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1 What College-Aged Students Know About the World A Survey on Global Literacy September 2016

2 The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher dedicated to being a resource for its members, government officials, business executives, journalists, educators and students, civic and religious leaders, and other interested citizens in order to help them better understand the world and the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other countries. Founded in 1921, CFR carries out its mission by maintaining a diverse membership, with special programs to promote interest and develop expertise in the next generation of foreign policy leaders; convening meetings at its headquarters in New York and in Washington, DC, and other cities where senior government offi- cials, members of Congress, global leaders, and prominent thinkers come together with CFR members to discuss and debate major international issues; supporting a Studies Program that fosters independent research, enabling CFR scholars to produce articles, reports, and books and hold roundtables that analyze foreign policy issues and make concrete policy recommendations; Foreign Affairs , the preeminent journal on international affairs and U.S. foreign policy; sponsoring Independent publishing Task Forces that produce reports with both findings and policy prescriptions on the most important foreign policy topics; and providing up-to-date information and analysis about world events and American foreign policy on its website, www.cfr.org. The Council on Foreign Relations takes no institutional positions on policy issues and has no affiliation with the U.S. government. All views expressed in its publications and on its website are the sole responsibility of the author or authors. This report is copublished by CFR and National Geographic. For further information about CFR, please write to the Council on Foreign Relations, 58 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065, or call the Communications office at 212.434.9888. Visit CFR’s website at www.cfr.org. Copyright © 2016 by the Council on Foreign Relations®, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This report may not be reproduced in whole or in part, in any form beyond the reproduction permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law Act (17 U.S.C. Sections 107 and 108) and excerpts by reviewers for the public press, without express written permission from the Council on Foreign Relations.

3 Contents 4 . . . . . . . . . Foreword by Richard N. Haass and Gary E. Knell Highlights From the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Full Survey Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 About the Council on Foreign Relations and National Geographic . . 35

4 Foreword The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) and the National Geographic Society have long pursued the mission of making international affairs and geographic education accessible to students and the broader public. CFR focuses on the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other countries; National Geographic works to explore the world and educate a global audience to make balanced, sustainable decisions for the future of our planet. Both organizations operate on the premise that global literacy and geographic understanding are essential for the strength of American democracy and the stability of the planet. Earlier this year, CFR and National Geographic commissioned a survey to gauge what young people educated in American colleges and universi - ties know about geography, the environment, demographics, U.S. foreign policy, recent international events, and economics. The survey was con - ducted by ARC Research among 1,203 people aged eighteen to twenty- six who currently attend or have recently attended a college or university in the United States, whether a two-year or four-year institution. The survey, whose complete findings appear in this report, revealed sig- nificant gaps between what young people understand about today’s world and what they need to know to successfully navigate and compete in it. On the knowledge questions asked, the average score was only 55 percent correct. Just 29 percent of respondents earned a minimal pass—66 per - cent correct or better. Just over 1 percent—17 of 1,203—earned an A, 91 percent or higher. Respondents exhibited limited knowledge of issues critical to the United States. Only 28 percent of respondents knew that the United States is bound by treaty to protect Japan if it is attacked. Just 34 percent knew - this about South Korea. Meanwhile, only 30 percent knew that the con stitutional authority to declare war rests in the legislative branch of the U.S. government. Foreword 4

5 Basic conditions and realities about the world are also relatively poorly understood. Over the past five years, the number of Mexicans leaving the United States and returning to Mexico has been greater than the number of Mexicans entering the United States. However, only 34 percent of respondents recognized this fact; 49 percent said it was false. Just 49 per - cent correctly selected Mandarin Chinese as being spoken by the most people as their primary language. And an even smaller minority, 29 per - cent, identified the Muslim-majority country (Indonesia) among South Africa, Armenia, India, and Indonesia. Some of the survey results are more heartening. A majority of respon - dents indicated that they believed it important to be knowledgeable about geography, world history, foreign cultures, world events, and other such topics. Nearly three quarters (72 percent) said these topics are becoming more important to them. Moreover, respondents demonstrated knowl - edge of certain issues, including the environment. Seventy-eight percent knew that fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource. Eighty-four percent knew that the increase in greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere caused by the use of fossil fuels is considered by climate scientists to be one of the causes of climate change. These survey results come in an era of globalization, when the world is characterized by enormous cross-border flows of everything from people and ideas to weapons and pollutants. American citizens are affected in - fundamental ways—in legislative bodies, boardrooms, and the envi ronment—by what happens in the world. At the same time, the United States has considerable influence over international events. It remains the - world’s foremost military power. Even with robust growth in some devel oping countries, the U.S. economy retains enormous heft, and the U.S. dollar continues to play a central role in international finance (a subject poorly grasped by our survey respondents). All of this makes an educated public essential for American economic competitiveness, national security, and democracy. To contend for jobs, assume leadership positions in government and other sectors, and hold elected officials accountable, young people must understand the global context in which they operate as citizens and professionals. Yet our survey shows that many individuals educated in this country do not. This constitutes a major national challenge. The good news is that the survey also reflects an opportunity. As already noted, young people recognize the importance of international knowl - edge. They seek information about national and international issues from - a wide range of online and other platforms. Our organizations are work ing to harness their interest and offer compelling resources on topics critical to their future. Foreword 5

6 CFR is addressing this challenge through a new initiative called CFR Campus, creating original educational content designed to build the essential knowledge, skills, and perspective that form the backbone of global literacy. CFR released Model Diplomacy, a simulation program for higher education and high school classrooms, in January 2016. It will be followed by a set of multimedia curricular materials on the fundamentals of international relations and foreign policy. All this comes in addition to existing CFR resources available to students and instructors, from back - grounders to interactives to conference calls with CFR experts. For more than 128 years, National Geographic has been investing in bold people working on transformative discoveries and solutions for the planet’s greatest challenges. But National Geographic also focuses on the next generation of explorers. Recently, NGS piloted a teacher certifica- tion for educators who want to empower their students. The certification focuses on interconnectedness, including geography, culture, and a global world view. The yearly National Geographic Bee, National Geographic’s flagship geography competition, engages millions of students across the United States every year. National Geographic’s other educational initia- tives include teacher fellowships, classroom resources and materials like Explorer magazine, and the National Geographic Education Foundation, which has awarded more than $90 million in grants for geography educa- tion initiatives since its founding. We believe that the future of U.S. competitiveness and influence in the world depends on a population with adequate knowledge of how this world works. Our survey results are evidence that most young people educated in the United States are not where they need to be. Both CFR and NGS look forward to continuing efforts to address this urgent need. Richard N. Haass Gary E. Knell President President and CEO National Geographic Society Council on Foreign Relations Foreword 6

7 Highlights From the Survey 7 Highlights From the Survey

8 Overall results out of 75 possible answers: % 55 CORRECT % % 13 31 DON’T KNOW INCORRECT Highlights From the Survey 8

9 Asked whether more Mexicans have left the United States than entered over the past five years, 34 percent answered correctly, i.e., that more have left. % % 34 49 % 17 DON’T KNOW Highlights From the Survey 9

10 29 percent correctly identified Indonesia, among the countries highlighted below, as the one with the majority Muslim population. ARMENIA % 23 INDIA % 29 INDONESIA % 29 DON'T KNOW SOUTH AFRICA % % 12 6 Percentage who correctly said the United States is bound by treaty to protect the following countries if they are attacked: % % % % 28 14 47 34 CANADA SOUTH KOREA JAPAN TURKEY Highlights From the Survey 10

11 30 percent correctly identified which branch of the U.S. government (legislative) has constitutional authority to declare war. % % % % % 7 48 30 11 4 JUDICIAL DON'T DEPARTMENT KNOW OF DEFENSE LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE Percentages who correctly identified the countries highlighted below: % 31 % 49 ISRAEL % 45 IRAQ IRAN % 61 SAUDI ARABIA 11 Highlights From the Survey 11

12 Respondents ranked importance of knowledge on the topics below. VERY NOT AT ALL MODERATELY EXTREMELY SLIGHTLY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT 3% CURRENT WORLD EVENTS 40% 17% 41% 1% 3% U.S. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 40% 38% 17% 2% 2% ECONOMICS AND FINANCE 19% 1% 36% 42% WORLD HISTORY 11% 32% 3% 30% 25% INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 2% 22% 41% 28% 8% FOREIGN (NON-U.S.) CULTURES 2% 20% 36% 31% 10% 14% 34% 32% 19% GEOGRAPHY 2% Highlights From the Survey 12

13 Full Survey Data Objective To assess current levels of global literacy among young people who have previously attended or are currently attending a U.S. college or university. Methodology National online survey of 1,203 adults age 18–26 who currently attend or have recently attended a 2-year or 4-year college in the United States. All respondents reported living in the United States at the time of the survey. Respondents were drawn from the Survey Sampling, Inc. (SSI) online research panel, a national opt-in panel consisting of several million indi - viduals residing in the United States who have been recruited to join, and who are offered incentives in exchange for participating in online surveys. This panel uses industry-standard techniques to verify the identities of their panel members and to ensure that their demographic characteristics are valid and up-to-date. Respondents were screened to be between 18 and 26 years of age. Respondents were also screened either to be currently attending a U.S. college or university, or to have attended a U.S. college or university in the past. No quotas were set within these screening parameters. A pure probability sample of 1,203 observations would have an estimated margin of error of +/– 2.9% at the 95% confidence level, and the margin of error would be greater for sub-groupings of the sample. As in all survey research, there are other possible sources of error—such as coverage, nonresponse, and measurement error—that could affect the results. The survey was self-administered by respondents on a website. Fielding was conducted from May 18 to May 28, 2016. Results are unweighted. 13 Full Survey Data

14 Overall Results Knowledge Questions Cumulative Number of Percent of Percent of Percent Correct Respondents Respondents Respondents 3 0–5 0 0 6–10 4 0 1 11–15 7 1 1 16–20 16 1 2 21–25 2 4 22 26–30 31 3 7 31–35 57 5 12 36–40 85 7 19 41–45 96 8 27 133 46–50 11 38 51–55 51 (median and mode) 13 162 56–60 144 12 63 96 8 71 61–65 116 10 81 66–70 71–75 68 6 86 70 6 76–80 92 81–85 3 95 38 86–90 38 3 99 91–95 16 1 100 96–100 1 0 100 Total Responses to Knowledge Questions by All Respondents Percent Percent Percent Don’t Know Correct Incorrect 55 31 13 Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding. Full Survey Data 14

15 Percent of Correct Answers Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male 58 Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Birth Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990–92 . 55 . 1993–94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . 1995–97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Race or Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . 57 . African-American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Education Have four-year degree or higher . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 . . . . . . . . . 57 . Currently enrolled in four-year program 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All others College Experience with Global Literacy Topics Learned about some of these topics in a college course . . . . 58 Did not learn about any of these topics in a college course . 48 . . Perceived Knowledge of Global Literacy Issues vs. Peers 61 . . . . . . . Much or somewhat more knowledgeable . . About average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Somewhat or much less knowledgeable . . . . . . . . . . 44 Political Orientation Conservative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Moderate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liberal 57 Student Loan Have taken out student loans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . Have not taken out student loans . . . . . . 54 . Times Traveled Outside United States in Past Three Years None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 One or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Parents’ College Graduate Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Both One . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neither Full Survey Data 15

16 SECTION 1 Screening and Quota Questions What is your gender? Q1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45% Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female 55% Q1.2 In what state do you currently reside? (region roll up) Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18% Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21% . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37% West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24% What year were you born? Q1.3 1990 10% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% 1993 16% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16% 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14% 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% 1997 Screening and Quota Questions 16

17 Q1.4 What is the highest level of education you have completed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54% Some College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13% 2-year College Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-year College Degree 30% Masters Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% . Doctoral Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0% Professional Degree (JD, MD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0% Q1.5 Are you currently attending a 2-year college degree program or a 4-year college degree program in the United States? (among respondents with some college or 2-year college degree) . . . . . . . . . . Yes, a 2-year college degree program 21% Yes, a 4-year college degree program . . . . . . . . . . 61% No, I’m not currently attending a 2-year or 4-year college program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18% Q1.6 What is your major or area of concentration? (among respondents in a 2-year or 4-year college degree program) . Undecided . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% . . . . . . . English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% 1% Foreign Language or Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% History or Art History . . . . . Visual or Performing Arts . . . . . . . . 5% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Education Communications or Journalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% . . . . . . . Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% . Political Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% . Law Enforcement or Criminal Justice . . . . . . . . . . 2% 14% Business, Finance or Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . answers continue next page Screening and Quota Questions 17

18 Sociology, Philosophy, Anthropology or other 4% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7% Engineering Computer Science or Information Sciences . . . . . . . . 9% 12% Nursing or Other Health Professions . . . . . . . . . . Math, Statistics or Sciences (e.g., Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Other What was your major or area of concentration in Q1.7 college? (among respondents not currently in a 2-year or 4-year college degree program or those with a 4-year degree or more) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7% English . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign Language or Literature 2% History or Art History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% . . . . . Visual or Performing Arts . . . . . . . . . 6% . Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6% Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Communications or Journalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% . Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% . Political Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3% . Law Enforcement or Criminal Justice . . . . . . . . . . 3% . Business, Finance or Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . 13% Sociology, Philosophy, Anthropology or other Social Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6% Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6% Computer Science or Information Sciences . . . . . . . . 7% Nursing or Other Health Professions . . . . . . . . . . . 7% Math, Statistics or Sciences (e.g., Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geology) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 14% . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Screening and Quota Questions 18

19 SECTION 2 Importance Measures When thinking about your role as a citizen (e.g., as a voter, a taxpayer, an employee or business owner, a community member), how important - do you feel it will be for you to be knowledgeable about each of the follow ing topics? Very Moderately Slightly Extremely Not at All Important Important Important Important Important 2% 22% 41% 28% 8% Q2.1 International relations Economics and finance 36% 42% 19% 2% 1% Q2.2 Q2.3 25% 32% 30% 11% 3% World history Q2.4 U.S. government and politics 40% 38% 17% 3% 2% Q2.5 Geography 19% 32% 34% 14% 2% 40% 17% Q2.6 Current world events 41% 3% 1% Q2.7 Foreign (non-U.S.) 20% 36% 31% 10% 2% cultures Are these kinds of global topics and domestic issues Q2.8 becoming more important to you, less important to you, or is their level of importance not changing? More important . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72% Less important . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6% 23% . Not changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importance Measures 19

20 SECTION 3 Knowledge Questions - The next questions are designed to help us learn which subjects are famil iar to young Americans today and which are unfamiliar. We are interested in “top of mind” knowledge, so we would prefer you to answer the ques - tions as best you can without getting any hints from other sources. Work fast—have fun! If you don’t know an answer, please check the “don’t know” option. There are no grades or scores, but if you are interested, the answers will be made available to you after you complete the survey. Let’s start with some definition questions: Q3.1 What is the definition of “civil war? ” Any war fought by two or more opposing groups within a single country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89% A war that is fought according to civilized rules of combat . . 6% . Any war that affects civilians . . . . . . . . . 5% . . . . Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% What does “sub-Saharan Africa” mean? Q3.2 . . . 20% The part of Africa that is covered by the Sahara Desert . 6% Africa in prehistoric times, before the Sahara Desert existed The part of Africa that is to the South of the Sahara Desert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64% 10% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correct answers appear in bold. Knowledge Questions 20

21 Q3.3 Which of the following is meant by the word “nationalism? ” The principle that laws must be made and enforced by 9% individual nations only, not by a world government . . . . . A sense of pride in and loyalty to a national identity, often based on common traits such as ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75% or language The idealistic goal of bringing all of the people of the world together into a single nation of mankind 12% . . . . . . . . . Don’t Know 4% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Which of the following is meant by the phrase “nuclear Q3.4 deterrence? ” . . . . . . . 6% Launching nuclear weapons against an enemy Preventing a country from acquiring nuclear weapons capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37% Using the threat of a potential nuclear attack to . . . . . . discourage an enemy attack . . . . . 49% . Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Q3.5 Which one of the following resources is “non-renewable? ” Solar Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% Salmon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% Fossil Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78% . Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Now let’s go to some geography questions: Q3.6 Which canal connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean? . . . . . . . . Panama Canal . . . . . . . . . 81% . Suez Canal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3% Erie Canal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3% Guadalcanal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% 12% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Don’t Know Knowledge Questions 21

22 Q3.7 Match each place in the left column to the continent where it is located in the right column. Note : two or more may be on the same continent. (not one-to-one mapping; percentage correct) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colombia: South America 83% Nigeria: Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90% . . . . . Pakistan: Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71% . Rwanda: Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79% Sri Lanka: Asia 68% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sudan: Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57% The Amazon Rainforest: South America . . . . . . . . 83% The Alps: Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63% . The Sahara: Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93% Q3.8 In which of these countries is a majority of the population Muslim? South Africa 6% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Armenia . . . . . 23% . India 29% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29% Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% Don’t Know Q3.9 Which of the following environments is home to the greatest number of plant and animal species? . The Amazon Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89% . . The Kalahari Desert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% New York City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% Antarctica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% Don’t Know Knowledge Questions 22

23 Q3.10 Which language is spoken by the most people in the world as their primary language? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0% Russian Mandarin Chinese 49% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arabic . . . 4% . Don’t Know 4% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q3.11 Which city would be LEAST likely to be threatened by a tsunami? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Honolulu, United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7% Manila, Philippines Tokyo, Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7% Mexico City, Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75% Don’t Know 8% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q3.12 Looking at the map, which number matches each of the following countries? (percentage correct) Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31% Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49% . Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61% . 45% Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge Questions 23

24 Q3.13 Which of these are among the ten most populated countries in the world? (select all that apply; percentage selected) South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24% . . . . . . . . . . Brazil . . . . . . . . . . 51% . United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77% France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18% Indonesia 35% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24% Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19% South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8% And now for some questions about current events and recent history: Match each country in the left column with the relevant Q3.14 current issue in the right column. (one to one mapping; percentage correct) Brazil: Epidemic outbreak of the Zika virus . . . . . . . 63% 67% . . . . . . Cuba: Normalizing relations with the USA . . . . 38% Germany: Settlement of refugees and other migrants . . . . . . . . . Japan: Aging and shrinking population 56% South Sudan: Ongoing civil war 59% . . . . . . . . . . . . United Kingdom: Holding a popular vote on whether to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52% exit the European Union Q3.15 Which branch of the U.S. government has the Constitutional authority to declare war? Executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48% Legislative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30% Judicial 4% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Defense . . . . . . 11% . . . . . . . . . 7% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Don’t Know Knowledge Questions 24

25 Q3.16 Which of the following is considered by climate scientists to be one of the causes of climate change? The increase in “greenhouse gases” in earth’s atmosphere caused by the use of fossil fuels . . . . . . 84% An increase in the intensity of solar radiation from the sun . . 7% . . 6% Extreme weather events, such as hurricanes and typhoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Don’t Know 3% Q3.17 Which countries is the United States bound by treaty to protect if they are attacked? (select all that apply) Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47% China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28% Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23% North Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% . Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8% . South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34% . Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14% Don’t Know 4% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q3.18 True or False : Over the past five years, the number of Mexicans leaving the United States and returning to Mexico has been greater than the number of Mexicans entering the United States. True . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34% False . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49% 17% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Don’t Know Knowledge Questions 25

26 Q3.19 Currently there is a surge of refugees seeking to enter Europe. Which of these countries accounts for the greatest number of these refugees? Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3% Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7% South Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Ukraine Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Q3.20 Rank the following diseases in terms of how many people they have killed throughout the world in the past five years, from most to fewest: Ebola, AIDS, malaria. (percentage selected) AIDS: 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49% Ebola: 3 43% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malaria: 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% Correct ranking 35% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q3.21 Which of the following countries have 3,000 or more U.S. troops stationed in them? (select all that apply) Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25% Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67% Japan 27% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Li bya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23% Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8% South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36% Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35% 14% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Don’t Know Knowledge Questions 26

27 Q3.22 Which of the following countries have veto power over United Nations Security Council resolutions due to their status as permanent members of the Security Council? (select all that apply) Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% . . . . . . . . . . . China . . . . . . . . . 25% . France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34% Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20% India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Israel 5% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29% United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43% United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35% Finally, here are some questions about economics, trade, budgets and finance: Which of the following statements about trade are Q3.23 true? (select all that apply) The U.S. exports more than it imports . . . . . . . . 15% . The U.S. imports more from China than any other . . . . . . . . . . country . . . . . . . . . . . 79% . The U.S. exports more to Mexico than any other country . . 10% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0% Q3.24 Which country has a larger economy (i.e., total value of goods and services produced), the United States or China? The United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29% China . . . . . 67% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% Don’t Know Knowledge Questions 27

28 Q3.25 Which country is the largest trading (i.e., import/export) partner of the United States, based on total dollar value of goods and services? Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China . . . . 71% . Mexico 6% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saudi Arabia 5% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Q3.26 Approximately what percentage of the world’s population lives in the United States? Between 1% and 2% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8% Between 4% and 5% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44% . Between 10% and 12% . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28% . . Between 25% and 28% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Don’t Know 11% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q3.27 Approximately what percentage of the U.S. federal budget is spent on foreign aid? 1% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% 5% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19% . 12% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27% . 30% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13% . 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Don’t Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25% Q3.28 Which of the following best describes the role and status of the U.S. dollar? The U.S. dollar is a uniquely important currency in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29% global trade and finance The U.S. dollar is one of ten or so equally important currencies in global trade and finance . . . . . . . . . . 40% The U.S. dollar is the currency of the United States, but it has no special role for other countries . . . 20% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% Don’t Know Knowledge Questions 28

29 Section 4 Education and Awareness Measures Did you learn about any of the following topics in a Q4.1 college course? If Yes, please indicate which topics. . 27% No, I didn’t learn about any of these topics in a college course 74% Yes, I did learn about some of these topics in a college course. . Specifically: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19% Sovereignty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nationalism 39% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19% American foreign policy Cyber conflict 9% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36% Nuclear proliferation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% Migration 26% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17% . Human rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43% . International trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21% Diplomacy . . . Deterrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% . Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16% International governmental organizations . . . . . . . . 16% 34% World religions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . answers continue next page Education and Awareness Measures 29

30 International aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% . . . . . . . Intra- and inter-state conflict . . . . . . 13% . . . . . . . . . . Current world events . . . . . . 32% . Arms control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% Terrorism 28% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19% Physical geography 29% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human geography . . . . . . . 22% . . . . . . . . . . . . None of the above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% Q4.2 In comparison to your peers (i.e., friends, classmates, co-workers), would you say you are much more knowledgeable, somewhat more knowledgeable, about average, somewhat less knowledgeable, or much less knowledgeable about these kinds of global topics and issues? I am much more knowledgeable . . . . . . . . . . . . 13% . . . . . . . . . . 32% I am somewhat more knowledgeable . . . . . . . . I am about average . . . . . . . . 42% . I am somewhat less knowledgeable 10% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% I am much less knowledgeable How much of your knowledge about these kinds of Q4.3 global topics and issues comes from the college courses you have taken? A great deal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% A lot 17% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A moderate amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34% A little . . . . . . . . 26% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% None at all Education and Awareness Measures 30

31 Q4.4 How much of your knowledge about these kinds of global topics and issues comes from the high school courses you have taken? . . . . . . . . . . . . A great deal . . . . . . . 13% . A lot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20% A moderate amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34% A little . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27% None at all . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7% Which of the following types of media do you primarily Q4.5 use to learn about national and international issues? (select all that apply) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television 44% Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84% Newspapers or Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25% Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14% . None of the above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3% Q4.6 Through which of the following media platforms and news sources do you access information about national and inter-national issues? (select all that apply) . . . . . . . . . ABC News . . . . . . . . . 33% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% Apple News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22% BBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buzzfeed . . . . . . . 25% . CBS News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16% CNN 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comedy/News Programs (e.g., Daily Show , John Oliver) . . 21% Facebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43% Foreign Affairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% Fox News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23% 21% Google News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . answers continue next page Education and Awareness Measures 31

32 . 6% Guardian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Huffington Post . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26% . MSNBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% National Geographic 12% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NBC News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16% New York Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24% NPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% . Reddit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11% . Snapchat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% . Twitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24% USA Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18% Wall Street Journal 15% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington Post . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18% Yahoo! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20% 6% . None of the above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education and Awareness Measures 32

33 SECTION 5 Additional Demographic and Classification Questions Have you taken out any student loans? Q5.1 Ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50% No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50% Which of the following best describes your race or Q5.2 ethnicity? (select all that apply) White or Caucasian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61% Black or African-American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino/a . . 18% Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% Native American or other Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . . 1% . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% . 0% Prefer not to say . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Demographic and Classification Questions 33

34 Q5.3 To the best of your knowledge, which of the following best describes the educational background of your parents? . . . Both of my parents are college graduates . . . 35% . . . . One of my parents is a college graduate, but the other is not 29% One or both of my parents attended college, but neither . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . graduated 14% . . . . . . . . . 20% Neither of my parents attended college . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% Don’t Know Q5.4 How would you characterize your political orientation? Conservative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19% Moderate 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liberal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42% Q5.5 Are you currently registered to vote? Ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81% No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16% Don’t Know/Not Sure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% Have you ever voted in a national, state or local election? Q5.6 Ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No 38% Don’t Know/Not Sure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% Q5.7 In the past three years, approximately how many times have you traveled outside the United States? None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53% One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24% . Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% Three or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% Don’t Know/Not Sure Additional Demographic and Classification Questions 34

35 About the Council on Foreign Relations and National Geographic Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations is an independent, nonpartisan mem - bership organization, think tank, and publisher dedicated to being a resource for its members, government officials, business executives, jour - nalists, educators and students, civic and religious leaders, and other inter - ested citizens in order to help them better understand the world and the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other countries. CFR takes no institutional positions on matters of policy. National Geographic National Geographic is a global nonprofit membership organization driven by a passionate belief in the power of science, exploration, and storytelling to change the world. It funds hundreds of research and conservation proj - ects around the globe each year. With the support of members and donors, - National Geographic works to inspire, illuminate and teach through sci entific expeditions, award-winning journalism, education initiatives and more. For more information, visit www.nationalgeographic.org. About the Council on Foreign Relations and National Geographic 35

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