GSG 5/6 Series GNSS Simulator User Manual

Transcript

1 GSG-5/6 Series GNSS Simulator User Manual with SCPI Guide Spectracom Part No.: 4031-600-54001 Revision: 26 Date: 16-Jan-2018 spectracom.com

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3 © 2012-18 Spectracom. All rights reserved. The information in this document has been carefully reviewed and is believed to be accurate and up-to-date. Spectracom assumes no respons ibility for any errors or omissions that may be contained in this document, and makes no commitment to keep current the information in this manual, or to notify any person or organization of updates. This User Manual is sub ject to change without notice. For the most current version of this doc umentation, please see our web site at spectracom.com . Spectracom reserves the right to make changes to the product described in this document at any time and without notice. Any software that may be provided with the product described in this document is furnished under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of those agreements. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys tem, or transmitted in any form or any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording for any purpose other than the pur chaser's personal use without the written permission of Spectracom Other products and companies referred to herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or mark holders. Orolia USA, Inc. dba Spectracom • 1565 Jefferson Road, Suite 460, Rochester, NY 14623 USA • 3, Avenue du Canada, 91974 Les Ulis Cedex, France • Room 208, No. 3 Zhong Guan Village South Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081, China Do you have questions or comments regarding this User Manual? è E-mail: Warranty Information For a copy of Spectracom's Limited Warranty policy, see the Spectracom information . website: http://spectracom.com/support/warranty- User Manual GSG-5/6 Series I

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5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 2 1.1 Quick Start 3 1.2 Welcome 3 1.3 Key Features 4 1.4 Typical GSG Applications 5 1.5 Intended Use and Operating Principle 6 1.6 Compliance & Legal Notices 1.6.1 About this Document 6 1.6.2 Declaration of Conformity 6 7 1.7 Technical Specifications 1.7.1 RF Output Specifications 7 1.7.2 Rear Panel Outputs and Inputs 8 1.7.3 Time Base 9 1.7.4 Optional Antenna 9 1.7.5 Environmental Specifications 9 CHAPTER 2 Setup 11 12 2.1 About Your Safety 2.1.1 Safety Precautions 12 2.1.2 Basic User Responsibilities 12 2.1.3 If in Doubt about Safety 13 13 2.2 Unpacking and Inventory 2.2.1 Unit Identification 14 14 2.3 Mechanical Installation 2.3.1 General Installation Considerations 14 21 2.4 Electrical Installation 23 2.5 Signal Power Level Considerations CONTENTS 2.5.1 Compliance: Using an Antenna 23 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS III

6 2.5.2 Transmit Power Level 23 CHAPTER 3 Features & Functions 25 26 3.1 Front Panel 3.1.1 Description of Keys 27 3.1.1.1 Power 27 3.1.1.2 Start 27 3.1.1.3 Exit 27 3.1.1.4 Cancel 27 3.1.1.5 Menu 27 3.1.1.6 View 28 3.1.1.7 Enter 28 3.1.1.8 Arrows 28 3.1.1.9 N/S 28 3.1.1.10 E/W 28 3.1.1.11 Numeric Keys 28 3.1.1.12 +/– (format) 28 3.1.1.13 [.] (hold) 29 29 3.2 Rear Panel 30 3.3 The GSG Main Menu 31 3.4 "Start" Menu 3.4.1 Scenario Start Variations 32 3.4.2 Scenario Execution Views 32 3.4.2.1 View 1/x 33 3.4.2.2 View >1/x 33 3.4.2.3 Last View 36 36 3.5 "Select" Menu 3.5.1 Start Time 38 3.5.2 Duration 39 3.5.3 Latitude, Longitude, Altitude 40 3.5.4 Trajectories 40 3.5.4.1 Predefined Trajectories 41 3.5.4.2 User-Created Trajectories 42 3.5.5 Ephemeris 44 3.5.5.1 Default Ephemeris 45 3.5.5.2 Download Ephemeris 46 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS IV

7 3.5.5.3 User-Uploaded Ephemeris 46 3.5.6 Leap Second 49 3.5.7 Event Data 50 3.5.8 Antenna Settings 55 3.5.8.1 Antenna model 55 3.5.8.2 Lever arm 56 3.5.8.3 Elevation mask 56 3.5.9 Advanced Configuration Options 57 3.5.9.1 Multipath Signals 57 3.5.9.2 Interference signals 60 3.5.9.3 Base station 62 3.5.9.4 Environment models 64 3.5.9.5 Atmospheric model 67 3.5.10 Satellite Configuration 69 3.5.10.1 Satellite Systems 70 3.5.10.2 Number of Satellites 71 3.5.10.3 Frequency Bands and Signal De-/Activation 71 3.5.10.4 Satellite Constellations 73 3.5.10.5 Encryption 76 3.5.10.6 SBAS Satellites 77 80 3.6 "Options" Menu 3.6.1 Transmit Power 80 3.6.1.1 Adjusting Transmit Power 82 3.6.1.2 Adjusting External Attenuation 84 3.6.1.3 Adjusting Noise Generation 85 3.6.2 Signal Generator 87 3.6.2.1 Signal type 88 3.6.2.2 Satellite ID 89 3.6.2.3 Transmit Power 89 3.6.2.4 Frequency offset 90 3.6.2.5 Start time 90 3.6.2.6 Ephemeris 91 3.6.2.7 AutoStart 91 3.6.3 Interface and Reference 91 3.6.3.1 Network Configuration 92 3.6.3.2 Proxy Configuration 94 3.6.4 Manage Files 94 3.6.5 Show System Information 96 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS V

8 3.6.6 Restore Factory Defaults 97 3.6.7 Calibration 97 CHAPTER 4 Frequent Tasks 101 102 4.1 Working with Scenarios 4.1.1 Scenario Start/Stop/Hold/Arm 102 4.1.2 Running a Scenario 102 4.1.3 Holding a Scenario 103 4.1.4 Configuring a Scenario 103 106 4.2 Locking/Unlocking the Keyboard 107 4.3 Setting Transmit Power 109 4.4 Accessing the GSG Web Interface 110 4.5 Using the CLI 111 4.6 Performing a Receiver Cold Start 111 4.7 Creating a One-Line Trajectory 112 4.8 Leap Second Configuration 113 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4.9.1 What Is StudioView? 113 4.9.1.1 StudioView Tasks 114 4.9.1.2 StudioView Functionality Overview 114 4.9.2 Installing StudioView 115 4.9.3 Connecting StudioView to GSG 116 4.9.4 Updating the GSG Firmware via StudioView 117 4.9.5 Uploading StudioView Files 118 4.9.5.1 Using the StudioView Uploader for the First Time 118 4.9.6 Transferring Files With StudioView 120 4.9.7 Accessing GSG Remotely via StudioView 121 4.9.8 Creating a Trajectory in StudioView 123 4.9.9 Converting a Trajectory in StudioView 129 4.9.10 Improving a Trajectory 130 4.9.11 Creating an RSG Trajectory with StudioView 133 4.9.11.1 Using the RSG Trajectory Editor for the First Time 133 4.9.11.2 RSG Example: Racetrack Pattern 135 4.9.11.3 Kepler Orbit 137 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS VI

9 4.9.12 Playing RSG Scenarios in StudioView 140 4.9.13 Configuring a Scenario 140 4.9.13.1 Defining Events in StudioView 147 4.9.13.2 Adding a Jammer Signal in StudioView 149 4.9.13.3 Spoofing a Signal in StudioView 150 4.9.13.4 Using SBAS in a Simulation 153 4.9.14 Record and Playback 154 4.9.14.1 Standard Workflow 155 4.9.14.2 Installation of the OPT-RP Software 155 4.9.14.3 Usage Notes 155 4.9.14.4 Recording Data with StudioView 156 4.9.14.5 Processing Recorded Data for Playback 159 4.9.15 Editing RINEX Files in StudioView 161 4.9.16 Transmitting RTCM Messages With StudioView 165 CHAPTER 5 Reference 167 168 5.1 The GSG Web UI 168 5.2 Messages 173 5.3 Timing Calibration 174 5.4 NMEA Logging 175 5.5 Execution Log 175 5.6 Saving RINEX Data 176 5.7 YUMA Almanac File 177 5.8 RLS (Return Link Service) 5.8.1 SAR Data 178 5.8.2 Requirements 178 5.8.3 Simulating RLMs 178 179 5.9 Galileo E6-B/C Signal 179 5.10 Default Settings 180 5.11 Pre-Installed Scenarios 181 5.12 Default Scenario Satellites 5.12.1 GLONASS Default Satellite Types 182 183 5.13 Scenario File Format User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS VII

10 194 5.14 GSG Series Model Variants and Options 5.14.1 Which GSG Model & Options Do I Have? 195 5.14.2 GSG Models & Variants 196 5.14.2.1 GSG-51 Series 196 5.14.2.2 GSG-5 Series 196 5.14.2.3 GSG-6 Series 197 5.14.3 List of Available Options 197 198 5.15 Problems? 5.15.1 Technical Support 198 5.15.1.1 Regional Contact 199 199 5.16 License Notices CHAPTER 6 SCPI Guide 213 214 6.1 SCPI Guide: Introduction 214 6.2 Protocol 6.2.1 General Format of Commands 214 6.2.2 Protocol Errors 215 217 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.1 Common Commands 217 6.3.1.1 *CLS 217 6.3.1.2 *ESE 217 6.3.1.3 *ESR? 218 6.3.1.4 *IDN? 218 6.3.1.5 *OPC 219 6.3.1.6 *OPC? 220 6.3.1.7 *RST 221 6.3.1.8 *SRE 221 6.3.1.9 *SRE? 222 6.3.1.10 *STB? 222 6.3.1.11 *TST? 223 6.3.1.12 *WAI 223 6.3.2 SYSTem: Subsystem Commands 224 6.3.2.1 SYSTem:ERRor? 224 6.3.2.2 SYSTem:RESET:FACTory 225 6.3.3 SOURce: Subsystem Commands 226 6.3.3.1 SOURce:POWer 226 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII

11 6.3.3.2 SOURce:POWer? 226 6.3.3.3 SOURce:REFPOWer 227 6.3.3.4 SOURce:REFPOWer? 228 6.3.3.5 SOURce:ABSPOWer 228 6.3.3.6 SOURce:ABSPOWer? 229 6.3.3.7 SOURce:RELPOWer 229 6.3.3.8 SOURce:RELPOWer? 230 6.3.3.9 SOURce:EXTREF 230 6.3.3.10 SOURce:EXTREF? 231 6.3.3.11 SOURce:PPSOUTput 231 6.3.3.12 SOURce:PPSOUTput? 232 6.3.3.13 SOURce:EXTATT 232 6.3.3.14 SOURce:EXTATT? 233 6.3.3.15 SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol 233 6.3.3.16 SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol? 234 6.3.3.17 SOURce:NOISE:CNO 234 6.3.3.18 SOURce:NOISE:CNO? 235 6.3.3.19 SOURce:NOISE:BW 235 6.3.3.20 SOURce:NOISE:BW? 236 6.3.3.21 SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET 236 6.3.3.22 SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET? 237 6.3.3.23 SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol 237 6.3.3.24 SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol? 238 6.3.3.25 SOURce:ONECHN:SATid 239 6.3.3.26 SOURce:ONECHN:SATid? 241 6.3.3.27 SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime 242 6.3.3.28 SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime? 243 6.3.3.29 SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris 243 6.3.3.30 SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris? 244 6.3.3.31 SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency 244 6.3.3.32 SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency? 245 6.3.3.33 SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype 245 6.3.3.34 SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype? 246 6.3.3.35 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings 247 6.3.3.36 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings? 249 6.3.3.37 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:CONTrol 250 6.3.3.38 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:CONTrol? 250 6.3.3.39 SOURce:SCENario:LOAD 251 6.3.3.40 SOURce:SCENario:LOAD? 251 6.3.3.41 SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol 252 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS IX

12 6.3.3.42 SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol? 253 6.3.3.43 SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv 253 6.3.3.44 SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv? 254 6.3.3.45 SOURce:SCENario:LOG? 255 6.3.3.46 SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG? 255 6.3.3.47 SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG:HEADer? 257 6.3.3.48 SOURce:SCENario:OBServation 262 6.3.3.49 SOURce:SCENario:OBServation? 263 6.3.3.50 SOURce:SCENario:NAV 263 6.3.3.51 SOURce:SCENario:NAV? 264 6.3.3.52 SOURce:SCENario:SATid[n]? 264 6.3.3.53 SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype[n]? 265 6.3.3.54 SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype? 266 6.3.3.55 SOURce:SCENario:NAVBITS 266 6.3.3.56 SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency[n]? 269 6.3.3.57 SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency? 269 6.3.3.58 SOURce:SCENario:POWer[n] 270 6.3.3.59 SOURce:SCENario:POWer[n]? 271 6.3.3.60 SOURce:SCENario:POWer 272 6.3.3.61 SOURce:SCENario:POWer? 273 6.3.3.62 SOURce:SCENario:FREQBAND:POWer 274 6.3.3.63 SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel? 274 6.3.3.64 SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel[n]? 275 6.3.3.65 SOURce:SCENario:LIST? 276 6.3.3.66 SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel 276 6.3.3.67 SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel? 277 6.3.3.68 SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel 277 6.3.3.69 SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel? 277 6.3.3.70 SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel 278 6.3.3.71 SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel? 278 6.3.3.72 SOURce:SCENario:KEEPALTitude 279 6.3.3.73 SOURce:SCENario:KEEPALTitude? 279 6.3.3.74 SOURce:SCENario:POSition TIME 280 6.3.3.75 SOURce:SCENario:POSition? 281 6.3.3.76 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition 281 6.3.3.77 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? 282 6.3.3.78 SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime 283 6.3.3.79 SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? 284 6.3.3.80 SOURce:SCENario:RTCM? 285 6.3.3.81 SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG? 285 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS X

13 6.3.3.82 SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG 286 6.3.3.83 SOURce:SCENario:RLM 286 6.3.3.84 SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate 288 6.3.3.85 SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate[n] 289 6.3.3.86 SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate? 290 6.3.3.87 SOURce:SCENario:DURATION 291 6.3.3.88 SOURce:SCENario:DURATION? 292 6.3.3.89 SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath[n] 292 6.3.3.90 SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath[n]? 294 6.3.3.91 SOURce:SCENario:DELete[n]

14 6.3.6.6 STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]? 310 6.3.6.7 STATus:PRESet 311 311 6.4 Sensors Command Reference 6.4.1 Supported Sensor Types 312 6.4.1.1 Accelerometer 313 6.4.1.2 Linear Accelerometer 313 6.4.1.3 Gravimeter 313 6.4.1.4 Gyroscope 313 6.4.1.5 Odometer 314 6.4.1.6 Odometer 3D 314 6.4.2 Sensor Commands 314 6.4.2.1 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:REGister 314 6.4.2.2 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:REGister? 315 6.4.2.3 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:UNREGister 315 6.4.2.4 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:DATa? 315 6.4.2.5 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:NORMalize SENSOR_TYPE 315 6.4.2.6 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:NORMalize? SENSOR_TYPE 316 6.4.2.7 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:MAXrange SENSOR_TYPE 316 6.4.2.8 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:MAXrange? SENSOR_TYPE 316 316 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.1 Data Types 316 6.5.2 TIME Parameter 317 6.5.3 RSG Commands 318 6.5.3.1 SOURce:SCENario:POSition TIME 318 6.5.3.2 SOURce:SCENario:POSition? 319 6.5.3.3 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition TIME 319 6.5.3.4 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? 320 6.5.3.5 SOURce:SCENario:SPEed TIME 321 6.5.3.6 SOURce:SCENario:SPEed? 321 6.5.3.7 SOURce:SCENario:HEADing TIME 322 6.5.3.8 SOURce:SCENario:HEADing? 322 6.5.3.9 SOURce:SCENario:RATEHEading TIME 323 6.5.3.10 SOURce:SCENario:RATEHEading? 323 6.5.3.11 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRATE TIME 324 6.5.3.12 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRATE? 324 6.5.3.13 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRADIUS TIME 325 6.5.3.14 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRADIUS? 325 6.5.3.15 SOURce:SCENario:VELocity TIME 325 6.5.3.16 SOURce:SCENario:VELocity? 326 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS XII

15 6.5.3.17 SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed TIME 326 6.5.3.18 SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed? 327 6.5.3.19 SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity TIME 327 6.5.3.20 SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity? 328 6.5.3.21 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity 329 6.5.3.22 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity? 329 6.5.3.23 SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration TIME 330 6.5.3.24 SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration? 330 6.5.3.25 SOURce:SCENario:VACCel TIME 331 6.5.3.26 SOURce:SCENario:VACCel? 331 6.5.3.27 SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel TIME 331 6.5.3.28 SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel? 332 6.5.3.29 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFACCel TIME 333 6.5.3.30 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFACCel? 333 6.5.3.31 SOURce:SCENario:PRYattitude TIME 334 6.5.3.32 SOURce:SCENario:PRYattitude? 334 6.5.3.33 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYattitude TIME 335 6.5.3.34 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYattitude? 335 6.5.3.35 SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate TIME 336 6.5.3.36 SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate? 336 6.5.3.37 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYRate TIME 337 6.5.3.38 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYRate? 337 6.5.3.39 SOURce:SCENario:KEPLER TIME 338 6.5.3.40 SOURce:SCENario:KEPLER? 338 6.5.3.41 SOURce:SCENario:RUNtime? 339 6.5.3.42 SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? 339 6.5.3.43 SOURce:SCENario:ELAPsedtime? 340 6.5.3.44 SOURce:SCENario:RSGUNDERflow 341 6.5.3.45 SOURce:SCENario:RSGUNDERflow? 341 6.5.3.46 SOURce:SCENario:DOPPler? 342 6.5.3.47 SOURce:SCENario:PRANge? 343 6.5.3.48 SOURce:SCENario:CHINview? 344 6.5.3.49 SOURce:SCENario:SVINview? 345 6.5.3.50 SOURce:SCENario:SVPos[n]? 345 6.5.3.51 SOURce:SCENario:SVPos[n]? 346 347 6.6 Programming 6.6.1 Usage Recommendations 347 6.6.1.1 Communication Interface 347 6.6.1.2 Synchronization 347 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS XIII

16 6.6.1.3 Underflow and Overflow 348 6.6.1.4 Best Practices 348 6.6.1.5 Limitations 349 6.6.2 Trajectory FILE Format (.traj) 349 6.6.3 Trajectory Two-Line Element Format (TLE) 349 350 6.7 Revision History (SCPI Guide) APPENDIX Appendix i ii 7.1 Lists of Tables and Images iv 7.2 GSG User Manual Revision History INDEX User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • TABLE OF CONTENTS XIV

17 Introduction The following topics are included in this Chapter: 2 1.1 Quick Start 1.2 Welcome 3 1.3 Key Features 3 1.4 Typical GSG Applications 4 5 1.5 Intended Use and Operating Principle 6 1.6 Compliance & Legal Notices 1.7 Technical Specifications 7 CHAPTER 1 1 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • CHAPTER 1

18 1.1 Quick Start 1.1 Quick Start The following procedure is a brief outline on how to get started with your GSG-5/6 unit. The minimal setup steps are: 1. Unpack the unit (see "Unpacking and Inventory" on page 13), and place it on a desktop or install it in a rack, as described under "Mechanical Installation" on page 14. 2. Connect the receiver antenna cable to the RF Out connector on the front panel. (See also "Electrical Installation" on page 21.) 3. Connect the power cable to a wall socket. Press the ON/OFF key to start the unit. 4. view: Verify that the right-hand side shows an over The GSG display will show the Start view of a test scenario (name, date, lat/long/traj, etc.). 5. If no scenario is shown, use the arrow and enter keys to select Select from the main menu. This will open up a list of pre-defined scenarios. Select one of the scenarios from this list. 6. Press the key to begin with the scenario execution. start 7. Start the GNSS receiver you want to test. It may be necessary to clear the memory of your GNSS receiver, i.e. Note: erase old data. This is typically referred to as a Cold Start , where any eph emeris data and almanac data are removed from the receiver’s memory. 8. Your GNSS receiver under test should see and track the generated signals. If the receiver could successfully decode the navigation data included in the signals (this pro cess often takes approximately 40 seconds), the receiver will output the navigation fix as specified in the selected scenario. This navigation solution should correspond to the solu tion shown on the GSG-5/6 display. CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 1 2

19 1.2 Welcome 1.2 Welcome About Spectracom's GNSS Simulators The GSG-5™ and GSG-6™ Series of GNSS Constellation Simulators provide a wide-range of capabilities for in-line production testing and development testing, including navigational fix and position testing, while offering ease-of-operation. GSG-51 is a single-channel GPS L1 RF generator, capable of emulating a single GNSS signal. One of the main applications for these cost-effective units is fast manufacturing testing of GPS receivers. GSG-5 Series simulators reproduce the environment of a GNSS receiver. Depending on the configuration, these units simulate up to sixteen GNSS satellites, up to 3 SBAS satellites, together with optional multipath and interference signals. The GSG-5 Series applies models to simulate satellite motions, atmospheric effects, and different antenna types. The movement of the GNSS receiver under test is defined using NMEA data or pre-defined trajectory models. Series simulators add advanced features and the capability to simulate up to 64 satel GSG-6 lites (configuration-dependent) on different frequency bands simultaneously. New signal types include GPS L2P, L2C and L5, GLONASS L2, Galileo E1 and E5a/b, BeiDou B1 and B2, and QZSS L1 C/A, L2C, L5 and L1 SAIF, IRNSS L5. 1.3 Key Features Since GNSS testing requirements may vary considerably from application to application, GSG Series simulators are available in a multitude of configurations (see "GSG Series Model Variants and Options" on page 194). Some of the key features are: CHAPTER 1 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3

20 1.4 Typical GSG Applications Up to 64 independent satellite channels can be simulated. Supported signal types: GPS L1, L2, C/A and P-Code; L2C and L5 GLONASS L1, L2, C/A and P-Code Galileo E1/E2 and E5 BeiDou compatible Support of different types of SBAS simulation: EGNOS, WAAS, MSAS, GAGAN Generation of white noise, multipath and interference signals Receiver sensitivity testing with accurate, variable output levels ranging from -65 to -160 dBm High accuracy time base GSG Series simulators offer a front panel display with an intuitive software User Interface, allow for remote Web-based operation, and include GSG StudioView™, a PC-based software with Google Maps™ interface to create custom scenarios. 1.4 Typical GSG Applications GSG-5/6 Series GNSS Simulator are often used for the following testing applications: Basic Receiver Testing Time-to-First-Fix (TTFF): How fast can a GNSS receiver obtain a position fix after a cold start. Reacquisition Time : How fast can a GNSS receiver get a fix after a hot or warm start. Location : Test position accuracy at different locations in the world. Sensitivity : Acquisition and Tracking Sensitivity : SNR limit testing Noise Susceptibility Advanced Receiver Testing Trajectories : Test receiver while moving 1PPS : Verify the receiver timing accuracy : Test the leap second handling of the receiver Leap Second Multipath : Perform basic receiver tests under multipath conditions CHAPTER 1 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 4

21 1.5 Intended Use and Operating Principle 1.5 Intended Use and Operating Principle DANGER! If the equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the protection provided by the equipment may be impaired. Spectracom GSG-Series Signal Generators and GNSS Simulators are used to test GNSS receivers by generating GNSS signals, as they are transmitted by GNSS satellites. The signals are transmitted via air (using an antenna; see "Signal Power Level Considerations" on page 23), or via an RF cable. Depending on the model, and the options installed in a GSG unit, generated/simulated sig nals, as well as user position, time and output power can be manipulated by the user either: during the test, i.e. in real-time, via the GSG front panel, or before beginning the test, by saving the programmed signal data (as well as trajectory data, if the receiver is to be tested under virtual movement conditions) in scenario files, using the optional StudioView™ software. In addition to GNSS, other signals such as interference and multi-path can be generated to test the sensitivity to various disruptions. The number of channels installed in a GSG unit determines how many signals can be gen erated. If more channels are required than available, two or more GSG units can be syn chronized to generate 128, 256, or more signals. Built-in trajectories (static, configurable circle, and rectangular as defined in 3GPP TS 25.171) or user-designed trajectories (in NMEA standard format) can be run on GSG simulators. Users can upload their own ephemeris data in standard RINEX format or re-use the default data for any time periods. The GSG-6 Series is capable of automatically downloading historical RINEX, WAAS and EGNOS data from official websites, as needed. The GSG-6 Series can be controlled via an Ethernet network connection, or USB or GPIB. A built-in web interface allows remote operation of the instrument. With the optional GSG Stu dioView™ PC Software, you can build, edit, and manage the most complex scenarios, includ ing building trajectories via Google Maps, independent of the GSG unit, for later upload. Besides the variety of built-in navigation/positioning tests, GSG units are also suited for accur ate testing of timing GNSS-receivers. The GSG-6 is equipped with an ultra-high-stability OCXO timebase for precision timing of the satellite data, or use external synchronization from a 10 MHz reference from e.g. a Cesium or Rubidium clock. A built-in 1PPS output, synchronized to the generated satellite data, allows comparison with the 1PPS signal from the timing receiver under test. CHAPTER 1 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 5

22 1.6 Compliance & Legal Notices 1.6 Compliance & Legal Notices Spectracom’s GSG-Series GNSS Simulator products meet all FCC and CE Mark regulations for operation as electronic test equipment. Signal Power Emissions , see "Signal Power Note: For more information about . Level Considerations" on page 23 Note: "License Notices" on For more information about Software Licensing, see page 199 . In particular, this instrument has been designed and tested for Measurement Category I, Pol lution Degree 2, in accordance with EN/IEC 61010- 1:2001 and CAN/CSA- C22.2 No. 61010-1-04 (including approval). It has been supplied in a safe condition. 1.6.1 About this Document This GSG-5/6 Series User Manual contains directions and reference information for use that applies to the GSG-5/6 Series products. Study this manual thoroughly to acquire adequate knowledge of the instrument, especially the section on Safety Precautions hereafter and the Installation section. 1.6.2 Declaration of Conformity A copy of the Declaration of Conformity will be shipped with your unit. The complete text with formal statements concerning product identification, manufacturer and standards used for type testing is available on request. CHAPTER 1 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 6

23 1.7 Technical Specifications 1.7 Technical Specifications 1.7.1 RF Output Specifications Constellation Signal RF for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS : Type N female Connector : Frequency L1/E1/B1/SAR: 1539 - 1627 MHz L2/L2C: 1167 - 1255 MHz L5/E5/B2: 1146 - 1234 MHz E6/B3: 1215 - 1303 MHz Number of output channels : 1 to 64 : Channel configuration Any channel can be GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS GLONASS freq ch -7 to +6 Up to 3 SBAS satellites (instead of 1-3 GNSS satellites) Data format : 50 bits/s, GPS, Galileo OS, GLONASS frame structure GPS CNAV 250 bits/s, SBAS : 1 to 210, plus GLONASS PRN codes : <-40 dBc Spurious transmission : <-40 dBc Harmonics Output signal level : -65 to -160 dBm; 0.1 dB resolution down to -150 dBm; 0.3 dB down to -160 dBm. : ±1.0 dB Power accuracy Pseudorange accuracy within any one frequency band: 1mm across different frequency bands: 30 cm Pseudorange accuracy : Zero Inter-channel bias : >54 dB Inter-channel range CHAPTER 1 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 7

24 1.7 Technical Specifications Limits : : 18240 m (60000 feet) Altitude Acceleration : 4.0 g Velocity : 515 m/s (1000 knots) 3 Jerk : 20 m/s : Extended limits : 20200 km Altitude Acceleration Velocity : 20000 m/s (38874 knots) Jerk : No limit : White noise signal level -50 to -160 dBm 0.1 dB resolution down to -150 dBm 0.3 dB down to -160 dBm ±1.0 dB accuracy 1.7.2 Rear Panel Outputs and Inputs External Frequency Reference Input : BNC female Connector Frequency : 10 MHz nominal : 0.1 to 5V Input signal level rms Input impedance : >1kΩ Frequency Reference Output Connector : BNC female Frequency : 10 MHz sine Output signal level into 50 Ω load : 1V rms External Trigger Input : BNC female Connector Signal Type : Single pulse Level : TTL level, 1.4 V nominal Input impedance : >1kΩ : 10 ms Minimum PW : Falling Active Edge CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 1 8

25 1.7 Technical Specifications 1/10/100/1000 PPS Output : BNC female Connector Output signal level : approx. 0V to +2.0 V in 50 Ω load Accuracy : Calibrated to ±10 nSec of RF timing mark output 1.7.3 Time Base Standard OCXO -10 Ageing per 24 h : <5x10 -8 Ageing per year : <5x10 -9 : <5x10 Temp. variation 20 ... 50°C -12 @1s): <5x10 Short term stability (A dev 1.7.4 Optional Antenna Frequency : 1000 MHz to 2600 MHz Impedance : 50 Ω VSWR : <2:1 (typ.) : SMA male Connector : 15 mm diameter x 36 mm length Dimensions 1.7.5 Environmental Specifications Environmental Data Class : MIL-PRF-28800F, Class 3 Operating Temp. : 0°C ... +50°C Storage Temp. : -40°C ... +70°C, non-condensing, @ <12000 m Humidity : 5-95% @ 10...30°C, 5-75% @ 30...40°C, 5-45% @ 40...50°C : 4600 m Max. Altitude Vibration : Random and sinusoidal according to MIL-PRF-28800F, Class 3 : Half-sine 30 g per MIL-PRF-28800F, Bench handling Shock : Heavy-duty transport case and soft carrying case tested accord Transit Drop Test ing to MIL-PRF-28800F Reliability : MTBF 30000 h, calculated CHAPTER 1 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 9

26 1.7 Technical Specifications Safety : Designed and tested for Measurement Category I, Pollution Degree 2, in accordance with EN/IEC 61010-1:2001 and CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1-04 (incl. approval) EMC : EN 61326 (1997) A1 (1998), increased test levels per EN 50082-2, Group 1, Class B, CE Power Requirements Line Voltage : 100-240 V , 50/60/400 Hz AC Power Consumption : 40 W max. Dimensions & Weight : ½ x 19" (215 mm) Width Height : 2U (90 mm) : 395 mm Depth : Net 2.7 kg (5.8 lb) Weight Shipping : 3.5 kg (7.5 lb) CHAPTER 1 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 10

27 Setup The following topics are included in this Chapter: 12 2.1 About Your Safety 2.2 Unpacking and Inventory 13 14 2.3 Mechanical Installation 21 2.4 Electrical Installation 2.5 Signal Power Level Considerations 23 CHAPTER 2 2 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • CHAPTER 11

28 2.1 About Your Safety 2.1 About Your Safety The following safety symbols are used in Spectracom technical documentation, or on Spec tracom products: Spectracom safety symbols Table 2-1: Definition Symbol Signal word Potentially dangerous situation which may lead to personal injury or death! DANGER! Follow the instructions closely. Potential equipment damage or destruction! CAUTION! Follow the instructions closely. Tips and other useful or important information. NOTE Risk of Electrostatic Discharge! Avoid potential equipment damage by following ESD Best Practices. ESD Shows where the protective ground terminal is connected inside the PROTECTIVE GROUND instrument. Never remove or loosen this screw! Functional (noiseless, clean) grounding, designed to avoid mal FUNCTIONAL GROUND function of the equipment. A terminal always connected to the instrument chassis. CHASSIS GROUND 2.1.1 Safety Precautions This product has been designed and built in accordance with state-of-the-art standards and the recognized safety rules. Nevertheless, all equipment that can be connected to line power is a potential danger to life. In particular, its use may constitute a risk to the operator or install ation/maintenance personnel, if used under conditions that must be deemed unsafe, or for pur poses other than the product's designated use, as it is described under "Intended Use and Operating Principle" on page 5. DANGER! If the equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the protection provided by the equipment may be impaired. 2.1.2 Basic User Responsibilities To ensure the correct and safe operation of the instrument, it is essential that you follow gen erally accepted safety procedures in addition to the safety precautions specified in this manual. CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 12

29 2.2 Unpacking and Inventory The instrument is designed to be used by trained personnel only. Removing the cover for repair, maintenance, and adjustment of the instrument must be done by qualified personnel who are aware of the hazards involved. Note: The warranty commitments are rendered void if unauthorized access to the interior of the instrument has taken place during the given warranty period. Also, follow these general directions: The equipment must only be used in technically perfect condition. Check components for damage prior to installation. Also check for loose or scorched cables on other nearby equipment. Make sure you possess the professional skills, and have received the training necessary for the type of work you are about to perform (for example: Best Practices in ESD pre vention.) Do not modify the equipment, and use only spare parts authorized by Spectracom. Always follow the instructions set out in this guide. Observe generally applicable legal and other local mandatory regulations. Keep these instructions at hand, near the place of use. 2.1.3 If in Doubt about Safety Apply technical common sense: If you suspect that it is unsafe to use the product (for example, if it is visibly damaged), do the following: Disconnect the line cord. Clearly mark the equipment to prevent its further operation. Contact your local Spectracom representative. Unpacking and Inventory 2.2 Caution: Electronic equipment is sensitive to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). Observe all ESD precautions and safeguards when handling the unit. Unpack the equipment and inspect it for damage. If any equipment has been damaged in transit, or you experience any problems during installation and configuration of your Spec tracom product, please contact your closest Spectracom Customer Service Center (see: "Tech nical Support" on page 198). CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 13

30 2.3 Mechanical Installation Note: Retain all original packaging for use in return shipments if necessary. The following items are included with your shipment: GSG-5x/6x GNSS Simulator Ancillary kit, GSG-5x/6x, containing: AC cord, 5-15P to C13, 18 AWG, 10 A, 125 V Adapter, SMA female–N male, 50 Ω Cable assembly, SMA–SMA, 5ft. USB 2.0 cable, with type A/B connector, 6ft. CD with user’s manual, Protocol reference document & configuration SW Compliance and shipping documentation Optional: additional software and license key(s) 2.2.1 Unit Identification on the rear panel (see "Rear Panel" on page 29) of the unit includes the GSG type plate The MODEL, PART No., and SERIAL No. This information, as well as a list of installed options (if any), can also be found under the menu Options > Show system information item . 2.3 Mechanical Installation 2.3.1 General Installation Considerations Orientation GSG-Series units can be operated in any position, i.e. horizontal, vertical, or at any angle. Cooling The air flow through the side ventilation openings must not be obstructed. Leave 5 cm (2") of space around the unit. Bench-Top Setup For bench-top use, a fold-down support is available for use underneath the GNSS Simulator. This support can also be used as a handle to carry the instrument. CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 14

31 2.3 Mechanical Installation Figure 2-1: Fold-down support Single-Unit Rack-Mount Installation 22/90 rack-mount kit 9446-1002-2901 ) one GSG unit can With the optional Spectracom (P/N be installed in a 19-inch rack (2U). The kit comprises: 2 ears, one of which with a pre-assembled face-plate spacer 4 screws, M5 x 8 4 screws, M6 x 8. Figure 2-2: Rack-Mount-Kit (the GSG housing shown in the center is not part of the kit) In order to prepare the GSG unit for rack-mount installation, the housing needs to be opened, in order to remove the bottom feet (otherwise the assembly will not fit in a 2U slot.) DANGER! Do not perform any work on the internal components of the unit, while the housing is removed, unless you are qualified to do so. Before removing the cover, unplug the power cord and wait for one minute to allow any capacitors to discharge. CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 15

32 2.3 Mechanical Installation 1. After making sure that the power cord has been unplugged, carefully turn the unit upside down. 2. by loosening their screws. Temporarily remove the two rear feet 3. Remove the four housing screws and plugs (if present) at the side panels; discard them. 4. Grip the front panel with one hand, while pushing at the rear with the other hand. Pull the unit out of its housing. 5. from the housing, as shown in the illustration below: Remove the four bottom feet Use a screwdriver or a pair of pliers to remove the springs holding each foot, then push out the foot. Figure 2-3: Preparing the GSG unit for rack mounting 6. Gently push the unit into its housing again. 7. rear feet Re-assemble the two . 8. Install the that came with the rack-mount kit . Use the rack-mount kit M5 housing ears . screws Part identification: ears Figure 2-4: CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 16

33 2.3 Mechanical Installation Note: The unit can also be installed on the right-hand side of the rack by reversing the two ears. 9. Depending on accessibility in your rack, you can connect the cables to the GSG unit now, or after installation of the assembly in the rack. For electrical installation, see "Elec trical Installation" on page 21. 10. Install the assembly in your rack, using the M6 screws that came with the rack-mount kit . 11. Complete the electrical installation. Side-by-Side Rack-Mount Installation (P/N 1211-0000-0701 ), two GSG units 22/05 rack-mount kit With the optional Spectracom can be installed side-by-side in one 19-inch rack (2U). The kit comprises: 4 x Bracket, rear (1211-1000-0706) [Item 1 ] 2 ] 2 x Ear, rack (1211-1000-0714) [Item 3 1 x Hinge, right half (1211-1000-0709) [Item ] ] 1 x Hinge, left half (1211-1000-0709) [Item 4 8 x Screw, oval head phil, M5x10mm (HM25R-D5R8-0010) [Item 5 ] 2 x Screw, pan head phil, M4x8mm (HM10R-04R0-0008) [Item 6 ] 7 ] 1 x Spacer, Hex, M4x16 (HM50R-04R0-0016) [Item CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 17

34 2.3 Mechanical Installation Figure 2-5: Dual rack-mount assembly In order to prepare the GSG units for rack mount installation, the housings needs to be opened, in order to remove the bottom feet (otherwise the assembly will not fit in a 2U slot.) DANGER! Do not perform any work on the internal components of a GSG unit, while the housing is removed, unless you are qualified to do so. Before removing the cover, unplug the power cord and wait for one minute to allow any capa citors to discharge. 1. After making sure that the power cord has been unplugged, carefully turn the first GSG unit upside down. 2. . Keep the screws, discard the brackets. Remove the two rear feet 3. housing screws and plugs (if present) at the side panels, and discard Remove the four them. 4. Grip the front panel with one hand, while pushing at the rear with the other hand. Pull the unit out of its housing. 5. bottom feet from the housing, as shown in the illustration below: Remove the four Use a screwdriver or a pair of pliers to remove the springs holding each foot, then push out the foot. Preparing a GSG unit for rack mounting Figure 2-6: 6. Gently push the unit into its housing again. 7. Install the rear brackets supplied with the mounting kit (item no. 1) where the rear feet were previously attached (see illustration "Dual rack-mount assembly" above). Use the screws saved in step 2. 8. Repeat the procedure described above for the second unit. 9. Using a Philips-head screwdriver, screw the rack ears (item no. 2) into place, using the supplied 10-mm screws (item no. 5). 10. Pinch the hinge pins together, to separate the right and left hinge halves (items no. 3 and 4). CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 2 18

35 2.3 Mechanical Installation 11. Attach hinge halves to the unit with the hinge facing towards the front. 12. Pinch the hinge pins together into the stored position. Align the hinge halves together between the two units, and swing together side by side. The hinge pins should snap into place, securing the front of the two units. 13. In the back of the unit, take the supplied Hex Spacer (item no. 7), and place between middle rear brackets, and secure using the supplied 8-mm screws (item no. 6). 14. Assembly is now ready for installation into standard 19" rack. 15. Depending on accessibility, you can complete the electrical installation before or after installing the assembly in the rack. For electrical installation, see "Electrical Installation" on page 21. Rack-Mount Installation with an Agilent Power Meter , using one 19" slot (2U). GSG units are frequently installed adjacent to an Agilent Power Meter (P/N 9446-1002- This can be accomplished with the optional Spectracom 22/04 rack-mount kit ). Also required is the Agilent rack-mount kit. 2041 Note: This kit can also be used to install only one GSG unit in a 19" rack 2U slot, 22/90 Rack-Mount Kit (P/N 9446-1002-2901). similar to the optional Spectracom 22/04 Rack-mount kit Figure 2-7: In order to prepare the GSG unit for rack mount installation, the housing needs to be opened, in order to remove the bottom feet (otherwise the assembly will not fit in a 2U slot.) The same may be necessary for the Agilent unit – follow the manufacturer's instructions. 1. After making sure that the power cord has been unplugged, carefully turn the GSG unit upside down. 2. by loosening their screws. rear feet Temporarily remove the two 3. housing screws and plugs (if present) at the side panels, and discard Remove the four them. 4. Grip the front panel with one hand, while pushing at the rear with the other hand. Pull the unit out of its housing. CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 19

36 2.3 Mechanical Installation 5. bottom feet from the housing, as shown in the illustration below: Remove the four Use a screwdriver or a pair of pliers to remove the springs holding each foot, then push out the foot. Figure 2-8: Preparing the GSG unit for rack mounting 6. Gently push the unit into its housing again. 7. Re-assemble the two rear feet . 8. Decide on which side of the assembly the GSG unit is to be installed: If on the left-hand short ear to the left hand side of the GSG unit, using the rack-mount kit side, install the M5 housing screws . Note: The instructions below are based on the assumption that the GSG unit is installed on the left-hand side of the assembly. 9. Install the to the Agilent unit, as shown in the illustration below. Use the front assy plate screws from the Agilent rack-mount kit. Take two of the plastic snap caps from the GSG rack-mount kit, remove and discard the caps, and install the sleeves into the housing screw openings. front Slide the Agilent unit and the GSG unit together, so that the protruding pins of the fit into the sleeves. assy plate CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 20

37 2.4 Electrical Installation Figure 2-9: Front assembly plate installation Agilent unit (shown left), GSG unit 10. rear assy plate, Agilent rear assy plate, GSG , and assemble them, as Install the , and the shown in the illustrations below. Figure 2-10: Installation of rear assembly plates 11. Equivalent to Step 8., install the front panel ear plate (Agilent rack-mount kit) to the Agi lent power meter. 12. The assembly is now complete, and can be installed in the cabinet. 2.4 Electrical Installation Supply Voltage GSG Series simulators may be connected to any AC supply with a voltage rating of , at 50/60/400 Hz . The units automatically adjust themselves to the input line 100 to 240 V voltage. The maximum power draw is 40 W. Fuse The secondary supply voltages are electronically protected against overload or short circuit. The primary line voltage side is protected by a fuse located on the power supply unit. The fuse rating covers the full voltage range. Consequently there is no need for the user to replace the fuse under any operating conditions, nor is it accessible from the outside. Caution: If this fuse is blown, it is likely that the power supply is badly damaged. Do not replace the fuse. Send the GSG unit to your local Service Center. CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 21

38 2.4 Electrical Installation DANGER! — Removing the cover for repair, maintenance and adjustment must be done by qualified and trained personnel only, who are fully aware of the haz ards involved. The warranty commitments are rendered void if unauthorized access to the interior of the instru ment has taken place during the warranty period. Grounding Grounding faults in the line voltage supply will make any instrument connected to it dan gerous. Before connecting any unit to the power line, you must make sure that the protective ground functions correctly. Only then can a unit be connected to the power line and only by using a three-wire line cord. No other method of grounding is permitted. Extension cords must always have a protective ground conductor. Caution: If a unit is moved from a cold to a warm environment, condensation may cause a shock hazard. Ensure, therefore, that the grounding requirements are strictly met. — Never interrupt the grounding cord. Any interruption of the pro DANGER! tective ground connection inside or outside the instrument or disconnection of the protective ground terminal is likely to make the instrument dangerous. Electrical Connections For a graphic representation of all electrical connections, see "Rear Panel" on page 29 and "Front Panel" on page 26. communication interfaces is not required for GSG to operate in a basic Using any of the 1PPS mode. The same applies to the outputs for 10 MHz , as well as the inputs EXT REF and and : Their usage is not compulsory for basic operation. FREQ EXT TRIG power cord and an The minimum electrical configuration for any test layout requires only the —or an actual GNSS antenna—to connect the GSG unit to your receiver- RF antenna cable under-test (using the front panel RF connector, see "Front Panel" on page 26.) CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 22

39 2.5 Signal Power Level Considerations 2.5 Signal Power Level Considerations 2.5.1 Compliance: Using an Antenna Spectracom’s GSG GNSS Simulator products meet all required regulations of the FCC and CE Mark for operation as electronic test equipment. However, when using the GSG signal gen erator with an RF antenna (instead of an RF cable), additional regulations controlling the radi ation of GPS-like signals into the air must be taken into account by the user: National Telecommunications and Inform In the USA, the GPS spectrum is controlled by the : See Sections 8.3.28 and 8.3.29 of the Manual of Regulations ation Administration (NTIA) and Radio Frequency Management Procedures for Federal ( http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/redbook/redbook.html ). Depending on your situation, you may need authorization from the FCC to operate at or near the level allowed by the NTIA. A Special Temporary Authorization (STA) or Experimental License may be required. For more information, see the FCC web site: . https://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/oetcf/els/ Countries other than the USA may have their own regulations or restrictions, which you should be aware of and comply with before using the optional antenna. 2.5.2 Transmit Power Level (National Telecommunications & Information Administration) restricts the NTIA The U.S. agency maximum signal level to -140 dBm (24 MHz BW) as received from an isotropic antenna at a distance of 100 feet from the building where the test is being conducted. Therefore, the max imum power level output from the GSG Signal Generator may need to be limited to conform to this regulation. For example, consider the following test setup: 100 ft. Antenna distance to nearest exterior wall: Antenna gain: 0 dB (omni antenna) Cable loss, antenna to GSG: 0 dB (no cable used) Using the free space loss calculation for radio propagation: Loss (dB) = 20 log10 (4 λ ) ᴫ * Distance / λ = wavelength: @ 1575 MHz= 19 cm = 0.62 ft Where Distance = 200 ft total => 100 ft from antenna exterior wall + 100 ft to restricted perimeter Loss = 72 dB = 20 log10 (4 * 200/0.62) ᴫ Using the free space calculation is a worst case scenario as the wall and any other obstructions will likely reduce the signal even more. Therefore, setting the power output of the GSG to: -140 + 72 = -68 dBm or less will guarantee compliance. CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 23

40 2.5 Signal Power Level Considerations 1 : For additional information on path loss, see e.g., this third- party reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Path_ loss 1 This link is provided for reference purposes only. It leads to a web page that is not maintained or supported by Spec tracom. CHAPTER 2 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 24

41 Features & Functions The following topics are included in this Chapter: 3.1 Front Panel 26 29 3.2 Rear Panel 3.3 The GSG Main Menu 30 31 3.4 "Start" Menu 36 3.5 "Select" Menu 3.6 "Options" Menu 80 CHAPTER 3 3 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • CHAPTER 25

42 3.1 Front Panel 3.1 Front Panel All GSG-5/6 simulators have similar front panels. On the right side are the controls used for managing display navigation . At the bottom are the numeric keys scenario execution and for and other configuration. input scenario parameters used to GSG front panel Figure 3-1: status indicators There are three on the front panel. When the unit is idle, all three indicators are off. scenario will blink when a scenario is running (or: armed ) is lit when the unit is armed, i.e. waiting for a trigger signal to start trig executing a scenario is lit when there is signal coming out of the RF-connector on the front panel. rf-out The N-type RF-connector is equipped with a DC block to prevent the flow of Note: direct current up to 7V in order to protect the GSG unit. DC CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 26

43 3.1 Front Panel 3.1.1 Description of Keys 3.1.1.1 Power ON/OFF key is a toggling secondary power switch. Part of the instrument is always ON as The long as power is applied, this standby condition is indicated by a red LED above the key. This indicator is consequently not lit while the instrument is in operation. 3.1.1.2 Start Press to start the currently selected scenario. start start to start transmitting. In the Signal Generator menu, press 3.1.1.3 Exit to end the editing process, and save your changed field exit When editing a field, press value . The field label will be highlighted. editing a field, press When to return to the previous display , and save the not exit you applied to the current display. Confirm your changes. changes When running a scenario, press to stop the scenario execution (same as cancel ). exit 3.1.1.4 Cancel cancel to abort the editing process, and discard any field When editing a field, press . The field label will be highlighted instead. changes editing a field, press to return to the previous display , and discard not cancel When any changes you applied to the current display. Confirm your cancellation. to stop the scenario execution (same as exit ). When running a scenario, press cancel 3.1.1.5 Menu menu to display the main scenario configuration (the When running a scenario, press scenario will continue to run.) When reviewing/editing configuration settings, press to exit the current sub-menu, menu and return to the main menu, regardless of the current display. You will be asked to save your changes (same as ). exit CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 27

44 3.1 Front Panel 3.1.1.6 View view to toggle between the available views. When running a scenario, press , pressing main menu view In the will act as a shortcut to the configuration display of the currently selected scenario. menu, press to make a selection (same as enter Options ). view In the 3.1.1.7 Enter to make a selection. enter Press 3.1.1.8 Arrows Press any of the arrow keys to navigate in displays. UP/DOWN arrows When editing an integer value, press the to incrementally increase or decrease the value. 3.1.1.9 N/S When editing N/S to toggle between north and south latitude. , press latitude to open the transmit power menu , in order to During scenario execution, press N/S adjust the scenario's noise settings. 3.1.1.10 E/W longitude When editing E/W to toggle between east and west longitude. , press E/W Altitude and During scenario execution, press to adjust the units displayed for ( m/m/s > ft / kn > ft / mph ). Speed 3.1.1.11 Numeric Keys Press the to input numbers. numeric keys 3.1.1.12 +/– (format) When editing numbers, press to toggle between the positive and negative +/– (format) value. 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 CHAPTER 28

45 3.2 Rear Panel When configuring or executing a scenario, press coordinate +/– (format) to change the ECEF format between geodetic coordinates, and format. and higher, press +/– (format) to In scenario execution, View 2/5 switch between fre quency bands (L1, L2 and L5). 3.1.1.13 [.] (hold) key together with numeric keys Use the "DOT" [.] (hold) , where appropriate. [.] (hold) hold/resume the simulated move During scenario execution, press the key to . ment (trajectory) While a scenario is loading, press the key to initiate a scenario arming from [.] (hold) the front panel. Rear Panel 3.2 GPIB As a means for communication, GSG supports and Ethernet . Only one connection , USB > Options . The default can be active at a time. The active connection is selected under Interface setting is Ethernet . The illustration below shows the connections available on the back side of the unit: GSG rear panel Figure 3-2: 1. 1PPS Output : TTL level signal with positive slope timed to GPS time of RF out (can be pro grammed as 10/100/1000PPS). 2. Reference Output : 10 MHz derived from the internal or—if present—external reference. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 29

46 3.3 The GSG Main Menu 3. : Can be selected as a reference via the Interface and Reference External Reference Input menu. 4. : Optional signal input for scenario triggering. External Trigger Input 5. : The address is set in the Interface and Reference menu. Connector GPIB 6. Ethernet Connector : Data communications port used with TCP/IP networks. 7. USB Connector : Data communications port used with Personal Computers. 8. : AC 90-265 V . 45-440 Hz; automatic input voltage selection. Line Power Inlet RMS 9. Protective Ground Terminal : The protective ground wire is connected at this location inside the instrument. Never tamper with this screw! 10. Fan : The fan speed is controlled via a temperature sensor. Normal bench-top use means low speed, whereas rack-mounting and/or installed options may result in higher speed. 11. : Indicates model number and serial number. Type Plate The GSG Main Menu 3.3 The main menu of the GSG user interface is shown on the GSG display when the unit is started. To return to the main menu from any of the sub menus, press the menu key. Figure 3-3: GSG's main menu The main menu displays the following information: 1. Start , Select , Options Main menu options: 2. GSG model number (for more information on models and configurations, see "GSG Ser ies Model Variants and Options" on page 194). On the of the menu, the currently selected scenario is shown with some of its key right side data: CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 3 30

47 3.4 "Start" Menu 3. Name of the current scenario 4. Scenario start date 5. Transmit RF power (see also: "Setting Transmit Power" on page 107) 6. Trajectory shape 7. Scenario Current Position (latitude/longitude) 8. may be shown: In the upper right-hand corner, abbreviations : remote commanding REM EXTREF : external reference clock is selected in the Options menu ARM : the unit is waiting for a trigger to start the scenario HOLD : the movement along the trajectory is paused "Start" Menu 3.4 To start the currently loaded scenario (as previously selected using the ""Select" Menu" on page 36), highlight the main menu option by pressing the arrow keys. Then press enter . Start In its default mode, the GSG simulator will launch the scenario (the delay depends on the size/ complexity of the scenario data), and then automatically run the scenario. exit or cancel , and confirm. To stop the scenario, press There are, however, interesting alternatives to starting a scenario, mainly to facilitate test auto mation. The illustration below summarizes the start variations discussed underneath. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 31

48 3.4 "Start" Menu Figure 3-4: Scenario start variations – Flowchart 3.4.1 Scenario Start Variations Hold before manual start , or enter (with the Start main menu option highlighted), the GSG unit Once you pressed start requires some time to launch the scenario (the delay depends on the size/complexity of the scenario data). During this wait time, press the key if you want to prevent the scenario from beginning [.] (hold) (the ARM text icon will display in the to run before you are ready. This is called " arming" status indicator will light up). upper right corner of the display, and the armed Once you are ready, press the start key to run the armed scenario. SCPI START command SOURce:SCENario:LOAD , submit another com Once you submitted the SCPI command mand to arm the GSG simulator: SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol ARM . Then, to start scenario execution, submit the SCPI start command: SOURCce:SCNario:CONTrol START . Start via external trigger After arming a loaded scenario (see above), the scenario execution can be started via an external trigger signal, submitted to the GSG unit by means of the BNC input (see "External Trigger Input" under "Rear Panel Outputs and Inputs" on page 8). 3.4.2 Scenario Execution Views While a scenario is running (also referred to as "scenario execution"), you can display several views, so as to ... monitor the current scenario status the operation of your verify by comparing its output with the data receiver-under-test provided in the scenario execution views some of the scenario settings. adjust CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 32

49 3.4 "Start" Menu Figure 3-5: Views displayed during scenario execution key. In the lower right corner e.g., view View To display the views in successive order, press the 2/6 may be displayed, indicating the current view/total number of views. The total number, and content of views depends on the number of signals used in the scenario. Note: When you press the key to leave a menu, its settings will be taken into exit use immediately, and all band- or satellite-specific offsets are discarded. See "Running a Scenario" on page 102 to find out how you can interact with the system dur which scenario settings can be adjusted . ing scenario execution, and to learn 3.4.2.1 View 1/x View 1/x displays the scenario name , and information about the simulation GPS date and , current position , speed and direction , and elapsed time . time 3.4.2.2 View >1/x Views >1/x display information pertaining to the individual simulated satellites. Up to 8 channels are shown per view (the maximum number of channels is 64, depending on your GSG model, and configuration). The first line repeats the ... GPS date and time (as in View 1/x ), and displays the ... ... HDoP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision): A dimensionless number indicating the rel ... ative quality of the calculated horizontal position, which is largely a function of the cur rent satellite constellation. [A smaller number is better; the number will never be 0 or 2.] The remaining lines are: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 33

50 3.4 "Start" Menu 1. : Shows the abbreviation of each satellite system, followed by its number of satel In view lites in view/GSG channels reserved. Satellite system abbreviations are: : GPS GP : Glonass GL GA : Galileo : BeiDou BD : IRNSS IR : QZSS QZ 2. : Pseudo-Range Number (satellite identifier). The identifiers are: PRN xx For GPS: G xx For Galileo: E xx For GLONASS: R C xx For BeiDou: For QZSS: J xx I xx For IRNSS: S xxx. For SBAS: lower case Letters are if a satellite is unhealthy, or if the ephemeris data is too old to be used. For D ' will be displayed next to the satellite number. multipath replicas, the letter ' F ’ (see end of Chapter "Propagation satellite signals are indicated by the letter ‘ Fading Environment Models" on page 64 for more information). Interference signals are recognized by their elevation and azimuth fields since these will be marked as * . interference signal is un-modulated Furthermore, when the CG for this is identified by a GPS interference signals and a leading letter followed by the frequency slot number C for GLONASS interference signals. Hence, next to the identifiers listed above, the following identifiers may also be dis played: 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 CHAPTER 34

51 3.4 "Start" Menu iUG , for unmodulated GPS interference signal , for unmodulated Galileo interference signal iUE , for unmodulated BeiDou interference signal iUC iUJ , for unmodulated QZSS interference signal , for unmodulated GLONASS interference signal, where ‘x’ is the frequency iUx slot ranging from -7 to 6 iSg , for sweeping GPS interference , for sweeping Glonass interference iSr iSe , for sweeping Galileo interference , for sweeping BeiDou interference iSc iSj , for sweeping QZSS interference iNg , for noise GPS interference , for noise Glonass interference iNr iNe , for noise Galileo interference iNc , for noise BeiDou interference iNj , for noise QZSS interference 4. ELV : Satellite elevation The angle between the current position's horizontal plane and the satellite pos ition. A low angle is close to 0°, a high angle close to 90° [range = 0 to 90°] 5. AZM : Azimuth The angle around the vertical axis of the current position [north = 0°, east = 90°, south = 180°, west = 270°] 6. dBM : decibel Milliwatt Transmit Power ratio in decibels for the frequency band indicated (L1, L2, L5 and ALL). During scenario execution, the Transmit Power (= signal level) can be adjus ted for all satellites per frequency band (including ALL bands), or per individual satellite: Press ±/format to toggle through the frequency bands; to adjust the power for all satellites on the current band, press ±/power . arrow keys to select a satellite. An information box is dis Press LEFT/RIGHT played, showing the satellite ID, elevation, azimuth and frequency bands in use. Transmit Power arrow for this satellite, press the UP/DOWN To adjust the keys. Press enter to confirm. This power adjust functionality is useful for fine tuning the scenario power level (see also "Setting Transmit Power" on page 107). CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 35

52 3.5 "Select" Menu Adjustments to are saved to the transmit power so that when a scenario is dbALL run next time the power is as desired. Changing the Transmit Power setting becomes effective immediately, and also impacts noise generation levels (if in use – available with GSG-5, GSG-55, GSG- 56 and GSG-62, 63, and 64). E x a m p l e G23 and G5 ), one SBAS signal ( S135 ), one mul The example above illustrates two GPS signals ( tipath signal ( G3 ). G7D ) and one interference signal ( 3.4.2.3 Last View The last view (e.g. View 4/4 ) shows a skyplot , illustrating how the simulated satellites are loc ated in the sky. Press the LEFT/RIGHT arrow keys to scroll through the skyplots, if more than 2 constellations are simulated. The center of the plot represents the current receiver position, and the outermost circle the hori elevation of a satellite located near this circle is low. The lines represent the azi zon, i.e. the (North = 0°). For example, in the GAL ileo plot shown above, satellite number 22 would muth have an elevation of approximately 45°, and an azimuth near 300°. 3.5 "Select" Menu Scenarios are the simulation scripts which you run on the GSG simulator in order to test a GNSS receiver. GSG has pre-installed scenarios which can be executed 'as is', or which you CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 36

53 3.5 "Select" Menu can re-configure to adapt them to your needs. You can also create your own scenarios using the optional GSG StudioView Software. Prior to running a scenario, you have to select it from the list of scenarios installed on the GSG unit: 1. enter using the arrow In the Select to display the , highlight Main Menu keys, then press list of scenarios currently loaded: 2. keys. Select the highlighted scen Scroll through the list by using the UP/DOWN arrow or view ario by pressing Configuration View will be displayed: enter : The first 3. If you want to modify the configuration of the scenario, see "Configuring a Scenario" on page 103. 4. key: The scenario will be start To execute (= run) the selected scenario, press the launched (which will take a moment, depending on the complexity of the scenario key. chosen), and then started automatically, unless you pressed the [.]/hold Select Below is a list of all configurable scenario parameters which can be accessed via the Scenario menu, and which are discussed in the following topics. Options that are grayed out on your GSG unit are not installed. Note: "Start Time" on the next page "Duration" on page 39 "Latitude, Longitude, Altitude" on page 40 "Trajectories" on page 40 CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 37

54 3.5 "Select" Menu "Ephemeris" on page 44 "Leap Second" on page 49 "Event Data" on page 50 "Antenna Settings" on page 55 "Advanced Configuration Options" on page 57 "Multipath Signals" on page 57 "Interference signals" on page 60 "Base station" on page 62 "Environment models" on page 64 "Atmospheric model" on page 67 "Satellite Configuration" on page 69 "Satellite Systems" on page 70 "Number of Satellites" on page 71 "Frequency Bands and Signal De-/Activation" on page 71 "Satellite Constellations" on page 73 "Encryption" on page 76 "SBAS Satellites" on page 77 3.5.1 Start Time is the time a scenario uses for simulation purposes, i.e. the simulated time at which Start time the scenario begins every time it is run. The Start time can be ... a. a set time , as configured for the scenario. Whenever you start this particular scenario, Start time will be used, e.g. November 4, 2015 at 19:30. the previously set b. real time , as derived from the NTP server specified in the Network Configuration, and start , or a SCPI start signal being submitted. triggered by the user pressing Note: If NTP real time is used, the scenario start will be delayed by up to 2 minutes, in order to allow for the simulation data to be loaded. The is aligned to the next full GPS minute. The NTP (UTC) timescale is con Start time verted to the GPS timescale by a UTC-GPS offset defined in the NTP Server settings. GPS time and leap seconds Start time The is based on GPS time, i.e. the displayed time is always GPS time. Unlike UTC include leap not time – which is frequently displayed by GNSS receivers – GPS time does seconds. CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 38

55 3.5 "Select" Menu NTP real time and downloaded Ephemeris set to Using NTP as start time in conjunction with Download Ephemeris is subject to licensing option to be present. In this configuration, the GSG Simulate Now options, as it requires the unit will simulate the sky as it is in that start position at current time. This functionality is currently only available for the GPS constellation. Please also note that the availability of good eph emeris data cannot be guaranteed, and periods where no data is found and hence no signals can be generated, may occur. About GPS time and GPS week number In the GPS data format, there are 10 bits reserved to represent the GPS week number, which leads to a modulo 1024 ambiguity in the week number and hence the GPS date: The GPS week number count began at midnight of January 5/6, 1980. Since then, the count has been incremented by "1" every week, and broadcast as part of the GPS message. Con sequently, at the completion of week 1023, the GPS week number will roll-over to week number 0. This means that if looking only at the week number (WN) parameter in the GPS data message, it is impossible to determine if WN 1023 corresponds to August 1999, or April 2019, etc. GPS receivers must therefore account for this roll-over problem, and use other means to decide on which 1024 week period they currently are in. The designers of GPS receivers have a number of ways of ensuring that the WN is interpreted correctly. These techniques range from keeping GPS week numbers in non-volatile memory, keeping a real-time clock, etc. One popular method involves resolving the year period ambiguities with software revision dates. For example: Since the GPS software knows that it was made on February 11, 2011 (cor responding to GPS week number 1622, and in the data message WN 598), this information can be used to map the WN to a year by concluding that e.g., WN 597 cannot correspond to early February 2011, but rather to mid-September 2030. This in turn, means that when simulating scenarios using a simulator, going back and forth in time and in GPS week numbers, you may see unexpected behavior in how the WN is inter preted. This could result in a scenario that worked ‘correctly’ in the past, starts outputting a dif ferent date that is 19.7 years forward in time. GLONASS time differs from GPS time in such that it has the same leap seconds inserted as UTC has. Hence, the GLONASS system does not have the week roll-over problem that GPS has. When simulating scenarios with historical dates, however, it is likely that a receiver that is try ing to compensate for the week roll-over based on the firmware build date mentioned above, will get into a conflict with the GLONASS time stamps and in this case the receiver will not out put any solution. This issue, especially with combined GPS+GLONASS scenarios, can be avoided by simulating future dates. 3.5.2 Duration The duration of the scenario replay can be set to a number of days, hours and minutes. Any scenario can be run in three different modes: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 39

56 3.5 "Select" Menu Looping : The scenario will be replayed infinite times, re-starting every time after its set duration has expired. For this mode, the trajectory should be loop-shaped , i.e. have the same start/end point. Otherwise, an error will likely be thrown once the receiver-under-test upon the first replay is moved from the end point to the start point in an unrealistically short time. Forever : The scenario will run infinitely (the duration time will be grayed out). If your trajectory is , i.e. it has the same start/end point, the trajectory will loop-shaped be followed over and over again (just like in the above-mentioned Looping mode), but Looping mode, which will re- the simulation time will continue to elapse (contrary to the start the simulation time with every new scenario execution. If your trajectory is loop-shaped, in this mode the receiver will travel along the last not trajectory vector infinitely. The option only works, if the ephemeris option is set to Down Endless Note: load ) . (See also: "Ephemeris" on page 44 : The scenario will be executed once, for the set duration. One-Go Upon completion of the scenario execution, GSG will return to the Main menu. 3.5.3 Latitude, Longitude, Altitude The position is specified using WGS84 (for more information on the , World Geodetic System ). see Wikipedia (ellipsoid height), and that altitude Note that the use of the WGS standard also applies to the this altitude is NOT the same as the MSL often output by receivers. by pressing the Select a key repeatedly. The different coordinate input format +/– (format) choices are: decimal degrees degrees-minutes degrees-minutes-seconds ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) format. 3.5.4 Trajectories Note: This feature is not available in GSG-51/52/53. In the context of GNSS testing, a trajectory is the predefined path a receiver is traveling during the execution of a scenario. GSG-5/6 can be used to simulate virtually any user trajectory. You can: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 40

57 3.5 "Select" Menu Use predefined (built-in) trajectories software) GSG StudioView Modify predefined trajectories (using the GSG unit, or the StudioView , and upload them. Create trajectory files in Note: If the RSG Option (OPT-RSG) is installed on your unit, you can also control movement in real-time. At the start of the scenario the nose of the user is pointing north. The orientation of the vehicle body changes with movement so that its nose is aligned with the vehicle’s course. In cases with changing altitude the nose will still point in a horizontal direction, not changing the body atti tude. This default behavior can be changed by using SCPI commands which change pitch, roll, and yaw of the simulated vehicle. 3.5.4.1 Predefined Trajectories GSG units come with several built-in trajectories. The exact list of these predefined trajectories varies from GSG model to model. The following is a selection: : The user is not moving, but the latitude, longitude and altitude defined in the Scen Static ario configuration are used as user position throughout the scenario replay. 3GPP : The user is moving on a rectangular trajectory as defined in the Technical Spe cification 3GPP TS 25.171 V7.1.0, Section 5.5, Table 11 and Figure 1: T h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e t r a j e c t o r y a s f o l l o w s : “The UE [User Equipment, (Spectracom)] moves on a rectangular trajectory of 940 m by 1440 m with rounded corner defined in figure 1. The initial reference is first defined followed by acceleration to final speed of 100 km/h in 250 m. The UE then maintains the speed for 400 m. This is followed by deceleration to final speed of 25 km/h in 250 m. The UE then turn 90 CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 41

58 3.5 "Select" Menu degrees with turning radius of 20 m at 25 km/h. This is followed by acceleration to final speed of 100 km/h in 250 m. The sequence is repeated to complete the rectangle.” The complete specification can be found under http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/25- series.htm . Circle : The user is moving in a circle throughout the scenario replay. When Circle is selected, a dialog is shown asking the parameters describing this trajectory. These para meters include diameter [meter], speed [m/s] and direction [clockwise/anticlockwise]. of the trajectories is the position specified in the Configuration View 1/3 , The start position under Latitude, Longitude and Altitude. 3.5.4.2 User-Created Trajectories GSG supports the simulation of custom-made trajectories. The trajectories are typically created with the GSG StudioView software (see also: "Creating a Trajectory in StudioView" on page 123). Two trajectory file types are supported: RSG Trajectories Even if the RSG Option (OPT-RSG) is not installed on your GSG, and you can therefore not run scenarios in real time, you can still use the Spectracom-proprietary RSG format by up-loading RSG trajectories onto your GSG unit. The RSG format is further described under "RSG Com mand Reference" on page 316. NMEA Trajectories It is also possible to use custom trajectories in the NMEA format (as generated with the help of Spectracom's GSG StudioView software, or created otherwise) by uploading the NMEA tra jectory to your GSG from a Windows PC. Note: As of firmware version 3.0, Spectracom GSG series simulators support 10 Hz NMEA data. GSG will transform the first in the NMEA trajectory so as to adjust it to fit the scen timestamp ario start-time and start position. Hence, the start time for the scenario does not need to match CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 42

59 3.5 "Select" Menu NMEA time-stamp. All other timestamps in the NMEA trajectory will be transformed accord ingly, thus keeping the relative position/times in the NMEA trajectory intact. replayed in any GPS time frame, utilizing any earth coordin A given NMEA trajectory can be ates by specifying the desired start time and start position in the scenario. Looping trajectories The NMEA trajectory files can be configured either to be executed once, or to loop repeatedly throughout the scenario execution. For the looping to be allowed, the NMEA trajectory has to be continuous, meaning the first and last specified coordinates of the trajectory must be identical (see also: "Duration" on page 39). RMC vs. GGA GSG-5/6 Series GNSS Simulators accept NMEA streams containing any set of valid NMEA sentences, yet only information from RMC and/or GGA sentences will be used to build the tra jectory (for detailed information on GGA and RMC, purchase the NMEA 0183 through here ). Either RMC messages, or GGA messages are accepted, or a , or see e.g., nmea.org combination of both. The latter is preferable. All other types of sentences are ignored without user notification. All NMEA sentences – i.e. all characters between the start marker (‘$’) and the checksum (‘*’ plus two hex digits) – are validated for correct syntax. The only accepted error is an incorrect checksum (because incorrect checksums can be useful for manually correcting the contents of an NMEA file). Date, time, position, speed, heading Date and time along with longitude, latitude, speed over ground, and heading will be extrac ted from the RMC message (NMEA’s Recommended Minimum), in order to build the trajectory. Altitude RMC messages do not include altitude data, hence if no GGA messages are available, the start position altitude specified in scenario parameters will be used instead. Heading and speed over ground specified in the NMEA file will be applied only to the last epoch of the trajectory, since all other points they will be computed by two adjacent positions. This technique prevents the undesirable behavior of some receivers which generate NMEA data using heading and speed data that does no correspond to position change. Heading and speed changes GNSS receivers are generally very sensitive to g-forces, and unrealistic movements will result in the receiver losing track of the simulated signals. Therefore, trajectories should at all times describe smooth, realistic movements, i.e. using gradual transitions in acceleration and head ing, rather than abrupt commands (such as random user-set coordinates or speed changes). Any parts of a trajectory describing changes in heading and/or speed must be provided in 10 Hz increments. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 43

60 3.5 "Select" Menu Skipped epochs One GSG epoch equals a 100 ms block of time. Note: The navigation receiver warning field will always be verified. An epoch will be skipped if... ...the field value is ‘V’, or ...there is no date/time data, or ...there is no position data. File size Note that NMEA trajectory files can become quite large if the sampling rate is high and a large distance is covered. Simulation files uploaded to the GSG unit cannot contain more than 12000 epochs (~19 minutes RMC + GGA at 10 Hz). If you start a scenario that uses an NMEA file with more than 12000 epochs, GSG will initiate a dialog upon start of the scenario, asking you to either cancel the simulation execution, or to truncate the NMEA trajectory file down to its first 12000 epochs. Making a One-Line Trajectory As the GSG unit uses the heading and speed information of the RMC sentences, only one (!) NMEA sentence is actually required to describe a simple, continuous movement. For example, the following one-line trajectory specifies a continuous north bound trajectory (as the heading field is set to 0.0 degrees) at a speed of 77 knots. $GPRMC,111150,A,6000.0000,N,0100.0000,E,77.000,0.0,010101,0.9,- W,A*03 One-line trajectories like this can be easily be made by manually creating desired NMEA files. The example above can be taken as a baseline, then edit speed and/or heading fields as required. For the validity of the sentence, the last 2 digits contain a checksum of the data (XOR of all bytes between $ and * symbols) – this checksum must be correct and can be calculated with e.g., this online tool: . Note that the http://www.hhhh.org/wiml/proj/nmeaxor.html NMEA messages, including the checksums, are case sensitive and should be given in UPPERCASE even if the GSG unit (firmware version 3.00 and above) accepts messages in lower case. 3.5.5 Ephemeris The satellite constellations and the transmitted navigation data of each satellite are dynamically built, once you start the scenario or the signal generation. The constellation and the navigation data is based on RINEX data stored in the unit, or uploaded to the unit. The constellation orbits SP3 can be refined by providing precise orbit information in (for details, see below). format CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 44

61 3.5 "Select" Menu GPS and QZSS almanac data may optionally be provided in the form of (for YUMA files details, see below). In addition, SBAS message files are also supported (see "SBAS Satellites" on page 77 and "User-Uploaded Ephemeris" on the next page below for more details). Select Scenario > Configure Select Ephemeris , there are two or three Under the menu item > > options to choose from (as described below), in order to select a source for your scenario nav igation data: Default Download User-uploaded files . Figure 3-6: Ephemeris selection 3.5.5.1 Default Ephemeris CDDIS GNSS archive , using The default RINEX data for GPS and GLONASS is based on the brdc file merges the individual site navigation files into one, the brdc files. The non-redundant and thus can be used instead of the many individual navigation files. This data is complemented by GLONASS almanac data downloaded from , covering the same period (file names are iac.ru/MCC/ALMANAC/ ftp://www.glonass- prefixed by receiver types, e.g. MCCT_ , MCCJ_, GG-24, or TOPCOM_). The default navigation data begins Jan 8, 2012 and runs for 33 consecutive days. For Galileo, BeiDou, and IRNSS, the GSG unit comes shipped with its own ephemeris data set. When the ephemeris setting is set to Default , the GSG unit builds all scenarios, any start date, using the default data. If there is an exact match for the scenario Start time and preloaded nav igation files, that navigation data will be used. If an exact date match is not found, then the GSG unit will use the first preloaded navigation data with the same day of the week as the scen ario’s start time. Further simulation days will use consecutive in date navigation data. In general, the start time of the scenario always supersedes the time stamps in the navigation data files. If file date and scenario start time do not match, then the loaded data is transformed accordingly to match the scenario’s start time. If the scenario defines a GPS almanac files only, the YUMA files will define the almanac and the ephemeris will be derived from the default RINEX data. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 45

62 3.5 "Select" Menu 3.5.5.2 Download Ephemeris The user can let the unit automatically download navigation data from official websites. The navigation data, brdc files and GLONASS almanac files are retrieved from the same sites as mentioned under "Default Ephemeris" on the previous page. For this feature to work, the following requirements must be met: 1. The GSG unit must have access to the Internet. 2. > Interfaces and Refer The correct DNS address must specified, either by setting Options ence > Network > Obtain IP autom. = Yes , or—when using a static IP configuration—by manually entering the correct DNS address. 3. The scenario start time must be in the past. The downloaded navigation data will be locally stored on unit. On subsequent simulations the GSG unit will first look for previously downloaded files before attempting to retrieve them again. Hence once scenarios have run once they can also be replayed at later occasions even if the Internet connection is no longer available. Note, however, that the unit performs automatic clean-up of downloaded files and that this clean-up will occur when free disk space is less than 20% of the total disk space. Download cannot be used in conjunction with Galileo, INRSS and/or BeiDou simulation. The download functionality does not support the downloading of GPS almanac files. Simulate Now ephemeris is used, it is also possible to simulate the current time , provided: When Download a. Simulate Now the license option is installed, and b. the Start Time is set to NTP. In this case, the navigation data will be based on hourly data retrieved from the official GPS ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/gps/data/daily/ ephemeris site . Please note that this functionality is only available for GPS, and that the availability of the data cannot be guaranteed. 3.5.5.3 User-Uploaded Ephemeris RINEX and SP3 files can be uploaded to the unit. Multiple files may be selected. User-specified The uploaded RINEX files will be used to build both constellation, and navigation data for the satellites. If SP3 data is provided, it will override RINEX data for the definition of satellite orbits in the constellation. If no SP3 data is available, the constellation orbits will be built, using provided or built-in RINEX data. The number of RINEX files necessary depends on the scenario’s start time and duration, and must be equal to the total number of simulation days (including start/end days utilizing less than 24 hours). CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 3 46

63 3.5 "Select" Menu In the event that dates for the user-specified data do not match the scenario’s start time, then GSG will transform the start time in order to resolve the conflict. If a satellite system (e.g., GPS, or Galileo) is selected (i.e., number of satellites selected is not 0) and no navigation files are selected for that particular satellite system, then GSG will use default data for that satellite system. The RINEX format support includes version 2.x and 3.0. The file extension for SP3 files must be *.sp3 (not case sensitive). Downloading GPS RINEX files manually: 1. Decide on the start date and time of the scenario, and the duration. 2. Determine the number of files needed to cover the duration. (Each file contains up to 24 hours of information, i.e. midnight to midnight. and select the 3. ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/gps/data/daily/ Go to the website required year, and then the day of year. 4. folder, where XX is the 2-digit year. In the directory for that day of year, choose the XXn 5. folder, select and download the file brdcYYY0.XXn.Z , where XX is the 2-digit In the XXn year and YYY is the 3-digit DOY value. 6. Inside the zipped folder you download is the file to use in the unit. 7. Repeat this procedure for each day you plan on simulating in your scenario. YUMA Optionally, GPS and QZSS almanac data may also be provided in the form of YUMA files, .alm file extension. GPS and QZSS almanac files are identified which are identified by their by a first-letter file naming convention: g*.alm : If the first letter of the file name is a ‘g’, GSG assumes the file contains Galileo satellite almanac data. : If the first letter of the file name is a ‘b’, GSG assumes the file contains b*.alm Beidou satellite almanac data. QZSS satellite q*.alm : If the first letter is ‘q’, then GSG assumes the file contains almanac data. : If the first 2 letters are ‘qg’, then GSG assumes the file contains both GPS, and qg*.alm QZSS satellite almanac data. : If the first letter is anything other than ‘g, b, or q’, GSG assumes the file contains *.alm only GPS almanac data. YUMA almanac data can be used with custom RINEX files, or default ephemeris data. If no cus tom RINEX files are provided, the default data will be used. This allows testing using GPS and QZSS satellites with the same, or different GPS almanac data. The GSG supports multiple GPS and QZSS almanac files. The YUMA almanac is con sidered valid for ±3.5 days from the TOA value (Time-of-almanac) listed in the YUMA almanac. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 47

64 3.5 "Select" Menu The scenario is restricted to start times within this range. If a scenario runs beyond this range of time, no new satellites will be added. If the user specifies a start time outside this range, a dia log will advise the user that the ephemeris and almanac are dates are mismatched. The SCPI " will be logged to indicate this issue for remote control users. error “ Data out of range CNAV CNAV You can also provide a file with messages to be used with GPS and QZSS L2C and L5. The file extension is .cnt (CNAV train), and the file is satellite-specific. The file name conventions are: PRN_y<4digityear>_d_h.cnt e.g., PRNG01_y2013_d105_h14.cnt. Each row of the file should contain: satSys(A1), satid (I2), 1X, year (I2), 1X, month (I2), 1X, date (I2), 1X, hour (I2), 1X, min(I2), 1X, sec (I2), 1X, msgid (I2), 1X, [optional] hexmsg (A76) E x a m p l e : G01 13 04 15 14 00 00 11 8B04B4ED919863A6671F473A31412695EFF3C 026C0209FF07D601F775FEFE1FF987800000000 The hexmsg part is optional, and if not provided, it will be generated by GSG. This enables for users to specify only the order of messages. The messages are used in a circular manner, i.e. after the last message is sent, the first message will be sent again. The starting message is selected based on scenario start time, i.e., it can be one of the middle messages in case scenario starts later than the time of the first message. Since the same file is used for L2C and L5 message trains which have different message dur ation, only the timestamp of the first message is relevant to decide the starting message. The week number and tow, as well as CRC, are recalculated by GSG. SBAS SBAS message files must follow the following file naming conventions so that GSG can recog nize them: PRN*.ems For EGNOS: For WAAS: Geo* SBAS message files do not need to be transformed to the scenario date as all timing is relative, i.e. a message file downloaded for a particular date can be used also with any other scenario start date. ANTEX CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 48

65 3.5 "Select" Menu You may also specify an .atx . It con ANTEX file to be used in simulation. The file extension is tains satellite antenna phase center offsets and phase center variations. When present, this information is used for improving satellite range calculation. Note: For GLONASS, matching ephemeris and almanac files must be specified (only the 2- line AGL format is supported, see ftp://ftp.glonass- iac.ru/MCC/FORMAT/Format.agl ). In addition, GLONASS almanac files must (i.e., a date must be provided at the end of the file be named *YYMMDD.agl name). Note: The GLONASS data at this publicly available FTP site is known to contain errors. These can cause the GSG to generate signals that are deemed ‘bad’ by a receiver and may not be used in a fix or for navigation. This data is not main tained by Spectracom and is not guaranteed. Note: The GPS and QZSS almanac files specified must comply with the YUMA file format and match the first 5 characters exactly for field identification. The spacing to the rightmost column of data must be preserved. If the file fails to be processed, verify that the Af0 and the Af1 lines do not contain a space between these pre Af0(s/s) , not Af0 (s/s) . fixes and the (s/s). For example, the line must be RINEX data files in most cases must be full day files. However, when GPS Note: almanac files are provided, the RINEX records can be of shorter duration. RINEX files of less than a day duration without supporting GPS and QZSS YUMA almanac files are limited to start times times only after 1400 hours, and may oper ate for limited times. 3.5.6 Leap Second Select > [Select Scenario] > Configure [selected scenario]: To set a leap second, navigate to > . View 2/3 LS: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 49

66 3.5 "Select" Menu Figure 3-7: Leap second configuration The leap second field can be set to -1, 0 or 1, and indicates a future change in the leap second value. While the Δ is set automatically based on information in the used ephemeris data, the t LS value given in the leap second field will impact values related to LSF (Leap Seconds Future). If the leap second value is set to a value other than zero The following values will be used: t = Δ Δ t + value given in the leap second field LS LSF WN = The GPS week number (eight bit representation) of the week that includes the 30th of LSF June, or 31st of December, which-ever comes first with respect to the scenario start time. DN = Day number of the date described above. If the leap second is set to zero The following values will be used: t t = Δ Δ LS LSF WN = WN – 1 LS LSF DN = 1 Considerations Note that downloaded and default navigation data files do not contain any LSF information (RINEX v2.1). Therefore it is still necessary to set the LSF when a leap second change will occur, in order to ensure correct behavior. The default UTC/GPS offset currently is set to 17 seconds Options > Interface and reference: Network > Network configuration: NTP server ). (see 3.5.7 Event Data Events can be used to introduce changes into a running scenario. Events can be used to change the power levels of satellites, to control multipath settings, and to control navigation bits, e.g. simulating bit errors in the navigation message. Events are captured in event files. Each line of an event file describes one event, using one of the following formats: CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 50

67 3.5 "Select" Menu TIME {scenario | prn SATID | channel NUMBER} relpower 1. RELPOWER TIME {scenario | prn SATID | channel NUMBER} abspower 2. on|off|ABSPOWER TIME {prn SATID | channel NUMBER} duplicate RELRANGE 3. RELDOPPLER RELPOWER EFFECTIVETIME [CHTARGET] TIME {prn SATID | channel NUMBER} multipath RELRANGE 4. RANGECHANGE RANTEINTERVAL RELDOPPLER DOPPLERCHANGE DOPPLERINTERVAL RELPOWER POWERCHANGE POWERINTERVAL [INSTANCE] TIME {prn SATID | channel NUMBER} delete [INSTANCE] 5. TIME prn SATID navbits SIGTYPE SFID PAGEID STARTBITPOS 6. ENDBITPOS HEXSTRING REPEAT CRCFLAG PRINTFLAG All formats begin with a time tag (TIME), which is the time of application for the event, meas ured as seconds passed since the scenario Start Time. Events which apply to all satellites use the scenario keyword. Events which apply to a specific satellite indicate this by specifying channel NUMBER or prn SATID values. format, relpower , defines a change in the power level for the scenario or a The first satellite identified by SATID or channel number. format, abspower , sets the absolute power for the scenario or a satellite The second identified by SATID or channel number The format, duplicate , generates a duplicate signal from a given satellite, using third a specified delay, Doppler and power level. Duplicate channels require 60 seconds to be created, and are introduced at fixed 30-second intervals. Only 4 Duplicate satellites are allowed to be created at a time. Duplicate events closer together than 4 seconds are spread apart automatically to maintain 4 second separation. para CHTARGET SBAS and Interference satellites cannot be duplicated. The optional meter specifies the channel to be used. If the channel is used by a satellite, this satellite will be disabled, and the multipath satellite replaces it. If the CHTARGET parameter is not specified, the multipath satellite will be created in the first unused channel. Multipath, SBAS and interference/jamming channels cannot be duplicated. format, The , modifies the multipath parameters of a satellite. If the fourth multipath satellite is not a duplicate, it becomes a duplicate satellite, which is reflected in its SATID . SBAS and interference/jamming channels cannot have their multipath para meters modified. fifth format, delete , deletes a satellite. If the satellite is not a multipath duplicate, it The will typically automatically re-appear after 1 to 2 minutes. SBAS and inter ference/jamming channels cannot be deleted. sixth format, navbits , sets bits in a navigation message . The ENDBITPOS- The of the HEXSTRING are used to replace the bits between STARTBITPOS+1 LSB CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 51

68 3.5 "Select" Menu STARTBITPOS ENDBITPOS , so that the ENDBITPOS is aligned with the LSB of and HEXSTRING . the > length ( ENDBITPOS-STARTBITPOS+1 HEXSTRING HEXSTRING Should ), the and STARTBITPOS will be used as a repeating pattern to replace the bits between ENDBITPOS . Multiple navbits events may be applied to the same message. Note that a navbits event is applied to the first message from the event and PAGEID spe TIME with the SFID the bit count starts with MSB , whereas for cified in the event. For , the count GPS Glonass LSB starts with . Only GPS and GLONASS are currently supported. The units for the event parameters are: in seconds since scenario start time TIME is a satellite ID. The format explained in protocol documentation. SATID NUMBER is the channel number. Range depends on GSG model. RELPOWER relative change in power settings specified in dB absolute value for power settings specified in dBm ABSPOWER RELRANGE is the relative range delay in meters. RELDOPPLER is the relative Doppler offset in meters/sec. numerical number. Reserved for future use. EFFECTIVETIME is the channel number to where the duplicate is put. Range depends on CHTARGET GSG model. is the change in range over RANGEINTERVAL RANGECHANGE . Specified in meters. RANGECHANGE is the time period in which the is updated. Spe RANGEINTERVAL cified in seconds to the tenth of seconds accuracy. DOPPLERCHANGE is the change of Doppler in meters/sec . DOPPLERINTERVAL is updated. is the time period in which the DOPPLERCHANGE Specified in seconds. POWERCHANGE is the change in power over POWERINTERVAL . Specified in dB. is the time period in which the POWERCHANGE is updated. Spe POWERINTERVAL cified in seconds. INSTANCE SATID we want to act on. If several identifies which instance [1..8] of SATID INSTANCE can be used to identify a (duplicate) satellites exist with the same , particular duplicate satellite. is one of the signal types supported by the satellite. Allowed values are: SIGTYPE L1CA, GPSL1CA, L1P, GPSL1P, L1PY, GPSL1PY, L1CAP, GPSL1CAP, L1CAPY, GPSL1CAPY, L2P, GPSL2P, L2PY, GPSL2PY, L2C, GPSL2C, L5, GPSL5, L1, GLOL1, L2, GLOL2 CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 52

69 3.5 "Select" Menu SFID is a subframe ID (with GPSL1 and L2P signals) a message type (with L2C and L5 signals) a frame ID (with Glonass) is PAGEID a page ID (with GPSL1 and L2P signals) 0 (not relevant) when the subframe ID is 1-3 0 (not relevant) with L2C and L5 signals a string idID (with Glonass). ENDBITPOS are positions of bits in a navigation message. STARTBITPOS , is a bit pattern to be set in the message. HEXSTRING REPEAT set to 0, if the modification should be applied only once set to 1, if the modification should be repeated on every message. CRCFLAG set to 0, if CRC/parity is not to be corrected after the modification CRC/parity needs to be corrected after the bit modification. set to 1, if PRINTFLAG set to 0, if the modified message does not to be logged (default) set to 1, if the modified message needs to be logged in the execution log. Note that the message is logged only once, even if the modification is repeated on every message (repeat flag is 1). PROPENV See "Propagation Environment Models" on page 64. An example event file containing all five formats with explanations is shown below: 1.0 channel 7 relpower -3 2.0 prn G32 abspower -110.5 3.0 scenario abspower off 4.0 scenario abspower on 5.0 scenario relpower 2 10.0 prn G9 duplicate 30.0 -0.01 -8.3 0 CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 53

70 3.5 "Select" Menu 10.0 channel 6 duplicate 30.0 -0.01 -8.3 0 11.0 channel 6 multipath 35.0 0.01 1.0 0.0 0.0 0 -10.0 0.0 0 11.0 prn G9D multipath 25.0 0.01 1.5 0.0 0.0 0 -15.0 0.0 0 12.0 prn G1 navbits L1CA 1 0 77 77 1 0 0 170.0 channel 6 delete 180.0 channel G9D delete 1.0 seconds into the scenario the power level of the satellite in channel 7 will be atten uated by 3.0 dB. At 2.0 seconds, the absolute power for GPS PRN 32 is set to to -110.5 dBm. At 3.0 seconds, the signal transmissions for all satellites are turned off. At 4.0 seconds, the power settings for all signals are restored. 5.0 seconds into the scenario, the power level of all satellites is increased by 2.0 dB. At 10.0 seconds, a duplicate of the GPS PRN 9 satellite is created: The range of the duplicate signal is delayed by 30.0 meters, it has a Doppler offset of -0.01 m/s and a power level that is 8.3 dB lower than the original signal. At 10.0 seconds, a duplicate of the satellite in channel 6 is created: The range of the duplicate signal is delayed by 30.0 meters, it has a Doppler offset of -0.01 m/s and a power level that is 8.3 dB lower than the original signal. At 11.0 seconds, the multipath settings of the newly created duplicate, identified by its channel number 6, is modified: The satellite will have a 35 meter range offset, increas ing with 1cm/s. It will have its power attenuated by 10 dB. At 11.0 seconds, the multipath settings of the newly created duplicate, identified by its SATID ‘G9D’, are modified: The satellite will have a 25 meter range offset, increasing with 1.5cm/s. It will have its power attenuated by 15 dB. After 12.0 seconds, the MSB is set to 1 in 6-bit health (bits 77-82) in the first GPS L1CA message with subframe ID 1 sent by satellite G1. After 170.0 seconds the channel number 6 duplicate is deleted. After 180.0 seconds the G9D duplicate is deleted. Note: Several Events can occur at the same epoch. If so, any PRN/channel event overrules scenario events, see example below. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 54

71 3.5 "Select" Menu E X A M P L E : The output power of channel 1 is set to -142.0 dBm, while all other channels are transmitted with an output power of -147.0 dBm. 4.0 scenario abspower -147.0 4.0 channel 1 abspower -142.0 settings of events overrule the setting specified Note also that Transmit power abspower Transmit power , while observing the external attenuation settings. Options under > is not permitted. Duplicating a satellite at time 00.00 3.5.8 Antenna Settings Several antenna-related settings can be configured to allow for optimal scenario simulation: antenna gain pattern, lever arm, and elevation mask. Select [Select Scenario] > To configure these settings, navigate to: Configure Scenario: View 2/3: Antenna . 3.5.8.1 Antenna model antenna gain pattern can be specified for each scenario, using a set of pre-defined The , or by utilizing a user-specified file. The built-in antenna models assume an antenna models omni-directional gain pattern where the maximum gain is to be found towards the zenith. The pre-defined antenna models are: Zero model : Isotropic antenna with a gain of 0 dBic towards all directions. This is the default. Patch TOKO DAK Series patch antenna with maximum gain : Gain pattern approximates +5 dBic. Size of the patch is 25 x 25 mm and ground plane 70 x 70 mm. : Gain pattern approximates Sarantel SL1200 (GeoHelix-P2) antenna pattern with Helix maximum gain -2.8 dBic. This is a small helix antenna designed to be embedded in handheld devices e.g. mobile phones. See http://www.sarantel.com for details. : Gain pattern 1+sin (elevation) with maximum gain +3 dBic. Cardioid CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 55

72 3.5 "Select" Menu GPS-703-GGG Novatel’s GPS-703-GGG antenna with max : Gain pattern approximates www.novatel.com for details. imum gain of +5.7 dBic. See The format used to describe gain patterns is the FEKO pattern file format version 6.1, Far Field format, File Format 2.0. Gain patterns for various frequencies are to be included in the same file as separate Solution Blocks. The GSG units expect the result type to be either or Dir Gain ectivity , and enforces a maximum value of 50 for the No. of Theta/Phi Samples, with 36 as the recommended choice yielding a 5/10 degree resolution on elevation/azimuth. The first line of the antenna file is expected to define the File Type. The GSG defines phi 0 degrees, i.e. the x-axis of phi, to point towards the north direction. 3.5.8.2 Lever arm lever arm can be specified to separate the antenna position from the body mass center of A the vehicle: All trajectory movements in the simulation will act on the body mass center of the vehicle. By default the antenna is located in this the body mass center position, pointing not located in the body mass center position, a upward. To specify that the receiver antenna is lever arm can be configured. The lever arm settings specify the relative position change in the form of (x, y, z) along the body axis of the vehicle frame, where the coordinate system XYZ is aligned with the body mass center frame. At the start of a scenario, the X-axis corresponds to the east/west axes of the frame and the nose is pointing to the north. ENU The X-axis has a positive direction towards the right side of the sensor. The Y-axis has a pos itive direction towards the front of the sensor. The Z-axis has a positive direction towards the top of the sensor. For more information on vehicle modeling, see "Environment models" on page 64. 3.5.8.3 Elevation mask The specifies how low GNSS satellites will be simulated. The elevation mask is elevation mask set to zero by default. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 56

73 3.5 "Select" Menu Figure 3-8: Elevation mask A receiver typically has a higher elevation mask and it will not use any satellite below the elev ation angle of its set mask. The recommended setting is to set the elevation mask of GSG to a value equal or less than that of the device under test. In order to conserve channels by not generating signals the GNSS receiver will not use in its fix, the elevation mask in the GSG can be set to a slightly higher value. This is especially import ant with, e.g., GSG-52/53 Series units, or GSG-5 models equipped with 4-channels. 3.5.9 Advanced Configuration Options 3.5.9.1 Multipath Signals A multipath signal is a GNSS signal bouncing off a reflective surface prior to reaching the GNSS receiver antenna. Quite likely, this causes many of the same signals to arrive at the receiver at different times. The receiver then needs to determine which of the signals are received directly. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 57

74 3.5 "Select" Menu Figure 3-9: Multipath signals in urban environment Select > > Configure Scenario, To configure a multipath signal, navigate to Select Scenario , and specify a number greater than zero for . View 2/3: Advanced Multipath signals Note: Your GSG unit requires free channel(s) available, in order to allow for the creation and configuration of a (several) new multipath signal(s). enter to display the first configuration view for the first Multipath signal (the number of Press views equals the number of signals you specified.) Figure 3-10: Multipath signal configuration view The following multipath parameters are configurable: Satellite This specifies which satellite is to be duplicated by the multipath signal. The value spe cified is a running number starting from 1 to the number of satellites defined to be in the scenario. ‘1’ would mean that we will duplicate the satellite in the first position when scenario starts. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 58

75 3.5 "Select" Menu Range Offset : The Range (or: Code) offset in meters. For a multipath signal this value should typ ically be positive, meaning that the travelled distance of the signal will be longer than that of the original or line-of-sight (LOS) signal. Change : Change in range offset, given in meters / Interval Interval : Specify change interval in seconds to the nearest tenth second. Doppler : The offset in Doppler in centimeters/seconds Offset Change : Change in Doppler offset, given in centimeters/seconds/Interval Interval : Specifying change interval in seconds. About Range Offset and Doppler The code (range offset) and Doppler are connected 1-to-1 and cannot be controlled separately in a conflicting manner. For example, a Range Change of 0.019 m/s with Interval ‘1’ has the same effect as specifying Doppler to 1.9 cm/s and leaving all Change/Interval settings at 0. When both code, and range, and possible change/intervals are specified, the cumulative effect of all things specified will be simulated. To simulate, e.g., a carrier phase offset that is static relative the LOS signal, please specify the code offset (to, e.g., 0.095 meter) at start and set all Code and Doppler settings to zero. Random CP The carrier phase offset can also be randomized on startup by setting the ‘Multipath random CP” to ‘On’ in the GSG menu (or ‘RandomMpCP’ keyword in the configuration file). Power : The offset in output Power in dB Offset Change : Change in Power offset, given in dB / Interval Interval : Specifying change interval in seconds. If the interval is zero, the offsets will be set at startup and remain static. Considerations: SBAS and interference/jamming channels cannot be duplicated. The Change/Interval effect will be interpolated. If the initial interval is zero, the offsets will be set at startup and remain static. In a multi-frequency constellation, the multipath configuration will apply to all active bands. To match the multipath conditions as specified in the LTE/3GPPS A-GNSS test spe cification, for GPS the following settings should be used: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 59

76 3.5 "Select" Menu Range Offset 150 m Doppler Offset 1.9 cm/s Power Offset -6dB Multipath random CP: ON. key to configure the next multipath signal, when several multipath signals are con Press the view figured. Press the exit key to save your multipath configuration. 3.5.9.2 Interference signals Note: The Interference feature is only available with GSG-5, GSG-55, GSG-56 and GSG-6 Series products. Some features are only available when OPT-JAM is ). "List of Available Options" on page 197 enabled in the unit (see Spectracom GSG-Series simulators can generate GNSS interference signals to test GNSS receiver performance. To configure an interference signal, navigate to Select > Select Scen > ario . Configure Scenario, View 2/3: Advanced: Interference Signals After specifying the desired number of interference signals (using the keys), UP/DOWN arrow enter press to display the first interference signal configuration view (the total number of views depends on how many interference signal you specified): Figure 3-11: Interference configuration view The following parameters can be configured: Signal type You can configure any signal type your GSG unit is licensed for (un-licensed signal types are grayed out). CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 60

77 3.5 "Select" Menu Figure 3-12: Interference signal type configuration view The interference signal type can be: : L1CA, L1P, L2P, L1P(Y), L2P(Y), GPS carrier, SBAS GPS : L1, L2 or GLONASS carrier GLONASS E1, E5a, E5b or a Galileo carrier Galileo: BeiDou : B1,B2 or BeiDou B1,B2 carrier signal : L1CA or QZSS L1 carrier signal. QZSS If your GSG unit supports jamming simulations (OPT-JAM), sweep and narrowband noise are available as interference types. Mode in the lower right-hand corner allows to further manipulate the interference signal by offering the following options: : standard signal type (default) Modulated Navipedia: GNSS PRN for more information) : Pseudo-Random Noise (see e.g., signal Unmodulated : carrier signal (carrier) (OPT-JAM only): A dialog is shown asking for startOffset, endOffset, and Sweep Sweep-Time. Noise (OPT-JAM only): A dialog is shown asking for startOffset, endOffset and Sweep Time. Offsets are used to specify the bandwidth and position of the sweep/noise related to the selected signal frequencies. The range of offsets is ±40 MHz, but can be less when the scenario is executed since signals are not centered in the middle of a frequency band. Note: Noise interference is not available if wide band noise is set to ON under the Options > Transmit power menu. Satellite ID/Frequency slot Satellite ID must be For GPS, SBAS, Galileo, GLONASS, BeiDou, IRNSS and QZSS signals, the specified. Frequency slot For GLONASS carrier signals the must be specified. In some instances, this field is not applicable, and will be grayed out (e.g., GPS carrier). CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 61

78 3.5 "Select" Menu Frequency offset The frequency offset refers to nominal frequency of the selected signal/frequency slot. Power, Position It is possible to simulate a location-based jamming signal by specifying a position for it. Loca and to calculate the tion-based jamming simulation utilizes the jamming signal position power, distance from the simulated position, applying the path loss formula given earlier in this doc ument (see "Signal Power Level Considerations" on page 23) to calculate the power of the received jamming signal. As the scenario position moves closer to the location of the jamming transmitter, the jamming power increases, and vice versa. When configuring a location-based jamming source, the distance to the scenario start position and the jamming coverage are shown, in order to assist you in designing a reasonable jam ming test configuration. Figure 3-13: Configuring the position of a jamming source Note that the jamming power can be set to +60 dBm, whereas the maximum GSG power level is -65 dBm. Example The figure below shows a configuration of a sweeper interference signal for the L1, L2 and L5 bands (OPT-JAM installed). Figure 3-14: Configured sweeper signal 3.5.9.3 Base station This feature allows you to configure a Base station , as it is typically used for high-precision pos itioning, e.g. in surveying applications: A receiver in a fixed and known position tracks the CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 62

79 3.5 "Select" Menu same satellites the mobile receiver ("rover") does, and in real-time transmits corrective pos itioning data to the receiver in the rover via a radio transmission stream. Base station feature can only be enabled with GSG 6-Series units that have the Real-Time The Kinematics Option installed (OPT-RTK, see "List of Available Options" on page 197.) To configure a "virtual" Base station, which supports the output of RTCM differential data to be Select > Select Scenario > Configure Scenario, used as input by a rover receiver, navigate to View 2/3: Advanced: Base Station . Figure 3-15: Base station configured in Advanced submenu option for Base station , the configuration view will be displayed: Once you selected the On Configure the position of the base station and the RTCM messages to be output by it. Figure 3-16: Base station configuration dialog The following Base station settings can be reviewed/configured: RTCM version The RTCM SC-104 version currently supported is Ver. 3.2. This cannot be changed. For more information on RTCM standards, see: www.navipedia.net/index.php/RTK_ Standards . Message type Message types 1002, 1004, 1006, 1010, 1012 and 1033 are supported. Latitude, Longitude, Altitude Enter the base station coordinates, using latitude, longitude, and altitude. As with Start position coordinates, the format key can be used to switch between different coordinate formats. Once a scenario is running, and the base station has been activated, the SCPI command can be used to query the GSG for the latest RTCM messages (update SOUR:SCEN:RTCM? rate of 1Hz), as previously configured. The output will be a hexadecimal string. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 63

80 3.5 "Select" Menu 3.5.9.4 Environment models signal obscuration . (This feature is supported as Environmental Models allow GSG to simulate of software versions 6.1 and higher). Scenarios utilizing signal obscuration simulate the blocking of GNSS signals by objects placed along the trajectory route. Typical use cases are the simulation of urban "canyons", tunnels, etc. compressed keyhole markup lan Environmental models in GSG simulators are supported through files (kmz), popularized by Google Earth™. A simple way to create these files is by guage using the 3D drawing tool SketchUp™, available from Trimble Navigation Limited: www.sketchup.com . Two kinds of models can be configured in a scenario, Vehicle model and Environment model: Environment model An environment model is a 3D model of the environment, e.g., buildings, ground, etc. All envir added to them before they can be used for sim onment models used must have a geo-location ulation purposes. Vehicle model A vehicle model represents a 3D model of the vehicle. The vehicle model will move with the sim ulated trajectory. The body center of a simulated vehicle will be in the origin position of the model, and all trajectory movements defined in the simulation will act on the body center. The vehicle model should be placed so that its nose points to the north. The vehicle model will also follow any pitch/roll/yaw movements simulated, i.e. if the vehicle model rolls by 90 degrees, half of the sky is likely to be blocked by the vehicle itself (depending on vehicle model used). The antenna position oftentimes is not in the same location as the vehicle body center position. In the simulation, this can be adjusted by configuring the lever arm values (see "Lever arm" on page 56). The antenna position can also be specified in the vehicle model file by adding a component named RecAnt . In the event that both lever arm, and RecAnt are set, the receiver antenna pos ition as set in the Vehicle model takes precedence. The vehicle model does not need a geo-loc ation. If a satellite is blocked by an object from either environment or vehicle model, i.e. it is not vis ible by the receiver antenna, its power will be set to OFF. GSG can successfully handle vehicle models with up to 130 triangles. Models should be optim ized for a low polygon count. The triangle count is limited to a total of 300 for the combined environment and vehicle models. Vehicle For additional information, see the Spectracom Technical Note . Modeling Propagation Environment Models Built-in signal propagation models can be used to simulate multipath propagation in rural, sub- urban and urban areas. Used propagation models are specified in ITU-R Recommendation CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 64

81 3.5 "Select" Menu M.1225, “ Guidelines for evaluation of radio transmission technologies for IMT-2000 ” (see Section 2.1.4 Parameters of the wideband models). The document is available on the ITU website http://www.itu.int/rec/R- ( M.1225/en ). REC- The ITU model corresponds to a tapped-delay line structure with a fixed number of taps: 3 taps in rural and sub-urban environments and 5 taps in an urban environment. The first tap (i.e. the direct path) may be either Rice or Rayleigh fading, corresponding to LOS and NLOS situations, respectively. The other taps are always Rayleigh fading. The ITU model describes multipath propagation for a single satellite either in a LOS or NLOS situation. Propagation environment model generates multipath taps for the entire satellite con stellation. Based on the satellite elevation angle, the satellites are divided into three zones, as illustrated below: Open Sky, Multipath Zone, Obstruction Zone Figure 3-17: ITU multipath propagation model Satellites above the Open Sky limit are not affected by multipath propagation. Multipath Zone (elevation angle between Obstruction Limit and Open Sky Limit) Satellites in the are considered LOS signals, but affected by multipath propagation. The ITU model for LOS situ ation is used for these satellites. Obstruction Zone (elevation angle below Obstruction Limit), the direct signal For satellites in the path may be obstructed, e.g., by a building. This is modelled by giving a probability for an NLOS situation. With the given probability, the simulator classifies satellites as NLOS and takes the ITU model for the NLOS situation into use. The NLOS situation changes only when a satellite leaves the Obstruction Zone. Elevation mask setting Note that, in addition to the two elevation limits mentioned above, the applies to the simulation as normally. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 65

82 3.5 "Select" Menu The Propagation environment is defined by the (open/rural/sub-urban/ environment type urban) and three parameters: Open sky limit, Obstruction limit and NLOS probability. Default values for the parameters in each environment type are given in the table below. The Open environment type is the default, meaning that all satellites assume free-space propaga tion. Propagation environment type parameters Table 3-1: NLOS probability Environment Obstruction limit Open sky limit Rural 15° 0.1 20° 30° Suburban 40° 0.2 60° 0.3 Urban 40° scenario The Propagation environment model is taken into use by setting an event . If stated without parameters, the default parameter values given above will be propenv used. In this case the format of the even line is: TIME scenario propenv {open|rural|suburban|urban} For more information on Note: , see "Event Data" on page 50 . Event simulation Alternatively, parameter values can be provided in the format: TIME scenario propenv {rural|suburban|urban} OPENSKYLIMIT OBSTRUCTIONLIMIT NLOSPROBABILITY Example 0.0 scenario propenv suburban 300.0 scenario propenv urban 600.0 scenario propenv urban 90.0 60.0 0.75 The example event file above will create a simulation starting from sub-urban environment (default parameters). After five minutes the simulation changes to an urban environment (default parameters) and after ten minutes to a highly obstructed urban environment where open sky satellites do not exist (open sky limit at 90 degrees), and satellites below 60 degrees elevation are likely to be NLOS (NLOS probability 0.75). The Propagation environment model can be defined in the scenario configuration by using the Scenario editor in . StudioView The Propagation environment model can also be set by using the corresponding SCPI com mands (see "SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv" on page 253). When using the Propagation environment model, note that: CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 66

83 3.5 "Select" Menu It takes 1 minute to create multipath taps during simulation. Therefore the time interval between switching the environment model should be more than one minute. scenario propenv must be stated without parameters, or alternatively The Event with all three parameters specified. Valid ranges for the parameter values are: : 0.0 to 90.0 (degrees) OPENSKYLIMIT : 0.0 to OPENSKYLIMIT (degrees) OBSTRUCTIONLIMIT : 0.0 to 1.0 NLOSPROBABILITY It is possible that all multipath taps cannot be created because of limited number of chan nels available. The Tap number defines the precedence of tap creation (direct path first, and then second tap etc.) The maximum number of satellites to be simulated should be set to a fixed value. If any satellite system is set to ‘ Auto ’, no new duplicate channel can be created while the scen ario is running. The number of multipath signals should be set to zero. When using the Propagation environment model, the simulator automatically assigns the multipath channels. Fading satellite signals (i.e. all satellites below the Open sky limit) are indicated by the letter ‘ ’ next to the satellite number in the satellite information display when the scenario F is running. Created multipath taps (taps 2 to 5) are indicated by letter ‘ D ’. 3.5.9.5 Atmospheric model Atmospheric conditions have an effect on the propagation of GNSS signals, and as such can be an error source. GSG allows for these effects to be simulated, by applying tropospheric and ionospheric models to a scenario. To configure these models, navigate to: Select > Configure scenario, View 2/3 > Advanced > [Select Scenario] > Atmospheric . model Iono model The GSG unit comes with built-in support for a model of the ionosphere. By default the used model is a reverse model of the model described in IS-GPS-200D, Section 20.3.3.5.2.5, called . Klobuchar The a0-3 and b0-3 parameters set in the default model are set by the used navigation data files. When set to , no delays caused by the ionosphere are used in the simulation. Off Under normal testing conditions, the Klobuchar ionosphere model should be used. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 67

84 3.5 "Select" Menu Note: The GSG also supports simulation of ionosphere delays using files in the IONEX format. Tropo model A number of tropospheric models are supported by the device. These are: Saastamoinen model. The model is based on Saastamoinen, J., 'Atmospheric Correction for the Troposphere and Stratosphere in Radio Ranging of Satellites,' The Use of Arti ficial Satellites for Geodesy, Geophysics Monograph Series, Vol. 15., American Geo physical Union, 1972 Black model. The model is based on Black H., ‘An Easily Implemented Algorithm for the Tropospheric Range Correction’, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, 1978 Goad&Goodman , a tropospheric model based on Goad and Goodman(1974), "A Modified Hopfield Tropospheric Refraction Correction Model", 1974 model. The model is based on NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) STANAG Doc. 4294, Appendix 6. The tropospheric model can also be set to Off , and no troposperic delays are used in sim should be used. ulation. Under normal testing conditions, one of the tropospheric model The tropospheric model also allows for the temperature, pressure and humidity to be con figured: : to be specified in degrees Celsius Temperature pressure : in millibars Atmospheric Humidity : relative humidity in percent. The graph below illustrates the delays for the different models available, using default values for environmental conditions. Note that the troposheric delay added to satellites with low elevation angles are ‘capped’ at a maximum value. The capping delay value and the elevation angle are a function of the model used. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 68

85 3.5 "Select" Menu Figure 3-18: Tropospheric delay vs. elevation angle 3.5.10 Satellite Configuration Depending on the model and configuration of your GSG unit, and the scenario chosen, several satellite systems can be simulated in a scenario, each of which you may want to configure in accordance with the requirements for your receiver-under-test. The illustration below shows the configuration of GPS-based satellites as an example: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 69

86 3.5 "Select" Menu Figure 3-19: GPS satellite configuration Select > > Con To access the first satellite configuration view, navigate to [Select scenario] . figure scenario: View 3/3 The following satellite-relevant settings can be configured: , e.g., GPS, Glonass (see "Satellite Systems" below) Satellite System Number of satellites simulated for a given satellite system (see "Number of Satellites" on the facing page) Signal Type , e.g., L1, L2 (see "Frequency Bands and Signal De-/Activation" on the facing page) Satellite Constellation [GPS: "block"] (see "Satellite Constellations" on page 73) Encryption (see "Encryption" on page 76) SBAS/Augmentation (see "SBAS Satellites" on page 77) 3.5.10.1 Satellite Systems The following navigation satellite systems can be simulated by GSG-series constellation sim ulators, depending on unit configuration, see also "GSG Series Model Variants and Options" on page 194: GPS USA; globally operating system, very accurate, regular modernization and upgrading GLONASS Russia; globally operating system, works independently from US military con trolled system; combination of Glonsass + GPS solves "urban canyon" problem GALILEO Europe; globally operating system; yet, not fully operational as of summer 2015; high-quality signals, multiple uses CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 70

87 3.5 "Select" Menu BEIDOU China; regional system (Asia); planned global expansion; open system QZSS Japan; regional system IRNSS India; regional system 3.5.10.2 Number of Satellites The maximum number of satellites to be simulated by GSG in a given scenario is specified sep arately for each available GNSS system. (For SBAS, see "SBAS Satellites" on page 77). To edit the number of satellites for a GNSS system, navigate to: > [ Select Scenario ] > Select View 3/3 Configure Scenario Satellite System ]: Enter a number"Number of Satellites" : > [ above The theoretical maximum number of satellites that can be simulated is 64, but this number also depends on: license and used (number of available channels ) The GSG model frequency bands are used, e.g., if 64 channels are available, 64 GNSS L1 How many satellite signals can be simulated, or, e.g., 32 L1/L2 satellite signals. (Note that GPS L2 and L2C are using separate channels, as are the Galileo bands E5a and E5b.) , i.e. GSG will determine the number of satellites simulated at any Auto The default setting is given time during scenario execution. Auto mode, not all satellites will be Note: If GSG runs out of free channels when in simulated. 3.5.10.3 Frequency Bands and Signal De-/Activation When testing GNSS receivers, it is oftentimes required to test for multi-frequency, multi-con stellation performance. All of the four major GNSS systems, i.e. GPS, Glonass, Galileo, and BeiDou, transmit numerous signals across several frequencies, but through international cooper ation, these frequency bands have been coordinated: The RF signals transmitted from satellites of different constellation systems... ... are transmitted on frequencies close to each other, yet they do not interfere with each other ... can be decoded by one receiver (if supported by the receiver manufacturer) ... can be grouped into four main bands. These four frequency bands are: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 71

88 3.5 "Select" Menu Frequency Bands Constellation 2 3 1 4 L2/L2C L1 L5 GPS L1 L2 Glonass E5 E6 E1 Galileo B1 B2 B3 BeiDou For multi-frequency, multi-constellation testing it is suggested to test any of the constellations, fre quency bands, or any combination together. The following frequency bands can be generated (GSG-configuration dependent): For GPS: L1CA L1P L2P L2C L5 P(Y): Pseudo encryption For Glonass: L1 L2 For Galileo: E1 E5A E5B For BeiDou: B1 B2 For QZSS: C/A CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 72

89 3.5 "Select" Menu SAIF L2C L5 Active Signals Frequency bands can be turned ON/OFF separately, so as to configure which types of RF sig nals specific to each supported satellite system shall be active/inactive when a scenario is run ning. Depending on the configuration of your GSG unit, all of the frequency bands listed above can be turned ON/OFF. > [ Select Scenario ] > Configure Scenario : To turn ON/OFF a signal band, navigate to: Select Satellite System View 3/3 > [ ]: Enter a number of satellites > 1 (see "Number of Satellites" on page 71). satellite constellation (see "Satellite Constellations" below) must be configured accordingly, The in order to allow for, e.g., the L2C band to be simulated. In other words, if you chose to dis able satellites that can generate this signal, it will not be generated, even if you activate the sig nal. Hence, it is recommended to leave all signal types ON (default), thereby letting the configured satellite type determine which RF signals are active. for turning OFF the transmission of individual frequency bands are: Use cases simulating a one-band antenna reserving the maximum number of channels for other requirements (e.g., L1-only trans mission) Considerations: Altering active RF signals will not alter the navigation message. Hence from a receiver point of view, choosing to de-active L2 and L5 will mimic the situation of using a single band (L1) antenna. Settings are GNSS-specific, not satellite-specific. For GLONASS, C/A code is always used. 3.5.10.4 Satellite Constellations Once existing GNSS satellites of a satellite system in orbit are being replaced by new, more generation , or historic con modern satellite types, the satellites are often categorized by their . In the case of the GPS system, these constellations are named by their numbers, stellation block e.g., "IIA". CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 73

90 3.5 "Select" Menu Note: GPS and Glonass . Other The functionality described below only applies to installed satellite systems, such as Galileo, still have their first generation of satel lites in orbit. GSG offers three options to configure satellite constellations: I. Default setting refers to the constellation state for April 22, 2015. The II. Constellation-wide setting of the satellite generation, e.g., by setting all GPS satellites to : Block IIR-M Assigning one constellation block to all satellites Figure 3-20: To access this configuration view: 1. > [ Select Scenario ] > Configure Scenario : View 3/3 Select Navigate to 2. Satellite System enter a number of satellites Next to the desired greater than "0", or (see "Number of Satellites" on page 71), and press Enter to open the first Auto RIGHT arrow configuration view, then the key to open View 2/2. Note: The G## numbers refer to the individual GPS satellites (Glonass satel R## ). lites are named III. Explicitly the constellation for each individual satellite, using GSG StudioView: specify CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 74

91 3.5 "Select" Menu Figure 3-21: GPS Constellation configuration (StudioView) This functionality may be required for the configuration of scenarios taking place in the past, or 'What-if' scenarios. Consider the following when configuring satellite constellations: navigation message to mimic the type The selected satellite constellation will impact the of simulated satellite. The satellite type will also impact the types of RF signals generated (see "Frequency to be trans Bands and Signal De-/Activation" on page 71), i.e. for the signal type L2C mitted, the satellite type must be Block IIR-M (or higher), for L5 to be transmitted, the satel lite type must be of type Block IIF (or higher), etc. Possible settings are: For GPS: II IIA IIR Block IIR-M IIF (default) CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 75

92 3.5 "Select" Menu For Glonass: Glonass-K1 Glonass-M (default) 3.5.10.5 Encryption Next to the unencrypted L1 band Coarse/Acquisition Pseudo-Random Noise code (C/A PRN code), the Precise (P), but encrypted Pseudo Random Noise code is used to modulate both the L1, and the L2 carriers. While GSG cannot replicate the encryption, it can emulate, and thus represent the P(Y) code, so as to allow for commercial GPS surveying receivers to be tested for their ability to derive the carrier in a codeless fashion. Note that this technology does NOT use controlled encryption. Instead, it mimics the encryption so as to provide an RF signal in the L1/L2 P(Y) location. Note: GPS receivers that use genuine encryption methods will NOT be able to use the L1/L2 P with Pseudo P(Y) code enabled because the encryption used is not as expected and they cannot decode it. To turn P(Y) ON/OFF: 1. Navigate to: Select [Select a Scenario] > Configure Scenario: View 3/3 . 2. GPS , enter a number of satellites greater than "0", or Next to the , then press Enter Auto to open this view: Configuration Turning pseudo encryption ON/OFF Figure 3-22: 3. P(Y) entry at the bottom of the view, and select On , or Off . Navigate to the Considerations: For most L1/L2 GPS receivers, there are two valid configuration modes: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 76

93 3.5 "Select" Menu 1. Enable L1 C/A, L1P, and L2P only: The L1P and L2P will be transmitted without encryption. 2. Enable L1 C/A, L1P, and L2P, and Pseudo P(Y): will be scrambled to mimic a realistic P(Y) signal for use in receivers The P code that can make use of L1/L2 P(Y) signals for codeless applications, or to provide a signal in the band to better emulate the real world. GSG-6 series, the NAV message transmitted by the GPS satellites is updated In the to reflect if (pseudo-) encryption is active or not. This is specified by bit 19 in the second word of subframe one. This bit represents the anti-spoof (A-S) flag, where “1” indicates that the A-S mode is on in that satellite. It is recommended to enable Pseudo P(Y) when the GSG-unit supports it. This will set the A-S flag to ON which is required in some receivers. GPS receivers may reject L1CA code if the A-S flag is off. In GSG-5x units, where it is not possible to transmit Pseudo P(Y), the A-S bit is always set to ON to indicate that encryption is on (although the actual RF signal is not transmitted on such units). NAV message also holds information on the type of L2 signal being trans The mitted (bits 11 and 12 of word three in subframe one). These bits are always set to indicate that the P code is active on L2. 3.5.10.6 SBAS Satellites Several GNSS augmentation systems, e.g., differential GPS, exist to further improve pos itioning, navigation, and timing functionality (see also: www.gps.gov ). Space Based Aug mentation Systems (SBAS) incorporate system components such as additional SBAS geo satellites, ground reference stations, and user equipment which together aid the GPS system, thereby allowing greater precision and integrity, among other things. SBAS systems support specific GNSS systems, are available for civil use, and have been/are being developed for all of the GNSS systems worldwide: GNSS SBAS systems Figure 3-23: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 77

94 3.5 "Select" Menu GSG can simulate SBAS satellites. Each scenario defines the number of SBAS satellites that should be simulated. There can be 0, 1, 2, or 3 SBAS satellites per scenario. To review/edit the number of SBAS satellites for the scenario chosen, navigate to: Select > ] > [ View 3/3 "Number of Satellites" on page 71 Configure Scenario : Select Scenario The GSG unit will select SBAS space vehicles based on their elevation relative to the user pos ition. When the scenario is running, the SBAS satellite positions and speed will be updated Message with the information found in the SBAS messages. These messages comprise different Types , one of which—MT9—is used to update the satellite’s position and speed. The SBAS satellites transmit their signals utilizing Coarse/Acquisition Pseudo-Random Noise PRN numbers , which have been internationally coordin (see also "Encryption" on page 76). ated, have been allocated to each of the SBAS constallations. Although PRN120 ... PRN158 are all reserved for SBAS systems, only a few of them are actually used by satellites. When determining the elevation angle of SBAS satellites, the GSG unit looks for the SBAS satel lites listed below. This is in contrast to the signal generator mode (see "Signal Generator" on page 87) where the user can specify any SBAS PRNs to be simulated. The currently supported SBAS satellites are: : 120, 124, and 126 EGNOS : 133, 135, and 138 WAAS : 129, 137 MSAS : 127, 128 GAGAN The simulator uses two approaches for SBAS messages: Default SBAS messages (MT63) EGNOS/WAAS message files The default SBAS messages are always available. These messages should be recognized by SBAS-compatible receivers. However, they carry no information and will therefore not enable the receiver to correct GPS signals. SBAS message files for both EGNOS, and WAAS are supported. EGNOS files (.ems) are ASCII and hourly, while WAAS files are typically in binary format and cover a whole day. . Both systems share the same format of the messages. For details, see www.navipedia.net Download When the scenario has the Ephemeris set to , the GSG unit will download the SBAS messages from official sites and match these messages to the time of the scenario. The SBAS CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 3 78

95 3.5 "Select" Menu messages broadcast by these satellites are downloaded automatically from the following public FTP sites: : ftp://131.176.49.48 EGNOS WAAS ftp://ftp.nstb.tc.faa.gov : MSAS : default MT63 : default MT63 GAGAN GSG logs into these sites anonymously. However, note that both FTP sites are likely to track and record all FTP access, including access by GSG simulators. The SBAS download starts when the constellation simulation of the scenario has started; not dur ing initialization of the scenario. Considerations If a scenario needs SBAS messages that cannot be downloaded from these FTP sites, the scen ario continues, but the GSG unit transmits null-messages (SBAS message type: MT63). An SBAS- compatible receiver should still be capable of seeing the SBAS signals, but it will not find any useful information (range corrections, time offsets, etc.) in these messages. Because of these reasons, SBAS scenarios run best with a live Internet connection. Furthermore, since the aforementioned FTP sites store only a limited amount of SBAS records, the start time of SBAS scenarios has to be chosen carefully: Usually, SBAS records that are less than a year (EGNOS)/6 months (WAAS) old, can be found on the FTP sites mentioned above. Therefore, it is advisable to select a start time that is not older than one year for EGNOS scenarios, and not older than 6 months for WAAS scenarios. Moreover, the start time shall not be too close to the current time. For EGNOS, there can be a one-day delay before the SBAS messages are published on the FTP site. For WAAS the delay can possibly be longer (up to 3 or 4 days). An Internet connection is not needed, however: All downloaded ephemeris data and always SBAS data will be locally stored on the unit, once they have been downloaded. Hence, the next time the same scenario runs, the ephemeris data and SBAS messages are read from the local storage, not from the online ftp sites. GSG will performs automatic clean-up of downloaded files, once the remaining free disc space falls below 20% of the total disc space. Note: The SBAS corrections are ‘applied backwards’ to the output GPS signals by adjusting the signal ranges. It is also possible to download the EGNOS and WAAS files from the ftp servers, and select them for use in the scenario: The file name holds the information on the applicable time & date, which is NOT available in the content of the file (all time is relative), and must follow these nam ing conventions: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 79

96 3.6 "Options" Menu For : PRN_y_d_h.ems EGNOS WAAS : For Geo__ WAAS files do not have a file extension. Note: Should the files downloaded from the ftp server do not meet these format requirements, it will be necessary to rename the files accordingly. QZSS L1 SAIF The QZSS satellites transmit also a SBAS signal, called L1 SAIF. The GSG unit can emulate this signal. The signal is enabled by setting the value of “QZSSL1SAIF” to ”1” in a scenario file. If the user does not specify a file containing the messages for transmission, the unit will transmit only the default (MT63) messages. The naming convention for the transmitted files is the same as for the WAAS satellites above. The PRN numbers reserved for QZSS L1 SAIF transmission start from 183, so the name of the message file for J01 should start with “Geo183_”, for J02 with “Geo184_”, etc. For the best results, the user should specify the Rinex navigation file(s) used in the scenario, together with the SAIF message files. This way the user can ensure that the simulated satellite pos ition based on Rinex NAV files is in line with the position information transmitted in the L1 SAIF messages. 3.6 "Options" Menu Features and functions that are not directly related to the scenarios are typically found under Options Menu. the 3.6.1 Transmit Power The term refers to the satellite signal power (signal level) transmitted by GSG Transmit Power during the execution of the currently chosen scenario. The Transmit Power can be adjusted as described under "Adjusting Transmit Power" on page 82, or during scenario execution (see "Setting Transmit Power" on page 107). Caution: To learn more about signal level compliance in the United States, see "Signal Power Level Considerations" on page 23 . If you live in other countries, check your local emission standards. dBm . The transmit power is specified in The supported range is: Max. -65 dBm -160 dBm . ... min. CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 80

97 3.6 "Options" Menu The resolution is: 0.1 dBm . . Default setting: -125.0 dBm setting decreases the set Transmit Power level. Note: The External Attenuation Note: When the power settings of individual channels are changed during Events menu, or protocol) the power range scenario execution (via the > will be further limited so that the maximum difference between the strongest and the weakest signal is never more than 72 dB. Transmit Power Options > Transmit Power . This view also To access the view, navigate to (see "Adjusting External Attenuation" on page 84), allows you to adjust the external attenuation and noise (see "Adjusting Noise Generation" on page 85). Configuring transmit power Figure 3-24: Antenna cable length The recommended Transmit power setting , assuming relatively short cables and that no . If long cables are used, it is recommended that -125.0 dBm external attenuators are used, is these are simulated by adjusting the external attenuation (see also "Adjusting External Atten uation" on page 84). menu is assigned to the signal type with the highest The Transmit Power set in the Options power level, and all others are set relative to that. Considerations A common problem is that signals too strong or too weak are used. A signal too strong will typ ically ‘jam’ the receiver, causing it to erroneously find many shadow signals. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the typical signal/noise values for real satellites, and try to obtain similar values when using this unit. When the signal strength is correctly set, the receiver will respond directly and logically to changes in signal power. GPS L1 C/A as zero dB offset: The following table shows the offsets when referencing CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 81

98 3.6 "Options" Menu Transmit power offsets Table 3-2: Signal Power offset, dB Constellation 0.0 L1 C/A L1 P -3.0 GPS -3.0 L2 P L2C 0.0 L5 +1.5 L1 -2.5 GLONASS -8.5 L2 +1.5 E1 +3.5 E5a Galileo +3.5 E5b B1 -4.5 Beidou B2 -4.5 0.0 L1 C/A QZSS -2.5 L1 SAIF 3.6.1.1 Adjusting Transmit Power Transmit Power refers to the satellite signal power (signal level) transmitted by GSG The term Transmit Power during the execution of a scenario. can be controlled individually by signal type: As of software version 7.1.1 (January 2018) the Reference Power setting is used to control the absolute power level of the GPS L1 C/A signal. Then, the default relative power offset can be adjusted for each individual signal type other than GPS L1 C/A. Furthermore, for BeiDou only, you can assign different relative power offsets, depending on the orbit type (MEO/GEO/IGSO). This power configuration defines by channel which power level will be used by satellites once they appear in view. The power configuration can be changed only before starting a simulation. During the sim ulation, you can see the power configuration in read-only mode (press the N/S key to open the the sim during Reference power Transmit power menu). Note that the effect of changing the before the simulation: During the simulation, the specified Absolute ulation is different than will be set for all active channels. power There are two ways to adjust the power configuration: Via the front panel (see below), or by using SCPI commands (see "SOURce: Subsystem Commands" on page 226). Once you mod ified the power configuration, it will be saved with all other settings when the unit is turned off. To configure signals power: 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 CHAPTER 82

99 3.6 "Options" Menu 1. . Navigate to Options > Transmit Power 2. . The power is specified in . The supported Adjust the GPS L1C/A band dBm Ref. power range is: Max. -65 dBm ... Min. -160 dBm. 3. Signals power configuration Select to open the corresponding menu. 4. Select the desired constellation, and adjust the power for each signal type supported by this constellation. Note: When changing the power setting for a signal type, the Reference Power (absolute power level of GPS L1 C/A) and Relative Power offsets for all the remaining signal types will remain unchanged. Figure 3-25: Signals power configuration menu Use the key to switch between the absolute or relative mode of displaying/editing format power. When the Reference Power is changed, the Relative Absolute Power mode is active and offsets will stay unchanged, so that absolute powers will be “shifted” together with the Power . Reference Power Default Power Configurations Relative power Absolute power Orbit type name Signal name (dBm) (dBm) 0 GPSL1CA (reference) -128.5 -131.5 -3 GPSL1P -131.5 -3 GPSL2P -128.5 GPSL2C 0 GPSL5 -127 +1.5 CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 83

100 3.6 "Options" Menu Absolute power Relative power Orbit type name Signal name (dBm) (dBm) -2.5 SBAS -131 -2.5 GLOL1 -131 GLOL2 -8.5 -137 +1.5 -127 GALE1 GALE5A +3.5 -125 GALE5B -125 +3.5 +3.5 GALE6 -125 -133 MEO* BDSB1 -4.5 -133 IGSO* -4.5 BDSB1 -133 -4.5 BDSB1 GEO* -133 -4.5 MEO* BDSB2 IGSO* -133 BDSB2 -4.5 BDSB2 -133 -4.5 GEO* -128.5 0 QZSSL1CA -1.5 QZSSL2C -130 -127.9 +0.6 QZSSSAIF IRNSSL5 -129 -0.5 *Orbit type for BeiDou satellites determined by PRN number (for more information, see https://www.glonass- iac.ru/en/BEIDOU/ ): GEO: 1<=PRN<=5, IGSO: 6<=PRN<=10 and PRN=13, MEO: others 3.6.1.2 Adjusting External Attenuation External attenuation allows you to specify attenuation between the GSG power output, and the receiving device. This allows the unit to compensate e.g., for antenna cable lengths. Any of the power settings (Transmit power, Event settings) will observe the specified external attenuation. The range is: 0 ... 30.0 dB Resolution: 0.1 dB. Options > Transmit Power . To adjust External Attenuation, navigate to CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 84

101 3.6 "Options" Menu Figure 3-26: Adjusting external attenuation 3.6.1.3 Adjusting Noise Generation GSG-5/6 has the capability to simulate noise on the GPS L1 band. Noise simulation can be a powerful tool for receiver testing, since it allows for a strong signal to be submitted, without jamming the receiver. To access the Transmit Power view, which—among other things—allows to adjust the noise set > Transmit Power tings, navigate to Options : Adjusting noise settings in the Transmit Power view Figure 3-27: Noise generation (GSG-5, GSG-56 and GSG-6) The noise generated by GSG-5, GSG-56 and GSG-6 is similar to the noise of GSG-55, but dif fers in so that the noise bandwidth is constant and set to cover both the GPS L1 as well as the GLONASS L1 band. The noise central frequency is not configurable. Noise-related adjustable parameters : Yes/No (Default: Yes) Simulate Noise : Carrier-to-noise density. Range: 0 ... 56 dB-Hz C/N O General considerations International regulations keep the L1 band practically clean from disturbing signals, so the only noise source is the natural background noise, as expressed in the following equation: = kTB P N N CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 85

102 3.6 "Options" Menu Where k is the Bolzmann’s constant, T is the ambient temperature (in Kelvin), and BN is the bandwidth (in Hertz). For example, an ideal GPS L1 C/A code filter would have a passband of 2MHz, and noise power passed by the filter at a temperature of 290 K would be equal to -141 dBW. is given by the equation: ambient noise power spectral density The -21 W/Hz = -204 dBW/Hz = -174 dBm/Hz N = kT = 4.00 x 10 T By definition, carrier-to-noise density is the carrier power divided by the noise power spectral density. The GPS ICD specifies that the received signal level at the surface level is -130 dBm or better. Carrier-to-noise density is then: = -130 dBm/(-174 dBm/Hz) = 44 dB Hz C/N 0 C/N (not SNR) is the figure that the receivers typically display as an indication of quality for 0 the received, digitally modulated signal. If the receiver has bandwidth of 6 MHz, SNR would be: 6 6 Hz) = 44 – (10 x log (6 x 10 SNR = 44 dB Hz/(6 x 10 )) dB = -23.8 dB. 10 If a stronger input signal for the receiver is required, while maintaining the same C/N , addi 0 tional noise needs to be introduced into the transmitted signal. One may think of this as having an active antenna at the receiver input. The signal level is higher, but so is the noise level. Interaction of Transmit Power and External Attenuation When you change the values in the Transmit Power dialog, you may notice that other settings may change as a consequence of the changes made. For example, if you have Transmit Power set to -70 dBm, and External Attenuation set to 5.0 dB, the unit actually transmits signals at - 65 dBm to compensate for the external losses. Note, however, that manually adjusting the attenuation to 10 dB in such a situation will cause the Transmit Power to drop to -75 dBm as a consequence. This is a result of the hardware con figuration, as the unit cannot deliver more than a total of -65 dBm. The Transmit Power setting gives the power level at the end of your antenna cable. Adjusting Transmit Power: Best practices In general, when changing the Transmit Power setting, it is recommended to follow this order: 1. Set the External Attenuation 2. Set the Transmit Power 3. Set the Noise Bandwidth 4. Set the Carrier-to-Noise Density 5. Set the Noise Offset (this can be done at any time without affecting the other settings) Adjusting Power/Noise via SCPI command If you use the SCPI protocol to change the power/noise settings, use the order above to do CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 3 86

103 3.6 "Options" Menu modifications, and check the SCPI error after each command. If there is a Parameter Conflict error, it would indicate that the unit accepted your command, but due to a conflict with a dif ferent parameter, your parameter value was modified. Parameter Conflict The conditions under which a may occur include the following: 1. . The requested Transmit A Transmit Power value has been requested that is too high Power is within the specified limits, but the External Attenuation setting limits the max imum power to below the requested setting. Transmit Power is set to the maximum avail able, rather than the value requested by the user. Increasing the Transmit Power may lead to an increase of C/N , as described under bullet #3 below. To prevent this from 0 happening, especially when using the SCPI protocol for making adjustments, always use the command order described above, and check the SCPI errors after each command. 2. An Unachievable Carrier-to-Noise ratio has been requested . The requested value is within specifications, but the Transmit Power setting is too low to achieve the required set ting. In this case, the ambient noise power spectral density limits the achievable carrier- to-noise ratio. The Carrier-to-Noise density will be set to its maximum value, not to the value requested by the user. The noise generator does not generate any additive noise in this situation. Increase the Transmit Power, then set C/N again. 0 3. A Carrier-to-Noise ratio has been requested that is too low. The requested value is within specifications, but the Transmit Power setting is too high to achieve the required setting. The signal/noise generator does not have the capability to generate a noise sig nal this strong (remember that noise power is more than the signal power – SNR is neg ative). The Carrier-to-Noise density will be set to its minimum value, not to the value requested by the user. Decrease the Transmit Power to decrease the required noise power. 4. A Noise Bandwidth value has been requested that is too wide. (SCPI command only) In effect, this leads to the same situation described under bullet # 3 above. GSG accepts the noise bandwidth setting, but increases the C/N to its minimum value. The noise 0 bandwidth required depends on the filters of the receiver. You have to search for the value that is wide enough for your receiver. Set up a relatively strong signal (for example: -100 dBm, C/N 44 dB-Hz), and narrow noise bandwidth. Then increase the 0 noise bandwidth until the C/N value shown by your receiver stabilizes. It is a good 0 idea to use the narrowest bandwidth needed. Note: The receivers use different methods to calculate C/N (or SNR), so 0 the value given by the receiver may be different from the C/N setting of 0 the GSG unit. 3.6.2 Signal Generator Every GSG model can be operated as a signal generator, i.e. to generate one, or—if so equipped—several satellite signals (with no Doppler), or one carrier frequency. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 87

104 3.6 "Options" Menu In mode, advanced GSG units can support: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Signal Generator BeiDou, SBAS. If equipped with the L2 and/or L5 options, GSG allows the selected satellite(s) to transmit all signals enabled on that satellite. "GSG Note: For more information on available GSG models and options, see . Series Model Variants and Options" on page 194 To configure the Options > Signal Generator : Signal Generator mode, navigate to Signal Generator configuration view (depends on licensing options installed) Figure 3-28: The following Signal Generator options can be configured: 3.6.2.1 Signal type The Signal type selection will open a new view, as shown below. Note that the view depends on the licensing options installed on your unit. Figure 3-29: Signal types configuration view Combining signals from different GNSS systems If your GSG unit is licensed for multiple channel operation, in mode it is not Signal Generator only possible to choose between multiple frequency bands and codes, but also to simulate sev eral GNSS signals, e.g., both GPS and GLONASS, at the same time. This can be achieved by enabling several GNSS systems from the Configure signal types menu. In Signal Generator mode, GSG offers the following configuration options: Signal type CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 88

105 3.6 "Options" Menu GNSS systems currently supported are: GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS, and , see also "Frequency signal types their corresponding signal types. For information on Bands and Signal De-/Activation" on page 71. Pseudo-encryption (P(Y)): For more information, see "Encryption" on page 76. : It is possible to generate a signal for any of the SBAS PRNs. However, SBAS Signals GSG can generate a real SBAS message stream only if the chosen PRN corresponds to a live SBAS satellite (see "SBAS Satellites" on page 77 for further details). Note: The SBAS signal type is only available with GSG-55, GSG-56, and GSG-6 Series units. Note that in signal generator mode (unlike in constellation simulation mode), GSG will always attempt to download SBAS data. If such data is not available, then MT63 (i.e., “null messages”) will be transmitted. Modulation options: : This is the default mode, transmitting standard, modulated signals. Modulated Sweep or Noise : In addition to the modulated signals, sweeping interference or narrowband noise interference will be transmitted. Currently it is not possible to use sweep/noise with unmodulated signals. Pure Carrier Signal : GSG will transmit an un-modulated signal (pure carrier), using the user-specified signal strength, and frequency offset from the nominal fre quency. With GSG-6 series simulators, it is possible to generate carrier signals for L1 and L2 at the same time. : Pseudo-random noise Prn 3.6.2.2 Satellite ID Satellite ID field is used to specify the GPS PRN, Galileo PRN, and the GLONASS satellite The ID, therefore it is limited to 24 (the highest GLONASS satellite ID). If this field is set to a value Configure signal types . higher than 24, then GLONASS will not be selectable under 3.6.2.3 Transmit Power Transmit Power The term refers to the signal power transmitted by GSG during the execution of a scenario. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 89

106 3.6 "Options" Menu The transmit power is specified in . dBm The supported range is: Max. -65 dBm ... Min. -160 dBm. Note: External Attenuation setting decreases the Max value. For more information, see "Adjusting Transmit Power" on page 82 "Adjusting External Attenuation" on page 84 . Note: When the power settings of individual channels change during scen ario execution (via the > Events menu, or SCPI commands) the power range will be further limited so that the maximum difference between the strongest and the weakest signal is never more than 72 dB. The resolution is: 0.1 dBm. Default setting: -125.0 dBm For more information on Transmit Power, see "Adjusting Transmit Power" on page 82. If you are using an antenna (rather than an RF cable), see "Signal Caution: Power Level Considerations" on page 23 regarding signal level compliance in the U.S. If you live in other countries, check your local emission standards. 3.6.2.4 Frequency offset Frequency offset The applies to ALL of the simulated signals in the signal generator mode, i.e. once you set an offset, the code phases of the simulated signals start to shift compared to each other. 3.6.2.5 Start time Start time can be a set time, or the current time derived from an NTP server, as specified in The your Network Configuration. If the current time is used, provided by an NTP server, the scen ario start will be delayed, in order to allow the simulation to load required data, and start aligned to the nearest GPS minute. The NTP (UTC) timescale is converted to the GPS timescale by a UTC-GPS offset defined in the firmware. For more information, see "Start Time" on page 38. If this field is grayed out, it is not applicable for the chosen configuration. Note: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 90

107 3.6 "Options" Menu 3.6.2.6 Ephemeris cannot be downloaded, as this data is not available in If NTP start time is used, the Ephemeris real time. The simulated range equals to (25.0E-3*speed_of_light), so the 1PPS Out from the back panel would trail the time mark determined from the RF Out signal by 25 ms. If this field is grayed out, it is not applicable for the chosen configuration. Note: 3.6.2.7 AutoStart If set to , AutoStart will start the Signal Generator mode automatically, once you powered ON up the GSG unit. , the signal generation is started by pressing the If set to key, and stopped by press OFF START CANCEL Transmission ing . When a signal is generated, the simulated GPS time and the text ON are displayed (see illustration below). Power and Frequency offset can be edited while the transmission is ON. Note that Signal Generator running Figure 3-30: All signal parameters are stored to non-volatile memory and are set when the unit is started. 3.6.3 Interface and Reference GSG interface options can be configured via the Options > view: Interface and Reference Figure 3-31: Interface/Reference Configuration Depending on the type of interface chosen, only relevant fields are editable. The remote interface type can be: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 91

108 3.6 "Options" Menu USB Ethernet GPIB : Set the address here. network clients can use a socket connection to port 5025 and send/receive SCPI-Raw SCPI commands terminated by a newline. The input can also be selected via this view. When it is selected, a small symbol con 10 MHz is displayed in the upper right corner of the GSG display. EXTREF taining the text PPS output on the rear panel can be configured In all models except GSG-52 and GSG-53, the to send 1, 10, 100 or 1,000 pulses per second. The pulse ratio is always 1/10 (1/10 high, is active on the rising edge of the signal. PPS Out 9/10 low). 3.6.3.1 Network Configuration Network configuration view, navigate to > Interface and Reference > To access the Options Interface Type : Ethernet . Highlight the menu item Network , and press enter ; the Network Select screen will be displayed: configuration IP Configuration Figure 3-32: Static IP address configuration screen, you can configure GSG either to obtain an IP address In the Network configuration automatically from a DHCP server, or you can specify a static IP address. To specify a static IP address manually, you must provide: the IP address the network mask and the gateway . In order for the ephemeris download Note: to work, the correct DNS address must specified, either by setting > Interfaces and Reference > Network > Obtain Options CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 92

109 3.6 "Options" Menu IP autom. , or—when using a static IP configuration—by manually entering = Yes the correct DNS address. If in doubt, consult your network administrator about the IP address configuration. NTP Configuration Under , you can also—among other things—enable the current time, as Network configuration delivered by an NTP server, to be used as the Start Time, by setting an NTP Server address. 1. Options To access the Interface and Refer view, navigate to Network configuration > : Ethernet . Then highlight the menu item Network , and press ence Interface Type > Select Network configuration screen will be displayed. Highlight the menu item enter ; the NTP , and press . server enter 2. Enter the IP address of the NTP server on your network. NTP client unable to set time In the event that GSG cannot resolve the NTP server address, upon start-up, the error message NTP client unable to set time will be displayed: 1. , and navigate to: Confirm the message by pressing enter 2. Network configuration Options > Interface and Reference > Select Interface Type : view, . Ethernet 3. Then highlight the menu item enter ; the Network configuration Network , and press , and press . NTP server screen will be displayed. Highlight the menu item enter 4. Network con Enter a valid NTP address, or—if the IP address is correct—navigate up to , and verify that the appropriate static IP address and gateway are selected so figuration that GSG can resolve the path to the NTP server. Download Server The download server for the GPS ephemeris and almanac data can be configured under: > Options > Interface and Reference > [ Interface Type : set to Ethernet .] Network configuration Network Network configuration : Download server . > > Default , and [ user-entered custom address ]. The choices are For more information on automatic download of ephemeris and almanac data see "Ephemeris" on page 44. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 93

110 3.6 "Options" Menu Note: ephemeris download to work, the correct DNS address must In order for the Options > > Network > Obtain specified, either by setting Interfaces and Reference Yes = IP autom. , or—when using a static IP configuration—by manually entering the correct DNS address. 3.6.3.2 Proxy Configuration If your GSG unit is used in a network behind an HTTP proxy, access to the proxy can be con figured as described below: 1. Proxy configuration Options > Interface and Reference To access the view, navigate to . Proxy > 2. http:// -prefix , and a The Proxy address must be the address of the proxy including the port number after the address separated by ‘ : ’. Optionally, a username and password for the proxy can be given. If in doubt, consult your network administrator about the Proxy server settings. Figure 3-33: Proxy Configuration view 3.6.4 Manage Files Manage Files view display allows management of the navigation files, scenario files, tra The Options > Manage Files : jectory files and event files. To access this view, navigate to Figure 3-34: Manage Files top level view Navigating select a directory UP/DOWN arrow The top level view shows the directories. To , use the CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 3 94

111 3.6 "Options" Menu keys and press ENTER . UP/DOWN arrow Select files keys. within a directory by using the ../ ”. To one level, select “ go up perform an action on a file, first select it, and then use LEFT/RIGHT arrow keys to To select the desired action (View, Copy, Rename or Delete). to the previous level, press the To key. (i.e., this is the same as selecting return CANCEL ../ “ ”. EXIT returns to the main menu). Choosing a file and an action Figure 3-35: Copying and renaming files When or renaming a file, a keyboard is displayed for entering a new file copying arrow keys and the ENTER key to select letters for the file name. name. Use the LEFT/RIGHT arrow The keys move the cursor. key removes a letter to the cursor. The left DEL key, or the When your new file name is complete, press the option. EXIT DONE If the file already exists or is in use, a confirmation for the action is Note: requested. CANCEL Use the key to cancel the operation. Figure 3-36: Keyboard CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 95

112 3.6 "Options" Menu Note: Directories cannot be created or deleted, and files cannot be copied between directories. Viewing file contents When viewing file contents, the screen can be scrolled up and down, and left and right using keys. the arrow EXIT or CANCEL keys. To exit the viewer, use the Figure 3-37: Viewing file content 3.6.5 Show System Information System Information view displays information about the GSG model, serial number, firm The ware version, oscillator type, and installed options (if any). In addition, the amount of free stor age space available for scenarios and other user files is shown. To access this view, navigate to > Show system information : Options Figure 3-38: System information view Options ENTER key, you can also view the available and By selecting and pressing the installed license options: CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 96

113 3.6 "Options" Menu Figure 3-39: System information – Options For more information on GSG Options, see "GSG Series Model Variants and Options" on page 194. 3.6.6 Restore Factory Defaults This option restores the GSG unit to its factory default configuration. > : To access this view, navigate to Reset to factory defaults Options Restore factory defaults Figure 3-40: scen will restore the original pre-defined Clean&Restore delete all user created/uploaded files ario/trajectory/event/navigation data files , and . Please wait for this operation to complete. When prompted that the and execution log operation is complete, press “OK”. Wait until this operation is complete before power cycling the GSG unit. Restore will only restore to their defaults – all user data on the unit will remain data files stored (unless they have same file names as the factory data, which is not recom mended). will do nothing, and return to the Options menu. Cancel 3.6.7 Calibration Note: This chapter describes the Calibration menu items. Calibration itself should only be attempted by qualified technicians. Alternatively, you can send your GSG unit to Spectracom to be calibrated. Via the Calibration view, you can: calibrate the unit’s maximum output power, and OXCO frequency view the results of a previous user calibration. Calibration view, navigate to Options > Calibration : To access the CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 97

114 3.6 "Options" Menu Figure 3-41: Calibration view Calibration view displays when the was done, and if and when the last The Factory calibration was done. User calibration Calibration Recommendations calibration guidelines : Is recommended that you adhere to the following 1. to ensure the frequency is within spe Spectracom recommends calibration every 2 years cification and the power levels are correct. 2. If your unit is equipped with an Ultra-High-Stability OCXO (an option that is no longer available), Spectracom recommends calibration every year for this reference to ensure operation to specifications. 3. Regardless of which oscillator option is installed in your GSG unit: If you are testing GPS timing receivers and are testing the precision of the 1 PPS output, comparing it to the 1 PPS output from your device under test, Spectracom recommends calibration every year. and press enter . Confirm your choice, and Calibrate To carry out a user calibration, highlight enter the password, in order to make sure the calibration settings are not changed unin 62951413 (first 8 digits of π backwards). tentionally. The password is Figure 3-42: Entering the calibration password Note: It is strongly advised to write down the current values before making any changes. Once new values are saved, the old values cannot be recalled. CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 3 98

115 3.6 "Options" Menu Figure 3-43: User Calibration view During the calibration, the unit generates an unmodulated signal at full power. Maximum RF power is measured by a spectrum analyzer connected to the RF output of your GSG unit. The value is adjusted according to the frequency measured by the GSG unit from OCXO DAC the 10 MHz output at the back panel. Using a frequency counter, adjust the OCXO value until the GSG shows 10 MHz. is essentially an “equipment delay” of the generated signal. To measure it prop The PPS delay (Trigger out) and the PPS PPS out erly, you need to measure the difference between the GSG's out of a trusted GPS timing receiver. The value is always positive, and is set in microseconds. Three digits can be given, enabling nanosecond resolution. The allowed range is [0.000- 4.000] microseconds. Note that if you try to measure this delay, remember to take into account the GPS time to UTC time offset set in the scenario you use. Timing receivers typically output the UTC synchronized PPS signal. After the calibration is complete, the new values can be saved by pressing exit or menu . Press cancel to discard the values and keep the previous calibration settings. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 99

116 3.6 "Options" Menu BLANK PAGE. CHAPTER 3 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 100

117 Frequent Tasks This Chapter includes several tasks that GSG users frequently per form. This list is constantly being updated. Should you miss a task that is currently not included in this list, please let us know: [email protected] . Thank you. The following topics are included in this Chapter: 102 4.1 Working with Scenarios 106 4.2 Locking/Unlocking the Keyboard 4.3 Setting Transmit Power 107 4.4 Accessing the GSG Web Interface 109 110 4.5 Using the CLI 4.6 Performing a Receiver Cold Start 111 111 4.7 Creating a One-Line Trajectory 4.8 Leap Second Configuration 112 4.9 Studioview Tasks 113 CHAPTER 4 4 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • CHAPTER 101

118 4.1 Working with Scenarios 4.1 Working with Scenarios The tasks described here are frequently performed in the context of scenario execution and con figuration. 4.1.1 Scenario Start/Stop/Hold/Arm See under: ""Start" Menu" on page 31. 4.1.2 Running a Scenario During scenario execution, you can ... views to monitor the execution of your test scen Press to display up to 6 different view ario (see "Scenario Execution Views" on page 32). menu Press to display the scenario configuration (grayed out, because editing is not per mitted during scenario execution). Press the [.] / hold key to pause/resume moving along the trajectory. When the tra jectory is paused, the HOLD symbol is displayed in the corner of the screen, the speed is 0.0 m/s, but the simulation clock continues to run. keys to change arrow power levels (for more power adjustment options, see Press the all "Setting Transmit Power" on page 107.) ± / format Press ... , to change the ...in between three geodetic and one View 1 coordinate format DD geocentric formats, i.e., Lat, Lon, Alt will be shown either in format , DD MM SS.ss , DD.dddd or X, Y, Z . MM.mmmm dBm ...when is highlighted, to toggle between frequencies (L1 ...ALL) and their power levels Press Transmit Power menu, and enable/disable/adjust noise settings. N/S to show the > to adjust the units displayed for and E/W ( m/m/s Altitude ft / kn > Press Speed / ft ). mph Note: The scenario will continue to run in the background, even if you view a dis "Scenario Execution Views" on page 32 play other than the . Note: When you press exit to leave a menu, its settings will be taken into use immediately, and all band- or satellite-specific offsets are discarded. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 102

119 4.1 Working with Scenarios 4.1.3 Holding a Scenario Holding a scenario means to temporarily prevent your GNSS receiver from continuing to move along its scenario trajectory (i.e., halting the trajectory), while the simulation continues to run [.] / hold otherwise (time continues to elapse). This can be done manually, by pressing the key, , see "SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol" on or by using the SCPI command SCENario:CONTrol page 252. HOLD icon in the upper right corner. The display will show the Holding a scenario is not the same as arming a scenario (see Note: "Scenario Start Variations" on page 32 ). A typical use case for holding a scenario would be to simulate a red traffic light. 4.1.4 Configuring a Scenario Main Menu Select , scroll Prior to configuring a scenario, you have to select it: In the , highlight (for more information, see ""Select" Menu" on enter through the list of scenarios, and press page 36). For a list of scenarios pre-installed on a GSG 6, see "Pre-Installed Scenarios" on page 180 (the scenarios pre-installed on your unit may be different, depending on your GSG model.) Once a scenario has been selected, a number of Views will guide you through the list of para meters configurable with the chosen scenario. For a list of all configurable scenario parameters, see ""Select" Menu" on Note: . page 36 First Configuration View position , date and simulation In the first Scenario Configuration View, basic information like are provided: duration Figure 4-1: Scenario Configuration View 1/3 navigate between fields , first press the UP/DOWN arrow keys to select the field label. Then To enter arrow key, to begin editing the values. To move to the next field on the press or the RIGHT CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 103

120 4.1 Working with Scenarios same line, press , or the RIGHT arrow key. To move to the previous field on the same line, enter arrow key. press the LEFT , press . To proceed to the view next View , press start , exit , or cancel . (With start and exit , you will be given the choice to To finish editing save the scenario under a different name.) Second Configuration View , Ephemeris The second Scenario Configuration View allows you to configure the Trajectory and Event data simulation ( LS ). data, Leap Second Also accessible from this View are: Antenna submenu, which allows the configuration of the Antenna model , Lever arm , The and Elevation mask . Advanced submenu, which provides access to and Interference signals . The Multipath Base station output messages defined. Also, the (RTK option) can be turned on, and Environment models can be changed to ‘set’ which allows the selection of Environment Vehicle models (created with the third-party tool SketchUp (a Spectracom Technical and Note about Vehicle Modeling using Sketchup is available upon request). The model submenu. Atmospheric Some of the functionality shown is optional. For more information on GSG Note: "GSG Series Model Variants and Options" on page 194 . Options, see Figure 4-2: Scenario Configuration View 2/3 Third Configuration View The third Scenario Configuration View allows you to configure the satellites to be simulated. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 104

121 4.1 Working with Scenarios Note: Some of the functionality shown is optional and may be grayed out. For more information on GSG Options, see "GSG Series Model Variants and Options" on page 194 . For each satellite constellation your GSG unit can simulate (e.g., GPS), you can: In the Satellites View (see illustration below), set the maximum number of satellites to be keys). Or, use the Auto setting, which lets the simulated (using the UP/DOWN arrow GSG simulator automatically select the highest number of satellites available for the num ber of channels supported by your GSG unit. View, you can also configure the number of SBAS satellites (see "SBAS In the Satellites Satellites" on page 77). Signal Type View, select the signal types to be simulated for the highlighted con In the stellation (e.g., "L1CA"), and enable (pseudo-P(Y)) encryption (if available). Scenario Configuration View 3/3 Figure 4-3: Signal Type view key to access the Constellation View, which allows View, press the In the you to specify the Blocks (or the "vintage") of satellites simulated. For more information about this subject, see "Default Scenario Satellites" on page 181. Default setting in the first row of Constellation View, GPS Constellation (or The , respectively) will simulate the satellite constellations as they GLONASS Constellation existed on April 22nd, 2015. Figure 4-4: Types of GPS (Glonass) satellites simulated CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 105

122 4.2 Locking/Unlocking the Keyboard Note: ""Select" Menu" on For a list of all configurable scenario parameters, see . page 36 "Scenario Start Note: For the different options on how to start a scenario, see . Variations" on page 32 4.2 Locking/Unlocking the Keyboard The keyboard locking functionality prevents any unwanted modifications from being made. When the keyboard lock is engaged, it is not possible to change parameters, or edit scenario execution via the front panel. It is, however, possible to view scenario configuration and observe scenario execution, using the view key, and toggle between the position coordinates, using the format key. engage the keyboard lock: To In any of the GSG-5/6’s menus or execution views, using the numeric keys on the front panel, key in the keyboard lock code, and confirm. The default keyboard lock code is " 1122 ". disengage the lock: To view On the front panel, press any key other than format , and enter the current lock or code. When all digits have been entered, navigate the DONE in the lower right-hand corner, and press . enter Note: The keyboard lock can also be engaged/disengaged via a SCPI command, see "SOURce:KEYLOCK:STATus" on page 302 for details. change the keyboard lock To , use the KEYLOCK:PASSWord SCPI command: code CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 106

123 4.3 Setting Transmit Power Open the , and then the command line interpreter (CLI) by clicking the MONITOR icon: Ensure that the CLI is connected to your GSG unit (see "Using the CLI" on page 110). write SOURce:KEYLOCK:PASSWord [wxyz] Enter the following command: [wxyz] can be changed at any time. The user-issued lock The keyboard lock code code must be 4-8 digits in length, and contain only numerical characters. The default key board lock code is " 1122 ". 4.3 Setting Transmit Power (also referred to as signal level): There are three different ways to alter the Transmit Power 1. While configuring a scenario: a. in Studioview e.g., by using the Events editor, or b. Options > Transmit Power : via the GSG menu Transmit Power Navigate to the key to menu, then press the RIGHT arrow or the UP/DOWN arrows highlight the current value, then the numeric keys to adjust the value, and then enter to confirm. Reference Power which is used to control the absolute power level of This sets the offset for the GPS L1 C/A signal. You can also adjust the default relative power CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 107

124 4.3 Setting Transmit Power each individual signal type other than GPS L1 C/A by selecting Signals power . (For more information, see "Adjusting Transmit Power" on configuration page 82.) 2. N/S key: While the scenario is running — by pressing the In Scenario Execution Views 2 to 5/x (see "Scenario Execution Views" on page 32) highlight keys to for all satellites, or press the dBm LEFT/RIGHT arrow key to adjust the scenario highlight individual satellites. Then press the N/S power. ± (format) key while dBm is highlighted changes Note: Pressing the the frequency band to be adjusted: L1 > L2 > L5 > ALL. Transmit Power 1. above), it is used While this option will also open the menu (as under current (running now, or in the the to adjust only the Transmit Power level for scenario future). All other scenarios will continue to use the default value, or the value you set under . 1 Note that the adjusted power level will also apply to any new satellites coming into view later during any execution of this scenario. 3. UP/DOWN arrow While the scenario is running — by pressing the press the keys: Views 2 to 5/x (see "Scenario Execution Views" on In the Scenario Execution for all satellites, or press the keys to page 32) highlight LEFT/RIGHT arrow dBm highlight individual satellites. Then press the UP/DOWN arrow keys to adjust the Transmit Power level, or enter a new value by using the numeric keys. Pressing the ± (format) key while dBm is highlighted changes Note: the frequency band to be adjusted: L1 > L2 > L5 > ALL. Contrary to option , this will only adjust power for the selected satellites in view , not 2. for new satellites coming into view later. If a value is not accepted, it is likely out of spec, see Note: "Transmit Power" on page 80 . CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 4 108

125 4.4 Accessing the GSG Web Interface 4.4 Accessing the GSG Web Interface To connect to the "The GSG Web UI" on page 168, follow these steps: 1. Determine the IP address of the GSG unit you want to connect to, by navigating to . The IP address will be listed under the Network > Interface and Reference Options menu item. 2. Open a Web browser (such as Mozilla Firefox or Internet Explorer), and enter the IP address into the address bar. 3. Once connected, the browser will display a graphical representation of the front panel of your GSG unit. You can click the buttons to perform operations as you would if you were physically doing so from the front panel of the unit. The functionality of the buttons and options is detailed in the Section "Front Panel" on page 26. The only exception is button, which restarts the unit (instead of powering it OFF). the Power The Primary Navigation Menu on top of the Web UI provides access to the following menu items: GSG FILES : Provides access to all scenario configuration files and log files of your GSG unit. The files can be viewed and downloaded with a Web browser. upload a file, click Choose Files to browse directories, e.g., on a con To nected PC. Multiple files can be uploaded at one time, provided that the combined size of the files does not exceed 10 MB. . If the upload is successful, the directory will be Upload Then click refreshed, otherwise a status page will list the files that could not be uploaded, and the reason why the upload failed. Please note the following file type requirements: antennaModels : *.ant calibration : *.cal : *.even events scenarios : *.scen : *.traj or *.nmea. trajectories observations navigationData will not be verified. File types of uploaded and CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 109

126 4.5 Using the CLI Figure 4-5: Example GSG Web UI, showing a logged GPS almanac file : Opens the Spectracom website/StudioView web page: STUDIOVIEW www.spectracom.com/Studioview DOCUMENTATION : Opens the Spectracom website/StudioView web page: www.spectracom.com/GSG Documentation : Opens the Spectracom website/StudioView web page: REGISTRATION www.spectracom.com/Registration . Using the CLI 4.5 1. Open the , and then the Command-Line Interpreter (CLI) by clicking the MONITOR icon: 2. Click the Globe icon. The window will open. Connections CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 4 110

127 4.6 Performing a Receiver Cold Start 3. Click the green PLUS icon in the top-left corner, and enter the name of the new con Options > nection, and its IP address (which can be found under the GSG menu Inter menu item. Network . The IP address will be listed under the face and Reference 4. Test the connection, and click OK. The connection between the CLI and your GSG unit is now established, and you can start com municating by sending SCPI commands. 4.6 Performing a Receiver Cold Start A Warm Start is performed by most GNSS receivers after a power reset. The data (ephemeris, almanac) is remembered to aid in obtaining the satellites during next power-up. , initiate a cold start command to the receiver, or clear its memory by To perform a Cold Start using other means intended for this purpose. Resetting the power does not perform a cold start by design. Note: ALWAYS force a , or a full reset of a receiver after it had been Cold Start used with generated signals! Without a Cold Start: The receiver will reject the generated signals as invalid. The receiver may not find the generated satellites. The receiver may fail to navigate or behave poorly. Creating a One-Line Trajectory 4.7 As the GSG unit uses the heading and speed information of the RMC sentences, only one NMEA sentence is actually required to describe a simple, continuous movement. For example, the following one-line trajectory specifies a continuous north-bound trajectory (as the speed of 77 knots: heading field is set to 0.0 degrees) at a $GPRMC,111150,A,6000.000,N,0100.000,E,77.000,0.0,140715,0.9,W,- A*03 Recommended Minimum Sentence C RMC Fix taken at 11:11:50 UTC 111150 Status [A = Active, V = Void] A 6000.0000,N Latitude: 60 deg 00.000' N CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 111

128 4.8 Leap Second Configuration 0100.0000,E Longitude: 01 deg 00.000' E Speed over ground: 77 knots 77.000 0.0 Heading: 0.0 degrees true Date: 14-July-2015 140715 0.9,W Magnetic Variation: 0.9 deg West A Positioning system mode indicator: [A = Autonomous] *03 Checksum data, always begins with * One-line trajectories like this can be easily be made by manually creating the desired NMEA and/or heading files: The example above can be taken as a baseline, then edit speed fields as required. To allow for testing the sentence's validity, the last 2 digits contain a checksum of the data (XOR of all bytes between $ and * symbols) – this checksum must be correct and can be calculated www.hhhh.org/wiml/proj/nmeaxor.html . with e.g., this online tool: NMEA messages, including the checksums, are case sensitive and should be given Note that the in UPPERCASE even if the GSG unit (firmware version 3.00 and above) accepts messages in lower case. NMEA To find out more about NMEA 0183 Standard, visit , and purchase a copy of the . www.nmea.org To learn more about trajectories, see: "Trajectories" on page 40. 4.8 Leap Second Configuration A leap second can occur on two dates, December 31 or June 30. It is announced approx. 6 months in advance. The GPS almanac changes to ‘announce’ the leap second, and GPS receiv ers must correctly implement the leap second at the proper time. Select the scenario, then navigate to the con To configure a leap second for a scenario, View 2/3 : figuration Leap Second field Figure 4-6: Alternatively, the leap second can be configured in StudioView. 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 CHAPTER 112

129 4.9 Studioview Tasks The leap second field can be set to -1, 0 or 1, and indicates a future change in the leap second t Δ value. While is set automatically based on information in the used ephemeris data, the LS (Leap Seconds Future). value given in the leap second field will impact values related to L SF When the leap second is set to a value other than zero The following values will be used: = Δ t t + value given in the leap second field Δ LS LSF WN = The GPS week number (8-bit representation) of the week holding the 30th of June, or LSF 31st of December, whichever comes first with respect to the scenario start time. DN = Day number of the date described above. When the leap second is set to zero The following values will be used: Δ = Δ t , t LSF LS = WN – 1, and WN LS LSF DN = 1 Note that downloaded and default navigation data files do not contain any LSF information (RINEX v2.1). Therefore it is still necessary to set the L when a leap second change will occur, SF in order to ensure correct behavior. The default UTC/GPS offset—as of 2016—is set to 17 seconds (it will be 18 seconds in 2017). The four leap second almanac variables are: : Week number when the leap second becomes effective WN LSF DN : Day number when the leap second becomes effective Δ : Current or past leap second value t LS t : Current or future leap second value. Δ LSF Studioview Tasks 4.9 4.9.1 What Is StudioView? ® GSG StudioView™ software for Windows enables you to create and edit scenarios, and per form file management tasks with Spectracom's GSG series GPS/GNSS simulators. While GSG simulators are capable of configuring and running scenarios without the need for ® an external computer, StudioView Windows software offers several additional benefits: Create, edit and organize all scenario parameters including dynamic events Create, edit and visualize trajectories with mapping tools CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 113

130 4.9 Studioview Tasks Convert trajectories from CSV, KML, KMZ and GPX files to the required NMEA format Create scenario files (including events and trajectories) without the need to be connected to a simulator. 4.9.1.1 StudioView Tasks This Chapter describes some of the tasks you will likely perform with GSG StudioView: "Installing StudioView" on the facing page "Connecting StudioView to GSG" on page 116 "Updating the GSG Firmware via StudioView" on page 117 "Accessing GSG Remotely via StudioView" on page 121 "Creating a Trajectory in StudioView" on page 123 "Creating an RSG Trajectory with StudioView" on page 133 "Configuring a Scenario" on page 140 "Playing RSG Scenarios in StudioView" on page 140 "Record and Playback" on page 154 4.9.1.2 StudioView Functionality Overview File Management and Control StudioView's File Manager allows you to upload or download scenario files to or from your ® GSG unit: Connect your Windows PC running StudioView to the GSG unit via its network, USB, or GPIB interface. Then drag & drop the files, or use the copy/delete/rename hotkeys on either the PC or the GSG unit. Uploader is designed to batch-upload scenarios, or firmware files – if needed, to several The GSG units simultaneously. Also included is the function which is used to send SCPI commands to a connected Console GSG unit, and to view the response. Note: requires a license to activate all features after the 30-day GSG StudioView trial period. After the trial period, all features are locked out except for the . The Uploader is used to perform firmware updates or upload scenario Uploader files to the GSG. Trajectory Building and Dynamic Event Management A key feature of GSG StudioView is the ability to create and modify the simulation of a moving CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 114

131 4.9 Studioview Tasks ® receiver: So-called trajectories can be created with Google Maps or imported from other ® . devices and applications such as Google Earth StudioView converts a list of waypoints from a CSV file, or waypoints, routes and tracks from a GPX file (GPS exchange format) into the NMEA format, as required by the unit. Google KML and KMZ files can be opened, edited, and saved. Waypoints can be edited individually or in batches. When converting a trajectory file to the NMEA format, you can specify altitude and speed at each waypoint or use a constant value for the trajectory. Trajectory waypoints can be inter polated at a set interval from 100 ms to 1 hour. Pre-defined events occur along the trajectory: Whether a vehicle stops at a red traffic light, or a building temporarily blocks the line of sight to a satellite – in StudioView you can create and edit different types of events that will make any test scenario more realistic and test the cap abilities of a GNSS receiver even under difficult conditions. Ephemeris and Almanac Data Based on the scenario start time and duration, GSG StudioView software identifies and pre- downloads the relevant RINEX files from the official websites. Once a scenario is uploaded to the GSG simulator, no further downloads are required. 4.9.2 Installing StudioView A free 30-day demo version of StudioView can be downloaded from the Spectracom website, see the link below. After the 30-day trial period you need to purchase a StudioView license to activate all features, Uploader , which does not require a license. The Uploader is used to with the exception of the perform firmware updates or upload scenario files to a GSG unit. To install StudioView: Download the software: https://files.spectracom.com/public- downloads/gsg- 56- 1. files- update- and- documentation .exe Locate the downloaded file, and launch it. Follow the on-screen installation instruc 2. tions. 3. Towards the end of the installation process, among other things you will be asked if you National Instruments VISA driver : This driver is required for Studioview want to install the to communicate with your GSG unit, so please check the box (unless you do not plan to connect your PC to a GSG unit). Save the VISA runtime file, and launch it to install the driver. .exe 4. The topic "Connecting StudioView to GSG" on the next page describes how to establish com munication between StudioView and a GSG unit (or any other device on the network). CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 115

132 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4.9.3 Connecting StudioView to GSG StudioView needs to be connected to your GSG unit so that you can up-/download files, record data, or use the GSG web interface. On the GSG side, you can use the Ethernet port, USB port, or GPIB interface to establish the tool is used to hardware connection. On the StudioView side, the Connections Manager detect and configure the connection. Once you have connected a cable to your GSG unit, follow the procedure below to establish communication between StudioView and the GSG unit (Ethernet is used as an example). 1. On the GSG unit, navigate to Options > Interface and Reference : 2. that matches your hardware configuration, i.e. the connection Select the Interface type between the GSG unit and the StudioView computer: TCP/IP, USB, or GPIB (note that SCPI-Raw does not work with StudioView). 3. In the same menu dialog, take note of the Network address displayed. 4. Launch StudioView on a PC. From the main menu, or the TOOLS dropdown menu, select the tool you would like to use e.g., the GSG web interface , or the , the Uploader . Data recorder In the tool window, next to the Address field, click the Connections button. The Con 5. window will be displayed, showing a list of previously created con nections Manager nections: CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 116

133 4.9 Studioview Tasks If you can see the connection pointing to your GSG unit, click it and then click OK. To button. refresh the list and search for more GPIB or USB devices, press the Refresh icon to add a new connection: Otherwise click the Add Enter the IP address that was displayed under Step 3. above, and click to 6. validate the connection. Click OK to close validation dialog. If the connection was suc cessful, click OK to add this connection. 7. ) and click OK. The StudioView tool window Highlight your connection ( blue background should now show the connection to your GSG unit. (Note: The actual connection (e.g., button.) Start for the Data Recorder) will not be established until you press the 4.9.4 Updating the GSG Firmware via StudioView GSG StudioView is used to perform a firmware update. It is recommended that you always use , and that you use the latest available StudioView version to the latest available GSG firmware update the GSG firmware. For the latest StudioView version, and GSG firmware version, see gps- simulators- support . https://spectracom.com/support/gsg- series- 1. To determine which firmware version is currently installed on your GSG unit, navigate to > Show system information . Options 2. To determine the latest GSG firmware version, and download it to your Personal Com puter, see the link above. This link also points to firmware update instructions. If you register your GSG unit, you will be notified of new firmware Note: . http://register.spectracom.com/ releases: Please note the following: read the corresponding release notes Prior to updating the firmware, please update instructions . If the firmware version on your GSG further containing unit is V4.05 or lower, several updates must be performed in the correct sequence. It is possible, albeit not recommended, to back out a firmware update by installing the previous version on top. To obtain the firmware updates 2.03, 2.04, and 4.07 please contact Spectracom Support by clicking the Request Ser http://spectracom.com/support#anchor- vice and Product Support link at . 2767 In order for the instrument to communicate with the PC Software the NI VISA runtime software is required. The StudioView installation wizard will notify you, but if necessary, the NI VISA runtime software can also be downloaded directly from the National Instruments website: . http://joule.ni.com/nidu/cds/view/p/id/3342/lang/en Once a firmware upload is initiated from StudioView, any running scenario will be stopped, and the upgrade process status will be displayed instead. First, the CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 117

134 4.9 Studioview Tasks progress of the file transfer is displayed. After the file transfer is complete, the actual upgrade operation is made. Finally, the GSG-5/6 unit will reboot with the new firmware installed. The Windows Personal Computer onto which you will download the new firm installed on it, and must be connected to your GSG StudioView ware must have GSG unit e.g., via Ethernet. 3. Once you have prepared the firmware upgrade as outlined above, proceed to the topic "Uploading StudioView Files" below. 4.9.5 Uploading StudioView Files GSG StudioView's tool is used to upload scenario files and firmware updates from Uploader your StudioView PC to a connected GSG unit, and vice versa. (For more information on firm ware upgrades, see "Updating the GSG Firmware via StudioView" on the previous page.) the Uploader is the preferred tool over the Note that for uploading scenarios File Manager Uploader (see "Transferring Files With StudioView" on page 120), since the automatically files belonging to a scenario. The File Manager is meant to transfer individual files all uploads e.g., a standalone trajectory file. 4.9.5.1 Using the StudioView Uploader for the First Time In order for GSG to communicate with StudioView, the NI VISA Run-Time engine is National Instruments required, which can be downloaded directly from the website. 1. VISA Run-Time Once are installed, start GSG StudioView. and GSG StudioView Application Tips Tools , select Uploader . From the screen, or from the toolbar under On the Uploader screen, click Select devices for uploading . 2. 3. The window will open, displaying all TCP/IP, GPIB and USB connections. Connections PLUS icon to add an ETH device, or the Refresh icon to search for more devices Click the CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 118

135 4.9 Studioview Tasks and update the list. Interface and Refer To obtain your GSG's IP address or change the interface type, select ence Options menu: from the GSG Note: This screen may vary, based on your installed firmware version. 4. button to verify the connection: Test Click the Uploading Firmware 1. firmware onto your GSG unit, in the StudioView Uploader , click In order to update the Open Folder Select file for uploading ), and navigate to the down the button (next to loaded firmware file on your PC. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 119

136 4.9 Studioview Tasks 2. Start button to start the transfer. The unit will first transfer the file, and then Click the update the firmware. Uploading a Scenario In order to upload a , first ensure that the scenario file (. scen file) and any tra scenario 1. jectory, event, or navigation file associated with the scenario are stored in the Stu dioView repository. By default this location is: C:\Users\username\Documents\Spectracom\GSG StudioView\Rep- ository username location may depend on your version of the Windows Note: The operating system you are using. In the StudioView window, click Select file for uploading , and navigate to Uploader 2. the scenario file in the repository. 3. Start button to start the upload. The software will automatically upload the scen Click the ario file as well as any trajectory, event, or navigation file associated with that scenario, and place the files in the proper locations in the GSG. 4.9.6 Transferring Files With StudioView If there is a need to transfer individual files from your StudioView PC to a connected GSG or vice versa, StudioView's is the tool of choice. File Manager Uploader (see "Uploading Stu Note: Note that for uploading scenarios the ) is the preferred tool over the , since the dioView Files" on page 118 File Manager Uploader automatically uploads all files belonging to a scenario. Transferring a File using the StudioView File Manager Open the tool by navigating to Tools > File Manager , or click . File Manager 1. 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 CHAPTER 120

137 4.9 Studioview Tasks Establish a connection to the GSG unit by clicking . (For details, see "Connecting Stu 2. dioView to GSG" on page 116.) 3. Once a connection has been established, you should see GSG's file/folder tree in the left window, and StudioView's file list in the right window: to navigate to the next Double-click on any folder to open it. Click on the top folder 4. higher folder. Highlight any file in order to F5 F8 Delete it. Copy or Downloading a File from a GSG Unit via the Web Interface In order to download a file from a connected GSG unit to a destination of your choice on the File Manager GSG Web Inter StudioView PC, instead of using the , you can also use the : face GSG Web Interface by clicking the Globe button (or – if not In StudioView, open the 1. using Studioview – see "Accessing the GSG Web Interface" on page 109). 2. Select observations/ directory. Click on GSG FILES in the top-left corner. Then select the any file to display its contents. Click the green arrow in the top right corner to navigate back to the file listing. 3. Save target as ... Download a file by right-clicking on it and selecting 4.9.7 Accessing GSG Remotely via StudioView If a PC has been connected to the GSG unit via one of the communication interfaces (Ethernet, USB, or GPIB, see "Rear Panel" on page 29), the GSG unit can be controlled remotely, either by using its web interface, or by submitting commands via StudioView's console tool: Access via the Web User Interface The StudioView Web User Interface ("Web UI") tool provides web access to the front panel of your GSG unit. To open the Web UI in StudioView: CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 121

138 4.9 Studioview Tasks Tools > Web interface , or click the icon. Navigate to 1. Click to open the Connections Manager tool (for details, see "Connecting Stu 2. dioView to GSG" on page 116.) 3. After setting up the connection, a visual representation of the front panel will appear: You can control the unit as if physically pressing the buttons on the unit. To access the files stored on the GSG unit, click the button in the top left corner. GSG FILES Access via the Console Tool The StudioView Console allows you to communicate with the GSG unit via SCPI protocol. To open the StudioView Console tool: Click or navigate to Tools > Console . The Console window will display: 1. to open the Connections Manager tool (for details, see "Connecting Stu Click 2. dioView to GSG" on page 116.) CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 122

139 4.9 Studioview Tasks 3. The following generic commands are supported (to display this list in the console win list .): dow, type clh – clear commands history – clear console screen cls 1 > – connect to a specific GSG unit connect – execute specific command in a loop with specific interval in milliseconds between repetition query – send SCPI command to connected device and read response string of connected device – read the response string of connected device read write – send SCPI command to the connected device GSG has en error queue that can be checked automatically after every execution of a com mand. To enable or disable this function, click . To clear the console screen, click . 4.9.8 Creating a Trajectory in StudioView What is a Trajectory? In the context of GNSS testing, a trajectory is the predefined path a receiver is traveling during the execution of a scenario. It is the input to the scenario that defines how the virtual vehicle will move in up to 6 degrees of freedom during the test (X, Y, Z; pitch, roll, yaw). While the definition of the vehicle path itself is an important constituent of any scenario, the GNSS signal reception at any given time during scenario execution is of equal importance, since the reception will be affected by these trajectory-dependent factors: The environment along the trajectory changes: Infrastructure blockages such as tall build ings ("urban canyons") or other topographic characteristics will cause the signal recep tion to vary. attitude of the vehicle in motion can affect signal reception due to on-vehicle block The ages and antenna affects. acceleration/jerk in the context of position and attitude can have a significant effect The on signal reception. 1 A resource string (e.g., "TCPIP::10.32.1.203::inst0::INSTR") can point to a USB or GPIB connection. It is generated automatically when you add a new connection and its IP address becomes validated. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 123

140 4.9 Studioview Tasks Ultimately, the objective of any test is to determine how the receiver/the system under test responds when subjected to the above-mentioned control factors and noises. Note: . For additional information on trajectories, see "Trajectories" on page 40 How to Obtain a Trajectory? There are different ways to generate a trajectory: a. Authentic NMEA data logged during a real-world drive along the trajectory route under live sky conditions (see "Record and Playback" on page 154) b. Trajectory Editor StudioView's , which can be used to manually create a trajectory as a sequence of points on Google Maps. c. StudioView RSG Trajectory Editor , which can be used to describe a motion-based tra NOT required to use this editor) jectory (proprietary format) (Option-RSG is d. input; (Option-RSG IS required to input the data in realtime) Real-time motion simulator e. Several GSG models are shipped with pre-installed circle and 3GPP trajectories. R e a l i s t i c T r a j e c t o r i e s Trajectories generated by means other than (a.) should always realistically reflect the dynamic cap abilities of the type of vehicle in motion e.g., car, aircraft, ship. To this end, Spectracom recommends using ‘smooth’ methods to describe the movements, i.e. changes in acceleration, heading or altitude should be gradual, not sudden or ‘hard’. When using coordinates to describe a trajectory, the data must be provided in 10 Hz format and must not contain sudden changes in speed, direction or elevation; GNSS receivers generally are very sensitive to G-force and unrealistic movements will result in the receiver losing track of the signals. Supported Trajectory Formats and formats, while StudioView also GSG accepts trajectory data in the .traj .nmea accepts other formats, which can then be converted to NMEA for use in the GSG. GSG supports the following trajectory-related workflows: 1. NMEA trajectory files, generated with the StudioView Trajectory Editor 2. NMEA trajectory files, as recorded by a receiver under the live sky, then imported into and converted by Studioview .traj format, as generated with the RSG trajectory editor in StudioView (supports 3. 6 DoF) 4. Real-time motion (6 DoF), generated while the simulation is running (Hardware-in-the- Loop testing) (requires RSG-option) CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 4 124

141 4.9 Studioview Tasks .tle (two-line element), as used for space vehicle simulation (see "Trajectory Two-Line 5. Element Format (TLE)" on page 349). Workflow no. 1. is described below – generating a trajectory using StudioView's Trajectory Editor: Using the Trajectory Editor for the First Time To create or edit a trajectory, open the StudioView Trajectory Editor: 1. On a Windows PC, start StudioView. The StudioView Application Tips screen will be dis played. Tools > Trajectory Editor or, in the main toolbar click Navigate either to the menu . 2. In its default view mode, the Trajectory Editor displays a Google Maps window, a Waypoints table, and a Trajectory Velocity and Altitude chart: on the left side of the screen provides access to the Trajectory Editor's The vertical toolbar functionality: Note: Export ... "). Some A little box indicates that a feature is active (except " blue features cannot be active at the same time. The Trajectory Editor Toolbar Table 4-1: Hover Icon Usage No. Tooltip Display/hide the table on the right side of the screen. Parameters 1. Waypoints panel CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 125

142 4.9 Studioview Tasks Hover No. Icon Usage Tooltip Display/hide the chart. 2. Charts Speed and Altitude panel (pan) in Google Maps™, while avoiding inadvertent insertion of way 3. "Drag only" Drag map mode points. Display the of the cursor. 4. Cursor coordinates coordinates Access the Google Maps functionality (enter the name of a location, "Search" 5. Search panel or WGS-84 coordinates). Opens a panel in Google Maps that is needed to build a route. (Consider this "Build 6. route" to be the Trajectory Editor's main tool.) panel Open the StudioView to export a trajectory. For more 7. Export ... Trajectory Converter information, see "Converting a Trajectory in StudioView" on . page 129 Building a Route by Creating Google Maps™ Waypoints The main step towards creating a trajectory in StudioView is to build a by creating way route points in StudioView's Google Maps window. While it is possible to create waypoints in the Google Maps window by left-clicking on dif follow streets or make allowances not ferent points – thereby building a route – this route will for any topographic characteristics. Instead, use Google Maps to plot a realistic route by enter ing start point and end point, as you would with any GNSS navigation system (and as described below). For airborne vehicle trajectories the RSG trajectory editor is more suitable, since its trajectories natively support 6 DoF, and since its trajectories are not tied to a specific geographic location (so they can be played in different locations, if so required. For more information, see "Creat ing an RSG Trajectory with StudioView" on page 133). To build a route: In the StudioView Trajectory Editor, click the Route Builder icon . (See also "Using 1. the Trajectory Editor for the First Time" on the previous page.) The panel will Build route open: 2. Enter an address for the first point of the new route. 3. + button to create a new waypoint or the x to delete an existing one. Click the CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 126

143 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4. Enter additional waypoints as needed. To search for particular place on the map, but not set a waypoint Note: Search icon. Note that any previously set waypoints will (yet), click the NOT be lost. 5. Once all the waypoints for the new route are set (you can add waypoints later), click the Route builder button in the lower right corner of the panel. The route will be built. The chart will be populated. Waypoints Velocity and Altitude table and the Editing a Route While a route built with the help of Google Maps would suffice to be used in a scenario, it is advisable to add or change some additional altitude and speed data, thus developing the tra jectory further into a realistic trajectory. Also, you may want to edit individual waypoints, or add a stop. You can also edit the route of an existing trajectory. To import an existing Note: trajectory, see "Transferring Files With StudioView" on page 120 . Open the tra jectory by clicking File > Open . Make sure you have selected the correct file format (the default is "All supported files"), then locate the file you want to open, Open and click . The Trajectory Editor window will open automatically. To edit an existing route: Waypoints table you can: In the StudioView Trajectory Editor Add elevation to all waypoints by retrieving Google Maps altitude data (by default, all elevation is set to 0). Click the Update Elevations button. edit its elevations, its coordinates, or the speed setting. Double-click on any waypoint to geographic coordinates in any of Degrees, Deg Min, Deg Min Sec You may enter format or ECEF coordinates. StudioView will recalculate the other formats automatically. Note that altitude values are not MSL, but above the surface of the ellipsoid. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 127

144 4.9 Studioview Tasks Speed conversion table (Note: mph and knots are rounded down.) Table 4-2: When changing speed settings, the time values in the Waypoints table will Note: be updated automatically. Note: As noted before, changes to speed, altitude and heading should be gradual and realistic for the type of vehicle simulated. batch-edit their settings by click SHIFT-right click or CTRL-right click any group of waypoints to ing . + Add or delete x icon, respectively. By default, Stu waypoints by clicking the icon, or the Point # , dioView will insert the waypoint at the end of list. However, you may manually set a which will add the waypoint to that place in the trajectory. drag Select a waypoint in the Waypoints table, and then its Google Maps pin to relocate it. Add a brief (e.g., to simulate a red stop light) by highlighting any waypoint and clicking stop STOP the button. Enter the stop duration, and the speed at which to continue after the stop. Saving the Trajectory , or select File > Save . The default file format is .nmea To save the trajectory, click . CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 128

145 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4.9.9 Converting a Trajectory in StudioView Trajectories can be captured in different formats, depending on how they have been generated .nmea , or .tle files. , .traj and/or what their intended use is. GSG can read To learn more about ... trajectories, see "Creating a Trajectory in StudioView" on page 123. .nmea .traj files, see "Creating an RSG Trajectory with StudioView" on page 133. .tle files, see "Trajectory Two-Line Element Format (TLE)" on page 349. The conversion of trajectories can become necessary e.g., if a trajectory had been created by ... ... recording it using a GNSS receiver ... using third-party software e.g., Google Earth ... manually entering it into an Excel spreadsheet ... using other means to generate trajectories. However, it may also be required to change or add certain settings to an .nmea trajectory e.g., to smoothen, interpolate or equalize its data. This also can be accomplished with the Tra jectory Editor, see under "Converting a Trajectory in StudioView" above. StudioView's Trajectory Converter can convert the following input and output file formats: .nmea .csv .gpx .kml .kmz .csv format represents StudioView waypoints table from the Note: Note that the Trajectory Editor and therefore has the same fields. Working with .csv files, Stu dioView assumes that for each waypoint the .csv file will have four values: Lat itude, Longitude, Speed and Altitude. R e a l i s t i c T r a j e c t o r i e s Trajectories should always realistically reflect the dynamic capabilities of the type of vehicle in motion e.g., car, aircraft, ship. To this end, Spectracom recommends using ‘smooth’ methods to describe the movements, i.e. changes in acceleration, heading or altitude should be gradual, not sud den or ‘hard’. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 129

146 4.9 Studioview Tasks When using coordinates to describe a trajectory, the data must be provided in 10 Hz format and must not contain sudden changes in speed, direction or elevation; GNSS receivers generally are very sensitive to G-force and unrealistic movements will result in the receiver losing track of the signals. Using the Trajectory Converter for the first Time tool by clicking the Tools Trajectory Converter In StudioView, open the icon, or navigate to > Trajectory converter : Input trajectory you want to convert by clicking the file folder Select the icon. 1. 2. Decide what to do with the new trajectory and then select one of the 3 available options: Open result in the new Trajectory Editor window Write to file and open result in the new Trajectory Editor window Write to file. With the latter two options, click the lower file folder icon, and select a file location and file format . 3. Select a (Car, Aircraft, Ship) to pre-populate the fields below. Click Apply . Preset 4. Adjust the parameters as described under "Converting a Trajectory in StudioView" on the previous page and click to begin the conversion. Look out for possible error messages and follow the screen instructions to resolve any found issues. 4.9.10 Improving a Trajectory StudioView Trajectory Converter (see "Converting a Trajectory in StudioView" on the previous page) has several adjustable parameters that can be used to enhance a trajectory, thus making it more suitable for simulation. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 130

147 4.9 Studioview Tasks In StudioView, open the icon, or navigate to Tools Trajectory Converter tool by clicking the : > Trajectory converter Apply changes to the original trajectory as needed, following the tabs from left to right. The diagram below illustrates some of the parameters. Downsampling Downsampling means decreasing the number of points in a trajectory, so as to make those parts of a trajectory with constant movement parameters as long as possible. The down sampling algorithm excludes points which are within a specified deviation from the general movement direction. If your trajectory uses a substantial number of points, it is strongly recom mended to apply downsampling. it by checking the box on Downsampling tab. To define a deviation, select an Inac Enable , and enter a max. value for it. Also enter a maximum speed change for curacy estimation type the trajectory segment. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 131

148 4.9 Studioview Tasks Smoothing Smoothing is used to adjust movements parameters that are critical for the receiver per formance. By changing the smoothing parameters, you can achieve more realistic speed it by check changes and turn abrupt heading changes into more realistic gradual turns. Enable tab. The smoothing algorithm will add points to the trajectory as ing the box on the Smoothing determined by the algorithmn. is measured from a particular rounded point. The Max rounded distance The Max rounded segment percent represents the value of the maximum rounded dis tance in % from the rounded point relative to the length of entire trajectory segment. The segment of the trajectory refers to any part of a trajectory between two consecutive points. The Max angular velocity defines the speed of a turn. While rounding angels of tra jectory, resulted angular speed will be interpolated within specified limit. defines the maximum permitted vertical movement between con The Max vertical velocity secutive points. If the altitude has changed between two consecutive points, it will be interpolated, applying this not-to-exceed vertical velocity. The defines the maximum change of movement direction at Heading change threshold any particular point. If the actual value is greater than the heading change threshold, the trajectory will be rounded at this point. The in m/s². (3.8 m/s² is a typical value for a performance car [0-60 Max acceleration mph in 7s]). Interpolation Interpolation allows to add points to the original trajectory. Enable it by checking the box on tab. Interpolation the An Interpolation step value of 1 per second generates 1Hz data. Note: The maximum number of points for an NMEA trajectory is 12000! Equalization Use equalization if a steady speed or constant altitude is needed. The value entered will be applied to all waypoints of the trajectory. NMEA Stationary Period The NMEA tab allows to set up a in seconds. It will be added to the begin Stationary period ning of trajectory, allowing the receiver to obtain a fix before any movement starts (this will help to avoid that the receiver under test possibly does not capture the initial part of the tra jectory). 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 CHAPTER 132

149 4.9 Studioview Tasks Note: This feature only works if the file type of both the Input, and Output tra , and if the Output destination is set to NMEA Write to file jectory is . 4.9.11 Creating an RSG Trajectory with StudioView What is an RSG trajectory? 1 are used primarily to simulate airborne applications, such as flight, missile or RSG trajectories orbital trajectories. Contrary to a standard trajectories (as described under "Creating a Tra jectory in StudioView" on page 123), an RSG trajectory is not defined by its geographic pos ition, but by relative changes of movement . These motion changes are captured in user-defined parameters which are assigned to SCPI commands (to learn more about SCPI commands, see "SCPI Guide: Introduction" on page 214). RSG trajectories are created and edited with StudioView's RSG Trajectory Editor. A b o u t R e a l - t i m e S c e n a r i o G e n e r a t i o n Note that RSG trajectories must be built prior to running them. However, there is also the concept of feeding trajectory data into the GSG unit in real-time, i.e. while the trajectory is being generated: This functionality requires the option kit OPT-RSG , which allows the GSG unit to receive trajectory inform ation in real-time from e.g., a motion simulator or a computer running simulation software. For more services/gnss- simulation/real- time- trajectories . information, see https://spectracom.com/products- 4.9.11.1 Using the RSG Trajectory Editor for the First Time To open the StudioView RSG Trajectory Editor: Tools in the main toolbar, the menu, or in the StudioView Applic In StudioView, click ation Tips startup screen. The editor screen will show (the image below shows a loaded scenario for illustration purposes.) The editor has three panels: 1. The left panel shows a list of all RSG commands for the trajectory currently open (if any). 2. The corresponding trajectory is visualized on the Google Map on the right. 3. The charts below the m ap show speeds and altitude over time. 1 RSG = Real-time Scenario Generation CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 133

150 4.9 Studioview Tasks To open an existing RSG trajectory: File > Open... , or click Navigate to . RSG trajectory: new To create a 1. , and an altitude in meters. Use a semicolon and a space as sep Enter a Start position arators: Note that this data actually is not part of the trajectory, it is used only to assign a relative location to the trajectory. You can later change this location, thereby moving the entire trajectory to a different place (unless the trajectory includes geographic or ECEF pos ition change commands). 2. To add a new command to the list, highlight the command after which you would like to insert the new command by clicking it. Then click the button. The RSG Command Editor window will appear: CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 4 134

151 4.9 Studioview Tasks Select the command you want to use, and enter the required parameters. Detailed com mand descriptions can be found in the "SCPI Guide" on page 213. To edit an existing command, double-click it, or click the button. To delete a com 3. mand, use the button. 4. To copy or move a command, you can drag & drop it using your mouse in combination with/without the CTRL key. 5. To undo a command, press CTRL + Z. To redo a command, press CTRL + Y. The map and the chart on the right side of the screen will reflect any visible changes. 4.9.11.2 RSG Example: Racetrack Pattern To create a racetrack-shaped pattern: CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 135

152 4.9 Studioview Tasks 1. Open the RSG Trajectory editor. 2. and altitude (m), or leave the default. Enter a Start position 3. VELOCITY Add with initial speed and heading. 4. Next, add a KEEP GOING instruction in order to assign a duration to the previous com mand. This command will be shown with a gray background because it serves as a filler command that is not written into the trajectory file. It is used only to display the trajectory KEEP GOING on the map, and to properly time out an action. Select a duration for the filler command e.g., 5 minutes. Note: With some of the other commands, the KEEP GOING command is created by StudioView (you may still need to assign a duration manually). 5. Next, create a turn e.g., by 180° within 5 minutes: While this can be accomplished with RATEHEADING KEEP GOING , STOP , this would require some the command sequence , calculation to determine that the course rate change for this turn is -0.6°/s. Instead, use Maneuver command the , and define the Direction change, or the radius of the turn: Turn CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 136

153 4.9 Studioview Tasks For the turn, select Direction change : 180°, and Duration : 5 minutes. , Left 6. Lastly, repeat all of the steps above to complete the racetrack pattern (replace the head ing with the opposite heading). 4.9.11.3 Kepler Orbit KEPLER orbits are used to build a trajectory for space vehicles. The RSG trajectory editor's Com mand Editor offers a KEPLER trajectory that is – as all Keplerian orbits are – described by six parameters. These standard parameters make speed and heading change calculations unne cessary, but their specifications are beyond the scope of this documentation, and hence are not further described herein. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 137

154 4.9 Studioview Tasks Note: The preferred way to describe space vehicle trajectories are TLE-formatted "Trajectory Two-Line Element Format (TLE)" on page 349 trajectories, see . To access the Kepler trajectory dialog window: 1. In StudioView, navigate to the RSG Trajectory Editor. 2. Click Add to open the Command Editor. 3. Kepler orbit parameters and click OK. The parameter dialog will show: Scroll down to CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 138

155 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4. Populate the fields. 5. Attach the Kepler trajectory to a scenario (see "Configuring a Scenario" on the next page). The result will look similar to the illustration below: CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 139

156 4.9 Studioview Tasks Note: Higher-end GSG models have a sample Kepler trajectory for the ISS pre-installed. 4.9.12 Playing RSG Scenarios in StudioView StudioView's Realtime Scenario Player allows to play RSG scenarios in real-time. To open the Realtime Player, navigate to , or click Tools > Realtime scenario player . 1. The player dialog will open: 2. Use the File or Editor radio-buttons to select the source RSG trajectory (.traj file exten sion) for realtime playing. to open the Connections Manager tool (for details, see "Connecting Stu Click 3. dioView to GSG" on page 116.) Click to start playing. 4. A list of RSG commands will appear in the RSG Trajectory Editor window. VELOCITY After a particular RSG command has been fulfilled, it will become crossed out e.g., . 0,5,0 4.9.13 Configuring a Scenario A scenario is the dataset describing a simulation in terms of starting position, duration, tra jectory, events and other parameters which you may want to include in your simulation. GSG units come with several predefined scenarios (depending on the GSG model). You may also use StudioView to create your own scenarios, save them to a file and upload them to the GSG unit. The GSG unit will execute the simulation in accordance with the parameters spe cified in the scenario file. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 140

157 4.9 Studioview Tasks Scenario data is stored in a text file. To show/hide text of scenario file, click .To configure the scenario, fill in the appropriate fields under the tabs described below. Once you have completed your scenario configuration, save it and upload the scenario file to the GSG unit by clicking . Note: StudioView stores all files in a directory chosen during the installation pro cess. By default, the repository is located at C:\User s\UserName\Documents\Spectracom\GSG StudioView\Repository . You may save your scenario in any other folder, but please note you must also save any tra jectory, event, antenna pattern, or navigation files you may want to include to your scenario in the same folder. The Scenario Editor provides access to all essential scenario parameters. To access the Scen ario Editor, click , or navigate to Tools > Scenario Editor : Scenario Editor Figure 4-7: General tab Under the General tab, you can edit basic parameters like Start time, Duration and Start pos ition: Start time The is specified using GPS Time. The GPS Time is always used when dis playing time. This is not equal to the UTC time frequently displayed by the receivers. Contrary to the GPS time, UTC contains leap seconds. The Start Time can be a set time, or the current time derived from an NTP server spe cified in the Network Configuration settings of GSG device. To use this feature, check from the NTP server checkbox. Synchronize CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 141

158 4.9 Studioview Tasks If the current time from the NTP server is used, next the startup will be delayed up to 2 minutes to allow the simulation to load required data. The start time is aligned to the next full GPS minute. The NTP (UTC) timescale is converted to the GPS timescale by a UTC- GPS offset defined in the NTP server settings. Using NTP as start time in conjunction with Ephemeris set to Download is subject to licens Simulate Now option to be present. In this configuration, ing options, as it requires the the GSG will simulate the sky as it is in that start position at current time. This func tionality is currently only available for the GPS constellation. Please also note that the availability of good ephemeris data cannot be guaranteed, but periods where no data is found and hence no signals can be generated, may occur. The Duration of the scenario replay can be set to a number of days, hours and minutes. The scenario can be set to: Looping , means that scenario will restart again right after execution is finished Forever , GSG will download needed navigation data from Internet and run scen ario until user will stop it , in which case it executes only ones and then returns to main menu of One-go GSG device. Note that the option “forever” only works when the Ephemeris option is set to ‘Download’ (Start) Position. The Start position is specified using WGS84. Note that this also concerns the altitude (ellipsoid height) and that this is not the same as the MSL often output by receivers. Stu dioView provides automatic conversion between different coordinate input formats; decimal degree, degrees-minutes, degrees-minutes-seconds and ECEF format. Signals tab Signals Under the tab, you can determine which satellite signals you want to use, the type of environment, and possible Interference signals: Under this tab, you can explicitly set the maximum number of satellites to be simulated, with separate settings for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Beidou. When the Auto keyword is used, the GSG unit will automatically select the highest satellites available and generate the maximum number of satellites that your GSG model allows. You can also configure the number of SBAS satellites to be simulated. It is possible to configure the frequency bands (pseudo-P(Y)) encryption by and possible clicking on the checkbox for the corresponding constellation and band. The availability of all elements for simulation (e.g., GPS L2C, L5 and Galileo) is dependent on the installed licensing options and your GSG model . maximum number of signals For each constellation, you may specify the in view for a given time, clicking the up or down arrows. Or, just type the number. For maximum num ber, also see the field tooltips. CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 4 142

159 4.9 Studioview Tasks Note: The maximum number of signals depends on your GSG model. The unit will decrease the number of signals specified in the scenario to fit your Auto license options. If is selected, the GSG unit will use maximum number of channels. Use checkboxes to include or exclude a particular frequency band (e.g. L1, L2, E1, L2 P, etc.) from your simulation scenario. If a checkbox is grayed, it means that it is not sup ported or the only displayed choice is available. There can be 0, 1, 2, or 3 SBAS satellites per scenario. The GSG unit will select SBAS SV based on their elevation with respect to the user position. When the scenario is run ning the SBAS satellite positions and speed will be updated with the information found in the SBAS messages. Propagation environment you can select an environment model which will impact Under signal propagation. There are four models available: Urban Suburban Rura Open (full clear view of the sky, i.e. no obstructions). The simulation is carried out based on probability, applying different building densities (sparse <> dense). The feature offers some adjustability. For more information, see "Propagation Environment Models" on page 64. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 143

160 4.9 Studioview Tasks By specifying the , you define the satellite-in-view cut-off range. All satel Elevation mask lites which are below this range will be dropped off and replaced with better/higher satellite (if available). For more information, see "Elevation mask" on page 56. and Multipath signals to the scenario. The max You may also add Interference signals imum number of Interference/Multipath signals is 8. Interference signals are used to degrade the reception of GNSS receivers. To add an Interference signal, click . To add a signal, use default values or specify Interference signal parameters by expanding the list. You may also collapse or expand all items by clicking on the closed book or open book icon, respectively. To delete an Interference or Multipath signal, click . Navigation tab tab, you link files that describe the trajectory, events, environment, Under the Navigation vehicle model and navigation data to your scenario: trajectory can be simulated using the GSG. You can choose to use one of the Any user built-in trajectories or upload a trajectory file created in the Trajectory Editor or RSG Trajectory Editor of StudioView. To select one of built-in trajectories, click on Circle, Static, 3GPP and set up parameters if needed. File and To attach a pre-installed trajectory or your own trajectory to the scenario, click pick a trajectory file from the dropdown menu. To add your own trajectory file to this dropdown list, you have to create a new trajectory first and then save it in the repos itory. An Events file describes some specified events during scenario execution. To create events file, see "Defining Events in StudioView" on page 147. Support for environmental or vehicle models in GSG simulators is via compressed key hole markup language files (kmz) popularized by Google Earth. A simple way to create ® these files is with the tool SketchUp available from Trimble Navigation, see https://www.sketchup.com/ . Environment model is a 3D model of the environment, describing terrain, buildings, An etc. All environment models used must have a ‘geo-location’ added to them before they can be used by in simulation. Environmental Modeling is used first and foremost to sim ulate urban canyons, or tunnels. You can create blocks, representing build ings/obstructions, and place them on the map along the trajectory. The power level of the satellites will be blocked or reduced in the vicinity of the buildings due to the obstruc tion of the line of sight near these virtual buildings. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 4 144

161 4.9 Studioview Tasks A vehicle model represents a 3D model of the vehicle. The vehicle model will move with the simulated trajectory. The vehicle model will also follow any pitch/roll/yaw move ments simulated, i.e. if the vehicle rolls by 90 degrees, half of the sky is likely to be blocked by the vehicle itself, depending on vehicle model used. The body center of the simulated vehicle will be in the origin position of the model. The antenna position can differ from the body center position by configuring lever arm values in the scenario con figuration. The antenna position can also be specified in the vehicle model file by adding a component named “RecAnt”. If both lever arm and RecAnt are set, the receiver antenna position as set in the vehicle model takes the precedence. The vehicle model does not need a geo-location. Vehicle models can also be created with the software tool “Sketchup”, see above. If a satellite is blocked by an object from either the environment or vehicle model, i.e. it is not visible by the receiver antenna, its power level is set to OFF. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 145

162 4.9 Studioview Tasks For more information, see https://spectracom.com/sites/default/files/document- . files/Environmental%20Modeling%20with%20GPS%20Simulation.pdf GSG can successfully handle vehicle models with up to 130 triangles and models should be optimized for low polygon count. The triangle count is limited to a total of 300 for the combined environment and vehicle models. allows you to specify Almanac and Ephemeris files to be used during Navigation data simulation. Next to the Default option, you can download navigation data from the offi cial web sites, or use your own Almanac or RINEX files. For more information on RINEX files, see "Editing RINEX Files in StudioView" on page 161. To download navigation data from the official web sites, click , and then click . The navigation data for the scenario start time and number of satellites you specified under the Signals tab will be downloaded. To add the navigation data files to your scenario, click and select the files needed. To edit navigation data in the RINEX editor, select the file from the list and click . Atmospheric models tab models tab, you can model the Ionosphere and Troposphere. Atmospheric Under the On , by The GSG unit comes with built-in support for an Ionospheric model. When set to default the used model is a reverse model of the model described in IS-GPS-200D, sec tion 20.3.3.5.2.5. When set to , no delays caused by the Ionosphere are used in the Off simulation. GSG also supports simulation of Ionospheric delays using files in IONEX Files and choose it from Repository. format. To specify a particular file, select Antenna tab Antenna tab, you determine which type of antenna you would like to simulate, as Under the well as the lever arm, which specifies the antenna position relative to the vehicle center of move ment. RTK tab Under the RTK tab, it is possible to simulate a virtual Base Station: Specify its geographic coordinates and altitude, as well as an RTCM protocol version and type of RTCM messages to be simulated. Satellites preview tab Satellites preview tab, you can visualize the satellites in view. Under the CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 4 146

163 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4.9.13.1 Defining Events in StudioView To make a simulation more realistic, you can introduce events that can change power levels of certain signals, add or modify multipath signals, change the propagation environment, and modify navigation messages. event time in seconds counted from the In order to describe an event, you need to specify the beginning of scenario, and set the event parameters . Several events can occur in the same epoch. Note that PRN/channel events overrule scenario events. One GSG epoch equals a 100 ms block of time. Note: Using the Events Editor Tools > Events editor , or click . To open StudioView's Events Editor, navigate to Events are listed in the table on the left and stored in a text file that is linked to the scenario. To show/hide : the event file text on the right side of your screen, click Adding an Event To add a new event, click : CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 147

164 4.9 Studioview Tasks To set the type of event, choose an option from the drop-down menu: Event type Change absolute power: Defines a power level for a given channel or PRN code. Change relative power: Defines a change in the power level for a given channel or PRN code. Create new multipath signal Delete multipath signal Change multipath signal parameters Change navigation message bits Change signal propagation model. at which the event is to occur, specify the number of seconds from the beginning To set the Time of scenario. Target : Define a will apply the specified event to all satellites simulated in scenario. Scenario Channel will apply the specified event to one of GSG's channels. 1 will apply the specified event to a particular GNSS satellite or SBAS; select a PRN -x PRN code number. There are two Parameters types available for each event type - Absolute power or Relative power - in next drop-down menu. 1 Pseudo-Random Noise CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 148

165 4.9 Studioview Tasks For Channel event, type Duplicate is also available. Editing or Deleting an Event . To edit an event, highlight it, then double-click it, or click . To delete an event highlight it, then click 4.9.13.2 Adding a Jammer Signal in StudioView It is possible to add a localized jamming signal to a scenario (or several of them), so as to determine the response of a receiver-under-test to a jamming/interference condition. 1. Tools > Scenario In StudioView, open the Scenario editor by navigating to editor, or . by clicking 2. Open the scenario or trajectory of your choice, or start a new one. For more inform ation, see "Configuring a Scenario" on page 140. 3. tab, and under Interference To add a jamming source to your scenario, go to Signals add a new signal by clicking , or edit an existing signal. Signals 4. Jammer position , and turn it ON. Locate the line item 5. Enter the geographic position for the new interference signal. 6. frequency bands you wan to jam and other parameters for the new inter Specify the ference signal. Please note that now your jammer will be displayed on the map in the Trajectory Editor and RSG Trajectory Editor . However, it will only show the area along your trajectory impacted the in 2D . by the jammer CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 149

166 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4.9.13.3 Spoofing a Signal in StudioView This functionality is used with the Note: VTS System (Vulnerability Test System), which includes a GSG spoofing license. signal, Sky A spoofing test in StudioView exposes the device-under-test not only to the authentic but also to a second signal generated by the . This second signal can be used to chal Spoofer lenge the capability of the receiver to discern between the genuine and the fake signal. Several parameters can be adjusted to tweak the test scenario, if needed. The testing environment illustrated below is used to test a system against spoofing vulnerability. To configure a spoofing scenario: . The Parameters panel will open (the Status tab is used Tools > Navigate to 1. during the scenario execution, see "Running a Spoofing Simulation" on page 152): CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 150

167 4.9 Studioview Tasks 2. Populate the menu fields: Sky Connection: Open the to establish a connection to Connections Manager the device that generates the authentic satellite data (simulated, recorded, or live sky) Scenario: Select a scenario for the "authentic" simulation. Spoofer to establish a connection to Connection: Open the Connections Manager the device that generates the spoofing data (simulated, recorded, or live sky) Scenario: Select a scenario for the "spoofed" simulation. Use the same scenario as for sky: [Yes/No] Check if you want to use the same scenario for both the sky data, and the spoofing data. Sky signal parameters Sky power (dBm): Select a signal strength for the authentic signal. Spoofer signal difference to sky signal Time offset (ns): Determine by how much the spoofed signal's time shall be offset from the sky signal's time. The time is not directly related to UTC, it only states the time difference between two signals. Position offset (m): Determine by how much the spoofed signal shall be off set from the sky signal. Power above sky (dB): Determine how much stronger the spoofed signal shall be in comparison to the sky signal. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 151

168 4.9 Studioview Tasks Receiver Use receiver: [Yes/No] Determine if you want to feed the GNSS receiver data into StudioView during the simulation. COM port: Determine to which port the receiver is connected Automatically start spoofing immediately after position fix: [Yes/No] Determine when to start the spoofing. When checked, StudioView starts spoofing immediately after the receiver can determine its position. If Time to wait for position fix before starting spoofing unchecked, the field (see below) is used to determine the spoofing start delay. Other Time to wait for position fix before starting spoofing: [min:sec] Determine when to start the spoofing. Running a Spoofing Simulation Once you have configured the spoofing parameters under Tools > > Parameters Status tab in order to run the scenario: tab, open the Start Click the button in the bottom-left corner. The following parameters will be updated in real time: LiveSky position: Provides the actual position, as determined using the live sky satellite data. Receiver visible position: Provides the actual position, as measured by the receiver. Spoofer generated position: Provides the position, as calculated using the spoofed signals. Spoofing is running: Tells if the spoofing signal is active at this moment. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 152

169 4.9 Studioview Tasks The chart on the right will visualize the 2D error, as well as the 3D error between the LiveSky position and the receiver-visible position. 4.9.13.4 Using SBAS in a Simulation GSG will select SBAS SV based on their elevation with respect to the user position. When the scenario is running the SBAS satellite positions and speed will be updated with the information found in the SBAS messages. In particular, for each MT9 message, the satellite’s position and speed are updated. Although PRN120 - PRN158 are all reserved for SBAS systems, only a few of them are actually used by satellites. When determining the elevation angle of SBAS satellites, GSG unit looks for the SBAS satellites listed below. This is in contrast to the signal generator mode where you can specify any SBAS PRNs to be simulated. The currently supported SBAS satellites are: EGNOS: 120, 124, and 126 WAAS: 133, 135, and 138 MSAS: 129, 137 GAGAN: 127, 128 The simulator uses two approaches for SBAS messages: 1. Default SBAS messages (MT63) 2. EGNOS/WAAS message files The default SBAS messages are always available. These messages should be recognized by SBAS-compatible receivers. However, they carry no information and will therefore not enable the receiver to correct GPS signals. .ems ) are SBAS message files for both EGNOS, and WAAS are supported. EGNOS files ( ASCII and hourly, while WAAS files are typically in binary format and cover a whole day. Both systems share the same format of the messages and details can be found in SBAS_ Format_ EGNOS_ Message_ http://www.navipedia.net/index.php/The_ Explained . When the scenario has Ephemeris set to “Download”, the GSG unit will download the SBAS messages from official sites and match these messages to the time of the scenario. The SBAS messages broadcast by these satellites are downloaded automatically from these public FTP sites: ftp://131.176.49.48 EGNOS: ftp://ftp.nstb.tc.faa.gov WAAS: CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 153

170 4.9 Studioview Tasks MSAS: default MT63 default MT63 GAGAN: GSG uses an anonymous login. However, note that both FTP sites are likely to track and record all FTP access, including access by the GSG-55. The SBAS download starts when the constellation simulation of the scenario has started; not dur ing initialization of the scenario. If a scenario needs SBAS messages that cannot be downloaded from these FTP sites, the scen ario continues, but the GSG unit transmits null-messages (SBAS message type: MT63 ). An SBAS-compatible receiver should still be able to see the SBAS signals, but it will not find any useful information (range corrections, time offsets, etc.) in the SBAS messages. It follows that SBAS scenarios run best with a live Internet connection. Furthermore, since the aforementioned FTP sites store only a limited amount of SBAS records, the start time of SBAS scenarios has to be chosen carefully. Usually, SBAS records that are less than a year (EGNOS)/6 months (WAAS) old can be found on the aforementioned FTP sites. Select a start time that is not older than one year for EGNOS scenarios, and not older than 6 months for WAAS scenarios. Moreover, the start time shall not be too close to the current time. For EGNOS, there can be a one day delay before the SBAS messages are published on the FTP site. For WAAS the delay can possibly be longer (up to 3 or 4 days). The Internet connection is not always needed. All downloaded ephemeris data and SBAS data will be locally stored on the unit once they are downloaded. So, the next time the same scen ario runs, the ephemeris data and SBAS messages are read from the local storage and no Inter net connection is needed. The unit performs automatic clean-up of downloaded files. Such clean-up will occur when free disc space is less than 20% of the total disc space. Note: Currently SBAS corrections are not ‘applied backwards’ to the outputted GPS signals, even though the corrections will be transmitted in the SBAS signal. 4.9.14 Record and Playback Note: This is an optional feature for which the Record and Playback option (OPT- RP) is required. The Record and Playback software converts recorded NMEA messages into scenario, tra jectory, and event files. You can then upload these files to your GSG unit where they can be played back in order to recreate the original scenario. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 154

171 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4.9.14.1 Standard Workflow 1. record NMEA data by using a While traveling in a car along the planned test route, GNSS receiver and antenna (included in the kit), connected to a laptop com OPT-RP puter with StudioView installed on it. StudioView will record the data generated. 2. Scenario Generator in StudioView. Note that Run the recorded trajectory through the your StudioView computer must be connected to the GSG unit, and that the OPT-RP option must be enabled. StudioView will automatically generate the scenario, event and trajectory files for you. 3. Upload the generated scenario files to your GSG unit, and playback the scenario. 4.9.14.2 Installation of the OPT-RP Software From the GSG Software CD, copy the file setup_vx.x.exe to your PC. Run the executable to install the Record and Playback software. 4.9.14.3 Usage Notes i. The Record and Playback software is intended for use with a properly licensed GSG. If your GSG needs a Record and Playback license, please contact Spectracom (see "Tech nical Support" on page 198.) ii. The Record and Playback program uses the GSG VISA address to check for a valid license file. This address is also used to upload the results to the GSG if the Auto upload feature is enabled. GSG supports communication via TCP/IP, USB, and GPIB. For TCP/IP connections, this program will accept IPv4 addresses as well as VISA resource strings. The following lines describe the resource name syntax. iii. VISA resource string format: TCPIP[board]::host address[::LAN device name] [::INSTR] CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 155

172 4.9 Studioview Tasks USB[board]::manufacturer ID::model code::serial num- ber[::USB interface number][::INSTR] GPIB[board]::primary address[::GPIB secondary address][::INSTR] For more information about the VISA address, please see: http://zone.ni.com/reference/en- 01/lvinstio/visa_ XX/help/371361N- map_ address/ iv. The signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) is used to compare the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. The SNR is expressed in decibels (dB) and is used to describe the GNSS signal strength in NMEA‐0183 GSV sentences. v. On the GSG unit, signal strength is specified in dBm, i.e. the power ratio in decibels of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt (mW). Since dB cannot be directly con verted into dBm, the Record and Playback program relies on a decibel offset value. This offset value maps the NMEA signal strength (in dB) to the GSG signal strength (in dBm). An offset value of [‐160] is recommended to begin with. This value can be adjusted up or down until the offset is satisfactory. vi. You must also specify any scenario options that cannot be extracted from NMEA sen tences. These options include signal type, antenna model, troposphere model, tem perature, pressure, humidity, and elevation mask. For more information, see under ""Select" Menu" on page 36. vii. The input file name specifies the NMEA‐0183 file to parse. This file should only contain NMEA‐0183 GGA, RMC, and GSV sentences. viii. The output file name specifies the name of the scenario as it will appear on the GSG unit. Do not include a file extension. The Record and Playback program outputs scen ario, trajectory, and event files. It will automatically append the correct file extension for each output file. By default, the output files will be generated and saved in the same dir ectory as the input file. 4.9.14.4 Recording Data with StudioView Data Recorder allows to obtain all required data automatically without the need StudioView's to execute SCPI commands. The Data Recorder generates NMEA data from the trajectory cur rently being played on the GSG unit, collecting RINEX navigation and observation data, recording RSG parameters, satellites information and navigation messages. How can the recorded data be retrieved? The data can be retrieved either by using the GSG Web Interface, or via SCPI commands, or by using Studioview. Using the StudioView Data Recorder for the First Time : , or click To open the Data Recorder, navigate to Tools > Data Recorder CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 4 156

173 4.9 Studioview Tasks Figure 4-8: StudioView's Data Recorder The Data tab Data Under the tab you decide where the data to be recorded comes from (a GSG unit, or a GNSS receiver), and which data to log: RINEX navigation files RINEX observation files NMEA from GSG unit NMEA from connected receiver (This can be used to record NMEA data for the GSG Record and Playback option.) You can also redirect NMEA data via a serial port, or – in case of Receiver data – to a GSG unit. The Receiver tab Receiver View Under the tab you can track the position in real time. On the right side of the panel, the satellites in view are displayed, as well as speed, altitude and error data. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 157

174 4.9 Studioview Tasks Figure 4-9: Data recorder View window Unit Preparing the Recording of Data Generated by a GSG of the screen: On the left side GSG unit to configure the connection (for details, see "Con Check the box , then click 1. necting StudioView to GSG" on page 116.) 2. Choose which data to record: Navigation data, Observations, RSG data, Satellites data (e.g., satellite position, Doppler shift, etc), navigation messages. for each recorded data category. Select Output files 3. redirected to a serial port e.g., to use it with As an option, the NMEA data can also be a device that utilizes real-time NMEA data (such as a marine plotter). If so desired, select and configure the port to be used to redirect the data. Preparing the Recording of Data Generated by a GNSS Receiver right side On the of the screen: 1. Receiver if you have a GNSS receiver connected to your StudioView computer, Select and you want to record the life sky data it reads while e.g., driving a car 2. Select and configure the Serial port (if in doubt, use the default settings) 3. Select the type of Receiver chip : If you have a SiRF chip, StudioView will configure this receiver automatically. 4. Select an for the recorded NMEA data that the receiver sees. Output file CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 4 158

175 4.9 Studioview Tasks 5. If so desired, you can not only record the generated data, but also redirect it to a dif serial port of your computer e.g., to consume the data with a third-party applic ferent ation. If applicable, select and configure that port. 6. redirected to a GSG unit, in order to use it As an option, the NMEA data can also be with a device that utilizes real-time NMEA data (e.g., a marine plotter or receiver demo software). Note that GSG does not accept real-time NMEA data, only planned NMEA trajectory data. When redirecting NMEA data to a GSG unit, StudioView actually converts the NMEA data to RSG commands prior to sending the data. To configure this feature, click (for details, see "Connecting StudioView to GSG" on page 116.) 7. Select which data to send to the GSG unit. If the receiver does not send GGA data, i.e. the data stream does not include any altitude information (as is the case with RMC data), you may set a predefined altitude. Recording the Data Now, that the configuration is complete, click and begin with your test drive. Or, load the desired scenario on your GSG unit, and click . start the scenario via the GSG unit , since the RINEX navigation data will not be DO NOT captured! (Unless you manually submitted the SCPI navigation data logging command.) Once data starts to be generated, the Data Recorder will display the incoming raw data in the tab (top-left corner of the screen) you can also View bottom section of the Data tab. Under the visually display the progress in real-time on the Google Map and see a skyplot with all visible satellites, as well as velocity and altitude charts. 4.9.14.5 Processing Recorded Data for Playback optional feature for which the Record and Playback option (OPT- Note: This is an RP) is required. Record & Playback workflow (see "Record and Playback" on Part of the StudioView page 154) is to augment and convert the data previously recorded (see "Recording Data with StudioView" on page 156) so that it can be played back as a scenario on a GSG unit. This Scenario Generator tool. conversion is done with the StudioView CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 159

176 4.9 Studioview Tasks 1 contained in the NMEA The Scenario Generator translates the GGA, RMC and GSV sentences into a syntax that is used by GSG scenario, trajectory and event files. These files are required to playback the recorded data on a GSG unit. Note: The GSG unit requires an internet connection to replay the recorded data. Generating the Scenario Playback Data In order to generate the playback data, it is necessary to have a GSG with the Record and Play back Option (OPT-RP) enabled connected to the PC running StudioView. In StudioView, navigate to Tools > Scenario Generator , or click . The Scenario gen 1. erator dialog window opens: to open the Connections Manager tool (for details, see "Connecting Stu Click 2. dioView to GSG" on page 116.) Select your recorded NMEA file as the source file by opening the file dialog and 3. navigating to file. Scenario Generator uses the GSG default scenario parameters for the Playback The Scenario Editor function. To review these default parameters, open the . 4. Alternatively, you can select a different scenario as a template, in order to use non- default scenario parameters: Click next to Scenario template , and locate the scen ario you want to use as a template on your PC. If you want to use the GSG default scenario parameters, you can leave the Scenario tem blank. plate 1 For example, the GGA and RMC sentences contain position, speed, heading and altitude information, while the GSV sentences record which satellites had been in view and what had been their power levels at any given time during the trajectory. CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 4 160

177 4.9 Studioview Tasks 5. Populate the following settings: : On the GSG, signal strength is specified in dBm. No thermal noise (dBm/Hz) The Record and Playback generation relies on a decibel offset value. This offset value maps the NMEA signal strength (in dB) to the GSG signal strength (in dBm). An offset value of [‐160] is recommended to begin with. This value can be adjus ted up or down until the offset is satisfactory. Stationary period (s) : Choose to add a stationary period to your trajectory if the movement starts immediately. If the recording already contains a stationary period, then adding an additional one is not necessary. SNR change threshold : The Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used to compare the level of a desired signal to the level of the background noise. SNR is expressed in decibels (dB) and is used to describe the GNSS signal strength in NMEA‐0183 GSV sentences. 6. You may also choose Actions after generation is complete. Use the drop-down menu to choose to open the files in the editors or open the Uploader to load them onto the unit. 7. Generate to create the files. Click 4.9.15 Editing RINEX Files in StudioView RINEX files contain Ephemeris data that can be edited with StudioView's RINEX editor: Tools > Rinex Editor , or by clicking . Open the RINEX Editor by navigating to The Editor window will open: Open an existing RINEX file to edit it. The Editor functions are grouped under five tabs: The Information tab Information tab (see illustration above) you can edit the Program , Agency and Under the CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 161

178 4.9 Studioview Tasks Comments fields of a RINEX file. The Iono Correction tab Under the tab, you can change the values of correction coefficients. Iono Correction GPSA or GPSB row: The following dialog box will appear if you double-click on a highlighted The Time Correction tab CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 162

179 4.9 Studioview Tasks The toolbar allows you to change the A0 and A1 coefficients, Reference Time Time Correction and the Continuous Week Number. Double-click a highlighted row to open the following dia log box: The Leap tab CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 163

180 4.9 Studioview Tasks Under the tab you can change the Leap seconds , Week number , an Day number . Leap The Data tab Under the tab you can change the health of satellites. In each cell, you can enter a number Data Edit button and select a value from the dropdown list: directly, or click the To edit multiple cells at once, select the cells by holding down the Shift or Ctrl key while click ing, and then click the button. Edit CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 4 164

181 4.9 Studioview Tasks 4.9.16 Transmitting RTCM Messages With StudioView 1 The function allows to re-transmit RTCM message from the GSG unit to RTCM Transmission the external receiver. In order to use this function, a virtual has to be configured Base Station (see also: "Base station" on page 62) and used in your scenario, and the external receiver has to be connected to the serial port. 1. To open the RTCM Transmission window in StudioView, navigate to Tools > RTCM . Transmission or click Click to open the Connections Manager tool (for details, see "Connecting Stu 2. dioView to GSG" on page 116.) Click to configure the serial port, or use the dropdown menu. 3. 4. Delay in seconds. If required, specify the To start transmitting RTCM messages to the selected unit, click . 5. The button will appear, with a counter of all the RTCM messages trans mitted. . To stop the transmission, click 6. See also these SCPI commands: "SOURce:SCENario:RTCM?" on page 285 , "SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG?" on page 285 and "SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG" on page 286. 1 Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 165

182 4.9 Studioview Tasks BLANK PAGE. CHAPTER 4 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 166

183 Reference This Chapter includes reference information, such as listings of default settings, logs, protocols, file formats and error messages. The following topics are included in this Chapter: 168 5.1 The GSG Web UI 5.2 Messages 168 5.3 Timing Calibration 173 174 5.4 NMEA Logging 5.5 Execution Log 175 5.6 Saving RINEX Data 175 5.7 YUMA Almanac File 176 5.8 RLS (Return Link Service) 177 5.9 Galileo E6-B/C Signal 179 5.10 Default Settings 179 5.11 Pre-Installed Scenarios 180 181 5.12 Default Scenario Satellites 5.13 Scenario File Format 183 5.14 GSG Series Model Variants and Options 194 198 5.15 Problems? 5.16 License Notices 199 CHAPTER 5 5 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • CHAPTER 167

184 5.1 The GSG Web UI 5.1 The GSG Web UI Spectracom GSG Series simulators feature a Web-based user interface (throughout this doc umentation referred to as " Web UI "), accessible via a standard Web browser (e.g., Mozilla Firefox or Internet Explorer) installed on a computer with access to the same network to which your GSG unit is connected. From the GSG Web UI you can perform operations remotely via HTTP as you would directly from the unit, register your product, and access product technical support documents and mater ials. Figure 5-1: GSG-6 Web UI Note: The information and text displayed on your computer screen will vary depending upon the configuration of your GSG unit. For more information, and instructions on how to access the Web UI, see "Accessing the GSG Web Interface" on page 109. Messages 5.2 Below is a listing of messages, as they may appear in message dialog boxes. The text below each message explains its meaning, context and – if applicable – suggested remedial action. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 5 168

185 5.2 Messages Could not initialize the keyboard. A possible hardware issue exists. Please contact service. Could not initialize web interface. A possible firmware issue exists. Re-install firmware. If problem persists, then contact service. Scenario is modified. Do you want to save changes using a different name? Scenario configuration has been modified. “Yes” allows you to specify a new scenario name to save it under. If “No” is selected, the current scenario name is used to save the configuration. “Cancel” does not start scenario execution and returns to previous menu. Problem in scenario configuration. Please edit coordinates. Invalid coordinates given for scenario. Problem in scenario configuration. Please edit dates. Invalid date or duration given for scenario. Problem in scenario configuration. General problem in scenario configuration when it is read into memory. Error in scenario: if duration is 'forever', ephemeris shall be 'Download’. When setting duration to be “forever”, then navigation data/ephemeris setting must be on “Download”. Speed or attitude above regulation limits, aborting scenario execution. Scenario execution has encountered values that are too high. Simulated speed and altitude are limited in non-export GSG versions. Speed limit is 520 m/s and altitude is 18470 m. Change the scenario configuration. No valid navigation data available. Please review scenario settings. Restart GSG-5/6. Can't generate Subframes. Please review scenario settings. Restart GSG-5/6. Are you sure you want to restore factory defaults? Confirmation request before restoring factory defaults. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 169

186 5.2 Messages IP address configuration failed. Configuring the Internet Protocol address failed. Please check your network settings and try again. Cannot save unit parameters. Saving of settings failed. Try restarting the device and saving parameters again. If it still fails, then please contact service. Cannot load unit parameters. The device was not able to use the configured parameters. Defaults are used in this case. Please go to the Menu and set the parameters again and store them with EXIT button. Cannot load unit calibration data. Unit is not calibrated, or calibration data is corrupted. The device should be re-calibrated. Please contact service. Device can be used, but the observed power levels may differ from the ones shown in display. Cannot save unit calibration data. Manual calibration data could not be saved. Restart unit and try again. If saving is still not pos sible, contact service. Problem with the license file. The License file is corrupted. The device will work, but only as GSG-51. Contact service. Are you sure you want to calibrate the unit? Confirmation for user calibration. Password is invalid. Calibration password entered is invalid. Try again. Save calibration? After manual calibration you can choose to save or not save the values. Could not start signal. Unexpected problem occurred. Please restart the GSG-5/6. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 170

187 5.2 Messages Please check start date! GPS Start date is invalid in scenario configuration or signal generator. (Note: The earliest allowed start date is 6.1.1980.) Please check the date and correct it. Invalid Rinex file selected. Check that selected navigation data file is a valid RINEX file (only version 2.1 and upwards sup ported). Please check navigation data. Navigation data is not valid. No ephemeris for this PRN/date. In the signal generator, navigation data is not found for the selected PRN and/or date. Try again with different values. File missing. The navigation data file was missing when starting the signal generator. Select another option in the ephemeris list and try again. No reference clock detected. External 10 MHz input is enabled, but no signal is detected. Connect the reference signal. If 10 MHz input is disabled and you still receive this message, contact service. Too old firmware! Mismatch detected between firmware components. Try to update the firmware. If you still receive the message contact service. No text entered. When giving name for a file, the name is empty. Please enter a file name. Cannot copy directory. Copying a directory is forbidden. Cannot delete directory. Removing a directory is forbidden. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 171

188 5.2 Messages Cannot rename directory. Renaming directory is forbidden. No manageable files available. If this happens the device is faulty. Please contact service. Do you want to delete the file? Confirmation request when removing file. Cannot delete file. Removing of file fails. Cannot rename file. Renaming a file failed. This condition may occur when there is no free storage space. Try removing any unnecessary files, and rename the file again. Cannot copy file. Copying a file failed. This condition may occur when there is no free storage space. Try remov ing any unnecessary files, and copy the file again. File already exists. File is copied or renamed over an existing file. You can choose if you want to overwrite it or not. File is in use. The file for a given file manager operation (Copy, Rename or Delete) is performed is in use. You can choose whether to continue the operation or not. If the scenario in use is deleted, the current scenario becomes “None”. No scenario selected. This happens when the current scenario is “None” and scenario execution is started. Select a scenario to be executed. Scenario failed to start. Please review scenario settings. Restart GSG-5/6. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 172

189 5.3 Timing Calibration Could not start scenario. Restart GSG-5/6. No scenarios available. This message appears when there are no scenarios in the scenarios directory. Reset factory defaults to restore the default scenarios, or transfer your own scenarios from a PC using the Stu dioView software. Could not start data loading. An unexpected problem has occurred while loading navigation data. Try scenario again. If problem persists, then contact service. Could not download SBAS data. An unexpected problem has occurred while downloading and/or loading SBAS data. Try scen ario again. If problem persists, then contact service. Problem opening trajectory file. Please review scenario settings. Restart GSG-5/6. Cannot save scenario configuration. Saving of scenario settings failed. Try restarting the device and saving scenario configuration again. If it still fails, then please contact service. Available disk space too low xx% free. Navigation/SBAS data download detected that the free storage space was too low. Please use > Manage files to free some space. Options Invalid scenario field field - > modified. After reading in scenario file it was detected that field is invalid, therefore its value has been “capped” or set to a default valid value (for details, see "Scenario File Format" on page 183.) 5.3 Timing Calibration GSG units with the Timing Calibration Option (OPT-TIM) have an additional timing calibration pps.cal . file installed, named CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 173

190 5.4 NMEA Logging Provided the option is enabled, you can access and modify this file via the StudioView File (> Tools GSG FILES , or by Manager drop-down menu), or the Web UI under the menu item commands (see "MMEMory:COPY" on page 306). SCPI file management using Restoring factory defaults on the unit will also reset this file to the factory Note: default for the unit. " File Format " pps.cal [boardid] FREQ_BAND offset Boardid-board0, board1, board2, board3 FREQ_BAND - GPS_L1, GPS_L2, GPS_L5, GLO_L1, GLO_L2, GLO_L3 Example file for a GSG-64 with GPS L1 and L2: [board0] GPS_L1 -40.0E-9 GPS_L2 -40.0E-9 [board1] GPS_L1 -60.0E-9 GPS_L2 -60.0E-9 [board2] GPS_L1 -60.0E-9 GPS_L2 -60.0E-9 [board3] GPS_L1 -60.0E-9 GPS_L2 -60.0E-9 5.4 NMEA Logging GSG offers the possibility to log a scenario’s execution in NMEA data. Every second a “snap shot” of the user and satellites’ status is taken and recorded in the form of 3 standard NMEA sentence types. sentence describes essential GPS position, velocity and time RMC sentence describes essential fix data, providing 3D location and accuracy data. GGA Height of geoid above WGS84 ellipsoid is being approximated according to EGM96 geoid model and fix quality defaults to GPS fix (SPS). CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 5 174

191 5.5 Execution Log GSV sentences (1 to 4 depending upon the number of SV’s) describe the actual satellites in view. : In GSV sentences, an SV’s SNR estimate is given based on the following: NOTE When noise is ON: SNR = CNo - NF When noise is OFF: SNR = min (56, Channel Power + BN - NF - Lc) Where NF is (“Noise Figure” of receiver) = 1, Lc (cable loss) = 1, and BN (background noise level) = 174 dB SOURce:SCENario:LOG? You can access this "snapshot" by using the SCPI command , which can be queried at a maximum rate of 1Hz. See the GSG SCPI Guide ("Command Refer ence" on page 217) for more details. > Data Recorder . It is also possible to use StudioView to log NMEA data: Tools Execution Log 5.5 During everyday operation, your GSG unit will maintain a log, which is kept in the file obser- . In this log file, the unit stores information about the scen vations/executionlog.txt arios run, and possible errors that may have occurred, which can be helpful with troubleshooting. To view the Execution log: display, navigate to Options On the GSG Manage files > observations : front panel > . Press the Arrow right key to highlight the View option, and press enter to executionlog.txt display the log. In GSG File Manager . StudioView , use the on a connected PC, click on , then navigate to obser Web UI GSG FILES Using the GSG executionlog.txt vations , and click on . The maximum size of the execution log file is 20,000 lines. Once the limit is reached, the oldest entries will be overwritten by new data. Please note that the log is not updated in real time, but is updated when a scenario stops, for example. Clean & Restore operation is performed, i.e. Also note that the log will be deleted when a Options Reset to factory defaults ). > when restoring the unit to factory default configuration ( 5.6 Saving RINEX Data Wikipedia: RINEX .] [For more information on theRINEX data format, refer to e.g., CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 175

192 5.7 YUMA Almanac File Saving RINEX Observation Data It is possible to store RINEX observations of a running scenario. This feature can be enabled using the SCPI command: SOURce:SCENario:OBS ,, Specifies the number of seconds since scenario start to expire before starting to log observations. Using the parameter ‘-1’ will start the logging of a running simulation imme diately. The observation period in seconds. Using the parameter '-1' will log until the end of the scenario. Is the sample rate. After the duration/hour is passed or the scenario is stopped, the observations are saved to: /observations/scenarioNameYYYYMMDDHHMMSS.obs Each file can contain at maximum 1 hour of data. The generated files can be retrieved via GSG StudioView , the Web UI, or by using SCPI commands (see "MMEMory:COPY" on points to the /observations/latest.obs page 306). Additionally, a link named latest generated file. Observation files supported include GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou and mixed. The RINEX file can be used in post-processing with the navigation data obtained from receiver. Saving RINEX Navigation Data It is also possible to log RINEX navigation data for a running scenario. This feature can be enabled using the SCPI command: SOURce:SCENario:NAV After each six hours or when the scenario is stopped, the navigation data is saved to: /observations/scenarioNameYYYYMMDDHHMMSS.nav The generated files can be retrieved via , the Web UI, or by using SCPI com GSG StudioView mands (see "MMEMory:COPY" on page 306). Additionally, a link named points to the latest generated /observations/latest.nav file. The files are in RINEX 3.0.2 mixed format. As the unit generates new navigation data sets quite rarely, it is recommended that navigation data logging is enabled before starting a scenario. Navigation data logging is turned off when scenario stops. YUMA Almanac File 5.7 During scenario start-up, the GSG simulator generates a GPS constellation almanac in the Yuma format. The generated file is named and can be observations/alm_gps.txt CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 5 176

193 5.8 RLS (Return Link Service) retrieved from the observations folder, using: File Manager the StudioView the GSG Web UI the SCPI command set. Note: This file will be overwritten every time a new scenario is started, so only the YUMA file for the last run scenario will be available. The almanac file will be empty, if GPS satellites were not included in the latest scenario executed. The following is an example of one entry in the almanac file: ******** Week 755 almanac for PRN-01 ******** ID: 01 Health: 000 Eccentricity: 5.8191653807E-04 Time of Applicability(s): 233472.0000 Orbital Inclination(rad): 0.9597571420 Rate of Right Ascen(r/s): -8.1828408482E-09 SQRT(A) (m 1/2): 5153.650309 Right Ascen at Week(rad): 1.2710842193E+00 Argument of Perigee(rad): 1.117132574 Mean Anom(rad): –3.0896651067E+00 Af0(s): 1.7600243882E-04 Af1(s/s): 1.3415046851E-11 week: 755 5.8 RLS (Return Link Service) As part of the Cospas-Sarsat System, Galileo satellites are capable of picking up emergency signals emitted on 406 MHz by distress beacons, and transmitting a signal back to the beacon via the E1 frequency to confirm receipt of the distress signal. This technology has been developed under the international Cospas-Sarsat program. It comprises the Galileo-enabled dis tress beacons, the SAR payload on the Galileo satellites, as well as ground-based receiving sta tions (LUTs) and Mission Control Centers. If the option "Galileo" (Opt-GAL) is installed, GSG is capable of simulating the Return Link Mes sage (RLM) transmitted by the Galileo signal to the distress beacon. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 177

194 5.8 RLS (Return Link Service) As a user you interact with the GSG by inputting the RLM parameters as a SCPI command into the computer; GSG will then take this message and simulate its transmission on the E1 frequency from the satellite to the distress beacon. For more information on SCPI command syntax, and examples, see "SOURce:SCENario:RLM" on page 286. 5.8.1 SAR Data Each Return Link Message encapsulated in an SAR data page contains the following data: (60 bits): This field is used by the beacon to discern whether the RLM received Beacon ID is, indeed, addressed to itself or to some other beacon. Message code (4 bits): Defines the message type. (16 bits for the short RLM, 96 bits for the long RLM). This field provides Parameters field the information that SAR operators wish to send to the Galileo-equipped beacon. Short RLMs are used to provide the activated Galileo-equipped beacon with a short acknow ledgement of various kinds of commands (e.g., to reduce its transmission rate). Long RLMs are intended for more complex commands in which several parameters may be required (e.g., to contain operational information or the coordinates of a location). For more information on SCPI command syntax and examples, see "SOURce:SCENario:RLM" on page 286. 5.8.2 Requirements In order for the RLM simulation to work with GSG, the following pre-requisites must be met: The Galileo-Option OPT-GAL must be present GSG-5 or -6, with 8 channels (or 16 channels if GPS + GAL is required) Firmware version 6.6.1 or greater StudioView software Version 4.6.1.3 or greater 5.8.3 Simulating RLMs The following is a brief outline how to setup a basic test system: 1. Using a GSG unit, and a GNSS receiver, start a scenario that is configured with GAL signals e.g., GPSGALStatic . 2. Open StudioView on a Personal Computer (PC). 3. Open the Console tool (Tools > Console). 4. Connect the PC to the GSG unit by clicking the small GLOBE with PLUG icon on the left (or click Refresh if a connection has been established before). CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 178

195 5.9 Galileo E6-B/C Signal 5. Issue the RLM command(s), using the Console e.g.: write SOUR:SCEN:RLM 0,8,711888,141509,1025,65536 . The submission should be confirmed: OK [no errors] 6. 7. View the received message on the receiver, see the following example: For automated testing e.g., when integrating GSG into a larger test system, a SCPI program can be written. In this case, StudioView would not be needed. 5.9 Galileo E6-B/C Signal GSG's optional Galileo E6-B/C signals are pseudo-signals for the Galileo Commercial Service (CS). Both signals are sent unencoded: A secondary code (pilot tone) is sent on the E6-C fre quency band, with no data. On the E6-B band dummy data is sent at 448 bps. To utilize this optional functionality a GSG- 6 unit with an available frequency band is required, as well as the OPT-GAL and OPT-L6 option packages. 5.10 Default Settings The factory settings are considered default settings. You can restore these settings at any time Options > Reset to factory defaults . by navigating to The default settings are: Transmit power : -125 dBm External attenuation : 0 dB Interface type : Ethernet Obtain IP automatically : Yes : 01 GPIB address CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 179

196 5.11 Pre-Installed Scenarios Use 10 MHz input : No : No Simulate Noise RequiredCN0 : 44 : 20.46 NoiseBW NoiseOffset : 0 : See "Pre-Installed Scenarios" below. Scenarios : See "Trajectories" on page 40. Trajectories : See "Event Data" on page 50. Events 5.11 Pre-Installed Scenarios GSG-5/6 units are shipped with a set of predefined scenarios and supporting files. Which files are installed on your unit depends on the model and options purchased. Listed below is a selection of scenarios, as they are installed on many GSG units. of these scenarios has to be set by the user ( Options > Transmit power ). The output power More advanced scenarios, events, and trajectories can be found in the StudioView repository. Scenarios Table 5-1: Scenario Start Date Model Position All GPSStatic N043° 04' 01/01/2016 14:00 59.257",W077°35'20.674" GPSCircle N043° 04' 01/01/2016 GSG-5/54/55/56/62/63/64 59.257",W077°35'20.674" 14:00 OPT-TRAJ 01/01/2016 GPSStaticSBAS N043° 04' GSG-5/55/56/62/63/64 OPT- SBAS 59.257",W077°35'20.674" 14:00 GPSGLOStatic 01/01/2016 GSG-53/56/62/63/64 OPT- N60°27'24.41", 9:00 E42°7'24.42" GLO GPSGLOCircle 01/01/2016 GSG-56/62/63/64 OPT-GLO N60°27'24.41", 9:00 OPT-TRAJ E42°7'24.42" GSG-5/62/63/64 OPT-GAL N48°51'24.12", 01/01/2016 GPSGALStatic E002°21'2.88" 02:00 01/01/2016 GPSGALCircle N48°51'24.12", GSG-5/62/63/64 OPT-GAL OPT- TRAJ E002°21'2.88" 02:00 GPSBDSStatic 01/01/2016 N22°16'41.88", GSG-5/62/63/64 OPT-BDS E114°9'32.04" 02:00 N22°16'41.88", GPSBDSCircle GSG-5/62/63/64 OPT-BDS OPT- 01/01/2016 E114°9'32.04" 02:00 TRAJ CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 5 180

197 5.12 Default Scenario Satellites Model Start Date Scenario Position N60°27'24.41", GSG-62/63/64 OPT-L2 GPSL1L2Pcode 01/01/2016 E42°7'24.42" 15:00 GPSL1L2pseudoY 01/01/2016 GSG-62/63/64 OPT-L2 N60°27'24.41", E42°7'24.42" 15:00 N60°27'24.41", 01/01/2016 GSG-62/63/64 OPT-L2 OPT-GLO GPSGLOL1L2pseudoY E42°7'24.42" 15:00 GPSMP2Static GSG-5/55/56/62/63/64 OPT- N10°39'0.00", 01/01/2016 10:02 W061°27'0.00" MP GSG-5/55/56/62/63/64 OPT- N39°54'0.00", 01/01/2016 GPSMP4Static MP E116°24'0.00" 10:02 01/01/2016 GPSINTFStatic N43°4'59.25", GSG-5/55/56/62/63/64 OPT- W077°35'20.67" INTF 09:20 GPSGLOINTFStatic 01/01/2016 GSG-5/55/56/62/63/64 OPT- N60°27'24.41", E042°7'24.42" 09:03 INTF OPT-GLO 5.12 Default Scenario Satellites As of spring 2015, the default GPS constellation consists of the following active satellites: 3 x Block IIA satellites 12 x Block IIR satelliets 7 x Block IIR-M satellites 10 x Block IIF satellites GSG uses this constellation as the default for its scenarios. You can, however, change this when developing or manipulating scenarios, e.g., to simulate an event in the past. Constellation Editor window with the default satellite types. The following illustration shows the Studioview Tools menu > Scenario Editor > Signals , via the The window can be accessed in Edit GPS constellation ... button: tab > CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 181

198 5.12 Default Scenario Satellites 5.12.1 GLONASS Default Satellite Types All satellites default to the GLONASS-M type. Alternatively, you can select GLONASS K1. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 182

199 5.13 Scenario File Format 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenarios are defined by means of text files which contain a set of keywords and values, as described below. Scenario files used with GSG-5/6 units must follow the described format. All fields are optional and will assume default values if not provided. Any specified invalid values will be modified such that any field will be within its own valid range. Scenario file keywords: StartTime MM/DD/YYYY HH:MM:SS 0|1 DAYS HOURS MINUTES 0|1|2 Duration Ephemeris FILENAME[,FILENAME*] | Default | Download FILENAME | None EventData FILENAME | None Environment FILENAME | None Vehicle CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 183

200 5.13 Scenario File Format GpsSatellites INTEGER INTEGER GlonassSatellites GalileoSatellites INTEGER BeiDouSatellites INTEGER QZSSSatellites INTEGER IRNSSSatellites INTEGER DECIMAL degN DECIMAL degE DECIMAL m Startpos BaseStationPos DECIMAL degN DECIMAL degE DECIMAL m FILENAME [0|1] | Static | 3GPP | Circle UserTrajectory LeverArm DECIMAL DECIMAL DECIMAL DeltaLSF -1|0|1 DECIMAL DECIMAL 1|-1 TrajectoryParameters AntennaModel FILENAME | Zero model | Patch | Helix | Cardioid | GPS-703-GGG FILENAME[,FILENAME*] | On | Off IonoModel TropoModel Saastamoinen | Black model | Goad&Goodman | STANAG | Off Temperature DECIMAL Pressure DECIMAL DECIMAL Humidity ElevationMask DECIMAL INTEGER SBASSatellites DefaultGpsSV Default| SvBlockII | SvBlockIIA | SvBlockIIR | SvB- lockIIR-M | SvBlockIIF | SvBlockIIIA Default | SvGlonassM | SvGlonassK1 DefaultGlonassSV Space delimited list of SVID’s SvBlockII SvBlockIIA Space delimited list of SVID’s SvBlockIIR Space delimited list of SVID’s SvBlockIIR-M Space delimited list of SVID’s SvBlockIIF Space delimited list of SVID’s SvBlockIIIA Space delimited list of SVID’s SvGlonassM Space delimited list of SVID’s Space delimited list of SVID’s SvGlonassK1 1 | 0 GPSL1CA GPSL1P 1 | 0 CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 184

201 5.13 Scenario File Format GPSL2P 1 | 0 1 | 0 GPSL2C 1 | 0 GPSL5 GPSPY 1 | 0 1 | 0 GLOL1 1 | 0 GLOL2 GALE1 1 | 0 1 | 0 GALE5a 1 | 0 GALE5b 1 | 0 BDSB1 BDSB2 1 | 0 QZSSL1CA 1 | 0 QZSSL2C 1 | 0 1 | 0 QZSSL5 QZSSL1SAIF 1 | 0 IRNSSL5 1 | 0 RandomMpCP 1 | 0 INTEGER MultipathSignals [ MultiPathSignal INTEGER] INTEGER mpChannel DECIMAL rangeOffset DECIMAL rangeChange rangeInterval DECIMAL dopplerOffset DECIMAL dopplerChange DECIMAL dopplerInterval DECIMAL DECIMAL powerOffset powerChange DECIMAL powerInterval DECIMAL INTEGER InterferenceSignals [ InterferenceSignal INTEGER] 1 | 0 GPSL1CA 1 | 0 GPSL1P GPSL2P 1 | 0 CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 185

202 5.13 Scenario File Format GPSL2C 1 | 0 1 | 0 GPSL5 GPSPY 1 | 0 1 | 0 GLOL1 GLOL2 1 | 0 GALE1 1 | 0 GALE5a 1 | 0 GALE5b 1 | 0 1 | 0 BDSB1 BDSB2 1 | 0 QZSSL1CA 1 | 0mode 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 INTEGER SatId Power INTEGER INTEGER FreqOffset DECIMAL degN DECIMAL degE DECIMAL m | Not set JammerPosition StartOffset DECIMAL EndOffset DECIMAL SweepTime INTEGER RtcmConfig 3x,INTEGER [,INTEGER*] Keyword Parameters: CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 186

203 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenario File Key Parameter Value Comment word Valid date in the format: StartTime Start time in the GPS Time time frame. MM/DD/YYYY Note that seconds must be set to zero. When scenario ephemeris data is set to Download, HH:MM:00 Source then StartTime must be in the past (typically with a 1- Valid range limited to: day added margin) to allow the data to be available MIN GPS: 00:00 on 6th for downloading. The optional Source value defines where the simulation of January 1980 MIN GLONASS: 00:00 gets its Start Time. on 1st of January The default value is set. 0 – Set (fixed value) 1996MAX: 23:59 on 31st of December 2100 1 – NTP (current time) Source: [0, 1] Keyword or filename. Default indicates that the unit will re-use internally avail Ephemeris Available keywords: able files to build a navigation data. 'Download' means that the unit attempt to download {'Default', 'Download'} the data from ftp site. Default: 'Default' Filenames are used to specify RINEX and GPS/QZSS YUMA Almanac navigation files. Several files are separated by comma.YUMA almanac files are identified by the .alm case- insensitive file exten sion. has the same mean NavigationData The old keyword ing as keyword Ephemeris and is accepted for back ward compatibility. Duration DAYS HOURS MINUTES The REPEAT value indicates what the scenario will do once scenario has reached its end. REPEAT where the values are 0 – stops INTEGER values with the 1 – re-starts following ranges; 2 – forever. to be set to DAYS: [0, 31] The 'forever' option (2) requires Ephemeris . HOURS: [0, 23] Download MINUTES: [0, 59] REPEAT: [0,2] [-1, 5], for GSG-52/53 Maximum number of signals in view at any given time. GpsSatellites [-1, 8], for GSG-54 Keyword '-1' implies 'Auto' – maximum number of Satel [-1, 16], for GSG-55 lites in view to be simulated Default: 5/8/16 depending on GSG model [-,16], for GSG-56 NumSignals is accepted and inter The old keyword GpsSatellites . preted as GlonassSatellites [-1, 5], for GSG-53 Default: 0 [-1,16], for GSG-56 Keyword -1 implies 'Auto' – maximum number of Satel lites in view will be simulated. [-1, 36] Default: 0 GalileoSatellites Keyword -1 implies 'Auto' – maximum number of Satel lites in view will be simulated. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 187

204 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenario File Key Parameter Value Comment word [-1, 37] Default: 0 BeiDouSatellites Keyword -1 implies 'Auto' – maximum number of Satel lites in view will be simulated. QZSSSatellites [-1, 4] Default: 0 Keyword -1 implies 'Auto' – maximum number of Satel lites in view will be simulated. IRNSSSatellites [-1, 7] Default: 0 Keyword -1 implies 'Auto' – maximum number of Satel lites in view will be simulated. latitude: [-89.999999, Startpos The Startpos position is specified in latitude north, 89.999999] meaning that a latitude south is reached by using a minus sign. Latitude values span from -90 to 90. The lon longitude: [0,360] altitude: [0.0, 18,240.0] gitude is always specified as an east coordinate, ran ging from 0 to 360. The coordinates must be written as DD.dddddddd in this file. Altitude is specified in meters, and can be specified up to decimeter level. Maximum altitude can be increased with 'extended limits' option, raising it to 20200km. (as for 'Startpos' ) BaseStationPos (as for 'Startpos' ) Keyword or filename (in UserTrajectory Default: 'Static' With NMEA trajectories, the optional Looping para NMEA or RSG format). Available keywords: meter will define the how the trajectory will be {'Static', 'Circle', '3GPP' } executed. Default looping status is 0; execute once. 0 – Execute once When a file is selected, 1 – Loop continuously additional looping para meter specifies trajectory execution method. Valid values: {0, 1} The parameter is (only) required if UserTrajectory is DECIMAL DECIMAL 1|-1 TrajectoryParameters 'Circle'. The first DECIMAL value specifies circle diameter in For the direction values '-1' is interpreted as anti-clock meters. Valid range: [0.0, wise and '1' as clockwise. 1 000 000.0] The second DECIMAL value specifies speed in meters /second. Valid range: [0.0, 1000.0] The third value specifies direction. Valid values: {- 1, 1} CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 5 188

205 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenario File Key Comment Parameter Value word Default: On Keyword of comma-sep IonoModel arated filenames Available keywords:[Off, On] 'Off' = 'Off' (in Graphical user interfaces) 'On' ='Klobuchar' (in Graphical user interfaces) {'Saastamoinen' | 'Black Selected tropospheric model. Tropo Model Default: 'Saastamoinen' model' | 'Goad&Good man' | 'STANAG' | 'Off' } Temperature [-99,99] Tropospheric model's temperature. Default: 20. [In degrees Celsius.] Tropospheric model's pressure. Default: 1000. [In Pressure [800,1200] mBar] [1,100] Humidity Tropospheric model's relative humidity. Default: 50. [In percentage.] SBASSatellites [0,3] Maximum number of SBAS channels in view at any given time. Default: 0 Selected antenna model. Default: 'Zero model' AntennaModel Keyword or filename Available keywords: {'Zero model', 'Helix', 'Patch', 'Cardioid', 'GPS- 703-GGG'} Filename or 'None' Selected Event file. Default: 'None' EventData [-10.0, 89.0] ElevationMask Minimum allowed elevation of an SV in degrees. Default: 0.0 [-1,1] DeltaLSF An integer signaling future leap second change of ±1. Default: 0 Defines the default GPS satellite series simulated, would DefaultGpsSV {'Default', 'SvBlockII', the ID not explicitly be specified to be of a different 'SvBlockIIA', 'SvBlockIIR', type. Default: 'Default' 'SvBlockIIR-M', 'SvB lockIIF', 'SvBlockIIIA'} {'Default', 'SvGlonassM', Defines the default GLONASS satellite series simulated, DefaultGlonassSV would the ID not explicitly be specified to be of a dif 'SvGlonassK1' } ferent type. Default: 'Default' {'SvBlockII', 'SvB A space delimited list of Satellite ID specifying what Example: DefaultGpsSv SvBlockIIR satellites are mapped to a non-default satellite series. lockIIA', 'SvB SvBlockIIA G10 G14 lockIIR', 'SvBlockIIR- For GPS the Satellite ID is built up by the letter 'G' fol lowed by PRN number, e.g. G3. Default: not specified SvBlockIIR-M G17 M', 'SvBlockIIF', 'SvBlockIIIA' } CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 189

206 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenario File Key Parameter Value Comment word Example: {SvGlonassM', A space delimited list of Satellite ID specifying what DefaultGlonassSV 'SvGlonassK1' } satellites are mapped to a non-default satellite series. For GLONASS the Satellite ID is built up by the letter 'R' SvGlonassK1 SvGlonassKM R10 R11 followed by PRN number, e.g. G3. Default: not spe cified R14 [0, 1] , where 0 cor GPSL1CA Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GPSL1P [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor GPSL2P Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GPSL2C [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GPSL5 Default: 1 ('On') [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor GPSPY Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor GLOL1 Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GLOL2 [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GALE1 Default: 1 ('On') [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') GALE5a responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') GALE5b responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') BDSB1 responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 190

207 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenario File Key Comment Parameter Value word Default: 1 ('On') BDSB2 [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' QZSSL1CA [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') QZSSL1SAIF responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' Default: 1 ('On') QZSSL2C [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' QZSSL5 [0, 1] , where 0 cor Default: 1 ('On') responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' IRNSSL5 Default: 1 ('On') [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' RandomMpCP [0, 1] , where 0 cor Enables randomization of initial multipath Carrier Phase Offset value. Default: 0 responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' MultipathSignals [0, min(8, 16 – NumSig The number of multipath channels. Default: 0 nals)] [MultipathSignal INTEGER range: [1, Mul 'Header' for the parameters for each multipath signal. tipathSignals] INTEGER] When MultipathSignals is 1 or greater, then a set of parameters must be specified for each multipath signal. [1, GpsSatellites + Specifying which channel that is to be duplicated.Only mpChannel GPS or GLONASS channels may be duplicated. GlonassSatellites + GalileoSatellites] Default: 1 Specifying range offset in meters. Default: 0 rangeOffset [-999.999, 999.999] Specifying range offset change in meters / rangeIn [-99.99, 99.99] rangeChange terval. Default: 0 rangeInterval [0, 600] Specifying range change interval in seconds with one decimal accuracy. Default: 0 [-99.99, 99.99] Specifying Doppler offset in meters/seconds. Default: 0 dopplerOffset dopplerChange [-99.99, 99.99] Specifying Doppler offset change in meters/seconds / dopplerInterval. Default: 0 dopplerInterval [0, 600] Specifying Doppler change interval in seconds. Default: 0 CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 191

208 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenario File Key Parameter Value Comment word [-30.0, 0.0] Specifying power offset in dB. Default: 0 powerOffset powerChange [-30.0, 0.0] Specifying power offset change in dB / powerInterval. Default: 0 [0, 600] Specifying power change interval in seconds. Default: powerInterval 0 The number of interference channels. Default: 0 InterferenceSignals ' ̃Header'™ for the parameters for each interference sig INTEGER range: [1, Inter [InterferenceSignal ferenceSignals] nal. INTEGER] When InterferenceSignals is 1 or greater, then a set of parameters below must be specified for each inter ference signal. GPSL1CA [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GPSL1P Specifies the type of signal interference [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' Specifies the type of signal interference GPSL2P [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor GPSL2C Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor GPSL5 Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GPSPY [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' GLOL1 Specifies the type of signal interference [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference GLOL2 responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference GALE1 responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference GALE5a responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 192

209 5.13 Scenario File Format Scenario File Key Comment Parameter Value word [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference GALE5b responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' BDSB1 [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference BDSB2 responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor QZSSL1CA Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor QZSSL2C Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' QZSSL5 [0, 1] , where 0 cor Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' QZSSL1SAIF Specifies the type of signal interference [0, 1] , where 0 cor responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' [0, 1] , where 0 cor IRNSSL5 Specifies the type of signal interference responds to 'Off' , and 1 to 'On' mode Specifies the type of signal interference [0. 1, 2, 3] , where 0 is modulated,1 is unmod ulated, 2 is sweep and 3 is noise SatId GPS: [1,32] Specifies the satellite ID (PRN / frequency slot) for inter GPS carrier: 0 ference signal Default: 3 Glonass: [1, 24] Glonass carrier: [-7,6] For 'Glonass carrier', the term 'SatId' refers to the fre Galileo: [1, 36] quency slot. SBAS: [120, 158] BeiDou: [1,37] QZSS: [1,4] IRNSS: [1:7] [-65, -160] Signal strength in dBm. Default: unit's transmit power Power [-999999, 999999] Frequency offset in Hz. Default: 0 FreqOffset CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 193

210 5.14 GSG Series Model Variants and Options Scenario File Key Parameter Value Comment word Position of the jammer. See StartPosition above. JammerPosition latitude: [-89.999999, 89.999999] longitude: [0,360] altitude: [0.0, 18,240.0] or 'Not set' Start offset for sweeper or noise in MHz StartOffset [-40.000000,40.000000] End offset for sweeper or noise in MHz [-40.000000,40.000000] EndOffset SweepTime [4,20] Sweep time in microseconds 3x, corresponding to Comma separated fields. RtcmConfig First, field is RTCM version. RTCM 3.2 [1002 | 1004 | 1006 | Next, is a list of 1 or more message types, involving any combination of the supported types. 1010 | 1012 | 1033], any combination of one or more of these Selected file with Environment model. Default: 'None' Filename or 'None' Environment Selected file with Vehicle model. Default: 'None' Vehicle Filename or 'None' [-500.0,+500.0] LeverArm The XYZ offset for the antenna position versus the body [-500.0,+500.0] mass center. Default: 0 0 0 [-500.0,+500.0] 5.14 GSG Series Model Variants and Options Spectracom GSG Series GNSS constellation simulators and signal generators are available in several different Model configurations, and with numerous Option packages, in order to allow for application-specific customization: CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 5 194

211 5.14 GSG Series Model Variants and Options Figure 5-2: GSG options overview 5.14.1 Which GSG Model & Options Do I Have? model will be displayed in the top-left corner of the Main screen (startup screen). The To find out which are installed on your GSG unit, navigate to Options > Show System options > Options . Press enter to access this list: Information List of installed options Figure 5-3: CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 195

212 5.14 GSG Series Model Variants and Options 5.14.2 GSG Models & Variants 5.14.2.1 GSG-51 Series Single-Channel GPS Factory Tester Options for GSG-5: GLONASS GALILEO BEIDOU QZSS Upgrade to 4-channel unit 5.14.2.2 GSG-5 Series Base unit : 4 channels, GPS L1 C/A Options for GSG-5: Upgrade to 8, or 16-channels Upgradable to GSG-6 Series Advanced Feature Set included: SBAS Trajectories Multipath White Noise Programmable PPS (1, 10, 100, 1000) StudioView software Antenna modeling Front Panel Lockout NTP Synchronization Arm and trigger Leap Second Simulation CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 196

213 5.14 GSG Series Model Variants and Options 5.14.2.3 GSG-6 Series Multi-frequency, Multi-system GNSS constellation simulators: Up to 64 Channels and 4 simultaneous frequencies GPS L1 C/A Includes Advanced Feature Set of GSG-5 GSG-6 Model variants: : 32 channels and 2 freq bands -62 : 48 channels and 3 freq bands -63 : 64 channels and 4 freq bands -64 Options for GSG-6: Upgradeable to 48 channels and 3 simultaneous frequencies, and 64 channels and 4 simultaneous frequencies GLONASS, GALILEO, BEIDOU, QZSS, IRNSS Add New GPS Signals L2C and L5 Add GPS and GLONASS L2 (includes P Code on both L1 and L2) Add Galileo E5a/b and BeiDou B2 5.14.3 List of Available Options : enables all channels that the GSG hardware can support. OPT-04,-08,-16,-32,-48.-64 OPT-AST : enables features for Assisted-GNSS testing. : enables all BeiDou signals supported. OPT-BDS OPT-ECL : enabling this option loads and enables the predefined scenarios for eCall. : fixed bandwidth noise OPT-FN : enables Glonass signals supported. OPT-GLO : enables all Galileo signals supported. OPT-GAL OPT-HPWR : High Power Option OPT-HV : high velocity/altitude enables the simulation of high velocity vehicles. OPT-INTF : interference option to simulate interference signals. See also "Interference signals" on page 60. OPT-IRN : enables all IRNSS signals supported. : jamming enables the ability to define a point source of interference signals. See OPT-JAM "Interference signals" on page 60. OPT-L2 : enables GPS L2P, L1P and GLONASS L2 signals. OPT-L2C : enables GPS L2C signals. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 197

214 5.15 Problems? OPT-L5 : enables GPS L5, Galileo 5a/b, BeiDou B2, IRNSS signals. : reserved for Galileo E6 and BeiDou B3. OPT-L6 OPT- MP : allows for the simulation of multipath signals. See also "Multipath Signals" on page 57. : uses downloaded Ephemeris and NTP time set to align GSG generator signals OPT-NOW with live sky. OPT-PPS : PPS Output allows for configuring 1/10/100/1000 pulse-per-second output aligned to the GPS on-time point OPT-QZ : enables the simulation of QZSS signals. OPT-RP : offers the ability to convert and record GPS data to a GSG scenario to replay the actual route and satellites in view during that route, including power levels. : allows GSG to receive trajectory information in real time via SCPI commands. OPT-RSG OPT-RTK : RTK/DGNSS RTK Real time kinematics enables the generation and use of base station information for RTK receivers. : enables the simulation of satellite base augmentation systems (see "SBAS Satellites" OPT-SBAS on page 77). OPT-SEN : sensor simulator package generates various sensor type data in response to a query via SCPI command (included with RSG option) : Spoofing range compensation OPT-SPF OPT-TIM : timing calibration option offers 10x improvement in the timing accuracy. See also "Timing Calibration" on page 173. OPT-TLM : sets the TLM word in all messages to all 1’s OPT-TRAJ : supports receiver trajectories to be used by GSG. OPT-TRG : external trigger enables the use of an external trigger signal to start scenarios. OPT-VIS : visibility package allows for using environmental models to test satellite shadowing by vehicles or surrounding. 5.15 Problems? 5.15.1 Technical Support page of the Spectracom Corporate To request technical support, please go to the "Support" website, where you can not only submit a support request, but also find additional technical documentation. Phone support is available during regular office hours under the telephone numbers listed below. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 5 198

215 5.16 License Notices 5.15.1.1 Regional Contact Spectracom operates globally and has offices in several locations around the world. Our main offices are listed below: Spectracom contact information Table 5-2: Country Phone Location China Beijing +86-10-8231 9601 France Les Ulis, Cedex +33 (0)1 6453 3980 +1.585.321.5800 USA Rochester, NY page Additional regional contact information can be found on the Contact of the Spectracom corporate website. 5.16 License Notices Some parts of this product use free software released under the terms of the GNU Lesser Gen eral Public License, version 3, as published by the Free Software Foundation. Upon request Spectracom will give out source code in accordance with applicable licenses. For contact information, see: spectracom.com . GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE, Version 3, 29 June 2007 http://fsf.org/ Copyright© 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. < > Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but chan ging it is not allowed. This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, supplemented by the additional permissions lis ted below. 0. Additional Definitions. As used herein, "this License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License, and the "GNU GPL" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. "The Library" refers to a covered work governed by this License,other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below. An "Application" is any work that makes use of an interface provided by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library. Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode of using an interface provided by the Library. A "Combined Work" is a work produced by combining or linking an Application with the Library. The particular version of the Library with which the Combined Work was made is also called the "Linked Version". The "Minimal Corresponding Source" for a Combined Work means the Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code for portions of the Combined CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 199

216 5.16 License Notices Work that, considered in isolation, are based on the Application, and not on the Linked Ver sion. The "Corresponding Application Code" for a Combined Work means the object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data and utility programs needed for repro ducing the Combined Work from the Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work. 1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL. You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL. 2. Conveying Modified Versions. If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified version: a) under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the function or data, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful, or b) under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of this License applicable to that copy. 3. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files. The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from a header file that is part of the Library. You may convey such object code under terms of your choice, provided that, if the incorporated material is not limited to numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, or small macros, inline functions and templates(ten or fewer lines in length), you do both of the following: a. Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. b. Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license document. 4. Combined Works. You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that, taken together, effectively do not restrict modification of the portions of the Library contained in the Combined Work and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications, if you also do each of the following: a. Give prominent notice with each copy of the Combined Work that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. b. Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license doc ument. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 200

217 5.16 License Notices c. For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during execution, include the copyright notice for the Library among these notices, as well as a reference directing the user to the copies of the GNU GPL and this license document. d. Do one of the following: 0. Convey the Minimal Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, and the Corresponding Application Code in a form suitable for, and under terms that permit, the user to recombine or relink the Application with a modified version of the Linked Version to produce a modified Combined Work, in the manner spe cified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying Corresponding Source. 1. Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the Library. A suitable mechanism is one that (a) uses at run time a copy of the Library already present on the user's computer system, and (b) will operate properly with a modified ver sion of the Library that is interface-compatible with the Linked Version. e. Provide Installation Information, but only if you would otherwise be required to provide such information under section 6 of the GNU GPL, and only to the extent that such inform ation is necessary to install and execute a modified version of the Combined Work pro duced by recombining or relinking the Application with a modified version of the Linked Version. (If you use option 4d0, the Installation Information must accompany the Minimal Corresponding Source and Corresponding Application Code. If you use option 4d1, you must provide the Installation Information in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying Corresponding Source.) 5. Combined Libraries. You may place library facilities that are a work based on the Library side by side in a single library together with other library facilities that are not Applications and are not covered by this License, and convey such a combined library under terms of your choice, if you do both of the following: a. Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities, conveyed under the terms of this License. b. Give prominent notice with the combined library that part of it is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work. 6. Revised Versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library as you received it specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Lesser General Public License "or any later ver sion" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that pub lished version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you received it does not specify a version number of the GNU Lesser General Public License, CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 201

218 5.16 License Notices you may choose any version of the GNU Lesser General Public License ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you received it specifies that a proxy can decide whether future versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License shall apply, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of any version is permanent authorization for you to choose that version for the Library. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright© 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. < http://fsf.org/ > Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Preamble The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works. The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your free dom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU Gen eral Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free soft ware (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things. To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others. For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it. For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions. Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the soft ware inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users' freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 202

219 5.16 License Notices this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users. Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow pat ents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. TERMS AND CONDITIONS 0. Definitions. "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semi conductor masks. "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and "recipients" may be individuals or organizations. To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work. A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program. To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except execut ing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activ ities as well. To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying. An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices" to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prom inent item in the list meets this criterion. 1. Source Code. The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source form of a work. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 203

220 5.16 License Notices A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular pro gramming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language. The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Com ponent, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A "Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it. The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work)run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Cor responding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work. The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source. The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work. 2. Basic Permissions. All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law. You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without con ditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modi fications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclus ively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you. Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary. 3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law. No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 204

221 5.16 License Notices applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures. When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of tech nological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures. 4. Conveying Verbatim Copies. You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appro priate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer sup port or warranty protection for a fee. 5. Conveying Modified Source Versions. You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Pro gram, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a. The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date. b. The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in sec tion 4 to "keep intact all notices". c. You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. d. If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so. A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggreg ate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate. 6. Conveying Non-Source Forms. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 205

222 5.16 License Notices You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways: a. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical dis tribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable phys ical medium customarily used for software interchange. b. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical dis tribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge. c. Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and non commercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b. d. Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you main tain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain oblig ated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements. e. Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d. A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Cor responding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work. A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any tangible personal prop erty which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a con sumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product. CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 5 206

223 5.16 License Notices "Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case pre vented or interfered with solely because modification has been made. If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM). The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the oper ation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network. Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this sec tion must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying. 7. Additional Terms. "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making excep tions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Pro gram, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions. When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place addi tional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms: a. Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or b. Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 207

224 5.16 License Notices c. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or d. Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or e. Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or f. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who con veys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors. All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further restrictions" within the mean ing of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or con veying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying. If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms. Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately writ ten license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way. 8. Termination. You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically ter minate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11). However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation. Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copy right holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice. Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 208

225 5.16 License Notices 9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies. You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to- peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients. Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License. An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or sub dividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts. You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it. 11. Patents. A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "con tributor version". A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims owned or controlled by the con tributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the con tributor version. For purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant patent sub licenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License. Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version. In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a pat ent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 209

226 5.16 License Notices If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to down stream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for the pat ent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid. If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it. A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, pro hibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007. Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law. 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom. If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that con tradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further con veying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program. 13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 210

227 5.16 License Notices 14. Revised Versions of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present ver sion, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program. Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no addi tional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version. 15. Disclaimer of Warranty. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 16. Limitation of Liability. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16. If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 211

228 5.16 License Notices warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee. -- The GPSTk is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either ver sion 2.1 of the License, or any later version. Copyright 2004, The University of Texas at Austin. -- Some parts of this product use free software released under the terms of MIT/X11 License. Upon request Spectracom will give out source code according to applicable licenses. Contact information can be found at web address: spectracom.com . This license applies to GeographicLib, versions 1.12 and later. Copyright© 2008-2013, Charles Karney Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sub license, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is fur nished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or sub stantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. CHAPTER 5 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 212

229 SCPI Guide The following topics are included in this Chapter: 214 6.1 SCPI Guide: Introduction 6.2 Protocol 214 6.3 Command Reference 217 6.4 Sensors Command Reference 311 316 6.5 RSG Command Reference 347 6.6 Programming 6.7 Revision History (SCPI Guide) 350 CHAPTER 6 6 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • CHAPTER 213

230 6.1 SCPI Guide: Introduction 6.1 SCPI Guide: Introduction The SCPI Guide describes the data exchange between a GSG unit and a PC. SCPI (pro nounced: "skippy") stands for Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments . The SCPI standard describes the syntax of commands widely used to communicate with programmable instruments. Some of the commands are generic in nature, others are GSG-specific and may use arguments and parameters. While the communication channels are not standardized under the SCPI specification, in case of GSG all of the SCPI commands can be used via any of the available communication ports, i.e. Ethernet, USB, and GPIB. E X A M P L E – U s i n g t h e E T H p o r t : GSG can be setup to receive raw SCPI commands through the Ethernet port over TCP port 5025. Menu, change the connection type from USB or Ethernet to SCPI-RAW. Then send the In the Option SCPI commands to the GSG. Protocol 6.2 6.2.1 General Format of Commands The general format of protocol commands follows the SCPI syntax. For example: SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol start SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol? Commands ending with ?-mark are queries. Keywords can be shortened by typing only the cap ital letters. Case does not matter. For example: sour:scen:cont? If using SCPI-Raw all commands should be terminated with newline "\n". All responses from GSG are also terminated with newline. Exceptions are commands and responses where the length of data is inside the command/response. These are command SOURce:FILe:data and response to MMEMory:DATA? query. Some commands, such as sour:scen:log? sour:scen:advlog? imply multiline responses. When a multiline response is not and empty, each line of data is terminated with a newline symbol. Additionally, multiline responses (even empty ones) are terminated with an empty line (a line with no symbols except a newline symbol in it). CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 214

231 6.2 Protocol When using, for example, a telnet client to control the unit, it is enough just type commands and press enter to send the command. 6.2.2 Protocol Errors Below is a list of possible errors and their explanations. They can be retrieved using tSYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? -100,"Command error" . This is the generic syntax error for devices that cannot detect more specific errors. This code indicates only that a Command Error defined in IEEE- 488.2, 11.5.1.1.4 has occurred. -102,"Syntax error" . An unrecognized command or data type was encountered. . A Group Execute Trigger was received within a program mes -105,"GET not allowed" sage (see IEEE-488.2, 7.7). . Parameter given for command which does not have any -108,"Parameter not allowed" parameters. -109,"Missing parameter" . Command requiring parameter(s) is issued without them. -112,"Program mnemonic too long" . Protocol keyword too long. All keywords are less than 12 characters long. . The header is syntactically correct, but it is undefined for this -113,"Undefined header" specific device; for example, BXYZ is not defined for any device. . Number format is not recognized. -120,"Numeric data error" -129,"Numeric data out of range" . Numeric parameter value is invalid. . This error, as well as errors 141 through –149, is -140,"Character data error" generated when parsing a character data element. This particular error message is used when the device cannot detect a more specific error. . Either the character data element contains an invalid char -141,"Invalid character data" acter or the particular element received is not valid for the header. . Character data detected when number is expected. -148,"Character data not allowed" -150,"String data error" . String. This error as well as errors –151 through –159 is gen erated when parsing a string data element. This particular error message is used when the device cannot detect a more specific error. . A string data element was expected, but was invalid for some -151,"Invalid string data" reason (see IEEE-488.2, 7.7.5.2); for example, an END message was received before the terminal quote character. . String data detected when number is expected. -158,"String data not allowed" . This error, as well as errors –161 through –169, is generated -160,"Block data error” when parsing a block data element. This particular error message is used when the instru ment cannot detect a more specific error. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 215

232 6.2 Protocol -161,"Invalid block data" . A block data element was expected, but was invalid for some reason (see IEEE-488.2, 7.7.6.2); for example, an END message was received before the length was satisfied. -190,"Execution in progress" . Command not allowed in current state. -191,"Execution not in progress" . Command requiring scenario/signal generator executing issued when device is idle. . Query or command for a channel that is currently not allocated -192,"Unused channel" to any signal. -193,"RSG command overflow occurred" . Too many RSG commands were received to process within a GSG 10 Hz epoch. . Underflow detection was enabled, and no -194,"RSG command underflow occurred" GSG RSG commands were received within a GSG 100 ms epoch. -200,"Execution error" . Scenario execution failed to start. -220,"Parameter error" . Scenario/signal generator started without a scenario. -221,"Settings conflict" . Indicates that a legal program data element was parsed but could not be executed due to the current counter state (see IEEE-488.2, 6.4.5.3 and 11.5.1.1.5.) -221,"Settings conflict; invalid combination of channel and function" . See above. -222,"Data out of range" . Indicates data values are out of range or input data such as Navigation data files have incompatible ranges of validity. . Scenario configuration has illegal coordinates or date. -224,"Illegal parameter value" -225,"Out of memory" . Command processing was interrupted because of the lack of memory. -241,"Hardware missing" . This error is given only when the reference clock signal is missing when scenario/signal generator is started or when the Ethernet MAC address cannot be found. Check that the external reference clock is connected. Verify Network Ethernet Port detection and activity lights. . Copying/moving files is not allowed between directories. -250,"Mass storage error" -256,"File name not found" . File operation attempted on a non-existing file or directory. . File name is empty. -257,"File name error" -410,"Query INTERRUPTED”. Indicates that a condition causing an INTERRUPTED Query error occurred (see IEEE-488.2, 6.3.2.3). . Checksum of file transferred is invalid. 1401,"Wrong program data checksum found" . In file transfer length is invalid. This can be happen if there is 1403,"File length error" not enough memory or storage space on device to retrieve file. 1404,"File type error" . Invalid file type given. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 216

233 6.3 Command Reference 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.1 Common Commands 6.3.1.1 *CLS Clear Status Command *CLS common command clears the status data structures by clearing all event registers and The the error queue. Also possible executing of scenario or signal generator is stopped. It does not clear enable registers and transition filters. It clears any pending *WAI, *OPC, and *OPC?. Example *CLS 6.3.1.2 *ESE Standard Event Status Enable Sets the enable bits of the standard event enable register. This enable register contains a mask value for the bits to be enabled in the standard event status register. A bit that is set true in the enable register enables the corresponding bit in the status register. An enabled bit will set the ESB (Event Status Bit) in the Status Byte Register if the enabled event occurs. Command Syntax *ESE Parameters = the sum (between 0 and 255) of all bits that are true. Event Status Enable Register (1 = enable) Weight Enables Bit 128 7 PON, Power-on occurred URQ, User Request 6 64 5 32 CME, Command Error 4 16 EXE, Execution Error 8 DDE, Device Dependent Error 3 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 217

234 6.3 Command Reference Event Status Enable Register (1 = enable) Weight Enables Bit QYE, Query Error 2 4 2 RQC, Request Control (not used) 1 0 1 Operation Complete Returned Format (*ESE?) 6.3.1.3 *ESR? Event Status Register Reads the contents of the standard event status register. Reading the standard event status register clears the register. Returned Format = the sum (between 0 and 255) of all bits that are true. See table for *ESE. 6.3.1.4 *IDN? Identification query Reads out the manufacturer, model, serial number, firmware level and options in an ASCII response data element. The query must be the last query in a program message. Returned Format , , , , . Example SEND: *IDN? READ: SPECTRACOM,GSG-5,163049,V6.0.3,16 SBAS TRAJ TRG FN NOW INTF MP PPS RSG RP Options The first option listed is the maximum number of channels the unit has been licensed for. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 218

235 6.3 Command Reference SBAS – Satellite Based Augmentation System satellites – Trajectories TRAJ – External Trigger TRG FN – Fixed bandwidth noise – Variable Bandwidth Noise (GSG-55 only) VN – Interference channels INTF – Multipath MP NOW – Simulate Now – PPS output (1/10/100/1000) PPS HV – High Velocity/Altitude, Extended Limits Option L2 – L2 Frequency band, enables P-code for GPS L1 and L2, is required for GLONASS L2 L2C – GPS L2C L5 – L5 Frequency band, enables GPS L5, is required for Galileo E5a/b, BeiDou B2 L6 – L6 Frequency band, required for BeiDou B3 / Galileo E6 RTK – Virtual Basestation and RTCM messages – Galileo, enables Galileo E1, is required for Galileo E5a/b GAL GLO – GLONASS, enables GLONASS L1, is required for GLONASS L2 – Real-time Scenario Generation RSG – BeiDou, enables B1, is required for BeiDou B2 BDS – Record and Playback RP JAM – Jamming Package SEN – Sensor Simulation QZ – QZSS VIS – Visibility/Terrain Obscuration – IRNSS L5 IRN 6.3.1.5 *OPC Operation Complete Operation Complete command causes the device to set the operation complete bit in the The Standard Event Status Register when all pending selected device operations have been fin ished. and *OPC? commands can be used with overlapping commands, i.e., commands which *OPC take long time to finish. In GSG such commands are starting/arming scenario execution CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 219

236 6.3 Command Reference ( ), and starting/arming of the signal generator SOUR:SCEN:CONT START SOUR:ONECHN:CONT START ). ( Example Enable OPC-bit SEND: *ESE 1 Start scenario. *OPC will set the operation complete bit in the status register when the start of scenario is done and it is running. SEND: SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol start;*OPC Wait 5s for the scenario to start. Then read the event status register. SEND: *ESR? Check the Operation complete bit (0) in the result. If it is true, the start of scenario is completed and you can ask for example the current position. SEND: SOURce:SCENario:LOG? Then read the event status register to reset it: SEND: *ESR? 6.3.1.6 *OPC? Operation Complete Query The Operation Complete query places an ASCII character 1 into the device’s Output Queue when all pending device operations have been finished. When a scenario is running there will be a pending operation set that is released at the start of each 100 ms epoch. As a consequence of this, an *OPC? command will constantly block OPC? command (and except for a short period at the start of each 100 msec epoch. The *WAI command) can hence be used to synchronize the execution of other SCPI commands with GSG’s internal processing loop, with a resolution of 100 ms. The is the recommended method to synchronize commands as *OPC? blocks at the OPC? user’s application, rather than within the GSG. The use of over *WAI is to be *OPC? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 220

237 6.3 Command Reference preferred, particularly if several consecutive commands are used as a means to count elapsed epochs. For example, checking that the ECEF position command is applied on the next 10 Hz (100 ms) epoch: sour:scen:ecefposition IMMEDIATE,1000.00,2000.00,3000.00 *OPC? sour:scen:ecefposition? Returned format 1 6.3.1.7 *RST Reset Resets the device. Any ongoing activity is stopped and the device is prepared to start new oper ations. Example *RST 6.3.1.8 *SRE Service Request Enable Sets the service request enable register bits. This enable register contains a mask value for the bits to be enabled in the status byte register. A bit that is set true in the enable register enables the corresponding bit in the status byte register to generate a Service Request. Command Syntax *SRE Parameters = the sum (between 0 and 255) of all bits that are true. Service Request Enable Register (1 = enable) Bit Weight Enables 128 OPR, Operation Status 7 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 221

238 6.3 Command Reference Service Request Enable Register (1 = enable) Weight Enables Bit RQS, Request Service 6 64 32 ESB, Event Status Bit 5 4 16 MAV, Message Available QUE, Questionable Data/Signal Status 3 8 EAV, Error Available 2 4 1 2 Not used 0 1 Device Status Returned format Where: = the sum of all bits that are set. Example *SRE 1 6 In this example, the device generates a service request when a message is available in the out put queue. 6.3.1.9 *SRE? Service Request Enable Query Read the value of the service request enable register. Returned format = the sum (between 0 and 255) of all bits that are true. See "*SRE" on the previous page for a description of the individual bits. 6.3.1.10 *STB? Status Byte Query Reads out the value of the Status Byte. Bit 6 reports the Master Summary Status bit (MSS), not the Request Service (RQS). The MSS is set if the instrument has one or more reasons for CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 222

239 6.3 Command Reference requesting service. Returned format = the sum (between 0 and 255) of all bits that are true. Status byte Register (1 = true) Condition Weight Name Bit 7 OPR Enabled operation status has occurred. 128 MSS Reason for requesting service. 6 64 ESB 5 32 Enabled status event condition has occurred MAV An output message is ready 16 4 8 QUE The quality of the output signal is questionable 3 4 EAV Error available 2 2 1 Not used Not used 0 1 6.3.1.11 *TST? Self Test The self-test query causes an internal self-test and generates a response indicating whether or not the device completed the self-test without any detected errors. Returned format Where: 0 = No error = Error in reference clock 1 6.3.1.12 *WAI Wait-to-continue The Wait-to-Continue command prevents the device from executing any further commands or queries until execution of all previous commands or queries have been completed. It differs from the *OPC? command in that it blocks within the GSG. It also resumes operation and allows synchronous execution of a command sequence within the GSG 10Hz epoch. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 223

240 6.3 Command Reference Example SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol start;*WAI;SOURce:SCENario:LOG? Wait until scenario is running and then request NMEA position. RSG Example SEND: *WAI? SEND: SOURce:SCENario:VELocity 123.400,27.25, 210.8000 SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate 123.400,-2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 Wait until the next 100 msec interval and issue the following commands. 6.3.2 SYSTem: Subsystem Commands 6.3.2.1 SYSTem:ERRor? Function This SYSTem command queries the error queue for an ASCII text description of the next error and removes it from the queue. The error messages are placed in an error queue, with a FIFO (First In-First Out) structure. This queue is summarized in the Error AVailable (EAV) bit in the status byte. The System Error command is extended with relevant command and protocol errors. It will allow the user to determine: Scheduled commands arrive too late to meet their required pre-processing time based on their timestamps. The user can configure protocol to flag error in situation where: More than one position command is received during same epoch, and the com mands contradict (not complement) each other. Values are not analyzed to determ ine contradiction, but only type of data (e.g., two position information commands are deemed to contradict, even if the actual position would not change.). In these situations only the last received information is served (no queue system used). The default configuration is NOT to flag error. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 224

241 6.3 Command Reference No position information is received during the epoch. The default configuration is NOT to flag error. Command Syntax SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? Note All SOURce:SCENario commands are only available during scenario execution. If scen ario is not running these error codes are to be returned (for both set and get functions); -191 ,"Execution not in progress". Returned format ,"" Where: = an error description as ASCII text. 6.3.2.2 SYSTem:RESET:FACTory Function This SYSTem command performs the factory reset. With parameter restore it only restores the factory default files. With parameter clean it cleans all user data and restores factory default files. Command Syntax SYSTem:RESET:FACTory Note Communication interface is not reset in order to maintain connection to the unit. Parameter enum = {restore, clean} Example SEND: SYSTem:RESET:FACTory clean CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 225

242 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3 SOURce: Subsystem Commands Commands are available at all times, but note that some commands behave differently depend ing on the status of the unit. More specifically, commands related to, e.g., power settings will have an immediate effect, but if these commands are called during scenario or signal exe cution, the original settings will be restored when the execution stops. In general, to permanently store settings the commands should be called when execution is not running. 6.3.3.1 SOURce:POWer Function Sets the transmit power of the device. During scenario execution all signals on all bands will get the new transmit power, and all possible power offsets between different satellite con stellations and frequency bands are discarded. Command Syntax SOURce:POWer Note Setting not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. If power is inside allowed limits, but other RF parameters need to be modified, such parameters are modified and an error about settings conflict is set. Parameter decimal [-160,-65] dBm Example SEND: SOURce:POWer -123.2 6.3.3.2 SOURce:POWer? Function Queries the current transmit power of the unit. Command Syntax SOURce:POWer? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 226

243 6.3 Command Reference Example SEND: SOURce:POWer? READ: -121.3 6.3.3.3 SOURce:REFPOWer Function Changes the absolute power in dBm of the reference signal (GPS L1 C/A). Command Syntax SOURce:REFPOWer Notes This command can only be used before starting a simulation. The setting is not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. If power is inside allowed limits, but other RF parameters need to be modified, such parameters are modified and an error about a settings conflict is set. Parameter decimal [-160,-65] dBm Example SEND: SOURce:REFPOWer -123.2 You can use the keyword “default” instead of : SOURce:REFPOWer default Restores default relative power for GPS L1 C/A CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 227

244 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.4 SOURce:REFPOWer? Function Returns current absolute power in dBm of the reference signal (GPS L1 C/A). Command Syntax SOURce:REFPOWer? Example SEND: SOURce:REFPOWer? READ: -121.3 6.3.3.5 SOURce:ABSPOWer Function Changes the absolute power for the given signal type and orbit type. Command Syntax SOURce:ABSPOWer ,[,] Notes This command can only be used before starting a simulation. The setting is not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. If power is inside allowed limits, but other RF parameters need to be modified, such parameters are modified and an error about a settings conflict is set. . However, in this case the You can use the keyword “all” instead of cannot be specified. The power you entered will be used for all sig nal types for all constellations. You can use the keyword “default” instead of . The chosen (and optionally ) will use the default power (specified in the cor responding ICD). Examples SEND: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 228

245 6.3 Command Reference SOUR:ABSPOWer BDSB1,GEO,-123.2 Both keywords “all”, and “default” can be used together: SOURce:ABSPOWer all,default This command will reset whole power configuration to the default state (reference power and relative power offsets as it is specified in ICDs) 6.3.3.6 SOURce:ABSPOWer? Function Returns the current absolute power in dBm for the given signal type and orbit type. Command Syntax SOURce:ABSPOWer?,[,] Examples SEND: SOUR:ABSPOW? GLOL1 Returns power for GLONASS L1 SOUR:ABSPOW? BDSB1,GEO Returns power for BEIDOU B1 on geostationary orbit 6.3.3.7 SOURce:RELPOWer Function Changes the relative power offset for the given signal type and orbit type. Command Syntax SOURce:RELPOWer ,[,] Notes This command can only be used before starting a simulation. The setting is not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 229

246 6.3 Command Reference If the power is inside the allowed limits, but other RF parameters need to be modified, such parameters are modified and an error about a settings conflict is set. You can use the keyword “all” instead of . However, in this case the cannot be specified. The power you entered will be used for all sig nal types for all constellations. . The chosen (and You can use the keyword “default” instead of optionally ) will be set to the default relative power offsets. Examples SEND: SOUR:RELPOWer BDSB1,GEO,-123.2 SOURce:RELPOWer all,default This command will reset the relative power offsets to their default values. The reference power, however, WILL NOT be changed (to change the reference power level also, use SOUR:ABSPOW all, default the command instead.) 6.3.3.8 SOURce:RELPOWer? Function Returns current relative power offset in dBm for the given signal type and orbit type (offset rel ative to reference power). Command Syntax SOURce:RELPOWer? ,[] Example SEND: SOURce:RELPOWer? BDSB1,GEO 6.3.3.9 SOURce:EXTREF Function Specifies the reference clock source. If set to ON, the external reference clock signal is required and used when scenarios are executed, or the signal generator is running. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 230

247 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:EXTREF Parameter enum = {ON, OFF} Example SEND: SOURce:EXTREF ON 6.3.3.10 SOURce:EXTREF? Function Get the currently selected clock source. Command Syntax SOURce:EXTREF? Example SEND: SOURce:EXTREF? READ: ON 6.3.3.11 SOURce:PPSOUTput Function Sets the PPS (pulses-per-second) output of the device. Command Syntax SOURce:PPSOUTput Note This feature is not available on GSG-52. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 231

248 6.3 Command Reference Parameter value = 1, 10, 100, 1000 pulses per second Example SEND: SOURce:PPSOUTput 10 6.3.3.12 SOURce:PPSOUTput? Function Get the current PPS output setting. Command Syntax SOURce:PPSOUTput? Note This feature is not available on GSG-52. Example SEND: SOURce:PPSOUT? READ: 100 6.3.3.13 SOURce:EXTATT Function Set the external attenuation of the device. Command Syntax SOURce:EXTATT Note Setting not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 232

249 6.3 Command Reference If the value is inside allowed limits, but other RF parameters need to be modified, they are mod ified and an error about settings conflict is set. Parameter decimal = [0,30] in dB Example SEND: SOURce:EXTATT 12.2 6.3.3.14 SOURce:EXTATT? Function Query the current external attenuation setting of the unit. Command Syntax SOURce:EXTATT? Example SEND: SOURce:EXTATT? READ: 11.3 6.3.3.15 SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol Function Set the noise simulation ON or OFF. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol Note Setting not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 233

250 6.3 Command Reference Parameter enum = {ON, OFF} Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol ON 6.3.3.16 SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol? Function Get the noise simulation state. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol? Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:CONTrol? READ: OFF 6.3.3.17 SOURce:NOISE:CNO Function Set the maximum carrier-to-noise density of the simulated signals. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:CNO Note Setting not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. of individual signals may be lower than this setting due to various reasons The actual C/N 0 (distance, elevation, modified by event, etc). CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 234

251 6.3 Command Reference Parameter in dB·Hz. A decimal number, within the range [0.0 ... 56.0]. C/N 0 Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:CNO 44.1 6.3.3.18 SOURce:NOISE:CNO? Function Get the current maximum carrier-to-noise density of the simulated signals. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:CNO? Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:CNO? READ: 39.2 6.3.3.19 SOURce:NOISE:BW Function Set the noise simulation bandwidth. This command is only available with GSG-55 units. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:BW Note Setting not stored during scenario execution or 1-channel mode execution. This command is only available with GSG-55 units. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 235

252 6.3 Command Reference Parameter Noise simulation bandwidth in MHz:, Decimal number in range [0.001 ... 20.46]. Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:BW 18.001 6.3.3.20 SOURce:NOISE:BW? Function Get the noise simulation bandwidth. This command is only available with GSG-55 units. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:BW? Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:BW? READ: 20.2 6.3.3.21 SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET Function Set the frequency offset of the simulated noise from the GPS L1 center frequency (1.57542 GHz). For example, if the noise bandwidth is set to be 20 MHz, and offset is 10 MHz, the noise will be simulated on frequency band 1575.42 ... 1595.42 MHz. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 236

253 6.3 Command Reference Note Setting not stored during scenario or 1-channel mode execution. This command is only avail able in GSG-55. Parameter Noise frequency offset in MHz. A decimal number within the range [-10.23 ... 10.23]. Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET 2.0 6.3.3.22 SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET? Function Get the frequency offset (in MHz) of the simulated noise from the GPS L1 center frequency. This command is only available with GSG-55 units. Command Syntax SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET? Example SEND: SOURce:NOISE:OFFSET READ: -8.2 6.3.3.23 SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol Function Control the execution of the Signal Generator. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 237

254 6.3 Command Reference Parameter enum {START,STOP,ARM} Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol start 6.3.3.24 SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol? Function Query the current state of the Signal Generator. Meaning of returned values is the following: START : Signal Generator is started and running STOP : Signal Generator is stopped and thus not running : Signal Generator delays startup for 2 minutes to allow the simulation to load WAIT required data. The start time derived from the NTP server is then aligned to the next full GPS minute.ARMED: Signal Generator is armed, all data loading is done, but Signal Generator is not yet running, but waiting for the trigger to start it : Signal Generator is loading data to memory, and arming after which it trans ARMING itions to the ARMED state Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol? Returned values START, STOP, WAIT, ARMED or ARMING Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:CONTrol? READ: START CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 238

255 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.25 SOURce:ONECHN:SATid Function 1 During RF generation , modify the current signal mode. While GSG is not generating RF, set & store the 1-channel mode satellite identifier and signal mode. While GSG is not generating RF, modify the current signal mode. Command Syntax (while not generating RF) SOURce:ONECHN:SATid SOURce:ONECHN:SATid SOURce:ONECHN:SATid Command Syntax (during RF generation, effective as of firmware version 7.0.1) SOURce:ONECHN:SATid Parameters : [M, P, U] : [G, R, E, C, J, I, S] : [–7 ... 210] The gnss_letter parameter can be: ‘G’ (or ‘g’) for GPS ‘R’ (or ‘r’) for GLONASS ‘E’ (or ‘e’) for Galileo 'C' (or 'c') for BeiDou ‘J’ (or ‘j’) for QZSS 'I' (or 'i') for IRNSS ‘S’ (or ‘s’) for SBAS The parameter can be: signal_mode_letter ‘U’ (or ‘u’) for unmodulated GPS signal (carrier only) P’ (or ‘p’) for PRN signal (carrier modulated by PRN sequence, no data messages) ‘M’ (or ‘m’) for modulated signal (normal signal including data messages) 1 That is, when GSG is executing a scenario or generating a signal. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 239

256 6.3 Command Reference The syntax to be used while GSG is not generating any RF allows to omit the signal_ parameter and instead specify only the gnss_letter mode_letter parameter fol lowed by an integer. In such case, a modulated signal mode is assumed. integer parameter: The If the signal mode is modulated or PRN, the parameter < > must be a valid integer satellite id number. For an unmodulated GPS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, or IRNSS signal, the parameter integer > must not be specified. For an unmodulated GLONASS signal the < > parameter specifies the frequency slot [–7 ... 6]. < integer Additionally, as of firmware version 7.0.1, it is possible to specify only the signal mode and source:onechn:signaltype satellite id. All signals that have been enabled by the com mand (or via the front panel) and are compatible to the specified signal mode and satellite id remain set. Incompatible signals are automatically disabled. This syntax is designed to be used together with the ‘ source:onechn:signaltype ’ command, so that you can first specify the signal mode and satellite ID using the ‘ source:onechn:satid ’ command and later specify particular signals with the ‘ ’ command. source:onechn:signaltype When GLONASS signals are selected along with the modulated mode, the GLONASS fre quency slot is determined by the satellite id from the navigation data (specified either using the SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris command or from the Ephemeris field in the front panel interface). For the PRN mode, the frequency slot for GLONASS is determined automatically by a pre defined mapping of satellite id to frequency slot. While the GSG unit is generating RF it is possible to change the signal mode using the reduced command syntax specifying only the desired signal mode. Note that currently it is only possible to change the signal mode to any mode that is ‘lower’ or equal to the initial signal mode used when the signal generator was started. For example, if the signal generator is started in PRN mode it is possible to switch to unmodulated mode and back to PRN mode, but not to mod ulated mode. If started in modulated mode it is possible to switch between all three signal modes. The signal mode cannot be changed if the signal generator started in unmodulated mode. Examples (used when the unit is not generating RF) Set modulated GPS signal with id11: SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SATid G11 Set unmodulated GLONASS signal with frequency slot -5: SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SATid UR-5 CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 240

257 6.3 Command Reference Examples (used while the unit is generating RF, e.g. executing a scenario) Set signal mode to unmodulated mode: SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SATid U Set signal mode to PRN: SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SATid P Set signal mode to modulated mode: SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SATid M 6.3.3.26 SOURce:ONECHN:SATid? Function Query the 1-channel mode satellite identifier. The returned satellite identifier can be: Gxx for GPS, for example G12 Rxx for GLONASS, for example R15 Exx for Galileo, for example E01 Cxx for BeiDou, for example C11 Jxx for QZSS, for example J02 Ixx for IRNSS, for example I01 Sxxx for SBAS, for example S120 UG for unmodulated GPS signal UE for unmodulated Galileo signal UC for unmodulated BeiDou UJ for unmodulated QZSS UI for unmodulated IRNSS URx for unmodulated GLONASS signal. X is the frequency slot from -7 to 6 Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:SATid? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 241

258 6.3 Command Reference Notes SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype or via If several signal types are selected with either menus, then the returned value may have several satellite identifiers separated by comma. If the transmission of data message is disabled, the satellite identifier is preceded by the letter “P”. For example, the identifier is “PG30” for the simulated GPS satellite 30, transmitting only the PRN code. As of firmware version 7.0.1 this query takes into account possible signal mode modifications made by SOURce:ONECHN:SATID command while the signal generator is running. Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SATid? READ: G13 SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SATid? READ: G5,R5 6.3.3.27 SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime Function Set & store 1-channel mode start time (use this command only while the unit is not generating any RF). Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime Note Seconds are omitted, always starts at 0 seconds. Parameter String of format DD/MM/YYYY hh:mm, where: DD=day, MM=month, YYYY=year, hh=hour, mm=minutes CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 242

259 6.3 Command Reference Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime 23/11/2010 12:45 6.3.3.28 SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime? Function Query 1-channel mode start time. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime? Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:STARTtime? READ: 23/11/2010 12:45 6.3.3.29 SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris Function Set & store 1-channel mode ephemeris files to be used (use this command only while the unit is not generating any RF). Ephemeris files may include RINEX v2 or newer navigation message files for GPS and/or GLONASS, “agl” type GLONASS almanac, or EGNOS/WAAS SBAS message files. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris Parameter String identifier of filename(s) Example SEND: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 243

260 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris brdc0020.09n7 SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris Geo133_1736_01 6.3.3.30 SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris? Function Query 1-channel mode ephemeris files. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris? Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:EPHemeris? READ: Default 6.3.3.31 SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency Function Set & store 1-channel mode frequency offset (use this command only while the unit is not gen erating any RF). Parameter can also have optional suffix (MHz, kHz or Hz). Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency Parameter decimal [-6000000, 6000000] in Hz Example SEND: CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 244

261 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency -54 SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency 4.345 MHz 6.3.3.32 SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency? Function Query 1-channel mode frequency offset in MHz. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency? Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency? READ: 4.345 6.3.3.33 SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype Function Sets signal(s) to be simulated (use this command only while the unit is not generating any RF). Signal type consists of comma separated list of signal names, as described under “Parameters” below. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype Notes The satellite system GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO, BeiDou/QZSS/IRNSS and the modulation (sig nal mode) are set with the SOURce:ONECHN:satID command. In firmware versions before version 7.0.1 if requested signal types were not compatible with SOURce:ONECHN:satID command or from the front the satellite ID selected either by the CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 245

262 6.3 Command Reference panel those signals were ignored and not set. As of firmware version 7.0.1 any incompatible signal results in whole command failure so that no signal is set. Parameters – GPSL1CA,GPSL1P,GPSL1PY, GPSL2P,GPS L2PY for GPS – GLOL1,GLOL2 for GLONASS – GALE1,GALE5a,GALE5b for Galileo – BDSB1, BDSB2 for BeiDou – QZSSL1CA, QZSSL1SAIF, QZSSL2C, QZSSL5 for QZSS – IRNSSL5 for IRNSS Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype GPSL1CA,GPSL2P SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype GPSL1CA,GLOL2 6.3.3.34 SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype? Function Query 1-channel signal type in use. Signal type consists of comma-separated list of the sim ulated signals. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype? Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype? READ: GPS L1CA,GPSL2P SEND: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 246

263 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:ONECHN:SIGNALtype? READ: GPS L1CA,GLOL1,GALE1,BDSB1,QZSSL1CA,IRNSSL5 6.3.3.35 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings Function Set the line of sight dynamics parameters for the Signal Generator. If the profile is running new parameters are memorized, but will be applied only on profile restart. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings ,,, Parameters J < > – absolute jerk value in m/s³ > – maximum absolute acceleration value in m/s² A < > – duration of movement with constant acceleration, positive value, in seconds; < D A D > – duration of movement with constant velocity D < , positive value, in seconds V V Introduction to line of sight dynamics profile This feature supports the simulation of line of sight (LOS) dynamics (velocity profile). This com mand is effective as of firmware version 7.0.1. The profile is defined by the following four parameters: i. Jerk magnitude J [m/s³] ii. Maximum acceleration magnitude A [m/s²] iii. Duration of movement with constant acceleration D [s] A iv. [s] Duration of movement with constant velocity D V When the profile is activated the simulator controls the Doppler frequency shift and range vari ation in accordance with specified parameters as if the receiver was moving along a straight line between it and a satellite(s). Positive velocity corresponds to range increase and negative to Doppler shift. The profile is defined by a series of jerk pulses (duration of the jerk pulse D is given by above J =A/ ). parameters J and A: D J J The first jerk pulse is positive with J magnitude and lasts for D seconds causing an acceleration J increase. After D seconds jerk resets to zero resulting in constant acceleration that is main J tained for D seconds. Then negative jerk pulse with J magnitude follows resulting in A CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 247

264 6.3 Command Reference acceleration decrease during the next D seconds. After that the acceleration returns to zero so J that a constant velocity is maintained during the next D seconds. The whole process is depic V ted in the illustration below. The process is repeated until the profile is stopped. The initial conditions when the profile is started are as follows: Start jerk J = 0 m/s³ 0 Start acceleration A = 0 m/s² 0 Start velocity = current velocity Start range = current range When the profile is stopped, the simulator resets jerk and acceleration to zero, but continues to simulate the velocity that was present at the moment when the profile was stopped. Example SEND: SOURce:ONECHN:LOSD:SET 0.005, 0.1, 20, 20 CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 248

265 6.3 Command Reference Figure 6-1: Jerk [m/s³], acceleration [m/s²], velocity [m/s], and range [m] over time [s] 6.3.3.36 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings? Function Queries the line of sight dynamics profile parameters previously set by the SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings command. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings? Example SEND: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 249

266 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:ONECHN:LOSD:SET? READ: 0.005,0.1,20,2 6.3.3.37 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:CONTrol Function Starts, restarts or stops the line of sight dynamics profile. This command can only be used while RF is generated. Before starting the profile its parameters must be set using the command. SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:SETtings After the profile is started, the Doppler frequency shift is controlled automatically and can command, nor via the front neither be changed using the SOURce:ONECHN:FREQuency panel. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:CONTrol Parameters – starts line of sight dynamics profile if the profile is not running or restarts the pro file applying new parameters – stops line of sight dynamics profile Example SOUR:ONECHN:LOSD:CONT START 6.3.3.38 SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:CONTrol? Function Queries the current status of the line of sight dynamics profile, i.e. whether it is running (active) or not. Command Syntax SOURce:ONECHN:LOSDynamics:CONTrol? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 250

267 6.3 Command Reference Return values – the profile is currently active – the profile is not active Example SEND: SOUR:ONECHN:LOSD:CONT? READ: STOP 6.3.3.39 SOURce:SCENario:LOAD Function Load the scenario as specified by . Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:LOAD Note Calling the command will stop any running scenarios. Parameter String identifier of filename Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:LOAD scen01.scen 6.3.3.40 SOURce:SCENario:LOAD? Function Query the current loaded scenario. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 251

268 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:LOAD? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:LOAD? READ: scen01.scen 6.3.3.41 SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol Function Control the execution of the scenario. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol Notes The scenario must be loaded beforehand using SOURce:SCENario:LOAD . Calling a START command will first automatically stop any running scenarios. HOLD can be used to pause and resume trajectory movement, not the entire scenario. HOLD is effective when a scenario is running. ARMing a scenario means to hold a scenario before it is started. Parameter enum {START,STOP,HOLD,ARM} Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol start CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 252

269 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.42 SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol? Function Query the current state of scenario execution. Meaning of returned values is the following: : scenario is started and running START STOP : scenario is stopped and thus not running : scenario is running, but the trajectory is on hold HOLD WAIT : scenario delays startup for 2 minutes to allow the simulation to load required data. The start time derived from the NTP server is then aligned to the next full GPS minute. ARMED : scenario is armed, all data loading is done, but scenario is not yet running but waiting for the trigger to start it ARMING : scenario is being loaded to memory after which it is in ARMED state Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol? Returned values START, STOP, HOLD, WAIT, ARMED or ARMING Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:CONTrol? READ: START 6.3.3.43 SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv Function Sets built-in propagation environment model. The parameters sky_limit , and nlos_probability are obstruction_limit optional, either all of them or none should be set. Notes: The scenario must be running. Note that 0<= obstruction_limit <= sky_limit <=90. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 253

270 6.3 Command Reference For additional information, see "Propagation Environment Models" on page 64. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv [,,,] Parameter sky_limit : elevation above which there is no obstruction. Decimal [0.0,90.0] Decimal [0.0,90.0] obstruction_limit : elevation below which there is no line-of-sight satellites. : probability for a satellite with elevation between Decimal [0.0,1.0] nlos_probability sky_limit and obstruction_limit to be non-line-of-sight. Examples SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv urban SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv suburban,50,30,0.2 6.3.3.44 SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv? Function Query the current propagation model and its parameters. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PROPenv? READ: suburban,50,30,0.2 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 254

271 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.45 SOURce:SCENario:LOG? Function Get current position as NMEA data, available only when scenario is running. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:LOG? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:LOG? READ: $GPRMC,181810.000,A,6000.1041,N,2400.0553,E,019.4,284.9,060109- ,,*0B $GPGGA,181810.000,6000.1041,N,2400.0553,E,1,15,0.6,587.0,M,0.0- ,M,,,*0F $GPGSV,4,1,15,23,77.7,192.3,44,20,52.8,132.7,44,32,31.2,117.3,- 44,31,24.6,44.0,44*00 $GPGSV,4,2,15,16,9.2,96.3,44,7,1.1,190.7,44,17,0.5,242.4,44,2,- 17.4,319.9,44*00 $GPGSV,4,3,15,30,6.3,1.2,44,4,46.0,280.1,44,13,51.5,230.8,44,2- 5,19.6,184.5,44*2A $GPGSV,4,4,15,126,22.0,178.8,44,124,21.9,182.9,44,120,14.3,223- .6,44*E4 6.3.3.46 SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG? Function The Advanced Log feature queries log records of the specified log. This feature is effective as of firmware version 6.7.1. The following logs can be queried: RSG log – contains realtime movement parameters of the object being modelled along with time information; SAT log – contains various data describing modelled satellites movement parameters along with time. log – contains navigation data messages transmitted by simulated satellite NAVMSG CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 255

272 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG? [,,,..., ] – log identifier that specifies what log data to request – optional filter expression that allows to include into response only specified record types Mechanism When a scenario is running, the GSG unit internally creates log records at predefined time intervals and puts them into a limited-size queue with a FIFO (First In – First Out) structure where they remain for some time (several seconds). As the scenario continues to run, new records get added into the log and old records get removed either automatically or by request from the user. Each type of log features its own (independent) queue. RSG log records are created every 100 ms. SAT log records are created every 1 second. When requested using the sour:scen:advlog? command, log records are removed from the queue starting with the oldest available records. They are returned as text lines containing comma-separated fields. These lines can be easily processed by user-developed software to extract specific fields, or they can be stored in a csv-file allowing for further analysis with spreadsheet software. When the user does not request any log records, the latest log records remain in their queues until the unit is requested to start a new scenario. Hence it is possible to get remaining records even after a scenario was stopped. One possible approach to using the advanced log feature is to periodically make a series of repetitive queries, waiting for an empty response in each series. An empty response signifies that the most recent data have been received and no new data is available so far. General response structure A response to an advanced log command usually contains several lines of text, with each line containing several comma-separated fields. The order of these fields corresponds with the labels order in response to a query. SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG:HEADER? Each line of the response is terminated with the line end symbol “ ” (ASCII code 0x0A). Not \n all records may be returned at once, so another request may be required. If all records have been returned and no new records are available, an empty response will be returned. When mode is enabled, responses are additionally terminated with an empty line (con SCPI raw taining only the newline symbol in it), even if no new records are available. The additional newline symbol is intended to simplify end of response detection on the TCP client side. Since queue sizes are limited, it may be important to ensure that no record is missed due to queue overflow caused by too low a query rate. Log records of RSG and SAT logs contain the field that can be used to detect such an “overflow condition”. The id field is a 16-bit id unsigned counter that counts from 0 to 65535 and then wraps to 0. Note that several consecutive lines may contain the same field. That is because a group of id records is usually created at the same moment, but may still contain different data sets. For CHAPTER • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 6 256

273 6.3 Command Reference example, a group of SAT log records usually contains information about several satellites, so record there will be several lines of data – one per satellite, and each line will have the same id and time fields. In the RSG log, movement parameters for the body center and the antenna are created at the same moment. Filter expressions Each log supports individual filter expressions. Several of them can be combined with commas to specify what record types should be included in the response. If no filter expression is spe cified, the return response will contain all supported record types. For the RSG log the supported record types are: BODY_CENTER Includes RSG parameters for body center CENTER CENT ANTENNA Includes RSG parameters for antenna ANT Filter expressions example: SOUR:SCEN:ADVLOG? RSG,BODY_CENTER SOUR:SCEN:ADVLOG? RSG,CENTER,ANT EXAMPLE: SEND: sour:scen:advlog? sat READ: 17803, SAT, 17803.0, 2014-05-09T19:56:26.000, 503803.0, G9, 13999325.9529469125, -21451840.2281696014, - 7614347.5806083838, 23965993.35, -269.19, 1414.63, -0.37 6.3.3.47 SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG:HEADer? Function Queries the header for the data of the specified log. This feature is effective as of firmware ver sion 6.7.1. This command is intended to be used together with the command SOURce:SCENari- , and allows to get a line of comma-separated labels for fields of corresponding o:ADVLOG? log records. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 257

274 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG:HEADer? — Log identifier that specifies the advanced log for which to obtain the header. Notes The position of specific field label within the comma-separated line is the same as the position SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG of that field’s value within a response line of the command. In order to be compatible with future versions of the unit firmware, any user-developed soft ware should not strictly rely on a specific order of fields in responses to the and com SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG? SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG:HEADer? mands. Before issuing log record requests user-developed software should: a. first request the log header once, b. then determine positions of all fields of interest based on their labels, c. and then refer to log record fields by their determined positions. The order of fields is fixed within one firmware version. argument is RSG , the following fields are available: When the logID Field label (in response to a Possible field values (in response to a Field meaning “SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG?” query) “SOURce:SCENario: ADVLOG:HEADer?” query) id Integer in range [0; 65535] Record numeric id RSG Log identifier Always RSG Record type ANTENNA or BODY_CENTER record_type Scenario time in time Non-negative decimal seconds utc_time e.g., 2016-09-20T20:29:36.100 UTC time in ISO 8601 format GPS second of week Integer in range [0; 604799] gps_sow speed_over_ground Speed over ground, Non-negative decimal m/s 2 Decimal Acceleration, m/s acceleration_over_ground Vertical speed, m/s Decimal vertical_speed vertical_acceleration Vertical accel Decimal 2 eration, m/s Course, degrees [0 ; 360) heading heading_rate Course rate, Decimal degrees/s CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 258

275 6.3 Command Reference Field label (in response to a Possible field values (in response to a Field meaning “SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG?” query) “SOURce:SCENario: ADVLOG:HEADer?” query) Decimal in range [-180; +180] pitch Pitch, degrees pitch_rate Decimal Pitch rate, degrees/s roll Roll, degrees Decimal in range [-180; +180] Roll rate, degrees/s roll_rate Decimal yaw Yaw, degrees Decimal in range [-180; +180] yaw_rate Yaw rate, degrees/s Decimal latitude Latitude, degrees Decimal in range [-90; +90] Longitude, degrees longitude Decimal in range [0; +360] Decimal Altitude, degrees altitude ECEF X position, m Decimal pos_x pos_y ECEF Y position, m Decimal pos_z ECEF Z position, m Decimal Speed ECEF X-pro Decimal vel_x jection, m/s vel_y Speed ECEF Y-pro Decimal jection, m/s Speed ECEF Z-pro vel_z Decimal jection, m/s Acceleration ECEF Decimal acc_x 2 X-projection, m/s Acceleration ECEF Decimal acc_y 2 Y-projection, m/s acc_z Acceleration ECEF Decimal 2 Z-projection, m/s vel_e East speed pro Decimal jection, m/s vel_n North speed pro Decimal jection, m/s Vertical speed pro vel_u Decimal jection, m/s Acceleration east acc_e Decimal 2 projection, m/s acc_n Acceleration north Decimal 2 projection, m/s CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 259

276 6.3 Command Reference Field label (in response to a Possible field values (in response to a Field meaning “SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG?” query) “SOURce:SCENario: ADVLOG:HEADer?” query) Acceleration vertical Decimal acc_u 2 projection, m/s LogID is , the following fields are available: When the SAT Field label Possible field values (in response to a (in response to a “SOURce:SCENario: Field meaning “SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG?” ADVLOG:HEADer?” query) query) Record numeric id id Integer in range [0; 65535] SAT Log identifier Always SAT time Scenario time, s >= 0 UTC time in ISO 8601 e.g. 2016-09-20T20:29:36.000 utc_time format gps_sow Integer in range [0; 604799] GPS second of week Satellite ID e.g. G11 for GPS satellite 11 sat_id Decimal pr_l1 Pseudorange L1, m Pseudorange rate L1, m/s Decimal prr_l1 doppler_shift_l1 Doppler shift L1, Hz Decimal Doppler shift rate L1, Hz/s Decimal doppler_shift_rate_l1 Satellite ECEF X position, pos_x Decimal m Satellite ECEF Y position, Decimal pos_y m pos_z Satellite ECEF Z position, Decimal m As of firmware version 6.7.5, when LogID is NAVMSG, the following fields are available: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 260

277 6.3 Command Reference Field label (in response to a Possible field values Field “SOURce:SCE (in response to a mean “SOURce:SCENario:ADVLOG?” Nario: ing query) ADVLOG:HEA Der?” query) Record Integer in range [0; 65535] id numeric id Log NAVMSG Always NAVMSG iden tifier Scen time >= 0 ario time, s e.g., 2016-09-20T20:29:36.000 UTC utc_time time in ISO 8601 format sat_id Satellite e.g., G11 for GPS satellite 11 ID Signal signal_type For GPS satellites: L1CA, L1P, L1CAP, L2P; “L1CAP” is used when the satellite has both L1CA and L1P signals enabled. type of nav igation mes sage Integer per corresponding ICD sf_id Sub frame id pg_id Page id Integer per corresponding ICD msg Nav Hexadecimally-encoded binary data of navigation message e.g., igation 8BFFFC464C7749C005364A923E46B3001EDA4C48A6BEC14EBA60ECD3 mes 24A90057186FC0133C4. String length depends on corresponding nav igation message length. Please note that data length (in bits) is not necessarily sage data multiple of 8 bits, hence the number of hex digits is not necessarily even. It can be even or odd. Usually hex dump represents some amount of bytes, each byte is represented by 2 hex digits. In this case a half byte is possible, therefore there can be an odd number of hex digits. Currently supported navigation messages are: GPS: L1CA, L1P, L2P; QZSS: L1CA; Beidou: B1, B2. StudioView software. Navigation message decoding functionality is provided by GSG CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 261

278 6.3 Command Reference Example: SEND: sour:scen:advlog:head? sat READ: id, SAT, time, utc_time, gps_sow, sat_id, pos_x, pos_y, pos_z, pr_l1, prr_l1, doppler_shift_l1, doppler_shift_rate_l1 6.3.3.48 SOURce:SCENario:OBServation Function Turn on scenario observations. All parameters are seconds. Start is the number of seconds from scenario start. Duration is length of observations from start. Interval is the interval between the individual observations in the resulting Rinex OBS file. Observations files are created in observations/ with name .obs, where the date is the date of the first observation in the file. Observation files can be retrieved using the MMEMory commands. Maximum length for each file is 1 hour (3600 seconds). If duration is longer than 1 hour, then multiple files are created. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:OBServation ,, Parameter Decimal start [-1,nnn] seconds. If ‘-1’ is used the logging will start immediately when a com mand is received, and this is only available when the scenario is running. Decimal duration [-1,nnn] seconds. If ‘-1’ is used the logging will continue until the scenario is running Decimal interval [1,3600] seconds Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:OBS 10,3600,1 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 262

279 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.49 SOURce:SCENario:OBServation? Function Query scenario observation parameters. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:OBServation? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:OBS? READ: 10,3600,1 6.3.3.50 SOURce:SCENario:NAV Function Turn ON/OFF RINEX navigation data logging. The generated files are in RINEX 3.0.2 mixed format, so the information for all the simulated constellations/satellites will be written into one file. Note that the RINEX data is logged only when the GSG generates new navigation message sets, which is not done often. Therefore, the recommended way to use this command is to turn ON RINEX navigation data logging before a scenario is started. Logging is stopped when scen ario stops. See the GSG User Manual for naming of the generated files. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:NAV Parameter ON | OFF Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:NAV ON CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 263

280 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.51 SOURce:SCENario:NAV? Function Query status of RINEX navigation data logging. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:NAV? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:NAV? READ: OFF 6.3.3.52 SOURce:SCENario:SATid[n]? Function Query the current satellite identifier of channel n. The parameter n can be 1-5 for GSG-52/53, 1-8 for GSG-54, 1-16 for GSG-55/GSG-56 and 1-32/48/64 for GSG-62/63/64. The returned satellite identifier can be: xx for GPS for example G12 G R xx for GLONASS, for example R15 E xx for Galileo, for example E01 C xx for BeiDou, for example C11 xx for QZSS, for example J02 J xx for IRNSS, for example I01 I xxx for SBAS for example S120 S for unmodulated GPS signal UG UE for unmodulated Galileo signal UC for unmodulated BeiDou signal UJ for unmodulated QZSS signal UI , for unmodulated IRNSS signal UR x for unmodulated GLONASS signal. X is the frequency slot from -7 to 6 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 264

281 6.3 Command Reference Would the signal be a multipath signal, this is identified by an added character D at the end. The satID is returned with a leading timestamp. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SATid[n]? Note Only available during scenario execution. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SATid5? READ: 123.4,R23 6.3.3.53 SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype[n]? Function Query signal type of satellite. The parameter n can be: 1-5 for GSG-52/53 1-8 for GSG-54 1-16 for GSG-55/GSG-56 and 1-32/48/64 for GSG-62/63/64. The signal type consists of a comma-separated list of frequency bands and codes (CA or P code) for GPS and frequency bands for GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and IRNSS. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype[n]? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype20? READ: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 265

282 6.3 Command Reference L1CA,L2P 6.3.3.54 SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype? Function Query signal type of satellite. Signal type consists of comma separated list of frequency bands and codes (CA or P code) for GPS and frequency bands for GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and IRNSS. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype? Parameter satID – GPS, Glonass, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are supported; the format is explained under "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SIGNALtype? G2 READ: L1CA,L2P 6.3.3.55 SOURce:SCENario:NAVBITS Function Sets bits in a navigation message. The endBitPos - startBitPos +1 LSB of the hexstring are used to replace the bits between startBitPos and endBitPos, so that the endBitPos is aligned with the LSB of the hexstring. In case endBitPos - startBitPos +1 > length(hexstring), the hexstring will be used as a repeating pattern to replace the bits between startBitPos and endBitPos. Multiple commands may be applied to the same message. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:NAVBITS IMM, , , , , , , , , [,printflag] CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 266

283 6.3 Command Reference Note Only available during scenario execution. Parameter – GPS, Glonass, BeiDou, QZSS and SBAS are supported, the format is explained under satID "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. – One of the signal types supported by the satellite, allowed values are: sigtype For GPS : L1CA, GPSL1CA, L1P, GPSL1P, L1PY, GPSL1PY, L1CAP, GPSL1CAP, L1CAPY, GPSL1CAPY, L2P, GPSL2P, L2PY, GPSL2PY, L2C, GPSL2C, L5, GPSL5 Note: The signal types from the same group below share the same nav igation bit stream. L1CA, GPSL1CA, L1P, GPSL1P, L1PY, GPSL1PY, L1CAP, GPSL1CAP L2P, GPSL2P, L2PY, GPSL2PY L2C, GPSL2C L5, GPSL5 : L1, GLOL1, L2, GLOL2 For Glonass Note: The signal types from the same group below share the same nav igation bit stream. L1, GLOL1 L2, GLOL2 Galileo : E1, E5a, E5b For BeiDou For : B1, B2, : L1CA, L1SAIF (L1SBAS can be also used for L1SAIF) For QZSS For SBAS : L1SBAS sfid – For GPS L1 and L2P signals: subframe id For GPS L2C and L5 signals: message type For Glonass: frame id For Galileo E1 and E5b signals: word id For Galileo E5a: page id For BeiDou: subframe id For QZSS L1CA: subframe id CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 267

284 6.3 Command Reference For QZSS L1SAIF: message type, where 0 means that the modification is applied on the next message independently of its type For SBAS: message type, where 0 means that the modification is applied on the next message independently of its type pageid – For GPS L1 and L2P signals: page id and 0 (not relevant) when subframe id is 1-3 For GPS L2C and L5 signals: 0 (not relevant) For Glonass: string id For Galileo E1 and E5b signals: 0/1 (even/odd) For Galileo E5a: 0 (not relevant) For BeiDou: page id For QZSS L1CA: page id and 0 (not relevant) when subframe id is 1-3 For QZSS L1SAIF: 0 (not relevant) For SBAS: 0 (not relevant) endBitPos – positions of bits in a navigation message, startBitPos , For Glonass the bit count starts from LSB, whereas for other messages the Note: bit count starts from MSB. hexstring – Bit pattern to be set in the message – 0 if the modification should be applied only once repeat 1 if the modification should be repeated on every message crcflag – 0 if the CRC/parity does not need to be corrected after the modification 1 if the CRC/parity needs to be correct after the bit modification. With L1SBAS and L1SAIF the preamble will be also maintained. – 0 if the modified message does not to be logged printflag 1 if the modified message needs to be logged in the execution log. Note that the mes sage is logged only once even if the modification is repeated on every message (repeat flag = 1) . This parameter is optional, the default value is 0. Example Set MSB to 1 in 6 bit health (bits 77-82) in subframe 1 of the GPS L1CA message: SOUR:SCEN:NAVBITS IMM,G23,L1CA,1,0,77,77,1,1,0,1 Example message in the execution log: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 268

285 6.3 Command Reference 06/10/2013 15:00:24 GPS GPS 23 L1CA repeat 1 sfid 1 pgid 0: 8b0c98374923e24b4108008aaaaab- f5555550d5555543ffff2b31048ca1600ffe3b780634a8 Set all bits to 0 in subframe 3 of GPS L1CA message: sour:scen:navbits IMM,G23,L1CA,3,0,1,300,0,0,0 Set bits 16-119 to 1 in the next QZSS L1SAIF message from satellite J3: sour:scen:navbits IMM,J3,L1SAIF,0,2,16,119,FF,0,1 6.3.3.56 SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency[n]? Function Query the current frequency setting ofn when scenario is running. The parameter n can be 1-8 for GSG-54, 1-16 for GSG-55/56 and 1-32/48/64 for GSG-62/63/64. The frequency is returned with a leading timestamp. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency[n]? Note Only available during scenario execution. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency3? READ: 123.4,-480.513 6.3.3.57 SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency? Function Query the current frequency setting of channel satID when scenario is running. The frequency is returned with a leading timestamp. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 269

286 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency? Note Only available during scenario execution. Parameter For a list of satID satellite identifiers, see "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:FREQuency? G32 READ: 123.4,-480.513 6.3.3.58 SOURce:SCENario:POWer[n] Function Sets the power of channel n when the scenario is running. can be: n The parameter 1-5 for GSG-52/53 1-8 for GSG-54 1-16 for GSG-55/56 1-32/48/64 for GSG-62/63/64. The parameter is optional and can be used when only a certain satellite frequency freqband band power is changed. freqband The value ALL in means that the power for all bands is adjusted by the amount indic ated via the command. The command also accepts ON/OFF keywords as an argument, see examples below. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POWer[n] [,] Note Only available during scenario execution. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 270

287 6.3 Command Reference Parameters is not ALL. For ALL, the relative change by which the freqband Decimal [-160.0,-65.0] dBm, if power setting is to be modified, should be limited to a delta of 100 (e.g., changing a power of -65 dBm to -165 dBm (by -100) and vice versa (+100). FreqBand [L1, L2, L5, ALL] Examples SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer3 -75, ALL SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer3 -115, L1 SEND: SOUR:SCEN:POW ON Turns ON power for all satellites SEND: SOUR:SCEN:POW OFF Turns OFF power for all satellites 6.3.3.59 SOURce:SCENario:POWer[n]? Function Query the current power setting of channel n during scenario execution. The parameter n can be: 1-5 for GSG-52/53 1-8 for GSG-54 1-16 for GSG-55/56 1-32/48/64 for GSG-62/63/64. The power is returned with a leading timestamp. Freqband is an optional parameter used to specify for which frequency band the power is returned. freqband parameter is omitted, the L1 power is returned. If the CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 271

288 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POWer[n]? [] Note Only available during scenario execution. Parameter FreqBand [L1, L2, L5, ALL] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer3? READ: 123.4,-119.7 SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer2? L2 READ: 124.4,-121.2 6.3.3.60 SOURce:SCENario:POWer Function Set the power of satellite satID when scenario is running. Freqband parameter is optional and can be used when only certain frequency band power of satellite is changed. Value ALL in fre qband means that power of all bands are adjusted by the amount indicated by the command. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POWer ,[,] Note Only available during scenario execution. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 272

289 6.3 Command Reference Parameter is not ALL. For ALL, the relative change by which the freqband Decimal [-160.0,-65.0] dBm, if power setting is to be modified, should be limited to a delta of 100 (e.g., changing a power of -65 dBm to -165 dBm (by -100) and vice-versa (+100). For a list of satID satellite identifier, see "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. FreqBand [L1, L2, L5, ALL] Examples SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer G23,-75, ALL SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer R22,-115, L1 6.3.3.61 SOURce:SCENario:POWer? Function Query the current power setting of the satellite satID during scenario execution. The power is returned with a leading timestamp. Freqband is an optional parameter used to specify the fre freqband is omitted, the L1 power is returned. quency band whose power is returned. If Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POWer? [,] Note Only available during scenario execution. Parameter For a list of satID satellite identifiers see "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. FreqBand [L1, L2, L5, ALL] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer? G20 READ: 123.4,-119.7 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 273

290 6.3 Command Reference SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POWer? R22 READ: 124.4,-121.2 6.3.3.62 SOURce:SCENario:FREQBAND:POWer Function Set the power for a frequency band (all satellites) when scenario is running. is used Freqband value ALL means that the power for all bands is to specify the frequency band. The freqband adjusted by the amount indicated. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:FREQBAND:POWer [,] Note Only available during scenario execution. Parameter freqband Decimal [-160.0,-65.0] dBm if is not ALL. For ALL, the limits are [-100,100] dB. FreqBand [L1, L2, L5, ALL] Examples SEND: SOURce:SCENario:FREQBAND:POWer -115,L1 SEND: SOURce:SCENario:FREQBAND:POWer 10,ALL 6.3.3.63 SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel? Function Query the satellite’s Space Vehicle model. The Space Vehicle model can be: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 274

291 6.3 Command Reference Block II, Block IIA, Block IIR, Block IIR-M, Block IIF or Block IIIA for GPS Glonass-M or Glonass-K1 for GLONASS Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel? Parameter Decimal [-160.0,-65.0] dBm, if freqband is not ALL. For ALL, the limits are [-100,100] dB. For a list of satID satellite identifiers, see "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel? G11 READ: Block IIR-M 6.3.3.64 SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel[n]? Function Query the satellite’s Space Vehicle model. n can be: The parameter 1-5 for GSG-52/53 1-8 for GSG-54 1-16 for GSG-55/GSG-56 1-32 for GSG-62. The Space Vehicle model can be: Block II, Block IIA, Block IIR, Block IIR-M, Block IIF or Block IIIA for GPS Glonass-M or Glonass-K1 for GLONASS Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel[n]? Example SEND: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 275

292 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:SCENario:SVmodel4? READ: Block IIR-M 6.3.3.65 SOURce:SCENario:LIST? Function List possible models which can be used in the scenarios. Note that for ionomodels, the options are limited to ‘ON, OFF’. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:LIST? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:LIST? antennamodels READ: Zero model, Helix, Patch, Cardioid 6.3.3.66 SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel Function Set the antenna model for the current scenario. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel Zero model CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 276

293 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.67 SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel? Function Query the antenna model of current scenario. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ANTennamodel? READ: Zero model 6.3.3.68 SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel Function Set the tropospheric model for the current scenario. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel Black model 6.3.3.69 SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel? Function Query the tropospheric model of the current scenario. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 277

294 6.3 Command Reference Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:TROPOmodel? READ: Saastamoinen 6.3.3.70 SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel Function Select the ionospheric model to be used in the current scenario. Permitted values are ON and OFF. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel 6.3.3.71 SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel? Function Query whether the Ionospheric model is used in the current scenario. The command returns: ‘OFF’, if the ionospheric model is not used ‘ON’ if the Klobuchar model is used a comma-separated list of files, if IONEX files are used. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel? Note When ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’ mode is selected and ionospheric correction can be determined using SBAS satellites, then SBAS satellites information is used. When IONEX files are used and ionospheric correction cannot be determined using the spe cified IONEX files e.g., because the IONEX files do not cover the current time or position, then the unit will act as if the ‘ON’ mode was selected. Example SEND: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 278

295 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel? READ: ON SEND: SOURce:SCENario:IONOmodel? READ: codg0010.14i,codg0030.14i,codg0020.14i 6.3.3.72 SOURce:SCENario:KEEPALTitude Function This command sets the altitude model setting for the current scenario. The default setting is ON. When the model is active, the units will compensate for the altitude change resulting from the difference between the ENU plane and the ellipsoid model of the earth. This only comes into play when traveling over large distances. When set to ON, the trajectory will maintain the alti tude throughout. If set to OFF, the movement will continue on an ENU plane that is NOT bent with the ellipsoid, resulting in the altitude increasing as we get further away from start position. As TIME argument only IMMediate is supported. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:KEEPALTitude TIME, Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario: KEEPALTitude IMM,ON 6.3.3.73 SOURce:SCENario:KEEPALTitude? Function Query whether the altitude model is set to preserve altitude used in current scenario. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario: KEEPALTitude? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 279

296 6.3 Command Reference Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario: KEEPALTitude? READ: ON 6.3.3.74 SOURce:SCENario:POSition TIME Function Set latitude, longitude and altitude for the geodetic position (WGS84) as the start position for the loaded scenario, or the current position if the scenario is running. Latitude and longitude are defined using decimal degrees. The altitude is given in meters as alti tude over an ellipsoid. For latitude and longitude, the recommended decimal accuracy is 8 digits, with 6 digits being the minimum recommended accuracy. No benefit is achieved at accuracies greater than 10 digits for latitude or longitude. The altitude can be specified to a resolution down to two digits or centimeter level. No benefit is achieved with altitude accuracies greater than 4 decimal digits. Note: In order to use this command in real time, OPT-RSG is required. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POSition TIME,,, Parameter TIME must be IMMediate. Decimal Latitude [-89.99999999, +89.99999999] degrees North [-360.00000000, +360.00000000] degrees East Decimal Longitude [-1000.00, +20,200,000.00] meters Decimal Altitude Notes If a scenario is armed but not running yet, an error is returned. The maximum altitude for normal operation is 18470 meters. (With Extended Limits it is 20,200 km). CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 280

297 6.3 Command Reference This command changes duration of the currently loaded scenario, but does not change the scen ario file, so that when you try to edit the scenario, you will see unchanged parameters from the file. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POSition IMM,-77.58895432,43.08332157,168.58 6.3.3.75 SOURce:SCENario:POSition? Function Query the current geodetic position in latitude, longitude and altitude during scenario exe cution or the start position, if a scenario is loaded and not running yet. A time stamp of the elapsed time into the scenario is also returned. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POSition? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POSition? READ: 0.0,-77.58895432,43.08332157,168.58 6.3.3.76 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition Function Set the ECEF position in X, Y and Z coordinates as the start position for the loaded scenario or the current position, if the scenario is running. The X, Y, and Z position is given in decimal meters. The recommended decimal accuracy of ECEF is 2 decimal digits. No benefit for ECEF positions is achieved at accuracies greater than 4 digits. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 281

298 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition TIME,<- decimal>,, Note If a scenario is armed and not running yet, an error is returned. Parameter Decimal X Position [-26 500 000.00, +26 500 000.00] meters Decimal Y Position [-26 500 000.00, +26 500 000.00] meters Decimal Z Position [-26 500 000.00, +26 500 000.00] meters TIME must be IMMediate. Note The maximum altitude for normal operation is 18470 meters. (Altitude for Extended Limits is 20,200 Km.) This command changes duration of the currently loaded scenario, but does not change the scen ario file, so that when you try to edit the scenario, you will see unchanged parameters from the file. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition IMM,2920791.72, 1300420.26, 5500650.33 6.3.3.77 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? Function Query the current ECEF position in X, Y and Z coordinates during scenario execution or the start position, if a scenario is loaded and not running yet. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 282

299 6.3 Command Reference READ: 0.0,2920791.72, 1300420.26, 5500650.33 6.3.3.78 SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime Function Set the scenario start time as GPS time. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime Note If scenario is running or armed, an error is returned. Parameter String format: MM-DD-YYYY hh:mm:ss.s AAA ...where MM=Month {01- 12}, DD=day of month {01- 31}, YYYY=year, hh=hours {00- 23}, mm=minutes {00-59}. The Timescale AAA= {GPS, UTC, BDS, GAL, GLO, GLO0, ENT, WNT} field supports various GNSS timescales. If AAA is not supplied, the default is GPS timescale. For Simulate Now, the string equals “NTP”. This command changes duration of the currently loaded scenario, but does not change the scen ario file, so that when you try to edit the scenario, you will see unchanged parameters from the file. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime 11-11-2011 11:11 SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime NTP CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 283

300 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.79 SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? Function Query the Date, Time and Timescale of the running scenario or the start time of the loaded scenario. The default timescale is GPS. However, the user can optionally provide a parameter to convert the current Date and Time of the running scenario to various timescales including GPS, UTC, BeiDou, QZSS, Galileo, GLONASS, EGNOS Network Time and WAAS Network Time. If no argument is provided, GPS time scale is returned. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? . time> , Return String format: MM-DD-YYYY hh:mm:ss.s AAA ...where MM=Month {01- 12}, DD=day of month {01- 31}, YYYY=year, hh=hours {00- 23}, mm=minutes {00-59}, ss.s=seconds {00-60} with one decimal of sub-seconds digits. The Timescale AAA= {GPS, UTC, BDS, GAL, GLO, GLO0, ENT, WNT} field supports various GNSS timescales. If AAA is not supplied, the default is GPS timescale. Example QUERY: SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? GLO RESPONSE: 05-07-2012 12:34:56.7 GLO QUERY: SOUR:SCEN:DATETIME? RUNTIME RESPONSE: 12-31-2012 23:55:00.1 GPS, 60.1 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 284

301 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.80 SOURce:SCENario:RTCM? Function Queries for the latest RTCM messages (update rate of 1Hz). Returns a hexadecimal string of the latest RTCM messages, as configured. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:RTCM? Example (1006 message type read) SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RTCM? READ: D300153EE001038519731F728933157AC40A72ABE4310000061AC0 6.3.3.81 SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG? Function Queries the current RTCM configuration for output. Returns comma separated RTCM version (i.e., 3x or 2x), followed by the selected message types. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG? READ: 3x,1002,1006,1033 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 285

302 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.82 SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG Function Sets the RTCM configuration to use. The arguments given identify the RTCM messages to be out putted. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG 3x,[,]... Parameter string - 1002, 1004, 1006, 1010, 1012 and 1033. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RTCMCFG 3x,1004,1006 6.3.3.83 SOURce:SCENario:RLM Function This command supports the Galileo Return Link Acknowledgement Service by sending out a to a user in distress, thereby informing him that his distress signal has Return Link Message been detected and located. For more information, see "RLS (Return Link Service)" on page 177. The SCPI command is available in two variants: Command Syntax Short RLM message: SOURce:SCENario:RLM 0,satID,int1,int2,int2,int4 Long RLM message SOURce:SCENario:RLM 1,satID,int1,int2,int3,int4,int5,int6,int7- ,int8 Parameters 0 = short message; 1 = long message RLM [x]: satID : The satellite chosen to transmit the message (PRN). int1...0 : an unassigned decimal integer, representing 20 bits of RLM (SAR) data trans mitted within the INAV page, as illustrated below: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 286

303 6.3 Command Reference For additional information, see the Service Signal in Space Interface Control Galileo Open Document . Examples Short RLM SOURce:SCENario:RLM 0,satid,int1,int2,int3,int4 Satid = Galileo satellite in view in running scenario Int1,int2,int3 – beacon id – 3x20bits converted to decimal 15 HEX ID -> 60 binary bits (3x20) -> each 20 bit binary converted to decimal Int 4 – 4 bit message ID, 16 bit parameter data SOURce:SCENario:RLM 0,satid,int1,int2,int3,int4 Satid = Galileo satellite in view in running scenario Int1,int2,int3 – beacon id – 3 x 20bits converted to decimal 15 HEX ID -> 60 binary bits (3 x 20) -> each 20 bit binary converted to decimal Int 4 – 4 bit message ID, 16 bit parameter data SOUR:SCEN:RLM 0,8,711888,141509,1025,65536 Decimal 65536 = Binary 00010000000000000000 4 bit message ID = 0001 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 287

304 6.3 Command Reference Long RLM SOURce:SCENario:RLM 1,satid,int1,int2,int3,int4,int5,int6,int7,int8 Satiid = Galileo satellite in view in running scneario Int1,int2,int3: Beacon ID – 3 x 20 bits convertd to decimal 15 HEX ID -> 60 binary bits (3 x 20) –> each 20 bit binary converted to decimal Int 4-8: 4bit message ID, 96 bit parameter data SOUR:SCEN:RLM 1,8,711888,141509,1025,983040,1048575,1048575,10- 48575,1048575 Decimal 983040 = Binary 11110000000000000000 4 bit message ID = 1111 6.3.3.84 SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate Function This command creates a duplicate of the satellite with the given satID using the provided mul tipath parameters. The parameters include the Range Offset, Range Change, Range Interval, Doppler Offset, Doppler Change, Doppler Interval, Power Offset, Power Change and Power Interval. The final optional satID can be used to specify which existing satellite is to be replaced by the newly created duplicate. If this satID is not provided, and there are no free channels, the com mand will fail, and produce an error. Note Multipath satellites require 60 seconds to be created and are introduced at modulo 30 second intervals. The GSG can only introduce 4 duplicate satellites at a time and at a maximum rate of one satellite every two seconds. Multipath, SBAS and interference/jamming channels cannot be the duplicated. This command is only available when the scenario is running. Note that excess ive changes to Range or Doppler may result in Doppler shifts greater than the system can handle and cause the satellites to shutdown due to exceeding the hardware capabilities. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate

305 6.3 Command Reference [,] Parameter – As TIME argument only IMMediate is supported. TIME – Satellite identifier of the satellite to duplicate satID [-999.999,999.999] – Range offset in meters Decimal Decimal [-99.999,99.999] – Range Change rate in meters/interval [0.0,600.0] – Range Interval in seconds Decimal Decimal [-99.9999,99.9999] – Doppler offset in meters Decimal [-99.9999,99.9999] – Doppler Change rate in meters/sec/interval [0,600] – Doppler Interval in seconds Integer Decimal [-30.0,6.0] – Power offset in meters Decimal [-30.0,0.0] – Power Change rate in dB/interval [0,600] – Power Interval in seconds Integer satID – Optional satellite identifier for which satellite that is to be replaced by the duplicate Examples SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate IMM,G3,1.0,2.0,3.0,4.0,5.0,6,7.0,- 8.0,9,G9 6.3.3.85 SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate[n] Function This command creates a duplicate of the satellite in given channel number (the second argu ment) using the provided multipath parameters. The parameters include the Duplicate Satellite Channel Number, Range Offset, Range Change, Range Interval, Doppler Offset, Doppler Change, Doppler Interval, Power Offset, Power Change and Power Interval. When the scenario is running, the optional argument n can be used to specified the target chan nel where the duplicate will be placed. If the target channel already contains a satellite, that satellite is disabled and replaced by the duplicate. Notes Multipath satellites require 60 seconds to be created and are introduced at modulo 30 second intervals. The GSG can only introduce 4 duplicate satellites at a time and at a maximum rate of one satellite every two seconds. Multipath, SBAS and interference/jamming channels cannot be the duplicated. Note that excessive changes to Range or Doppler may result in Doppler shifts CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 289

306 6.3 Command Reference greater than the system can handle and cause the satellites to shutdown due to exceeding the hardware capabilities. The command can also be used to alter multipath configuration settings before the scenario has started. The argument n is then mandatory and specifies which multipath configuration is changed. For the command to be successful the scenario configuration must have at least n num SCPI ber of multipath signals defined. Furthermore, the scenario must be started using the Scenario:Control Start command for the modification to be effective, i.e. the altered configuration will not be used if the scenario is started from the front panel. Note also that the changed configuration will not be saved to the scenario configuration file. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate[n]

307 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate? Parameter satID – For a list of satellite identifiers, see "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. Example Running SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DUPlicate? G3 READ: 9 6.3.3.87 SOURce:SCENario:DURATION Function Changes the scenario duration before starting the simulation. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DURATION [,][duration] Parameters is specified in seconds. could be ONCE/FOREVER/LOOPING. is given, then is ONCE by default. If only If cannot be specified. is FOREVER, Notes This command changes duration of the currently loaded scenario, but does not change the scen ario file, so that when you try to edit the scenario, you will see unchanged parameters from the file. Examples SEND: SOUR:SCEN:DURATION ONCE,3600 Set scenario duration to 1 hour, executed once. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 291

308 6.3 Command Reference SOUR:SCEN:DURATION FOREVER Set scenario duration to forever. SOUR:SCEN:DURATION 600 Set scenario duration to 10 minutes, executed once. 6.3.3.88 SOURce:SCENario:DURATION? Function Inquires the duration of the scenario ( specified in seconds). Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DURATION? Return , Returns pair can be ONCE/FOREVER/LOOPING. . Example QUERY: SOUR:SCEN:DURATION? RESPONSE: LOOPING,1800 6.3.3.89 SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath[n] Function This command sets the multipath parameters for satellite with a satID. The parameters include the Range Offset, Range Change, Range Interval, Doppler Offset, Doppler Change, Doppler Inter val, Power Offset, Power Change and Power Interval. After issuing the command the target satellite becomes a multipath satellite and this is reflected in the satID as multipath satellites have a trailing character ‘D’ at the end of their satID. We can have several multipath satellites with the same satID. In such cases the optional para n can be used to specify that we want to act on the n :th instance of these. If the n meter para meter is left out the command acts on the first satellite found with matching satID. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 292

309 6.3 Command Reference If the satID is left out, the parameter n is mandatory and specifies that the command it to act on :th multipath satellite configured. the n Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath[n]

310 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:SCENario:MULTIPath IMM,G9,1.0,2.0,3,4.0,5.0,6,7.0,-8.0,9 6.3.3.90 SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath[n]? Function This command returns the multipath settings for the satellite with given satID. If we have several multipath satellites with the same satID the optional parameter n can be used to specify that we are interested in the n :th duplicate of this satellite. If instance n is not specified it always defaults to the first duplicate found. If the satID is not specified the n argument is mandatory and the command with return the mul n :th multipath satellite. This command is also available before the scenario tipath settings for the has started to query scenario configuration settings. In the response, the first parameter will be the satID (when scenario is running) or the satellite index for the satellite that is to be duplicated (when scenario is not running). Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath[n]? ] Parameter Integer [1:N] – Maximum is number of defined multipath satellite channels – the satellite identifier of the satellite satID Example Before execution: SEND: SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath1? READ: 3,1.0,2.0,3,4.0,5.0,6,7.0,-8.0,9 During execution: SEND: SOURce:SCENario:MULtipath? G17 READ: G17D,1.0,2.0,3,4.0,5.0,6,7.0,-8.0,9 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 294

311 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.91 SOURce:SCENario:DELete[n]

312 6.3 Command Reference SOURce:SCENario:DELete IMM,G10,G10D,R9D 6.3.3.93 SOURce:SCENario:DELete[n]

313 6.3 Command Reference Parameters The Clock Model is described by the following parameters: Clock Model parameters Table 6-1: Description Parameter Range Unit were measured. >0 t , a s and a Scenario elapsed time when parameters a 2 0 0 1 When t is set, its value must be within ±10 seconds compared to the current 0 elapsed scenario time. m a ±10000 . Clock bias measured at t 0 0 m/s Clock drift at t . a ±100 0 1 m/s² a ±10 Rate of clock drift. 2 At the time t , the clock offset is then calculated as follows: Δ = t – t t 0 bias (meters) = a + Δ ) ( a * a + 0.5 * Δ t 0 t 1 2 Note SOURce:CLKMDL commands are accepted only while a scenario is running. Example SOUR:SCEN:CLKMDL 10.000000,2000.000000,-10.000000,0.000000 6.3.3.95 SOURce:SCENario:CLKMDL? Note: This SCPI command is only supported if the Spoofing Range Option is installed (OPT-SPF license, see "GSG Series Model Variants and Options" on page 194 .) Function The Clock Model command is used in the context of simulating the spoofing of drone equip ment. This command is used to query the Clock Model state and its parameters t, bias, t , a , , a 0 1 0 and a . See also: "SOURce:SCENario:CLKMDL" on the previous page. 2 Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:CLKMDL? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 297

314 6.3 Command Reference Parameters t: scenario elapsed time in seconds when the query was handled (and when the bias was calculated). bias: clock bias at time t. , a , a , a : the current clock model parameters t 1 2 0 0 Example SOURce:SCENario:clkmdl? Return Format 2.010000E+01,1.899000E+03,1.000000E+01,2.000000E+03,- 1.000000E+01,0.000000E+00 6.3.3.96 SOURce:FILe:TYPe Function This commands are used to transfer a file to the unit. The order of commands is fixed: Type, name, length checksum and data. SOURce:FILe:TYPe sets the type of the file transferred. Valid files types are: CALibration FIRMware SCENario TRAJectory RSGTRAJectory EPHemeris ALManac EVEnt ENVironmentmodel ANTenna Command Syntax SOURce:FILe:TYPe CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 298

315 6.3 Command Reference Note Command not allowed during scenario execution, and will result in the error code “-190,"Ex ecution in progress"”. 6.3.3.97 SOURce:FILe:NAMe Function This command sends the file name to be used to store the file to the unit. The name shall only contain alphanumeric characters. Command Syntax SOURce:FILe:NAMe Note Command not allowed during scenario execution, and will result in the error code “-190,"Ex ecution in progress"”. 6.3.3.98 SOURce:FILe:LENgth Function This command sends the file length to the unit. Command Syntax SOURce:FILe:LENgth Note This command not allowed during scenario execution, and will result in the error code “- 190,"Execution in progress"”. 6.3.3.99 SOURce:FILe:CHECKsum Function This command sends the file checksum to the unit. A simple arithmetic checksum is calculated by adding the characters in the file as binary unsigned 8-bit integers. The resulting sum is then negated. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 299

316 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:FILe:LENgth Note This command not allowed during scenario execution, and will result in the error code “- 190,"Execution in progress"”. The checksum is calculated using the following algorithm, presented here in a Python language example. The array s passed in must be read from a file opened with attributes read and bin ary (rb). def cksum(s): sum = 0 for c in s: sum += ord(c) sum &= 255 sum = -sum return sum An example in C is shown below. Again, the char *Data array is read from a file and is a bin ary array of unsigned 8-bit char values. unsigned char CalcChecksum(const char *Data, unsigned Length) { unsigned char sum = 0; unsigned char chksum; unsigned i; for (i = 0; i < Length; ++i) { sum += Data[i]; } chksum = -sum; return chksum; } 6.3.3.100 SOURce:FILe:DATA Function This command sends the file data to the unit. The file being transferred is divided into multiple data commands. There can be as many data commands as needed to send the whole file. The maximum data in one command is 4000 bytes. At the start of each data block there is a header #800001234 which tells that 8 following digits gives the length of block. Command Syntax SOURce:FILe:DATA CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 300

317 6.3 Command Reference Notes The example below depicts the transfer of a file. The first DATA command depicts the transfer. The checksum shown cannot be recreated from the file data because the end of line characters cannot be identified from the text below. A space must separate the DATA command from the “#” character. This command not allowed during scenario execution, and will result in the error code “- 190,"Execution in progress"”. Example Sending a scenario file to the unit: SEND: SOURce:FILe:TYPe SCEN SEND: SOURce:FILe:NAMe scen02 SEND: SOURce:FILe:LENgth 335 SEND: SOURce:FILe:CHECKsum 234 SEND: SOURce:FILe:DATA #800000335StartTime 01/06/2009 00:00:00 Duration 31 3 46 0 NavigationData Default EventData None NumSignals 14 Startpos 60.00000000 degN 24.00000000 degE 10.0000 m UserTrajectory Circle TrajectoryParameters 300 10 -1 AntennaModel Zero model IonoModel 1 TropoModel Saastamoinen Temperature 15 Pressure 1100 Humidity 50 MinElev 0 NrSBASChannels 2 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 301

318 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.3.101 SOURce:KEYLOCK:PASSWord Function Changes the password of the front panel lock. The password has to contain only numerical characters and has to be 4-8 digits in length to be valid. Command Syntax SOURce:KEYLOCK:PASSWord Parameter 4-8 numerical characters. Example SEND: SOURce:KEYLOCK:PASSWord 123456 6.3.3.102 SOURce:KEYLOCK:PASSWord? Function Queries the current password used in front panel lock. Command Syntax SOURce:KEYLOCK:PASSWord? Example SEND: SOURce:KEYLOCK:PASSWord? READ: 123456 6.3.3.103 SOURce:KEYLOCK:STATus Function Sets the state of the front panel lock. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 302

319 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:KEYLOCK:STATus Parameter enum = {ON, OFF} Example SEND: SOURce:KEYLOCK:STATus ON 6.3.3.104 SOURce:KEYLOCK:STATus? Function Queries the state of the front panel lock. Command Syntax SOURce:KEYLOCK:STATus? Example SEND: SOURce:KEYLOCK:STATus? READ: ON 6.3.4 Mass Memory Subsystem Commands All Mass Memory Subsystem commands and queries are not allowed during scenario exe cution, and will result in the error code . “-190,"Execution in progress"” 6.3.4.1 MMEMory:CATalog? Function This command lists the content of directory , or the current directory if the parameter is omitted. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 303

320 6.3 Command Reference The response contains first used bytes then free bytes on device and then list of the files in format ,,. Command Syntax MMEMory:CATalog? Example SEND: MMEMory:CATalog? events READ: 3145728,72351744,AGPS1e,ASCII,208,AGPS2e,ASCII,110,AGPS3e, ASCII,208,EventAGPS1,ASCII,59,EventAGPS2,ASCII,29,EventAGPS3, ASCII,29,EventAGPS4,ASCII,180,EventAGPS5,ASCII,250,EventAGPS6, ASCII,29,event0,ASCII,146,event007,ASCII,146,event01,ASCII, 1,eventAGPS1,ASCII,61,eventAGPS2,ASCII,30,eventAGPS3,ASCII, 30,eventAGPS4,ASCII,186,eventAGPS5,ASCII,256,eventAGPS6, ASCII,30,events1,ASCII,874,events2,ASCII,384,events3, ASCII,122 6.3.4.2 MMEMory:CDIRectory Function Change current directory on the device. The must be/start with navigationData, events, trajectories or scenarios. Command Syntax MMEMory:CDIRectory Example SEND: MMEMory:CDIRectory scenarios 6.3.4.3 MMEMory:CDIRectory? Function Get current directory on the device. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 304

321 6.3 Command Reference Command Syntax MMEMory:CDIRectory? Example SEND: MMEMory:CDIRectory? READ: events 6.3.4.4 MMEMory:DATA? Function Get contents of file. At the start of the response is the header e.g., #800001234, containing the information about the length of the file. The first digit after “#” symbol tells how many next sym bols are used to encode the file size. So, in the example above, 8 digits are used to encode the file size, which is 1234 bytes. The file data follow immediately after the header. Command Syntax MMEMory:DATA? Example SEND: MMEMory:CDIRectory scenarios SEND: MMEMory:DATA? Scen02 READ: #800000337StartTime 01/06/2009 00:00:00 Duration 31 23 44 0 NavigationData Default EventData None NumSignals 16 Startpos 60.00000000 degN 24.00000000 degE 587.0000 m UserTrajectory Circle TrajectoryParameters 400 10 -1 AntennaModel Zero model CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 305

322 6.3 Command Reference IonoModel 1 TropoModel Saastamoinen Temperature 15 Pressure 1100 Humidity 50 MinElev 0 NrSBASChannels 2 6.3.4.5 MMEMory:DELete Function Delete a file in device. If is omitted, file is assumed to be in current directory oth erwise the file is deleted from . Command Syntax MMEMory:DELete [,] Example SEND: MMEMory:DELete scen02,scenarios 6.3.4.6 MMEMory:COPY Function Copy a file in current directory or directory . Note that copying between directories is forbidden, so must be equal to . Command Syntax MMEMory:COPY [,],[,] Example SEND: MMEMory:COPY scen02,scenarios,scen02_copy,scenarios CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 306

323 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.4.7 MMEMory:MOVE Function Move a file in current directory or directory . Note that moving between directories is forbidden, so must be equal to . Command Syntax MMEMory:MOVE [,],[,] Example SEND: MMEMory:MOVE scen02,scenarios,scen022,scenarios 6.3.5 Network Subsystem Commands 6.3.5.1 NETwork:MACaddress? Function Reads out the Ethernet Network Port’s MAC Address. If none is found, an error is returned. Command Syntax NETwork:MACaddress? Returned Format Example SEND: NETwork:MACaddress? 00:1A:F1:01:68:2D CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 307

324 6.3 Command Reference 6.3.6 STATus: Subsystem Commands 6.3.6.1 STATus:OPERation:CONDition? Function Reads out the contents of the operation status condition register. This register reflects the state of the GSG operation. Command Syntax STATus:OPERation:CONDition? Returned Format = the sum (between 0 and 97) of all bits that are true. See table below: Bit Weight Condition 6 64 Waiting for bus arming 32 Waiting for triggering and/or external arming 5 0 1 Calibrating 6.3.6.2 STATus:OPERation:ENABle Function Enables operation status reporting by setting the enable bits of the Operation Status Enable register. This register contains a mask value for the bits to be enabled in the Operation Status Event register. A bit that is set True in the enable register enables the corresponding bit in the status register. An enabled bit will set bit #7, OPR (Operation Status Bit), in the Status Byte Register if the enabled event occurs. Command Syntax STATus:OPERation:ENABle Parameters = the sum (between 0 and 96) of all bits that are true. See table below: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 308

325 6.3 Command Reference Bit Weight Condition Waiting for bus arming 64 6 32 Waiting for triggering and / or external arming 5 Returned Format Example SEND: STAT:OPER:ENAB 32 In this example, waiting for triggering, bit 5, will set the OPR-bit of the Status Byte. 6.3.6.3 STATus:OPERation[:EVENt]? Function Read out the contents of the Operation Event Status register. Reading the Operation Event Register clears the register. Command Syntax STATus:OPERation[:event]? Returned Format = the sum (between 0 and 97) of all bits that are true. 6.3.6.4 STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition? Function Read out the contents of the Status Questionable Data/Signal Condition register. Command Syntax STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition? Returned Format = the sum (between 0 and 16384) of all bits that are true. See table below: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 309

326 6.3 Command Reference Bit Condition Weight 16384 Unexpected command parameter 14 6.3.6.5 STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle Function Enable the Questionable Data/Signal Status Reporting by setting the enable bits of the status questionable enable register. This enable register contains a mask value for the bits to be enabled in the status questionable event register. A bit that is set true in the enable register enables the corresponding bit in the status register. An enabled bit will set bit #3, QUE (Questionable Status Bit), in the Status Byte Register if the enabled event occurs. Command Syntax STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle Parameters = the sum (between 0 and 16384) of all bits that are true. See the table on pre vious chapter. Returned format Example SEND: STAT:QUES:ENAB 16384 In this example ‘unexpected parameter’ bit 14 will set the QUE-bit of the Status Byte when a questionable status occurs. 6.3.6.6 STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]? Function Reads out the contents of the Questionable Data/Signal Event Register. Reading this register clears it. Command Syntax STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 310

327 6.4 Sensors Command Reference Returned Format = the sum (between 0 and 16384) of all bits that are true. See the table for STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition 6.3.6.7 STATus:PRESet Function Enables Device Status Reporting. This command has an SCPI standardized effect on the status data structures. The purpose is to precondition these toward reporting only device-dependent status data. It only affects enable registers. It does not change event and condition registers. The IEEE-488.2 enable registers, which are handled with the common commands *SRE and *ESE remain unchanged. The command sets or clears all other enable registers. Those relevant for this device are as follows: It sets all bits of the Device status Enable Registers to 1. It sets all bits of the Questionable Data Status Enable Registers and the Operation Status Enable Registers to 0. The following registers never change in the GSG-5x, but they do conform to the stand ard :STATus:PRESet values. All bits in the positive transition filters of Questionable Data and Operation status registers are 1. All bits in the negative transition filters of Questionable Data and Operation status registers are 0. Command Syntax STATus:PRESet 6.4 Sensors Command Reference As the GSG unit simulates a user’s movement along a given trajectory, it can also be con figured to output sensor data generated by the user dynamics. The generated sensor output data is a result of the user exercising his six degrees of freedom: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 311

328 6.4 Sensors Command Reference forward/backward left/right up/down , as well as the rotations around the three perpendicular axes: pitch yaw roll. All sensors are initially mounted so that at start of the simulation the sensor’s coordinate system XYZ is aligned with the user's ENU system (East, North, Up). The X axis has a positive direction towards the right side of the sensor. The Y axis has a positive direction towards the front of the sensor. The Z axis has a positive direction towards the top of the sensor. At the start of a scenario, the X axis corresponds to the east/west axes of the ENU system while the front of the sensor—positive direction on the Y axis—is pointing to the north. 6.4.1 Supported Sensor Types The supported sensor types and they keywords are listed in the table below, with each sensor described in the subsections. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 312

329 6.4 Sensors Command Reference Sensor SENSOR_TYPE keyword Accelerometer ACCelerometer Linear Accelerometer LINearaccelerometer Gravimeter GRAvimeter Gyroscope GYRoscope Odometer ODOmeter 3D Odometer ODOMETER3D, ODO3D 6.4.1.1 Accelerometer The accelerometer outputs acceleration in the XYZ axis. The typical case where the device is flat relative to the surface of the Earth appears as -STANDARD_GRAVITY in the Z axis, and X and Y values as zero. Sensor data values[0] – Acceleration along the x-axis, in g values[1] – Acceleration along the y-axis, in g values[2] – Acceleration along the z-axis, in g 6.4.1.2 Linear Accelerometer The linear accelerometer outputs acceleration force to XYZ axis, excluding force of gravity. In all other aspects it is like the accelerometer above. 6.4.1.3 Gravimeter The gravimeter outputs the gravity force against the XYZ axis. In all other aspects it is like the accelerometer above. 6.4.1.4 Gyroscope The gyroscope sensor measures the rate of rotation around the X, Y and Z axis. Unlike the accelerometer, the gyro is not affected by gravity. The coordinate system is the same as is used for the acceleration sensor. Rotation is positive in the counter-clockwise direction for pitch and roll (not yaw). That is, an observer looking from some positive location on the x, y. or z axis at a device positioned on the origin would report positive rotation if the device appeared to be rotating counter clockwise. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 313

330 6.4 Sensors Command Reference Sensor data values[0] – Angular speed around the x-axis, in radians/second values[1] – Angular speed around the y-axis, in radians/second values[2] – Angular speed around the z-axis, in radians/second 6.4.1.5 Odometer The odometer sensor keeps track of the total traveled distance. Sensor data values[0] – Traveled distance in meters 6.4.1.6 Odometer 3D The 3D odometer sensor keeps track of the total traveled distance in a 3D ENU vector form. Sensor data values[0] – Traveled distance along the x-axis, in meters values[1] – Traveled distance along the y-axis, in meters values[2] – Traveled distance along the z-axis, in meters 6.4.2 Sensor Commands 6.4.2.1 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:REGister Function This command registers a sensor of a given type. Once registered, the output from all registered sensors can be retrieved using the com SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:DATa? mand. Only one sensor of each type can be registered. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:REGister CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 314

331 6.4 Sensors Command Reference 6.4.2.2 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:REGister? Function Queries if a given sensor is registered. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:REGister? 6.4.2.3 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:UNREGister Function This command unregisters a sensor of a given type, after which the sensor data is no longer out put. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:UNREGister 6.4.2.4 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:DATa? Function The command queries for the output of all registered sensors of a running scenario. The data is updated at a 10Hz rate. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:DATa? 6.4.2.5 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:NORMalize SENSOR_TYPE Function The command specified that the output of a given sensor should be normalized. This is not applicable to all types of sensors and before the max range is set (see below) the command has no effect. The default setting is OFF. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:NORMalize SENSOR_TYPE CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 315

332 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.4.2.6 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:NORMalize? SENSOR_TYPE Function Queries if a sensor of a given type is normalized or not. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:NORMalize? SENSOR_TYPE 6.4.2.7 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:MAXrange SENSOR_TYPE Function The command specified the max range of a sensor. The minrange equals –maxrange. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:MAXrange SENSOR_TYPE 6.4.2.8 SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:MAXrange? SENSOR_TYPE Function The command returns the max range for a specified sensor. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SENSor:MAXrange? SENSOR_TYPE 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.1 Data Types The Real- time Scenario Generation (RSG) commands transfer the data as ASCII strings. However, coordinate systems, units of measure, Earth Models, base data types and accuracy limits are required to implement this in the software. These attributes and values are listed in this section. CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 316

333 6.5 RSG Command Reference Coordinate Systems Geodetic (Cartesian) Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Earth Model WGS-84 Timestamp Time into scenario is given in second and 100 millisecond accuracy. Field Default Units Type Latitude decimal degrees Longitude decimal degrees meters.<2digit centimeters> Altitude ECEF X meters.<2digit centimeters> ECEF Y meters.<2digit centimeters> meters.<2digit centimeters> ECEF Z meters/second VelocityNS VelocityEW meters/second meters/second VelocityUD meters/second/second AcelNW AcelEW meters/second/second meters/second/second AcelUD +/- degrees Heading (psi) +/- degrees/second Heading Rate +/- radians Pitch (theta) Roll (phi) +/- radians radians/sec Pitch Rate Roll Rate radians/sec Yaw Rate radians/sec 6.5.2 TIME Parameter In all cases where the TIME parameter is allowed, it can be specified as: IMMediate, which indicates that the command is to be applied in REAL time CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 317

334 6.5 RSG Command Reference or , indicating in seconds from Scenario start time when the information is to be applied when using uploaded Scenario/Trajectory files. All commands issued in real-time must use IMM for the TIME parameter. 6.5.3 RSG Commands 6.5.3.1 SOURce:SCENario:POSition TIME Function Set latitude, longitude and altitude for the geodetic position (WGS84) as the start position for the loaded scenario, or the current position if the scenario is running. Latitude and longitude are defined using decimal degrees. The altitude is given in meters as alti tude over an ellipsoid. For latitude and longitude, the recommended decimal accuracy is 8 digits, with 6 digits being the minimum recommended accuracy. No benefit is achieved at accuracies greater than 10 digits for latitude or longitude. The altitude can be specified to a resolution down to two digits or centimeter level. No benefit is achieved with altitude accuracies greater than 4 decimal digits. Note: In order to use this command in real time, OPT-RSG is required. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POSition TIME,,, Parameter TIME must be IMMediate. Decimal Latitude [-89.99999999, +89.99999999] degrees North [-360.00000000, +360.00000000] degrees East Decimal Longitude [-1000.00, +20,200,000.00] meters Decimal Altitude Notes If a scenario is armed but not running yet, an error is returned. The maximum altitude for normal operation is 18470 meters. (With Extended Limits it is 20,200 km). CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 318

335 6.5 RSG Command Reference This command changes duration of the currently loaded scenario, but does not change the scen ario file, so that when you try to edit the scenario, you will see unchanged parameters from the file. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POSition IMM,-77.58895432,43.08332157,168.58 6.5.3.2 SOURce:SCENario:POSition? Function Queries the current geodetic position in Latitude, Longitude and Altitude. A time stamp of the time into the scenario is also returned. As an optional argument one can specify the antenna position, as an effect of a specified lever arm, or the body center position. If the argument is not given, the body center position will be returned. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:POSition? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:POSition? READ: 123.4,-77.58895432,43.08332157,168.58 6.5.3.3 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition TIME Function Sets the ECEF position in X, Y and Z coordinates. The X, Y, and Z position is given in decimal meters. The decimal accuracy of ECEF is recommended as 2 decimal digits. No benefit is achieved for ECEF positions at accuracies greater than 4 digits. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 319

336 6.5 RSG Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition TIME,<- decimal>,, Parameter Decimal X Position [-26 500 000.00, +26 500 000.00] meters Decimal Y Position [-26 500 000.00, +26 500 000.00] meters Decimal Z Position [-26 500 000.00, +26 500 000.00] meters Note The maximum altitude for normal operation is 18470 meters. (The altitude for Extended Limits is 20200 km.) Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:EPOSition 123.4,2920791.72, 1300420.26, 5500650.33 6.5.3.4 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? Function Queries the current ECEF position in X, Y and Z coordinates. As an optional argument, the antenna position can be specified, as an effect of a specified lever arm, or the body center position. If the argument is not given, the body center position will be returned. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ECEFPOSition? READ: 123.4,2920791.72, 1300420.26, 5500650.33 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 320

337 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.5 SOURce:SCENario:SPEed TIME Function Sets the vehicle’s speed over ground (WGS84 ellipsoid). Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SPEed TIME, Parameter Decimal 1D Speed [0.00 to +20000.00] m/s Note The maximum allowed speed for normal operation is 520 m/s. If you want to reverse direction, change heading or use the velocity command. (For Extended Limits it is limited by interface above.) Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SPEed 123.4,30.10 6.5.3.6 SOURce:SCENario:SPEed? Function Query the current speed expressed in m/s. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SPEed? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SPEed? READ: 123.4,30.10 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 321

338 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.7 SOURce:SCENario:HEADing TIME Function Sets the vehicle’s true heading. The heading is expressed in clockwise direction from the true north (WGS84 ellipsoid) representing 0 degrees, increasing to 359.999 degrees. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:HEADing TIME, Parameter Decimal Heading [0, 359.999] true heading in decimal degrees Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:HEADing 123.4, 90.000 6.5.3.8 SOURce:SCENario:HEADing? Function Returns the vehicle’s true heading expressed as described above. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:HEADing? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:HEADing? READ: 123.4, 90.000 CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 322

339 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.9 SOURce:SCENario:RATEHEading TIME Function Sets the heading change rate. Rate is expressed as degrees per second. Heading will be updated each epoch according to the specified constant rate. Next position is calculated using direct rhumb line method (movement with constant heading). Pay attention that specifying con stant heading rate results in non-constant curvature radius, thus it is not suitable for creation of closed-circle trajectories. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:RATEHEading TIME, Parameter Decimal RateHeading [- 180.000, 180.000] true heading change in decimal degrees per second. Positive value correspond to right turn, negative – left turn. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RATEHEading 123.4,5.500 6.5.3.10 SOURce:SCENario:RATEHEading? Function Returns the vehicle’s heading rate, which was previously set using the command described above. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RATEHEading? READ: 123.4, 5.500 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 323

340 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.11 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRATE TIME Function Sets the rate of turning. Rate is expressed as degrees per second. Next position is calculated using direct orthodromic method (moving along shortest path with non-constant heading). Use this command to simulate movement along arc of circle or closed circle trajectory with constant velocity. Heading rate is varying each epoch, but overall average rate along single full closed circle will be equal to the value specified. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:TURNRATE TIME, Parameter Decimal TurnRate [-180.000, 180.000] desired average heading rate (over single full closed circle) in decimal degrees per second. Positive value correspond to right turn, negative – left turn. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario: RATEHEading 123.4,5.500 6.5.3.12 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRATE? Function Returns the vehicle’s rate of turning, which was previously set using the command described above. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:TURNRATE? READ: 123.4, 5.500 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 324

341 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.13 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRADIUS TIME Function Sets the radius of turning. Radius is expressed in meters. The next position is calculated using direct orthodromic method (moving along shortest path with non-constant heading). Use this command to simulate movement along arc of circle regardless of velocity changes. Heading rate is varying each epoch, but radius of turning will be constantly equal to value specified. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:TURNRADIUS TIME, Parameter Decimal TurnRadius [-5 000 000.000, 5 000 000.000] radius of turning in meters. Positive value correspond to right turn, negative – left turn. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:TURNRADIUS 123.4,500 – start right turn with radius of 500 meters 6.5.3.14 SOURce:SCENario:TURNRADIUS? Function Return the vehicle’s radius of turning previously set using command described above. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:TURNRATE? READ: 123.4, 500.0 6.5.3.15 SOURce:SCENario:VELocity TIME Function Sets the vehicle’s speed over ground (WGS84 ellipsoid) and heading in degrees. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 325

342 6.5 RSG Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:VELocity TIME,, Parameter Decimal 1D Speed [0.000 to +20000.000] m/s [0, 359.999] true bearing in decimal degrees Decimal Bearing Note The maximum allowed speed for normal operation is 520 m/s. (For Extended Limits it is limited by interface above.) Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:VELocity 123.4,27.25, 210.800 6.5.3.16 SOURce:SCENario:VELocity? Function Queries the vehicle’s velocity. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:VELocity? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:VELocity? READ: 123.4,27.25,210.800 6.5.3.17 SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed TIME Function Sets the vehicle’s vertical speed. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 326

343 6.5 RSG Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed TIME, Parameter Decimal 1D Speed [-20000.00 to +20000.00] m/s Note The maximum allowed speed for normal operation is 520 m/s. (For Extended Limits it is limited by interface above.) Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed 123.4,3.15 6.5.3.18 SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed? Function Get the vehicle’s vertical speed. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:VSPEed? READ: 123.4,3.15 6.5.3.19 SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity TIME Function Sets the velocity expressed in ENU coordinates when scenario is running. The Velocity terms are defined in m/s. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 327

344 6.5 RSG Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity TIME,,, Note The local plane of the coordinates will always be re-aligned with ellipsoid surface, meaning the Up-Down velocity can be seen as a velocity with respect to ellipsoid (and not the local plane formed by the position the user was at TIME). Parameter [-20000.00, +20000.00] m/s Decimal Velocity East Decimal Velocity North [-20000.00, +20000.00] m/s Decimal Velocity Up [-20000.00, +20000.00] m/s Note The maximum allowed speed for normal operation is 520 m/s. (For Extended Limits it is limited by interface above.) Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity 123.4,-4.00,3.00,0.00 6.5.3.20 SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity? Function Queries the current velocity during scenario execution, expressed as ENU coordinates. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ENUVELocity? READ: 123.4,-4.00,3.00,0.00 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 328

345 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.21 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity Function Sets the current ECEF velocity in X, Y and Z coordinates when the scenario is running. The Velo city terms are defined in m/s. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity TIME,<- decimal>,, Parameter Decimal Velocity X [-20000.00, +20000.00] m/s Decimal Velocity Y [-20000.00, +20000.00] m/s [-20000.00, +20000.00] m/s Decimal Velocity Z Note The maximum allowed speed for normal operation is 520 m/s. (Velocity for Extended Limits is not limited.) Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity 123.4,-4.00,3.00,1.00 6.5.3.22 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity? Function Queries the current ECEF velocity in 3 dimensions as X, Y and Z coordinates during scenario execution. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ECEFVELocity? READ: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 329

346 6.5 RSG Command Reference 123.4,-4.00,3.00,1.00 6.5.3.23 SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration TIME Function 2 Sets the 1D acceleration expressed in m/s when scenario is running. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration TIME, Parameter 2 , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] Decimal 1D Acceleration [-981 to +981] m/s Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration 123.4,0.50 6.5.3.24 SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration? Function Queries the 1D acceleration. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ACCeleration? READ: 123.4,0.50 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 330

347 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.25 SOURce:SCENario:VACCel TIME Function Sets the vehicle’s vertical acceleration. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:VACCel TIME, Parameter 2 Decimal 1D Acceleration [-981 to +981] m/s , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:VACCel 123.4,0.50 6.5.3.26 SOURce:SCENario:VACCel? Function Query the vehicle’s vertical acceleration. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:VACCel? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:VACCel? READ: 123.4,0.50 6.5.3.27 SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel TIME Function Sets the acceleration expressed in ENU coordinates when scenario is running. The acceleration 2 terms are defined in m/s . CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 331

348 6.5 RSG Command Reference Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel TIME,,, Note The local plane of the coordinates will always be re-aligned with ellipsoid surface, meaning the Up-Down velocity can be seen as a velocity with respect to ellipsoid (and not the local plane formed by the position the user was at TIME). Parameter 2 [-981, +981] m/s , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] Decimal Acceleration East 2 [-981, +981] m/s Decimal Acceleration North , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] 2 [-981, +981] m/s , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] Decimal Acceleration Up Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel 123.4,-2.83,2.83,0.00 6.5.3.28 SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel? Function Queries the current acceleration expressed as ENU coordinates during scenario execution. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ENUACCel? READ: 123.4,-2.83,2.83,0.00 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 332

349 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.29 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFACCel TIME Function Sets the ECEF acceleration in 3-dimensions as Acceleration X, Y, and Z when scenario is run 2 ning. The Acceleration terms are defined in m/s . Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFACCel TIME,,, Parameter 2 Decimal Acceleration X [-981, +981] m/s , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] 2 , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] [-981, +981] m/s Decimal Acceleration Y 2 Decimal Acceleration Z [-981, +981] m/s , equivalent to [-100G to +100G] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:EACCel 123.4,-2.83,2.83,1.00 6.5.3.30 SOURce:SCENario:ECEFACCel? Function Queries the current ECEF acceleration in 3-dimensions as Acceleration X, Y, Z during scenario execution. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ECEFACCel? [] Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:ECEFACCeleration? READ: 123.4,-2.83,2.83,1.00 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 333

350 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.31 SOURce:SCENario:PRYattitude TIME Function Sets the Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch, Roll, and Yaw when scenario is running. The terms are defined in Radians. The pitch argument will be positive when pitching from forward to up. The roll argument is pos itive when rotating from up to right. The yaw argument is positive when rotating from forward to right. The angles are applied in the order of pitch, roll and finally yaw. The user cannot impact this order by applying the pitch, roll, and yaw as separate calls. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:PRYattitude TIME,,, Parameter Decimal Pitch [-π, +π] Radians [-π, +π] Radians Decimal Roll Decimal Yaw [-π, +π] Radians Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PRYattitude -2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 6.5.3.32 SOURce:SCENario:PRYattitude? Function Query the current Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch, Roll, and Yaw during scenario execution. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PRYattitude? READ: 123.4,-2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 334

351 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.33 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYattitude TIME Function Sets the Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch, Roll, and Yaw when scenario is running. The terms are defined in Degrees. The pitch argument will be positive when pitching from forward to up. The roll argument is pos itive when rotating from up to right. The yaw argument is positive when rotating from forward to right. The angles are applied in the order of pitch, roll, and finally yaw. The user cannot impact this order by applying the pitch, roll, and yaw as separate calls. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DPRYattitude TIME, ,, Parameter [-180, +180] Degrees Decimal Pitch Decimal Roll [-180, +180] Degrees Decimal Yaw [-180, +180] Degrees Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DPRYattitude -2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 6.5.3.34 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYattitude? Function Queries the current Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch, Roll, and Yaw during scenario execution. Returned values are defined in Degrees. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DPRYattitude? Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario: DPRYattitude? READ: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 335

352 6.5 RSG Command Reference 123.4,-2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 6.5.3.35 SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate TIME Function Sets the rate of change in Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch Rate, Roll Rate, and Yaw Rate when scenario is running. The Rate of Attitude change terms are defined in Radians per second. When the PRY rate is active the changes will be applied in the order of pitch, roll, and yaw. Note that this order matters and can’t be controlled by user, but angle arguments will have to adapt to this order. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate TIME,,, Parameter Decimal Pitch Rate [-π, +π] Radians per second [-π, +π] Radians per second Decimal Roll Rate Decimal Yaw Rate [-π, +π] Radians per second Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate 123.4,-2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 6.5.3.36 SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate? Function Queries the current rate of change in Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch, Roll, and Yaw during scenario execution. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PRYRate? READ: 123.4,-2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 336

353 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.37 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYRate TIME Functions Sets the rate of change in Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch Rate, Roll Rate, and Yaw Rate when scenario is running. The Rate of Attitude change terms are defined in Degrees per second. When the PRY rate is active the changes will be applied in the order of pitch, roll, and yaw. Note that this order matters and can’t be controlled by user, but angle arguments will have to adapt to this order. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DPRYRate TIME,,, Parameter Decimal Pitch Rate [-3600, +3600] Degrees per second [-3600, +3600] Degrees per second Decimal Roll Rate Decimal Yaw Rate [-3600, +3600] Degrees per second Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DPRYRate 123.4,-2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 6.5.3.38 SOURce:SCENario:DPRYRate? Function Queries the current rate of change in Vehicle Attitude in 3-dimensions about the center of mass as Pitch, Roll, and Yaw during scenario execution. Returned values are defined in Degrees per second. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DPRYRate? READ: 123.4,-2.0000,2.0000,1.0000 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 337

354 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.39 SOURce:SCENario:KEPLER TIME Function Sets the Kepler orbit parameters. If a position, speed or acceleration command is sent after the Kepler orbit command, they will overwrite the movements along the Kepler orbit. PRY commands can be applied while the Kepler orbit is active. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:KEPLER TIME,<- decimal>,,,,, Parameter Decimal Mean anomaly [–π ] Radians Decimal Eccentrity Decimal Semi-major axis of ascending node [-π, +π] Radians Decimal Ascension Decimal Inclination [-π, +π] Radians Decimal Argument of perigee [-π, +π] Radians Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:KEPLER 0,1.30280292873,0.995806301944E- 03,0.075377837181E+08,- 0.159728922636E+01,0.957334107483E+00,0.296123313943E+01 6.5.3.40 SOURce:SCENario:KEPLER? Function Queries the Kepler orbit parameters in the same order as set and the current true anomaly. If Kepler orbit is not in use, the return value is an empty string. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:KEPLER? READ: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 338

355 6.5 RSG Command Reference 1618.6,1.302803E+00,3.130653E+00,9.958063E-04,7.537784E+06,- 1.597289E+00,9.573341E-01,2.961233E+00 6.5.3.41 SOURce:SCENario:RUNtime? Function Queries the current length of time in seconds running a scenario during scenario execution. The time is returned including 3 digits of sub-seconds. The accuracy is equivalent to the system’s internal update rate. Notes If no scenario is running, an error is returned. Currently the system accuracy is 10 Hz or 100 msec. Only a single digit of accuracy is valid. Parameter [0, 2678400] Seconds Sub-second Time [0,999] Milliseconds Decimal Time Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RUNtime? READ: 123.400 6.5.3.42 SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? Function Queries the Date, Time and Timescale of the running a scenario returned during scenario execution. The default timescale is GPS. However, the user can optionally provide a para meter to convert the current Date and Time of the running scenario to various timescales includ ing GPS, UTC, BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS, EGNOS Network Time and WAAS Network Time. If no argument is provided, GPS time scale is returned. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? Note If scenario is not running, an error is returned. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 339

356 6.5 RSG Command Reference Parameter String format: MM-DD-YYYY hh:mm:ss.s AAA, where MM=Month {01-12}, DD=day of month {01-31}, YYYY=year, hh=hours {00-23}, mm=minutes {00-59}, ss.s=seconds {00-60} with one decimal of sub-seconds digits. The Timescale AAA= {GPS, UTC, BDS, GAL, GLO, GLO0, ENT, WNT} field supports vari ous GNSS timescales. If AAA is not supplied, the default is GPS timescale. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DATEtime? GLO READ: 05-07-2012 12:34:56.7 GLO 6.5.3.43 SOURce:SCENario:ELAPsedtime? Function Queries the Elapsed time of the running a scenario during scenario execution. The time is returned is in units of days, hours, minutes, seconds and 3 digits of sub-seconds. The accuracy is equivalent to the system’s internal update rate. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:ELAPsedtime? Notes If no scenario is running, an error will be returned. Currently the system accuracy is 10 Hz or 100 msec. Only a single digit of accuracy is valid. For now we will only plan to support GPS time frame, but the UTC time scale is also defined. Parameter String format: DDDdhh:mm:ss.xxx, where DDD=days, hh=hours, mm=minutes, ss=seconds xxx=sub- seconds up to three decimals Example SEND: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 340

357 6.5 RSG Command Reference SOURce:SCENario:ELAPsedtime? READ: 029d12:34:56.700 GPS 6.5.3.44 SOURce:SCENario:RSGUNDERflow Function Enables or disable RSG underflow detection. It is active once an RSG command comes in. Underflow detection is disabled by default. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:RSGUNDERflow Parameter Integer – Enable or disable {1,0}, respectively. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RSGUNDERflow 1 6.5.3.45 SOURce:SCENario:RSGUNDERflow? Function Queries RSG underflow detection status, whether enabled or disabled. Command Syntax/Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:RSGUNDERflow? READ: 0 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 341

358 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.46 SOURce:SCENario:DOPPler? Function Queries a satellite’s Doppler for a specific signal supported by that satellite. The signals sup ported vary based on the constellation and scenario configuration. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:DOPPler? , Notes If no scenario is running, an error is returned. If the satellite does not support the signal type, an error is returned. Parameters satID – GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are supported. For more information on the format, see "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. sigtype – One of the signal types supported by the satellite, allowed values are: For GPS: L1CA, GPSL1CA, L1P, GPSL1P, L1PY, GPSL1PY, L1CAP, GPSL1CAP, L1CAPY, GPSL1CAPY, L2P, GPSL2P, L2PY, GPSL2PY, L2C, GPSL2C, L5, GPSL5 Note that the signal types from the same group below share the same navigation bit stream. L1CA, GPSL1CA, L1P, GPSL1P, L1PY, GPSL1PY, L1CAP, GPSL1CAP, L2P, GPSL2P, L2PY, GPSL2PY L2C, GPSL2C L5, GPSL5 For Glonass: GLOL1 (or L1), GLOL2 (or L2) For Galileo: E1, E5a, E5b For Beidou: BDSB1 (or B1), BDSB2 (or B2) For QZSS: QZSSL1CA (or L1, or L1CA), L1SAIF (or L1SBAS), QZSSL2C (or L2C), QZSSL5 (or L5) For IRNSS: IRNSSL5 (or L5) For SBAS: L1SBAS Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:DOPPler? G27,L1CAP READ: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 342

359 6.5 RSG Command Reference -320.51 6.5.3.47 SOURce:SCENario:PRANge? Function Queries a satellite’s range for a specific frequency band supported by that satellite for the sim ulated user position or optionally an RTK base station position. The signals supported vary based on the constellation and scenario configuration. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:PRANge? ,, Notes If no scenario is running, an error is returned. If the satellite does not support the signal type, an error is returned. If the base station location is not enabled, 0 values are returned. Parameters – GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are supported. For more satID information on the format, see "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. sigtype – one of the signal types supported by the satellite, allowed values are: For GPS: L1CA, GPSL1CA, L1P, GPSL1P, L1PY, GPSL1PY, L1CAP, GPSL1CAP, L1CAPY, GPSL1CAPY, L2P, GPSL2P, L2PY, GPSL2PY, L2C, GPSL2C, L5, GPSL5 Note that the signal types from the same group below share the same navigation bit stream L1CA, GPSL1CA, L1P, GPSL1P, L1PY, GPSL1PY, L1CAP, GPSL1CAP, L2P, GPSL2P, L2PY, GPSL2PY L2C, GPSL2C L5, GPSL5 For Glonass: L1, GLOL1, L2, GLOL2, For Galileo: E1, E5a, E5b For BeiDou: B1, B2, For QZSS: L1CA, L1SAIF (L1SBAS can be also used for L1SAIF) For IRNSS: L5, IRNSSL5 For SBAS: L1SBAS – user or base Location CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 343

360 6.5 RSG Command Reference Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:PRANge? G19,L1CA READ: 24241628.51 6.5.3.48 SOURce:SCENario:CHINview? Function Queries a comma separated list of values ranging from 1 to 64 which indicate which satellite index values are active in view in the simulated sky. Duplicate and interference channels are ignored. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:CHINview? Note If no scenario is running, an error is returned. Parameter constellation – ALL returns all active channels, while a constellation value returns satellite index values for that constellation only. No argument is the same as ALL. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:CHINview? GLO READ: 3,5,9,12,14,17 CHAPTER 26 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 6 344

361 6.5 RSG Command Reference 6.5.3.49 SOURce:SCENario:SVINview? Function Queries a comma-separated list of SatID values which indicate which satellites are in view in the simulated sky. Duplicate and interference channels are ignored. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SVINview? Note If the scenario is not running, an error is returned. Parameter constellation – ALL returns all active channels, while a constellation value returns satellite IDs for that constellation only. No argument is the same as ALL. Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SVINview? GLO READ: R2,R5,R9,R11,R12,R17 6.5.3.50 SOURce:SCENario:SVPos[n]? Function Queries a satellite’s ECEF position using channel number. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SVPos[n]? Note If no scenario is running, an error is returned. Parameter Integer [1:N] – Satellite index of the satellite channel. Maximum is number of satellites CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 345

362 6.5 RSG Command Reference Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SVPos8? READ: 13802999.54,18312013.72,13305242.14 6.5.3.51 SOURce:SCENario:SVPos[n]? Function Queries a satellite’s ECEF position using a Satellite ID. The user can specify all satellite types supported including their multipath duplicates by satID. An optional location argument is spe cified to allow use with GSG’s simulating user position or with systems using base station operation. If no location is specified, the user value is assumed. Command Syntax SOURce:SCENario:SVPos[n]? , Note If no scenario is running, an error is returned. If the base station location is not enabled, 0 values are returned. Parameters [1:N] – Satellite index of the satellite. Maximum is number of satellites Integer – GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are supported. The format is satID explained under "SOURce:ONECHN:SATid?" on page 241. Location – user or base Example SEND: SOURce:SCENario:SVPos? G20 READ: 13802999.54,18312013.72,13305242.14 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 346

363 6.6 Programming 6.6 Programming 6.6.1 Usage Recommendations 6.6.1.1 Communication Interface It is strongly recommended to use USB in conjunction with RSG. USB is more reliable due to being a dedicated interface as opposed to Ethernet which can be more susceptible to network traffic. Ethernet should hence be avoided if attempting advanced steering using high message rates or requiring synchronization at the GSG 10Hz epoch rate. GPIB can be used as an alternative but as there are synchronisation issues with GPIB, USB remains as the number one choice. 6.6.1.2 Synchronization It is possible to synchronize SCPI commanding with GSG’s internal processing loop, with a res and/or olution of 100 ms. This can be achieved by using the commands. *WAI *OPC? For example, checking that the ECEF position command is applied on next 10 Hz epoch: sour:scen:ecefposition IMMEDIATE,1000.0,2000.0,3000.0 *OPC? sour:scen:ecefposition? This synchronization can happen irrespective of whether an RSG command comes in. For example, to see elapsed time “ticking” in 100 ms epochs *OPC? sour:scen:elapsedTime? *OPC? sour:scen:elapsedTime? In addition, this synchronization mechanism can be used to consecutively to achieve any desired synchronization rate (max resolution of 100 ms, ie. at 10 Hz). For this purpose only should be used. To use *WAI for this purpose the user would need to insert a small *OPC? micro sleep, or perform suitable actions, between consecutive commands. *WAI For example, to see elapsed time “ticking” every half a second the following commands can be looped: ... *OPC? sour:scen:elapsedTime? *OPC? CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 347

364 6.6 Programming *OPC? *OPC? *OPC? *OPC? sour:scen:elapsedTime? *OPC? ... syst:err? 6.6.1.3 Underflow and Overflow Underflow and overflow errors are signaled by the GSG unit. The possible errors which can be retrieved with the command SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? . The relevant error codes are: -193 “RSG command overflow occurred.” “RSG command underflow detected.” -194 The GSG unit will flag the overflow error in a situation where redundant or conflicting inform ation is given during the same epoch, i.e., giving position both using the SOURce:SCENari- o:ECEFPOSition as well as the SOURce:SCENario:POSition command would trigger an overflow error. The overflow error will always trigger by default in such situations. Would redundant data come in the later commands will overwrite the earlier information. The underflow error detection is by default not used but has to be explicitly set ON using the command listed in previous chapter. When in usage GSG will require at least one RSG com mand to come in every epoch (100 ms). Would there be an out take in this command stream GSG will set the error flag that indicates, e.g., problems in communication with host. 6.6.1.4 Best Practices In a high rate control setup it is recommended that queries are avoided or kept to a minimum. The reason for this is to reserve the maximum time for the controlling commands. The user must pay attention that the actual data sent in is smooth. The signal tracking in GNSS receivers are very sensitive to high dynamics and won’t be able to track signals if position changes with several meters during one epoch. Hence it should be preferred to change user position using the more dynamic speed and acceleration commands, as a ‘blunt’ position change has to be smooth and small for the receivers to be able to follow. Hence using pos ition/speed commands you only need to send commands when these parameter values changes. Relying on position commands you are recommended/forced to utilize 10 Hz com mands to make the movements smooth enough for receivers to follow. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 348

365 6.6 Programming 6.6.1.5 Limitations Communication over GPIB is not currently working for RSG commands – syn chronization fails. Communication over GPIB is not currently working for RSG commands – syn chronization fails. 6.6.2 Trajectory FILE Format (.traj) .traj file format can be created with the StudioView RSG Trajectory Editor, but Files in the an RSG license is not required to use these commands in a file. All positioning commands can be written to the file as: SOURce:SCENario:POSition TIME,,, ... part as: SOURce:SCENario: or, without the POSition TIME,,, ... In the trajectory file format TIME must be a decimal number. The resolution of the time stamps is 0.1 seconds (100 ms). 6.6.3 Trajectory Two-Line Element Format (TLE) The two-line element, or TLE trajectory format has been supported by GSG since 2016. Two-line elements sets are used as a coordinate system, as utilized by State Vector descriptions of e.g., satellite positions and velocities. While there is no editor for TLE-based trajectories in StudioView, you can select a TLE tra jectory in a scenario, once you created it in a text editor. .tle , and the file must contain 3 lines: The file extension must be First line: Header Second line: Third line: The format is standardized and follows the definition outlined here: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/SSapplications/Post/JavaSSOP/SSOP_ def.html Help/tle_ To use a TLE-based trajectory: CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 349

366 6.7 Revision History (SCPI Guide) 1. Create the above-mentioned 3-line file in any text editor. Name the file . *.tle 2. 3. Select the file for use in a scenario the same way as any trajectory is selected. Revision History (SCPI Guide) 6.7 SCPI Guide Revision History Description Date Rev ECN 1.0draft N/A Initial issue. 4/2/2011 11/2/2011 N/A 1.0 Minor comments & layout changes Added *SRE? and details about overlapping commands 8/3/2011 N/A 1.1 Changes in support of the 2.06 software release. June 2011 A 2673 Updated address information. B 2702 October 2011 2769 November C Added compliance section and updated regulatory information, addi tional minor document maintenance. 2011 Updated title (SCPI Handbook), added information regarding GSG- D 2832 March 2012 52/56 models, GLONASS, new command information & updates. E 2929 Added GSG-53 model and various updates. Added change to SatId May 2012 message and replaced 1ch with 1-channel. 2990 F July 2012 Added GSG-62 model and set Start Time based on NTP time. Minor cor rections. Updated for Real-time Scenario Generation commands. Minor cor G December rection. 2012 Updates corresponding with latest software release & product enhance February 3150 H 2013 ments. Added factory reset command. March J 3179 2013 3197 Minor corrections & updates. April 2013 K L 3254 Supports latest hardware & software revision. June 2013 M New commands and updates to support latest firmware release March 3347 2014 3458 May 2014 N New commands and updates to support latest firmware release 15 000073 New commands/Sensor option reference/support for 6.1.1 firmware July 2014 000194 New/updated commands to support 6.2.1 firmware release 16 October 2014 CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 350

367 6.7 Revision History (SCPI Guide) SCPI Guide Revision History Description ECN Date Rev New/updated commands to support 6.3.1 firmware release February 17 000293 2015 000421 New/updated commands to support 6.4.1 firmware release May 2015 18 000587 New/updated commands (mainly Propagation Environment) to support 19 Sept 2015 6.5.1 firmware release. New layout due to carry-over into new Authoring tool. Integration of SCPI Guide into GSG User Manual: Future revision history tracking see GSG User Manual revision table (see Appendix) CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 351

368 6.7 Revision History (SCPI Guide) BLANK PAGE. CHAPTER 6 • User Manual GSG-5/6 Series Rev. 26 352

369 Appendix The following topics are included in this Chapter: 7.1 Lists of Tables and Images ii 7.2 GSG User Manual Revision History iv APPENDIX User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • APPENDIX i

370 APPENDIX 7.1 Lists of Tables and Images Tables in this document: 12 Table 2-1: Spectracom safety symbols 66 Table 3-1: Propagation environment type parameters 82 Table 3-2: Transmit power offsets 125 Table 4-1: The Trajectory Editor Toolbar 128 Table 4-2: Speed conversion table (Note: mph and knots are rounded down.) 180 Table 5-1: Scenarios 199 Table 5-2: Spectracom contact information 297 Table 6-1: Clock Model parameters Images in this document: 15 Figure 2-1: Fold-down support 15 Figure 2-2: Rack-Mount-Kit (the GSG housing shown in the center is not part of the kit) 16 Figure 2-3: Preparing the GSG unit for rack mounting 16 Figure 2-4: Part identification: ears 18 Figure 2-5: Dual rack-mount assembly 18 Figure 2-6: Preparing a GSG unit for rack mounting 19 Figure 2-7: 22/04 Rack-mount kit 20 Figure 2-8: Preparing the GSG unit for rack mounting 21 Figure 2-9: Front assembly plate installation Agilent unit (shown left), GSG unit 21 Figure 2-10: Installation of rear assembly plates 26 Figure 3-1: GSG front panel 29 Figure 3-2: GSG rear panel 30 Figure 3-3: GSG's main menu 32 Figure 3-4: Scenario start variations – Flowchart 33 Figure 3-5: Views displayed during scenario execution 45 Figure 3-6: Ephemeris selection 50 Figure 3-7: Leap second configuration 57 Figure 3-8: Elevation mask 58 Figure 3-9: Multipath signals in urban environment 58 Figure 3-10: Multipath signal configuration view 60 Figure 3-11: Interference configuration view 61 Figure 3-12: Interference signal type configuration view 62 Figure 3-13: Configuring the position of a jamming source 62 Figure 3-14: Configured sweeper signal 63 Figure 3-15: Base station configured in Advanced submenu 63 Figure 3-16: Base station configuration dialog 65 Figure 3-17: ITU multipath propagation model ii User Manual GSG-5/6 Series

371 APPENDIX 69 Figure 3-18: Tropospheric delay vs. elevation angle 70 Figure 3-19: GPS satellite configuration 74 Figure 3-20: Assigning one constellation block to all satellites 75 Figure 3-21: GPS Constellation configuration (StudioView) 76 Figure 3-22: Turning pseudo encryption ON/OFF 77 Figure 3-23: GNSS SBAS systems 81 Figure 3-24: Configuring transmit power 83 Figure 3-25: Signals power configuration menu 85 Figure 3-26: Adjusting external attenuation 85 Figure 3-27: Adjusting noise settings in the Transmit Power view Figure 3- 28: Signal Generator configuration view (depends on licensing options 88 installed) 88 Figure 3-29: Signal types configuration view 91 Figure 3-30: Signal Generator running 91 Figure 3-31: Interface/Reference Configuration 92 Figure 3-32: Static IP address configuration 94 Figure 3-33: Proxy Configuration view 94 Figure 3-34: Manage Files top level view 95 Figure 3-35: Choosing a file and an action 95 Figure 3-36: Keyboard 96 Figure 3-37: Viewing file content 96 Figure 3-38: System information view 97 Figure 3-39: System information – Options 97 Figure 3-40: Restore factory defaults 98 Figure 3-41: Calibration view 98 Figure 3-42: Entering the calibration password 99 Figure 3-43: User Calibration view 103 Figure 4-1: Scenario Configuration View 1/3 104 Figure 4-2: Scenario Configuration View 2/3 105 Figure 4-3: Scenario Configuration View 3/3 105 Figure 4-4: Types of GPS (Glonass) satellites simulated 110 Figure 4-5: Example GSG Web UI, showing a logged GPS almanac file 112 Figure 4-6: Leap Second field 141 Figure 4-7: Scenario Editor 157 Figure 4-8: StudioView's Data Recorder 158 Figure 4-9: Data recorder View window 168 Figure 5-1: GSG-6 Web UI 195 Figure 5-2: GSG options overview 195 Figure 5-3: List of installed options 249 Figure 6-1: Jerk [m/s³], acceleration [m/s²], velocity [m/s], and range [m] over time [s] User Manual GSG-5/6 Series iii

372 APPENDIX 7.2 GSG User Manual Revision History ECO Description Rev Date First release. 0.1 November N/A 2010 Updated to include GSG-55. March 1.0 N/A 2011 June 2011 A 2673 Changes in support of the 2.06 software release. October Updated address information. 2702 B 2011 C 2769 November Added compliance section with updated regulatory information. Addi 2011 tional minor document maintenance. Updates including information supporting GSG-56 product, GLONASS March D 2832 2012 support, new software features. Additional document maintenance. Added support for GSG-53 product, additional corrections. E 2929 May 2012 2990 Added support for GSG-62 product features and NTP Server as a August F source for Start Time. 2012 G 2999 August Minor updates. 2012 H September 3015 Minor corrections & specification updates. 2012 3128 December General updates coinciding with latest software release: newly released J 2012 GSG-62 product & features, added information regarding new platform software feature enhancements. K Updates coinciding with latest software release. Added information February 3150 regarding product feature enhancements. 2013 3179 L March Updates related to addition of new platform software feature enhance ments and clarified existing documentation regarding NMEA file length. 2013 3197 April M Minor corrections and updates. 2013 3254 Updated to support latest software & software release modifications June 2013 N 3347 Updated to support latest software & software release modifications March P 2014 iv User Manual GSG-5/6 Series

373 APPENDIX Rev Description Date ECO 3458 Updated to support latest software & software release modifications Q April 2014 000073 July 2014 18 Updated to support latest software & new features 19 000194 Updated to support latest software & new features October 2014 Updated to support latest software & new features February 20 000293 2015 21 000421 Updated to support latest software & new features May 2015 000587 Updated to support latest software & new features (mainly Propagation Sept 2015 22 Environment functionality) to support 6.5.1 firmware release. New layout due to carry-over into new Authoring tool. Integration of SCPI Guide into GSG User Manual. 000856 April Added/changed content following SW release 6.6.1 (SCPI Clock 23 Model), new options (TLM, HPWR, SPF). 2016 Changes to Trajectories topic, Encryption topic. Ongoing document maintenance. New RSG ADVLOG SCPI commands. Oct 2016 24 Content improvements, power setting changes. Errata changes. Added StudioView instructions, some functionality descriptions for May 2017 25 Galileo -related options, spoofing, new SCPI commands. Errata. 26 Jan 2018 Changes to Transmit Power adjustment. Added several SCPI power com mands. Errata. User Manual GSG-5/6 Series v

374 BLANK PAGE. vi User Manual GSG-5/6 Series

375 C 1 29 1PPS output C/No (Carrier- to- noise density) 85 Calibration 97 A 173 Calibration, timing density Carrier- to- noise 73 Active Signals (C/No) 85 47 Almanac CLI 110 176 Almanac file Cold start, GNSS receiver 111 Antenna, compliance 23 73 Constellations, satellite Antenna, models 55 contact, Spectracom 199 9 Antenna, specifications 14 Cooling ANTEX 48 ARM 31 D armed, unit 26 Atmospheric modeling 67 Desk-Top Setup 14 84 Attenuation, external Dimensions 10 91 AutoStart Display symbols 31 59 Doppler INDEX B Download (ephm., server alm.) 93 Base station 62 Duration, scenario 39 14 Bench-Top Setup 56 Body mass center E ECEF format (positioning) 40 Elevation mask 56 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series • INDEX vii

376 INDEX Emissions 10 Electro-magnetic compliance I 76 Encryption Interference signal 60 312 ENU (East, North, Up) 67 Ionosphere model Environmental modeling 64 IP configuration 92 9 Environmental specifications Ephemeris 39 , 44 , 78 , 91 , 104 , 115 , 142 , 153 , 161 , 183 , 198 , 240 , J 243 Jamming 62 44 Epoch Jamming, jammer 149 Event data 50 31 EXTREF K F Keyboard un/-locking 106 Keys, front panel 27 Factory default settings 179 97 Factory defaults, restore 94 File management L 118 Files, uploading Leap second 4, 49 , 112 , 189 117 Firmware updating 56 Lever arm 40 Forever mode Lock code, keyboard 107 28 Format key 40 Looping, scenario duration Frequency band Signal type 7, 35 , 61 , 108 , 179 , , 343 236 , 270-274 M Frequency offset 62 , 90 Main menu 30 Message type 63 G 194 Models, GSG 43 G-forces 89 Modulation, signal Gain pattern, antenna 55 Multipath signal 36 , 57 , 191 , 265 38 GPS time N H Network configuration 92 31 HOLD NMEA logging 174 Hold key 29 Noise generation 85 103 Hold, scenario NTP configuration 93 viii User Manual GSG-5/6 Series

377 INDEX NTP server 38 28 Numeric keys S 12 Safety precautions O 61 Satellite ID Satellite systems 70 OCXO DAC value 99 SBAS 48 , 77 One-Go, scenario duration 40 103 Scenario, configuring Options, GSG 194 Scenarios, pre-installed 180 Orientation 14 217 SCPI, commands 215 SCPI, protocol errors P 214 SCPI, syntax Signal generator mode 87 77 P (pseudo) code Signal type 10 Power requirements , 107 , 60 , 75 , 81-82 Frequency band PPS delay 99 , 246 , 265-266 , 156 , 228-230 PRN 34 342-343 PRN code 76 , 89 Specifications, technical 7 94 Proxy configuration Start time 38 , 45 , 90 , 141 , 187 Pure carrier signal 89 26 Status indicators Studioview 118 StudioView 113 R StudioView, about 113 Rack installation 15 StudioView, introduction 113 Random CP 59 89 Sweep (modulation) Range offset 59 Sweeper interference 62 Real time scenario generation 41 , 124 , 31 Symbols, display 133 , 140 , 144 , 149 , 156 , 188 , System information, show 96 198 , 216 , 218 , 224 , 255 , 258 , 280 , 316 , 318 , 347-349 , v REM 31 T 177 , 286 Return Link Message Return Link Service 177 , 286 198 Technical support RF connector 22 349 TLE format RF output 7 31 , 40 , 104 , 111 , 123 , 129- Trajectory 130 , 133 , 140 , 144 , 149 , 318 , 175 RINEX data 349 RLM 177 , 286 Trajectory, altitude 43 RLS 177 , 286 Trajectory, file size 44 63 RTCM message Trajectory, looping 43 User Manual GSG-5/6 Series ix

378 INDEX Trajectory, NMEA 42 44 Trajectory, one-line Trajectory, predefined 41 42 Trajectory, RSG Trajectory, timestamping 42 Trajectory, user-created 42 , 84 , 179- Transmit power 55 , 61 , 81-82 180 107 Transmit Power, adjust Transmit Power, manage 107 Transmit Power, set 107 68 Tropospheric model Two-Line Element trajectory format 349 U Uploading scenario files 120 UTC-GPS offset 38 V Vehicle model 64 W 109 , 168 Web UI 39 Week number, GPS WGS84 (positioning) 40 Y YUMA 47 , 176 x User Manual GSG-5/6 Series

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