1 The trust opportunity: Exploring Consumers’ Attitudes to the Internet of Things
2 Executive Summary What we found: This new research from Consumers Connected devices are everywhere - but concerns about privacy • International and the Internet Society and security remain. • 63% of people surveyed find connected devices ‘creepy’ in the way explored consumer perceptions and they collect data about people and their behaviours attitudes towards trust, security and • This sentiment is echoed throughout the survey, with half of people across markets distrusting their connected devices to protect their the privacy of consumer Internet of privacy and handle their information in a respectful manner (53%). Things (IoT) devices. On top of not trusting the device itself to keep data secure, 75% of • people agree there is reason for concern about their data being used The survey of consumers in Australia, Canada, France, by other organisations without their permission. Japan, UK and the US aimed to find out what matters The security concerns are serious enough to deter almost a third • most to consumers when buying connected devices, (28%) of people who do not own smart devices from buying one; 1 security concerns are as strong a deterrent as the price of a device. and who is responsible for better privacy and security. People have concerns about security and privacy but do not know • how to adapt and adjust device settings in a way that might allay Contents these fears. 80% of people surveyed are aware of how to set and Executive Summary 2 4 About the partnership and project reset passwords, but only 50% are aware of how to disable the Security and privacy opportunities in the consumer IoT market • collection of data about users and their behaviours. • Understanding attitudes and gathering opinions • Methodology We see from the survey that a high number think that privacy and • Defining connected devices security standards should be assured by regulators (88%), followed 7 Research findings 1. Immersed in privacy and security concerns by manufacturers (81%) and championed by retailers (80%). 2. Creepiness and distrust 3. Low know-how Where does responsibility lie? 4. Building a trusted and safe consumer Internet of Things 13 14 Next steps Annex 16 – Full survey by IPSOS Mori 1 Please note, security concerns were as strong a deterrent The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 2 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 as the price of a device in all markets except Japan.
3 Executive Summary continued Of people who do not own a smart device, will not buy one due to security concerns Given the level of concern amongst owners and non-owners, there is potential for companies to use high levels of privacy and security as a way to stand out from the crowd and build trust with current and Of people find connected future customers, while at the same time creating devices ‘creepy’ a more secure consumer IoT environment. 2 The results also suggest consumers are thinking about the need for more formal regulation in the market. It is likely that this demand will grow as information about the risks associated with connected products becomes more widespread. In response to this demand, companies should explore how to deliver assurances to consumers that their devices and services are helpful and useful without crossing the line into creepiness. This could help them build trust in connected devices among consumers and potentially generate a competitive advantage. Of people know how to disable data collection Of people distrust the way data is shared 2 As the results are based upon direct questions about risk and concern about IoT products, it must The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things be factored in that we cannot determine to which extent these concerns are always top of mind – 3 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 but when prompted there was widespread concern about security and privacy
4 About the partnership and project Consumers International and the Internet Society are working in partnership to deliver a better digital world, where everyone can benefit from is the global membership Consumers International digital innovation without compromising on their rights. We both believe that online security and organisation for consumer groups across the world. privacy are key to online trust, which underpins We bring together over 200 member organisations in more than 100 countries to empower and champion all economic and social exchanges online. the rights of consumers everywhere. We want The partnership brings together the best technical and policy consumers to get the best out of the digital economy knowledge related to IoT from the Internet Society and long-standing knowledge of consumer experiences and attitudes towards the digital and society without having to compromise on economy and society from Consumers International. quality, care and fair treatment. The focus for our partnership has been on the growing market for consumer IoT as an important part of people’s digital environment. We have been working towards effectively engaging consumers, governments and regulators, and businesses in the creation of a secure and trusted consumer IoT market. We want to enable consumer groups across the world to help drive demand for better security and privacy in The Internet Society, founded by Internet pioneers, consumer IoT products. is a non-profit organization dedicated to ensuring the This research is a key part of this activity, exploring what consumers open development, evolution and use of the Internet. currently understand and feel about trust, security and privacy in the consumer IoT and how policy change, new business practice, standards Working through a global community of chapters and development and enforcement, alongside awareness-raising among members, the Internet Society collaborates with a consumers, can bring positive change. broad range of groups to promote the technologies that keep the Internet safe and secure and advocates for policies that enable universal access. The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 4 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
5 About the partnership The lack of consumer trust in and project continued the IoT market could be detrimental to manufacturers and retailers. As more types of connected-by-default devices and services become Security and privacy opportunities mainstream for consumers, these security and privacy issues are multiplied. in the consumer IoT market These issues pose a threat not just to consumers’ control over what happens to data about them, but also to consumer trust in IoT devices. The rapid increase in products and services that are The lack of consumer trust in the IoT market could be detrimental to connected to the Internet are already transforming manufacturers and retailers and as a result, it could stifle innovation within the industry. We believe there are opportunities for different stakeholders consumers’ lives through connected energy grids, to address security and privacy issues in the IoT market and increase transport, home security and lifestyle appliances. consumer trust. Forecasts predict this technology is set to become part of everyday life with many products connected Understanding attitudes and gathering opinions to the Internet by default. Complementing our other activities with Testing by consumer organisations has revealed dangerous weaknesses manufacturers, retailers and regulators within this in range of connected products, from children’s toys and connected partnership, this survey brings a valuable consumer watches to connected TVs and fitness trackers. Such vulnerabilities perspective that allowed us to gather insights not create a risk of exposing the device itself (e.g. a connected home lock being disabled) and to personal data (e.g. information being shared with only into how consumers perceive IoT devices, but unauthorised third parties). Thinking beyond the harm to consumers, IoT also their levels of awareness and ideas around vulnerabilities also create a risk of exposing networks ( e.g. attacking the responsibility. power grid of an entire country via connected webcams). This study aimed to get a sense of consumers’ attitudes to privacy and security when it comes to connected devices and explore to what extent consumers trust connected devices. Our other objectives were Testing by consumer organisations to understand what matters to consumers when buying connected devices and where they feel that the responsibility for better security has revealed dangerous weaknesses and privacy lies. in a range of connected products. 3 See for example our Norwegian and Belgian members’ activity: dren/ https://www.forbrukerradet.no/side/significant-security-flaws-in-smartwatches-for-chil https://www.forbrukerradet.no/siste-nytt/connected-toys-violate-consumer-laws/ https://www.test-aankoop.be/action/pers%20informatie/persberichten/2018/hackable- home The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things ing-consumer https://www.consumerreports.org/televisions/samsung-roku-smart-tvs-vulnerable-to-hack 5 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 -reports-finds/
6 About the partnership and project continued Defining smart devices Methodology The research was carried out by Ipsos MORI via For this research, we defined connected devices as their online panel survey which regularly surveys everyday products and devices that can connect to the Internet using Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, such as the general online population across the world. connected meters, fitness monitors, connected toys, We surveyed a sample of a minimum of 1,000 consumers in each of these 4 home assistants or gaming consoles. countries: United States, France, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom and Japan between 1 March and 6 March 2019. We chose to conduct the survey The definition excluded tablets, mobile phones and laptops; although they online to ensure that the samples from each country were reflective of can be considered in technology terms ‘connected devices’, they are a the general online population. People who are online are more likely to lot more complex and apps allow them to perform many functions which understand how such devices work. The study did not require people to in return generate more complex privacy and security issues than other own a connected device so that it also reflected the opinion of consumers connected devices. To avoid conflating the issues, the research focused who are considering or haven’t bought a device. on devices that do not have this added layer of complexity. Unravelling intricacies of consumer trust in connected devices and what underpins it can be a difficult task, especially within the setting of a quantitative survey that can be restricting in terms of the depth of insights. Concepts of both trust and connected devices can be abstract and vary in people’s interpretation of each. The study tried to mitigate this difficult position by capturing consumers’ attitudes towards trust in connected devices by prompting them with attitudinal statements about such devices. The statements were preceded by a definition and examples of connected devices. 4 By prompting the respondents on what we mean by connected devices, we assure consistency and alignment on understanding, and thus ability to infer and generalize across markets . Translations of the original questionnaire was made to French (both Canadian and French version) and Japanese. The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things epy’, Local proofing has been employed to ensure consistency in local differences, such as ‘cre 6 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 “concern”, “risk” and examples of connected devices.
7 Immersed in privacy and security concerns 1 Consumer IoT devices are widely used - the survey Research showed that 69% of participants across all markets own one or more devices such as connected meters, fitness monitors, connected toys, home assistants or findings gaming consoles. Our participants across all markets most commonly own gaming consoles, followed by home appliances and fitness monitors. On average, they own connected devices from at least two different categories (e.g. home appliances and connected wearables); however, this number is lower in Japan – where 46% do not own any Internet-connected devices. We have also learned that high levels of connected device ownership does not indicate that people are satisfied with the privacy and security of these devices. On average, 65% of consumers across all markets report being concerned with the way connected devices collect and use personal data, with the US showing the highest concern levels at 70%. On the other hand, consumers in France (60%) and Japan (52%) show less concern about the way these devices collect and use data, than the rest of the surveyed countries. For point of comparison we asked about other forms of technology, we found mobile apps (such as banking or health apps) had the highest levels of concern about the way personal data is collected (69%). The lowest level of concern found, was for tablets or laptops – which 62% of people are concerned about. across all markets are concerned with the way connected devices collect and use personal data. The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 7 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
8 Immersed in privacy and 1 continued security concerns In all countries, these concerns are shared by those who haven’t purchased Concern about the way connected devices a device. We wanted to uncover whether consumer intentions to buy or collect and use personal data: not buy a connected device are related to their concerns about privacy and security. Although the most frequently mentioned barriers to purchasing a connected device across all countries are lack of need/use for them (63%) and cost (28%), the research also found that 28% of people who do not own and do not intend to purchase a connected device make this decision USA because of lack of trust in security and privacy. The opportunity for trust? Australia It should come as no surprise that making useful, affordable, privacy and security-respecting devices will be popular with consumers, but we have not yet Canada seen many companies voluntarily embrace strong privacy and security features in their products. Given the level of concern amongst owners and non-owners, companies UK could use this as a way to stand out from the crowd and build trust with current and future customers and create a more secure consumer IoT environment. If we take into account how much focus manufacturers and retailers place on the price of a connected product as a way to influence France consumers’ purchasing behaviour, it is clear from our research that good privacy and security standards in an IoT device could be an equally important selling point and competitive differentiator. Japan The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 8 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
9 Creepiness Building trust with current and and distrust 2 future customers is one way companies could stand out from the crowd. Not only do consumers not trust the security of IoT devices to protect Concepts and definitions such as trust, Internet of them from other parties accessing data about them, they even distrust Things or even privacy and security can be difficult to the device itself. Across markets, over half of people tend to distrust their explore among consumers because of their abstract connected devices to protect their privacy and handle their information in a respectful manner (53%). In France, the number of people who distrust nature. In particular, when trying to find out more their devices to protect them is 63%. about consumer trust in security and privacy of IoT Even though consumers own and engage with IoT devices, they do so devices we had to overcome the hurdle of trying to with a cloud of suspicion around them and experience distrust towards explain what we mean by ‘trust’. the device on several levels. People from different backgrounds and cultures can interpret a concept like trust in many ways. To mitigate the differences, we asked participants The opportunity for trust? to express their opinion about a number of statements that could relate There is a real opportunity for companies to rethink to their feelings of trust. how they can nurture consumer trust in the IoT Our results showed that 63% of people agree that connected devices are 5 creepy in the way they collect data about people and their behaviours, market. Companies, whether it is manufacturers or with French consumers being the most ‘creeped out’ (71%) and Japanese retailers, should explore how to deliver assurances to being the least (46%). This emotion was mirrored again when we asked consumers that their devices and services are helpful about the possibility of other organisations accessing data from IoT devices and useful without crossing the line into creepiness about users without permission, for example advertisers misusing data consumers thought was being collected for a different purpose. In fact, which might contribute towards feelings of mistrust. three quarters of consumers across all surveyed countries were concerned In practical terms, they can set proper expectations regarding what data is about this practice when it comes to connected devices. collected, howw it is used and how it is secured. Companies can highlight features that can be controlled by the consumer, such as enabling or disabling data collection. of people agree that connected devices are creepy in the way they collect data 5 Translations of the original questionnaire was made to French (both Canadian and French version) The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things s, such as ‘creepy’, and Japanese. Local proofing has been employed to ensure consistency in local difference 9 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 ‘concern’, ‘risk’ and examples of connected devices.
10 Low Only 50% of consumers know-how are aware of settings that 3 control data collection. Exploring the concepts of privacy and security in Even though consumers have low know-how of certain security features connected devices among consumers has not been in connected devices, they have an appetite for security and privacy as straightforward. It is difficult to separate the two wider concepts. They might not be so aware of some features but they and pinpoint where privacy ends and security have assessed that privacy and security are an important component of IoT devices and they, as consumers, should be aware of them. Our starts. The two tend to work together on a higher research showed that availability of information about the connected conceptual level that most consumers do not engage device’s privacy and security is part of the purchase equation, with 77% of with on a daily basis. For this reason, the research people across markets considering the availability of information about a explored consumer awareness of the two concepts connected device’s privacy and security important for their decision to buy. through privacy and security features of IoT devices. Among the surveyed countries, the numbers of US consumers taking privacy and security information about a connected device into account We found that people have concerns about security and privacy but do when making a purchase, was the highest (82%). By comparison, only 61% not know how to adapt and adjust device settings in a way that might allay these fears. There is good knowledge of basic security best practices, such as setting and resetting passwords. 80% of people surveyed are aware of how to set and reset passwords and 68% of people are aware of automatic security updates from manufacturers. Knowledge of these features is essential for mitigating against hacks and lessening the impact of cyberattacks. However, a lot less is known about other settings in devices. Only 50% of consumers are aware of settings that control what availability data is collected and who it is shared with. of privacy and The research showed that in general consumers in Australia, UK, US and security information Canada are much more aware of security features in connected devices than consumers in Japan and France. However, the only security feature is part of their the four countries are as unsure about as France and Japan is disabling purchase decision data collection on their connected device(s). The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 10 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
11 Low know-how 3 continued percentage of consumers who agreed with each statement in relation to buying a connected What influences consumers to buy or not buy IoT? device We investigated which factors were influential for The connected device has consumers when they were deciding whether or not features that best suit my needs to buy a connected device. A list of eight potential factors were shown to respondents, and they were The connected device is asked which they agreed with. The graphic opposite at an affordable price shows the percentage of consumers who agreed with each statement. These results show a blend The connected device is of all of the eight factors were deemed important, made by a brand that I trust indicating a complex decision-making process. The connected device has positive product test results or online reviews The opportunity for trust? Improving knowledge of privacy and security features There is information available about the amongst consumers could go some way to helping connected device’s privacy and security either on a website or in literature included with the product consumers feel less concerned about how their personal information is used for things like marketing The connected device is sold by a retailer that I trust or service improvements. The connected device has a label, sticker or mark that certifies it is privacy-protecting and secure The connected device is recommended by friends, family or colleagues The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 11 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
12 Where does responsibility lie? 4 percentage of consumers who Asking consumers to assign responsibility for security agreed with each statement: and privacy can be problematic. They often have only basic knowledge about issues around IoT and a lack There should be legal privacy and security standards that manufacturers of a wider picture of the IoT market. However, what need to comply with people can do is to indicate whether they think they Manufacturers should only make should have the responsibility as consumers. connected devices that protect Our survey showed that about 60% of people across markets think privacy and security consumers should be responsible for safety and privacy on their connected devices. France had the lowest number of people wanting to take Retailers should ensure that the connected devices they sell have responsibility for security and privacy in IoT devices (48%). However, good privacy and security standards this number still shows that consumers as primary users of IoT devices share responsibility for security and privacy. Consumers are mainly responsible However, the majority of people agree that appropriate levels of for their own privacy and security when using connected devices privacy and security should be assured by regulators (88%), followed by manufacturers (81%) and favoured by retailers (80%). This trend differed slightly only in Japan where consumers had a stronger preference for setting legal obligations, such as regulation to secure standards for The opportunity for trust? security and privacy in IoT devices. We predict that the demand for more formal These results do not come as a surprise following the previous findings regulation from consumers will grow as information showing that consumers do not have very sophisticated knowledge of security and privacy in IoT devices. The level of risk from devices and about connected devices becomes more widespread the complexity of securing devices contributes to consumers wanting and the media picks up on high profile hacks and regulators, manufacturers and retailers to uphold standards of privacy security failings. Until this happens, retailers and and security and to take more responsibility, as is the case with other manufacturers that demonstrate they have built-in mainstream activities that pose potentially high risks to individuals - such as the safety of air travel. security, privacy and trust by design have a great opportunity to stand out from the crowd and appeal to consumers. The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 12 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
13 Building a trusted and safe consumer Internet of Things A joint call to retailers to adopt the Minimum Security Guidelines • This research gives us insight into what consumers and to commit to vetting all connected products they sell against know and feel about the privacy and security these guidelines by the Internet Society, Consumers International, aspects of connected devices, and what more they Mozilla and other partners. would like to see to help build their trust and allay Standards: concerns. Understanding the consumer perspective Consumers International is an International Organisation for • and their experience of new products and services Standardisation Liaison member helping to develop a new standard is crucial for developing effective policy, business Consumer protection: privacy by design for consumer goods and and advocacy interventions. services standard (ISO/PC 317) which focuses on connected products. These insights will also contribute to Consumers International and International policy making fora: the Internet Society’s ongoing work to build a trusted IoT environment that ensures security and respects privacy which includes work across the • In May 2018, Consumers International co-hosted the second G20 following areas: Consumer Summit in Buenos Aires with a focus on the security of online. Following the event, the final leaders’ declaration at the G20 Manufacturers and retailers: called for improvements to security and privacy in consumer IoT, in particular for products marketed at or for children. Online Trust Alliance (OTA) An Internet Society initiative, the • addresses challenges in IoT to create a safer and more trustworthy connected world. Consumer awareness: Consumers International’s • Trust by Design principles and Connect-Smart • The Internet Society and Consumers International’s accompanying guidelines helping manufacturers create safe and raised awareness of the risks associated with connected campaign trusted smart devices for consumers. products that fail to build in basic privacy and security features during the design stage. by Consumers Minimum standards for tackling IoT security, • International, the Internet Society and the Mozilla Foundation, launched a minimum set of requirements to keep connected consumer devices in the Internet of Things secure. 6 ISO/PC 317 Consumer protection: privacy by design for consumer goods and service s The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 7 G20 Digital Economy Ministerial Declaration 13 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
14 Although large numbers of connected devices are now in people’s homes, consumer distrust in IoT persists. Internet of Things devices enhance the day-to-day activities of users around the world by providing benefits such as greater convenience, more streamlined services and better information. However, the results of this survey demonstrate that consumer distrust in IoT persists. In fact, survey findings show in some cases this distrust has discouraged consumers from purchasing connected devices. While there are many factors at play when it comes to consumer trust in connected devices, manufacturers and retailers can achieve significant impact by adopting IoT privacy and security standards. In doing so, trust becomes embedded in the design and sale of IoT devices; consumers can more confidently buy and enjoy safer IoT devices; and manufacturers and retailers can further differentiate as leading brands that proactively protect consumers’ best interests. Next Consumers benefit when trust becomes embedded in the steps design and sale of IoT devices. Consumers International & The Internet Society The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 14 Improving consumer trust in the Internet of Things CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
15 Next steps continued The Internet Society and Consumers International have been working together, and with other partners, to provide resources to support manufacturers and retailers in the adoption of IoT privacy and security standards. If you are a manufacturer or retailer interested in learning more, you can find more information from the Internet Society on their Trust by Design initiative, or from Consumers International for a number of IoT guidelines and checklists. The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 15 15 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
16 ANNEX Survey by IPSOS Mori (Ask all) (Ask all) (Ask all) (Ask all) Q2. How likely or unlikely are you PERSONALLY Q4. Here is a list of different products and devices. Q5. Connected devices are everyday products and Q1. We are conducting research on ‘connected to buy a connected device in the next 12 months? devices that connect to the Internet using wifi or For each one, how concerned, if at all, are you devices’ in the home. By this, we mean everyday products and devices that can connect to the about the way they collect and use personal data? bluetooth (not including tablets, mobile phones or Connected devices are everyday products and laptops). Internet (not including tablets, mobile phones or Even if you do not own the products or devices, devices that can connect to the Internet using laptops). wifi or bluetooth (not including tablets, mobile we are still interested in your impressions. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the phones or laptops). following statements about connected devices... Which, if any, of the following types of Internet- Randomise statements (rows), forward/reverse connected device(s) do you have in your Randomise statements (rows), forward/reverse Forward and reverse scale 1-7, single code scale 1-4 (columns), single code per row household: scale 1-5 (columns), single code per row Columns 1. Certain to Randomise codes 1-8, multicode 1-8. Columns Code 9, 10 are single code 1. 2. Very likely to Very concerned 1. Strongly agree 1. Connected appliances (for example gas/electric Fairly likely to 3. Fairly concerned 2. meters, printers, speakers, TVs, refrigerators, Somewhat agree 2. Not very concerned 4. Neither likely nor unlikely 3. thermostats or robotic floor cleaners) 3. Neither agree nor disagree 5. Fairly unlikely 4. Not at all concerned 2. Connected wearables (for example smart Somewhat disagree 4. watches) Very unlikely 6. Don’t know 5. Strongly disagree 5. 3. Fitness monitors (for example Fitbit) Certain NOT to 7. Rows Don’t know 6. 4. Home assistants (for example Amazon Alexa or 8. 1. Mobile phones Don’t know Google Assistant) Rows 2. Tablets or laptops 5. Gaming consoles connected to the Internet (for 1. Connected devices make people’s lives easier Internet-connected devices (such as appliances, 3. (Ask if 5 to 7 at Q2) example Xbox, PlayStation 4 or Nintendo Wii U) Connected devices are creepy in the way they 2. home assistants like Amazon Alexa or Google Q3. Why is that? 6. Connected home security systems (for example collect data about people and their behaviours Assistant, toys, baby monitors, etc.) SimplySafe) Randomise codes 1-5, multicode 1-5. 3. People who are not using connected devices Apps such as those found on Smart phones or 4. Code 6 is single code Connected toys, baby monitors or 7. should give them a try tablets (such as banking, health, etc.) GPS child trackers (for example Hello Barbie, 1. Do not trust the privacy or security of the device 4. People using connected devices should be Furby Connect, Phillips Avent, Amber Alert) concerned about their data being used by other Do not have any need/use for them 2. 8. Car with connected system organisations without their permission Too expensive 3. (for example Audi Connect, Lexus Enform, Ford 5. People using connected devices should SYNC3) I have not really considered them 4. worry about the risk of “eavesdropping” 9. None of these (devices are being accessed without their 5. I don’t have enough information about what to buy knowledge or permission) Don’t know 10. No specific reason 6. The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 16 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
17 ANNEX Survey by IPSOS Mori continued (Ask all) (Ask all) (Ask all) (Ask all) Q7. Connected devices are everyday products Q8. Connected devices are everyday products Q6. Connected devices are everyday products Q6. Connected devices are everyday products and devices that can connect to the Internet using and devices that can connect to the Internet using and devices that can connect to the Internet using and devices that can connect to the Internet using wifi or bluetooth (not including tablets, mobile wifi or bluetooth (not including tablets, mobile wifi or bluetooth (not including tablets, mobile wifi or bluetooth (not including tablets, mobile phones or laptops). phones or laptops). phones or laptops). phones or laptops). How important, if at all, do you think each of the To what extent do you agree or disagree with the How much, if at all, do you trust connected How would you describe your awareness of the following statements about connected devices? following factors would be to you personally following possible privacy and security features devices to... on connected devices? when making a decision about whether or not to Randomise statements (rows), forward/reverse Randomise statements (rows), forward/reverse scale purchase a connected device? 1-4 (columns), single code per rows Randomise statements (rows), forward/reverse scale scale 1-5 (columns), single code per row 1-4 (columns), single code per row Randomise statements (rows), forward/reverse scale Columns Columns 1-5 (columns), single code per row Columns 1. 1. Strongly agree A great deal Columns 1. Yes – fully aware of this/how to do this 2. 2. A fair amount Somewhat agree Very important 1. Yes – aware of this/how to do this, but not 2. Neither agree nor disagree 3. 3. Not very much Fairly important 2. in detail 4. Somewhat disagree Not at all 4. No – not aware of this/how to do this 3. Not very important 3. Don’t know 5. Strongly disagree 5. 4. Never heard of this 4. Not at all important Don’t know 6. Rows 5. Don’t know 5. Don’t know Rows ...protect users’ data so no one else can access it 1. Rows Rows 1. 2. ...not to be a risk to users’ personal privacy There should be legal privacy and security Ability to disable the collection of data for users a) 1. The connected device is made by a brand that I standards that manufacturers need to trust and their behaviours ...ensure that data collected about users 3. comply with and their behaviours handled responsibly and 2. The connected device has positive product test b) A User Agreement that explains if data is 2. transparently Manufacturers should only make connected results or online reviews being collected and if it is being shared with devices that protect privacy and security a third party ...ensure that sufficient security is in place to 4. 3. The connected device is recommended by Retailers should ensure that connected devices allow you to change the privacy and security 3. Encryption to protect against unauthorized friends, family or colleagues c) they sell have good privacy and security settings without impacting the usage access to data about the users and their The connected device is at an affordable price 4. standards behaviours 5. The connected device is sold by a retailer that I Consumers are mainly responsible for 4. d) Option to set and reset passwords trust their own privacy and security when using Automatic security updates from the e) connected devices The connected device has a label, sticker or mark 6. manufacturer that certifies it is privacy-protecting and secure The connected device has features that best suit 7 . my needs 8. There is information available about the connected device’s privacy and security either on a website or in literature included with the product (This can be information from the retailer, manufacturer or a government consumer protection agency) The trust opportunity: Exploring consumer’s attitudes to the Internet of Things 17 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0