credit risk assessment, through multiple big data– them? Would our business act upon the insights 90 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

115 1.9: Making Big Data Something More than the “Next Big Thing” purpose-built hardware. Generic servers may be fine for gained? Is the extra business value worth the additional smaller projects and proofs of concept, but specifically investment of time, energy, and money? designed, enterprise-grade servers, storage, and networking products are best for large-scale-production Step 7: Assess complexities and prioritize solutions. accordingly. Creating or upgrading to big data–ready technology All else being equal, an organization should begin its architecture is no small feat. Building everything from big data experimentation with an initiative that is not too scratch takes time, and buying everything is expensive. demanding. In assessing possibilities, it is helpful to keep Therefore, finding the right combination of insourcing and and the in mind the complexity of both the type of data outsourcing requires careful consideration. the data will require. type of analysis As we mentioned above, much of what is meant Step 9: Start building a team. by “big data” is unstructured information—data that Big data initiatives require multidisciplinary teams of traditionally have been impossible to break down and business and technology experts. Every team member— categorize as they are collected. Such data are not only business analyst, programmer, data scientist, and data difficult to analyze but can also be easily misinterpreted visualizer—will need to have cross-functional familiarity. when taken out of context. Thus it makes sense to Building this team is a five-step process: experiment in the beginning with data that are relatively easy to analyze. • Break down your talent needs into four distinct Different types of analysis also present varying areas: business analysis, analytics, database degrees of complexity. Generally speaking, descriptive technology, and data visualization. analytics (which answers “what happened?”—for Scan your internal landscape for the aforementioned • example, an analysis of social media sentiment skills. Although they may not be in the target analysis) are relatively easy to do. However, diagnostic department, every organization probably already analytics (which answers “why did it happen?”—for includes people who know the business, possess example, an analysis of customer defection at the data-crunching capabilities, and make data-driven shopping cart stage of the online purchase process); decisions. predictive analytics (which answers “what will happen?”—for example, forecasts of customer churn in • Hire people with needed skills if they are not telecommunications); and prescriptive analytics (which available or cannot be acquired by cross-training answers “how can we make it happen?”—for example, existing employees. determining whether personalized offers to customers Hire people with related skills if the needed skills • would make sense), are increasingly complex to conduct. are unavailable within your organization or difficult to acquire through external hires. For instance, Step 8: Assess your technology architecture. consider substituting statisticians for the much less An organization’s traditional information architecture common data scientists. may not accommodate massive, high-speed, variable data flows. Many traditional and even state-of-the- • Start small and scale up. In the beginning, your art technologies were not designed for today’s or needs will be modest. A few hires may be adequate tomorrow’s level of data volume, velocity, and variety. to get started. Even as datasets grow exponentially along those Some are even predicting that big data analytics will dimensions, the investments required for scaling lead to the emergence of an entirely new set of CXO roles technologies (such as processors, storage, database within enterprises—Chief Data Officer, Chief Digital Officer, management systems, and analytics) to perform Chief Analytics Officer, and so on. That said, the structure efficiently grow even faster. To counter these intractable of most organizations would make it difficult for someone economics, organizations need to consider a variety of owning the big data portfolio to succeed. Without clear methods to upgrade their infrastructure in support of or line responsibilities, a CDO (whichever flavor, Data or in anticipation of big data. Digital) or a CAO would have little leverage to execute the In fact, the idea that big data involves negligible important tasks needed to increase the organization’s big cost because it is analyzed using open-source tools and data capabilities and optimize its initiatives. platforms is a myth. “Free” open-source technologies Instead, big data and business analytics expertise such as Hadoop (which enables large-scale processing should fall within existing functions—for example, of diverse datasets) are typically not immediately finance, human resources, and marketing—with the aim usable. You need either to hire and train data scientists of furthering the strategic initiatives of those functions. and analysts in Hadoop programming, or to buy an The efforts of the big data teams in these areas could enterprise-ready version of Hadoop. be overseen and coordinated by a big data manager, If the outcome of big data analysis is mission-critical reporting to the Chief Information Officer, who would for your business, it probably makes sense to use only 91 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

116 1.9: Making Big Data Something More than the “Next Big Thing” Box 2: Organizations already using big data initiatives happening in the business, to understand why it is A few organizations that have followed frameworks for using happening, and to determine how to respond to changing big data include: market conditions. The decision cockpit is focused A US-based mid- to upscale chain of department stores • on forward-looking projections rather than historical is gaining new insights from analyzing and combining data reporting, with data visualization showing the relative on Hadoop with data from traditional databases to turn its revenue and profit contribution of each region, country, marketing staff from “Mad Men” to “Math Men.” territory, brand, and product. The company’s performance is also tracked against that of competing brands and A US-based provider of business outsourcing solutions • products. The company has established about 50 has set up an innovation lab where subject experts from collaborative conference rooms, called Business Spheres, different industries and backgrounds work together to in offices around the globe. The rooms are surrounded tackle big data analytics. by projection screens for displaying the dashboards as An Indianapolis-based global pharmaceutical company • well as live video-conferencing sessions, allowing remote is using big data to develop an integrated approach to executives to attend weekly review meetings in person. optimizing how clinical trials are conducted and eliminate A California-based multinational energy corporation is • inefficiencies. using big data to transform the audit function. It runs audit A US-based document management corporation is • tests on all of its accounts payable transactions instead applying its decades of expertise in imaging technologies of only on the small sample it used to analyze before. to transportation systems that can benefit from real-time This enables the finance department to better understand analysis of data. various business risks and adjust audit coverage to the areas that pose the greatest risks. At the same time, it Australia-based telecommunications companies use big • reduces the time spent on auditing by about 15 percent. data to determine which of their customers are less likely to pay their bills, allowing them to focus collection efforts A British multinational music recording and publishing • on that group rather than across the whole customer company has created the Million Interview Dataset over base. the last few years, asking consumers in 24 countries and across 15 languages about their music listening and A global corporation offering computer-assisted legal • consumption habits. The Dataset provides rich insights research services uses a big data technology platform into the interests, attitudes, behaviors, familiarity, and it has developed in house both for its risk management appreciation of music as expressed by music fans. business and for gathering data it sells to its clients. It now also sells this big data platform through its newly • A Minnesota-based member-owned agricultural established subsidiary. cooperative combines 20 years of satellite imagery with local seed and crop protection data from its test sites A US-based multinational consumer goods company has • to provide a service that generates field performance developed a decision-support environment used by more information for every acre and matches crop inputs and than 60,000 employees worldwide to see what is decisions to the potential of each field and each zone. Source: HCL Technologies. that governments create a vision and platform for public- ensure that best practices were adopted and that sector open data. We believe that open data will be initiatives were coordinated. an essential characteristic of future public policy. It is Following the nine steps described above will help important that such a vision percolate down from the top the IT function to assume such responsibilities. to garner support from ministries and civil servants alike so that open data initiatives function effectively. CASE STUDIES Communicating from the very top that open data Many global organizations have already begun is an essential characteristic of public policy is crucial. embarking on deriving value out of big data initiatives. Furthermore, governments should create an easy-to- Almost all of them have defined step-by-step frameworks use platform for the public to access the data in a form somewhat similar to the one outlined above. The sheer that is easily digestible and ready for analysis. It is also variety of value creation evident—from clinical trials advisable to develop rules and regulations for taxing the and marketing to risk management and audits, from commercial use of open data. analyzing crop and seed production to fan listening Governments should spearhead the effort to posts—is also staggering (see Box 2). ensure the privacy and security of personal data. The appropriate agency should take a leading role in working RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GOVERNMENT ACTIONS with all relevant private- and public-sector entities AND POLICIES to develop and implement policies for safeguarding In order to take full advantage of the potential of big data personal data and means for enforcement. in both the public and private sectors, we recommend 92 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

117 1.9: Making Big Data Something More than the “Next Big Thing” Moreover, it is essential to develop and execute a big data plan for all government services and activities. The plan should identify all government data worth analyzing, define data collection responsibilities, outline steps to ensure data quality, and determine where big data technologies and analysis capabilities should be first deployed. Finally, each government should establish a big data center of excellence (BDCOE). The BDCOE should be the focal point of expertise, long-range thinking and policy formulation, and training and development. It should also be the repository of best practices. It should not only serve as a resource for all government agencies but should also act as the government’s leading authority on all matters related to data management. CONCLUSION Big data analytics is not a passing fad. It will be a central means of creating value for the organization of tomorrow—and that is “tomorrow” almost literally. It represents a major change in the way that businesses and other organizations will operate and will require a new mind-set and new capabilities. Given that, many organizations are struggling to know where to start in becoming competent in the realm of big data. A step- by-step approach can make the transition seem less daunting and minimize the stumbles that are bound to occur along the way. NOTES 1 Manyika et al. 2011. 2 Manyika et al. 2011. L aney 2012. 3 4 L aney 2012. HCL Technologies 2013a. 5 Manyika et al. 2011. 6 Manyika et al. 2011. 7 REFERENCES What’s the Big Deal with Big Data for Customer Service? Gartner. 2013. Webinar with Gareth Herschel, Research Director, Gartner and Michael Maoz, VP Distinguished Analyst, Gartner. September 17. Available at http://my.gartner.com/portal/server.pt?open=512&objI D=202&mode=2&PageID=5553&ref=webinar-rss&resId=2569818. HCL Technologies. 2013a. Strategic Intelligence Wing Research on Big Data (the research arm of HCL Technologies). ——— . 2 0 1 3 b . CIO Straight Talk Issue 3. Quincy, Mass, US and Noida, India: HCL Technologies. Available at http://magazine. straighttalkonline.com/issue3/. Big Data Strategy Components: IT Essentials. October Laney, D. 2012. 15, ID G00238944. Chicago: Gartner. Manyika, J., M. Chui, B. Brown, J. Bughin, R, Dobbs, C. Roxburgh, and A. Hung Byers. 2011. “Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, McKinsey Global Institute Report. Competition, and Productivity.” May. Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_ technology/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 93 © 2014 World Economic Forum

118 © 2014 World Economic Forum

119 Part 2 Country/Economy Profiles © 2014 World Economic Forum

120 © 2014 World Economic Forum

121 How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles The Country/Economy Profiles section presents a profile iles 3: Coun try/Ec onom y Prof for each of the 148 economies covered in The Global a Albani Rank Value - Each profile sum Information Technology Report 2014. (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and Networked Readiness Index 2014 ... 95 .. 3.7 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 83 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 marizes an economy’s performance in the various di - impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 95 ...3.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 117 ...3.1 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 65 ...4.3 impacts digital content mensions of the Networked Readiness Index (NRI). 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 86 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 90 ...3.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 87 ...5.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 62 ...5.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 95 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 82 ...3.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 107 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 93 ...3.8 usage PERFORMANCE HIGHLIGHTS 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 108 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 125 ...2.6 Albania Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 97 ...3.3 The first section of the profile presents the economy’s The Networked Readiness Index in detail - overall performance in the NRI, along with its perfor VALUE INDICATOR INDICATOR RANK/148 RANK/148 VALUE 6th pillar: Individual usage 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 1.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...105 ... 3.1 6.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...70 ... 110.7 mance in the NRI’s four components and 10 pillars. The 6.02 Individuals using Internet, %...58 ... 54.7 1.02 Laws relating to ICTs* ...85 ... 3.7 1.03 Judicial independence* ...134 ... 2.3 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...95 ... 20.0 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...87 ... 20.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..120 ... 3.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..113 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...78 ... 5.1 economy’s rank (out of 148 economies) and score (on a 6.06 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...71 ... 18.8 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...114 ... 2.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...77 ... 75 6.07 Use of virtual social networks* ...110 ... 5.1 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...91 ... 39 7th pillar: Business usage 1.09 No. days to enforce a contract ...69 ... 525 1-to-7 scale) are reported. 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...108 ... 4.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...121 ... 3.0 2.01 Availability of latest technologies* ...119 ... 4.1 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...85 ... 0.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...136 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...135 ... 3.8 2.03 Total tax rate, % profits ...48 ... 31.7 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...131 ... 3.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...12 ... 5 7.06 Extent of staff training* ...36 ... 4.4 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage 2.06 Intensity of local competition* ...144 ... 3.4 On the radar chart to the right of the table, a blue 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...78 ... 3.9 2.07 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...50 ... 54.9 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...88 ... 0.42 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...84 ... 4.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...106 ... 3.9 2.09 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...52 ... 3.7 line plots the economy’s score on each of the 10 pillars. 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content 9.01 Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...121 ... 3.6 3.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...93 ... 1318.7 9.02 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 3.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .124 ... 3.4 3.03 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user...76 ... 17.4 The black line represents the average score of all econo - 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...99 ... 13.7 3.04 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...85 ... 19.0 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...116 ... 4.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...126 ... 3.3 4th pillar: Affordability mies in the income group to which the economy under 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...73 ... 4.2 4.01 Mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...120 ... 0.44 10.03 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...82 ... 4.0 4.02 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..48 ... 26.05 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best)...92 ... 0.11 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...92 ... 1.64 review belongs. The country classification by income 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...52 ... 4.0 5.02 Quality of math & science education* ...54 ... 4.3 5.03 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..90 ... 82.4 a 1-to-7 (best) Note : Indicators followed by an as terisk r Fo ale. sc (*) are measured on group is defined by the World Bank and reflects the refe deta ils and explanation, please further r to the sectio n “How to Re ad the ... 96.8 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...56 my Prof on pa ge 97 Co untr y/Econo iles” situation as of December 2013. Note that the two high- | 100 Technology Report 2014 The Global Information High income: OECD income groups in this classification, , were merged into a single High income: non-OECD and group for the purpose of the analysis. THE NETWORKED READINESS INDEX IN DETAIL - indicated in the corresponding data table. For more in This section presents an economy’s performance in formation on the framework and computation of the NRI, each of the 54 indicators composing the NRI. The in - refer to Chapter 1.1. dicators are organized by pillar. The numbering of the - variables matches that of the data tables in the next sec ONLINE DATA PORTAL tion of the Report , which provide descriptions, rankings, In complement to the analysis presented in this and scores for all the indicators. The indicators derived , an online data portal can be accessed via www. Report from the 2012 and 2013 editions of the World Economic weforum.org/gitr. The platform offers a number of analyt - Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey are identified by an ical tools and visualizations, including sortable rankings, asterisk (*). These indicators are always measured on a scatter plots, bar charts, and maps, as well as the pos- 1-to-7 scale (where 1 and 7 correspond to the worst and sibility of downloading portions of the NRI dataset. best possible outcomes, respectively). For more infor - mation on the Executive Opinion Survey and a detailed explanation of how scores are computed, please refer to Chapter 1.3 of The Global Competitiveness Report 2013– , available for free on the World Economic Forum 2014 website at www.weforum.org/gcr. For those indicators not derived from the World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey, the scale is reported next to the title. The Technical Notes and Report provides further de Sources at the end of this - tails on each indicator, including its definition, method of computation, and sources. Note that for the sake of readability, the years were omitted. However, the year of each data point is 97 The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | © 2014 World Economic Forum

122 © 2014 World Economic Forum

123 Index of Country/Economy Profiles Country/Economy Page Page Country/Economy Page Country/Economy Page Country/Economy 174 Ecuador 211 Qatar Albania 100 137 Lebanon Lesotho 212 Egypt 175 138 Romania Algeria 101 139 El Salvador 213 Liberia 176 Russian Federation Angola 102 214 103 177 Libya Rwanda Argentina 140 Estonia Ethiopia 178 Lithuania 141 104 Armenia Saudi Arabia 215 179 Australia 105 Luxembourg 142 Finland Seychelles 216 Senegal Austria 106 217 Macedonia, FYR 180 143 France Serbia Madagascar 181 Azerbaijan 107 Gabon 144 218 145 Bahrain 108 182 Malawi 219 Sierra Leone Gambia, The Singapore 109 Malaysia 183 146 Georgia Bangladesh 220 110 Germany 147 Barbados Mali 184 Slovak Republic 221 Belgium 111 Ghana Malta 185 148 222 Slovenia 223 Greece 112 149 Benin South Africa Mauritania 186 Guatemala 150 Bhutan 113 187 Spain Mauritius 224 Bolivia Guinea 225 Sri Lanka 114 151 Mexico 188 152 Moldova 226 Suriname Bosnia and Herzegovina 115 Guyana 189 116 153 Haiti 227 Swaziland Mongolia Botswana 190 Sweden 154 Honduras Brazil 117 Montenegro 228 191 Morocco 229 192 118 Hong Kong SAR 155 Switzerland Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria 230 Taiwan, China 119 193 Mozambique Hungary 156 Iceland 157 Myanmar 194 120 Burkina Faso Tanzania 231 Namibia Burundi India 232 195 158 Thailand 121 196 159 Indonesia Cambodia 233 Nepal Timor-Leste 122 Netherlands 197 160 Iran, Islamic Rep. 234 Cameroon Trinidad and Tobago 123 161 Canada 198 235 Ireland New Zealand Tunisia 124 Israel Nicaragua 162 Cape Verde 199 236 Turkey 125 200 237 Italy Nigeria 163 Chad Uganda 126 164 Chile 201 238 Jamaica Norway Ukraine 127 Japan Oman 165 China 202 239 United Arab Emirates 128 203 240 Jordan Pakistan 166 Colombia United Kingdom 129 167 Costa Rica 204 241 Kazakhstan Panama United States 130 Kenya Paraguay 168 Côte d'Ivoire 205 242 Uruguay 131 206 243 Korea, Rep. Peru 169 Croatia Venezuela 132 170 Cyprus 207 244 Kuwait Philippines Vietnam 133 Kyrgyz Republic Poland 171 Czech Republic 208 245 Yemen 134 172 135 Denmark 209 246 Lao PDR Portugal Zambia 136 Dominican Republic 210 173 Puerto Rico Latvia Zimbabwe 247 © 2014 World Economic Forum

124 2: Country/Economy Profiles Albania Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.7 ... 95 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 83 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 95 ...3.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 117 ...3.1 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 65 ...4.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 86 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 90 ...3.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 87 ...5.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 62 ...5.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 95 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 82 ...3.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 107 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 93 ...3.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 108 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 125 ...2.6 Albania Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 97 ...3.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...105 ... 3.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...70 ... 110.7 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...58 ... 54.7 Laws relating to ICTs* ...85 ... 3.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...95 ... 20.0 Judicial independence* ...134 ... 2.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..120 ... 3.0 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...87 ... 20.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..113 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...78 ... 5.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...114 ... 2.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...71 ... 18.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...110 ... 5.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...77 ... 75 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...91 ... 39 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...69 ... 525 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...108 ... 4.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...121 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...119 ... 4.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...85 ... 0.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...136 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...135 ... 3.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...48 ... 31.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...131 ... 3.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...12 ... 5 Extent of staff training* ...36 ... 4.4 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...144 ... 3.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...78 ... 3.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...50 ... 54.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...88 ... 0.42 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...84 ... 4.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...106 ... 3.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...52 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...121 ... 3.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...93 .. 1,318.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .124 ... 3.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...76 ... 17.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...99 ... 13.7 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...85 ... 19.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...116 ... 4.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...126 ... 3.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...73 ... 4.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...120 ... 0.44 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...82 ... 4.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..48 ... 26.05 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...92 ... 0.11 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...92 ... 1.64 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...52 ... 4.0 Quality of math & science education* ...54 ... 4.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..90 ... 82.4 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...56 ... 96.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 100 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

125 2: Country/Economy Profiles Algeria Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.0 ... 129 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 131 ...2.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 143 ...2.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 140 ...2.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 145 ...2.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 101 ...4.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 127 ...2.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 42 ...6.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 102 ...4.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 134 ...2.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 104 ...2.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 147 ...2.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 134 ...3.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 137 ...2.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 133 ...2.4 Algeria Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 140 ...2.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...125 ... 2.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...94 ... 97.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...113 ... 15.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...146 ... 2.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...90 ... 24.2 Judicial independence* ...95 ... 3.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..116 ... 3.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...91 ... 19.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..139 ... 2.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...90 ... 2.9 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...145 ... 2.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...140 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...104 ... 5.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...95 ... 84 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...131 ... 45 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...101 ... 630 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...147 ... 3.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...147 ... 2.3 Availability of latest technologies* ...144 ... 3.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...98 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...123 ... 2.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...147 ... 3.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...142 ... 71.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...145 ... 2.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...103 ... 25 Extent of staff training* ...139 ... 3.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...142 ... 14 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...141 ... 3.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...122 ... 3.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...78 ... 31.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...123 ... 0.25 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...135 ... 3.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...136 ... 3.2 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...127 ... 2.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...145 ... 2.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...90 .. 1,356.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...83 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...124 ... 81.5 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .140 ... 2.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...99 ... 7.7 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...80 ... 19.1 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...128 ... 1.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...144 ... 3.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...138 ... 3.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...138 ... 2.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...49 ... 0.18 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...141 ... 2.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..28 ... 20.94 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...107 ... 0.05 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...104 ... 1.33 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...133 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...132 ... 2.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..46 ... 97.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...117 ... 72.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 101 © 2014 World Economic Forum

126 2: Country/Economy Profiles Angola Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.5 ... 144 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... n/a ...n/a 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 147 ...2.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 145 ...2.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 147 ...2.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 138 ...2.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 146 ...1.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 110 ...4.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 141 ...2.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 142 ...2.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 133 ...1.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 143 ...2.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 131 ...3.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 138 ...2.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 137 ...2.4 Angola Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 139 ...2.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...97 ... 3.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...138 ... 47.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...109 ... 16.9 Laws relating to ICTs* ...143 ... 2.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...118 ... 8.5 Judicial independence* ...127 ... 2.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..129 ... 2.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...115 ... 7.2 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..144 ... 2.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...124 ... 0.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...137 ... 2.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...120 ... 1.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...123 ... 4.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...134 ... 46 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...140 ... 1,296 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...145 ... 3.3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...146 ... 2.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...139 ... 3.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...118 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...119 ... 2.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...144 ... 3.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...124 ... 52.1 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...139 ... 3.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...137 ... 66 Extent of staff training* ...124 ... 3.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...148 ... 2.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...137 ... 2.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...128 ... 7.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...106 ... 0.33 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...148 ... 2.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...126 ... 3.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...133 ... 2.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...137 ... 3.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...120 ... 280.0 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...139 ... 40.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .137 ... 2.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...142 ... 0.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...110 ... 3.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...135 ... 3.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...144 ... 2.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...127 ... 2.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...81 ... 0.28 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...138 ... 2.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 115 ... 57.22 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...104 ... 1.33 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...144 ... 2.2 Quality of math & science education* ...147 ... 2.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 140 ... 31.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...121 ... 70.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 102 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

127 2: Country/Economy Profiles Argentina Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.5 ... 100 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 99 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 135 ...3.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 135 ...2.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 122 ...3.6 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 100 ...4.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 78 ...3.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 121 ...3.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 79 ...4.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 77 ...3.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 57 ...4.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 99 ...3.3 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 121 ...3.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 96 ...3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 87 ...3.1 Argentina Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 98 ...3.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...146 ... 2.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...19 ... 151.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...54 ... 55.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...127 ... 2.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...58 ... 56.0 Judicial independence* ...132 ... 2.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..133 ... 2.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...58 ... 47.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..147 ... 1.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...56 ... 10.9 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...139 ... 2.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...69 ... 20.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...45 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...69 ... 69 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...55 ... 36 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...87 ... 590 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...115 ... 4.1 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...91 ... 3.3 Availability of latest technologies* ...123 ... 4.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...62 ... 1.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...142 ... 1.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...106 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...147 ... 107.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...68 ... 4.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...103 ... 25 Extent of staff training* ...100 ... 3.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...142 ... 14 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...134 ... 4.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...143 ... 2.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...17 ... 74.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...59 ... 0.53 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...33 ... 4.9 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...141 ... 3.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...140 ... 2.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...116 ... 3.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...65 .. 3,180.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...61 ... 0.3 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...109 ... 94.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...88 ... 3.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...67 ... 22.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...56 ... 25.0 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...62 ... 41.8 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...88 ... 4.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...118 ... 3.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...79 ... 4.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...141 ... 0.77 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...140 ... 2.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..79 ... 33.99 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...52 ... 0.29 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...104 ... 3.2 Quality of math & science education* ...116 ... 3.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..72 ... 90.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...50 ... 97.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 103 © 2014 World Economic Forum

128 2: Country/Economy Profiles Armenia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.0 ... 65 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 82 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 83 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 104 ...3.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 67 ...4.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 51 ...5.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 53 ...4.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 63 ...5.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 47 ...5.4 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 73 ...3.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 74 ...3.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 82 ...3.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 76 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 67 ...3.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 47 ...3.5 Armenia Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 80 ...3.6 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...78 ... 3.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...65 ... 111.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...84 ... 39.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...42 ... 4.6 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...79 ... 34.0 Judicial independence* ...110 ... 3.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...74 ... 3.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...81 ... 25.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...76 ... 3.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...74 ... 6.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...75 ... 3.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...55 ... 29.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...67 ... 5.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...101 ... 88 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...142 ... 49 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...80 ... 570 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...98 ... 4.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...77 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...97 ... 4.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...50 ... 3.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...93 ... 2.4 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...48 ... 5.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...77 ... 38.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...78 ... 4.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...9 ... 4 Extent of staff training* ...114 ... 3.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...3 ... 2 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...102 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...47 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...59 ... 46.0 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...109 ... 0.33 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...120 ... 3.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...46 ... 4.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...111 ... 3.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...46 ... 4.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...74 .. 2,507.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...53 ... 0.5 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...43 ... 99.8 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...36 ... 4.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...47 ... 40.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...62 ... 24.1 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...72 ... 26.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...64 ... 5.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...64 ... 4.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...78 ... 4.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...63 ... 0.22 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...24 ... 5.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..54 ... 28.13 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...113 ... 1.25 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...69 ... 3.7 Quality of math & science education* ...67 ... 4.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..54 ... 95.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...11 ... 99.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 104 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

129 2: Country/Economy Profiles Australia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.4 ... 18 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 18 ...5.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 14 ...5.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 15 ...5.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 21 ...5.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 9 ...6.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 8 ...6.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 49 ...5.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 20 ...5.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 19 ...5.3 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 15 ...5.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 24 ...4.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 21 ...5.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 20 ...5.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 23 ...4.6 Australia High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 15 ...5.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...25 ... 4.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...84 ... 105.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...18 ... 82.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...17 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...17 ... 85.2 Judicial independence* ...16 ... 5.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...30 ... 4.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...17 ... 81.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...30 ... 4.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...25 ... 24.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...21 ... 5.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...7 ... 96.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...10 ... 6.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...5 ... 23 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...12 ... 28 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...26 ... 395 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...14 ... 5.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...23 ... 4.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...23 ... 6.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...21 ... 76.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...19 ... 3.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...27 ... 5.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...108 ... 47.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...12 ... 5.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...5 ... 3 Extent of staff training* ...30 ... 4.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...13 ... 5.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...25 ... 4.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...8 ... 83.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...9 ... 0.86 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...29 ... 5.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...48 ... 4.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...57 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...22 ... 5.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...9 11,120.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...20 ... 20.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...21 ... 4.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...33 ... 69.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...16 ... 42.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...8 .. 1,724.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...22 ... 6.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...24 ... 5.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...17 ... 5.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...26 ... 0.10 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...51 ... 4.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 101 ... 41.30 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...8 ... 0.76 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...23 ... 4.8 Quality of math & science education* ...37 ... 4.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ...1 ... 133.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 105 © 2014 World Economic Forum

130 2: Country/Economy Profiles Austria Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.3 ... 22 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 19 ...5.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 23 ...5.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 18 ...5.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 39 ...4.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 11 ...6.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 10 ...6.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 34 ...6.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 22 ...5.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 20 ...5.3 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 20 ...5.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 11 ...5.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 36 ...4.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 24 ...4.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 24 ...4.5 Austria High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 31 ...4.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...35 ... 4.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...11 ... 160.5 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...21 ... 81.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...21 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...22 ... 81.0 Judicial independence* ...30 ... 5.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...24 ... 4.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...20 ... 79.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...25 ... 4.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...23 ... 25.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...17 ... 5.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...23 ... 56.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...21 ... 6.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...5 ... 23 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...4 ... 25 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...29 ... 397 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...17 ... 5.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...14 ... 5.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...24 ... 6.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...10 ... 159.6 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...55 ... 2.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...9 ... 5.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...125 ... 52.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...17 ... 5.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...103 ... 25 Extent of staff training* ...16 ... 4.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...11 ... 5.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...69 ... 3.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...25 ... 71.0 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...26 ... 0.75 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...40 ... 4.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...56 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...47 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...36 ... 4.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...26 .. 7,618.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...13 ... 31.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...48 ... 4.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...17 ... 108.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...25 ... 38.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...16 .. 1,134.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...15 ... 6.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...23 ... 5.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...25 ... 5.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...20 ... 0.08 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...22 ... 5.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..87 ... 35.98 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...41 ... 0.37 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...24 ... 4.8 Quality of math & science education* ...39 ... 4.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..41 ... 98.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 106 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

131 2: Country/Economy Profiles Azerbaijan Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.3 ... 49 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 56 ...4.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 70 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 66 ...3.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 77 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 49 ...5.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 55 ...4.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 40 ...6.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 66 ...5.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 44 ...4.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 61 ...4.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 52 ...3.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 34 ...4.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 46 ...3.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 42 ...3.6 Azerbaijan Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 46 ...4.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...63 ... 3.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...73 ... 108.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...59 ... 54.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...24 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...67 ... 45.0 Judicial independence* ...93 ... 3.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...64 ... 3.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...61 ... 46.8 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...53 ... 3.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...46 ... 14.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...69 ... 3.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...46 ... 34.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...38 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...100 ... 87 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...6 ... 237 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...59 ... 4.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...35 ... 4.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...65 ... 5.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...77 ... 0.6 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...52 ... 2.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...47 ... 5.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...81 ... 40.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...51 ... 4.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...37 ... 7 Extent of staff training* ...80 ... 3.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...128 ... 4.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...6 ... 5.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...96 ... 19.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...98 ... 0.37 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...134 ... 3.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...8 ... 5.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...14 ... 4.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...43 ... 4.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...81 .. 2,212.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...75 ... 0.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...24 ... 4.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...45 ... 40.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...60 ... 24.2 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...101 ... 6.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...50 ... 5.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...31 ... 5.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...72 ... 4.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...65 ... 0.22 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...11 ... 5.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..18 ... 17.99 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...102 ... 1.40 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...114 ... 3.1 Quality of math & science education* ...110 ... 3.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..38 ... 99.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...3 ... 99.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 107 © 2014 World Economic Forum

132 2: Country/Economy Profiles Bahrain Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.9 ... 29 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 29 ...4.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 40 ...4.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 48 ...4.1 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 27 ...5.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 32 ...5.5 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 39 ...5.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 25 ...6.3 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 58 ...5.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 25 ...5.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 14 ...6.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 49 ...3.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 5 ...5.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 35 ...4.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 63 ...3.4 Bahrain High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 18 ...5.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...85 ... 3.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...10 ... 161.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...10 ... 88.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...40 ... 4.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...3 ... 92.7 Judicial independence* ...46 ... 4.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...41 ... 4.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...20 ... 79.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...43 ... 3.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...49 ... 13.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...32 ... 4.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...8 ... 91.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...12 ... 6.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...44 ... 54 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...141 ... 48 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...102 ... 635 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...30 ... 5.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...82 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...26 ... 6.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...69 ... 1.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...15 ... 3.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...38 ... 5.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...5 ... 13.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...87 ... 4.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...51 ... 9 Extent of staff training* ...41 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...40 ... 5.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...14 ... 5.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...77 ... 33.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...9 ... 0.86 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...85 ... 4.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...12 ... 5.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...24 ... 4.1 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...49 ... 4.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...12 10,694.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...52 ... 0.5 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...46 ... 4.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...74 ... 18.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...74 ... 20.7 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...45 ... 135.8 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...38 ... 5.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...18 ... 5.4 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...45 ... 5.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...32 ... 0.13 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...13 ... 5.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..55 ... 28.21 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...19 ... 0.66 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...63 ... 1.92 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...48 ... 4.1 Quality of math & science education* ...77 ... 4.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..56 ... 95.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...80 ... 91.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 108 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

133 2: Country/Economy Profiles Bangladesh Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.2 ... 119 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 114 ...3.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 132 ...3.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 138 ...2.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 114 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 104 ...4.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 112 ...2.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 23 ...6.3 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 128 ...2.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 120 ...2.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 134 ...1.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 127 ...3.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 73 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 127 ...2.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 130 ...2.5 Bangladesh Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 118 ...2.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...101 ... 3.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...128 ... 62.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...128 ... 6.3 Laws relating to ICTs* ...123 ... 3.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...130 ... 4.8 Judicial independence* ...129 ... 2.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..114 ... 3.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...133 ... 3.2 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...81 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...117 ... 0.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...130 ... 2.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...127 ... 0.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...138 ... 4.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...104 ... 90 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...111 ... 41 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...147 ... 1,442 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...111 ... 4.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...120 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...101 ... 4.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...117 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...125 ... 2.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...130 ... 4.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...62 ... 35.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...124 ... 3.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...57 ... 11 Extent of staff training* ...137 ... 3.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...74 ... 4.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...65 ... 4.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...109 ... 13.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...84 ... 0.44 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...105 ... 3.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...76 ... 4.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...142 ... 2.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...112 ... 3.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...118 ... 288.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...92 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .119 ... 3.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...128 ... 3.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...109 ... 7.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...136 ... 0.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...117 ... 4.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...96 ... 3.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...122 ... 2.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...5 ... 0.04 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...107 ... 3.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ...3 ... 10.37 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...97 ... 0.08 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...113 ... 1.25 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...98 ... 3.3 Quality of math & science education* ...112 ... 3.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 119 ... 50.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...132 ... 57.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 109 © 2014 World Economic Forum

134 2: Country/Economy Profiles Barbados Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.2 ... 55 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 39 ...4.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 38 ...4.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 35 ...4.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 42 ...4.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 91 ...4.4 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 35 ...5.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 144 ...2.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 15 ...5.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 43 ...4.3 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 33 ...5.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 53 ...3.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 72 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 58 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 57 ...3.4 Barbados High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 64 ...3.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...15 ... 5.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...46 ... 122.5 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...32 ... 73.3 Laws relating to ICTs* ...64 ... 4.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...41 ... 69.2 Judicial independence* ...21 ... 5.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...34 ... 4.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...44 ... 62.9 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...32 ... 4.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...30 ... 23.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...37 ... 4.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...44 ... 36.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...25 ... 6.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...143 ... 1,340 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...44 ... 5.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...81 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...28 ... 5.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...43 ... 6.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...98 ... 2.4 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...70 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...87 ... 40.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...79 ... 4.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...86 ... 18 Extent of staff training* ...32 ... 4.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...50 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...53 ... 4.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...37 ... 60.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...96 ... 0.37 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...26 ... 5.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...57 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...54 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...74 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...60 .. 3,698.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...76 ... 4.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...34 ... 67.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...47 ... 30.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...30 ... 374.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...28 ... 6.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...42 ... 4.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...38 ... 5.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...136 ... 0.59 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...60 ... 4.3 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 129 ... 80.33 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...118 ... 1.20 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...6 ... 5.3 Quality of math & science education* ...9 ... 5.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..23 ... 104.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...n/a ... n/a Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 110 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

135 2: Country/Economy Profiles Belgium Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.1 ... 27 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 24 ...5.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 19 ...5.1 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 21 ...5.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 22 ...5.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 25 ...5.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 22 ...6.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 101 ...4.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 4 ...6.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 27 ...5.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 25 ...5.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 18 ...5.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 42 ...4.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 29 ...4.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 20 ...4.7 Belgium High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 40 ...4.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...49 ... 4.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...68 ... 111.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...19 ... 82.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...30 ... 4.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...25 ... 80.0 Judicial independence* ...24 ... 5.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...40 ... 4.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...23 ... 78.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...36 ... 4.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...10 ... 33.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...22 ... 5.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...51 ... 33.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...28 ... 6.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...7 ... 24 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...5 ... 26 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...58 ... 505 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...26 ... 5.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...10 ... 5.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...12 ... 6.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...16 ... 110.7 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...26 ... 3.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...26 ... 5.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...130 ... 57.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...34 ... 5.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...9 ... 4 Extent of staff training* ...19 ... 4.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...6 ... 6.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...63 ... 4.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...27 ... 69.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...39 ... 0.65 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...2 ... 6.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...68 ... 4.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...45 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...30 ... 5.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...31 .. 6,935.1 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...17 ... 25.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...33 ... 99.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...30 ... 4.8 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...11 ... 180.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...11 ... 44.6 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...22 ... 673.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...26 ... 6.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...19 ... 5.4 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...26 ... 5.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...135 ... 0.59 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...52 ... 4.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..64 ... 29.39 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...7 ... 5.3 Quality of math & science education* ...3 ... 6.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..19 ... 106.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 111 © 2014 World Economic Forum

136 2: Country/Economy Profiles Benin Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.8 ... 135 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 123 ...3.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 127 ...3.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 107 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 131 ...3.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 134 ...2.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 122 ...2.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 134 ...2.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 130 ...2.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 137 ...2.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 124 ...2.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 128 ...3.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 137 ...2.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 132 ...2.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 119 ...2.7 Benin Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 136 ...2.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...45 ... 4.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...110 ... 83.7 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...136 ... 3.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...135 ... 2.6 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...131 ... 4.2 Judicial independence* ...116 ... 2.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..104 ... 3.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...139 ... 2.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...91 ... 3.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...134 ... 0.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...101 ... 3.1 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...129 ... 0.4 Use of virtual social networks* ...125 ... 4.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...116 ... 42 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...119 ... 795 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...122 ... 4.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...114 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...131 ... 3.8 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...113 ... 2.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...129 ... 4.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...139 ... 65.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...112 ... 3.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...76 ... 15 Extent of staff training* ...136 ... 3.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...89 ... 4.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...124 ... 3.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...111 ... 12.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...130 ... 0.20 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...73 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...129 ... 3.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...100 ... 3.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...99 ... 4.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...146 ... 15.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .132 ... 3.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...126 ... 3.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...137 ... 0.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...141 ... 3.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...131 ... 3.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...140 ... 2.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...72 ... 0.24 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...127 ... 3.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 132 ... 101.41 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...97 ... 0.08 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...139 ... 0.50 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...101 ... 3.2 Quality of math & science education* ...66 ... 4.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 123 ... 47.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...142 ... 42.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 112 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

137 2: Country/Economy Profiles Bhutan Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.7 ... 94 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... n/a ...n/a 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 76 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 43 ...4.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 123 ...3.6 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 84 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 67 ...4.2 4th pillar: Affordability ... 45 ...5.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 114 ...3.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 110 ...3.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 114 ...2.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 130 ...3.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 70 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 97 ...3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 112 ...2.8 Bhutan Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 81 ...3.6 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...22 ... 4.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...118 ... 75.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...100 ... 25.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...96 ... 3.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...101 ... 16.4 Judicial independence* ...38 ... 4.8 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...51 ... 4.0 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...102 ... 11.6 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...87 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...93 ... 2.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...44 ... 4.1 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...115 ... 2.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...106 ... 5.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...138 ... 47 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...3 ... 225 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...138 ... 3.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...78 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...135 ... 3.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...82 ... 0.4 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...107 ... 2.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...134 ... 3.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...87 ... 40.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...141 ... 3.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...114 ... 32 Extent of staff training* ...119 ... 3.4 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...96 ... 4.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...33 ... 4.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...124 ... 8.7 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...102 ... 0.35 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...111 ... 3.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...61 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...48 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...110 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...15 .. 9,688.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .114 ... 3.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...124 ... 3.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...90 ... 16.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...88 ... 12.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...90 ... 4.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...50 ... 4.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...88 ... 3.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...38 ... 0.14 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...43 ... 4.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..44 ... 25.66 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...104 ... 1.33 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...41 ... 4.3 Quality of math & science education* ...71 ... 4.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 101 ... 73.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...137 ... 52.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 113 © 2014 World Economic Forum

138 2: Country/Economy Profiles Bolivia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.2 ... 120 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 119 ...3.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 131 ...3.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 109 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 139 ...3.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 115 ...3.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 114 ...2.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 126 ...3.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 93 ...4.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 116 ...3.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 108 ...2.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 118 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 115 ...3.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 104 ...3.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 111 ...2.8 Bolivia Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 101 ...3.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...86 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...104 ... 90.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...91 ... 34.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...118 ... 3.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...88 ... 25.9 Judicial independence* ...102 ... 3.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...82 ... 3.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...107 ... 10.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...88 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...107 ... 1.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...98 ... 3.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...98 ... 6.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...145 ... 3.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...83 ... 79 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...88 ... 591 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...125 ... 3.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...70 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...130 ... 3.8 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...99 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...32 ... 3.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...137 ... 3.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...145 ... 83.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...108 ... 3.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...132 ... 49 Extent of staff training* ...112 ... 3.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...144 ... 15 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...137 ... 3.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...112 ... 3.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...72 ... 37.7 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...92 ... 0.41 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...126 ... 3.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...119 ... 3.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...74 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...107 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...106 ... 699.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...101 ... 95.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .100 ... 3.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...113 ... 5.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...95 ... 15.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...94 ... 9.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...130 ... 3.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...99 ... 3.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...100 ... 3.5 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...126 ... 0.51 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...115 ... 3.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 111 ... 49.63 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...63 ... 0.21 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...136 ... 0.80 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...89 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...98 ... 3.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..95 ... 77.3 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...84 ... 91.2 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 114 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

139 2: Country/Economy Profiles Bosnia and Herzegovina Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.0 ... 68 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 78 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 80 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 76 ...3.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 83 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 46 ...5.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 63 ...4.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 30 ...6.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 57 ...5.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 79 ...3.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 70 ...3.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 92 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 99 ...3.7 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 87 ...3.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 88 ...3.0 Bosnia and Herzegovina Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 85 ...3.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...73 ... 3.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...105 ... 87.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...40 ... 65.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...67 ... 4.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...73 ... 39.8 Judicial independence* ...64 ... 3.9 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...85 ... 3.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...70 ... 39.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...54 ... 3.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...58 ... 10.6 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...135 ... 2.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...83 ... 12.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...44 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...62 ... 66 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...90 ... 595 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...93 ... 4.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...108 ... 3.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...76 ... 4.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...57 ... 2.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...131 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...101 ... 4.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...24 ... 25.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...88 ... 4.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...124 ... 37 Extent of staff training* ...58 ... 4.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...129 ... 11 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...143 ... 3.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...86 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...71 ... 37.7 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...96 ... 0.37 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...41 ... 4.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...89 ... 4.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...89 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...91 ... 4.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...57 .. 3,979.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...64 ... 0.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...43 ... 99.8 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...81 ... 4.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...65 ... 23.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...74 ... 25.8 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...36 ... 5.8 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...65 ... 4.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...61 ... 4.5 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...88 ... 0.31 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...64 ... 4.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..15 ... 15.85 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...74 ... 1.86 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...132 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...13 ... 5.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..75 ... 89.3 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...49 ... 98.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 115 © 2014 World Economic Forum

140 2: Country/Economy Profiles Botswana Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.4 ... 103 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 96 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 61 ...4.1 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 40 ...4.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 107 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 118 ...3.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 109 ...3.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 142 ...2.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 92 ...4.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 88 ...3.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 79 ...3.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 106 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 86 ...3.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 110 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 120 ...2.7 Botswana Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 107 ...3.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...17 ... 4.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...17 ... 153.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...121 ... 11.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...101 ... 3.4 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...109 ... 12.3 Judicial independence* ...26 ... 5.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...25 ... 4.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...110 ... 9.1 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...23 ... 4.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...108 ... 0.9 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...47 ... 4.1 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...14 ... 74.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...88 ... 5.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...87 ... 80 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...12 ... 28 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...100 ... 625 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...101 ... 4.3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...102 ... 3.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...91 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...94 ... 0.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...57 ... 2.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...119 ... 4.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...23 ... 25.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...122 ... 3.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...135 ... 60 Extent of staff training* ...87 ... 3.8 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...93 ... 4.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...61 ... 4.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...130 ... 7.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...101 ... 0.36 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...97 ... 3.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...84 ... 4.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...67 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...120 ... 3.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...124 ... 187.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...97 ... 96.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .126 ... 3.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...104 ... 6.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...86 ... 17.1 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...89 ... 11.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...103 ... 4.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...93 ... 3.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...104 ... 3.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...125 ... 0.47 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...78 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 137 ... 114.48 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...112 ... 1.27 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...65 ... 3.7 Quality of math & science education* ...92 ... 3.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..92 ... 81.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...102 ... 85.1 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 116 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

141 2: Country/Economy Profiles Brazil Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.0 ... 69 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 60 ...4.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 116 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 78 ...3.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 135 ...3.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 76 ...4.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 56 ...4.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 91 ...5.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 91 ...4.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 47 ...4.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 59 ...4.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 41 ...3.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 54 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 57 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 64 ...3.3 Brazil Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 58 ...3.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...133 ... 2.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...43 ... 125.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...65 ... 49.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...60 ... 4.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...65 ... 49.9 Judicial independence* ...65 ... 3.9 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..101 ... 3.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...62 ... 45.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...68 ... 3.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...65 ... 9.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...80 ... 3.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...49 ... 33.7 Use of virtual social networks* ...37 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...40 ... 53 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...126 ... 44 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...114 ... 731 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...51 ... 5.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...36 ... 4.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...63 ... 5.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...53 ... 3.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...61 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...54 ... 5.1 Total tax rate, % profits ...141 ... 68.3 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...30 ... 5.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...146 ... 108 Extent of staff training* ...44 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...137 ... 13 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...70 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...93 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...86 ... 25.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...32 ... 0.67 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...49 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...88 ... 4.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...69 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...51 ... 4.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...73 .. 2,700.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...58 ... 0.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...28 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...43 ... 4.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...41 ... 44.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...75 ... 20.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...59 ... 54.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...92 ... 4.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...88 ... 3.9 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...98 ... 3.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...140 ... 0.65 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...61 ... 4.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..14 ... 15.77 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...31 ... 0.50 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...121 ... 3.0 Quality of math & science education* ...136 ... 2.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..20 ... 105.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...85 ... 90.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 117 © 2014 World Economic Forum

142 2: Country/Economy Profiles Brunei Darussalam Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.3 ... 45 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 57 ...4.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 54 ...4.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 46 ...4.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 69 ...4.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 78 ...4.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 37 ...5.2 4th pillar: Affordability ... 129 ...3.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 30 ...5.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 41 ...4.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 50 ...4.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 56 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 30 ...4.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 38 ...4.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 51 ...3.5 Brunei Darussalam High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 32 ...4.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...26 ... 4.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...62 ... 114.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...48 ... 60.3 Laws relating to ICTs* ...49 ... 4.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...14 ... 86.9 Judicial independence* ...34 ... 5.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...19 ... 5.0 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...30 ... 72.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...80 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...81 ... 4.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...39 ... 4.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...94 ... 7.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...19 ... 6.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...65 ... 67 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...138 ... 47 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...73 ... 540 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...63 ... 4.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...67 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...50 ... 5.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...58 ... 1.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...24 ... 3.4 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...59 ... 5.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...10 ... 16.1 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...75 ... 4.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...144 ... 101 Extent of staff training* ...26 ... 4.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...144 ... 15 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...62 ... 5.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...17 ... 5.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...90 ... 24.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...44 ... 0.59 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...52 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...21 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...10 ... 4.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...66 ... 4.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...16 .. 9,163.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...41 ... 1.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...n/a ... n/a 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...54 ... 4.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...48 ... 39.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...51 ... 28.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...50 ... 111.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...48 ... 5.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...30 ... 5.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...32 ... 5.5 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...111 ... 0.38 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...39 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 122 ... 66.38 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...34 ... 0.47 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...134 ... 0.88 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...32 ... 4.4 Quality of math & science education* ...29 ... 4.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..15 ... 107.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...62 ... 95.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 118 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

143 2: Country/Economy Profiles Bulgaria Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.0 ... 73 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 71 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 71 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 105 ...3.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 50 ...4.6 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 75 ...4.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 34 ...5.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 119 ...3.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 56 ...5.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 65 ...3.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 47 ...4.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 104 ...3.3 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 97 ...3.7 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 86 ...3.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 73 ...3.2 Bulgaria Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 93 ...3.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...117 ... 2.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...21 ... 148.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...55 ... 55.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...66 ... 4.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...61 ... 52.0 Judicial independence* ...123 ... 2.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..125 ... 2.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...55 ... 51.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..122 ... 2.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...38 ... 17.9 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...104 ... 3.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...34 ... 48.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...79 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...61 ... 64 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...77 ... 564 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...113 ... 4.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...103 ... 3.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...99 ... 4.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...48 ... 4.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...65 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...78 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...31 ... 27.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...64 ... 4.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...86 ... 18 Extent of staff training* ...127 ... 3.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...101 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...110 ... 3.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...41 ... 59.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...70 ... 0.49 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...112 ... 3.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...111 ... 3.8 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...90 ... 3.3 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...104 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...32 .. 6,807.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...43 ... 1.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...28 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .102 ... 3.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...25 ... 85.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...49 ... 29.6 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...43 ... 164.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...65 ... 5.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...91 ... 3.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...51 ... 4.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...142 ... 0.82 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...100 ... 3.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..33 ... 22.36 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...104 ... 1.33 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...90 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...59 ... 4.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..61 ... 93.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...46 ... 98.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 119 © 2014 World Economic Forum

144 2: Country/Economy Profiles Burkina Faso Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.8 ... 136 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 130 ...2.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 126 ...3.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 108 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 128 ...3.5 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 147 ...2.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 147 ...1.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 131 ...3.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 144 ...2.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 127 ...2.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 139 ...1.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 135 ...2.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 101 ...3.7 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 118 ...2.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 108 ...2.9 Burkina Faso Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 120 ...2.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...116 ... 2.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...129 ... 60.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...138 ... 3.7 Laws relating to ICTs* ...124 ... 3.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...135 ... 3.4 Judicial independence* ...142 ... 2.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..103 ... 3.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...134 ... 2.8 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..106 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...129 ... 0.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...88 ... 3.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...139 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...142 ... 4.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...47 ... 446 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...140 ... 3.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...119 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...145 ... 3.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...110 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...147 ... 1.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...117 ... 4.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...99 ... 43.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...129 ... 3.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...68 ... 13 Extent of staff training* ...142 ... 2.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...116 ... 4.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...68 ... 4.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...138 ... 4.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...120 ... 0.29 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...110 ... 3.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...80 ... 4.2 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...94 ... 3.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...89 ... 4.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...142 ... 44.0 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...137 ... 61.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .120 ... 3.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...139 ... 1.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...139 ... 0.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...147 ... 2.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...105 ... 3.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...147 ... 1.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...100 ... 0.34 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...69 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 131 ... 101.12 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...77 ... 0.16 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...127 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...97 ... 3.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 145 ... 25.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...147 ... 28.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 120 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

145 2: Country/Economy Profiles Burundi Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.3 ... 147 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 144 ...2.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 144 ...2.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 146 ...2.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 142 ...3.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 145 ...2.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 133 ...2.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... n/a ...n/a 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 137 ...2.4 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 148 ...2.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 148 ...1.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 148 ...2.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 144 ...2.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 146 ...2.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 144 ...2.2 Burundi Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 147 ...2.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...136 ... 2.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...146 ... 22.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...146 ... 1.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...141 ... 2.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...147 ... 0.1 Judicial independence* ...147 ... 1.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..136 ... 2.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...146 ... 0.1 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..135 ... 2.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...145 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...142 ... 2.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...138 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...148 ... 3.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...126 ... 44 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...121 ... 832 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...143 ... 3.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...148 ... 2.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...143 ... 3.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...137 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...146 ... 3.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...122 ... 51.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...147 ... 2.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...15 ... 5 Extent of staff training* ...147 ... 2.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...146 ... 3.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...127 ... 3.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...143 ... 3.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...137 ... 0.15 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...142 ... 2.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...145 ... 3.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...138 ... 2.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...144 ... 2.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...147 ... 14.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...122 ... 83.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .147 ... 2.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...123 ... 3.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...144 ... 0.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...146 ... 2.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...148 ... 2.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...144 ... 1.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...n/a ... n/a ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...146 ... 2.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month .n/a ... n/a 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...96 ... 1.54 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...143 ... 2.3 Quality of math & science education* ...103 ... 3.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 142 ... 28.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...123 ... 67.2 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 121 © 2014 World Economic Forum

146 2: Country/Economy Profiles Cambodia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.4 ... 108 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 106 ...3.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 98 ...3.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 95 ...3.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 98 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 113 ...3.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 97 ...3.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 105 ...4.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 119 ...3.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 107 ...3.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 105 ...2.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 78 ...3.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 114 ...3.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 111 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 117 ...2.7 Cambodia Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 110 ...3.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...67 ... 3.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...36 ... 128.5 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...131 ... 4.9 Laws relating to ICTs* ...98 ... 3.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...128 ... 5.4 Judicial independence* ...115 ... 2.8 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...83 ... 3.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...127 ... 3.9 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...72 ... 3.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...121 ... 0.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...99 ... 3.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...97 ... 6.7 Use of virtual social networks* ...108 ... 5.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...126 ... 44 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...54 ... 483 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...82 ... 4.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...71 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...82 ... 4.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...43 ... 3.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...82 ... 4.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...15 ... 21.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...107 ... 3.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...145 ... 104 Extent of staff training* ...66 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...129 ... 11 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...78 ... 4.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...85 ... 3.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...104 ... 15.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...131 ... 0.19 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...108 ... 3.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...52 ... 4.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...46 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...77 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...138 ... 72.1 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...62 ... 4.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...89 ... 13.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...118 ... 2.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...113 ... 3.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...86 ... 4.8 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...87 ... 3.9 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...89 ... 3.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...55 ... 0.19 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...99 ... 3.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 116 ... 61.54 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...65 ... 1.88 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...76 ... 3.6 Quality of math & science education* ...102 ... 3.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 128 ... 45.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...112 ... 73.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 122 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

147 2: Country/Economy Profiles Cameroon Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.9 ... 131 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 124 ...2.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 125 ...3.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 132 ...2.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 111 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 137 ...2.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 143 ...1.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 136 ...2.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 116 ...3.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 119 ...2.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 130 ...1.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 95 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 102 ...3.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 116 ...2.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 103 ...2.9 Cameroon Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 123 ...2.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...113 ... 2.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...130 ... 60.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...129 ... 5.7 Laws relating to ICTs* ...128 ... 2.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...119 ... 8.3 Judicial independence* ...136 ... 2.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..102 ... 3.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...129 ... 3.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..103 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...113 ... 0.6 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...100 ... 3.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...137 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...121 ... 4.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...93 ... 83 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...116 ... 42 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...120 ... 800 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...94 ... 4.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...105 ... 3.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...111 ... 4.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...104 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...112 ... 2.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...68 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...112 ... 48.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...104 ... 4.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...76 ... 15 Extent of staff training* ...78 ... 3.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...92 ... 4.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...82 ... 3.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...115 ... 11.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...116 ... 0.30 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...48 ... 4.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...72 ... 4.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...38 ... 3.9 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...97 ... 4.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...119 ... 283.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...87 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...138 ... 58.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .108 ... 3.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...146 ... 0.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...130 ... 1.2 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...129 ... 3.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...100 ... 3.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...135 ... 2.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...103 ... 0.35 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...77 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 135 ... 112.53 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...116 ... 1.22 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...60 ... 3.9 Quality of math & science education* ...72 ... 4.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 121 ... 50.4 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...118 ... 71.3 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 123 © 2014 World Economic Forum

148 2: Country/Economy Profiles Canada Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.4 ... 17 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 12 ...5.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 10 ...5.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 12 ...5.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 3 ...5.5 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 13 ...6.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 7 ...6.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 65 ...5.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 8 ...6.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 26 ...5.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 27 ...5.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 25 ...4.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 25 ...5.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 17 ...5.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 17 ...4.9 Canada High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 16 ...5.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...10 ... 5.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...116 ... 80.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...12 ... 86.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...19 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...15 ... 86.6 Judicial independence* ...10 ... 6.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...11 ... 5.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...16 ... 83.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...15 ... 4.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...11 ... 32.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...13 ... 5.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...39 ... 42.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...13 ... 6.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...14 ... 27 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...55 ... 36 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...80 ... 570 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...34 ... 5.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...27 ... 4.3 Availability of latest technologies* ...19 ... 6.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...19 ... 82.4 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...23 ... 3.4 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...31 ... 5.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...21 ... 24.3 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...21 ... 5.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...15 ... 5 Extent of staff training* ...34 ... 4.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...1 ... 1 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...33 ... 5.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...56 ... 4.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...43 ... 58.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...6 ... 0.89 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...7 ... 5.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...51 ... 4.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...55 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...28 ... 5.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...3 18,510.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...12 ... 31.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...13 ... 5.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...18 ... 100.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...13 ... 43.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...15 .. 1,233.4 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...21 ... 6.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...26 ... 5.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...11 ... 6.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...93 ... 0.33 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...32 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..75 ... 32.57 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...15 ... 0.68 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...10 ... 5.2 Quality of math & science education* ...17 ... 5.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..26 ... 102.3 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 124 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

149 2: Country/Economy Profiles Cape Verde Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.7 ... 89 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 81 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 69 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 58 ...3.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 93 ...4.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 102 ...4.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 107 ...3.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 106 ...4.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 82 ...4.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 92 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 97 ...2.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 115 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 50 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 73 ...3.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 83 ...3.1 Cape Verde Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 69 ...3.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...44 ... 4.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...108 ... 86.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...89 ... 34.7 Laws relating to ICTs* ...82 ... 3.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...87 ... 26.5 Judicial independence* ...53 ... 4.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...72 ... 3.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...97 ... 13.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...64 ... 3.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...86 ... 4.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...105 ... 3.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...66 ... 23.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...97 ... 5.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...39 ... 425 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...85 ... 4.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...126 ... 2.9 Availability of latest technologies* ...78 ... 4.8 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...100 ... 2.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...100 ... 4.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...74 ... 37.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...110 ... 3.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...53 ... 10 Extent of staff training* ...118 ... 3.4 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...122 ... 4.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...32 ... 4.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...94 ... 20.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...85 ... 0.44 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...116 ... 3.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...38 ... 4.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...41 ... 3.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...79 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...111 ... 570.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...97 ... 96.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...84 ... 4.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...106 ... 6.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...75 ... 24.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...104 ... 4.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...61 ... 4.4 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...91 ... 3.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...122 ... 0.46 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...42 ... 4.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..98 ... 40.41 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...59 ... 0.24 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...77 ... 1.83 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...61 ... 3.9 Quality of math & science education* ...100 ... 3.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..64 ... 92.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...105 ... 84.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 125 © 2014 World Economic Forum

150 2: Country/Economy Profiles Chad Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.2 ... 148 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 142 ...2.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 148 ...2.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 147 ...2.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 148 ...2.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 146 ...2.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 148 ...1.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 123 ...3.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 148 ...1.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 147 ...2.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 147 ...1.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 146 ...2.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 142 ...2.7 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 147 ...2.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 146 ...2.1 Chad Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 146 ...2.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...142 ... 2.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...144 ... 35.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...141 ... 2.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...145 ... 2.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...139 ... 2.5 Judicial independence* ...144 ... 2.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..142 ... 2.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...140 ... 2.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..145 ... 2.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...123 ... 0.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...144 ... 2.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...140 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...146 ... 3.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...111 ... 41 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...116 ... 743 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...144 ... 3.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...139 ... 2.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...147 ... 2.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...143 ... 1.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...148 ... 2.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...143 ... 73.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...148 ... 2.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...136 ... 62 Extent of staff training* ...145 ... 2.8 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...145 ... 3.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...121 ... 3.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...145 ... 2.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...141 ... 0.10 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...140 ... 2.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...130 ... 3.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...126 ... 2.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...147 ... 2.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...148 ... 8.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...140 ... 36.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .148 ... 2.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...144 ... 0.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...n/a ... n/a 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...148 ... 2.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...146 ... 2.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...148 ... 1.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...143 ... 0.88 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...131 ... 3.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..52 ... 26.28 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...98 ... 1.50 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...131 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...127 ... 2.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 147 ... 22.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...145 ... 35.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 126 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

151 2: Country/Economy Profiles Chile Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.6 ... 35 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 34 ...4.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 29 ...4.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 38 ...4.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 11 ...5.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 60 ...5.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 44 ...4.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 81 ...5.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 71 ...5.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 39 ...4.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 52 ...4.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 45 ...3.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 32 ...4.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 37 ...4.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 43 ...3.5 Chile Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 29 ...4.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...62 ... 3.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...29 ... 138.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...45 ... 61.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...36 ... 4.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...60 ... 53.7 Judicial independence* ...27 ... 5.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...29 ... 4.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...63 ... 45.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...24 ... 4.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...52 ... 12.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...60 ... 3.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...58 ... 28.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...26 ... 6.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...53 ... 61 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...55 ... 36 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...53 ... 480 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...45 ... 5.1 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...63 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...34 ... 5.8 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...41 ... 6.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...31 ... 3.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...35 ... 5.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...31 ... 27.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...35 ... 5.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...19 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...46 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...37 ... 5.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...40 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...26 ... 70.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...24 ... 0.75 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...16 ... 5.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...54 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...27 ... 4.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...29 ... 5.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...58 .. 3,915.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...51 ... 0.5 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...38 ... 4.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...46 ... 40.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...63 ... 24.1 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...54 ... 82.2 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...46 ... 5.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...38 ... 5.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...48 ... 4.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...98 ... 0.34 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...28 ... 4.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..90 ... 37.16 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...19 ... 0.66 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...74 ... 3.6 Quality of math & science education* ...107 ... 3.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..74 ... 89.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...43 ... 98.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 127 © 2014 World Economic Forum

152 2: Country/Economy Profiles China Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.1 ... 62 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 58 ...4.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 77 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 56 ...4.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 115 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 73 ...4.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 86 ...3.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 60 ...5.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 59 ...5.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 61 ...3.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 80 ...3.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 44 ...3.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 38 ...4.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 56 ...3.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 81 ...3.1 China Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 44 ...4.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...39 ... 4.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...115 ... 80.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...78 ... 42.3 Laws relating to ICTs* ...52 ... 4.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...70 ... 40.9 Judicial independence* ...57 ... 4.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...43 ... 4.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...72 ... 37.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...47 ... 3.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...51 ... 12.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...53 ... 3.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...76 ... 16.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...126 ... 4.7 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...80 ... 77 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...32 ... 406 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...71 ... 4.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...30 ... 4.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...105 ... 4.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...32 ... 11.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...16 ... 3.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...66 ... 4.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...135 ... 63.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...41 ... 5.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...118 ... 33 Extent of staff training* ...48 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...137 ... 13 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...46 ... 5.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...24 ... 4.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...91 ... 24.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...59 ... 0.53 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...83 ... 4.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...37 ... 4.8 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...13 ... 4.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...52 ... 4.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...61 .. 3,508.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...28 ... 4.9 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...54 ... 99.5 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...35 ... 4.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...125 ... 3.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...108 ... 7.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...111 ... 3.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...67 ... 5.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...45 ... 4.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...35 ... 5.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...13 ... 0.07 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...47 ... 4.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..84 ... 35.44 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...63 ... 0.21 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...110 ... 1.29 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...54 ... 4.0 Quality of math & science education* ...48 ... 4.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..82 ... 86.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...66 ... 94.3 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 128 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

153 2: Country/Economy Profiles Colombia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.0 ... 63 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 66 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 101 ...3.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 96 ...3.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 104 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 70 ...4.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 80 ...3.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 44 ...5.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 76 ...4.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 62 ...3.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 77 ...3.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 79 ...3.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 31 ...4.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 49 ...3.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 75 ...3.2 Colombia Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 39 ...4.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...124 ... 2.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...86 ... 102.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...66 ... 49.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...55 ... 4.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...74 ... 38.4 Judicial independence* ...106 ... 3.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...95 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...75 ... 32.1 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...93 ... 3.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...69 ... 8.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...95 ... 3.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...103 ... 5.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...80 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...40 ... 53 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...42 ... 34 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...139 ... 1,288 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...97 ... 4.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...83 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...96 ... 4.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...68 ... 1.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...75 ... 2.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...62 ... 4.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...144 ... 76.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...56 ... 4.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...76 ... 15 Extent of staff training* ...93 ... 3.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...64 ... 5.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...57 ... 4.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...60 ... 45.0 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...16 ... 0.84 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...70 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...74 ... 4.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...49 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...62 ... 4.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...94 .. 1,313.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...76 ... 0.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...56 ... 4.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...68 ... 20.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...89 ... 16.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...70 ... 28.4 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...91 ... 4.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...70 ... 4.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...82 ... 3.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...79 ... 0.27 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...68 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..45 ... 25.85 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...11 ... 0.74 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...86 ... 3.5 Quality of math & science education* ...108 ... 3.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..63 ... 92.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...71 ... 93.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 129 © 2014 World Economic Forum

154 2: Country/Economy Profiles Costa Rica Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.2 ... 53 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 53 ...4.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 64 ...4.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 63 ...3.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 70 ...4.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 50 ...5.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 92 ...3.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 15 ...6.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 24 ...5.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 57 ...4.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 64 ...3.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 38 ...4.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 64 ...4.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 50 ...3.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 52 ...3.5 Costa Rica Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 54 ...4.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...140 ... 2.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...64 ... 111.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...68 ... 47.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...51 ... 4.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...66 ... 49.0 Judicial independence* ...37 ... 4.8 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...68 ... 3.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...59 ... 47.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...37 ... 4.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...64 ... 9.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...59 ... 3.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...70 ... 20.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...36 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...50 ... 58 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...123 ... 852 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...43 ... 5.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...37 ... 4.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...49 ... 5.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...63 ... 1.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...103 ... 2.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...43 ... 5.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...129 ... 55.3 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...47 ... 4.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...102 ... 24 Extent of staff training* ...23 ... 4.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...52 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...71 ... 3.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...56 ... 46.7 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...67 ... 0.50 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...17 ... 5.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...65 ... 4.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...66 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...45 ... 4.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...83 .. 2,075.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...60 ... 0.3 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...134 ... 69.5 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...39 ... 4.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...59 ... 29.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...65 ... 23.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...52 ... 94.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...47 ... 5.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...47 ... 4.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...58 ... 4.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...22 ... 0.09 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...76 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..31 ... 21.59 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...47 ... 0.32 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...94 ... 1.63 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...20 ... 4.9 Quality of math & science education* ...45 ... 4.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..32 ... 101.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...58 ... 96.3 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 130 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

155 2: Country/Economy Profiles Côte d’Ivoire Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.1 ... 122 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 120 ...3.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 111 ...3.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 116 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 102 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 124 ...3.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 105 ...3.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 120 ...3.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 133 ...2.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 115 ...3.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 117 ...2.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 96 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 107 ...3.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 119 ...2.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 102 ...2.9 Côte d’Ivoire Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 127 ...2.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...103 ... 3.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...103 ... 91.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...139 ... 2.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...108 ... 3.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...141 ... 2.3 Judicial independence* ...128 ... 2.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...90 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...144 ... 1.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...95 ... 3.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...133 ... 0.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...123 ... 2.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...140 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...78 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...89 ... 81 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...27 ... 32 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...85 ... 585 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...67 ... 4.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...127 ... 2.9 Availability of latest technologies* ...94 ... 4.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...105 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...116 ... 2.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...120 ... 4.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...107 ... 46.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...118 ... 3.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...40 ... 8 Extent of staff training* ...40 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...72 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...81 ... 3.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...125 ... 8.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...106 ... 0.33 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...62 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...98 ... 3.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...43 ... 3.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...95 ... 4.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...117 ... 314.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...108 ... 94.5 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .103 ... 3.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...78 ... 17.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...125 ... 1.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...131 ... 3.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...124 ... 3.4 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...134 ... 2.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...87 ... 0.30 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...112 ... 3.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 117 ... 63.17 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...116 ... 1.22 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...83 ... 3.5 Quality of math & science education* ...60 ... 4.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 141 ... 28.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...134 ... 56.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 131 © 2014 World Economic Forum

156 2: Country/Economy Profiles Croatia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.3 ... 46 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 51 ...4.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 58 ...4.1 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 88 ...3.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 44 ...4.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 41 ...5.4 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 54 ...4.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 36 ...6.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 36 ...5.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 46 ...4.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 39 ...5.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 81 ...3.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 65 ...4.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 54 ...3.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 40 ...3.6 Croatia High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 66 ...3.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...92 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...60 ... 115.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...44 ... 63.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...71 ... 4.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...42 ... 68.0 Judicial independence* ...109 ... 3.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..140 ... 2.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...39 ... 66.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..132 ... 2.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...36 ... 20.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...81 ... 3.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...24 ... 53.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...71 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...40 ... 53 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...83 ... 572 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...76 ... 4.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...110 ... 3.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...59 ... 5.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...34 ... 9.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...110 ... 2.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...49 ... 5.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...12 ... 19.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...65 ... 4.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...40 ... 8 Extent of staff training* ...121 ... 3.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...107 ... 4.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...98 ... 3.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...44 ... 58.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...40 ... 0.64 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...78 ... 4.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...110 ... 3.8 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...136 ... 2.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...64 ... 4.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...75 .. 2,500.1 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...37 ... 1.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...67 ... 4.2 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...60 ... 28.7 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...40 ... 32.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...36 ... 245.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...42 ... 5.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...72 ... 4.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...53 ... 4.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...71 ... 0.24 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...94 ... 3.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..51 ... 26.19 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...52 ... 0.29 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...97 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...22 ... 5.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..42 ... 98.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...40 ... 98.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 132 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

157 2: Country/Economy Profiles Cyprus Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.6 ... 37 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 35 ...4.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 39 ...4.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 45 ...4.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 26 ...5.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 16 ...6.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 28 ...5.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 39 ...6.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 11 ...6.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 48 ...4.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 45 ...4.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 58 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 66 ...4.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 52 ...3.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 45 ...3.5 Cyprus High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 57 ...4.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...46 ... 4.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...91 ... 98.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...47 ... 61.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...61 ... 4.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...39 ... 70.0 Judicial independence* ...47 ... 4.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...42 ... 4.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...45 ... 62.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...26 ... 4.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...37 ... 19.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...40 ... 4.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...47 ... 34.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...41 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...34 ... 48 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...122 ... 43 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...115 ... 735 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...38 ... 5.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...93 ... 3.3 Availability of latest technologies* ...41 ... 5.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...47 ... 5.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...54 ... 2.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...76 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...18 ... 22.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...53 ... 4.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...40 ... 8 Extent of staff training* ...67 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...47 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...77 ... 3.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...57 ... 46.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...51 ... 0.56 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...18 ... 5.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...96 ... 4.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...72 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...76 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...51 .. 4,414.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...73 ... 0.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...32 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...82 ... 4.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...32 ... 69.7 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...33 ... 35.0 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...20 ... 786.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...40 ... 5.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...46 ... 4.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...30 ... 5.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...29 ... 0.12 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...66 ... 4.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..38 ... 23.92 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...97 ... 0.08 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...109 ... 1.31 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...9 ... 5.3 Quality of math & science education* ...7 ... 5.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..62 ... 92.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...42 ... 98.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 133 © 2014 World Economic Forum

158 2: Country/Economy Profiles Czech Republic Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.5 ... 42 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 42 ...4.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 49 ...4.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 51 ...4.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 60 ...4.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 35 ...5.5 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 23 ...6.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 84 ...5.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 49 ...5.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 40 ...4.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 30 ...5.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 31 ...4.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 96 ...3.7 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 45 ...3.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 38 ...3.6 Czech Republic High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 47 ...4.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...110 ... 3.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...41 ... 126.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...28 ... 75.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...47 ... 4.4 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...34 ... 75.0 Judicial independence* ...68 ... 3.8 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..115 ... 3.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...33 ... 71.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..126 ... 2.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...40 ... 16.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...61 ... 3.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...29 ... 52.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...43 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...20 ... 35 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...8 ... 27 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...95 ... 611 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...54 ... 4.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...26 ... 4.3 Availability of latest technologies* ...53 ... 5.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...29 ... 15.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...74 ... 2.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...24 ... 5.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...110 ... 48.1 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...9 ... 5.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...94 ... 20 Extent of staff training* ...68 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...12 ... 5.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...113 ... 3.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...30 ... 64.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...53 ... 0.54 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...90 ... 4.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...116 ... 3.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...124 ... 2.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...78 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...23 .. 8,260.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...32 ... 2.3 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...43 ... 99.8 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...73 ... 4.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...19 ... 100.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...26 ... 37.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...27 ... 518.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...19 ... 6.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...58 ... 4.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...24 ... 5.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...118 ... 0.43 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...101 ... 3.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..63 ... 29.20 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...55 ... 0.26 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...69 ... 1.87 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...67 ... 3.7 Quality of math & science education* ...83 ... 4.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..52 ... 96.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 134 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

159 2: Country/Economy Profiles Denmark Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.5 ... 13 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 8 ...5.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 16 ...5.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 19 ...5.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 18 ...5.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 14 ...6.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 20 ...6.2 4th pillar: Affordability ... 29 ...6.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 18 ...5.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 7 ...5.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 3 ...6.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 7 ...5.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 26 ...5.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 19 ...5.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 16 ...4.9 Denmark High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 24 ...5.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...23 ... 4.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...56 ... 117.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...4 ... 93.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...18 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...4 ... 92.2 Judicial independence* ...8 ... 6.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...21 ... 4.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...6 ... 92.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...38 ... 4.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...3 ... 38.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...26 ... 5.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...6 ... 97.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...46 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...7 ... 24 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...47 ... 35 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...35 ... 410 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...20 ... 5.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...13 ... 5.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...29 ... 5.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...7 ... 208.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...95 ... 2.4 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...21 ... 5.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...29 ... 27.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...18 ... 5.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...19 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...14 ... 5.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...27 ... 5.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...48 ... 4.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...19 ... 73.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...13 ... 0.86 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...25 ... 5.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...50 ... 4.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...87 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...33 ... 4.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...40 .. 5,438.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...11 ... 38.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...88 ... 97.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...29 ... 4.8 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...12 ... 174.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...9 ... 45.2 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...5 .. 2,214.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...29 ... 6.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...28 ... 5.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...22 ... 5.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...11 ... 0.06 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...34 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..73 ... 32.19 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...28 ... 0.55 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...65 ... 1.88 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...21 ... 4.9 Quality of math & science education* ...42 ... 4.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ...5 ... 119.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 135 © 2014 World Economic Forum

160 2: Country/Economy Profiles Dominican Republic Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.7 ... 93 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 90 ...3.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 97 ...3.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 110 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 79 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 103 ...4.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 87 ...3.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 95 ...4.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 106 ...3.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 87 ...3.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 93 ...2.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 67 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 81 ...3.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 64 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 71 ...3.2 Dominican Republic Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 61 ...3.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...129 ... 2.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...106 ... 86.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...74 ... 45.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...73 ... 4.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...96 ... 19.8 Judicial independence* ...131 ... 2.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...99 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...99 ... 13.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..107 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...83 ... 4.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...107 ... 3.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...78 ... 15.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...51 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...78 ... 76 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...42 ... 34 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...49 ... 460 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...56 ... 4.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...98 ... 3.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...51 ... 5.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...83 ... 0.4 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...86 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...53 ... 5.1 Total tax rate, % profits ...97 ... 43.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...61 ... 4.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...89 ... 19 Extent of staff training* ...76 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...75 ... 4.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...104 ... 3.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...76 ... 34.0 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...55 ... 0.54 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...106 ... 3.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...85 ... 4.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...80 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...57 ... 4.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...95 .. 1,278.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...80 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...107 ... 94.6 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...44 ... 4.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...84 ... 14.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...85 ... 17.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...78 ... 23.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...60 ... 5.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...80 ... 4.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...99 ... 3.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...116 ... 0.42 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...74 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..96 ... 39.51 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...34 ... 0.47 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...140 ... 2.5 Quality of math & science education* ...146 ... 2.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..98 ... 75.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...87 ... 90.1 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 136 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

161 2: Country/Economy Profiles Ecuador Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.9 ... 82 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 91 ...3.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 81 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 89 ...3.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 78 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 83 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 75 ...3.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 92 ...4.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 75 ...4.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 74 ...3.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 83 ...3.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 71 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 62 ...4.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 80 ...3.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 95 ...3.0 Ecuador Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 71 ...3.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...91 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...81 ... 106.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...88 ... 35.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...65 ... 4.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...82 ... 32.2 Judicial independence* ...100 ... 3.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...97 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...84 ... 22.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..100 ... 3.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...77 ... 5.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...79 ... 3.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...68 ... 21.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...103 ... 5.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...67 ... 68 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...91 ... 39 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...86 ... 588 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...87 ... 4.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...53 ... 3.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...89 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...81 ... 0.4 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...34 ... 3.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...95 ... 4.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...57 ... 33.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...57 ... 4.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...134 ... 56 Extent of staff training* ...61 ... 4.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...137 ... 13 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...112 ... 4.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...58 ... 4.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...69 ... 38.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...80 ... 0.46 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...77 ... 4.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...62 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...29 ... 4.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...83 ... 4.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...91 .. 1,329.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...96 ... 96.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...66 ... 4.2 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...55 ... 31.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...98 ... 14.6 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...79 ... 22.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...97 ... 4.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...66 ... 4.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...80 ... 4.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...104 ... 0.36 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...55 ... 4.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..99 ... 41.06 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...59 ... 0.24 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...62 ... 3.8 Quality of math & science education* ...84 ... 4.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..80 ... 86.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...82 ... 91.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 137 © 2014 World Economic Forum

162 2: Country/Economy Profiles Egypt Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.7 ... 91 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 80 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 119 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 115 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 117 ...3.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 93 ...4.4 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 99 ...3.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 16 ...6.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 120 ...3.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 89 ...3.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 71 ...3.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 112 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 113 ...3.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 61 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 59 ...3.4 Egypt Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 65 ...3.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...135 ... 2.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...51 ... 119.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...75 ... 44.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...104 ... 3.4 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...76 ... 37.9 Judicial independence* ...82 ... 3.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..106 ... 3.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...74 ... 32.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...94 ... 3.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...91 ... 2.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...94 ... 3.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...59 ... 27.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...50 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...53 ... 61 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...116 ... 42 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...132 ... 1,010 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...110 ... 4.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...111 ... 3.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...117 ... 4.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...75 ... 0.6 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...51 ... 2.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...81 ... 4.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...94 ... 42.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...70 ... 4.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...40 ... 8 Extent of staff training* ...138 ... 3.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...131 ... 4.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...141 ... 2.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...79 ... 28.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...42 ... 0.60 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...145 ... 2.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...131 ... 3.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...116 ... 3.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...101 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...84 .. 1,972.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...70 ... 0.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...43 ... 99.8 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...78 ... 4.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...117 ... 4.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...35 ... 34.0 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...107 ... 3.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...89 ... 4.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...92 ... 3.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...125 ... 2.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...8 ... 0.05 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...96 ... 3.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..11 ... 15.09 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...15 ... 0.68 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...103 ... 1.36 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...145 ... 2.2 Quality of math & science education* ...145 ... 2.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..97 ... 75.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...113 ... 73.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 138 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

163 2: Country/Economy Profiles El Salvador Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.6 ... 98 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 93 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 110 ...3.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 121 ...3.1 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 95 ...4.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 96 ...4.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 102 ...3.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 55 ...5.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 107 ...3.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 93 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 96 ...2.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 80 ...3.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 74 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 84 ...3.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 109 ...2.8 El Salvador Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 70 ...3.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...122 ... 2.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...31 ... 137.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...99 ... 25.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...102 ... 3.4 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...102 ... 15.3 Judicial independence* ...105 ... 3.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..126 ... 2.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...95 ... 15.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..110 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...87 ... 3.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...112 ... 2.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...100 ... 5.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...111 ... 5.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...87 ... 80 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...42 ... 34 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...118 ... 786 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...102 ... 4.3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...56 ... 3.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...113 ... 4.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...119 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...59 ... 2.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...105 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...76 ... 38.1 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...73 ... 4.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...84 ... 17 Extent of staff training* ...81 ... 3.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...105 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...119 ... 3.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...89 ... 24.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...32 ... 0.67 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...93 ... 3.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...112 ... 3.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...71 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...88 ... 4.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...99 ... 927.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...101 ... 95.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...79 ... 4.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...101 ... 6.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...102 ... 11.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...81 ... 20.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...85 ... 4.8 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...101 ... 3.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...97 ... 3.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...75 ... 0.26 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...116 ... 3.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..60 ... 29.02 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...28 ... 0.55 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...69 ... 1.87 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...109 ... 3.1 Quality of math & science education* ...129 ... 2.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 107 ... 67.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...106 ... 84.5 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 139 © 2014 World Economic Forum

164 2: Country/Economy Profiles Estonia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.3 ... 21 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 22 ...5.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 26 ...4.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 26 ...4.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 28 ...4.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 22 ...5.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 25 ...5.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 61 ...5.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 25 ...5.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 22 ...5.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 17 ...5.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 28 ...4.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 12 ...5.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 13 ...5.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 22 ...4.6 Estonia High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 4 ...5.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...36 ... 4.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...12 ... 160.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...25 ... 79.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...3 ... 5.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...31 ... 76.0 Judicial independence* ...20 ... 5.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...39 ... 4.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...26 ... 75.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...33 ... 4.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...20 ... 25.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...31 ... 4.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...13 ... 76.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...8 ... 6.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...34 ... 48 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...47 ... 35 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...39 ... 425 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...36 ... 5.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...28 ... 4.3 Availability of latest technologies* ...35 ... 5.8 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...26 ... 31.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...30 ... 3.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...6 ... 6.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...114 ... 49.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...11 ... 5.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...32 ... 7 Extent of staff training* ...37 ... 4.4 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...22 ... 5.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...18 ... 5.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...24 ... 71.7 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...18 ... 0.82 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...54 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...13 ... 5.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...34 ... 3.9 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...9 ... 5.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...18 .. 8,933.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...22 ... 11.8 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...28 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...3 ... 5.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...62 ... 26.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...20 ... 41.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...23 ... 660.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...6 ... 6.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...7 ... 5.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...3 ... 6.5 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...99 ... 0.34 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...5 ... 5.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..61 ... 29.07 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...8 ... 0.76 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...47 ... 4.1 Quality of math & science education* ...26 ... 4.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..13 ... 109.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...1 ... 99.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 140 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

165 2: Country/Economy Profiles Ethiopia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.9 ... 130 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 128 ...2.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 112 ...3.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 102 ...3.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 120 ...3.6 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 135 ...2.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 135 ...1.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 115 ...3.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 140 ...2.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 130 ...2.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 146 ...1.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 141 ...2.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 83 ...3.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 112 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 128 ...2.6 Ethiopia Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 103 ...3.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...94 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...147 ... 22.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...144 ... 1.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...130 ... 2.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...143 ... 2.1 Judicial independence* ...112 ... 2.9 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...81 ... 3.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...141 ... 1.9 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..116 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...143 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...85 ... 3.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...107 ... 4.4 Use of virtual social networks* ...144 ... 3.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...71 ... 530 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...131 ... 3.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...141 ... 2.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...126 ... 3.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...121 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...114 ... 2.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...141 ... 3.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...54 ... 33.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...146 ... 2.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...76 ... 15 Extent of staff training* ...123 ... 3.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...133 ... 4.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...72 ... 3.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...126 ... 8.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...76 ... 0.47 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...118 ... 3.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...97 ... 4.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...61 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...132 ... 3.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...141 ... 57.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...130 ... 73.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .130 ... 3.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...115 ... 4.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...91 ... 15.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...145 ... 0.2 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...142 ... 3.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...132 ... 3.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...124 ... 2.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...28 ... 0.11 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...92 ... 3.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 114 ... 55.23 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...44 ... 0.34 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...144 ... 0.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...108 ... 3.1 Quality of math & science education* ...109 ... 3.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 134 ... 37.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...144 ... 39.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 141 © 2014 World Economic Forum

166 2: Country/Economy Profiles Finland Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and 1 .. 6.0 ... Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 1 ...6.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 3 ...5.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 3 ...5.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 9 ...5.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 1 ...6.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 1 ...6.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 18 ...6.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 1 ...6.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 2 ...6.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 6 ...6.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 2 ...6.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 8 ...5.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 2 ...5.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 1 ...6.0 Finland High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 7 ...5.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...2 ... 5.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...8 ... 172.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...7 ... 91.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...5 ... 5.6 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...10 ... 88.0 Judicial independence* ...2 ... 6.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...2 ... 6.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...13 ... 87.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...1 ... 5.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...16 ... 30.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...1 ... 6.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...3 ... 106.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...6 ... 6.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...10 ... 25 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...36 ... 33 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...22 ... 375 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...7 ... 6.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...2 ... 5.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...1 ... 6.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...4 ... 283.6 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...11 ... 4.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...1 ... 6.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...80 ... 39.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...16 ... 5.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...70 ... 14 Extent of staff training* ...2 ... 5.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...86 ... 4.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...16 ... 5.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...2 ... 95.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...7 ... 0.88 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...10 ... 5.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...16 ... 5.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...21 ... 4.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...1 ... 5.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...8 12,997.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...2 ... 110.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...53 ... 99.5 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...1 ... 5.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...14 ... 159.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...12 ... 43.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...10 .. 1,612.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...2 ... 6.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...10 ... 5.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...2 ... 6.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...14 ... 0.07 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...14 ... 5.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..58 ... 28.94 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...11 ... 0.74 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...2 ... 5.9 Quality of math & science education* ...2 ... 6.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..16 ... 107.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 142 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

167 2: Country/Economy Profiles France Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.1 ... 25 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 26 ...5.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 30 ...4.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 23 ...5.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 47 ...4.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 27 ...5.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 27 ...5.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 72 ...5.3 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 19 ...5.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 23 ...5.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 22 ...5.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 20 ...4.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 28 ...5.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 23 ...4.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 19 ...4.8 France High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 35 ...4.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...29 ... 4.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...95 ... 97.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...17 ... 83.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...29 ... 4.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...22 ... 81.0 Judicial independence* ...31 ... 5.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...48 ... 4.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...19 ... 80.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...31 ... 4.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...4 ... 37.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...12 ... 5.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...31 ... 51.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...54 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...22 ... 37 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...15 ... 29 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...26 ... 395 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...32 ... 5.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...16 ... 4.8 Availability of latest technologies* ...18 ... 6.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...15 ... 111.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...49 ... 2.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...37 ... 5.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...136 ... 64.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...27 ... 5.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...32 ... 7 Extent of staff training* ...42 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...26 ... 5.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...59 ... 4.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...45 ... 57.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...8 ... 0.88 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...5 ... 5.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...63 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...60 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...21 ... 5.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...22 .. 8,449.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...14 ... 30.6 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...42 ... 4.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...26 ... 83.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...10 ... 44.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...28 ... 409.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...41 ... 5.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...35 ... 5.1 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...64 ... 4.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...124 ... 0.47 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...40 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..41 ... 24.50 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...25 ... 0.58 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...43 ... 4.2 Quality of math & science education* ...15 ... 5.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..11 ... 109.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 143 © 2014 World Economic Forum

168 2: Country/Economy Profiles Gabon Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.0 ... 128 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 121 ...3.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 134 ...3.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 120 ...3.1 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 137 ...3.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 117 ...3.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 132 ...2.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 109 ...4.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 113 ...3.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 122 ...2.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 109 ...2.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 126 ...3.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 122 ...3.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 136 ...2.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 136 ...2.4 Gabon Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 134 ...2.6 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...54 ... 3.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...6 ... 179.5 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...126 ... 8.6 Laws relating to ICTs* ...136 ... 2.6 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...114 ... 10.1 Judicial independence* ...120 ... 2.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...86 ... 3.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...113 ... 7.9 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...86 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...118 ... 0.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...131 ... 2.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...140 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...133 ... 4.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...133 ... 1,070 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...96 ... 4.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...144 ... 2.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...129 ... 3.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...86 ... 0.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...124 ... 2.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...122 ... 4.1 Total tax rate, % profits ...97 ... 43.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...135 ... 3.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...133 ... 50 Extent of staff training* ...113 ... 3.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...129 ... 4.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...94 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...131 ... 7.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...131 ... 0.19 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...127 ... 3.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...95 ... 4.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...91 ... 3.3 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...127 ... 3.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...97 .. 1,109.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...128 ... 79.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .146 ... 2.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...108 ... 5.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...90 ... 11.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...143 ... 3.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...125 ... 3.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...142 ... 2.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...121 ... 0.46 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...120 ... 3.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 100 ... 41.15 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...92 ... 0.11 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...115 ... 1.23 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...126 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...121 ... 3.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 117 ... 53.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...93 ... 89.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 144 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

169 2: Country/Economy Profiles Gambia, The Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.4 ... 107 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 98 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 68 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 36 ...4.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 125 ...3.5 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 131 ...2.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 123 ...2.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 137 ...2.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 124 ...3.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 99 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 120 ...2.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 60 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 56 ...4.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 79 ...3.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 67 ...3.3 Gambia, The Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 84 ...3.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...33 ... 4.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...109 ... 85.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...120 ... 12.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...50 ... 4.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...122 ... 7.4 Judicial independence* ...61 ... 4.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...33 ... 4.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...116 ... 6.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...45 ... 3.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...136 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...43 ... 4.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...121 ... 1.4 Use of virtual social networks* ...101 ... 5.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...36 ... 33 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...33 ... 407 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...60 ... 4.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...65 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...74 ... 4.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...85 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...79 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...148 ... 283.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...84 ... 4.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...108 ... 27 Extent of staff training* ...29 ... 4.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...84 ... 4.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...23 ... 4.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...139 ... 4.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...110 ... 0.32 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...46 ... 4.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...27 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...18 ... 4.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...61 ... 4.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...127 ... 147.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...119 ... 85.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...64 ... 4.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...133 ... 2.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...106 ... 3.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...81 ... 4.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...55 ... 4.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...85 ... 3.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...102 ... 0.35 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...48 ... 4.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 144 ... 986.58 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...122 ... 1.13 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...29 ... 4.5 Quality of math & science education* ...94 ... 3.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 115 ... 57.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...138 ... 51.1 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 145 © 2014 World Economic Forum

170 2: Country/Economy Profiles Georgia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.1 ... 60 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 65 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 73 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 97 ...3.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 59 ...4.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 40 ...5.4 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 59 ...4.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 4 ...6.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 78 ...4.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 75 ...3.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 76 ...3.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 110 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 55 ...4.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 74 ...3.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 100 ...2.9 Georgia Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 59 ...3.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...65 ... 3.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...77 ... 107.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...71 ... 45.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...79 ... 3.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...80 ... 32.7 Judicial independence* ...91 ... 3.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...92 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...76 ... 32.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..105 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...66 ... 8.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...124 ... 2.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...91 ... 8.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...66 ... 5.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...107 ... 91 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...36 ... 33 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...11 ... 285 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...117 ... 4.1 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...118 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...100 ... 4.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...66 ... 1.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...106 ... 2.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...92 ... 4.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...11 ... 16.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...98 ... 4.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...2 ... 2 Extent of staff training* ...107 ... 3.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...3 ... 2 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...123 ... 4.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...88 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...82 ... 27.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...42 ... 0.60 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...107 ... 3.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...71 ... 4.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...62 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...102 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...79 .. 2,273.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...57 ... 0.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...57 ... 99.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .117 ... 3.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...40 ... 52.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...69 ... 22.2 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...73 ... 25.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...71 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...67 ... 4.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...62 ... 4.5 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...15 ... 0.08 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...41 ... 4.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..25 ... 20.15 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...63 ... 0.21 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...105 ... 3.2 Quality of math & science education* ...106 ... 3.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..81 ... 86.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...4 ... 99.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 146 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

171 2: Country/Economy Profiles Germany Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.5 ... 12 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 13 ...5.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 17 ...5.1 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 10 ...5.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 31 ...4.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 8 ...6.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 11 ...6.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 43 ...5.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 12 ...6.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 13 ...5.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 19 ...5.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 5 ...5.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 27 ...5.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 14 ...5.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 8 ...5.2 Germany High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 20 ...5.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...11 ... 5.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...67 ... 111.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...16 ... 84.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...26 ... 5.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...12 ... 87.0 Judicial independence* ...13 ... 6.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...13 ... 5.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...15 ... 85.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...11 ... 4.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...9 ... 33.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...14 ... 5.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...40 ... 40.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...56 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...12 ... 26 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...18 ... 30 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...25 ... 394 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...16 ... 5.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...3 ... 5.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...13 ... 6.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...6 ... 210.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...33 ... 3.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...20 ... 5.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...114 ... 49.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...14 ... 5.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...75 ... 15 Extent of staff training* ...10 ... 5.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...10 ... 5.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...34 ... 4.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...46 ... 56.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...24 ... 0.75 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...27 ... 5.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...34 ... 4.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...17 ... 4.3 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...15 ... 5.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...28 .. 7,460.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...10 ... 46.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...17 ... 5.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...30 ... 74.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...14 ... 43.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...18 .. 1,090.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...25 ... 6.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...25 ... 5.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...42 ... 5.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...27 ... 0.11 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...33 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..92 ... 37.93 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...8 ... 0.76 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...14 ... 5.1 Quality of math & science education* ...21 ... 5.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..30 ... 101.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 147 © 2014 World Economic Forum

172 2: Country/Economy Profiles Ghana Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.6 ... 96 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 95 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 48 ...4.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 41 ...4.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 66 ...4.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 109 ...3.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 124 ...2.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 64 ...5.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 110 ...3.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 100 ...3.3 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 100 ...2.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 90 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 85 ...3.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 101 ...3.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 85 ...3.1 Ghana Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 106 ...3.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...31 ... 4.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...90 ... 101.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...107 ... 17.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...77 ... 3.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...107 ... 13.8 Judicial independence* ...50 ... 4.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...50 ... 4.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...105 ... 11.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...65 ... 3.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...120 ... 0.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...56 ... 3.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...48 ... 33.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...99 ... 5.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...55 ... 36 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...56 ... 495 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...91 ... 4.4 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...55 ... 3.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...81 ... 4.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...107 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...67 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...102 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...19 ... 22.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...115 ... 3.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...70 ... 14 Extent of staff training* ...79 ... 3.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...68 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...49 ... 4.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...112 ... 12.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...116 ... 0.30 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...51 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...58 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...64 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...75 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...115 ... 451.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...118 ... 87.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...89 ... 3.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...147 ... 0.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...114 ... 3.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...114 ... 4.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...84 ... 3.9 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...114 ... 3.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...18 ... 0.08 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...86 ... 4.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 104 ... 45.42 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...92 ... 0.11 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...89 ... 1.67 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...46 ... 4.2 Quality of math & science education* ...62 ... 4.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 114 ... 58.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...122 ... 67.3 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 148 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

173 2: Country/Economy Profiles Greece Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.9 ... 74 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 64 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 89 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 114 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 64 ...4.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 62 ...5.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 40 ...5.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 102 ...4.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 53 ...5.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 67 ...3.8 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 43 ...4.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 102 ...3.3 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 117 ...3.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 90 ...3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 91 ...3.0 Greece High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 87 ...3.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...106 ... 3.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...49 ... 120.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...53 ... 56.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...106 ... 3.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...56 ... 57.4 Judicial independence* ...84 ... 3.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..138 ... 2.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...51 ... 54.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..130 ... 2.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...27 ... 24.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...70 ... 3.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...35 ... 45.7 Use of virtual social networks* ...90 ... 5.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...53 ... 61 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...91 ... 39 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...141 ... 1,300 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...88 ... 4.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...117 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...67 ... 5.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...37 ... 7.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...146 ... 1.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...107 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...100 ... 44.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...86 ... 4.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...70 ... 14 Extent of staff training* ...116 ... 3.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...87 ... 4.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...138 ... 2.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...4 ... 91.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...48 ... 0.58 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...94 ... 3.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...140 ... 3.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...141 ... 2.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...129 ... 3.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...47 .. 5,103.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...38 ... 1.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...33 ... 99.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .128 ... 3.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...35 ... 64.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...44 ... 31.1 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...42 ... 168.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...69 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...109 ... 3.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...86 ... 3.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...137 ... 0.61 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...124 ... 3.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..43 ... 25.15 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...44 ... 0.34 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...80 ... 1.80 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...112 ... 3.1 Quality of math & science education* ...58 ... 4.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..10 ... 110.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...55 ... 97.3 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 149 © 2014 World Economic Forum

174 2: Country/Economy Profiles Guatemala Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.5 ... 101 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 102 ...3.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 105 ...3.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 123 ...3.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 74 ...4.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 107 ...3.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 100 ...3.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 78 ...5.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 122 ...3.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 96 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 99 ...2.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 42 ...3.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 109 ...3.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 99 ...3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 94 ...3.0 Guatemala Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 95 ...3.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...143 ... 2.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...30 ... 137.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...111 ... 16.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...75 ... 3.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...97 ... 19.2 Judicial independence* ...107 ... 3.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..100 ... 3.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...109 ... 9.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...73 ... 3.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...98 ... 1.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...111 ... 2.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...106 ... 4.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...74 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...83 ... 79 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...24 ... 31 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...145 ... 1,402 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...41 ... 5.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...51 ... 3.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...48 ... 5.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...101 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...60 ... 2.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...52 ... 5.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...89 ... 40.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...55 ... 4.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...94 ... 20 Extent of staff training* ...28 ... 4.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...53 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...115 ... 3.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...99 ... 17.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...77 ... 0.46 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...38 ... 4.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...115 ... 3.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...113 ... 3.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...58 ... 4.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...113 ... 553.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...51 ... 4.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...102 ... 6.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...104 ... 9.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...86 ... 14.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...74 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...75 ... 4.1 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...110 ... 3.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...114 ... 0.41 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...108 ... 3.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..70 ... 30.78 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...59 ... 0.24 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...135 ... 2.6 Quality of math & science education* ...139 ... 2.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 110 ... 65.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...110 ... 75.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 150 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

175 2: Country/Economy Profiles Guinea Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.5 ... 145 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 140 ...2.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 142 ...2.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 139 ...2.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 144 ...2.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 139 ...2.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 134 ...2.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 122 ...3.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 142 ...2.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 144 ...2.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 145 ...1.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 138 ...2.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 139 ...2.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 145 ...2.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 148 ...2.0 Guinea Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 142 ...2.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...139 ... 2.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...140 ... 41.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...143 ... 1.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...139 ... 2.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...144 ... 2.1 Judicial independence* ...137 ... 2.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..139 ... 2.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...145 ... 1.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..118 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...144 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...143 ... 2.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...140 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...143 ... 4.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...142 ... 49 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...9 ... 276 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...129 ... 3.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...145 ... 2.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...140 ... 3.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...141 ... 1.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...123 ... 4.1 Total tax rate, % profits ...146 ... 91.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...134 ... 3.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...81 ... 16 Extent of staff training* ...129 ... 3.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...132 ... 4.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...96 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...123 ... 8.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...144 ... 0.00 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...144 ... 2.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...105 ... 3.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...112 ... 3.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...136 ... 3.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...135 ... 90.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...127 ... 80.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .142 ... 2.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...134 ... 2.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...119 ... 0.7 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...143 ... 0.4 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...145 ... 2.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...135 ... 3.1 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...143 ... 1.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...36 ... 0.14 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...126 ... 3.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 145 2,049.86 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...91 ... 1.65 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...139 ... 2.6 Quality of math & science education* ...111 ... 3.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 131 ... 38.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...143 ... 41.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 151 © 2014 World Economic Forum

176 2: Country/Economy Profiles Guyana Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.8 ... 88 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 100 ...3.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 65 ...4.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 64 ...3.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 71 ...4.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 80 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 98 ...3.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 70 ...5.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 60 ...5.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 102 ...3.3 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 103 ...2.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 63 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 87 ...3.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 102 ...3.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 106 ...2.9 Guyana Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 91 ...3.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...68 ... 3.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...123 ... 68.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...93 ... 33.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...91 ... 3.6 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...92 ... 22.9 Judicial independence* ...79 ... 3.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...73 ... 3.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...85 ... 20.6 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...60 ... 3.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...89 ... 3.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...84 ... 3.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...133 ... 0.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...60 ... 5.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...55 ... 36 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...84 ... 581 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...69 ... 4.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...38 ... 4.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...73 ... 4.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...38 ... 3.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...80 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...51 ... 32.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...80 ... 4.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...96 ... 20 Extent of staff training* ...64 ... 4.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...69 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...46 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...110 ... 12.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...123 ... 0.25 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...50 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...55 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...39 ... 3.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...93 ... 4.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...98 .. 1,046.0 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...88 ... 97.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...75 ... 4.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...98 ... 8.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...101 ... 12.7 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...102 ... 6.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...68 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...68 ... 4.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...76 ... 4.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...31 ... 0.12 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...75 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..35 ... 22.82 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...139 ... 0.50 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...49 ... 4.1 Quality of math & science education* ...53 ... 4.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..22 ... 105.4 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...104 ... 85.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 152 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

177 2: Country/Economy Profiles Haiti Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.5 ... 143 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 141 ...2.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 141 ...2.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 144 ...2.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 141 ...3.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 140 ...2.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 142 ...1.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 108 ...4.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 143 ...2.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 145 ...2.3 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 132 ...1.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 140 ...2.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 147 ...2.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 142 ...2.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 138 ...2.4 Haiti Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 143 ...2.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...147 ... 2.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...131 ... 59.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...125 ... 9.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...142 ... 2.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...123 ... 7.3 Judicial independence* ...143 ... 2.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..146 ... 2.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...131 ... 3.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..140 ... 2.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...147 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...147 ... 2.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...140 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...119 ... 4.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...47 ... 35 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...71 ... 530 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...132 ... 3.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...140 ... 2.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...128 ... 3.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...135 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...138 ... 3.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...83 ... 40.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...128 ... 3.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...143 ... 97 Extent of staff training* ...144 ... 2.8 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...133 ... 12 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...140 ... 3.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...140 ... 2.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...n/a ... n/a 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...142 ... 0.09 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...130 ... 3.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...138 ... 3.2 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...135 ... 2.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...139 ... 3.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...139 ... 71.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...n/a ... n/a 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .136 ... 3.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...148 ... 0.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...123 ... 1.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...138 ... 3.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...141 ... 2.9 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...136 ... 2.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...54 ... 0.18 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...145 ... 2.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 126 ... 72.32 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...142 ... 2.3 Quality of math & science education* ...120 ... 3.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % .n/a ... n/a 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...140 ... 48.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 153 © 2014 World Economic Forum

178 2: Country/Economy Profiles Honduras Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.2 ... 116 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 109 ...3.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 129 ...3.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 128 ...2.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 118 ...3.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 108 ...3.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 115 ...2.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 77 ...5.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 112 ...3.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 117 ...3.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 106 ...2.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 91 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 133 ...3.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 120 ...2.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 116 ...2.7 Honduras Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 119 ...2.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...121 ... 2.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...99 ... 92.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...105 ... 18.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...119 ... 3.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...104 ... 15.1 Judicial independence* ...108 ... 3.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..109 ... 3.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...100 ... 13.2 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...96 ... 3.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...110 ... 0.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...103 ... 3.1 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...90 ... 8.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...98 ... 5.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...75 ... 73 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...138 ... 47 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...128 ... 920 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...74 ... 4.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...112 ... 3.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...93 ... 4.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...82 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...91 ... 4.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...78 ... 39.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...93 ... 4.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...70 ... 14 Extent of staff training* ...77 ... 3.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...137 ... 13 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...104 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...139 ... 2.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...95 ... 20.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...94 ... 0.38 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...123 ... 3.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...146 ... 2.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...125 ... 2.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...109 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...100 ... 916.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...116 ... 89.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...94 ... 3.8 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...118 ... 4.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...100 ... 12.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...95 ... 9.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...107 ... 4.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...115 ... 3.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...115 ... 3.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...107 ... 0.36 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...134 ... 3.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..83 ... 34.71 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...141 ... 2.4 Quality of math & science education* ...144 ... 2.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 102 ... 73.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...101 ... 85.1 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 154 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

179 2: Country/Economy Profiles Hong Kong SAR Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and 8 .. 5.6 ... Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 14 ...5.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 4 ...5.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 11 ...5.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 2 ...5.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 12 ...6.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 26 ...5.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 22 ...6.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 10 ...6.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 15 ...5.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 12 ...6.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 16 ...5.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 24 ...5.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 10 ...5.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 13 ...5.0 Hong Kong SAR High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 11 ...5.6 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...42 ... 4.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...1 ... 229.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...33 ... 72.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...7 ... 5.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...24 ... 80.3 Judicial independence* ...4 ... 6.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...3 ... 5.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...22 ... 78.6 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...2 ... 5.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...15 ... 31.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...10 ... 5.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...11 ... 83.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...16 ... 6.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...30 ... 43 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...8 ... 27 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...17 ... 360 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...12 ... 5.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...29 ... 4.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...11 ... 6.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...n/a ... n/a 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...1 ... 4.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...18 ... 5.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...19 ... 22.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...19 ... 5.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...5 ... 3 Extent of staff training* ...21 ... 4.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...7 ... 5.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...21 ... 4.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...39 ... 60.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...n/a ... n/a 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...14 ... 5.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...17 ... 5.2 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...19 ... 4.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...19 ... 5.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...39 .. 5,519.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...n/a ... n/a 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...18 ... 5.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...2 .. 1,426.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...29 ... 36.2 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...24 ... 636.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...10 ... 6.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...14 ... 5.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...14 ... 6.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...3 ... 0.02 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...17 ... 5.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..66 ... 30.08 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...n/a ... n/a 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...22 ... 4.8 Quality of math & science education* ...10 ... 5.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..21 ... 105.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 155 © 2014 World Economic Forum

180 2: Country/Economy Profiles Hungary Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.3 ... 47 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 44 ...4.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 50 ...4.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 54 ...4.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 56 ...4.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 67 ...4.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 64 ...4.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 94 ...4.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 41 ...5.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 45 ...4.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 40 ...4.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 62 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 69 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 42 ...4.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 36 ...3.7 Hungary High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 42 ...4.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...64 ... 3.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...59 ... 116.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...34 ... 72.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...57 ... 4.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...38 ... 71.0 Judicial independence* ...66 ... 3.9 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..113 ... 3.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...35 ... 69.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..138 ... 2.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...31 ... 22.9 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...58 ... 3.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...64 ... 24.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...76 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...28 ... 41 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...47 ... 35 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...26 ... 395 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...73 ... 4.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...97 ... 3.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...57 ... 5.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...28 ... 24.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...122 ... 2.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...42 ... 5.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...118 ... 49.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...52 ... 4.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...15 ... 5 Extent of staff training* ...108 ... 3.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...43 ... 5.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...108 ... 3.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...42 ... 59.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...31 ... 0.69 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...68 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...117 ... 3.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...114 ... 3.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...65 ... 4.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...62 .. 3,460.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...29 ... 4.8 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...74 ... 4.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...83 ... 15.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...31 ... 35.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...35 ... 247.2 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...24 ... 6.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...83 ... 4.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...33 ... 5.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...78 ... 0.27 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...87 ... 3.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 107 ... 48.58 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...36 ... 0.45 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...68 ... 1.88 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...93 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...38 ... 4.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..35 ... 100.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...13 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 156 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

181 2: Country/Economy Profiles Iceland Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.3 ... 19 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 17 ...5.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 20 ...5.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 27 ...4.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 19 ...5.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 2 ...6.4 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 2 ...6.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 13 ...6.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 13 ...6.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 24 ...5.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 7 ...6.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 22 ...4.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 53 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 25 ...4.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 25 ...4.5 Iceland High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 34 ...4.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...60 ... 3.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...76 ... 108.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...1 ... 96.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...31 ... 4.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...2 ... 96.0 Judicial independence* ...19 ... 5.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...27 ... 4.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...2 ... 95.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...21 ... 4.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...7 ... 34.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...29 ... 4.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...16 ... 70.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...1 ... 6.7 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...34 ... 48 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...8 ... 27 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...37 ... 417 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...2 ... 6.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...32 ... 4.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...7 ... 6.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...18 ... 84.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...68 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...22 ... 5.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...41 ... 29.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...28 ... 5.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...12 ... 5 Extent of staff training* ...24 ... 4.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...83 ... 4.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...62 ... 4.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...10 ... 80.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...53 ... 0.54 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...22 ... 5.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...66 ... 4.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...53 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...31 ... 5.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...1 54,817.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...21 ... 13.9 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...22 ... 4.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...5 ... 319.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...6 ... 46.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...1 .. 3,139.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...1 ... 6.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...15 ... 5.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...1 ... 6.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...33 ... 0.13 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...38 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..50 ... 26.18 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...77 ... 0.16 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...16 ... 5.1 Quality of math & science education* ...24 ... 4.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..14 ... 108.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 157 © 2014 World Economic Forum

182 2: Country/Economy Profiles India Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.8 ... 83 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 68 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 91 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 73 ...3.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 103 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 85 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 119 ...2.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 1 ...7.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 101 ...4.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 91 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 121 ...2.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 51 ...3.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 41 ...4.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 60 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 50 ...3.5 India Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 73 ...3.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...61 ... 3.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...122 ... 69.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...119 ... 12.6 Laws relating to ICTs* ...54 ... 4.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...112 ... 10.9 Judicial independence* ...40 ... 4.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...62 ... 3.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...108 ... 9.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...48 ... 3.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...102 ... 1.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...71 ... 3.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...104 ... 5.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...91 ... 5.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...58 ... 63 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...134 ... 46 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...146 ... 1,420 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...48 ... 5.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...41 ... 4.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...58 ... 5.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...61 ... 1.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...27 ... 3.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...69 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...134 ... 62.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...71 ... 4.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...108 ... 27 Extent of staff training* ...53 ... 4.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...133 ... 12 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...24 ... 5.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...54 ... 4.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...92 ... 23.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...55 ... 0.54 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...30 ... 5.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...29 ... 4.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...92 ... 3.3 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...40 ... 4.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...101 ... 861.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...55 ... 0.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...122 ... 83.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...40 ... 4.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...111 ... 5.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...108 ... 3.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...84 ... 4.8 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...63 ... 4.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...77 ... 4.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...7 ... 0.04 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...53 ... 4.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ...4 ... 13.45 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...71 ... 0.18 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...33 ... 4.4 Quality of math & science education* ...32 ... 4.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 105 ... 68.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...127 ... 62.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 158 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

183 2: Country/Economy Profiles Indonesia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.0 ... 64 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 76 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 63 ...4.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 68 ...3.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 62 ...4.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 65 ...4.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 85 ...3.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 37 ...6.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 61 ...5.2 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 69 ...3.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 95 ...2.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 36 ...4.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 49 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 72 ...3.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 86 ...3.1 Indonesia Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 63 ...3.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...57 ... 3.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...61 ... 114.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...112 ... 15.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...46 ... 4.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...103 ... 15.1 Judicial independence* ...74 ... 3.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...49 ... 4.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...117 ... 6.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...50 ... 3.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...103 ... 1.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...55 ... 3.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...54 ... 31.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...48 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...98 ... 86 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...57 ... 498 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...46 ... 5.1 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...24 ... 4.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...60 ... 5.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...103 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...17 ... 3.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...63 ... 4.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...49 ... 32.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...31 ... 5.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...131 ... 48 Extent of staff training* ...25 ... 4.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...119 ... 10 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...66 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...42 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...84 ... 27.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...67 ... 0.50 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...58 ... 4.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...53 ... 4.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...25 ... 4.1 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...38 ... 4.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...104 ... 748.1 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...88 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...41 ... 4.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...77 ... 17.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...106 ... 8.6 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...105 ... 3.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...80 ... 4.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...69 ... 4.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...50 ... 4.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...45 ... 0.16 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...73 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..56 ... 28.48 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...63 ... 0.21 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...84 ... 1.76 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...36 ... 4.3 Quality of math & science education* ...35 ... 4.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..93 ... 81.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...77 ... 92.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 159 © 2014 World Economic Forum

184 2: Country/Economy Profiles Iran, Islamic Rep. Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.4 ... 104 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 101 ...3.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 86 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 86 ...3.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 86 ...4.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 110 ...3.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 103 ...3.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 118 ...3.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 85 ...4.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 113 ...3.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 111 ...2.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 129 ...3.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 91 ...3.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 107 ...3.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 114 ...2.8 Iran, Islamic Rep. Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 105 ...3.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...59 ... 3.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...117 ... 76.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...98 ... 26.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...97 ... 3.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...77 ... 37.0 Judicial independence* ...73 ... 3.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...91 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...78 ... 26.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..124 ... 2.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...85 ... 4.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...122 ... 2.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...122 ... 1.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...147 ... 3.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...58 ... 505 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...120 ... 4.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...85 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...121 ... 4.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...106 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...139 ... 1.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...139 ... 3.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...101 ... 44.1 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...121 ... 3.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...81 ... 16 Extent of staff training* ...141 ... 3.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...121 ... 4.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...105 ... 3.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...48 ... 55.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...70 ... 0.49 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...95 ... 3.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...102 ... 3.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...73 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...106 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...66 .. 3,178.1 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...84 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...97 ... 96.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .107 ... 3.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...121 ... 3.7 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...93 ... 15.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...127 ... 1.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...123 ... 3.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...95 ... 3.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...126 ... 2.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...61 ... 0.21 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...70 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 124 ... 69.52 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...71 ... 0.18 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...110 ... 1.29 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...103 ... 3.2 Quality of math & science education* ...40 ... 4.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..83 ... 86.3 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...103 ... 85.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 160 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

185 2: Country/Economy Profiles Ireland Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.1 ... 26 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 27 ...5.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 12 ...5.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 13 ...5.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 16 ...5.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 26 ...5.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 19 ...6.2 4th pillar: Affordability ... 98 ...4.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 9 ...6.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 29 ...4.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 23 ...5.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 23 ...4.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 45 ...4.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 31 ...4.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 18 ...4.8 Ireland High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 55 ...4.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...28 ... 4.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...78 ... 107.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...25 ... 79.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...23 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...19 ... 83.0 Judicial independence* ...3 ... 6.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...22 ... 4.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...18 ... 81.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...19 ... 4.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...32 ... 22.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...19 ... 5.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...18 ... 65.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...29 ... 6.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...19 ... 34 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...1 ... 21 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...106 ... 650 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...25 ... 5.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...20 ... 4.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...30 ... 5.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...20 ... 79.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...69 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...33 ... 5.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...25 ... 25.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...33 ... 5.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...53 ... 10 Extent of staff training* ...20 ... 4.8 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...42 ... 5.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...45 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...21 ... 73.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...55 ... 0.54 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...19 ... 5.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...41 ... 4.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...70 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...14 ... 5.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...36 .. 5,993.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...15 ... 29.9 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...15 ... 5.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...20 ... 97.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...22 ... 41.2 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...19 .. 1,003.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...49 ... 5.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...44 ... 4.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...43 ... 5.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...134 ... 0.55 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...46 ... 4.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..68 ... 30.56 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...5 ... 5.5 Quality of math & science education* ...25 ... 4.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ...6 ... 117.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 161 © 2014 World Economic Forum

186 2: Country/Economy Profiles Israel Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.4 ... 15 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 15 ...5.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 22 ...5.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 28 ...4.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 14 ...5.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 20 ...5.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 29 ...5.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 35 ...6.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 39 ...5.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 14 ...5.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 26 ...5.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 8 ...5.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 19 ...5.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 6 ...5.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 4 ...5.6 Israel High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 14 ...5.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...51 ... 4.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...48 ... 120.7 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...31 ... 73.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...32 ... 4.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...21 ... 82.1 Judicial independence* ...15 ... 5.8 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...44 ... 4.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...29 ... 73.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...34 ... 4.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...22 ... 25.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...34 ... 4.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...26 ... 53.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...32 ... 6.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...17 ... 31 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...47 ... 35 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...125 ... 890 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...5 ... 6.1 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...4 ... 5.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...17 ... 6.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...5 ... 215.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...8 ... 4.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...40 ... 5.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...41 ... 29.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...23 ... 5.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...70 ... 14 Extent of staff training* ...49 ... 4.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...95 ... 4.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...43 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...33 ... 62.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...15 ... 0.85 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...42 ... 4.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...19 ... 5.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...9 ... 4.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...26 ... 5.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...25 .. 7,677.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...5 ... 79.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...19 ... 5.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...39 ... 56.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...19 ... 42.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...29 ... 396.4 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...37 ... 5.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...22 ... 5.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...39 ... 5.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...89 ... 0.31 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...31 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ...2 ... 8.39 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...7 ... 0.89 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...84 ... 1.76 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...56 ... 4.0 Quality of math & science education* ...78 ... 4.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..27 ... 101.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 162 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

187 2: Country/Economy Profiles Italy Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.2 ... 58 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 50 ...4.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 88 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 99 ...3.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 76 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 33 ...5.5 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 42 ...4.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 32 ...6.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 43 ...5.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 51 ...4.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 37 ...5.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 61 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 112 ...3.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 82 ...3.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 58 ...3.4 Italy High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 94 ...3.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...128 ... 2.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...13 ... 159.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...51 ... 58.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...89 ... 3.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...44 ... 67.0 Judicial independence* ...70 ... 3.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..145 ... 2.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...43 ... 63.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..134 ... 2.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...34 ... 22.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...67 ... 3.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...28 ... 52.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...65 ... 5.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...34 ... 48 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...135 ... 1,185 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...112 ... 4.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...31 ... 4.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...69 ... 5.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...24 ... 51.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...138 ... 1.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...113 ... 4.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...138 ... 65.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...82 ... 4.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...22 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...130 ... 3.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...73 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...130 ... 3.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...31 ... 63.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...48 ... 0.58 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...31 ... 5.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...144 ... 3.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...129 ... 2.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...111 ... 3.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...48 .. 4,832.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...26 ... 8.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .121 ... 3.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...28 ... 76.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...34 ... 34.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...39 ... 208.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...98 ... 4.6 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...107 ... 3.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...96 ... 3.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...42 ... 0.15 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...113 ... 3.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..46 ... 25.91 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...55 ... 0.26 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...89 ... 1.67 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...72 ... 3.6 Quality of math & science education* ...61 ... 4.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..36 ... 100.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...38 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 163 © 2014 World Economic Forum

188 2: Country/Economy Profiles Jamaica Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.8 ... 86 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 85 ...3.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 67 ...4.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 60 ...3.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 80 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 88 ...4.5 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 79 ...3.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 89 ...5.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 87 ...4.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 94 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 87 ...3.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 72 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 104 ...3.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 94 ...3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 78 ...3.1 Jamaica Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 100 ...3.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...90 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...96 ... 96.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...70 ... 46.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...92 ... 3.6 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...81 ... 32.6 Judicial independence* ...49 ... 4.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...94 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...82 ... 23.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...77 ... 3.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...84 ... 4.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...83 ... 3.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...119 ... 1.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...53 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...47 ... 35 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...107 ... 655 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...65 ... 4.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...60 ... 3.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...42 ... 5.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...74 ... 0.6 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...130 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...75 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...103 ... 44.3 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...97 ... 4.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...22 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...62 ... 4.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...55 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...89 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...85 ... 26.0 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...115 ... 0.31 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...69 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...75 ... 4.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...128 ... 2.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...85 ... 4.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...85 .. 1,899.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...101 ... 95.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...63 ... 4.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...69 ... 20.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...78 ... 20.1 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...60 ... 51.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...56 ... 5.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...94 ... 3.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...75 ... 4.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...69 ... 0.23 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...81 ... 4.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 105 ... 47.09 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...61 ... 1.93 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...66 ... 3.7 Quality of math & science education* ...115 ... 3.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..65 ... 92.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...99 ... 87.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 164 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

189 2: Country/Economy Profiles Japan Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.4 ... 16 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 21 ...5.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 21 ...5.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 16 ...5.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 40 ...4.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 19 ...5.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 21 ...6.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 54 ...5.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 29 ...5.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 9 ...5.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 16 ...5.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 4 ...6.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 22 ...5.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 16 ...5.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 11 ...5.1 Japan High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 23 ...5.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...30 ... 4.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...69 ... 110.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...24 ... 79.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...33 ... 4.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...26 ... 80.0 Judicial independence* ...14 ... 6.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...28 ... 4.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...14 ... 86.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...35 ... 4.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...19 ... 27.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...11 ... 5.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...2 ... 115.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...68 ... 5.7 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...3 ... 21 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...24 ... 31 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...17 ... 360 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...6 ... 6.1 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...6 ... 5.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...14 ... 6.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...1 ... 301.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...39 ... 3.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...7 ... 6.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...118 ... 49.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...6 ... 6.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...100 ... 22 Extent of staff training* ...4 ... 5.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...1 ... 6.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...28 ... 4.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...40 ... 59.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...9 ... 0.86 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...86 ... 4.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...45 ... 4.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...37 ... 3.9 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...20 ... 5.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...24 .. 8,041.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...1 ... 118.9 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...33 ... 99.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...37 ... 4.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...52 ... 32.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...57 ... 24.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...21 ... 750.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...13 ... 6.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...32 ... 5.1 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...37 ... 5.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...113 ... 0.40 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...37 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..23 ... 20.01 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...11 ... 0.74 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...50 ... 4.1 Quality of math & science education* ...34 ... 4.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..29 ... 101.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 165 © 2014 World Economic Forum

190 2: Country/Economy Profiles Jordan Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.4 ... 44 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 47 ...4.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 41 ...4.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 44 ...4.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 41 ...4.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 48 ...5.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 88 ...3.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 6 ...6.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 38 ...5.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 59 ...4.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 67 ...3.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 47 ...3.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 52 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 48 ...3.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 44 ...3.5 Jordan Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 51 ...4.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...77 ... 3.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...37 ... 128.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...81 ... 41.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...44 ... 4.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...59 ... 54.6 Judicial independence* ...48 ... 4.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...38 ... 4.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...64 ... 43.6 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...27 ... 4.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...92 ... 2.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...36 ... 4.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...85 ... 11.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...39 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...50 ... 58 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...110 ... 689 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...27 ... 5.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...69 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...36 ... 5.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...80 ... 0.4 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...45 ... 3.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...45 ... 5.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...37 ... 28.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...44 ... 4.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...63 ... 12 Extent of staff training* ...83 ... 3.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...44 ... 5.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...30 ... 4.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...66 ... 39.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...93 ... 0.39 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...47 ... 4.6 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...30 ... 4.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...51 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...35 ... 4.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...77 .. 2,369.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...77 ... 0.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...34 ... 4.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...112 ... 5.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...69 ... 29.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...54 ... 5.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...39 ... 4.9 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...44 ... 5.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...9 ... 0.05 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...26 ... 4.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..36 ... 22.95 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...92 ... 0.11 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...60 ... 1.94 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...27 ... 4.6 Quality of math & science education* ...30 ... 4.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..76 ... 89.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...59 ... 95.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 166 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

191 2: Country/Economy Profiles Kazakhstan Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.6 ... 38 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 43 ...4.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 57 ...4.1 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 61 ...3.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 58 ...4.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 31 ...5.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 58 ...4.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 2 ...6.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 51 ...5.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 38 ...4.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 51 ...4.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 66 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 23 ...5.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 36 ...4.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 60 ...3.4 Kazakhstan Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 21 ...5.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...41 ... 4.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...3 ... 185.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...61 ... 53.3 Laws relating to ICTs* ...53 ... 4.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...49 ... 63.0 Judicial independence* ...88 ... 3.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...53 ... 3.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...53 ... 52.6 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...61 ... 3.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...62 ... 9.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...73 ... 3.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...38 ... 42.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...96 ... 5.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...78 ... 76 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...19 ... 370 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...78 ... 4.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...74 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...88 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...70 ... 1.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...72 ... 2.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...67 ... 4.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...36 ... 28.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...58 ... 4.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...63 ... 12 Extent of staff training* ...56 ... 4.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...120 ... 4.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...27 ... 4.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...61 ... 44.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...21 ... 0.78 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...96 ... 3.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...26 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...58 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...80 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...44 .. 5,229.0 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...65 ... 0.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...101 ... 95.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...71 ... 4.2 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...54 ... 32.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...50 ... 29.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...98 ... 7.4 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...59 ... 5.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...59 ... 4.4 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...52 ... 4.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...17 ... 0.08 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...30 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ...8 ... 14.60 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...3 ... 0.95 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...69 ... 1.87 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...88 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...75 ... 4.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..45 ... 97.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...9 ... 99.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 167 © 2014 World Economic Forum

192 2: Country/Economy Profiles Kenya Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.7 ... 92 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 92 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 92 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 71 ...3.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 110 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 99 ...4.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 94 ...3.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 97 ...4.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 98 ...4.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 86 ...3.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 113 ...2.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 54 ...3.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 46 ...4.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 71 ...3.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 55 ...3.4 Kenya Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 83 ...3.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...50 ... 4.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...121 ... 71.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...95 ... 32.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...62 ... 4.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...113 ... 10.8 Judicial independence* ...60 ... 4.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...57 ... 3.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...103 ... 11.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...56 ... 3.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...128 ... 0.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...86 ... 3.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...116 ... 2.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...81 ... 5.5 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...81 ... 78 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...126 ... 44 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...51 ... 465 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...66 ... 4.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...34 ... 4.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...71 ... 5.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...47 ... 3.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...57 ... 5.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...102 ... 44.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...66 ... 4.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...114 ... 32 Extent of staff training* ...54 ... 4.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...119 ... 10 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...35 ... 5.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...26 ... 4.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...141 ... 4.0 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...86 ... 0.43 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...57 ... 4.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...31 ... 4.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...79 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...41 ... 4.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...125 ... 186.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...81 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...117 ... 89.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...52 ... 4.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...66 ... 23.7 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...103 ... 4.2 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...79 ... 4.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...62 ... 4.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...81 ... 4.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...21 ... 0.09 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...57 ... 4.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 119 ... 65.18 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...107 ... 0.05 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...44 ... 4.2 Quality of math & science education* ...95 ... 3.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 112 ... 60.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...97 ... 87.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 168 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

193 2: Country/Economy Profiles Korea, Rep. Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.5 ... 10 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 11 ...5.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 34 ...4.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 42 ...4.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 20 ...5.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 17 ...5.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 13 ...6.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 57 ...5.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 31 ...5.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 3 ...5.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 9 ...6.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 10 ...5.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 3 ...5.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 5 ...5.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 7 ...5.2 Korea, Rep. High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 2 ...6.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...119 ... 2.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...72 ... 109.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...15 ... 84.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...12 ... 5.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...20 ... 82.3 Judicial independence* ...78 ... 3.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...84 ... 3.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...1 ... 97.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..101 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...5 ... 37.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...48 ... 4.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...4 ... 105.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...57 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...25 ... 40 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...36 ... 33 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...4 ... 230 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...21 ... 5.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...22 ... 4.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...27 ... 5.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...8 ... 198.4 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...115 ... 2.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...17 ... 5.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...33 ... 27.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...2 ... 6.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...19 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...51 ... 4.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...8 ... 5.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...15 ... 5.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...1 ... 100.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...1 ... 1.00 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...56 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...14 ... 5.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...31 ... 4.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...2 ... 5.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...13 10,567.3 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...4 ... 87.8 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...33 ... 99.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...16 ... 5.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...63 ... 25.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...72 ... 21.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...3 .. 2,751.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...14 ... 6.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...12 ... 5.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...13 ... 6.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...39 ... 0.14 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...8 ... 5.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..88 ... 36.31 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...1 ... 1.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...87 ... 1.75 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...64 ... 3.8 Quality of math & science education* ...20 ... 5.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..50 ... 96.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 169 © 2014 World Economic Forum

194 2: Country/Economy Profiles Kuwait Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.0 ... 72 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 62 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 78 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 75 ...3.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 81 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 64 ...5.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 52 ...4.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 76 ...5.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 70 ...5.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 58 ...4.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 38 ...5.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 94 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 105 ...3.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 103 ...3.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 127 ...2.6 Kuwait High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 82 ...3.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...89 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...15 ... 156.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...23 ... 79.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...131 ... 2.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...35 ... 75.0 Judicial independence* ...36 ... 5.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...66 ... 3.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...40 ... 65.2 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...49 ... 3.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...101 ... 1.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...62 ... 3.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...n/a ... n/a Use of virtual social networks* ...35 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...52 ... 59 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...146 ... 50 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...79 ... 566 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...57 ... 4.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...136 ... 2.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...64 ... 5.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...89 ... 0.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...71 ... 2.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...61 ... 4.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...4 ... 12.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...69 ... 4.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...114 ... 32 Extent of staff training* ...94 ... 3.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...133 ... 12 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...110 ... 4.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...126 ... 3.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...93 ... 22.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...47 ... 0.58 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...92 ... 3.9 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...133 ... 3.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...120 ... 2.9 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...135 ... 3.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...4 18,388.0 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...68 ... 0.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .133 ... 3.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...109 ... 5.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...82 ... 18.7 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...41 ... 179.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...51 ... 5.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...78 ... 4.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...66 ... 4.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...35 ... 0.14 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...111 ... 3.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..30 ... 21.37 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...71 ... 0.18 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...142 ... 0.25 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...106 ... 3.1 Quality of math & science education* ...99 ... 3.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..34 ... 101.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...69 ... 93.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 170 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

195 2: Country/Economy Profiles Kyrgyz Republic Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.2 ... 118 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 118 ...3.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 122 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 131 ...2.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 99 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 106 ...4.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 96 ...3.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 116 ...3.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 89 ...4.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 126 ...2.8 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 102 ...2.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 137 ...2.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 132 ...3.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 126 ...2.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 131 ...2.5 Kyrgyz Republic Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 116 ...2.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...132 ... 2.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...45 ... 124.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...101 ... 21.7 Laws relating to ICTs* ...137 ... 2.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...124 ... 6.9 Judicial independence* ...140 ... 2.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..132 ... 2.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...118 ... 6.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..133 ... 2.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...109 ... 0.9 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...140 ... 2.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...134 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...117 ... 4.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...7 ... 260 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...139 ... 3.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...138 ... 2.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...138 ... 3.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...95 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...133 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...133 ... 3.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...54 ... 33.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...105 ... 3.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...40 ... 8 Extent of staff training* ...131 ... 3.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...3 ... 2 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...124 ... 4.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...147 ... 2.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...64 ... 41.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...88 ... 0.42 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...139 ... 2.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...143 ... 3.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...144 ... 2.3 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...138 ... 3.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...72 .. 2,748.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...87 ... 97.5 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .134 ... 3.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...120 ... 3.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...84 ... 17.6 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...104 ... 4.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...78 ... 4.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...140 ... 3.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...109 ... 3.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...41 ... 0.15 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...144 ... 2.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 138 ... 114.69 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...52 ... 0.29 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...123 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...122 ... 3.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..78 ... 88.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...12 ... 99.2 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 171 © 2014 World Economic Forum

196 2: Country/Economy Profiles Lao PDR Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.3 ... 109 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... n/a ...n/a 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 66 ...4.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 50 ...4.1 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 97 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 129 ...3.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 125 ...2.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 130 ...3.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 118 ...3.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 112 ...3.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 129 ...1.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 74 ...3.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 89 ...3.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 88 ...3.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 74 ...3.2 Lao PDR Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 92 ...3.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...27 ... 4.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...127 ... 64.7 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...123 ... 10.7 Laws relating to ICTs* ...70 ... 4.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...117 ... 8.7 Judicial independence* ...56 ... 4.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...35 ... 4.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...121 ... 5.1 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..114 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...125 ... 0.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...64 ... 3.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...117 ... 2.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...118 ... 4.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...116 ... 42 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...46 ... 443 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...90 ... 4.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...46 ... 3.8 Availability of latest technologies* ...112 ... 4.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...113 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...66 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...98 ... 4.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...28 ... 26.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...95 ... 4.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...141 ... 92 Extent of staff training* ...55 ... 4.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...56 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...35 ... 4.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...102 ... 17.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.22 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...82 ... 4.1 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...49 ... 4.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...44 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...73 ... 4.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...122 ... 242.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...131 ... 72.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...70 ... 4.2 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...96 ... 9.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...133 ... 0.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...77 ... 5.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...73 ... 4.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...87 ... 3.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...59 ... 0.21 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...56 ... 4.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 142 ... 209.78 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...130 ... 0.91 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...57 ... 4.0 Quality of math & science education* ...90 ... 3.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 125 ... 46.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...116 ... 72.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 172 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

197 2: Country/Economy Profiles Latvia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.6 ... 39 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 41 ...4.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 42 ...4.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 53 ...4.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 32 ...4.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 29 ...5.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 41 ...5.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 26 ...6.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 35 ...5.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 42 ...4.3 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 31 ...5.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 48 ...3.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 78 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 43 ...3.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 35 ...3.7 Latvia Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 45 ...4.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...82 ... 3.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...63 ... 112.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...30 ... 74.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...56 ... 4.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...39 ... 70.0 Judicial independence* ...63 ... 3.9 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..117 ... 3.0 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...35 ... 69.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...97 ... 3.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...29 ... 23.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...51 ... 4.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...22 ... 58.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...55 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...44 ... 54 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...8 ... 27 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...52 ... 469 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...68 ... 4.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...66 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...45 ... 5.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...36 ... 8.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...58 ... 2.8 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...46 ... 5.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...68 ... 35.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...24 ... 5.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...67 ... 13 Extent of staff training* ...47 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...34 ... 5.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...107 ... 3.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...28 ... 67.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...45 ... 0.59 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...59 ... 4.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...99 ... 3.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...101 ... 3.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...68 ... 4.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...69 .. 2,960.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...45 ... 1.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...79 ... 98.8 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...65 ... 4.2 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...38 ... 59.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...24 ... 39.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...33 ... 274.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...31 ... 5.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...54 ... 4.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...27 ... 5.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...64 ... 0.22 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...63 ... 4.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..22 ... 19.73 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...63 ... 0.21 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...82 ... 1.77 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...68 ... 3.7 Quality of math & science education* ...33 ... 4.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..40 ... 98.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...2 ... 99.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 173 © 2014 World Economic Forum

198 2: Country/Economy Profiles Lebanon Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.6 ... 97 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 94 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 103 ...3.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 142 ...2.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 48 ...4.6 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 79 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 77 ...3.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 99 ...4.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 45 ...5.4 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 90 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 58 ...4.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 116 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 136 ...2.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 114 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 101 ...2.9 Lebanon Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 121 ...2.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...145 ... 2.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...114 ... 80.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...46 ... 61.3 Laws relating to ICTs* ...148 ... 2.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...27 ... 79.7 Judicial independence* ...135 ... 2.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..130 ... 2.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...42 ... 64.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..141 ... 2.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...63 ... 9.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...136 ... 2.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...56 ... 28.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...70 ... 5.7 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...71 ... 71 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...112 ... 721 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...86 ... 4.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...89 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...86 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...60 ... 1.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...62 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...136 ... 3.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...45 ... 30.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...140 ... 3.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...51 ... 9 Extent of staff training* ...99 ... 3.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...25 ... 5.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...148 ... 2.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...58 ... 46.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...74 ... 0.48 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...13 ... 5.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...148 ... 2.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...146 ... 2.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...134 ... 3.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...59 .. 3,733.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...50 ... 0.6 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...56 ... 99.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .138 ... 2.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...71 ... 18.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...42 ... 31.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...61 ... 48.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...115 ... 4.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...145 ... 2.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...107 ... 3.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...97 ... 0.34 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...148 ... 2.3 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..49 ... 26.07 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...47 ... 0.32 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...138 ... 0.55 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...13 ... 5.2 Quality of math & science education* ...4 ... 5.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 100 ... 74.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...90 ... 89.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 174 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

199 2: Country/Economy Profiles Lesotho Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.9 ... 133 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 138 ...2.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 99 ...3.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 90 ...3.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 108 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 130 ...3.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 131 ...2.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 138 ...2.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 103 ...4.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 138 ...2.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 127 ...1.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 136 ...2.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 135 ...2.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 141 ...2.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 147 ...2.1 Lesotho Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 135 ...2.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...53 ... 3.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...119 ... 75.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...133 ... 4.6 Laws relating to ICTs* ...133 ... 2.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...126 ... 5.9 Judicial independence* ...80 ... 3.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...80 ... 3.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...128 ... 3.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...75 ... 3.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...131 ... 0.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...92 ... 3.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...95 ... 7.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...137 ... 4.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...111 ... 41 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...97 ... 615 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...141 ... 3.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...130 ... 2.8 Availability of latest technologies* ...132 ... 3.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...81 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...143 ... 3.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...9 ... 16.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...137 ... 3.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...112 ... 29 Extent of staff training* ...110 ... 3.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...94 ... 4.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...132 ... 2.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...117 ... 10.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...116 ... 0.30 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...122 ... 3.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...142 ... 3.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...131 ... 2.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...142 ... 3.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...134 ... 100.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...125 ... 81.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .145 ... 2.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...105 ... 6.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...113 ... 6.0 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...141 ... 0.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...128 ... 3.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...136 ... 3.1 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...120 ... 3.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...123 ... 0.46 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...139 ... 2.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 139 ... 122.24 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...73 ... 3.6 Quality of math & science education* ...105 ... 3.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 118 ... 51.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...89 ... 89.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 175 © 2014 World Economic Forum

200 2: Country/Economy Profiles Liberia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.2 ... 121 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 97 ...3.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 82 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 92 ...3.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 75 ...4.2 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 114 ...3.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 145 ...1.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 5 ...6.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 131 ...2.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 132 ...2.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 136 ...1.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 123 ...3.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 124 ...3.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 133 ...2.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 134 ...2.4 Liberia Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 128 ...2.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...71 ... 3.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...134 ... 57.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...137 ... 3.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...105 ... 3.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...145 ... 2.0 Judicial independence* ...83 ... 3.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...67 ... 3.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...143 ... 1.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...57 ... 3.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...146 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...68 ... 3.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...135 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...127 ... 4.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...137 ... 1,280 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...136 ... 3.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...68 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...136 ... 3.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...63 ... 2.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...132 ... 3.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...27 ... 26.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...132 ... 3.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...12 ... 5 Extent of staff training* ...101 ... 3.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...103 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...83 ... 3.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...97 ... 19.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...131 ... 0.19 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...117 ... 3.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...108 ... 3.8 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...40 ... 3.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...133 ... 3.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...136 ... 87.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...144 ... 16.4 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .122 ... 3.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...135 ... 2.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...105 ... 9.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...131 ... 1.2 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...136 ... 3.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...119 ... 3.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...129 ... 2.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...1 ... 0.00 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...106 ... 3.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month .n/a ... n/a 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...87 ... 1.75 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...96 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...125 ... 2.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 127 ... 45.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...129 ... 60.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 176 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

201 2: Country/Economy Profiles Libya Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.7 ... 138 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 132 ...2.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 136 ...3.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 141 ...2.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 116 ...3.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 122 ...3.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 84 ...3.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 145 ...1.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 96 ...4.4 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 139 ...2.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 92 ...2.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 144 ...2.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 148 ...2.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 148 ...2.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 145 ...2.1 Libya Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 148 ...1.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...126 ... 2.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...16 ... 155.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...115 ... 14.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...144 ... 2.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...98 ... 17.6 Judicial independence* ...97 ... 3.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..124 ... 2.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...98 ... 13.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..115 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...106 ... 1.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...146 ... 2.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...n/a ... n/a Use of virtual social networks* ...115 ... 5.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...104 ... 90 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...122 ... 43 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...111 ... 690 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...142 ... 3.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...143 ... 2.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...141 ... 3.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...128 ... 2.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...142 ... 3.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...47 ... 31.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...144 ... 2.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...120 ... 35 Extent of staff training* ...143 ... 2.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...119 ... 10 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...139 ... 3.7 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...145 ... 2.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...36 ... 60.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...144 ... 0.00 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...146 ... 2.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...147 ... 2.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...143 ... 2.3 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...148 ... 2.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...49 .. 4,524.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...81 ... 98.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .143 ... 2.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...88 ... 14.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...121 ... 1.8 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...139 ... 3.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...147 ... 2.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...145 ... 1.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...n/a ... n/a ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...147 ... 2.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 123 ... 66.89 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...144 ... 0.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...148 ... 1.9 Quality of math & science education* ...130 ... 2.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..24 ... 104.3 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...92 ... 89.5 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 177 © 2014 World Economic Forum

202 2: Country/Economy Profiles Lithuania Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.8 ... 31 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 32 ...4.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 43 ...4.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 52 ...4.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 37 ...4.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 24 ...5.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 45 ...4.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 12 ...6.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 23 ...5.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 34 ...4.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 41 ...4.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 33 ...4.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 37 ...4.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 27 ...4.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 28 ...4.1 Lithuania Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 27 ...5.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...87 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...9 ... 165.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...38 ... 68.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...41 ... 4.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...47 ... 64.0 Judicial independence* ...71 ... 3.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...96 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...45 ... 62.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...90 ... 3.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...35 ... 21.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...66 ... 3.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...73 ... 18.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...20 ... 6.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...44 ... 54 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...27 ... 32 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...12 ... 300 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...42 ... 5.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...40 ... 4.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...38 ... 5.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...45 ... 5.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...84 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...4 ... 6.1 Total tax rate, % profits ...96 ... 43.1 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...10 ... 5.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...32 ... 7 Extent of staff training* ...59 ... 4.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...36 ... 5.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...70 ... 3.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...14 ... 76.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...29 ... 0.70 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...60 ... 4.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...44 ... 4.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...109 ... 3.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...32 ... 5.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...89 .. 1,401.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...36 ... 1.5 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...81 ... 98.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...25 ... 4.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...29 ... 76.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...18 ... 42.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...34 ... 273.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...23 ... 6.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...37 ... 5.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...23 ... 5.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...57 ... 0.20 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...35 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..20 ... 19.13 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...30 ... 0.53 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...63 ... 1.92 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...59 ... 4.0 Quality of math & science education* ...16 ... 5.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..18 ... 106.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...7 ... 99.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 178 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

203 2: Country/Economy Profiles Luxembourg Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.5 ... 11 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 16 ...5.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 11 ...5.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 4 ...5.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 29 ...4.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 18 ...5.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 17 ...6.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 56 ...5.7 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 27 ...5.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 8 ...5.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 5 ...6.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 13 ...5.3 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 10 ...5.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 15 ...5.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 10 ...5.2 Luxembourg High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 19 ...5.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...7 ... 5.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...25 ... 145.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...6 ... 92.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...1 ... 5.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...5 ... 92.0 Judicial independence* ...18 ... 5.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...15 ... 5.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...4 ... 93.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...9 ... 5.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...12 ... 32.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...6 ... 5.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...12 ... 80.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...30 ... 6.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...2 ... 20 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...5 ... 26 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...15 ... 321 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...11 ... 5.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...11 ... 5.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...10 ... 6.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...14 ... 112.6 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...13 ... 4.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...15 ... 5.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...13 ... 20.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...26 ... 5.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...89 ... 19 Extent of staff training* ...3 ... 5.4 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...59 ... 5.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...7 ... 5.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...98 ... 18.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...29 ... 0.70 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...55 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...6 ... 5.8 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...11 ... 4.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...5 ... 5.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...45 .. 5,159.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...19 ... 23.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...33 ... 99.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...14 ... 5.1 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...1 .. 4,088.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...1 ... 57.2 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...6 .. 1,983.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...8 ... 6.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...4 ... 5.9 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...9 ... 6.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...74 ... 0.25 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...16 ... 5.3 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..72 ... 31.70 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...38 ... 0.39 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...34 ... 4.4 Quality of math & science education* ...44 ... 4.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..33 ... 101.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 179 © 2014 World Economic Forum

204 2: Country/Economy Profiles Macedonia, FYR Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.2 ... 57 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 67 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 53 ...4.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 67 ...3.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 46 ...4.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 71 ...4.9 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 61 ...4.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 88 ...5.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 68 ...5.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 56 ...4.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 53 ...4.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 101 ...3.3 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 47 ...4.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 55 ...3.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 65 ...3.3 Macedonia, FYR Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 52 ...4.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...52 ... 3.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...82 ... 106.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...43 ... 63.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...48 ... 4.4 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...55 ... 58.4 Judicial independence* ...98 ... 3.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...87 ... 3.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...49 ... 56.8 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..112 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...48 ... 13.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...54 ... 3.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...63 ... 25.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...23 ... 6.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...62 ... 66 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...93 ... 604 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...121 ... 4.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...94 ... 3.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...80 ... 4.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...90 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...56 ... 5.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...1 ... 8.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...85 ... 4.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...2 ... 2 Extent of staff training* ...104 ... 3.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...3 ... 2 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...85 ... 4.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...29 ... 4.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...65 ... 40.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...83 ... 0.45 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...99 ... 3.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...32 ... 4.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...81 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...81 ... 4.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...63 .. 3,268.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...33 ... 99.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...90 ... 3.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...58 ... 30.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...48 ... 29.6 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...63 ... 39.4 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...53 ... 5.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...49 ... 4.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...40 ... 5.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...60 ... 0.21 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...36 ... 4.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..74 ... 32.42 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...130 ... 0.91 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...70 ... 3.7 Quality of math & science education* ...51 ... 4.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..91 ... 81.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...53 ... 97.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 180 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

205 2: Country/Economy Profiles Madagascar Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.7 ... 139 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 137 ...2.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 120 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 129 ...2.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 94 ...4.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 144 ...2.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 144 ...1.6 4th pillar: Affordability ... 141 ...2.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 126 ...2.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 129 ...2.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 141 ...1.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 100 ...3.3 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 126 ...3.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 134 ...2.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 135 ...2.4 Madagascar Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 132 ...2.6 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...130 ... 2.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...141 ... 39.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...142 ... 2.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...126 ... 2.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...138 ... 2.9 Judicial independence* ...141 ... 2.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..121 ... 2.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...136 ... 2.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..121 ... 2.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...135 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...108 ... 2.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...130 ... 0.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...102 ... 5.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...124 ... 871 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...106 ... 4.3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...73 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...109 ... 4.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...108 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...89 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...111 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...67 ... 35.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...101 ... 4.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...40 ... 8 Extent of staff training* ...102 ... 3.7 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...3 ... 2 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...82 ... 4.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...129 ... 3.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...140 ... 4.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...110 ... 0.32 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...87 ... 4.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...113 ... 3.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...86 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...114 ... 3.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...140 ... 65.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...142 ... 23.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .105 ... 3.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...143 ... 0.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...116 ... 2.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...140 ... 0.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...127 ... 3.8 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...116 ... 3.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...132 ... 2.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...130 ... 0.53 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...117 ... 3.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 140 ... 126.42 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...117 ... 3.0 Quality of math & science education* ...82 ... 4.0 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 132 ... 38.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...126 ... 64.5 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 181 © 2014 World Economic Forum

206 2: Country/Economy Profiles Malawi Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.9 ... 132 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 129 ...2.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 107 ...3.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 69 ...3.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 130 ...3.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 136 ...2.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 126 ...2.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 139 ...2.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 125 ...3.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 136 ...2.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 142 ...1.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 121 ...3.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 125 ...3.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 125 ...2.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 110 ...2.8 Malawi Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 131 ...2.6 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...84 ... 3.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...145 ... 29.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...134 ... 4.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...110 ... 3.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...132 ... 4.0 Judicial independence* ...59 ... 4.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...56 ... 3.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...120 ... 5.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...44 ... 3.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...142 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...89 ... 3.4 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...112 ... 3.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...129 ... 4.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...116 ... 42 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...43 ... 432 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...133 ... 3.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...116 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...127 ... 3.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...120 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...96 ... 2.4 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...110 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...61 ... 34.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...126 ... 3.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...129 ... 40 Extent of staff training* ...84 ... 3.9 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...119 ... 10 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...125 ... 4.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...101 ... 3.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...147 ... 0.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.22 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...124 ... 3.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...104 ... 3.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...83 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...115 ... 3.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...131 ... 119.1 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...119 ... 85.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .106 ... 3.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...129 ... 2.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...134 ... 0.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...119 ... 4.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...114 ... 3.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...123 ... 2.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...112 ... 0.39 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...122 ... 3.3 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 130 ... 84.90 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...122 ... 1.13 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...92 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...113 ... 3.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 138 ... 34.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...111 ... 74.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 182 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

207 2: Country/Economy Profiles Malaysia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.8 ... 30 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 30 ...4.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 24 ...5.0 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 25 ...4.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 24 ...5.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 59 ...5.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 71 ...4.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 48 ...5.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 67 ...5.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 30 ...4.8 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 49 ...4.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 27 ...4.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 9 ...5.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 28 ...4.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 30 ...4.0 Malaysia Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 25 ...5.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...16 ... 5.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...26 ... 141.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...39 ... 65.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...13 ... 5.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...45 ... 66.9 Judicial independence* ...44 ... 4.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...18 ... 5.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...41 ... 64.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...17 ... 4.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...68 ... 8.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...30 ... 4.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...82 ... 13.4 Use of virtual social networks* ...42 ... 6.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...47 ... 55 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...15 ... 29 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...39 ... 425 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...33 ... 5.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...15 ... 4.9 Availability of latest technologies* ...37 ... 5.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...31 ... 12.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...7 ... 4.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...28 ... 5.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...69 ... 36.3 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...22 ... 5.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...22 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...11 ... 5.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...32 ... 5.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...9 ... 5.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...73 ... 37.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...20 ... 0.79 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...35 ... 4.9 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...9 ... 5.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...4 ... 4.8 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...13 ... 5.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...50 .. 4,523.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...27 ... 6.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...93 ... 96.8 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...12 ... 5.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...79 ... 16.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...52 ... 27.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...57 ... 65.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...44 ... 5.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...20 ... 5.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...36 ... 5.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...48 ... 0.17 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...9 ... 5.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..82 ... 34.65 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...31 ... 0.50 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...19 ... 5.0 Quality of math & science education* ...27 ... 4.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 108 ... 66.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...75 ... 93.1 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 183 © 2014 World Economic Forum

208 2: Country/Economy Profiles Mali Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.0 ... 127 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 122 ...3.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 117 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 111 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 119 ...3.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 143 ...2.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 140 ...1.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 135 ...2.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 139 ...2.4 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 111 ...3.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 118 ...2.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 114 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 82 ...3.9 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 95 ...3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 69 ...3.3 Mali Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 109 ...3.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...108 ... 3.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...92 ... 98.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...140 ... 2.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...112 ... 3.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...121 ... 7.7 Judicial independence* ...122 ... 2.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..111 ... 3.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...137 ... 2.5 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...83 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...138 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...127 ... 2.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...124 ... 0.7 Use of virtual social networks* ...130 ... 4.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...55 ... 36 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...98 ... 620 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...84 ... 4.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...104 ... 3.2 Availability of latest technologies* ...84 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...99 ... 2.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...85 ... 4.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...116 ... 49.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...117 ... 3.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...58 ... 11 Extent of staff training* ...135 ... 3.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...111 ... 4.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...64 ... 4.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...129 ... 7.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...110 ... 0.32 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...119 ... 3.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...43 ... 4.7 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...59 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...63 ... 4.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...143 ... 38.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...143 ... 20.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...69 ... 4.2 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...110 ... 5.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...132 ... 1.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...132 ... 3.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...71 ... 4.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...117 ... 3.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...108 ... 0.36 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...72 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 128 ... 79.59 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...118 ... 1.20 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...122 ... 2.9 Quality of math & science education* ...126 ... 2.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 120 ... 50.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...146 ... 33.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 184 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

209 2: Country/Economy Profiles Malta Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.0 ... 28 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 28 ...4.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 36 ...4.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 30 ...4.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 49 ...4.6 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 23 ...5.7 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 18 ...6.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 90 ...5.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 16 ...5.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 28 ...5.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 24 ...5.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 32 ...4.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 13 ...5.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 30 ...4.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 29 ...4.0 Malta High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 28 ...4.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...18 ... 4.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...39 ... 127.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...36 ... 70.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...20 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...30 ... 78.0 Judicial independence* ...39 ... 4.8 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...46 ... 4.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...24 ... 77.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...55 ... 3.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...14 ... 32.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...28 ... 4.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...45 ... 35.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...7 ... 6.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...30 ... 43 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...58 ... 505 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...31 ... 5.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...47 ... 3.8 Availability of latest technologies* ...22 ... 6.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...33 ... 10.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...37 ... 3.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...12 ... 5.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...90 ... 41.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...43 ... 5.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...128 ... 40 Extent of staff training* ...35 ... 4.4 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...129 ... 11 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...4 ... 6.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...4 ... 5.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...68 ... 39.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...41 ... 0.61 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...21 ... 5.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...5 ... 5.8 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...35 ... 3.9 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...25 ... 5.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...41 .. 5,265.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...42 ... 1.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...32 ... 4.8 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...3 ... 625.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...23 ... 39.7 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...9 .. 1,627.8 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...11 ... 6.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...11 ... 5.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...20 ... 5.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...132 ... 0.54 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...6 ... 5.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..42 ... 24.81 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...55 ... 0.26 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...8 ... 5.3 Quality of math & science education* ...8 ... 5.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..57 ... 95.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...79 ... 92.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 185 © 2014 World Economic Forum

210 2: Country/Economy Profiles Mauritania Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.6 ... 142 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 135 ...2.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 140 ...2.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 133 ...2.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 143 ...3.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 133 ...2.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 139 ...1.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 104 ...4.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 145 ...2.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 140 ...2.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 116 ...2.2 7th pillar: Business usage ... 139 ...2.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 146 ...2.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 144 ...2.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 142 ...2.3 Mauritania Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 144 ...2.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...131 ... 2.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...83 ... 106.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...130 ... 5.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...132 ... 2.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...134 ... 3.7 Judicial independence* ...130 ... 2.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..127 ... 2.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...130 ... 3.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..119 ... 2.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...122 ... 0.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...132 ... 2.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...110 ... 3.6 Use of virtual social networks* ...124 ... 4.8 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...134 ... 46 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...19 ... 370 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...109 ... 4.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...137 ... 2.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...98 ... 4.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...132 ... 1.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...86 ... 4.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...140 ... 68.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...136 ... 3.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...92 ... 19 Extent of staff training* ...148 ... 2.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...108 ... 4.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...136 ... 2.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...135 ... 5.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...143 ... 0.08 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...143 ... 2.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...132 ... 3.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...104 ... 3.1 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...141 ... 3.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...129 ... 134.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...136 ... 62.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .144 ... 2.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...127 ... 3.0 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...120 ... 1.8 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...126 ... 3.8 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...143 ... 2.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...141 ... 2.0 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...105 ... 0.36 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...142 ... 2.8 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 108 ... 48.94 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...136 ... 2.6 Quality of math & science education* ...133 ... 2.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 144 ... 26.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...130 ... 58.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 186 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

211 2: Country/Economy Profiles Mauritius Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.3 ... 48 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 55 ...4.1 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 37 ...4.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 33 ...4.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 43 ...4.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 47 ...5.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 76 ...3.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 11 ...6.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 52 ...5.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 60 ...4.0 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 66 ...3.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 64 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 48 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 70 ...3.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 70 ...3.2 Mauritius Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 74 ...3.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...21 ... 4.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...52 ... 119.9 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...80 ... 41.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...45 ... 4.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...71 ... 40.6 Judicial independence* ...35 ... 5.0 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...23 ... 4.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...65 ... 42.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...22 ... 4.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...54 ... 11.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...49 ... 4.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...67 ... 22.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...69 ... 5.7 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...48 ... 57 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...47 ... 35 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...70 ... 529 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...52 ... 5.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...72 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...46 ... 5.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...46 ... 3.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...60 ... 5.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...35 ... 28.2 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...99 ... 4.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...22 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...38 ... 4.4 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...30 ... 5.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...31 ... 4.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...67 ... 39.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...86 ... 0.43 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...61 ... 4.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...35 ... 4.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...75 ... 3.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...59 ... 4.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...80 .. 2,265.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...60 ... 4.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...80 ... 16.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...76 ... 20.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...46 ... 134.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...76 ... 5.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...52 ... 4.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...67 ... 4.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...50 ... 0.18 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...54 ... 4.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..29 ... 21.32 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...97 ... 0.08 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...37 ... 4.3 Quality of math & science education* ...43 ... 4.5 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..55 ... 95.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...94 ... 88.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 187 © 2014 World Economic Forum

212 2: Country/Economy Profiles Mexico Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.9 ... 79 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 63 ...3.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 75 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 70 ...3.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 85 ...4.1 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 94 ...4.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 81 ...3.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 93 ...4.9 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 95 ...4.4 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 71 ...3.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 89 ...3.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 70 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 40 ...4.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 59 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 80 ...3.1 Mexico Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 48 ...4.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...114 ... 2.9 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...112 ... 83.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...85 ... 38.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...59 ... 4.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...83 ... 32.2 Judicial independence* ...90 ... 3.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...98 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...79 ... 26.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...78 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...59 ... 10.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...77 ... 3.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...87 ... 9.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...86 ... 5.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...48 ... 57 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...30 ... 400 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...64 ... 4.8 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...75 ... 3.5 Availability of latest technologies* ...61 ... 5.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...59 ... 1.7 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...76 ... 2.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...64 ... 4.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...126 ... 53.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...76 ... 4.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...22 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...72 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...65 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...76 ... 3.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...83 ... 27.7 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...28 ... 0.73 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...65 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...81 ... 4.2 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...63 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...55 ... 4.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...76 .. 2,449.5 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...66 ... 0.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...33 ... 99.9 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...58 ... 4.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...81 ... 15.7 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...97 ... 14.7 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...71 ... 28.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...94 ... 4.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...79 ... 4.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...90 ... 3.8 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...129 ... 0.52 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...65 ... 4.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..57 ... 28.53 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...25 ... 0.58 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...119 ... 3.0 Quality of math & science education* ...131 ... 2.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..88 ... 84.1 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...72 ... 93.5 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 188 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

213 2: Country/Economy Profiles Moldova Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.9 ... 77 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 77 ...3.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 121 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 126 ...3.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 105 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 55 ...5.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 60 ...4.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 31 ...6.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 84 ...4.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 83 ...3.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 73 ...3.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 125 ...3.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 75 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 68 ...3.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 76 ...3.2 Moldova Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 60 ...3.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...120 ... 2.8 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...87 ... 102.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...77 ... 43.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...93 ... 3.6 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...68 ... 44.5 Judicial independence* ...145 ... 1.9 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..131 ... 2.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...65 ... 42.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..137 ... 2.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...53 ... 11.9 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...125 ... 2.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...102 ... 5.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...82 ... 5.5 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...104 ... 90 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...24 ... 31 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...16 ... 337 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...124 ... 4.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...134 ... 2.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...116 ... 4.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...73 ... 0.7 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...118 ... 2.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...99 ... 4.5 Total tax rate, % profits ...83 ... 40.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...94 ... 4.1 2.04 No. days to start a business ...37 ... 7 Extent of staff training* ...126 ... 3.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...119 ... 4.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...90 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...70 ... 38.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...61 ... 0.52 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...133 ... 3.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...82 ... 4.2 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...139 ... 2.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...117 ... 3.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...87 .. 1,624.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...54 ... 0.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...85 ... 98.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .109 ... 3.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...23 ... 94.2 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...43 ... 31.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...77 ... 23.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...52 ... 5.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...98 ... 3.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...56 ... 4.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...82 ... 0.29 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...90 ... 3.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..26 ... 20.47 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...38 ... 0.39 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...115 ... 3.0 Quality of math & science education* ...74 ... 4.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..99 ... 74.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...39 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 189 © 2014 World Economic Forum

214 2: Country/Economy Profiles Mongolia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.1 ... 61 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 59 ...4.0 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 72 ...3.9 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 98 ...3.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 57 ...4.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 44 ...5.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 69 ...4.2 4th pillar: Affordability ... 7 ...6.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 65 ...5.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 85 ...3.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 90 ...3.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 83 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 71 ...4.0 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 63 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 89 ...3.0 Mongolia Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 49 ...4.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...109 ... 3.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...47 ... 120.7 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...110 ... 16.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...94 ... 3.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...84 ... 30.3 Judicial independence* ...111 ... 2.9 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..110 ... 3.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...96 ... 14.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..129 ... 2.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...88 ... 3.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...134 ... 2.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...75 ... 18.4 Use of virtual social networks* ...75 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...27 ... 32 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...13 ... 314 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...79 ... 4.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...107 ... 3.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...90 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...87 ... 0.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...144 ... 1.7 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...88 ... 4.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...22 ... 24.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...81 ... 4.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...58 ... 11 Extent of staff training* ...73 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...98 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...95 ... 3.7 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...35 ... 61.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...45 ... 0.59 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...136 ... 2.9 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...103 ... 3.9 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...106 ... 3.1 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...92 ... 4.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...86 .. 1,725.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...113 ... 91.3 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .112 ... 3.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...22 ... 94.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...64 ... 24.0 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...84 ... 19.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...72 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...81 ... 4.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...83 ... 3.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...24 ... 0.10 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...89 ... 3.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ...5 ... 14.01 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...24 ... 0.61 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...95 ... 1.56 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...137 ... 2.6 Quality of math & science education* ...68 ... 4.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..25 ... 103.5 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...54 ... 97.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 190 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

215 2: Country/Economy Profiles Montenegro Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.3 ... 52 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 48 ...4.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 52 ...4.2 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 80 ...3.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 34 ...4.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 61 ...5.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 46 ...4.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 103 ...4.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 34 ...5.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 52 ...4.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 55 ...4.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 69 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 51 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 47 ...3.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 39 ...3.6 Montenegro Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 56 ...4.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...43 ... 4.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...5 ... 181.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...52 ... 56.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...58 ... 4.2 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...63 ... 51.3 Judicial independence* ...75 ... 3.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...58 ... 3.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...50 ... 55.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...63 ... 3.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...67 ... 8.4 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...76 ... 3.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...60 ... 27.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...31 ... 6.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...83 ... 79 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...142 ... 49 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...74 ... 545 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...89 ... 4.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...59 ... 3.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...83 ... 4.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...51 ... 3.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...36 ... 3.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...71 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...14 ... 20.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...67 ... 4.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...53 ... 10 Extent of staff training* ...63 ... 4.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...58 ... 6 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...135 ... 3.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...44 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...47 ... 55.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...64 ... 0.51 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...36 ... 4.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...64 ... 4.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...32 ... 3.9 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...71 ... 4.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...53 .. 4,279.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...72 ... 4.2 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...37 ... 60.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...27 ... 37.2 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...67 ... 30.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...57 ... 5.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...60 ... 4.4 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...71 ... 4.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...127 ... 0.51 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...50 ... 4.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..89 ... 36.65 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...47 ... 0.32 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...35 ... 4.4 Quality of math & science education* ...23 ... 4.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..69 ... 90.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...44 ... 98.5 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 191 © 2014 World Economic Forum

216 2: Country/Economy Profiles (updated) Morocco Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and Networked Readiness Index 2014 ... 90 .. 3.7 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 89 ...3.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 84 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 81 ...3.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 88 ...4.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 95 ...4.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 93 ...3.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 51 ...5.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 111 ...3.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 70 ...3.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 72 ...3.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 111 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 48 ...4.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 103 ...3.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 123 ...2.6 Lower-middle-income group average Morocco 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 82 ...3.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 INDICATOR VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 1.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...83 ... 3.4 6.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...50 ... 120.0 ...57 ... 55.0 Individuals using Internet, % Laws relating to ICTs* ...80 ... 3.8 6.02 1.02 Households w/ personal computer, % ...69 ... 43.1 1.03 Judicial independence* ...87 ... 3.4 6.03 1.04 6.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...71 ... 3.7 Households w/ Internet access, % ...71 ... 38.9 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...74 ... 3.4 1.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...97 ... 2.1 6.05 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...90 ... 3.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...86 ... 10.1 Use of virtual social networks* ...87 ... 5.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...62 ... 66 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage 1.09 No. days to enforce a contract ...61 ... 510 Firm-level technology absorption* ...95 ... 4.4 7.01 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...129 ... 2.8 Availability of latest technologies* ...66 ... 5.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...78 ... 0.5 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...56 ... 2.8 Business-to-business Internet use* ...115 ... 4.3 7.04 2.03 Total tax rate, % profits ...117 ... 49.6 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...106 ... 3.9 7.05 2.04 No. days to start a business ...58 ... 11 7.06 Extent of staff training* ...96 ... 3.7 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 2.05 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...60 ... 5.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...51 ... 4.3 2.07 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...103 ... 16.2 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...53 ... 0.5 8.02 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...45 ... 4.6 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...59 ... 4.5 8.03 2.09 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...96 ... 3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...86 ... 4.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...103 ... 775.8 3.01 9.02 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...72 ... 0.1 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .101 ... 3.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...85 ... 14.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...111 ... 6.8 3.04 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...109 ... 3.6 Accessibility of digital content* ...99 ... 4.5 3.05 10th pillar: Social impacts Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...106 ... 3.6 10.01 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...113 ... 3.1 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...110 ... 0.38 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...85 ... 4.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..27 ... 20.64 4.02 ...38 ... 0.4 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) 10.04 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 4.03 5th pillar: Skills Notes: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the Quality of educational system* ...110 ... 3.1 5.01 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 Quality of math & science education* ...52 ... 4.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 104 ... 68.9 5.03 Following a correction on the data for indicators 8.02 “Government online service Index” and 10.04 “E-participation Index”, the country profile for Morocco has been Adult literacy rate, % ...124 ... 67.1 5.04 updated accordingly. 192 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

217 2: Country/Economy Profiles (initially reported) Morocco Rank Value (1–7) (out of 148) 1. Political and Networked Readiness Index 2014 ... 99 .. 3.6 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 89 ...3.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 84 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 81 ...3.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 88 ...4.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 95 ...4.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 93 ...3.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 51 ...5.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 111 ...3.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 82 ...3.5 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 72 ...3.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 111 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 92 ...3.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 121 ...2.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 123 ...2.6 Lower-middle-income group average Morocco 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 115 ...2.9 The Networked Readiness Index in detail VALUE VALUE RANK/148 INDICATOR RANK/148 INDICATOR 6th pillar: Individual usage 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 1.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...83 ... 3.4 6.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...50 ... 120.0 Individuals using Internet, % Laws relating to ICTs* ...80 ... 3.8 6.02 1.02 ...57 ... 55.0 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...69 ... 43.1 Judicial independence* ...87 ... 3.4 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...71 ... 3.7 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...71 ... 38.9 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...74 ... 3.4 6.05 1.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...97 ... 2.1 6.06 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...86 ... 10.1 Intellectual property protection* ...90 ... 3.3 1.06 Use of virtual social networks* ...87 ... 5.4 6.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...62 ... 66 1.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage 1.09 No. days to enforce a contract ...61 ... 510 Firm-level technology absorption* ...95 ... 4.4 7.01 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment Capacity for innovation* ...129 ... 2.8 7.02 Availability of latest technologies* ...66 ... 5.0 2.01 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...78 ... 0.5 7.03 Venture capital availability* ...56 ... 2.8 2.02 Business-to-business Internet use* ...115 ... 4.3 7.04 Total tax rate, % profits ...117 ... 49.6 2.03 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...106 ... 3.9 7.05 2.04 No. days to start a business ...58 ... 11 7.06 Extent of staff training* ...96 ... 3.7 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...60 ... 5.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...51 ... 4.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...103 ... 16.2 2.07 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...125 ... 0.25 8.02 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...45 ... 4.6 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...59 ... 4.5 8.03 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...96 ... 3.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...86 ... 4.2 9.01 3.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...103 ... 775.8 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...72 ... 0.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .101 ... 3.7 9.03 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...85 ... 14.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...111 ... 6.8 3.04 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...109 ... 3.6 Accessibility of digital content* ...99 ... 4.5 3.05 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...106 ... 3.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...113 ... 3.1 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...110 ... 0.38 4.01 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...85 ... 4.0 10.03 4.02 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..27 ... 20.64 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) 10.04 ...127 ... 0.00 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 4.03 5th pillar: Skills Notes: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For Quality of educational system* ...110 ... 3.1 5.01 further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.02 Quality of math & science education* ...52 ... 4.3 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 5.03 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 104 ... 68.9 Country profile for Morocco initially reported. Please see the previous page for the Adult literacy rate, % ...124 ... 67.1 5.04 updated version. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 193 © 2014 World Economic Forum

218 2: Country/Economy Profiles Mozambique Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.8 ... 137 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 133 ...2.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 124 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 113 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 126 ...3.5 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 142 ...2.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 137 ...1.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 132 ...3.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 147 ...2.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 131 ...2.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 144 ...1.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 124 ...3.1 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 110 ...3.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 123 ...2.7 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 121 ...2.7 Mozambique Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 124 ...2.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...70 ... 3.6 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...143 ... 36.2 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...132 ... 4.8 Laws relating to ICTs* ...125 ... 2.9 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...127 ... 5.9 Judicial independence* ...125 ... 2.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..105 ... 3.3 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...124 ... 4.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..117 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...130 ... 0.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...129 ... 2.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...118 ... 1.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...139 ... 4.4 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...18 ... 30 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...129 ... 950 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...107 ... 4.3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...132 ... 2.8 Availability of latest technologies* ...104 ... 4.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...121 ... 2.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...121 ... 4.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...75 ... 37.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...116 ... 3.6 2.04 No. days to start a business ...68 ... 13 Extent of staff training* ...120 ... 3.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...107 ... 9 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...126 ... 4.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...109 ... 3.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...137 ... 4.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...98 ... 0.37 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...137 ... 2.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...92 ... 4.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...95 ... 3.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...122 ... 3.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...107 ... 684.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...n/a ... n/a 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .125 ... 3.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...140 ... 1.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...124 ... 1.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...125 ... 3.8 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...129 ... 3.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...128 ... 2.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...76 ... 0.26 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...114 ... 3.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 133 ... 106.78 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...121 ... 1.17 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...129 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...137 ... 2.6 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 146 ... 25.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...135 ... 56.1 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 194 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

219 2: Country/Economy Profiles Myanmar Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 2.3 ... 146 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... n/a ...n/a 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 146 ...2.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 137 ...2.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 146 ...2.7 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 148 ...2.2 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 136 ...1.9 4th pillar: Affordability ... 146 ...1.0 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 115 ...3.6 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 146 ...2.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 143 ...1.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 145 ...2.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 143 ...2.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 140 ...2.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 139 ...2.4 Myanmar Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 141 ...2.3 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...93 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...148 ... 10.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...147 ... 1.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...147 ... 2.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...142 ... 2.3 Judicial independence* ...113 ... 2.8 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..134 ... 2.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...142 ... 1.8 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..143 ... 2.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...139 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...126 ... 2.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...136 ... 0.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...132 ... 4.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...131 ... 45 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...134 ... 1,160 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...148 ... 2.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...135 ... 2.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...148 ... 2.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...148 ... 1.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...140 ... 3.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...113 ... 48.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...133 ... 3.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...139 ... 72 Extent of staff training* ...146 ... 2.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...129 ... 11 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...97 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...133 ... 2.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...108 ... 13.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...140 ... 0.10 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...141 ... 2.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...125 ... 3.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...145 ... 2.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...140 ... 3.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...128 ... 140.0 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...145 ... 2.3 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .135 ... 3.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...95 ... 9.4 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...146 ... 0.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...121 ... 3.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...137 ... 3.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...139 ... 2.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...n/a ... n/a ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...133 ... 3.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 134 ... 108.18 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...127 ... 0.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...144 ... 0.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...125 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...134 ... 2.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 122 ... 50.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...78 ... 92.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 195 © 2014 World Economic Forum

220 2: Country/Economy Profiles Namibia Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.4 ... 105 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 111 ...3.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 59 ...4.1 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 37 ...4.4 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 112 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 116 ...3.5 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 106 ...3.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 125 ...3.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 104 ...3.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 103 ...3.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 101 ...2.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 68 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 116 ...3.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 117 ...2.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 105 ...2.9 Namibia Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 122 ...2.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...40 ... 4.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...98 ... 95.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...118 ... 12.9 Laws relating to ICTs* ...90 ... 3.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...106 ... 14.3 Judicial independence* ...41 ... 4.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...32 ... 4.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...101 ... 13.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...42 ... 3.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...105 ... 1.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...41 ... 4.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...50 ... 33.2 Use of virtual social networks* ...85 ... 5.5 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...36 ... 33 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...49 ... 460 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...58 ... 4.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...84 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...52 ... 5.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...122 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...88 ... 2.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...50 ... 5.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...16 ... 21.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...90 ... 4.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...137 ... 66 Extent of staff training* ...69 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...119 ... 10 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...99 ... 4.6 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...97 ... 3.6 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...121 ... 9.3 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...116 ... 0.30 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...121 ... 3.4 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...93 ... 4.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...97 ... 3.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...94 ... 4.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...110 ... 644.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...98 ... 3.7 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...122 ... 3.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...88 ... 16.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...82 ... 19.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...106 ... 4.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...97 ... 3.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...111 ... 3.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...70 ... 0.24 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...129 ... 3.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 127 ... 78.18 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...100 ... 1.43 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...118 ... 3.0 Quality of math & science education* ...128 ... 2.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 111 ... 64.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...95 ... 88.8 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 196 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

221 2: Country/Economy Profiles Nepal Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.1 ... 123 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 126 ...2.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 123 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 125 ...3.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 113 ...3.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 111 ...3.8 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 141 ...1.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 9 ...6.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 121 ...3.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 133 ...2.7 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 125 ...2.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 132 ...2.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 130 ...3.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 135 ...2.5 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 141 ...2.3 Nepal Low-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 129 ...2.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...137 ... 2.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...132 ... 59.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...122 ... 11.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...134 ... 2.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...120 ... 7.8 Judicial independence* ...92 ... 3.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..123 ... 2.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...126 ... 4.1 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..104 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...116 ... 0.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...117 ... 2.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...65 ... 23.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...134 ... 4.5 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...n/a ... n/a 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...91 ... 39 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...126 ... 910 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...128 ... 3.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...125 ... 2.9 Availability of latest technologies* ...120 ... 4.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...116 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...102 ... 2.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...128 ... 4.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...46 ... 31.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...123 ... 3.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...85 ... 17 Extent of staff training* ...133 ... 3.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...109 ... 4.5 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...131 ... 2.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...106 ... 14.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...122 ... 0.29 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...100 ... 3.8 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...118 ... 3.6 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...132 ... 2.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...131 ... 3.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...130 ... 122.0 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...141 ... 35.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .123 ... 3.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...141 ... 1.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...114 ... 4.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...116 ... 2.5 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...118 ... 4.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...130 ... 3.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...105 ... 3.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...12 ... 0.07 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...135 ... 3.0 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ...9 ... 14.72 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...112 ... 0.03 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...101 ... 1.41 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...94 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...89 ... 3.8 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 109 ... 65.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...133 ... 57.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 197 © 2014 World Economic Forum

222 2: Country/Economy Profiles Netherlands Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and 4 .. 5.8 ... Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 4 ...5.8 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 6 ...5.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 8 ...5.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 5 ...5.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 15 ...6.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 14 ...6.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 69 ...5.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 7 ...6.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 5 ...5.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 4 ...6.5 7th pillar: Business usage ... 6 ...5.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 14 ...5.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 3 ...5.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 5 ...5.6 Netherlands High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 3 ...6.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...14 ... 5.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...54 ... 118.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...4 ... 93.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...16 ... 5.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...1 ... 97.2 Judicial independence* ...7 ... 6.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...9 ... 5.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...3 ... 94.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...5 ... 5.4 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...2 ... 39.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...9 ... 5.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...21 ... 61.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...4 ... 6.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...14 ... 27 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...5 ... 26 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...65 ... 514 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...22 ... 5.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...9 ... 5.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...9 ... 6.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...9 ... 189.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...21 ... 3.5 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...11 ... 5.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...79 ... 39.3 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...4 ... 6.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...9 ... 4 Extent of staff training* ...9 ... 5.1 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...5 ... 6.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...41 ... 4.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...15 ... 76.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...5 ... 0.96 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...9 ... 5.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...25 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...26 ... 4.1 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...7 ... 5.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...35 .. 6,092.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...7 ... 55.8 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...5 ... 5.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...13 ... 172.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...8 ... 45.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...2 .. 2,803.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...5 ... 6.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...5 ... 5.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...6 ... 6.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...106 ... 0.36 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...20 ... 5.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..69 ... 30.65 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...1 ... 1.00 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...12 ... 5.2 Quality of math & science education* ...14 ... 5.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ...3 ... 128.4 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 198 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

223 2: Country/Economy Profiles New Zealand Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 5.3 ... 20 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 20 ...5.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 2 ...5.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 2 ...5.9 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 8 ...5.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 45 ...5.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 12 ...6.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 127 ...3.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 6 ...6.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 16 ...5.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 13 ...6.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 21 ...4.8 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 18 ...5.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 22 ...4.8 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 26 ...4.4 New Zealand High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 17 ...5.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...4 ... 5.7 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...71 ... 110.4 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...8 ... 89.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...10 ... 5.4 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...9 ... 91.2 Judicial independence* ...1 ... 6.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...4 ... 5.8 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...12 ... 87.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...3 ... 5.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...18 ... 27.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...3 ... 6.0 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...17 ... 65.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...18 ... 6.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...4 ... 22 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...18 ... 30 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...2 ... 216 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...19 ... 5.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...21 ... 4.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...21 ... 6.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...22 ... 69.8 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...18 ... 3.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...19 ... 5.7 Total tax rate, % profits ...59 ... 34.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...15 ... 5.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...1 ... 1 Extent of staff training* ...15 ... 5.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...1 ... 1 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...31 ... 5.4 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...10 ... 5.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...11 ... 80.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...21 ... 0.78 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...24 ... 5.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...23 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...65 ... 3.6 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...17 ... 5.3 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...14 .. 9,984.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...23 ... 11.8 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...88 ... 97.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...20 ... 5.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...56 ... 31.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...15 ... 42.9 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...14 .. 1,466.0 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...32 ... 5.9 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...17 ... 5.4 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...28 ... 5.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...138 ... 0.62 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...19 ... 5.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 113 ... 51.86 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...25 ... 0.58 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...97 ... 1.53 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...11 ... 5.2 Quality of math & science education* ...12 ... 5.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ...4 ... 119.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 199 © 2014 World Economic Forum

224 2: Country/Economy Profiles Nicaragua Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.1 ... 124 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 125 ...2.9 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 128 ...3.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 103 ...3.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 136 ...3.3 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 121 ...3.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 82 ...3.7 4th pillar: Affordability ... 140 ...2.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 109 ...3.8 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 123 ...2.8 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 122 ...2.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 113 ...3.2 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 123 ...3.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 113 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 122 ...2.7 Nicaragua Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 111 ...3.1 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...99 ... 3.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...107 ... 86.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...116 ... 13.5 Laws relating to ICTs* ...99 ... 3.4 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...115 ... 9.9 Judicial independence* ...121 ... 2.6 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...89 ... 3.4 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...114 ... 7.4 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...98 ... 3.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...100 ... 1.6 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...82 ... 3.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...123 ... 1.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...131 ... 4.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...83 ... 79 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...34 ... 409 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...130 ... 3.9 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...79 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...133 ... 3.7 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...100 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...29 ... 3.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...127 ... 4.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...137 ... 64.9 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...111 ... 3.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...123 ... 36 Extent of staff training* ...85 ... 3.8 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...136 ... 3.8 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...111 ... 3.4 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...100 ... 17.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...113 ... 0.31 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...103 ... 3.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...122 ... 3.5 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...78 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...126 ... 3.5 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...109 ... 647.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...1 ... 100.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* .116 ... 3.6 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...64 ... 24.7 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...96 ... 14.8 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...93 ... 10.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...113 ... 4.2 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...111 ... 3.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...102 ... 3.5 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...144 ... 0.91 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...110 ... 3.5 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 106 ... 48.29 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...65 ... 1.88 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...107 ... 3.1 Quality of math & science education* ...118 ... 3.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 103 ... 68.9 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...109 ... 78.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 200 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

225 2: Country/Economy Profiles Nigeria Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.3 ... 112 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 113 ...3.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 109 ...3.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 112 ...3.2 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 106 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 119 ...3.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 117 ...2.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 107 ...4.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 132 ...2.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 105 ...3.2 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 110 ...2.4 7th pillar: Business usage ... 73 ...3.6 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 111 ...3.5 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 91 ...3.2 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 72 ...3.2 Nigeria Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 99 ...3.2 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...88 ... 3.3 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...125 ... 66.8 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...94 ... 32.9 Laws relating to ICTs* ...109 ... 3.3 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...111 ... 11.4 Judicial independence* ...96 ... 3.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...77 ... 3.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...110 ... 9.1 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...92 ... 3.2 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...140 ... 0.0 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...121 ... 2.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...74 ... 18.4 Use of virtual social networks* ...72 ... 5.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...91 ... 82 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...98 ... 40 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...48 ... 447 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...80 ... 4.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...80 ... 3.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...87 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...114 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...101 ... 2.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...93 ... 4.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...56 ... 33.8 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...83 ... 4.3 2.04 No. days to start a business ...111 ... 28 Extent of staff training* ...45 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...94 ... 8 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...76 ... 4.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...66 ... 4.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...118 ... 10.4 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...126 ... 0.22 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...102 ... 3.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...78 ... 4.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...77 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...56 ... 4.6 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...126 ... 164.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...91 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...95 ... 96.1 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...80 ... 4.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...145 ... 0.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...n/a ... n/a Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...122 ... 1.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...102 ... 4.5 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...104 ... 3.7 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...101 ... 3.5 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...51 ... 0.18 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...97 ... 3.7 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month 120 ... 65.58 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...71 ... 0.18 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...113 ... 3.1 Quality of math & science education* ...117 ... 3.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 129 ... 43.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...128 ... 61.3 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 201 © 2014 World Economic Forum

226 2: Country/Economy Profiles Norway Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and 5 .. 5.7 ... Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 5 ...5.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 7 ...5.5 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 7 ...5.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 6 ...5.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 4 ...6.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 6 ...6.8 4th pillar: Affordability ... 28 ...6.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 17 ...5.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 6 ...5.8 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 2 ...6.6 7th pillar: Business usage ... 12 ...5.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 15 ...5.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 12 ...5.3 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 15 ...5.0 Norway High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 13 ...5.6 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...8 ... 5.4 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...57 ... 116.7 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...2 ... 95.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...9 ... 5.5 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...5 ... 92.0 Judicial independence* ...5 ... 6.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...7 ... 5.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...4 ... 93.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...10 ... 5.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...6 ... 36.3 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...15 ... 5.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...10 ... 84.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...3 ... 6.6 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...14 ... 27 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...42 ... 34 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...10 ... 280 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...8 ... 6.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...12 ... 5.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...3 ... 6.5 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...12 ... 133.6 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...4 ... 4.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...8 ... 6.0 Total tax rate, % profits ...86 ... 40.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...8 ... 5.8 2.04 No. days to start a business ...37 ... 7 Extent of staff training* ...8 ... 5.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...39 ... 5.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...20 ... 4.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...22 ... 73.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...13 ... 0.86 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...20 ... 5.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...20 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...20 ... 4.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...11 ... 5.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...2 29,244.2 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...16 ... 28.5 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...88 ... 97.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...8 ... 5.3 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...10 ... 187.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...7 ... 46.0 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...7 .. 1,878.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...3 ... 6.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...6 ... 5.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...5 ... 6.3 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...25 ... 0.10 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...21 ... 5.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..77 ... 33.89 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...15 ... 0.68 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...18 ... 5.0 Quality of math & science education* ...47 ... 4.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ...8 ... 113.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...14 ... 99.0 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 202 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

227 2: Country/Economy Profiles Oman Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.6 ... 40 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 40 ...4.5 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 33 ...4.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 32 ...4.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 36 ...4.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 57 ...5.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 70 ...4.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 33 ...6.1 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 73 ...5.0 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 37 ...4.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 56 ...4.3 7th pillar: Business usage ... 57 ...3.7 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 20 ...5.2 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 40 ...4.1 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 56 ...3.4 Oman High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 33 ...4.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...12 ... 5.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...14 ... 159.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...49 ... 60.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...35 ... 4.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...50 ... 62.7 Judicial independence* ...29 ... 5.3 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...14 ... 5.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...68 ... 41.9 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...18 ... 4.7 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...95 ... 2.1 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...24 ... 5.2 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...32 ... 50.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...95 ... 5.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...53 ... 61 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...147 ... 51 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...91 ... 598 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...53 ... 5.0 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...61 ... 3.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...56 ... 5.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...71 ... 1.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...14 ... 3.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...65 ... 4.9 Total tax rate, % profits ...17 ... 22.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...89 ... 4.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...40 ... 8 Extent of staff training* ...33 ... 4.5 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...54 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...13 ... 5.2 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...81 ... 28.1 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...35 ... 0.67 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...88 ... 4.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...15 ... 5.3 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...12 ... 4.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...50 ... 4.7 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...30 .. 7,231.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...67 ... 0.2 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...86 ... 97.6 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...57 ... 4.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...97 ... 8.9 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...59 ... 24.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...58 ... 56.1 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...75 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...34 ... 5.1 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...47 ... 4.9 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...44 ... 0.16 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...18 ... 5.2 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..59 ... 29.01 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...36 ... 0.45 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...69 ... 1.87 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...53 ... 4.0 Quality of math & science education* ...87 ... 3.9 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..58 ... 94.2 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...100 ... 86.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 203 © 2014 World Economic Forum

228 2: Country/Economy Profiles Pakistan Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.3 ... 111 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 105 ...3.3 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 118 ...3.4 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 124 ...3.0 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 101 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 105 ...4.0 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 110 ...3.0 4th pillar: Affordability ... 19 ...6.4 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 136 ...2.5 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 121 ...2.9 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 126 ...1.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 97 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 118 ...3.4 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 105 ...3.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 98 ...3.0 Pakistan Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 112 ...3.0 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...102 ... 3.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...124 ... 67.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...124 ... 10.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...122 ... 3.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...108 ... 12.5 Judicial independence* ...55 ... 4.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..112 ... 3.1 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...112 ... 8.3 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..108 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...115 ... 0.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...109 ... 2.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...125 ... 0.7 Use of virtual social networks* ...116 ... 5.0 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...98 ... 86 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...134 ... 46 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...131 ... 976 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...81 ... 4.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...49 ... 3.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...79 ... 4.8 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...112 ... 0.0 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...77 ... 2.6 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...104 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...60 ... 34.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...103 ... 4.0 2.04 No. days to start a business ...98 ... 21 Extent of staff training* ...128 ... 3.2 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...119 ... 10 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...79 ... 4.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...128 ... 3.0 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...120 ... 9.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...98 ... 0.37 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...72 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...91 ... 4.1 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...110 ... 3.0 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...98 ... 4.0 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...114 ... 540.7 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...90 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...111 ... 92.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...92 ... 3.9 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...100 ... 7.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...79 ... 19.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...129 ... 1.3 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...93 ... 4.7 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...128 ... 3.3 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...92 ... 3.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...10 ... 0.06 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...121 ... 3.3 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..62 ... 29.20 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...82 ... 0.13 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...84 ... 3.5 Quality of math & science education* ...104 ... 3.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 135 ... 36.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...136 ... 54.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 204 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

229 2: Country/Economy Profiles Panama Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.4 ... 43 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 46 ...4.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 46 ...4.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 62 ...3.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 35 ...4.8 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 58 ...5.1 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 65 ...4.3 4th pillar: Affordability ... 27 ...6.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 86 ...4.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 50 ...4.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 68 ...3.7 7th pillar: Business usage ... 39 ...4.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 39 ...4.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 41 ...4.0 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 46 ...3.5 Panama Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 37 ...4.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...107 ... 3.0 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...7 ... 178.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...72 ... 45.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...39 ... 4.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...75 ... 38.3 Judicial independence* ...118 ... 2.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...61 ... 3.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...77 ... 31.6 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...58 ... 3.6 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...72 ... 7.8 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...35 ... 4.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...80 ... 14.3 Use of virtual social networks* ...27 ... 6.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...72 ... 72 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...27 ... 32 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...109 ... 686 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...28 ... 5.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...50 ... 3.7 Availability of latest technologies* ...31 ... 5.9 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...64 ... 1.2 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...12 ... 4.0 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...44 ... 5.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...85 ... 40.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...25 ... 5.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...22 ... 6 Extent of staff training* ...43 ... 4.3 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...71 ... 5.0 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...22 ... 4.9 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...63 ... 41.8 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...77 ... 0.46 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...63 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...22 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...7 ... 4.5 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...37 ... 4.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...82 .. 2,100.6 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...46 ... 0.9 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...97 ... 96.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...47 ... 4.5 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...57 ... 30.8 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...58 ... 24.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...47 ... 133.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...58 ... 5.3 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...41 ... 4.8 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...34 ... 5.4 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...66 ... 0.22 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...29 ... 4.9 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..37 ... 23.92 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...47 ... 0.32 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...75 ... 3.6 Quality of math & science education* ...114 ... 3.2 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..89 ... 84.0 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...68 ... 94.1 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 205 © 2014 World Economic Forum

230 2: Country/Economy Profiles Paraguay Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.5 ... 102 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 104 ...3.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 130 ...3.3 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 136 ...2.7 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 96 ...3.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 82 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 72 ...4.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 50 ...5.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 105 ...3.9 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 109 ...3.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 98 ...2.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 105 ...3.3 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 120 ...3.3 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 115 ...2.9 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 99 ...2.9 Paraguay Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 125 ...2.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...141 ... 2.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...89 ... 101.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...96 ... 27.1 Laws relating to ICTs* ...117 ... 3.1 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...89 ... 24.3 Judicial independence* ...146 ... 1.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..141 ... 2.5 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...83 ... 22.8 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...99 ... 3.1 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...104 ... 1.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...141 ... 2.3 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...99 ... 6.0 Use of virtual social networks* ...92 ... 5.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...93 ... 83 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...78 ... 38 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...88 ... 591 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...103 ... 4.3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...115 ... 3.0 Availability of latest technologies* ...114 ... 4.1 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...97 ... 0.1 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...97 ... 2.4 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...109 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...62 ... 35.0 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...77 ... 4.4 2.04 No. days to start a business ...120 ... 35 Extent of staff training* ...109 ... 3.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...79 ... 7 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...57 ... 5.2 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...135 ... 2.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...75 ... 34.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...80 ... 0.46 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...132 ... 3.2 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...127 ... 3.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...122 ... 2.9 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...82 ... 4.2 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...20 .. 8,766.9 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...93 ... 0.0 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...110 ... 94.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...85 ... 4.0 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...92 ... 11.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...92 ... 15.4 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...91 ... 10.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...109 ... 4.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...120 ... 3.5 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...130 ... 2.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...62 ... 0.22 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...130 ... 3.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..76 ... 32.63 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...77 ... 0.16 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...138 ... 2.6 Quality of math & science education* ...142 ... 2.3 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % 106 ... 67.8 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...70 ... 93.9 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 206 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

231 2: Country/Economy Profiles Peru Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.7 ... 90 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 103 ...3.4 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 93 ...3.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 119 ...3.1 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 61 ...4.4 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 90 ...4.4 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 95 ...3.4 4th pillar: Affordability ... 59 ...5.6 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 99 ...4.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 98 ...3.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 94 ...2.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 89 ...3.4 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 94 ...3.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 81 ...3.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 84 ...3.1 Peru Upper-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 75 ...3.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...144 ... 2.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...93 ... 98.0 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...86 ... 38.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...84 ... 3.7 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...85 ... 29.9 Judicial independence* ...126 ... 2.5 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..107 ... 3.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...89 ... 20.2 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..109 ... 3.0 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...82 ... 4.7 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...120 ... 2.8 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...114 ... 2.9 Use of virtual social networks* ...100 ... 5.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...65 ... 67 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...111 ... 41 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...42 ... 426 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...83 ... 4.6 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...106 ... 3.1 Availability of latest technologies* ...85 ... 4.6 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...90 ... 0.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...50 ... 2.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...73 ... 4.8 Total tax rate, % profits ...70 ... 36.4 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...72 ... 4.5 2.04 No. days to start a business ...103 ... 25 Extent of staff training* ...90 ... 3.8 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...34 ... 5 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...61 ... 5.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...114 ... 3.3 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...62 ... 42.6 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...61 ... 0.52 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...67 ... 4.3 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...107 ... 3.8 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...98 ... 3.2 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...72 ... 4.4 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...92 .. 1,324.4 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...78 ... 0.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...92 ... 97.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...55 ... 4.4 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...91 ... 13.1 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...94 ... 15.3 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...80 ... 21.7 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...108 ... 4.4 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...82 ... 4.0 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...94 ... 3.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...86 ... 0.30 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...102 ... 3.6 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..65 ... 29.78 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...38 ... 0.39 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...134 ... 2.7 Quality of math & science education* ...140 ... 2.4 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..70 ... 90.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...91 ... 89.6 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 207 © 2014 World Economic Forum

232 2: Country/Economy Profiles Philippines Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 3.9 ... 78 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 86 ...3.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 90 ...3.8 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 87 ...3.5 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 92 ...4.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 81 ...4.6 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 89 ...3.5 4th pillar: Affordability ... 75 ...5.2 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 69 ...5.1 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 76 ...3.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 91 ...2.9 7th pillar: Business usage ... 43 ...3.9 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 67 ...4.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 62 ...3.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 48 ...3.5 Philippines Lower-middle-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 76 ...3.7 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...79 ... 3.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...79 ... 106.5 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...87 ... 36.2 Laws relating to ICTs* ...72 ... 4.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...100 ... 16.9 Judicial independence* ...99 ... 3.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...76 ... 3.6 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...92 ... 18.9 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...71 ... 3.5 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...94 ... 2.2 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...78 ... 3.6 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...108 ... 3.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...22 ... 6.2 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...70 ... 70 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...67 ... 37 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...122 ... 842 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...40 ... 5.2 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...48 ... 3.8 Availability of latest technologies* ...47 ... 5.3 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...84 ... 0.3 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...40 ... 3.1 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...51 ... 5.2 Total tax rate, % profits ...104 ... 44.5 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...63 ... 4.7 2.04 No. days to start a business ...120 ... 35 Extent of staff training* ...27 ... 4.6 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...144 ... 15 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...63 ... 5.1 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...80 ... 3.8 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...80 ... 28.2 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...67 ... 0.50 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...39 ... 4.7 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...70 ... 4.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...85 ... 3.4 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...42 ... 4.8 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...105 ... 727.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...74 ... 0.1 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...28 ... 4.8 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...86 ... 14.3 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...68 ... 22.5 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...96 ... 8.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...73 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...74 ... 4.1 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...74 ... 4.2 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...83 ... 0.29 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...71 ... 4.1 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..95 ... 39.32 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...63 ... 0.21 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...40 ... 4.3 Quality of math & science education* ...96 ... 3.7 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..87 ... 84.6 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...64 ... 95.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 208 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

233 2: Country/Economy Profiles Poland Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.2 ... 54 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 49 ...4.2 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 55 ...4.1 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 65 ...3.8 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 52 ...4.5 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 39 ...5.4 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 38 ...5.1 4th pillar: Affordability ... 52 ...5.8 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 48 ...5.3 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 54 ...4.1 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 36 ...5.1 7th pillar: Business usage ... 75 ...3.5 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 108 ...3.6 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 78 ...3.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 62 ...3.4 Poland High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 88 ...3.4 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...96 ... 3.2 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...28 ... 140.3 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...41 ... 65.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...83 ... 3.8 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...37 ... 73.0 Judicial independence* ...54 ... 4.1 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..119 ... 3.0 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...34 ... 70.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ..111 ... 2.9 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...42 ... 15.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...72 ... 3.7 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...19 ... 63.5 Use of virtual social networks* ...109 ... 5.1 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...40 ... 53 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...36 ... 33 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...108 ... 685 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...114 ... 4.1 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...62 ... 3.6 Availability of latest technologies* ...102 ... 4.4 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...38 ... 6.9 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...104 ... 2.3 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...103 ... 4.4 Total tax rate, % profits ...91 ... 41.6 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...46 ... 4.9 2.04 No. days to start a business ...113 ... 30 Extent of staff training* ...75 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...22 ... 4 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...38 ... 5.3 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...125 ... 3.1 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...20 ... 73.5 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...55 ... 0.54 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...89 ... 4.0 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...123 ... 3.4 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...103 ... 3.1 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...105 ... 3.9 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...55 .. 4,192.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...40 ... 1.3 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...52 ... 99.5 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...96 ... 3.8 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...31 ... 70.6 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...32 ... 35.1 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...31 ... 299.6 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...70 ... 5.1 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...108 ... 3.6 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...55 ... 4.6 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...56 ... 0.19 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...119 ... 3.4 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..71 ... 31.60 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...71 ... 0.18 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...82 ... 1.77 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...87 ... 3.4 Quality of math & science education* ...69 ... 4.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..48 ... 97.4 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...5 ... 99.7 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Information Technology Report 2014 | 209 © 2014 World Economic Forum

234 2: Country/Economy Profiles Portugal Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.7 ... 33 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 33 ...4.7 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 35 ...4.6 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 39 ...4.3 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 25 ...5.0 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 43 ...5.3 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 36 ...5.2 4th pillar: Affordability ... 62 ...5.5 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 46 ...5.4 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 32 ...4.6 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 42 ...4.8 7th pillar: Business usage ... 35 ...4.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 33 ...4.8 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 33 ...4.4 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 34 ...3.9 Portugal High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 30 ...4.8 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...74 ... 3.5 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...58 ... 116.1 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...42 ... 64.0 Laws relating to ICTs* ...25 ... 5.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...46 ... 66.0 Judicial independence* ...51 ... 4.2 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ..122 ... 2.9 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...47 ... 61.0 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...85 ... 3.3 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...33 ... 22.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...38 ... 4.5 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...52 ... 32.8 Use of virtual social networks* ...52 ... 5.9 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...25 ... 40 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...42 ... 34 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...76 ... 547 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...29 ... 5.5 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...42 ... 3.9 Availability of latest technologies* ...15 ... 6.2 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...30 ... 12.7 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...109 ... 2.2 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...29 ... 5.6 Total tax rate, % profits ...93 ... 42.3 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...32 ... 5.2 2.04 No. days to start a business ...5 ... 3 Extent of staff training* ...70 ... 4.0 7.06 2.05 No. procedures to start a business ...10 ... 3 8th pillar: Government usage Intensity of local competition* ...77 ... 4.9 2.06 8.01 Importance of ICTs to gov’t vision* ...36 ... 4.5 Tertiary education gross enrollment rate, % ...29 ... 65.9 2.07 8.02 Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best) ...38 ... 0.65 2.08 Quality of management schools* ...11 ... 5.5 8.03 Gov’t success in ICT promotion* ...24 ... 5.0 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech* ...50 ... 3.7 2.09 9th pillar: Economic impacts 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content Impact of ICTs on new services & products* ...23 ... 5.1 9.01 Electricity production, kWh/capita ...52 .. 4,325.8 3.01 ICT PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...30 ... 3.4 9.02 Mobile network coverage, % pop. ...58 ... 99.0 3.02 9.03 Impact of ICTs on new organizational models* ...27 ... 4.8 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user 3.03 ...8 ... 195.5 9.04 Knowledge-intensive jobs, % workforce ...45 ... 31.0 Secure Internet servers/million pop. ...37 ... 240.9 3.04 3.05 Accessibility of digital content* ...27 ... 6.0 10th pillar: Social impacts 10.01 Impact of ICTs on access to basic services* ...27 ... 5.2 4th pillar: Affordability 10.02 Internet access in schools* ...29 ... 5.7 4.01 Prepaid mobile cellular tariffs, PPP $/min. ...85 ... 0.29 ICT use & gov’t efficiency* ...15 ... 5.3 10.03 Fixed broadband Internet tariffs, PPP $/month ..78 ... 33.97 4.02 10.04 E-Participation Index, 0–1 (best) ...41 ... 0.37 4.03 Internet & telephony competition, 0–2 (best) ...1 ... 2.00 5th pillar: Skills 5.01 Quality of educational system* ...58 ... 4.0 Quality of math & science education* ...73 ... 4.1 5.02 Secondary education gross enrollment rate, % ..12 ... 109.7 5.03 Note: Indicators followed by an asterisk (*) are measured on a 1-to-7 (best) scale. For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the 5.04 Adult literacy rate, % ...63 ... 95.4 Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97 210 | The Global Information Technology Report 2014 © 2014 World Economic Forum

235 2: Country/Economy Profiles Puerto Rico Rank Value (out of 148) (1–7) 1. Political and .. 4.5 ... 41 Networked Readiness Index 2014 regulatory environment 7 Networked Readiness Index 2013 (out of 144) ... 36 ...4.6 10. Social 2. Business and innovation 6 impacts environment 5 A. Environment subindex ... 32 ...4.7 4 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment ... 29 ...4.6 9. Economic 3. Infrastructure and 3 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment ... 33 ...4.9 impacts digital content 2 B. Readiness subindex ... 89 ...4.5 1 3rd pillar: Infrastructure and digital content ... 66 ...4.2 4th pillar: Affordability ... n/a ...n/a 8. Government 5th pillar: Skills ... 90 ...4.7 4. Affordability usage C. Usage subindex ... 36 ...4.4 6th pillar: Individual usage ... 63 ...4.0 7th pillar: Business usage ... 19 ...5.0 7. Business 5. Skills 8th pillar: Government usage ... 63 ...4.1 usage 6. Individual usage D. Impact subindex ... 26 ...4.6 9th pillar: Economic impacts ... 21 ...4.7 Puerto Rico High-income group average 10th pillar: Social impacts ... 38 ...4.5 The Networked Readiness Index in detail RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR RANK/148 VALUE INDICATOR 1st pillar: Political and regulatory environment 6th pillar: Individual usage 6.01 Effectiveness of law-making bodies* ...104 ... 3.1 1.01 Mobile phone subscriptions/100 pop. ...113 ... 82.6 Individuals using Internet, % 6.02 ...63 ... 51.4 Laws relating to ICTs* ...28 ... 5.0 1.02 1.03 6.03 Households w/ personal computer, % ...54 ... 60.0 Judicial independence* ...42 ... 4.7 1.04 Efficiency of legal system in settling disputes* ...16 ... 5.2 6.04 Households w/ Internet access, % ...48 ... 60.7 1.05 Efficiency of legal system in challenging regs* ...14 ... 4.8 6.05 Fixed broadband Internet subs./100 pop. ...43 ... 15.5 6.06 1.06 Intellectual property protection* ...7 ... 5.9 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop. ...81 ... 13.7 Use of virtual social networks* ...15 ... 6.3 1.07 Software piracy rate, % software installed ...29 ... 42 6.07 1.08 No. procedures to enforce a contract ...91 ... 39 7th pillar: Business usage No. days to enforce a contract ...98 ... 620 1.09 7.01 Firm-level technology absorption* ...23 ... 5.7 2nd pillar: Business and innovation environment 7.02 Capacity for innovation* ...25 ... 4.4 Availability of latest technologies* ...25 ... 6.0 2.01 7.03 PCT patents, applications/million pop. ...n/a ... n/a 2.02 Venture capital availability* ...48 ... 2.9 7.04 Business-to-business Internet use* ...39 ... 5.3 Total tax rate, % profits ...120 ... 50.7 2.03 7.05 Business-to-consumer Internet use* ...39 ... 5.1 2.04 No. days to st