6510020586

Transcript

1 Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 User Manual 6510020586 Rev 01

2

3 CD Controls User Manual January, 2018

4 Confidentiality Statement This manual is a product of Honeywell. It is intended for use only by Honeywell and customer personnel in connection with Honeywell products. It is strictly prohibited to copy this manual or any part thereof or to transfer this manual or any part thereof to any non- Honeywell person or entity, except customer personnel for use in connection with Honeywell products. Persons employed by a third- party service company shall not have access to this manual. Notice All information and specifications contained in this manual have been carefully researched and prepared according to the best efforts of Honeywell, and are believed to be true and correct as of the time of this printing. However, due to continued effo rts in product improvement, we reserve the right to make changes at any tim e without notice. Trademarks All trademarks and registered trademarks are the properties of their respective holders. Copyright © 2018 Honeywell 500 Brooksbank Avenue, North Vancouver, BC Canada V7J 3S4 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or translated, stored in a database or retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Honeywell.

5 Table of Contents Introduction ... xiii Audience ... xiii About This Manual ... xiv Related Reading xv ... Convent ions ... xv 1. CD Controls Overview ... 1- 1 2. Scenario Switching ... 2- 1 2.1. ... 2- 1 Control Scenario Underlying Mechanism ... 2- 3 2.2. ... Grade -initiated Scenario Switch 2- 3 2.2.1. 2.2.2. User -initiated Scenario Switch ... 2- 5 2.2.3. Invalid Setup ... 2- 5 2.3. Switch Scenario ... 2- 6 2- 6 ... Edit Scenario 2.4. 2.5. 2- 6 Scenario Switching Subsystem Displays ... Scenario Switching Display 2- 7 2.5.1. ... io Display ... 2- 9 2.5.2. Edit Scenar Configure a New Scenario ... 2- 11 2.5.2.1. ... 2- 15 Edit a Scenario 2.5.2.2. Delete a Scenario ... 2- 15 2.5.2.3. 3. Measurement Processing ... 3- 1 3.1. ... 3- 1 Input Profiles 3.2. Measurement Processing Chain ... 3- 2 3.2.1. Profile Ver ification ... 3- 4 3.2.1.1. Sensor Mode Check ... 3- 4 Spike Detection ... 3- 5 3.2.1.2. 3- 6 3.2.1.3. Validation ... 3- 8 ... Interpolation 3.2.1.4. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 i

6 CD Control Table of Contents s User Manual ... 3- 8 3.2.1.5. Profile Verification Display CD Bin Resolution Mapping ... 3- 14 3.2.2. 3.2.3. ... 3- 17 MD/CD Separation (control stream and MIS stream) 3.2.3.1. MD/CD Separation Filter Application ... 3- 18 3.2.3.2. Exponential Trending Filter ... 3- 19 3.2.3.3. ... 3- 20 DAT Filter 3.2.3.4. MD CD Separation Display ... 3- 21 3.2.4. Error Generation/MIS Error Generation ... 3- 25 3.2.4.1. CD Control Mode ... 3- 25 3.2.4.2. Error Deadband ... 3- 26 3.2.4.3. 3- 26 Maximum Spread Check ... ... 3- 27 3.2.4.4. Error Generation Display Display Control Profile Filtering ... 3- 29 3.2.5. ... 3- 30 Actuator Resolution Mapping 3.2.6. Additional Functions ... 3- 31 3.3. 3.3.1. Scanner Status ... 3- 32 3.3.2. ... 3- 33 Measurement Status 3.3.3. Median Scan Times Update ... 3- 34 3.3.4. Alignment ... 3- 34 3.3.4.1. Zone Boundary Array ... 3- 35 3.3.4.2. WebTrak ... 3- 37 3- 39 ... Alignment Display 3.3.4.3. 3.3.5. 3- 43 Speed Retune ... Normalized Gain Calculation 3- 44 3.3.6. ... Adaptive Alignment ... 4- 1 4. Adaptive Alignment Logic 4- 2 4.1. ... ... 4- 3 4.1.1. Performance Monitoring Identification ... 4- 4 4.1.2. 4.1.3. 4- 4 Deployment ... ... 4- 5 4.2. Adaptive Alignment Overview Performance Monitoring ... 4- 5 4.2.1. Performance Baselining ... 4- 5 4.2.1.1. 4- 8 Picketing Detection ... 4.2.1.2. 4.2.1.3. ... 4- 9 Setpoints Smoothing Increase ... 4- 10 4.2.2. Identification Closed -Loop Active Test ... 4.2.2.1. 4- 10 4.2.2.2. Closed -Loop Alignment Identification ... 4- 11 4.2.2.3. Alignment Validation ... 4- 12 4.2.2.4. Probing Signa l Optimization ... 4- 12 4.2.3. Deployment ... 4- 13 4.2.3.1. Automatic Deployment ... 4- 13 Setpoints Smoothing Restore ... 4- 14 4.2.3.2. 4- 14 4.2.3.3. Servi ce Requests ... Adaptive Alignment Display 4.3. 4- 15 ... ii 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

7 CD Controls User Manual Table of Contents Performance Monitoring Sub- ... 4- 16 4.3.1. display Identification Sub ... 4- 23 -display 4.3.2. Deployment Sub- display ... 4.3.3. 4- 30 Adaptive Alignment Setup Guidelines ... 4- 33 4.4. 4.4.1. ... 4- 34 Performance Monitoring Setup 4.4.2. Identification Setup ... 4- 35 ... 4- 36 4.4.3. Deployment Setup Adaptive Alignment Reporting ... 4.5. 4- 36 4.6. Adaptive Alignment Troubleshooting ... 4- 37 Windows Event Viewer Messages 4.6.1. ... 4- 38 4.6.2. 4- 38 Logging Files ... ... 5- 1 5. Multivariable Controller Comparing Multivariable and Traditional Control ... 5- 1 5.1. Multivariable Control Overview ... 5- 2 5.2. ... Multivariable Controller Architecture 5- 5 5.3. 5.4. Mul tivariable Controller Requirements ... 5- 6 5.4.1. Current Profiles ... 5- 7 5.4.2. Target Profiles ... 5- 8 Process Models ... 5- 9 5.4.3. 5.4.4. Control Sample Time ... 5- 11 5.4.5. 5- 12 ... Control Horizon and Prediction Horizon 5.4.6. 5- 13 Actuator Modes and Hard Constraints ... Tuning Parameters (soft constraints) 5- 15 ... 5.4.7. Multivariable Controller Operation ... 5- 17 5.5. Matri ces Build Functions ... 5- 18 5.5.1. Measurement Predictor Function ... 5- 20 5.5.2. 5.5.3. 5- 21 Controller Function ... ... 5- 22 5.6. Multivariable Controller Displays CDMul tivariable Setup Display ... 5- 22 5.6.1. Identification Sub -displays ... 5- 23 5.6.1.1. Constraints Tab 5- 28 ... 5.6.1.2. 5.6.1.3. display ... 5- 31 Tuning Sub- ... 5- 33 5.6.2. Multivariable Diagnostics Display Process Model Identification ... 5.7. 5- 36 5.8. Tuning Multivariable Controller ... 5- 37 5.8.1. Balanced Tuning ... 5- 38 5.8.2. ... 5- 39 Relative Importance of Measurements 5.8.2.1. Change Relative Importance From Multivariable Tuner ... 5- 40 5.8.2.2. Change Measurement Weights From CD Controls ... 5- 41 5.8.3. Multivariable Spatial Robustness ... 5- 42 5- 42 5.8.4. Relative Picketing Prevention (picketing penalties) ... Change Relative Picketing Prevention from Multivariable Tuner 5.8.4.1. 5- 43 ... iii P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

8 CD Control Table of Contents s User Manual ntrols ... 5- 44 5.8.4.2. Change Picketing Penalties From CD Co Relative Energy Saving (energy penalties) 5.8.5. 5- 45 ... 5.8.5.1. Change Relative Energy Saving From Multivariable Tuner ... 5- 45 5.8.5.2. Change Energy Penalties From CD Controls ... 5- 46 5.8.6. ... 5- 47 Multivariable Dynamic Robustness 5.8.7. Relative Dynamic Robustness (aggressiveness penalties) ... 5- 48 5.8.7.1. Change Relative Dynamic Robustness From Multivariable Tuner ... 5- 48 5.8.7.2. Change Aggressiveness Penalties from CD Controls ... 5- 50 5.8.8. Additional Tuning Guidelines ... 5- 51 5.9. 5- 51 Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller ... ... 5- 53 5.9.1. Multivariable Diagnostics Display Multivariable Controls Overview Display ... 5- 53 5.9.2. Event Viewer Messages ... 5- 53 5.9.3. ... Multivariable Controller Warning/Error Codes 5- 54 5.9.4. 5.9.5. ... 5- 64 Contact Honeywell Technical Support 6. Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment ... 6- 1 6.1. Multivariable Controls Overview Display ... 6- 2 6.2. QCS Server Configuration Display ... 6- 4 6.3. Logging Configuration Display ... 6- 6 ... Processor Affinity Settings 6.4. 6- 8 6.5. 6- 10 About Display ... Controller Output Window Display 6- 10 ... 6.6. System Tray Icon ... 6- 12 6.6.1. Desktop Icon and Start Menu Program Launch ... 6- 13 6.6.2. Traditional Controller ... 7- 1 7. 7.1. 7- 3 Error Selection ... -aliasing Filter ... 7- 4 7.1.1. Anti Anti -alias Filter Windows ... 7- 6 7.1.1.1. Edge Padding ... 7- 7 7.1.1.2. Low Pass Filtering 7- 9 ... 7.1.2. 7.1.3. ... 7- 9 Error Selection Scenarios ... 7- 11 7.1.4. Error Selection Display Mapping ... 7.2. 7- 16 7.2.1. Mapping Parameters ... 7- 16 7.2.2. Mapping Display ... 7- 17 7.3. ... 7- 20 Decoupling 7.3.1. Decoupling Convolution Windows ... 7- 22 7.3.2. Decoupling Display ... 7- 23 7.4. Controller (control law) ... 7- 24 7- 26 7.4.1. Controller Initialization ... 7- 27 ... Use of Setpoints or Positions 7.4.2. iv 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

9 CD Controls User Manual Table of Contents FVDT Alpha Control Law 7- 28 7.4.3. ... Adaptive FVDT A ... 7- 30 lpha Control Law 7.4.4. PI Control Law ... 7.4.5. 7- 31 Fastback Modified PI Control Law ... 7- 31 7.4.6. Error Clamp ... 7.4.6.1. 7- 33 7.4.6.2. Multiple Break Protec tion ... 7- 34 -Windup ... 7- 36 7.4.7. Anti ... 7.4.8. 7- 37 Control Law Display 7.5. Setpoint Smoothing ... 7- 44 Blackman Smoothing 7.5.1. ... 7- 45 7.5.2. 7- 45 Deviation Limit ... ... 7- 46 7.5.3. Setpoint Smoothing HMI Setpoint Maintenance ... 7- 48 7.6. Average Maintenance ... 7- 49 7.6.1. ce Updating On Cascade Request Average Maintenan 7- 50 ... 7.6.2. 7.6.3. ... 7- 52 Energy Maintenance 7.6.4. Setpoint Maintenance Display ... 7- 53 8. Foreign Controller ... 8- 1 8.1. Voith ProfilMatic System ... 8- 2 8.1.1. Data Communication ... 8- 4 8.1.2. 8- 5 ... Link Status 8.1.3. ... 8- 5 Mode and Function Requests and Target Profiles ... 8- 7 8.1.4. Measurement Actuator Statuses ... 8- 7 8.1.5. 8.1.6. ... 8- 10 Actuator Setpoints and Positions 8.1.7. Mapped Measurement and Target Profiles ... 8- 10 8.1.8. Flush Sequence ... 8- 11 8.1.9. ... 8- 13 Configure Voith Display 8.2. Metso DNA System ... 8- 16 8.2.1. Data Communication ... 8- 18 8.2.2. Link Status ... 8- 19 8- 20 8.2.3. Mode and Function Request s ... 8.2.4. 8- 22 CD Controls Setpoints ... ... 8- 22 8.2.5. Measurement and Target Profiles Scanner and Measurement Status Information ... 8- 22 8.2.6. ... 8- 22 Actuator Statuses 8.2.7. Actuator Setpoints (Metso) and Positions ... 8- 26 8.2.8. 8.2.9. Mapped Measurement and Target Profiles ... 8- 26 8.2.10. ... 8- 27 Flush Sequence 8.2.11. Startup Profile ... 8- 27 8.2.12. Configure Metso Display ... 8- 27 8.3. VIB System ... 8- 30 8.3.1. Data Communication ... 8- 31 8- 32 ... Link Status 8.3.2. v P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

10 CD Control s User Manual Table of Contents Mode and Function Request 8- 33 8.3.3. s ... Measurement and Target Profiles 8- 34 ... 8.3.4. Actuator Statuses ... 8- 34 8.3.5. Actuator Setpoints and Positions ... 8- 35 8.3.6. Mappe d Measurement and Target Profiles 8.3.7. 8- 36 ... 9. Actuator Management ... 9- 1 ... 9- 2 9.1. Functional Overview Multiple Break Protection ... 9.2. 9- 3 9.3. Cascade Delay ... 9- 4 9.4. Beam and Zone State Calculations ... 9- 5 9.4.1. 9- 6 Requested Modes ... ... 9- 8 9.4.2. Requested Functions Flushing... 9- 9 9.4.2.1. Shutdown and Restore ... 9- 9 9.4.2.2. ... Edge Tracking 9- 9 9.4.2.3. 9.4.3. ... 9- 10 Beam and Zone Statuses 9.4.3.1. Cascade Suspended ... 9- 13 9.4.3.2. Cascade Error ... 9- 14 9.4.3.3. Cascade Locked ... 9- 14 9.4.4. Beam and Zone States ... 9- 15 9- 19 ... Beam state Calculation 9.4.5. 9.4.6. ... 9- 20 Zone State Calculation ... 9- 23 9.4.7. Regulatory Control On Cascade Control On ... 9- 23 9.4.8. 9.4.9. ... 9- 23 Init Cascade Control 9.5. Shutdown and Restore ... 9- 24 9.6. Edge Tracking ... 9- 27 9.6.1. ... 9- 27 Edge Tracking Zones 9.6.2. Edge Tracking Modes ... 9- 28 9.6.2.1. Linear Edge Tracking Mode ... 9- 29 9.6.2.2. Shape Edge Tracking Mode ... 9- 29 9.7. Setpoint Calc ulation ... 9- 31 9.7.1. ... 9- 33 Setpoint Limits ... 9- 36 9.7.2. Setpoint Deadbanding Bend Limiting ... 9.7.3. 9- 36 9.8. Additional Functions ... 9- 37 9.9. Actuator Management Displays ... 9- 39 9.9.1. ... 9- 39 Actuator Management Setup Display 10. Actuator Link Interface ... 10- 1 10.1. ODX Link Interface (profile manager/CDWeb manager) ... 10- 1 10.1.1. Link Status ... 10- 2 3 10.1.2. 10- ... Zone Mode and Function Requests vi 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

11 CD Controls User Manual Table of Contents ProFlow Flushing 10- 3 10.1.3. ... Calculation of N 4 ... 10- 10.1.3.1. umber of Flush Groups Flush Sequence ... 10- 6 10.1.3.2. DCS Link Configuration ... 10- 9 10.1.3.3. 10.1.4. ... 10- 10 Actuator Setpoints ns and Statuses ... 10- 10 10.1.5. Actuator Positio Setpoint/Position Scale Factor and Zero Offset ... 10.1.6. 11 10- 10.2. LON Over TCP/IP Interface (CDWeb manager) ... 10- 11 10.3. Serial Link Interface ... 10- 11 10.3.1. ... 10- 13 SCL Link ... 10- 14 10.3.1.1. Link Status Actuator Mode and Functional Requests ... 10.3.1.2. 14 10- 10.3.1.3. Actuator Setpoints ... 10- 15 10.3.1.4. Actuator Modes, Positions, and Statuses ... 10- 16 10.3.1.5. Additional SCL Messages ... 10- 17 10.3.2. Modbus RTU Link ... 10- 18 10.3.2.1. Link Status ... 10- 19 10- ... Actuator Mode and Functional Requests 10.3.2.2. 19 10.3.2.3. ... 10- 20 Actuator Setpoints Actuator Modes, Positions, and Statuses ... 10- 20 10.3.2.4. Additional Modbus RTU Messages ... 10- 22 10.3.2.5. ... 200/100 (MPU) Link 10- 22 10.3.3. 10.3.3.1. Link Status ... 10- 23 10.3.3.2. Actuator Mode and Functional Requests ... 10- 24 10.3.3.3. Actuator Setpoints ... 10- 24 10.3.3.4. Actuator Modes, Positions, and Statuses ... 10- 26 ... 27 10- ABB Micro Link 10.3.4. 10.3.4.1. ... 10- 27 Link Status 10.3.4.2. Actuator Mode and Functional Requests ... 10- 27 10.3.4.3. Actuator Setpoints ... 10- 28 10.3.4.4. Actuator Modes, Positions, and Statuses ... 10- 28 10.4. Actuator Link Interface Displays ... 10- 29 11. Other Displays ... 11- 1 11.1. Process Model Display ... 11- 1 12. Glossary ... 12- 1 A-1 ... A. CD Controls DSR Structure and Variables CD Controls ODX Events and Variables B. B-1 ... vii P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

12 CD Control s User Manual Table of Contents List of Figures Level Flow Diagram ... 1- 1 Figure 1 -1 CD Controls Top- ... 2- 2 Figure 2 -1 Default Scenario -2 Grade- ... 2- 4 Figure 2 Initiated Scenario Switch -3 Display Menu Bar (Scenario Switching) ... 2- 7 Figure 2 Figure 2 ... 2- 7 -4 Scenario Switching Display -5 Scenario Switch Confirmation Dialog Box 2- 8 Figure 2 ... -6 Display Menu Bar (Edit Scenario) ... Figure 2 2- 9 Figure 2 -7 Edit Scenario Display ... 2- 9 Figure 2 2- 13 -8 Save Control Scenario Dialog Box ... Figure 2 -9 Save Control Scenario Confirmation Dialog Box (not all actuators and measurements are used in the control scenario) ... 2- 13 Figure 2 -10 Save Control Scenario Confirmation Dialog Box (not all actuators are used in the control ... 2- 14 scenario) Figure 2 -11 Save Control Scenario Confirmation Dialog Box (not all measurements are used in the control scenario) ... 2- 14 ... Figure 2 -12 Delete Control Scenario 2- 16 Figure 3 ... 3- 3 -1 Measurement Processing Sequence Figure 3 -2 Display Menu Button (Profile Verification) ... 3- 9 Figure 3 -3 Profile Verification Display ... 3- 9 Figure 3 -4 DAT Filter ... 3- 20 3- 21 Figure 3 -5 Display Menu Button (MD CD Separation) ... ... -6 MD CD Separation Display Figure 3 3- 22 Figure 3 3- 27 ... -7 Display Menu Bar (Error Generation) Figure 3- 8 Error Generation Display ... 3- 28 -9 Alignment – Zone Boundary Array ... 3- 36 Figure 3 -10 Alignment: Trim Adjustments ... 3- 38 Figure 3 ... -11 Alignment: Sheet Wander (shrinkage changes) 3- 39 Figure 3 Figure 3 ... 3- 39 -12 Display Menu Bar (Alignment) Figure 3 -13 Alignment Display ... 3- 40 Figure 4 -1 Adaptive Alignment Logic ... 4- 2 Figure 4 -2 Adaptive Alignment CD Performance Monitoring Status Message ... 4- 9 Figure 4 -3 Actuator Specific Adaptive Alignment Status Message ... 4- 10 Figure 4 4- 15 -4 Display Menu Bar (Adaptive Alignment) ... Figure 4 Display ... 4- 17 -5 Adaptive Alignment Display: Performance Monitoring Sub- Figure 4 -6 Adaptive Alignment Display: Identification Sub -display ... 4- 23 Figure 4 -7 Adaptive Alignment Display: Deployment Sub- display ... 4- 30 ... Figure 4 -8 Adaptive Alignment Identification Display: Logging Sub -display 4- 38 Figure 5 ... 5- 4 -1 Multivariable Control Overview Figure 5 -2 Spatial Response Model ... 5- 9 Figure 5 -3 Dynamic Response Model ... 5- 10 Figure 5 -4 Control Horizon and Prediction Horizon ... 5- 12 5- 21 Figure 5 -5 Measurement Profiles from Asynchronous Scanners ... Figure 5 5- 22 ... -6 Display Menu Bar (CDMultivariable Setup) viii 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

13 CD Controls User Manual Table of Contents -7 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Identification (Actuator) Sub -display 5- 24 Figure 5 ... -display 5- 27 -8 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Identification (Measurable Disturbance) Sub Figure 5 ... -9 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Constraints Sub ... 5- 28 Figure 5 -display -10 CDMulti variable Setup Display: Tuning Sub- display ... 5- 31 Figure 5 Figure 5 -11 Display Menu Bar (Multivariable Diagnostics) 5- 33 ... -12 Multivariable Diagnostics Display 5- 34 Figure 5 ... -13 Multivariable Tuner Balanced Tuning ... 5- 38 Figure 5 Figure 5 ... 5- 41 -14 Changing the Relative Importance of a Measurement Figure 5 -15 Changing the Relative Picketing Prevention of an Actuator ... 5- 44 -16 Changing the Relative Energy Saving of an Actuator Figure 5 5- 46 ... Figure 5 ... 5- 49 -17 Multivariable Control Dynamics Under Balanced Tuning Figure 5 -18 Changing the Relative Dynamic Robustness of an Actuator ... 5- 50 Figure 5 -19 Multivariable Controller Error/Warning Status Message ... 5- 52 Figure 5 -20 Multivariable Controller Warning/Error Help Information ... 5- 52 Figure 6 -1 Experion MX CDMV Controls Overview Display ... 6- 2 Figure 6 -2 QCS Server Name Configuration ... 6- 5 Figure 6 ... 6- 6 -3 Logging Configuration Figure 6 -4 Processor Affinity Settings ... 6- 8 Figure 6 -5 About Display ... 6- 10 Figure 6 -6 View Controller Output Menu Item ... 6- 10 6- 11 Figure 6 -7 CDMV Controller Output Window Display ... 6- 12 ... -8 File Menu Figure 6 Figure 6 6- 12 ... -9 Selection Menu Figure 6 -10 Help Menu ... 6- 12 -11 Application System Tray Icon ... 6- 12 Figure 6 -12 Program Files Shortcut ... 6- 13 Figure 6 Figure 7 -1 Traditional Control Processing Sequence ... 7- 2 Figure 7 -2 Error Selection Algorithm ... 7- 4 Figure 7 ... 7- 8 -3 Reflection Edge Padding Mode Figure 7 -4 Display Menu Bar (Error Selection) ... 7- 11 Figure 7 -5 Error Selection Display ... 7- 11 Figure 7 -6 Display Menu Bar (Mapping) ... 7- 17 Figure 7 -7 Mapping Display ... 7- 18 -8 Zone -to-Zone Coupling Leading to Unstable Control Figure 7 7- 21 ... Figure 7 ... 7- 23 -9 Display Menu Bar (Decoupling) Figure 7 -10 Decoupling Display ... 7- 23 Figure 7 -11 First Order Plus Delay Process ... 7- 28 Figure 7 -12 Integrator Process: Caliper Response to Calcoil Bump ... 7- 31 Figure 7 -13 Fast Error Recovery Under Error Clamp Function ... 7- 34 -14 Anti Figure 7 -Windup Function ... 7- 37 Figure 7 ... 7- 37 -15 Display Menu Bar (Control Law) Figure 7 -16 Control Law Display ... 7- 38 Figure 7 -17 Display Menu Bar (Setpoint Smoothing) ... 7- 46 Figure 7 -18 Setpoint Smoothing Display ... 7- 47 7- 53 Figure 7 -19 Display Menu Bar (Setpoint Maintenance) ... ... -20 Setpoint Maintenance Display Figure 7 7- 54 ix P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

14 CD Control Table of Contents s User Manual -1 Interface Between CD Controls and Foreign Supervisory Control System 8- 2 Figure 8 ... -2 Data Communication Between CD Controls and Voith ProfilMatic System ... Figure 8 8- 3 Figure 8 -3 Management of Actuator Flush Sequence by CD Controls Voith Interface ... 8- 12 Figure 8 -4 Display Menu Bar (Configure Voith) ... 8- 13 Figure 8 h Display ... 8- 14 -5 Configure Voit Figure 8 -6 Data Communication between CD Controls and Metso DNA Systems ... 8- 17 Figure 8 -7 Beam Status Booleans from Metso ... 8- 23 Figure 8 -8 Display Menu Bar (Configure Metso) ... 8- 27 8- 28 Figure 8- 9 Configure Metso Display ... Figure 8 ... 8- 30 -10 Data Communication Between CD Controls and VIB Control System Figure 9 -1 Actuator Data Communication Flow ... 9- 2 Figure 9 -2 Actuator Beam and Zone State Calculation ... 9- 6 Figure 9 -3 Actuator Beam State Calculation ... 9- 19 -Measurement, and On Figure 9 -4 Offsheet, Off ... -Measurement Zones 9- 20 Figure 9 ... 9- 22 -5 Actuator Zone State Calculation Figure 9 -6 Shutdown and Restore Processes ... 9- 26 Figure 9 -7 Edge Tracking Zones ... 9- 28 Figure 9 -8 Linear Edge Tracking ... 9- 29 9- 30 Figure 9 -9 Low and High Edge Track Offsets ... -10 Shape Edge Tracking: Tracked Zone Moves Inwards Figure 9 9- 31 ... Figure 9 9- 31 ... -11 Shape Edge Tracking: Tracked Zone Moves Outwards Figure 9 -12 Calculation of Actuator Low Trim Position ... 9- 38 -13 Display Menu Bar (Actuator Management Setup) ... 9- 39 Figure 9 -14 Actuator Management Setup Display ... 9- 40 Figure 9 -1 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=61 G=15 10- ... Figure 10 5 Figure 10 ... 10- 5 -2 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=59 G=15 Figure 10 -3 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=50 G=15 ... 10- 5 Figure 10 -4 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=65 G=15 ... 10- 6 Figure 10 -5 First Group of Actuators at Open Positions ... 10- 7 Figure 10 7 -6 Flushing First Group Pair of Actuators ... 10- Figure 10 ... 10- 8 -7 Flushing Second Group Pair of Actuators Figure 10 -8 Flushing Last Group Pair of Actuators ... 10- 8 Figure 10 -9 200/100 (MPU) Actuator Link Setpoint Modes ... 10- 26 ... Figure 11 -1 Display Menu Bar (Process Model) 1 11- Figure 11 ... 11- 2 -2 Process Model Display List of Tables Table 2 -1 Example of a Control Scenario ... 2- 1 Table 2 -2 Edit Scenario Display Items ... 2- 10 3- 9 Table 3 -1 Profile Verification Display Items ... Table 3 3- 15 ... -2 Specification of CD Bin Resolution x 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

15 CD Controls User Manual Table of Contents -3 MD CD Separation Display Items 3- 22 Table 3 ... -4 Error Generation Display Items ... 3- 28 Table 3 Table 3 -5 Measurement Statuses 3- 33 ... Table 3 play Items ... 3- 40 -6 Alignment Dis Table 4 -1 Adaptive Alignment Display: Performance Monitoring Sub- display Items ... 4- 17 Table 4 -display Items ... 4- 23 -2 Adaptive Alignment Display: Identification Sub Table 4 -3 Adaptive Alignment Display: Deployment Sub -display Items ... 4- 30 Table 5 -1 Control Sample Time Guidelines ... 5- 11 Table 5 -2 Guidelines for selecting Control Horizon and Prediction Horizon ... 5- 13 5- 25 Table 5 -3 CDMultivariable Setup Display Identification Tab Items ... Table 5 -4 CDMultivariable Setup Display Constraints Sub 5- 29 -display Items ... -5 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Tuning Sub- ... 5- 31 Table 5 display Items -6 Multivariable Diagnostics Display Items ... 5- 34 Table 5 Table 5 -7 List of Multivariable Controller Warning/Error Codes ... 5- 54 Table 6 -1 Multivariable Controller Main Window Display Items ... 6- 3 Table 6 -2 CDMV QCS Server Name Items ... 6- 5 Table 6 gging Configuration Items ... 6- 6 -3 CDMV Lo Table 6 -4 Processor Affinity Settings Items ... 6- 9 Table 7 -1 Examples of Error Selection Setup ... 7- 9 Table 7 -2 Error Selection Display Items ... 7- 12 7- 18 Table 7 -3 Map ping Display Items ... Table 7 7- 24 ... -4 Decoupling Display Items Table 7 -5 Control Law Display Items ... 7- 38 ... -6 Setpoint Smoothing Display Items Table 7 7- 47 ... 7- 54 Table 7 -7 Setpoint Maintenance Display Items -1 Control Modes in Voith ProfilMatic System 8- 6 Table 8 ... Table 8 -2 Mode and Function Requests from CD Controls to Voith ... 8- 6 -3 Actuator Beam/Zone Status Determined by CD Controls Voith Interface ... 8- 8 Table 8 -4 Configure Voith Display Items 8- 14 ... Table 8 Table 8 -5 Control Modes in Metso DNA System ... 8- 20 -6 Mode and Function Requests from CD Controls to Metso ... 8- 20 Table 8 -7 Actuator Beam/Zone Status Determined by CD Controls Metso Interface ... 8- 25 Table 8 Table 8 -8 Configure Metso Display Items ... 8- 28 Table 8 -9 Control Modes in VIB Control System ... 8- 33 Table 8 -10 Mode and Function Requests from CD Controls to VIB 8- 33 ... -11 Inferring VIB Control Mode from Zone Status Word Bits 8- 35 Table 8 ... -1 Relationships Between Actuator Beam and Zone Modes ... Table 9 9- 7 Table 9 -2 Actuator Beam/Zone Statuses in CD Controls ... 9- 10 Table 9 -3 Actuator Beam and Zone States ... 9- 15 Table 9 ... 9- 35 -4 Actuator Setpoint Calculation Table 9 -5 Actuator Management Setup Items ... 9- 40 Table 10 -1 SCL Link Messages for Actuator Mode and Functional Requests ... 10- 15 Table 10 -2 SCL Messages for Actuator Modes, Positions, Statuses, and Actuator -related Data ... 10- 16 17 Table 10 -3 Additional SCL Messages ... 10- Table 10 19 10- ... -4 Modbus RTU Messages for Actuator Mode and Functional Requests xi P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

16 CD Control Table of Contents s User Manual -related Data Table 10 -5 Modbus RTU Messages for Actuator Modes, Positions, Statuses and Actuator ... 10- 21 22 10- ... -6 Additional Modbus RTU Messages Table 10 -7 AB 10- 28 ... B Micro Messages for Actuator Positions and Statuses Table 10 ... 11- -1 Process Model Display Items 2 Table 11 xii 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

17 Introduction This manual describes the processing and control functions in CD Controls to understand the concept behind each function, and then use each function effectively by providing optimal tuning. This manual also explains how the ks. The majority of graphical user interface associated with each function wor these interfaces are accessible only to users logged in as the Control Engineer. All references to CD Controls in this manual are to Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 unless otherwise specified. -level displays that are not described here. This manual references some operator (p/n 6510020587) Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Operator Manual Refer to for details about those displays. Audience This manual is intended for the control engineers in paper mills who are familiar with process control and responsible for tuning the control system, and for the Honeywell site personnel who provide support and maintenance services to the . amills P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 xiii

18 CD Controls User Manual Introduction About This Manual appendi two xes. This manual contains 12 chapters and Chapter 1, CD Controls Overview , provides an overview of CD Controls by outlining the processing chain, the various subsystems and their functions, and the different types of controllers. Chapter 2, , describes the mechanism of switching Scenario Switching between control scenarios online to a chieve different types of control on the sheet properties. This chapter explains the concept of a control scenario, illustrates how to configure a control scenario, and how to switch between control scenarios. Chapter 3, , describes how measurement profiles Measurement Processing are processed by the Measurement Processing subsystem, the components within the subsystem and the associated user interfaces. Adaptive Alignment Chapter 4, , describes the new Adaptive Alignment ve Alignment maintains the correct functionality in CD Controls. Adapti alignment by monitoring CD controller performance to detect misalignment, -loop (Cascade control), and automatically identifying the alignment in closed updating the alignment parameters. r Chapter 5, Multivariable Controlle , describes how the Multivariable Controller generates actuator setpoints, how the controller is tuned, and the associated user interfaces. Chapter 6, , describes the Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Multivariable Controller desktop environment that allows for the viewing of system/controller information as well as some basic configuration through a series of displays. Chapter 7, , describes the measurement error Traditional Controller processing required by the Traditional Controller, how the controller generates actuator setpoints, how the controller is tuned, and the associated user interfaces. Chapter 8, , describes the software interface between CD Foreign Controller Controls and the foreign control system and the associated user interfaces. , describes how the Actuator Management Actuator Management Chapter 9, subsystem handles actuator setpoints produced by the controllers, the functions within the subsystem and the associated user interfaces. xiv 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

19 CD Controls User Manual Introduction Actuator Link Interface the various actuator link Chapter 10, , describes how interfaces work within the Actuator Link Interface subsystem and the associated user interfaces. Other Displays , describes the additional user interfaces that are Chapter 11, available in CD Controls. Chapter 12, Glossary , define s terms and acronyms used in this manual. Appendix es A and B provide lists of CD Controls grade -dependent parameters that are stored in the recipe database and ODX events and variables. Related Reading al. The following documents contain related reading materi Honeywell P Document Title / Description art Number 6510020 589 Experion MX CD Controls R701 . 1 DCS Flushing Interface Reference Guide .0 User Manual 10 Experion MX IntelliMap R6 464 6510020 Operator Manual 6510020 587 Experion MX CD Controls R701 . 1 1 Configuration and Build 6510020 588 Experion MX CD Controls R701 . Manual Conventions The following conventions are used in this manual: Text may appear in uppercase or lowercase except as specified in these conventions. Boldface Boldface characters in this special type indicate your input. Special Type Characters in this special type that are not boldfaced indicate system prompts, responses, messages, or characters that appear on displays, keypads, or as menu selections. In a command line or error message, words and numbers shown in italics represent Italics filenames, words, or numbers that can vary; for example, filename represents any filename. In text, words shown in italics are manual titles, key terms, notes, cautions, or warnings. xv P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

20 CD Controls User Manual Introduction Boldface characters in this special type indicate button names, button menus, fields Boldface on a display, parameters, or commands that must be entered exactly as they appear. In an error message, words in lowercase are filenames or words that can vary. In a lowercase command line, words in lowercase indicate variable input. Type means to type the text on a keypad or keyboard. Type Press Press means to press a key or a button. [ENTER] o the system, or [ENTER] is the key you press to enter characters or commands int or [RETURN] to accept a default option. In a command line, square brackets are included; for example: SXDEF 1 [ENTER] [CTRL] [CTRL] is the key you press simultaneously with another key. This key is called different names on different systems; for exa mple , [CONTROL] , or [CTL] . Connected keys indicate that you must press the keys simultaneously; for example, 2 - KEY - 1] [KEY - - C . [CTRL] Click Click means to position the mouse pointer on an item, then quickly depress and release the mouse button. This action highlights or “selects,” the item clicked. Double - click Double - click means to position the mouse pointer on an item, and then click the item - twice in rapid succession. This action selects the item “double clicked.” Drag X mouse pointer to X, then press the mouse button and Drag X means to move the hold it down , while keeping the button down, move the mouse pointer. Press X Press X means to move the mouse pointer to the X button, then press the mouse button and hold it down. ppears beside a note box containing information that is icon a attention The important. The caution icon appears beside a note box containing information that cautions you about potential equipment or material damage. containing information that warns you The warning icon appears beside a note box about potential bodily harm or catastrophic equipment damage. xvi 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01

21 1. CD Controls Overview The architecture of CD Controls can be viewed as an assembly of subsystems working together to generate optimal actuator moves in response to measurement level view of the subsystems inside CD Controls -1 provides a top- Figure 1 errors. and how they interact with each other. Actuators IntelliMap Experion MX CD Controls Actuator Link Foreign Scenario Interface Controllers Switching CD Controllers Measurement Scanner Actuator Interface Actuator (Multivariable & Management Processing Units Measurements Traditional) Actuators -1 CD Controls Top Figure 1 -Level Flow Diagram The subsystems include: • Scenario Switching Measurement Processing • Multivariable Controller • 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1 - 1

22 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls Overview Traditional Controller • • Foreign Controller • Actuator Management • Actuator Link Interface The bold arrows in the diagram represent the processing sequence in CD lustrating how the measurements of sheet properties obtained from the Controls, il scanners are first processed and how the actuator setpoints are then generated by -directional the controllers based on the errors in these sheet properties. The bi arrows indicate data communications between the subsystems and between the subsystems and the external devices, primarily the actuators and the IntelliMap. The process of CD control begins with a set of measurement profiles most ent profiles are passed on to recently obtained from the scanners. The measurem the Measurement Processing subsystem in CD Controls where the measurement sampled before they are profiles are verified, interpolated, MD -filtered, down- used to produce error profiles for the controllers to generate actuator s etpoints. CD Controls provides two controller options: • Multivariable Controller • Traditional Controller. The Multivariable Controller simultaneously controls a number of sheet properties using a number of actuators. The Traditional Controller controls one sheet property using only one actuator. CD Controls also supports foreign controllers, mainly the Voith ProfilMatic, the Metso DNA™, and VIB control systems, and provides the ability to switch online between CD Controls and the Voith, Metso, or VIB actuators through the Voith, Metso, or VIB control over operator interface in CD Controls. The actuator setpoints produced by the controllers are handled by the Actuator Management subsystem before they are sent to the actuators. The Actuator determines the final actuator setpoints and states based Management subsystem on the setpoints received from the controllers or the operator, actuator statuses and alarms, control modes, and functional requests. The subsystem refines the imits, edge tracking constraints, deadbands, actuator setpoints based on operating l and bend limits. to-date status and The Actuator Management subsystem relies on the most up- alarm information from the actuators in order to determine the states and setpoints for the actuators. It then sends se tpoints, control mode, and functional requests to -forth communication is done through the Actuator and the actuators. This back- 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1 -

23 CD Controls Overview Control Scenario Link Interface subsystem, which interfaces to the actuator interface units (AIUs) eywell actuator, the AIU used is using different communication links. For a Hon the CDWeb Manager or the Profile Manager. The communication links supported -based ODX and OPC links, and serial links, namely by CD Controls are LAN SCL, Modbus RTU, 200/100 (MPU), ABB Micro and communication with ABB Smart Weight Profiler (SWP) Linear Stepper CD actuators with Accuray Direct protocol . The Scenario Switching subsystem, though not part of the processing sequence, is a mechanism running continuously to handle any changes in control scenarios, ween control scenarios. A control scenario is a control and switching bet configuration that maps actuators to controllers to measurements. It also includes the measurable disturbances to consider in the case of a multivariable controller. urable process input, such as the setpoints of A measurable disturbance is a meas an actuator beam, which affects certain measurements controlled by a multivariable controller but is not used by the multivariable controller to control s, the multivariable the measurements. With the use of measurable disturbance controller can provide feedforward capability and optimize the setpoints of the actuators it controls more efficiently. CD Controls allows any CD actuator beam e or process input configured as analog input VIOs to be defined as measurabl disturbances at system configuration/build time. An active scenario is a scenario that is currently in use. The Scenario Switching subsystem ensures a smooth transition from one control configuration to another during a scenario switch. The knowledge about the active scenario is extremely crucial to the rest of the control system in governing what processing is required, what user interactions are allowed, and what and how information is displayed. 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 -

24

25 2. Scenario Switching The Scenario Switching subsystem provides the flexibility to switch between control scenarios online to optimally control sheet properties. Depending on the process and the grade of the paper being produced, it may be desirable to switch control of sheet properties between the multivariable approach, where a number of actuators work together to control the measurements, and the tra ditional approach, where one actuator controls one measurement only. For a traditional control situation, it may even be necessary to control a measurement using different actuators at different times. Control Scenario 2.1. A control scenario is a control schem e or configuration that specifies which measurements are to be controlled by which controllers using which actuators, and what measurable disturbances to consider in the case of a multivariable controller. CD Controls allows a number of control scenarios, in addition to the default scenario, to be configured for a system. The number of control scenarios is a parameter to be selected during system configuration. Only one control scenario is used at any one time. The control scenario currently current scenario, denoted as active on the user in use is referred to as the -1 provides an example of how a control scenario may be set interfaces. Table 2 up. Table 2- 1 Example of a Control Scenario Devronizer AutoSlice 2 System Calcoil AquaTrol AutoSlice 1 X Traditional Traditional X X Reel Basis Weight Reel Moisture X X Multivariable Multivariable Multivariable X Multivariable Multivariable Multivariable Reel Caliper X P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 2 -

26 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching default A built -in scenario called the scenario is created automatically when building the system, and is given the name Traditional CD Control. This default aditional control. During scenario assigns a measurement to each actuator for tr system configuration, each actuator must be configured with a traditional controller and a measurement to control under the traditional controller. This configuration determines the mapping of actuators to controllers to measureme nts in the default scenario. The default scenario is marked as , and cannot be edited or deleted at Configured runtime. All other scenarios are marked as until they are Not Configured configured with actuators, controllers and measurements through the Edit 7) at run time. The default scenario is used as the Figure 2- display (see Scenario active scenario when the system starts up, unless a grade is loaded to override the active scenario. With automatic grade load, the scenario requested by the grade -1 shows an example of a default scenario. becomes the active scenario. Figure 2 -1 Default Scenario Figure 2 is a number A control scenario is uniquely identified by its ID, where xx CSxx CS00 starting from 00 to the allowable number of scenarios for the system. is t scenario. reserved for the defaul 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 2 -

27 Scenario Switching Underlying Mechanism A control scenario has the following attributes: a name, which is a descriptive identifier you enter when the scenario is • configured statuses indicating whether or not the scenario is configured and active • a date/time stamp indicating when the scenario was last edited • • a set of tips and guidelines 2.2. Underlying Mechanism Different paper grades often require their control scenarios to be set up -dependent. Each grade, though having differently. Scenario information is grade the same number of configurable scenarios, can have a different requested scenario (as indicated by the requested scenario ID saved to that grade) that is used when the grade is loaded. A grade can also have different measurements, cenarios, and different tuning controllers and actuators configured for its s parameters for its scenarios. The Scenario Switching subsystem needs to monitor any scenario switches initiated by the operator or a grade load, and any scenario configuration changes made by the control engineer through the display. It is also responsible for checking the validity of the current scenario configuration. In order to perform a smooth scenario transition, the Scenario Switching subsystem must work with the controllers and the Actuator Management subsystem through continual communication of specific information and requests. 2.2.1. Grade-initiated Scenario Switch The Scenario Switching subsystem monitors grade load events from the quality control system (QCS). A grade load automatically initiates a scenario switch and tri ggers a chain of events. 2 illustrates switching from a scenario of three The example shown in Figure 2- actuators controlling three measurements using the multivariable controller to a scenario of two actuators controlling two measurements using the multivariable 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 2 -

28 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching controller and one actuator controlling one measurement using the traditional controller. -2 Grade- iated Scenario Switch Figure 2 Init 2. The process begins at (1), and ends at (13) as shown in Figure 2- At (3), in Figure 2- 2, the multivariable controller is set to unavailable when the Grade Unavailable flag is set by the Scenario Switching subsystem on a grade load. The traditional controller does not pay attention to the Grade Unavailable flag. If the traditional controller is running when a grade is being loaded (not 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 - 2 P/N

29 Scenario Switching Underlying Mechanism illustrated in this example), the traditional controller is not set to unavailable and its assigned actuator is not suspended from cascade control. The traditional ctuator continues to receive new controller continues to run, and its assigned a setpoints while the grade is being loaded, until the grade is loaded and the Controller Switch Pending flag is set at (7). Also at (7), because in this case the traditional controllers are not controlling any actuators in t he scenario prior to the grade load, they would not cause any actuators to be suspended from cascade control. The Scenario Switching subsystem waits until all actuators have been suspended from cascade control riting the current scenario data as before switching to the new scenario and overw shown at (8). It then makes the controllers configured for the new current scenario active, and sets the Initialize flags for the controllers. When a traditional ensure a fresh start. When a controller is initialized, its history buffer is erased to multivariable controller is initialized, the controller’s matrices are rebuilt with the current data. Details regarding the traditional controller and the multivariable controller are covered in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. User 2.2.2. -i nitiated Scenario Switch The Scenario Switching subsystem monitors any scenario switches requested through the a scenario 4). If you make Scenario Switching display (see Figure 2- switch request, the subsystem triggers a chain of events as illustrated at (7) through (13) in Figure 2- 2. 2.2.3. Invalid Setup tantly checks the validity of the current The Scenario Switching subsystem cons scenario setup. A valid scenario has to satisfy the following criteria: A measurement can only be controlled by one controller type. It can • only be controlled by a traditional controller, a multivariable controller , or a foreign controller. In an error split situation, two traditional controllers using two different actuators control a measurement. • An actuator can only be used by one controller. A traditional controller or a foreign controller can only be configured • with one measurement and one actuator. • A measurement can only be controlled using actuators that are upstream of the scanner where the measurement is obtained. 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 2 -

30 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching If the current scenario violates any of the criteria, the Scenario Switching subsystem declares it as an Invalid Setup. All controllers in the system become cascade suspended unavailable, and no cascade control actions are allowed ( ). To resolve this situation, you need to switch to another valid scenario first to deactivate the invalid current scenario so it can be fixed, because an active scenario cannot be edited. After it is fixed, you can once again switch to the Edit corrected scenario. Normally if a scenario is configured or edited through the 7), the display enforces the criteria to ensure the display (see Figure 2- Scenario validity of the scenario. An invalid setup could most likely arise from a grade load when the grade scenario information is somehow incorrect. Switch Scenario 2.3. With either an operator or control engineer log in, it is possible to switch between configured scenarios at run time through the Scenario Switching display (see Figure 2- 4). Details of the Scenario Switching display are described in Subsection 2.5.1. 2.4. Edit Scenario With a control engineer log in, configure a new scenario, edit or delete any configured scenarios (except the default scenario and the current (active) Edit Scenario scenario), through the display (see Figure 2- 7). Details of the Edit display are described in Subsection 2.5.2. Scenario Scenario Switching Subsystem Displays 2.5. e two displays associated with the Scenario Switching subsystem: the There ar display. Edit Scenario display and the Scenario Switching 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 2 -

31 Scenario Switching Scenario Switching Subsystem Displays Scenario Switching Display 2.5.1. The Scenario Switching display can be accessed by clicking Scenario Switching under the t ab on the Display Menu bar. It is accessible to both the CD Scenarios control engineer and the operator (see -3). Figure 2 -3 Display Menu Bar (Scenario Switching) Figure 2 The 4. display is shown in Figure 2- Scenario Switching Figure 2 -4 Scenario Switching Display down arrow shows all the configured scenarios that are The leftmost drop- e right of the selector is an indicator showing available for switching. To th DSR whether the selected scenario is active (currently in use) or inactive. The button allows the current active scenario to be saved as the requested Save Page s loaded next time, that particular scenario of the current grade. When the grade i DSR Save Page scenario will be the active scenario. The button is not available to the operator. The current active scenario can be saved as the requested scenario 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 2 -

32 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching able on various displays avail DSR Save All of the current grade also by pressing that are accessible to the control engineer only. The Tips box provides a more detailed description or additional information about the selected scenario. The rest of the display is occupied by a table with , Measurement(s) , Measurable Actuator(s) columns from left to rig ht labeled Controller(s) and Disturbance(s) . These columns show what actuators, measurements, measurable disturbances, and controllers are involved in the selected control scenario. To switch to another scenario: Sel 1. ect the desired scenario using the scenario selector. The selected scenario should be inactive. 2. at the bottom of the display. The dialog box Change Setup Click shown in Figure 2- 5 appears, asking for confirmation of the scenario switch. Figure 2 -5 Scenario Switch Confirmation Dialog Box OK Commit the scenario switch by clicking 3. , or cancel the switch by clicking . Cancel 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 2 -

33 Scenario Switching Scenario Switching Subsystem Displays 2.5.2. Edit Scenario Display display can be accessed by clicking under the Edit Scenario The Edit Scenario Figure 2- bar (see Display Menu tab on the CD Scenarios 6). It is accessible to the control engineer only. Figure 2 -6 Display Menu Bar (Edit Scenario) Edit Scenario The 7 with the display areas, buttons, Figure 2- display is shown in and items labeled. Figure 2 -7 Edit Scenario Display Configure a new scenario, edit a configured scenario, or delete a configured scenario from this display. The default scenario and the current (active) scenario cannot be edited or deleted. 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 2 -

34 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching 2 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 2 Table 2- -7. Table 2- 2 Edit Scenario Display Items Description Number Name 1 Scenario Selector Provides a drop- down list of scenarios allowed for the system. Bar 2 Scenario Indicates whether or not the selected scenario has been configured. Configured Indicator 3 Scenario Active Indicates whether or not the selected scenario is active. Indicator DSR Save Page Saves the selected configured scenario to the current grade as the 4 requested scenario such that next time the same grade is loaded, that Button ll be used as the active scenario. scenario wi Scenario Name 5 Displays the name of the selected scenario. When clicked, allows the name Indicator of the selected scenario to be edited. elected Displays a detailed description or additional information about the s Tips Box 6 scenario. When clicked allows the information for the selected scenario to be edited. Selects the actuator(s) to be used in the selected scenario. All actuators in Actuators Selection 7 Panel the system are available for selection. 8 Measurements Selects the measurement(s) to be used in the selected scenario. The measurements available for selection depend on the actuators selected. If Selection Panel one actuator is selected, only measurements downstream of the selected actuator are a vailable for selection. For the case of a multivariable controller where multiple actuators are selected, measurements downstream of any of the selected actuators are available for selection, and multiple measurements can be selected. 9 Measurable Selects the measurable disturbance(s) to be used in the selected scenario. Distur bances All measurable disturbances configured for the system (except for those corresponding to actuators which are selected for the scenario being edited) Selection Panel are avail able for selection when the controller selected is multivariable. If the controller selected is not a multivariable controller, the measurement disturbances are not available for selection. Controllers Selects the controller(s) to be used in the selected scenario. All controllers 10 configured for the system are available for selection. However, if more than Selection Panel one actuator is selected or if measurable disturbances are selected, only multivariable controllers are available for selection. Adds the selected actuators, measurements, measurable disturbances (for Add Selection 11 multivariable controller only) and controller to the scenario being edited. Button 12 Selected Shows the actuators selected for the scenario being edited. Actuator(s) Panel 13 Selected Measurement(s) Shows the measurements selected for the scenario being edited. Panel Selected 14 Measurable Shows the measurable disturbances selected for the scenario being edited. Disturbance(s) Panel 2 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 1/3/18 -

35 Scenario Switching Scenario Switching Subsystem Displays Name Description Number 15 Selected Shows the controllers selected for the scenario being edited. Controller(s) Panel Saves the configuration of the scenario edited into the database. 16 Save Edit Button 17 Clear Button Clears the configuration for the selected configured scenario. The scenario Not Configured . then becomes blank and 2.5.2.1. Configure a New Scenario A control scenario is configured one controller at a time. The configuration starts uators, to selecting one or more measurements, to from selecting one or more act selecting one or more measurable disturbances (if the controller is a multivariable controller), to selecting the controller. To configure a new scenario: Using the scenario selector drop- Figure 2- 7), select a down arrow (1 in 1. scenario that shows Not Configured in the scenario configured 7). The scenario should also be inactive. If the indicator (2 in Figure 2- system has reached the allowable number of scenarios, either clear the configuration of an existing configured scenario (see Subsection 2.5.2.3) and reconfigure it as a new scenario, or edit the configuration of an existing configured scenario directly (see Subsection 2.5.2.2.). Enter a name and information for the new scenario through the 2. -7) and the Tips box (8 in text box (5 in Figure 2 Scenario Name 7). When you click the Scenario Name text box or the Tips Figure 2- box, the alphanumeric keypad appears for text entry. 3. Select th e actuator or actuators to be used by the controller. If the controller to be used is a traditional or foreign controller, select one actuator. If the controller to be used is a multivariable controller, select the desired actuator(s). If only one actuator is selected, as in the case of a traditional or foreign 4. of that actuator is available measurements downstream controller, the for selection. Select one measurement. If multiple actuators are selected, as in the case of a multivariable controller, the measurements downstream of all the selected actuators are available for selection. Select the desired measurements. All measurable disturbances configured for the system are available 5. for selection, except for those corresponding to actuators which are selected for the scenario being edited. Select the desired measurable disturbance(s). If one or more measurable disturbances are selected, 11 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 2 -

36 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching the controllers available for selection are the multivariable controllers only, because the traditional controller and the foreign controller do not support the use of measurable disturbances. Select one desired controller for the actuator(s), measurement(s), and 6. measurable disturbance(s) selected. If multiple actuators, multiple measurements, any measurable disturbances, or any combinations of these are selected, only multivariable controllers are available for selection. If only one actuator and one measurement are selected and no measurable disturbance is selected, the controllers available for selection are traditional controllers and foreign controllers. The foreign controllers are available only to those actuators that are configured with the foreign control interface (which allows the supervisory control of the actuator to be switched between CD Control s and the foreign control system) at system configuration/build time. 7. Add After the configuration for a controller is complete, click Selection to preserve the configuration in memory. The configuration appears in the Selected Actuator(s), Selected Measurement(s), Selected Measurable Disturbance(s) and Selected Controller(s) panels. Repeat Steps 3 –7 to configure other controllers. 8. 9. After all the controllers are configured, review the configuration of the to ensure there is control scenario shown in the selected item(s) panels no error. Save the configuration of the control scenario by clicking 8 to remind you . A dialog box appears as shown in Figure 2- Save Edit to OK to tune the control scenario before switching to it. Click proceed. If you did not select to use all actuators and measurements, all actuators or all measurements in the control scenario, you will see a 9, Figure 2- confirmation dialog box like the one in Figure 2- 10, or Figure 2- 11. 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 2 -

37 Scenar Scenario Switching Subsystem Displays io Switching -8 Save Control Scenario Dialog Box Figure 2 -9 Save Control Scenario Confirmation Dialog Box (not all actuators Figure 2 and measurements are used in the control scenario) 13 2 1/3/18 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N -

38 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching -10 Save Control Scenario Confirmation Dialog Box (not all Figure 2 actuators are used in the control scenario) -11 Save Control Scenario Confirmation Dialog Box (not all Figure 2 ntrol scenario) measurements are used in the co 10. If there are any errors in the control scenario configuration, the entire before it can be Clear configuration must first be deleted by clicking reconfigured from the beginning. The scenario now becomes a configured scenario available for 11. display. Verify that the tuning Scenario Switching switching on the parameters are complete and correct for the scenario before switching to it. 14 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 2 -

39 Scenario Switching Scenario Switching Subsystem Displays 2.5.2.2. Edit a Scenario To edit an existing configured scenario: down arrow (1 in Using the scenario selector drop- 7), select a Figure 2- 12. configured scenario to edit. The scenario must be a scenario other than the default scenario and must also be inactive. The configuration of the , Selected Selected Actuator(s) selected scenario shows up in the Measurement(s) , Selected Measurable Disturbance(s) and Selected panels. Controller(s) You must first clear the configuration of the selected control scenario 13. 2.5.2.3. before editing it. Follow the procedure in Section Scenario Name Edit the name and tips for the scenario through the 14. text box and the Tips box using the alphanumeric keypad provided. –11 in Section 2.5.2.1. Perform Step 3 15. 2.5.2.3. Delete a Scenario To delete an existing configured scenario: down arrow, select a configured 16. Using the scenario selector drop- scenario to delete. The scenario must be a scenario other than the default scenario and it must also be inactive. The configuration of the , s) Selected selected scenario shows up in the Selected Actuator( Measurement(s) , Selected Measurable Disturbance(s) and Selected panels. Controller(s) Verify the selected scenario is the one to delete. 17. Click 18. Figure 2- . A confirmation dialog box (see 12) appears Delete asking you to confirm or cancel the delete. 15 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 2 -

40 CD Controls User Manual Scenario Switching -12 Delete Control Scenario Figure 2 6510020586 Rev 01 - 16 P/N 1/3/18 2

41 3. Measurement Processing The Measurement Processing subsystem is the first component in the processing chain of CD Controls. The Measurement Processing subsystem receives the most recent CD profiles of sheet properties from the QCS gauging and measurement handling subsystems at each end of scan of the scanners. It then processes the measurement profiles by verifying the data, interpolating invalid data points, down- sampling the profiles, filtering the MD components from the profiles to r profiles produce stable and valid CD profiles for control, and generating the erro for the traditional controllers. 3.1. Input Profiles The most recent CD profiles of the sheet properties may have been obtained from one sensor directly, or from a number of sensors on one or more scanners. The QCS gauging and measurement subsystems processes these raw profiles by converting them into engineering units, determining the overall validity of the profiles, and identifying offsheet positions and individual invalid sensor readings Now profiles. as the within the onsheet portion. The resultant profiles are known If the instantaneous scan computation function is enabled, the QCS measurement profiles by averaging the last Trued Now handling subsystem also computes the -frequency MD variations measurement profiles to remove the medium Now two in the profiles caused by process changes and the zigzag pattern of the effective scanning path over the sheet. If the instantaneous scan computation is disabled, the Trued Now profiles are set equal to the Now profiles. The Measurement Processing subsystem in CD Controls takes the Now profiles, and the Trued Now profiles if available, of the sheet properties as the input profiles. If the Trued Now profiles are available, the Measurement Processing subsystem process these profiles instead of the Now profiles for control purposes. The Now profiles are mapped to the CD bin resolution. These mapped Now profiles are used by the foreign control systems to perform CD control on the sheet properties. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 3 -

42 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain 3.2. ng subsystems only provide The QCS gauging and measurement handli preliminary processing for the measurement profiles. More sophisticated processing of the CD profiles relies on the Measurement Processing subsystem inside CD Controls. The subsystem further manipulates the profiles by spike detection, validation, interpolation, down sampling and MD performing filtering, and generating error profiles for control purposes and separate profiles for display purposes. The main processing sequence in the Measurement Processing subsystem is illustrated in Figure 3- 1. The diagram uses the moisture profile (MS11) and the moisture actuator (MP1) as an example. The dotted lines indicate profiles that are input to the vari ous controllers. The processing sequence executes at the end of scan of each scanner, and handles all measurements obtained from that scanner. If a scanner is not scanning for reasons other than standardization, all measurements obtained from that scanner Not Scanning status. The processing of the measurements is halted are set to a until the scanner resumes scanning. The Measurement Processing subsystem is also responsible for updating the median scan times of the scanners, aligning the actuators with their downstream scanners, calculating machine speed and normalized gains, and performing speed retune to update process response models. All of these tasks are described at the end of this chapter. 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

43 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain "Now " Profiles CD Bin "Now " Profiles " Profiles "Trued Now 11-CDNW ) (MS (MS ) 11NA 11TN ) (MS Foreign Controller " Profiles "Trued Now CD Bin CD Bin (MS ) 11-CDTRNW Sensor Mode Resolution Check Mapping "Now " Profiles or "Trued Now " Profiles 11-TRNW (MS 11-NW or MS ) CD Bin Resolution n o Spike Detection i n t o u i l t o a s c i e f i R Validated Profiles r e n i (MS ) 11-VAL V B e l i S f C o r Q P Validation Interpolation Interpolated Profiles 11-INT ) (MS CD Bin Resolution Mapping CD Interpolated Profiles ) 11-CDINT (MS MIS Stream (for display purposes ) Control Stream MIS MD Trending MD Trending n o CD Relative Target Profiles i t u ) 11-RBT (MS l o s e Multivariable C R D Controller n C i C D (MS11-CTRL-TRND) B o Control Target Profiles (MS11-CTRL-ABT) n D t C r MIS Error o Error Generation l MD Trend Profiles Generation CD MIS Trend Profiles CD Control Error Profiles C (MS11-MIS-TRND) D (MS 11-CTRL ) -ERR CD Effect Profiles (MS11-MIS-ABT) MIS Target Profiles (MS -ERR 11-MIS ) Traditional Display Control Controller Profile Filtering Actuator Actuator n Resolution Resolution o i t Mapping Mapping u l o s e R ) Mapped MIS Trend Profiles Mapped Control Trend Profiles e n -TRND) 11-MIS 1-MS (MP ) -TRND 11-CTRL 1-MS (MP o Z ( Mapped MIS Error Profiles Mapped Control Error Profiles r o (MP -ERR 11-MIS ) 1-MS 11- 1-MS -ERR ) (MP CTRL t a u t Mapped Control Target Profiles Mapped MIS Target Profiles c -MBT (MS 11-MP 1-CTRL ) A ) (MS 11-MP 1-MIS -MBT Figure 3 -1 Measurement Processing Sequence 3 6510020586 Rev 01 3 P/N 1/3/18 -

44 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing 3.2.1. Profile Verification functions: The Profile Verification function encompasses four sub- • Sensor Mode Check • Spike Detection • Validation Interpolation • The objective of the Profile Verification function is to verify the validity of the Now profiles and the Trued Now profiles (if available) received from the QCS gauging subsystem, and to perform interpolation on invalid data points so that the resultant profiles are suitable for further processing by subsequent functions, and ultimately, for cascade control. Sensor Mode Check 3.2.1.1. The Profile Verification function first performs the Sensor Mode Check function. The Sensor Mode Check function pads the offsheet bins in the Now profiles and the QCS gauging subsystem the Trued Now profiles (if available) received from with zeros. The offsheet bins are marked Offsheet for status. The Sensor Mode Check function performs linear interpolation on the onsheet bins that contain (Not a Number), or are found to be erroneous by the QCS gauging NaNs subs ystem. These onsheet bins are marked Invalid for status. If the QCS gauging subsystem fails to provide the latest measurement profiles, or if it provides bad profiles, the Sensor Mode Check function stops the rest of the Measurement Processing subsystem fr om processing the measurement profiles. The processing of a given measurement profile is halted if any of the following conditions occur for that measurement: The QCS gauging subsystem has not processed the measurement. The • status on the Profile Missing res Sensor Mode Check function decla flag is True set to Sensor Disabled Or Invalid measurement. The indicating sensor problems. This flag is displayed on the Profile 3) Verification display (see Figure 3- The QCS gauging subsystem has declared the measurement to be • Invalid Readings invalid. The Sensor Mode Check function declares status on the measurement • The sensor/scanner from which the measurement is obtained is in simulating mode and the measurement is set to Control On Sensor 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

45 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain Simulation off in CD Controls. The Sensor Mode Check function status on the measurement declares Simulation • rom which the measurement is obtained is in MH The sensor/scanner f limits lifted mode and the measurement is set to Control On Limits Lifted off in CD Controls. The Sensor Mode Check function declares status on the measurement Limits Lifted If any of the above conditions occur for a measurement, the Cascade Control -3) for that Profile Verification display (see indicator on the Figure 3 Disabled measurement shows red to indicate that the processing of the measurement is stopped and that the measurement is not under cascade control. The Control On Limits Lifted and the Control On Sensor Simulation parameter on the display are two options to set for each Profile Verification measurement. By set ting the Control On Sensor Simulation, you decide whether or not to process and subsequently control the measurement when the sensor providing the measurement is in simulation mode (for example, to use simulated rification). By setting the Control On -line control ve measurement profiles for off Limits Lifted, you decide whether or not to process and subsequently control the measurement when the sensor providing the measurement is in limits lifted mode surement during grade (for example, to process and subsequently control the mea changes). The Sensor Mode Check function also maps the Now and Trued Now profiles of the measurements to the CD bin resolution in the same way as described in Subsection 3.2.2. For measurements that are controlled by the foreign controllers, their mapped Now profiles are sent to the foreign controllers as input profiles. If a measurement profile passes the checks performed by the Sensor Mode Check Valid status. The individual measurement bins have statuses as function, it has a Offsheet, if they are offsheet, and Valid or Invalid based on the error flags from the QCS gauging subsystem. The Sensor Mode Check function increments the scan counter of the measurement. The measurement profile goes to the next processing block Spike Detection where spikes in the profile are detected. Spike Detection 3.2.1.2. The Spike Detection function is optional, meaning you can enable or disable it for Profile Verification display. The Spike Detection a measurement from the function is disabled by default. With Spike Detection enabled, each bin of a measurement profile (provided that it has been declared onsheet and valid by the ge of its onsheet valid neighbor QCS gauging subsystem) is compared to the avera bins on both sides. If the value at the bin exceeds the average by more than the maximum allowable amount, that bin is declared a Spike. 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

46 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Bins near the edges of the sheet often have fewer neighbor bins than the number ied to be used for comparison. In this case, only the available neighbor bins specif are used. A minimum of two valid neighbor bins, one on each side of the bin under scrutiny, are required for spike detection. If a bin has fewer than two valid neighbor bins, it is assumed a non- spike. The number of neighbor bins to be used for comparison, the maximum allowable deviation between the bin under scrutiny, and the average of its neighbor bins are Maximum and the Number Of Neighbors specified respectively by the Deviat Profile Verification parameter, which can be edited through the ion display. Validation 3.2.1.3. The output profile of the Spike Detection function is then verified by the Validation function, which checks the overall validity of a measurement profile in order to determine whether or not the profile is suitable for cascade control. The function performs a series of tests in this order: 19. Short Profile. 20. Duplicate Profile. Minimum Valid. 21. 22. Invalid Cluster (Wide Spikes). MD Upset. 23. If a measurement profile fails one test, it is declared an invalid profile, and it does not go through the subsequent tests. The processing of that measurement is stopped. Additionally, even though a measurement profile is declared as Valid by the rrors detected in the rest of the Validation function, any internal computational e measurement -processing chain could cause the profile to have a Processing Error status, making the profile invalid. Short Profile A measurement profile is first checked for being too short by checking the s that are onsheet out of the total number of bins in the profile. If percentage of bin this percentage falls below the minimum allowed percentage, the measurement profile is considered a Short profile, and is not processed further for control. 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

47 Measure Measurement Processing Chain ment Processing Min. age of onsheet bins is specified by the The minimum allowable percent Percent Onsheet Profile parameter, which can be edited through the display. Verification Duplicate Profile A measurement profile is checked to see if it is a duplicate of its previous profile. Each onsheet bin i n the current profile is compared to its equivalent in the previous profile. If all onsheet bins in the current profile are found to be identical to those in the previous profile, the current profile is considered a Duplicate profile, and is not processed further for control. Minimum Valid A measurement profile is checked for not having sufficient valid data points by checking the percentage of valid onsheet bins out of the total number of onsheet centage, the bins. If this percentage falls below the minimum allowed per measurement profile is declared a profile with Invalid Readings status, and is not processed further for control. Min. The minimum allowable percentage of valid onsheet bins is specified by the Profile Verification ugh the Percent Valid parameter, which can be edited thro display. Invalid Cluster A measurement profile is checked to see if it contains large clusters of adjacent invalid bins in the onsheet portion of the profile. If the profile contains at least one exceeding the maximum acceptable number of cluster of invalid onsheet bins adjacent invalid bins, the profile is considered a profile with Wide Spikes, and is not processed further for control. The maximum acceptable number of adjacent invalid onsheet bins is specified by Max. Adjacent Valid the parameter, which can be edited through the Profile display. Verification MD Upset The last check in the Validation function is to examine the stability of a measurement profile. A measurement profile is considered unstable with MD Upset if it sh ows substantial changes in its average from one scan to another. In the MD Upset check, the average of the current profile is compared to the average of its previous profile. If the difference between the two averages exceeds the maximum allowable average change, the current profile is declared a profile with MD Upset, and is not processed further for control. The time gap between the current and the previous profile has to be within a certain period for the MD Upset check to be valid. This time gap is limi ted by the 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

48 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing History Lifespan parameter, which specifies the maximum allowable time in seconds between the current and the previous profile. If the history lifespan is exceeded, the current profile is not checked for MD upset. This is to avoid incorrectly declaring a measurement profile collected after a sheet break is cleared as MD Upset and suspending cascade control, because the profile average after a sheet break is often substantially different from its previous value before the sheet break. The Max Aver age Change parameter specifies the maximum allowable average Both the . change between the current and previous profiles of a measurement History Lifespan and the Max. Average Change can be edited through the Profile Verification display. Exercise caution when editing the History Lifespan parameter because this parameter is also used by the MD Trending function to determine whether or not to reset the filter. 3.2.1.4. Interpolation The Interpolation function interpolates all invalid onsheet bins in a measurement profile, including the spikes. The function checks for invalid onsheet bins close to the sheet edges. If the first (or last) onsheet bin is invalid, the function searches for the first (or last) valid onsheet bin and pads all bins from the first (or last) onsheet bin up to the first (or last) valid onsheet bin with the value of the first (or last) valid onsheet bin. For the rest of the invalid onsheet bins in the middle of the sheet, the function performs a linear interpolation between two valid bins on both sides of an invalid bin or a cluster of adjacent invalid bins. The zeros of the invalid bins are replaced by some linearly interpolated values. These interpolated bins now have an zero Interpolated status. The output profile of the Interpolation function have non- values for all its onsheet bins and zeros for its offsheet bins. 3.2.1.5. Profile Verification Display The Profile Verification display shows and allows editing of paramete rs associated with the sub -functions within the Profile Verification function. It also displays the input profile and the output profile of the Profile Verification Profile Verification Profile display can be accessed by clicking function. The CD Measurements under the Verification bar (see Display Menu tab on the 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

49 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain display is accessible to the control engineer Profile Verification 2). The Figure 3- only. Figure 3 -2 Display Menu Button (Profile Verification) Profile Verification The 3 with the display areas, display is shown in Figure 3- buttons, and items labeled. -3 Profile Verification Display Figure 3 The display objects that are common to most Measurement Processing displays are described once in the section where the display containing the objects first appear. Table 3- 1 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 3 -3. Table 3- 1 Profile Verification Display Items 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

50 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Description Name Number Measurement down list of the measurements configured for CD control - Provides a drop 1 Selector Bar in the system 2 Lists the actuator(s) used to control the selected measurement in the Actuator List Box current active scenario. 3 Database Function Buttons - dependent parameters shown on the display to the Saves all grade 3a DSR Save Page current grade. DSR Save All 3b Saves all CD Controls grade- dependent parameters to the DSR database. This operation may take up to a minute depending on the number of parameters involved. Apply Changes Saves the edited parameters on the display to the RTDR. This button, 3c normally grayed out, flashes in red when you have edited parameters on the display to prompt you to save the changes. Discard Changes Undoes the changes made to the parameters on the display without 3d saving to the RTDR. This button, normally grayed out, becomes available when you have edited parameters on the display. 4 Control Check Displays and allows editing of parameters associated with t he Sensor (Sensor Mode Mode Check function. Check) Panel 4a Control On Limits When checked allows processing of the selected measurement when the sensor from which the measurement is obtained is in limits lifted mode. Lifted This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 4b Control On Sensor When checked allows processing of the selected measurement when the senor from which the measurement is obtained is in simulation mode. Simulation This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Indicates if the processing (that is, cascade control) of the selected ascade Control 4c C Disabled measurement is stopped (red) or not (gray). 4d Sensor Disabled or Indicates if the sensor from which the selected measurement is obtained Invalid is disabled/invalid (red) or not (gray). 4e Indicates if the sensor from which the selected measurement is obtained Limits Lifted is in limits lifted mode (red) or not (gray). nt is obtained 4f Sensor In Simulation Indicates if the sensor from which the selected measureme is in simulation mode (red) or not (gray). 4g Scan Time Out Displays and allows editing of the period in seconds used by the Scan Timeout Timer to determine whether or not the scanner is scanning (see Period 3.3.1 ). Click on the indicator to edit the Scan Time Out Period. Subsection This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. 10 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

51 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain Description Number Name Spike Detection Displays and allows editing of parameters associated with the Spike 5 Detection function. Panel Enabled 5a When checked, enables the Spike Detection function on the measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Maximum Deviation Displays and allows e diting of the maximum allowable deviation between 5b a given bin and its neighbor bins. This indicator is normally grayed out and is available only when the Spike Detection function is enabled. This e. parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR databas Displays and allows editing of the number of neighbor bins to be used for Number Of 5c comparison in the Spike Detection function. This indicator is normally Neighbors grayed out and is available only when the Spike Detection function is enabled. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 5d Number Of Spikes Indicates the number of spikes detected in the selected measurement profile. Validation Panel Displays and allows editing of parameters associated with the Validation 6 function. Min. Percent 6a Displays and allows you editing of the minimum percentage of onsheet bins the measurement profile must have in order to be considered valid. Onsheet This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Displays and allows you editing of the minimum percentage of valid bins 6b Min. Percent Valid the measurement profile must have in order to be considered valid. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Displays and allows you editing of the maximum allowable invalid Max. Adjacent Invalid 6c adjacent bins the measurement profile could have in order to be considered valid. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 11 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

52 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Number Name Description 6d Max. Average editing of the maximum average change the Displays and allows you current measurement profile can have compared to the last received Change profile in order to be considered valid. This parameter is used for MD Upset check. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR datab ase. 6e History Lifespan Displays and allows you editing of the maximum allowable time in seconds between the current and the previous profile to be used for MD (sec) Upset check. The same history lifespan is also used by the MD Trending mine whether or not to reset the filter. This parameter is function to deter grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. ) units Max. Spread ( Displays and allows you editing of the maximum spread the measurement 6f dered valid. The units can have in order for its current profile to be consi depend on the units of the measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Indicates the number of invalid bins in the current profile of the selected 6g Number Invalid measurement. 6h Measurement Status Indicates the status of the current profile of the selected measurement. Input Profile Selector Provides a drop 7 down list of input profiles for the function if there is more - than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Profile Verification Bar function, there is only one input profile to be displayed. It is the Now profile, or the Trued Now profile if available, of the selected measurement. 8 Graph Function Buttons 8a graph. The frozen profile When pressed freezes the current profile on the Freeze Button is displayed together with the latest profile until the button is Freeze Freeze released. When pressed, the button becomes depressed with an orange background and shows the time stamp of the frozen profile. 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

53 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain Description Number Name Scale Mode 8b When cl icked opens a scale mode window for setting the y - scale of the graph. Choose from the following scaling options: -scale of the graph • Auto Scale – this option adjusts the y automatically based on the range of the display profile. • Fixed Scale – this option fi xes the y -scale of the graph to be between the specified Minimum Limit and Maximum Limit. • Fixed Span – this option fixes the range of the y -scale of the graph to the specified Scale Span. The average of the display profile is at the midpoint of the y -scale range. - Zooms in on the graph at the x Zoom In 8c position where the cursor is located. Zooms out of the graph at the x -position where the cursor is located. The Zoom Out 8d Zoom Out button is normally grayed out, and is available only when the s zoomed in. graph i Input Profile 9 Indicates the date/time stamp of the input profile displayed on the graph. Date/Time Stamp 10 Input Profile Graph Displays the current input profile of the function. Input Profile 11 Displays the scale mode of the graph where the input profile is displayed, the statistics of the profile, the graph cursor position and the profile value Information Panel at the cursor position. - 11a Scale Mode Indicator Displays whether the y scale of the graph is in Auto Scale, Fixed Scale or Fixed Span mode. 11b Spread Displays the spread of the display profile. The spread is a multiple of ) determined by the Std Dev Multiple of the system. standard deviation ( σ Maximum 11c le. Displays the maximum value of the display profi 13 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

54 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Number Name Description 11d Average Displays the average of the display profile. Minimum Displays the minimum value of the display profile. 11e Profile Value Displays the profile value at the graph cursor position. 11f 11g Cursor Position Displays the cursor position of the graph. Depending on the resolution of the display profile, the cursor position can be expressed in QCS bin, CD bin or zone. When clicked, the cursor position indicator allows you to enter a cursor position to move the cursor. Output Profile down list of output profiles for the function if there are 12 Provides a drop- more than one output profile to select for viewing. For the Profile Selector Bar Verification function, there is only one output profile to be displayed. It is ed profile of the selected measurement. the validated and interpolat 13 Graph Function Buttons 14 Output Profile Indicates the date/time stamp of the output profile displayed on the graph. Date/Time Stamp 15 Displays the current output profile of the function. Output Profile Graph 16 Output Profile Displays the scale mode of the graph where the output profile is displayed, the statistics of the profile, the graph cursor position and the Information Panel profile value at the cursor position. When -dependent parameters in CD is pressed to save all grade DSR Save All Controls to the Recipes (DSR) database, the save process may take up to a minute depending on the number of parameters involved. A status message CD DSR Save appears at the bottom of the screen to indicate the save process is taking In Progress place, and disappears after the save process is complete. During the DSR save process, avoid editing any CD Controls parameters that are not intended to be saved encounters an error, a status to the Recipes database. If the DSR save process appears to warn of the situation. CD DSR Save Error message CD Bin Resolution Mapping 3.2.2. The CD measurement profiles received from the QCS measurement handling subsystem are in a resolution determined by how the scanner samples these measurements. This resolution is referred to as the scanner resolution or the QCS bin resolution ement Processing subsystem of CD Controls, the . In the Measur measurement profiles are mapped to a lower resolution known as the CD bin resolution. The advantages of the CD bin resolution are: Scanners may sample measurement profiles at different resolutions. • The CD bin resolution provides one standard resolution for all measurement profiles from all scanners. The CD bin resolution is important to the multivariable CD controller which requires its input measurement profiles to be in the same resolution. 14 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

55 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain ion is generally set lower than the scanner The CD Bin Resolut • resolutions to reduce the computation load in solving the multivariable CD control optimization problem. At the same time, the CD Bin Resolution must be sufficient in providing good definitions of process respons e shapes. • The CD bin resolution can protect against the problem of array size mismatch as a result of changing scanner resolution at run time. The problem occurs when calculating the error profiles for the traditional CD controller or for display purposes, because the measurement profiles and the bias target profiles in the RTDR database and the recipe (DSR) database are at different resolutions. The CD bin resolution is determined during system configuration by specifying the number of CD bins in the confi guration environment. The CD Effect Profile and CD Effect Spread which is displayed on the CD Control display and reported in the MIS report to provide an indication of how well the CD control is performing are now calculated based on CD Bin resolution. The relative target profile (also known as the bias target profile) used to bias a CD measurement profile is now stored in CD Bin resolution. Most customers prefer the target profile to be represented in a site- specific s typically chosen so that the scanner or QCS lower resolution. This resolution i bin resolution is an integer multiple of this lower resolution. Since the target profile is always stored in CD bin resolution, we recommend setting the number of CD bins to be at least 3 times the number of zones of the CD actuator with the largest number of zones configured for the system, and that the scanner or QCS bin resolution is an integer multiple of the chosen CD bin resolution. Table 3- 2 illustrates how to select the optimal CD bin resolution using a two - scanner, two -actuator system as an example. Table 3- 2 Specification of CD Bin Resolution Example Size Press Devronizer AutoSlice Reel Scanner CD Bin Resolution QCS Scanner ( (CD bins) (zones) bins) (zones) (QCS bins) 1 300 400 60 60 200 2 400 400 60 80 300 15 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

56 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Example Size Press Reel Scanner AutoSlice Devronizer CD Bin Resolution Scanner ( QCS (CD bins) (zones) bins) (zones) (QCS bins) 3 400 60 120 600 800 4 120 800 600 60 600 5 150 800 60 600 800 • 2), the CD bin resolution is calculated to be at least 180 CD Bins Table 3- In Example 1 ( , and then set to 200 CD Bins so the (max number of actuator zones = 60, multiplied by 3) lution of the Reel Scanner ( 400 QCS bins ) is a multiple of the chosen CD Bin reso resolution. • In Example 2, the CD bin resolution is calculated to be at least 240 CD Bins (max , and then set to 400 CD Bins so the number of actuator zones = 80, multiplied by 3) resolution of the Reel Scanner ( 400 QCS bins ) is a multiple of the chosen CD Bin resolution. The Measurement -Processing subsystem up- samples the measurement profiles obtained from the Size Press Scanner to the CD bin resolution, because the resolution of the Size Press Scanner is lower than the CD bin resolution. In Example 3, the CD bin resolution is calculated to be at least 360 CD Bins • (max number of actuator zones = 120, multiplied by 3) , and then set to 400 CD Bins so that the 800 QCS bins ss Scanner ( resolution of the Size Pre ) is a multiple of the chosen CD Bin resolution. • In Example 4, the CD bin resolution is calculated to be at least 360 CD Bins (max , and then set to 600 CD Bins so the number of actuator zones = 120, multiplied by 3) 600 QCS bins ) is a multiple of the chosen CD Bin resolution of the Reel Scanner ( resolution. In Example 5, the CD bin resolution is calculated to be at least 450 CD Bins • (max number of actuator zones = 150, multiplied by 3) , and then set to 800 CD Bins so the ) is a multiple of the chosen CD Bin 800 QCS bins resolution of the Reel Scanner ( -Processing subsystem up- resolution. The Measurement samples the measurement profiles obtained from the Size Press Scanner to the CD bin resolution, because the resolution of the Size Pr ess Scanner is lower than the CD bin resolution. The Measurement Processing subsystem performs CD Bin Resolution Mapping on three profiles of each measurement: the Now profile • • the Trued Now profile (if available) after it is processed by the Sensor Mode Check function 16 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

57 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain the output profile of the Interpolation function • The Now profile is mapped to the CD bin resolution. If the measurement is controlled by a foreign control system, its mapped Now profile is sent to the foreign control system as the input me asurement profile for CD control. The foreign controller generally demands input measurement profiles at a resolution lower than the QCS bin resolution. The foreign controller software performs its ation on the input profiles. own verification, interpolation, filtering and error gener As for the output profile of the Interpolation function, it is mapped to the CD bin resolution before moving onto the next stage of processing. m -alias filtered to prevent high frequencies fro The input profile must first be anti showing up in the output profile as phantom low frequencies. Prior to being -resolution profiles are filtered mapped down to the CD bin resolution, the scanner using the Low Pass Hamming Window with the half order equal three times the of QCS bins to the number of CD bins and the cutoff ratio of the number frequency equal the ratio of the number of CD bins to the number of QCS bins. The mapping of a scanner -resolution profile to the CD bin resolution is linear as it -resolution profile is divided is strictly a change in profile resolution. The scanner evenly into a number of sections that is equal to the number of CD bins. The -resolution profile in each section, rounded to the lower midpoint of the scanner bin. The QCS bins in a measurement bin, is assigned to its corresponding CD section must all contain valid data in order for a value to be mapped to its corresponding CD bin. A CD bin with a valid value mapped to it has a Valid status, and a CD bin without a valid value mapped has an Invalid status. If the majority of the QCS bins in a section are offsheet, the corresponding CD bin is given an Offsheet status. 3.2.3. MD/CD Separation (control stream and MIS stream) The processing of the verified and interpolated CD bin profile branches off into two streams at the M D/CD Separation function: Control Stream processes the profile and generates the error profile for • cascade control MIS stream processes the profile and generates the error profile for • MIS reporting and display purposes In the Control Stream, the MD/CD Separation function filters the CD bin profile to separate out the MD noise from the true stable CD profile for control purposes. A profile obtained by a single sensor that scans across the sheet contains a s of CD and MD variations mixture of CD and MD variations. The relative amount 17 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

58 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing depend on a number of factors, including the grade of the paper and the ratio of the scanner speed to the machine speed. The normal assumption made in performing the separation is that MD variations occur at significantly higher frequencies than CD variations. MD variations can be separated out from the profile by filtering the profile in time domain. The MD/CD Separation function is optional for the Control Stream. Enable or abled by default. When disable it for a measurement. The MD/CD Separation is en enabled, choose whether to use the Exponential Trending Filter or the Dynamic Adaptive Trending (DAT) Filter. If you select the Exponential Trending Filter, you need to supply a filter factor. If the DAT Filter is selected, you need to supply multiple filter factors and the noise range. Select the filter type and the amount of filtering based on the magnitudes and frequencies of the dominant MD variations relative to the scan rate. In the MIS Stream generating profiles for display purposes, the profiles are MD - filtered using a separate exponential trending filter that works in the same way as that in the Control Stream. The filter factor is by default set to equal the filter factor used by the Gauge Support Processor (GSP) in the QCS if the measurement is configured with the MIS trending option provided by the GSP. Otherwise, the filter factor is defaulted to a value of 0.6. Specifying a different filter factor to be used by both the MIS MD/CD Separation function can be done in CD Cont rols and the GSP MIS trending function. Enable or disable the MD/CD Separation function, select the filter type, initialize the filter, and edit the filter parameters for the control stream, as well as the filter MD CD Separation n, through the factor for the MIS MD/CD Separation functio 6. display in Figure 3- MD/CD Separation Filter Application 3.2.3.1. The MD/CD separation filter is applied to each onsheet bin (CD bin) of the current unfiltered measurement profile over time. Essentially, each onsheet measurement bin has its own MD filter. Both the Exponential and the DAT Filter involve a weighted averaging of consecutive profiles in the time domain. Weighting allows more emphas is to be placed on the historical running average relative to the newly obtained profile. Hence, both filter options require previous filtered profile data to be stored. Each onsheet bin of the measurement profile has its own filter scan counter, last filtered profile value, and timestamp, which are updated each time the measurement bin is filtered. For each onsheet measurement bin, the filter goes through an initial charging phase where the filter factor is gradually reduced from 1.0 down to the specified ecause there has not yet been sufficient historical information rolled into value. B the last filtered profile data, the last filtered profile data should not be weighted too heavily at the beginning. This prevents unrepresentative values in the last 18 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

59 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain filtered profile data from inadvertently skewing the filtering process. The filter is considered charg ed after its filter factor reaches the specified value. If the time elapsed between the previous filtered value and the current value of a measurement bin exceeds the specified History Lifespan (see Subsection 3.2.1.3) for the measurement, the previous filtered profile data is considered too old to be valid for MD filtering. In this case, the previous filtered profile data are discarded and the filter is automatically initialized for that measurement bin. When the filter is initialized, the filter scan counter is reset to zero, the filtered profile value is set to the current unfiltered value, and the timestamp of the filtered value is set to the current time. The filte r goes through the charging phase again. From the perspective of the entire measurement profile, the MD filter for the measurement is charged if at least 80% of the measurement bins have their individual MD filters charged. The Measurement Processing subsy stem automatically forces the MD filters of all onsheet measurement bins of the measurements to initialize upon the next scan when the scanner providing the measurements stops scanning for an extended period of time exceeding the Scan Timeout Period and then resumes scanning. You can also perform global initialization on a measurement by clicking on the MD CD Separation Initialize Figure 3- display (see 6). Exponential Tr ending Filter 3.2.3.2. The Exponential Trending Filter provides MD filtering by generating a weighted average of the current unfiltered and the past filtered value for each onsheet bin in a measurement profile. A persistent step change in the measurement value show s up in the output profile in an exponential fashion. This equation describes the operation of the Exponential Trending Filter: − − + y t ff y t ( ff y t ( = ) 1 ( ) 1 ) ( ) f r f where is the current filtered measurement value. ( ) t y f red measurement value of the previous scan. is the filte 1 ) y t − ( f ff is the filter factor. ) t ( y is the current unfiltered measurement value. r The exponential filter factor ff should be a value in the range of 0.01 to 1.0. A sents very heavy filtering as only 1% of the current unfiltered value of 0.01 repre data is combined with 99% of the previous filtered profile data. A value of 1.00 6510020586 Rev 01 19 - 3 1/3/18 P/N

60 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing represents no filtering as 100% of the current unfiltered profile data is used in the output. The system defaul t for the exponential filter factor is 0.33. The exponential trending filter would introduce some first -order characteristics to the process, and could have significant impact on the potential performance of the CD controller. Increasing the amount of filt ering (that is, decreasing the filter factor) increases the stability of the process signal and the apparent time constant of the process time constant. 3.2.3.3. DAT Filter The DAT function also provides MD filtering by generating a weighted average of the current and past measurement values for each measurement bin. The filter factor, however, is not static as in the Exponential Trending Filter option, but instead adapts to the level of process variation at each bin. The goal is to reject MD variations more quickly by applying heavier filtering where there is high measurement variation, and lighter filtering where there is low measurement 4. variation. The DAT filtering algorith m is illustrated in Figure 3- ff minimum Y(t) = current measurement value (t) = current filtered measurement value Y f STD x ff minimum Noise Filter (t-1) = previous filtered measurement value Y f LTD x ff adaptive -Term Delta ) (STD Short Current Delta Σ Y (t) f + Signal Y(t) Decomposition ) Long- Term Delta (LTD Signal Filter - (t-1) Y f Y (t-1) f Filtered Delta (t)) (FD Target Noise Range ff adaptive Delta Signal Filter ff maximum ff delta same Compare Sign (LTD ) and ff nominal Previous FD ) Sign( Filtered Delta different (t- 1)) (FD ff minimum Y (t-1) f Figure 3 -4 DAT Filter At each measurement bin, the difference (or delta) between the cu rrent profile -term component value and the previous filtered value is decomposed into a long -term component. The decomposition is based on a comparison of the and a short 3 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 20 - P/N

61 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain current delta to the filtered delta. The filtered delta is computed through a filtering mechanism using a delta filter factor based on the current delta and the previous filtered delta. If the absolute value of the current delta is less than or equal to the absolute value of the filtered delta, the measurement value is considered to have -term component because the level of variation is rather steady. only the long -term and Otherwise, the measurement value is considered to have both the long the short -term component. term component is filtered with an adaptive filter factor ranging The long- between a minimum and maximum value. Like the filter factor for the Exponential Trending Filter, a value of 1.00 represents no filtering, and a value of 0.01 represents much heavier filtering. The value of the adaptive filter factor -term component and the filtered delta have the same depends on whether the long sign or not (that is, if they move in the same direction), the nominal filter factor, -term component, the measurement target, and the noise range. The the long measurement target depends on the CD Control Mode of the measurement (see Subsection 3.2.4.1). The nominal filter factor, the minimum filter factor, the maximum filter factor, the delta filter factor, and the noise range are specified MD CD Separation from the 6). display (see Figure 3- If the long -term component and the filtered delta have the same sign, the adaptive fil ter factor is adjusted to a value between the nominal filter factor and the -term maximum filter factor, meaning light filtering is applied. If the long component and the filtered delta have different signs, the adaptive filter factor are adjusted to a value between the minimum filter factor and the nominal filter -term component is factor, meaning heavy filtering are applied. The short considered as containing mostly noise, and is always subject to the highest allowable amount of filtering. 3.2.3.4. MD CD Separation Display View and edit parameters associated with the MD/CD Separation function, and view the input and output profiles of the MD/CD Separation function, through the display. The MD CD Separation MD CD Separation display can be accessed by tab on the CD Measurements under the MD CD Se Display paration clicking 5). It is accessible to the control engineer only. bar (see Figure 3- Menu -5 Display Menu Button (MD CD Separation) Figure 3 21 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

62 CD Controls User Manual rocessing Measurement P display is shown in Figure 3- MD CD Separation 6 with the display areas, The buttons, and items labeled. -6 MD CD Separation Display Figure 3 3 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 3 Table 3- -6. 3 MD CD Separation Display Items Table 3- Number Description Name Measurement Selector Bar, Actuator List Box and Database Function Buttons 1 MD/CD 2 Displays and allows editing of the general parameters for the MD/CD Separation Separation function. Panel 22 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

63 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain Number Name Description When checked, enables the MD/CD Separation function on the selected Enabled 2a measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. - down list of MD filter options: Exponential or Dynamic Adap MD Trend Provides a drop 2b tive (DAT), for the selected measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is Type saved to the DSR database. Indicates if the MD filter for the selected measurement is charged (green) or not 2c Filter Charged (gray). initializes the MD filter for the selected measurement. 2d Initialize When clicked Contains the Filter Factor indicator which displays and allows editing of the Exponential 3 exponential filter factor. The Filter Factor indicator is available only when the Filter Panel Exponential filter is selected for the MD filter function. The Filter Factor is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Dynamic 4 Displays and allows editing of the parameters for the DAT filter. The objects on this panel are available only when the DAT filter is selected for the MD filter Adaptive Filter function. Panel 4a Nominal Filter Displays and allows editing of the Nominal Filter Factor. This parameter is grade Factor dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 4b Minimum Displays and allows editing of the Minimum Filter Factor. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Filter Factor Displays and allows editing of the Maximum Filter Factor. This parameter is grade Maximum 4c dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Filter Factor Displays and allows editing of the Delta Filter Factor. This parameter is grade 4d Delta Filter Factor dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 4e Noise Range Displays and allows editing of the Noise Range. This parameter is grade depend ent and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the CD Control Mode of the selected measurement. See Subsection CD Control 4f Mode for details on CD Control Mode. 3.2.4.1 23 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

64 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Description Number Name 5 MIS Displays and allows editing of the exponential filter factor used for generating MIS Exponential 3.2.3). Before the MIS Exponential Filter Factor is edited, profiles (see Subsection a dialog box appears and warns that changing this filter factor will change the Filter Factor filter factor used by QCS MIS trending function. Click OK to proceed with editing or Cancel to cancel editing. The MIS Exponential Filter Factor is saved to the Permanents database. more than 6 Input Profile Provides a drop - down list of input profiles for the function if there is one input profile to select for viewing. For the MD filter function, there are two Selector input profiles to choose from for the selected measurement: the current input profile and the previous MD - filtered profile. 7 Graph Function Buttons Input P rofile Date/Time Stamp 8 9 Input Profile Graph Input Profile Information Panel 10 Output Profile Provides a drop 11 - down list of input profiles for the function if there is more than one output profile to select for viewing. For the MD filter function, if the Selector exponential filter is selected, the filtered profile is the only output profile; if the DAT filter is selected, you can choose to display one of the following: • Output Profile (that is, the DAT -filtered profile) Adaptive Filter Factors • Long Term Signal • • Short Term Signal Delta Trends • 12 Graph Function Buttons 13 Output Profile Date/Time Stamp Output Profile Graph 14 15 Output Profile Information Panel 24 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

65 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain Error Generation/MIS Error Generation 3.2.4. For each measurement, the Error Generation function first computes a target profile, which is then used together with the MD trended CD bin profile of the measurement to generate an error profile for control. An error profile is the difference between the target profile and the current profile of a measurement. If the measurement is under the control of a traditional controller, this error profile is further processed and used by the traditional controller to calculate appropriate actuator setpoints. CD A sep arate target profile, and a separate error profile, also referred to as the , are generated for each measurement based on the MIS MD trended Effect Profile CD bin profile of the measurement using the same mechanism for generating the he error profile for control. This target profile is displayed target profile and t alongside with the MIS MD trended CD profile on various displays, such as the display, to provide a representation of how well the measurement is CD Control ffect Profile is used primarily to calculate the being controlled to target. The CD E CD Effect Spread for a measurement. The CD Effect Spread value is a multiple of the standard deviation of the CD Effect Profile –target minus actual –in CD bin resolution. The system -wide spread multiplier in the QCS system determines the multiple. The CD Effect Spread is reported in the MIS report and displayed on the display to provide an indication of how well the CD control is CD Control performing for a particular measurement. 3.2.4.1. CD Control Mode eration function computes the target profile for a measurement The Error Gen based on the CD Control Mode selected for the measurement. There are three possible CD control modes: • CD Only: The objective is to control the measurement variation in the CD to follow a specific target profile. The target profile is generated by adding the current measurement profile average to the relative (bias) target profile MD Only: The objective is to maintain the measurement profile • trolling the CD average at a specific MD target value without con variation in the measurement profile. The target profile is generated by adding the difference between the MD target value and the current measurement profile average to the current measurement profile. The the measurement is ignored relative (bias) target profile of 25 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

66 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing MD And CD: The objective is a combination of the above two control • modes to simultaneously control the CD variation in the measurement profile and maintain the profile average at a desired value. The target profile is generated by adding the MD target value to the relative (bias) target profile Select the CD Control Mode for the measurement through the Error Generation display (see Figure 3- 8). The relative target profile, also known as the bias target profile, entered by the operator or the control engineer through the Bias Targets display, determines the target CD profile shape of the measurement if the measurement is under the CD Only or the MD and CD control mode. The bias target profile is entered and saved in the CD bin resolution. Editing of bias target display are described in the Experion MX Bias Targets profiles and details of the (p/n 6510020587). CD Controls R701.1 Operator Manual 3.2.4.2. Error Deadband The Error Generation function provides the option of deadbanding the control error profile of a measurement. The purpose of the Error Deadband function is to prevent unnecessary actuator moves and subsequently wear and tear as a result of actuators reacting to insignificant errors in the measurements. If error deadband is enabled for a measurement, the absolute value of the error at each CD bin of the control error profile of the measurement is compared to the error deadband value, to zero if the error is less than or equal to the error deadband value. The and is set Error Deadband function only affects measurement (error) profiles that are controlled by the traditional controllers The Error Deadband function is disabled by default. Enable or disable the Error function, and enter the error deadband value for a measurement through the 8). Figure 3- Generation display (see Maximum Spread Check 3.2.4.3. ion function also provides the option of checking the spread of The Error Generat the control error profile of a measurement against some maximum limit. The spread can be any multiple of standard deviation (sigma) based on the value of the system -wide spread multiplier set in the QCS system. If the option is enabled, the Error Generation function checks the spread of the control error profile against the specified maximum limit, and declares the status of the measurement as Spread Too High if the limit is exceeded. The statu s of the measurement is displayed on display. The measurement with a Spread Too High status Profile Verification the is considered invalid for cascade control. When the measurement is considered ot use the control error invalid for cascade control the traditional controller will n profile and no new actuator setpoints will be generated. The multivariable 26 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

67 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain controller will continue to update the actuator setpoints based on the internally predicted measurement profiles. The Maximum Spread Check function is enabled by default. Enable or disable the Maximum Spread Check function, and specify the maximum spread limit for a measurement through the display (see Figure 3- 8). Error Generation 3.2.4.4. Error Generation Display View and edit parameters associated with the Error Generation function, and view the input profile and the output profile (that is, the error profile) of the function display (see 8). The Figure 3- Error Generation Error Generation through the CD display can be accessed by clicking Error Generation under the Display Menu Measurements bar (see Figure 3- 7). It is accessible to tab on the the control engineer only. -7 Display Menu Bar (Error Generation) Figure 3 27 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

68 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing 8 with the display areas, display is shown in Figure 3- The Error Generation buttons, and items labeled. Figure 3 -8 Error Generation Display 4 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 3 Table 3- -8. Table 3- 4 Error Generation Display Items Name Description Number 1 Measurement Selector Bar 2 - Scenario down list of the scenarios that are configured with the selected Provides a drop measurement. The scenario that is currently in use (active) has Active displayed Selector Bar before its name. When an inactive scenario is selected, the graph section of the display is gr ayed out. Actuator List 3 Lists the actuator(s) used to control the selected measurement in the selected Box scenario. 4 Database Function Buttons 5 When checked enables the check on the control error profile of the selected Maximum me Spread asurement against the maximum spread limit. This parameter is grade Enabled dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 28 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

69 Measurement Processing Measurement Processing Chain Description Number Name 6 Maximum Displays and allows editing of the maximum spread limit to be used by the ) maximum spread check on the selected measur Spread ( ement. The units of the units Maximum Spread parameter follow the units of the selected measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Error 7 When checked enabled the deadbanding function on the control error profile of Deadband the selected measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to Enabled the DSR database. Error 8 Displays and allows editing of the error deadband value for the selected Deadband measurement if error deadband is enabled. The units depend on the units of the units ) ( measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Displays and allows editing of the CD Control Mode of the selected 9 CD Control measurement for the selected scenario. Provides a drop- down li st of CD Control Mode Mode options: CD Only, MD Only, and MD and CD. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 10 MD Error Indicates the MD error in the current profile of the selected measurement. The the difference between the MD target value for the measurement ( units ) MD error is and the current measurement profile average. The units depend on the units of the measurement. down list of input profiles for the function if th - Provides a drop Input Profile 11 ere is more than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Error Generation function, there is Selector Bar only one input profile to be displayed that is the current MD -filtered (if MD Trending is enabled) profile of the selected measurement. 12 Graph Function Buttons 13 Input Profile Date/Time Stamp 14 Input Profile Graph 15 Input Profile Information Panel 16 down list of output profiles for the function if there is more than Provides a drop- Output Profile ect for viewing. For the Error Generation function, there one output profile to sel Selector Bar is only one output profile to be displayed that is the current control error profile of the selected measurement. 17 Graph Function Buttons 18 Output Profile Date/Time Stamp 19 Output Profile Graph Output Profile Information Panel 20 Display Control Profile Filtering 3.2.5. -pass filtered to remove all profile The MD trended CD bin profile is low variations that are uncontrollable by the actuator. The result is that the displayed control profile presented on operator displays only contains variations that can controlled. Controllable variations are those with wavelengths theoretically be greater than the Xc Cutoff or, equivalently, those with spatial frequencies less than the Xc Cutoff Frequency. 29 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

70 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing The Xc Cutoff Frequency is defined as the wavelength where the gain of actuator . response is reduced to 20% of the maximum of all such gains of all frequencies This definition is equivalently stated with respect to response powers as the frequency at which the power is 4% of the maximum power. The Xc Cutoff the spatial response model parameters (specifically Frequency is calculated using width, attenuation, and divergence), and the display control profile filtering will change across different grades with different spatial response models, or if the spatial response model is modified. e CD bin profiles are filtered using the Low Pass Hamming Window with a Th half order equal to nine times the ratio of the number of CD bins to the number of actuator zones and a cutoff frequency equal to the Xc cutoff frequency. 3.2.6. Actuator Resolution Mapping The MD trended CD bin profile, the MIS MD trended CD bin profile, the control target profile, and the MIS target profile of a measurement are mapped down to the resolution of each actuator located upstream of the scanner where the enerating the Mapped Control Trend Profile, the measurement is obtained, g Mapped MIS Trend Profile, Mapped Control Target Profile, and the Mapped MIS Target Profile. In addition, two more mapped profiles are generated: the Mapped le. The Mapped Control Control Error Profile and the Mapped MIS Error Profi Error Profile is generated by subtracting the Mapped Control Trend Profile from the Mapped Control Target Profile. The Mapped MIS Error Profile is generated by subtracting the Mapped MIS Trend Profile from the Mapped MIS Target le. All these mapped profiles are primarily for display purposes to provide Profi information about a measurement at the resolution of a given actuator. -sampling process, the input profile must first be anti As in any down -alias filtered to prevent high frequencies from showing up in the output profile as phantom low frequencies. Prior to being mapped down to the actuator resolution, the CD bin profiles are filtered using the Low Pass Hamming Window with the half order equal three times the ratio of the number of CD bins to the number of actuator zones and the cutoff frequency equal the ratio of the number of zones to the -alias number of CD bins. The target profile, however, does not need to be anti filtered. n the actuator and the The mapping is performed based on the alignment betwee downstream scanner, and some mapping parameters. The alignment for the -scanner pair is defined by the corresponding zone boundary array, which actuator aligns each actuator zone spatially with the CD bins in the measurement profile. The alignment function and the zone boundary array are described in Subsection 3.3.4. 30 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

71 Measurement Processing Additional Functions ained from the The mapping mechanism assigns to each actuator zone a value obt CD bins of a measurement, target, or error profile within the corresponding zone boundaries. There are two mapping parameters: • Mapping Mode Minimum Percentage • The Mapping Mode is set at Midpoint mode, which maps the profile value of the le onsheet CD bin within the zone boundaries to the actuator zone. If the midd midpoint lands between two CD bins, the profile value of the lower CD bin is mapped to the actuator zone. The Minimum Percentage parameter specifies the minimum percentage of valid CD bins that must be present within the zone boundaries before a profile value can be mapped to the actuator zone. The percentage is calculated as the ratio of the combined width of the valid CD bins to the combined width of all CD bins within the zone boundaries, multiplied by 100. The Minimum Percentage here is set to be identical to the minimum percentage used by the traditional control mapping function, which maps the control error profile of a measurement to the he measurement. resolution of the actuator controlling t -measurement pair, the mapped profiles are generated using the For each actuator -alias filter and mapping settings. The Measurement Processing same anti subsystem also identifies the first and last valid zones of each actuator for each measu rement obtained downstream of the actuator based on the Mapped MIS -measurement pair. The first valid zone is the first Trend Profile for that actuator onsheet zone, from the low edge side of the actuator, which has a valid imilarly, the last valid zone is the first zone, measurement value mapped to it. S from the high edge side of the actuator, which has a valid measurement value mapped to it. 3.3. Additional Functions The Measurement Processing subsystem performs a few measurement -related ocesses the individual measurement profiles received from functions before it pr the scanners. Like the processing of measurements, these functions are performed on a per scan basis: Determining the statuses of the scanners, whether the scanners are • standardizing, scanning, or not scanning. • Updating the median scan times of all scanners based on their current scan times and historical data. 31 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

72 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Aligning actuators with their downstream scanners. • • Performing speed retune by updating the process dynamics based on the machine speed. lating normalized gains of the actuators on the measurements. Calcu • Except for the scanner status determination, all the other functions are performed on an actuator and each of the measurements obtained from scanners downstream from the actuator. 3.3.1. s Scanner Statu The Measurement Processing subsystem determines the status of each scanner, whether or not the scanner is scanning, and if scanning, whether or not the scanner is standardizing. The Measurement Processing subsystem monitors the scanner status reported by the QCS to see if the scanner is offline or in some sort of error state. The subsystem also maintains a Scan Timeout Timer for each scanner to determine if the scanner is scanning or not. Profile The Scan Timeout Timer has a period that can be specified through the 3). Whenever a new scan comes in from a display (see Figure 3- Verification scanner, the Scan Timeout Timer for the scanner initializes and starts counting down. The timer expires when the time between the last scan (when the timer started) and the current time has reached or exceeded the timer period. This indicates that the scanner is not scanning. The Measurement Processing not scanning if either the QCS reports that the subsystem considers the scanner as scanner is not scanning, or if the Scan Timeout Timer of the scanner has expired. If the scanner is scanning, the Measurement Processing subsystem further checks if the scanner is standardizing. In summary, a scanner can be in one of the following statuses: Not Scanning • Scanning • • Standardizing If the scanner is not scanning, the Measurement Processing subsystem sets the statuses of the scanner and all the measurements received from that scanner to Not Scanning. The Measurement Processing subsystem resets the scan counter of the scanner to zero. It also resets the scan counters of the measurements to zero, and forces the MD Trending filters of the measurements for both the Control am to initialize upon the next scan. Stream and the MIS Stre 32 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

73 Measurement Processing Additional Functions Measurement Status 3.3.2. A measurement profile can have one of the following statuses when it exits the measurement processing chain. Only measurement profiles with a valid status are used for control. Table 3- 5 Measurement Statuses Status Description The measurement profile is valid and has been processed Valid - successfully by the Measurement Processing subsystem. Short See Short Profile in Subsection 3.2.1.3 . Duplicate . See Duplicate Profile in Subsection 3.2.1.3 3.2.1.1 See Subsections , and Minimum Valid in Subsection Invalid Readings . 3.2.1.3 Wide Spikes . See Invalid Cluster in Subsection 3.2.1.3 MD Upset See MD Upset in Subsection . 3.2.1.3 Not Scanning See Subsection 3.3.1. Profile Missing See Subsection 3.2.1.1. Spread Too High 3.2.4. See Subsection Limits Lifted 3.2.1.1. See Subsection Simulation See Subsection 3.2.1.1. Processing Error See Subsection 3.2.1.3. For a valid measurement profile, the individual measurement bins (QCS or CD bins) can have one of these statuses: • Valid: The bin contains a valid measurement reading. • Invalid: The bin contains an invalid measurement reading. This status is temporary because an invalid bin is interpolated and has an Inte rpolated status thereafter. Spike: The bin contains an unusually high or low measurement reading • (that is, a spike). This status is temporary because a spike is interpolated and has an Interpolated status thereafter. 33 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

74 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing ated with a valid measurement Interpolated: The bin has been interpol • reading. Offsheet: The bin is offsheet. • 3.3.3. Median Scan Times Update The Measurement Processing subsystem computes a more representative scan time for each scanner by calculating a running median scan time on the scanner end of sc an based on the current scan time and some previous scan time values. The traditional controller and the multivariable controller use this median scan time. If the scanner resumes scanning after it has stopped scanning for an easurement Processing subsystem does not extended period of time, the M calculate the scanner’s median scan time, but passes the current scan time as the median scan time. It then updates the scanner’s median scan time upon the next scan. Alignment 3.3.4. The Measurement Processing subsystem p erforms the Alignment function between each actuator beam and its downstream scanner frames. The alignment function determines the spatial relationship between the zones of an actuator beam and the measurement locations (CD bins) at a downstream scanner to express how the responses of the measurements to setpoint changes in the actuator zones migrate down the paper machine and manifest in the paper at the scanner. - The Alignment function generates a zone boundary array for each actuator scanner pair, taking into account shrinkage and sheet wander. The zone boundary array, containing one element more than the number of zones of the actuator, uses a low and a high boundary index (in units of CD bins) to specify, for each actuator zone, its corresponding section of the sheet at the scanner. The Alignment function makes use of the following conditions and assumptions: the paper sheet does not necessarily cover the full width of either the • actuator or the measurement area the paper sheet shrinks as it dries and the rate of shrinkage is not • always uniform across the width of the sheet • the paper sheet may wander from side to side as it travels down the paper machine • the spacing between actuation points at individual zones of an actuator he actuator beam may vary across the width of t 34 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

75 Measurement Processing Additional Functions • the responses of the measurement to setpoint changes in adjacent actuator zones do not overlap Zone Boundary Array 3.3.4.1. The zone boundary array for an actuator -scanner pair is calculated based on input parameters illustrated in Figure 3- 9. These parameters, though they can be measured physically, are most accurately obtained from a bump test using IntelliMap. A): the distance in millimeter Low Actuator Offset ( s between the low • edge of the sheet and the edge of the first (low trim) actuator zone • B): the distance in millimeters between the high High Actuator Offset ( edge of the sheet and the edge of the last (high trim) actuator zone • Low Sheet Edge ( C): the dista nce in units of CD bins between the low edge of the sheet at the scanner and some reference point D): the distance in units of CD bins between the High Sheet Edge ( • high edge of the sheet at the scanner and some reference point Shrinkage Factor Array: the numeric array defining for each actuator • zone the amount of shrinkage the paper has experienced when traveling down from the actuator location to the scanner location. This linear shrinkage in the array is primarily used to compensate for non- alignment calculation. For uniform linear shrinkage, the elements in the shrinkage factor array should all be 1.0. • Actuator Width Array: the numeric array defining the widths of individual actuator zones in millimeters CD Bin Width: the width of a CD bin in millimeters • 35 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

76 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Zone Boundary Array Figure 3 -9 Alignment – The Alignment function first calculates the overall shrinkage, which represents the total percentage of shrinkage the sheet has experienced when traveling down the paper machine: − frame at width actuator at h sheet widt 100 × % = shrinkage overall actuator at width The overall shrinkage must be normalized with respect to all actuator zones that are actually making paper (onsheet) before it can be distributed across the sheet as specified by the shrinkage factors. Normalization must take into account the actual widths of the actuator zones as they may vary across the beam, the portion of each zone that is actually making paper (onsheet), and the shrinkage of each zone. The shrinkage factor of a zone indicates the zone shrinkage r elative to the normalized shrinkage. For example, a shrinkage factor of 1.20 indicates that the zone shrinks 20% more than a zone with a shrinkage factor of 1.0. Likewise, a shrinkage factor of 0.88 indicates 12% less than the normalized shrinkage. overall shrinkage width at actuator × normalized shrinkage = last width weighted ∑ i first i = × width weighted = × width zone % on sheet factor shrinkage i i i i where The percent shrinkage of an individual actuator zone i is equal to × zone shrin factor = shrinkage shrinkage normalized kage i i 36 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

77 Measurement Processing Additional Functions The Alignment function then calculates the effective width (in units of CD bins for each actuator zone), which represents the number of CD bins on the measurement profile where the measurement response to the zone falls on. ] [ 1.0 × zone shrin − kage width zone i i = width effective i bin width CD The zone boundary array (ZBA) is calculated using the effective widths of the representing the number of zones: n zones as follows with ) ( − = ZBA low the offshe t the low et zones a sheet edge effective widths of edge 1 = + ZBA effective ZBA width 2 1 1 = + ZBA ZBA effective width − − i i i 1 1  + = ZBA ZBA effective width + n 1 n n WebTrak 3.3.4.2. WebTrak™ is an optional feature in the Alignment function to automatically to-scan basis, the alignment between an actuator and its update, on a scan- sheet wander and changes in trim squirt downstream scanner, taking into account positions. When WebTrak is enabled, choose to track sheet edges only, track actuator offsets only, or track both sheet edges and actuator trim offsets. If the Track Sheet Edges option is selected, the current sheet edges detected by the scanner are used for updating the alignment. If the Track Trim Offsets option is selected, actuator trim positions measured by the transducers are used. If there are no trim transducers, Setup CD the operator can measure the trim positions and enter the values on the display, as described in Section 3.1.6.2 of the Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 The actuator trim positions, measured by the Operator Manual (p/n 6510020587). transducers or the operator, are adjusted by some specified amounts before they are used for updating the alignment. The recalculation of the zone boundary array is identical to that described in Subsection 3.3.4.1. As shown in Figure 3 -10, if the trim squirt positions are changed, the sheet edges at the actuator and the scanner change by a similar amount. In this case, the 37 - 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

78 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing ss has not changed, and the alignment between the actuator and the scanner proce remains the same. -10 Alignment: Trim Adjustments Figure 3 If sheet wandering occurs due to changes in the drying process, as shown in 11, the shrinkage factor array becomes different, and the actuator offsets Figure 3- 38 - 3 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 1/3/18

79 Measurement Processing Additional Functions and the sheet edges change by some unrelated amounts. In this case, WebTrak adjusts the zone boundary array to reflect the new alignment. Figure 3 -11 Alignment: Sheet Wander (shrinkage changes) 3.3.4.3. Alignment Display Edit the input parameters of the Alignment function, enable or disable the WebTrak option, and view the resultant zone boundary array for the selected Alignment display. The actuator and scanner through the display can Alignment be accessed by clicking tab on the CD Measurements under the gnment Ali Figure 3 Display Menu -12). It is accessible to the control engineer only. bar (see -12 Display Menu Bar (Alignment) Figure 3 39 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

80 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing with the display areas, buttons, 13 display is shown in Figure 3- The Alignment and items labeled. -13 Alignment Display Figure 3 -13. Table 3- 6 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 3 6 Alignment Display Items Table 3- Description Name Number 1 Actuator Selector Bar Scanner 2 down list of all available scanners downstream of the selected Provides a drop- actuator. Selector Bar Lists the measurements controlled by the selected actuator in the current control 3 Measurement scenario. List Box Database Function Buttons 4 40 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

81 Measurement Processing Additional Functions Number Name Description Actuator Offset 5 ing of the actuator offsets and sheet edges when the Displays and allows edit & Sheet Edge WebTrak option is disabled. Panel Static indicator Displays and allows editing of the Low Actuator Offset. Click the 5a Low Actuator to enter a static value for the Low Actuator Offset. When the Track Trim Offsets Offset (mm) option is disabled, this static low actuator offset is used for alignment calculation, and the Measured indicator is grayed out. When the Tracked Trim Offsets option Measured is enabled, the low actuator offset is used for alignment calculation, indicator is grayed out. The Measured value can be the and the Static operator’s entry or the trim transducer reading plus the adjustment. This parameter is grade dependent a nd is saved to the DSR database. indicator Static Displays and allows editing of the High Actuator Offset. Click the High Actuator 5b to enter a static value for the High Actuator Offset. When the Track Trim Offsets Offset (mm) atic high actuator offset is used for alignment option is disabled, this st Measured indicator is grayed out. When the Tracked Trim calculation, and the high actuator offset is used for Measured Offsets option is enabled, the indicator is grayed out. The Measured Static alignment calculation, and the value can be the operator’s entry or the trim transducer reading plus the adjustment. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Static Low Sheet Edge. Click the indicator to Displays and allows editing of the Low Sheet 5c enter a static value for the Low Sheet Edge. When the Track Sheet Edges option Edge (CD Bin) is disabled, this static low sheet edge is used for alignment calculation, and the indicator is grayed out. When the Track Measured ed Sheet Edges option is low sheet edge is used for alignment calculation, and enabled, the Measured the indicator is grayed out. The Static value is obtained from the Measured QCS measurement subsystem and is dynamic. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. indicator to Static Displays and allows editing of the High Sheet Edge. Click the 5d High Sheet enter a static value for the High Sheet Edge. When the Track Sheet Edges Edge (CD Bin) option is disabled, this static high sheet edge is used for alignment calculation, and the Measured indicator is grayed out. When the Tracked Sheet Edges option is enabled, the Measured high sheet edge is used for alignment indicator is grayed out. The Measured Static value is calculation, and the obtained from the QCS measurement subsystem and is dynamic. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 6 Actuator Width Displays the actuator width and shrinkage information, and allows editing of the & Shrinkage actuator width array and the shrinkage factor array. Panel 41 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

82 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing Name Description Number Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the for editing the actuator width Actuator Width 6a (mm) array. Numeric Array Editor age Factor for editing the Shrink When clicked opens the Shrinkage 6b Array. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Factor Array 6c Overall Displays the Overall Shrinkage of the sheet in percentage. Shrinkage 6d Normalized Displays the Normalized Shrinkage of sheet in percentage. Shrinkage WebTrak Panel 7 Displays and allows editing of the WebTrak parameters. When checked enables the Track Trim Offsets option. When the Track Trim Track Trim 7a Offsets option is enabled, the indicators (b) to (g) become available. This Offsets grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. parameter is 7b Low Trim Mode Indicates the Low Trim Mode, that is, Manual Entry or Transducer. The Low Trim Setup Mode is selected from the CD display, as described in Section 3.1.6.2 of ). the Experion MX CD Controls R701 . 1 Operator Manual (p/n 6510020 587 7c Displays the measured value of the Low Trim. This value can be the operator’s Measured Low entry (when the Low Trim Mode is Manual Entry) or the trim transducer reading Trim (mm) (when the Low Trim Mode is Transducer). 7d Low Trim Displays and allows editing of the Low Trim Adjustment which is added to the Measured Low Trim to generate the final Low Trim measurement. This Adjustment parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Indicates the High Trim Mode, that is, Manual Entry or Transducer. The High 7e High Tri m display, as described in Section Setup Trim Mode is selected from the CD Mode (p/n 1 Operator Manual 3.1.6.2 of the R701. Experion MX CD Controls 6510020 ). 587 42 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

83 Measurement Processing Additional Functions Description Number Name 7f Measured High Displays the measured value of the High Trim. This value can be the operator’s entry (when the Low Trim Mode is Manual Entry) or the trim transducer reading Trim (when the Low Trim Mode is Transducer). of the High Trim Adjustment which is added to the Displays and allows editing 7g High Trim Measured High Trim to generate the final High Trim measurement. This Adjustment parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 7h Track Sheet When checked enables the Track Sheet Edges option. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Edges 8 Input Profile down list of input profiles for the function if there are more than Provides a drop- one input profile to select for viewing. For the Alignment Function, ther e is only Selector Bar one input profile to be displayed that is the Shrinkage Factor Array of the selected actuator. Input Profile Date/Time Stamp 9 Input Profile Graph 10 Input Profile Information Panel 11 Output Profile 12 Provides a drop - down list of output profiles for the function if there is more than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Alignment Function, there are two Selector Bar output profiles for display which are the Zone Boundary Array and the Zone Shrinkages array. le Date/Time Stamp Output Profi 13 14 Output Profile Graph 15 Output Profile Information Panel 3.3.5. Speed Retune The Measurement Processing subsystem provides Speed Retune as an optional feature to dynamically update the total time an actuator move takes to affect each measurement obtained from the downstream scanners, taking into account changes in paper machine speed. This time is known as the Total Time Delay for -measurement pair, and it is the combination of the transport time each actuator -related, depending elay. The fixed time delay is process delay and the fixed time d on the measurement and the actuator, whereas the transport time delay depends on the distance between the actuator and the scanner, and the machine speed. The ally adjust the transport time delay based function of Speed Retune is to automatic on the current machine speed on a per scan basis. The Measurement Processing subsystem converts the machine speed obtained ). Regardless of whether Speed Retune mpm from the VIO into appropriate units ( is enabled o r not, the Measurement Processing subsystem always calculates the total time delay by adding the transport time delay and the fixed time delay upon each end of scan. If Speed Retune is enabled, the subsystem recalculates the transport time delay based on t he current machine speed. It divides the distance between the actuator and the scanner by the machine speed to produce the 43 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 3 -

84 CD Controls User Manual Measurement Processing transport time delay in seconds. The new transport time delay is then added to the lay. fixed time delay to generate the new total time de Enable or disable Speed Retune for an actuator and each of its downstream scanners, enter the actuator -scanner distance if Speed Retune is enabled, and enter Process Model the transport time delay if Speed Retune is disabled through the –2). The display shows the name of the machine speed (see Figure 11 display VIO, current machine speed, transport time delay, fixed time delay, and total time delay for the selected actuator and measurement. Normalized Gain Calculation 3.3.6. ubsystem normalizes the average process gain of The Measurement Processing s each actuator on each of its downstream measurements on a per scan basis. The normalized gain (in percent) is compared to a normalized gain threshold. If a normalized gain of an actuator on a measurement is equal to or greater than the threshold, the actuator is considered having a significant impact on the measurement. This criterion is used to determine what actuators to consider when calculating the percent of time a measurement is under cascade control, an d what measurements are available for display for the selected actuator on the CD Control display. The average process gain of an actuator on a measurement is normalized as: cascade se tpoint ran ge × average pr ocess gain % 100 × = normalized gain maximum ex or pected err The average process gain is the average of the process gain s of the individual actuator zones on the measurement. The cascade setpoint range is the available setpoint range of the actuator defined by the actuator’s cascade setpoint limits (if cascade setpoint limiting is enabled) or its physical hard limits. The maximum expected error is the maximum deviation from target expected from the measurement and has the same units as the measurement. 44 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 3 -

85 4. Adaptive Alignment The Adaptive Alignment subsystem works in coordination with the Alignment function to maintain the correct alignment between the zones of an actuator beam and the measurement locations (CD bins) at a downstream scanner. rrect alignment by monitoring the CD Adaptive Alignment maintains the co controller performance to detect misalignment, identifying the alignment in -loop (Cascade control), and automatically updating the Alignment function closed parameters. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 - 4

86 CD Controls User Manual ve Alignment Adapti Adaptive Alignment Logic 4.1. 4- 1. It has three major functions: Adaptive Alignment logic is illustrated in Figure Performance Monitoring, Identification, and Deployment. Start Performance Baselining No Performance Monitoring Enabled? Yes Picketing Detection No Performance Monitoring Detected? Yes Setpoints Smoothing Enabled? Yes No Setpoints Smoothing Increase Closed-Loop Probing Signal Optimization Active Test Closed-Loop Alignment Identification Identification Alignment Validation Qualifier? No Poor Good Fair Consecutive Tests Automatic Deployment Automatic Deployment Complete? Deployment Yes Setpoints Smoothing Service Requests Restore End -1 Adaptive Alignment Logic Figure 4 P/N 1/3/18 6510020586 Rev 01 4 - 2

87 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Logic Performance Monitoring function provides baselining of controller performances and then monitors the CD controller performances in real -time and triggers the Identification function when picket ing is detected. The Identification function performs the closed- loop active test required for the identification of alignment parameters. Identification function includes an -function for qualifying the identified alignment alignment validation sub parameters before calling the Deployment function. The Deployment function provides the mechanism for implementing the correct alignment parameters to prevent CD controller performance degradation due to misalignment. automated and no user intervention The entire Adaptive Alignment logic is fully is required. Performance Monitoring 4.1.1. Performance Monitoring for misalignment detection function is based on monitoring the CD controller actuator setpoints and measurement profiles in the spatial frequency domain to detect the early onset of actuator picketing. is a typical symptom of misalignment and poor CD controller Actuator picketing performance. The term s to a specific actuator setpoints profile pattern that is dominated by high spatial frequency components and looks similar to a picket fence. Performance Monitoring includes a sub- function that automatically performs Performance Baselining to systematically determine the spread baseline limits used for triggering the misalignment detection. Performance Monitoring continuously compares the current spread values associated with CD actuator setpoints picketing and accumulates their excess relative to the quality limits using a modified version of a classical cumulative lgorithm. When the sum (CUSUM) statistical quality control detection a accumulations exceed predefined thresholds the misalignment is said to be -loop identification detected, which in turn will automatically call the closed described in the following section. fication test the Performance In addition to triggering the closed- loop identi Monitoring function is also providing an option to increase the current setpoints smoothing prior to performing the test. Increased setpoints smoothing oller immediately applied after the misalignment detection improves the CD contr performances by effectively reducing the undesired high spatial frequencies in actuator setpoints and induced high spatial frequency measurement variation. 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

88 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Identification 4.1.2. The traditional method for calculating the Alignment function parameters is to perform an IntelliMap open- loop (with beam mode set to Auto) bump test where loop (Cascade), and a set of CD the CD controller is suspended from closed- actuators are moved until a significant profile change allows the actuator responses to be identified in the measured sheet properties. While this method has proven to work well in practice, it does require manual intervention and could potentially degrade the product qualities. loop identification test Adaptive Alignment subsystem provides an active closed- method that obtains the open- loop CD response by solving a nonlinear least squares optimization problem. The method is using an intelligent Pseudo- Random -Binary Sequence (PRBS) adaptive probing signal that is added to the during the test. This active test is applied to a -loop CD actuator setpoints closed number of automatically selected actuator zones that are randomly probed in both -loop actuator the positive and negative directions relative to the calculated closed ng is automatically executed for severely -sided PRBS probi beam setpoints. Single constrained CD actuator systems. By default, a PRBS has full band frequency components in the dynamic frequency domain. However, in order to optimize the probing signal excitation for g time constants and short time delays, a low pass CD processes with relative lon dynamic filter has been incorporated into the base PRBS signal generation. Compared to the traditional persistent bump test, a PRBS test reduces the CD variation induced in the product during the identific ation test. Another benefit of the closed -loop identification test method is that process disturbances can be effectively rejected by the CD actuators that continue to operate in feedback (Cascade) control during the test. The Identification function includes the calculation of model validation qualifier that is used to rate the quality of the model fitness to the process data and to facilitate a safe deployment of calculated alignment parameters as described in the following section. Deployment 4.1.3. ent function provides the logic to facilitate a safe update of The Deploym parameters used by the Alignment function and relies on the model validation qualifier calculated by the Identification function described in the previous section. Alignment parameters that ar e calculated and rated to be good indicate a very high degree of confidence and are automatically deployed to be used by the CD 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

89 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Overview controller. When the model validation qualifier is good, the deployment function automatically also restores the original setpoints smoothing to ensure that CD controller operates with the desired amount of spatial aggressiveness. Fair , the alignment parameters are also When alignment parameters are rated as automatically deployed to be used by the CD controller. In this situation, however, the deployment function does not restore the original setpoints smoothing in order to prevent actuator picketing and allow for further consecutive identification tests to complete. There are also instances when due to significant process upsets and/or severely constrained CD actuators, the alignment parameters are rated as poor. In this situation no deployment of alignment takes place, and further consecutive identification tests are automatically executed. All further consecutive active tests hav e their probing signals optimized to adapt to process conditions, and to improve their likelihood of achieving alignment parameters with a better model validation qualifier. Deployment function also provides the logic of logging service requests to the display whenever at the completion of all consecutive tests the rm Summary Ala Adaptive Alignment cannot improve CD controller performances. 4.2. Adaptive Alignment Overview Adaptive Alignment main functions, Performance Monitoring, Identification, and functions. Deployment, can be broken down into a number of sub- 4.2.1. Performance Monitoring functions: Performance Performance Monitoring encompasses three sub- Baselining, Picketing Detection and Setpoints Smoothing Increase. The objective tion is to continuously evaluate the current of the Performance Monitoring func CD controller performances against the recorded baseline and to detect misalignment and smooth actuator setpoints to immediately reduce the undesired d measurement high spatial frequencies in the actuator setpoints and induce variation before calling the Identification function. 4.2.1.1. Performance Baselining Performance Baselining sub Actuator -function allows you to determine the Error Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths - and Setpoints Picketing s required by the misalignment detection sub value Spread Baseline -function. The entire process of baselining controller performances is automated and can be 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

90 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Start Baselining started by pressing . The performance baselining operation can be stopped any time by pressing Stop Base . lining Performance Baselining is based on recording actuator setpoints and measurement errors after inducing a small and safe amount of misalignment. There are two options to choose from for the Baselining Method : • option is the default for performance baselining and it Sheet Wander is performed by inducing a small amount of sheet wander as specified Sheet Wander Target (mm) . by the Shrinkage Change When the • option is selected the performance a small amount of shrinkage baselining is performed by inducing . Shrinkage Change Target (%) change as specified by the Both Sheet Wander Target (mm) and Shrinkage Change Target (%) parameters have safe and meaningful values (defaulted to 1/3 Actuator Width and 0.5% that only need to be adjusted in special circumstances. shrinkage respectively) Exercise caution when adjusting Sheet Wander Target (mm) or the Shrinkage Change Target (%) to prevent the calculation of Spread Baseline values that are either too low or too high. The Spread Baseli ne values calculated by the performance baselining sub - Picketing and Number of Baseline Scans function can also be influenced by the Window Size parameters. The Number of Baseline Scans parameter specifies the maximum number of scans under which the CD controller will operate under the requested amount of induced misalignment required for performance baselining. The Picketing Window Size specifies the size of a sliding window that moves ne the across the actuator setpoints and measurement errors profile to determi Spread Baseline values for the areas that exhibit increased actuator setpoints picketing and measurement errors. Number of Baseline Scans Give special consideration when editing the because this parameter specifies the time duration for which the C D controller will to operate under the specified amount of induced misalignment could lead to either too aggressive or too conservative misalignment detection. Give similar consideration to editing the Picketing Window Size because it can ther too aggressive or too conservative misalignment detection. later lead to ei There are certain considerations that need to be made with respect to determining Spread Baseline values that are either too low or too high. When the determined o low, the misalignment detection could be overly Spread Baseline values are to aggressive and could unnecessarily trigger the setpoints smoothing increase and -identification sub closed -functions. Conversely, when the determined Spread ection could be overly Baseline values are too high, the misalignment det 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

91 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Overview conservative and might not trigger the setpoints smoothing increase and the -loop identification in a timely manner. closed In addition to the Spreads Baseline values the performance baselining calculates the actuator setpoints and me asurement errors Baseline Profiles . The Baseline Profiles provide a visual snapshot of the actuator setpoints and measurement errors used for calculating the Spread Baseline values according to the specified Picketing Window Size. seline Profiles Power Spectrums of the Ba are also calculated by the performance baselining and displayed relative to the Actuator Setpoints Picketing and Error Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths specific range of spatial frequencies. For the actuator setpoints picketing, the s pecific range of spatial frequencies is represented by the wavelengths greater than 2Xa (mm) and shorter than X3dB (mm). For the error profile controllable short wavelengths, the specific er then Xc range of spatial frequencies is represented by the wavelengths great (mm) and shorter than X3dB (mm). -spacing wavelength -actuator -times 2Xa (mm) represents the two • X3dB (mm) represents the wavelength where the spatial power drops • to 50% of the maximum over the full spatial frequency band avelength where the spatial power drops to Xc (mm) represents the w • 4% of the maximum over the full spatial frequency band Both X3db (mm) and Xc (mm) wavelengths are calculated using the • spatial response model parameters (specifically Width, Attenuation, - e primary measurement of each CD actuator Divergence) specific to th scanner pair. Primary measurement is defined at the system configuration and build as the measurement on the current downstream frame that is expected to have the most change in the measured value . due to a change i n the CD actuator setpoint Performance Baselining has a number of requirements that need to be met before initiating the calculation of Spread Baseline values required by the misalignment detection: • Accurate process models for each actuator -scanner combination –alignment between each actuator correctly identified by IntelliMap and each of its downstream scanners (zone boundary array), spatial response (gain, width, attenuation and divergence), and dynamic h CD actuator on response (time constant and total time delay) of eac each primary measurement. 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

92 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Multivariable controllers robustly tuned and optimized with • IntelliMap –measurement weights, actuator aggressiveness, energy and picketing penalties. Traditional controllers robustly tuned and optimized with Intel • – liMap error selection anti -aliasing, decoupling, control law, setpoints smoothing enabled and blend factor. System has reached steady state and CD actuator beams are operating • in Cascade mode. 4.2.1.2. Picketing Detection Picketing Detection sub -function receives t he most recent CD actuator setpoints and measurement errors, and calculates the Actuator Setpoints Picketing and Spread values. After Error Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths Current ion opt Monitoring Enabled performance baselining is complete, enable the (disabled by default) to turn on picketing detection. The calculation of actuator picketing and error profile Current Spread values is performed at each end of scan according to the specific range of the spatial frequencies 2Xa (mm), X3dB (mm), and Xc (mm). At each end of scan the calculated Current Spreads values are then compared to the Actuator Setpoints Picketing and Error Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths Limit values, and the difference is accumulated in the Actuator Setpoints Picketing and E rror Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths values. Accumulation Baseline Multiplier Picketing detection can be fine tuned by editing the Spread parameters, which will change the values that are calculated as Limit values multiplied by the Baseline Multiplier parameters. Baseline At the end of each scan the calculated Accumulation values are compared to the Actuator Setpoints Picketing and Error Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths Cumulative Threshold values for parameters. When both Accumulation actuator setpoints and error profile exceed the Cumulative Threshold values , the Status picketing detection is triggered and indicated in the detection field. Performance monitoring for picketing detection becomes Active only after the Cascade ated in Cascade for the specified count of CD actuator beam has oper . This is required to ensure that performance monitoring is applied to a Scans system that has reach steady state after actuator beam mode change to Cascade, grade change or scenario switching. 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

93 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Overview CD Perf ance monitoring for misalignment detection is active, a When perform Figure status message is displayed at the bottom of the screen as shown in Mon 4- 2. Figure 4 -2 Adaptive Alignment CD Performance Monitoring Status Message Power Spectrums of the most recent actuator setpoints and measurement errors are also calculated at the end of scan by the misalignment detection, and displayed relative to the Actuator Setpoints Picketing and Error Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths specific range of spatial frequencies . For the actuator setpoints picketing, the specific range of spatial frequencies is represented by the wavelengths greater then 2Xa (mm) and shorter than X3dB (mm). For the error profile controllable short wavelengths, the specific range of spatial frequencies is represented by the wavelengths greater then Xc (mm), and shorter than X3dB (mm). Error Profile Enabled option (which is enabled by default) allows the The enable or disable of error profile to be used for misalignment detection. Use caution when choosing to disable this option because it may cause misalignment detection to unnecessarily trigger for very aggressively tuned CD controllers. Picketing detection requires that spatial process models for each actuator -primary measurement combination are correctly identified by IntelliMap (gain, width, attenuation, and divergence). 4.2.1.3. ncrease Setpoints Smoothing I function is automatically called after The setpoints smoothing increase sub- Setpoints Smoothing Enabled misalignment detection, when the option (which is enabled by default) is set to on. The setpoints smoothing increase is achieved he multivariable controller , or by increasing by increasing t Picketing Penalties the traditional controller Blend Factor . For traditional controller, the smoothing option be based on the Blend Factor requires the Blackman Smoothing Enabled turned on. and values to It is recommended to Maximum Adjustment Factor increase the achieve a significant increase in actuator setpoints smoothing after misalignment detection only for systems that are either very aggressively tuned in the spatial domain, and/or experience severe chang es in the alignment due to either sheet wander, shrinkage change, or a combination of both. 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

94 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment 4.2.2. Identification functions: Identification encompasses four sub- -Loop Active Test Closed • Closed • -Loop Alignment Identification • Alignment Validation Probing Signal Optimization • The objective of the Identification function is to calculate a valid set of alignment parameters before calling the Deployment function for updating the alignment parameters. Closed-Loop Active Test 4.2.2.1. function is -Loop Active Test for Adaptive Alignment sub- The Closed automatically started following misalignment detection, when the Automatic Identification Enabled option (enabled by default) is enabled, and a grade Adaptive Alignment change is not in progress. It is shown as an actuator specific status message displayed at the bottom of the screen as shown in Figure 4- 3. -3 Actuator Specific Adaptive Alignment Status Message Figure 4 Loop Active Test sub- The most important input parameter of the Closed- function, that needs to be explicitly entered, is the The . Magnitude Target (units) Magnitude Target parameter specifies the desired amount of actuator setpoints that will performed during the identification. Set the Magnitude Target to changes be equal to bump amplitudes that have been used by IntelliMap for calculating accurate alignment and process models. In addition to the Magnitude Target, the other parameters that are important in determining the effectiveness of the closed -loop active test sub- function are the , and the number of Active Scans . The Interval Target number of zones for Interval Target parameter defines the desired amount of spacing between the loop identification. The zones applying the probing signal for closed- actuator Active Scans value specifies the number of scans during which the probing signal is actively applied to the actuator setpoints. Automatic option is set by default to Configuration Mode so that probing signal is automatically designed according to the entered Magnitude Target, the 10 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

95 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Overview specified Interval Target, and Active Scans in compliance with the hard constraints that are imposed on the actuators. The spatial distribution of the probing signal is also defined by the selected ), which also allows grouping Cluster Type option (defaulted to 1 Actuator Zone and triangular 2 Actuator Zone adjacent actuator zones in 3 Actuator -shape 3 Actuator Zone -shape Zone clusters. Use 2 Actuator Zone or triangular clusters only if IntelliMap has required the grouping adjacent actuator zones for calculating accurate alignment and process models (for example, in the case of severe bend limiting). sting the Cluster Type -Loop active test is capable of dynamically adju The Closed at run time in order to respect the hard constraints imposed on the actuators in combination with automatically applying a Magnitude Adjustment (%) (defaulted to 60%) for optimizing the amount of excitation applied by the probing nal. The amount of excitation applied for the default Magnitude Adjustment sig (%) of 60% can be expressed as follows for each Cluster Type: 1 Actuator Zone: Excitation = 1 x Magnitude Target • 2 Actuator Zone: Excitation = (1 + 1) x (60%) = 1.2 x Magnitude • rget (20% increase relative to 1 Actuator Zone) Ta • 3 Actuator Zone: Excitation = (2/3 + 1 + 2/3) x (60%) = 1.4 x Magnitude Target (or 40% increase relative to 1 Actuator Zone) For the pyramidal -shape 3 Actuator Zone cluster, the magnitude of the adjacent zones is set to 2/3 of the centre zone magnitude in order to minimize the bending stress. The dynamic configuration of probing signal is by default set to Automatic by is automatically Automatic Filter Factor the Filter Configuration mode. The ased on the time constant and the average scan time. calculated b For CD processes with relative long time constants, short time delays and low process gains, a Manual Filter Factor can be defined when the Configuration Mode option is set to Manual ue of 0.01 represents very heavy . A filter factor val filtering, which will generate relatively longer probing signals in the time domain . A value of 1.00 represents no filtering at all. Closed-Loop Alignment Identification 4.2.2.2. function performs the calculation of The closed -loop alignment identification sub- alignment parameters using one of the three options: Shrinkage Type • Linear (default) 11 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

96 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment • Parametric Nonlinear • -parametric Nonlinear Non Use the Linear option if IntelliMap has not indicated a significant non- linearity of ied shrinkage factor array. If choosing either the Parametric Nonlinear the identif or Non- parametric Nonlinear option, reduce the number of zones for the Interval Target in order to achieve a dense coverage of sheet edges with sufficient amount of probing signal for closed -loop identification. -loop alignment identification requires that spatial and dynamic process Closed -primary measurement combination are correctly models for each actuator identified by IntelliMap: spatial response (process gain, width, attenuation a nd divergence), and dynamic response (time constant, and total time delay). Alignment Validation 4.2.2.3. -function is automatically called after closed The Alignment Validation sub -loop alignment identification is complete, and calculated alignment parameters are panel along with current displayed on the Calculated Alignment Parameters alignment parameters which are displayed on the Current Alignment panel. Parameters The calculated alignment parameters are rated by the Model Validation Qualifier or OK), Fair, or Poor based on the Calculated Model Fit (%) to be either Good ( and Original Model Fit (%) values. The Calculated Model Fit (%) and Original Model Fit (%) values are calculated to reflect the fit between the process and le Graphs relative to the Calculated and model specific Normalized Response Profi Current Alignment Parameters. The calculated model validation qualifier of Good (or OK), Fair, and Poor are inputs to the decision process implemented as part of the Automatic Deployment sub- function. 4.2.2.4. Probing Signal Optimization Probing Signal Optimization sub -function is completely automated by design and loop identification active Consecutive Tests provides optimization of all closed- performed until the Model Validation Qualifier is rated as Good. function, the cluster type used in As part of the probing signal optimization sub- the probing signal is automatically incremented. The total magnitude is automatically optimized by applying a fixed magnitude adjustment of 60% to 2 and 3 Actuator Zones cluster types in order to achieve, by default, a moderate increase in the amount of excitation of 20% and 40% relative to the 1 Actuator Zone cluster type respectively. 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

97 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Overview Deployment 4.2.3. -functions: Deployment encompasses three sub • Automatic Deployment • Setpoints Smoothing Restore • vice Requests Ser The objective of the Deployment function is to ensure that alignment parameters calculated and rated by the Identification function are correctly deployed and automatically saved to DSR to prevent performance degradation due to misalignment. Automatic Deployment 4.2.3.1. The Automatic Deployment sub- function is automatically started following model validation, if the Automatic Deployment Enabled option (enabled by default) is enabled. parameter (defaulted to 1.0 CD ZBA Deployment Threshold (CD Bin) Bin) The is used as part of the deployment logic for two purposes: prevent the unnecessary deployment of calculated alignment • parameters that do not sufficiently differ from the current alignment parameters • detect situations when CD controller performance degrades for reasons other than misalignment Calculated alignment parameters rated by the model validation sub -function as being either Good or Fair are automatically deployed as long as they satisfy the specified ZBA deployment threshold. When model validation is set to Good the automatic deployment of calculated alignment parameters is automatically followed by the restore of original setpoints function. smoothing provided by the Setpoints Smoothing Restore sub- When model validation is set to Fair, the original setpoints smoothing is not restored and consecutive optimized identification tests are carried out until model validation is either set to Good, or maximum allowable Consecutive Tests is exceeded. 13 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

98 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment alculated alignment parameters Whenever the model validation is set to Poor, the c are not deployed, and consecutive optimized tests are carried out until model validation is set to Good, or maximum allowable Consecutive Tests is exceeded. Up date You can also manually deploy the alignment parameters by clicking the original setpoints smoothing is Update Alignment, . After clicking Alignment restored regardless of Model Validation Qualifier value. The Update Alignment button is grayed -out when Model Validation Qualifier is set to Poor. 4.2.3.2. ore Setpoints Smoothing Rest Setpoints smoothing restore sub- function is automatically called after the automatic or manual deployment of calculated alignment parameters to restore the original setpoints smoothing, that were increased following misalignment oints Smoothing Enabled Setp detection when the option, was enabled as part of performance monitoring setup. At the completion of setpoints smoothing restore, the multivariable controller current values, are Blend Factor , and traditional controller Picketing Penalties eir original values. reset to th 4.2.3.3. Service Requests -function is automatically called to log all Adaptive The Service Requests sub Alignment service requests to the Alarm Summary in the following circumstances: user mode where -assisted • Adaptive Alignment operates in a option (which is enabled by default) Au tomatic Deployment Enabled -assisted mode after the misalignment detection is disabled. In the user followed by an automatic identification, Good rating, and ZBA Deployment Threshold (CD Bin) conditions are satisfied, a service -assisted user alarm will be logged to the Alarm Summary page. This mode service alarm indicates whether the CD controller performance degradation is due to alignment or tuning, and will request you to click Update Alignment to improve CD controller performances. • When Adaptive Alignment following misalignment detection and automatic identification, Good rating and with the Automatic Deployment Enabled option enabled does not satisfy the ZBA Deployment Threshold (CD Bin) condition a service alarm will be deployment threshold logged to the Alarm Summary page. This service alarm will indicate that CD controller performance degradation are due to tuning and will request you to run IntelliMap to optimize -baseline CD controller performances. and re 14 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

99 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display • When Ada ptive Alignment following misalignment detection and automatic identification cannot achieve Good rating after completing all Consecutive Tests a service alarm will be logged to the Alarm Summary page. This consecutive tests service alarm indicates that Ad aptive Alignment cannot improve CD controller performance and will request you to run IntelliMap to optimize and re -baseline CD controller performances To open the Alarm Summary and view the Adaptive Alignment alarm log: 24. From Station, select System Menu (F 1). 25. Click the Alarms icon. 26. Filter based on the Adaptive Alignment keyword in the Source column. 4.3. Adaptive Alignment Display display can be accessed by clicking Adaptive The Adaptive Alignment tab on the CD Measurements under the Alignment see bar ( Display Menu Figure 4- 4). It is accessible to the control engineer only. Figure 4 -4 Display Menu Bar (Adaptive Alignment) The Adaptive Alignment display contains thr ee sub -displays accessed by selecting the corresponding tab in the top leftmost area of display. These three Performance Monitoring Identification , , and . Deployment sub- displays are: There are several buttons across the top of the display. From left to rig ht: • ToolTips ): toggles whether ToolTips are enabled. ToolTips are ( boxes of text that appear when mouse is hovered over an object, providing helpful information on that object. : saves the edited parameters to the RTDR. This • Apply Changes button, normally grayed out, flashes in red when you have edited parameters on the display to prompt you to save the changes. • : undoes the changes made to the parameters on the Discard Changes display without saving to the RTDR. This button, normally grayed out, ailable when you have edited parameters on the display. becomes av 15 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

100 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment • : saves all CD Controls grade DSR Save All -dependent parameters to the recipe database. This operation typically takes a few seconds depending on the number of parameters involved. There are several i ndicators across the top of the display. From left to right: • Messages Bar : displays the messages associated with performance - loop active tests for the selected actuator baselining and closed- scanner pair. Time to Completion (min) : displays the estimated time in minutes for • loop identification the completion of performance baselining or closed- test. : displays the actual count of consecutive identification tests that • Test are automatically carried out after the misalignment detection. Sub -display 4.3.1. Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring The display allows editing of parameters required sub- for setting up the performance baselining, misalignment detection and setpoints 16 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

101 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display display is shown in sub- smoothing increase. The Performance Monitoring 5 with the display areas, buttons, and items labeled. Figure 4- - Figure 4 -5 Adaptive Alignment Display: Performance Monitoring Sub Display -5. Table 4- 1 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 4 1 Adaptive Alignment Display: Performance Monitoring Sub -display Table 4- Items Description Name Number down list of Actuator Provides a drop - 1 all actuators in the system Selector Bar 2 down list of all available scanners downstream of the selected Scanner - Provides a drop Selector Bar actuator 3 Monitoring Displays whether the Performance Monitoring for misalignment detection is enabled for the selected actuator -scanner pair. Also allows enabling and disabling Enabled of performance monitoring. After performance baselining is complete, enable this option (which is disabled by default) to turn on misalignment detection. This parameter is grade s saved to the DSR database. dependant and i - 17 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

102 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Description Name Number 4 Cascade Scans Displays and allows editing of the number of Cascade control scans required before Performance Monitoring becomes active after actuator beam mode change to Cascade, grade change or scenario switching. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the actual number of Cascade control scans counted before the Cascade Scans 5 Performance Monitoring becomes active following actuator beam mode change to Count Cascade, grade change or scenario switching Active Displays the Performance Monitoring status. Performance Monitoring is On after 6 the Cascade control scans counted following actuator beam mode change to Cascade, grade change or scenario switching. Displays the misalignment detection status. It is set to DET when actuator Status 7 setpoints picketing or when both actuator setpoints picketing and error profile controllable short wavelengths Accumulation values exceed the specified Cumulative Threshold parameters. 8 Actuator Displays and allows the editing of Actuator Setpoints Picketing parameters Setpoints required for misalignment detection Picketing Panel Displays the actuator setpoints Spread Baseline calculated after performance Spread 8a baselining based on the actuator setpoints Baseline Profile and according to the Baseline Picketing Window Size Current Spread Displays the actuator setpoints Current Spread calculated for the actuator zones 8b in Cascade mode only and according to Picketing Window Size 8c Baseline Displays and allows editing of the Baseline Multiplier for calculating the actuator setpoints Limit as Spread Baseline multiplied by the Baseline Multiplier. This Multiplier parameter is grade - dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays 8d Limit the actuator setpoints spread Limit used for misalignment detection. Cumulative Displays and allows editing of the actuator setpoints Cumulative Threshold used 8e dependant and is saved to for misalignment detection. This parameter is grade- Threshold the DSR database. Displays the current actuator setpoints Accumulation that is compared to the 8f Accumulation Cumulative Threshold for misalignment detection. Profile Controllable Short Wavelengths Displays and allows editing of the Error 9 Error Profile Controllable parameters required for misalignment detection Short Wavelengths Panel 9a Error Profile Displays whether the error profile is enabled for performance monitoring. Also monitoring (which is allows enabling and disabling of error profile for performance Enabled enabled by default). This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. 18 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

103 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display Description Number Name 9b Spread Displays the error profile Spread Baseline calculated after Performance Baselining based on measurement errors Baseline Profil e and according to the Baseline Picketing Window Size Displays the error profile Current Spread calculated for the profile errors mapped Current Spread 9c to the actuator zones in Cascade mode only and according to the Picketing Window Size. Baseline Displays and allows editing of the Baseline Multiplier for calculating the error 9d profile Limit as Spread Baseline multiplied by the Baseline Multiplier. This Multiplie r - parameter is grade dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the error profile spread Limit used for misalignment detection 9e Limit Displays and allows editing of the error profile Cumulative Threshold used for Cumulative 9f dependant and is saved to the misalignment detection. This parameter is grade- Threshold DSR database. Acc umulation Displays the current error profile Accumulation that is compared to the Cumulative 9g Threshold for misalignment detection. 10 Baselining Displays and allows editing of the parameters for performance baselining and Panel misalignment detection 1 Number of Displays and allows editing of the number of baseline scans requested for 0a performance baselining. Special consideration should be given when editing Baseline Scans will because this parameter specifies the time duration for which the CD controller be temporarily operated under the specified amount of induced misalignment required for performance baselining which could in turn lead to either too aggressive or too conservative misalignment detection. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Picketing 10b Displays and allows editing of the number of actuator zones to be used in the sliding window used for performance baselining and monitoring. Special Window Size consideration should be given when editing because this parameter specifies the size of the spatial window for performance baselining which could in turn lead to either too aggressive or too conservative misalignment detection. For actuator of beams that have less than 40 actuator zones it is defaulted to the number zones. For actuator beams that have 40 or more actuator zones it is defaulted to the maximum between 40 and ¼ of number of zones. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays and allows editing of the baselining method. Available options are Sheet Baselining 10c Wander and Shrinkage Change. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved Method to the DSR database. 19 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

104 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Number Name Description Displays and allows editing of the Sheet Wander Ta 10d Sheet Wander rget (mm) or Shrinkage Change Target (%) according to the selected Baselining Method. Both Sheet Target (mm) Wander Target (mm) and Shrinkage Change Target (%) have safe and Shrinkage meaningful values (defaulted to 1/3 Actuator Width and 0.5% respectively) that Change Target adjusted in special circumstances. Exercise caution when only need to be (%) adjusting Sheet Wander Target (mm) or the Shrinkage Change Target (%) to prevent the calculation of Spread Baseline values that are either too low or too high. These parameters are grade- dependant and are saved to the DSR database. Displays the Start Baselining button for starting the performance baselining 10e Start Baselining Displays the Stop Baselining button for stopping the performance baselining 10f Stop Baselining 11 Setpoints Displays and allows the editing of parameters for configuring the setpoints Smoothing smoothing increased applied after misalignment detection Pa nel Displays whether the setpoints smoothing increase is enabled for the selected Setpoints 11a Smoothing actuator. Also allows enabling and disabling of setpoints smoothing increase. This dependant and is saved to the DSR database Enabled - parameter is grade Picketing Displays and allows editing of the Picketing Penalties multiplicative adjustment 11b (defaulted to 2) to be applied to actuator setpoints under multivariable control after Penalties dependant and is saved to the misalignment detection. This parameter is grade- Adjustment DSR database. 11c Original controller actuator Picketing Penalties before Displays the original multivariable Picketing setpoints smoothing increase applied after the misalignment detection Penalties 11d Displays the current multivariable controller actuator Picketing Penalties with Current se applied after the misalignment detection. Current Picketing setpoints smoothing increa Penalties Picketing Penalties increase is limited by the Maximum Picketing Penalties. Displays and allows editing of the maximum allowable multivariable controller 11e Maximum ng Penalties (defaulted to 2.00) by the setpoints smoothing Picketing actuator Picketi increase applied after the misalignment detection Penalties Blend Factor 11f Displays and allows editing of the Blend Factor additive adjustment (defaulted to 0.01) to be applied to actuator setpoints under traditional control after Adjustment misalignment detection. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the original traditional controller actuator Blend Factor before setpoints Original Blend 11g smoothing i Factor ncrease applied after the misalignment detection Displays the current traditional controller actuator Blend Factor with setpoints 11h Current Blend smoothing increase applied after the misalignment detection. Current Blend Factor Factor increase is limite d by the Maximum Blend Factor. Displays and allows editing of the maximum allowable traditional controller 11i Maximum actuator Blend Factor (defaulted to 0.1) by the setpoints smoothing increase Blend Factor applied after the misalignment detection 20 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

105 Adaptive Alignment ay Adaptive Alignment Displ Number Name Description 11j Displays the Reset Smoothing button for restoring the Current Picketing Penalties Reset and Blend Factor to their Original Picketing Penalties and Blend Factor value after Smoothing an automatic setpoints smoothing increase applied following a misalignment detection 12 Power down list of Power Spectrums and Baseline Profiles for actuator Provides a drop- Spectrums setpoints and error profile (defaulted to Power Spectrums) Selector Bar Displays the actuator setpoints Power Actuator Spectrums and Baseline Profiles. Power 13 dependant and are Spectrums, Baseline Profiles, and Zone Statuses are grade- Setpoints saved to the DSR database. Graph Displays the actuator setpoints information for the cut hs for the off wavelengt - Actuator 14 Setpoints Power Spectrums and Baseline Profiles. For the actuator setpoints picketing the specific range of spatial frequencies is represented by the wavelengths greater Information then 2Xa (mm) and shorter than X3dB (mm). The 2Xa (mm) represents the two- Panel times -spacing wavelength. The X3dB (mm) represents the wavelength -actuator where the spatial power drops to 50% of the maximum over the full spatial frequency band. Error Profile 15 Displays the error profile Power Spectrums and Baseline Profiles. Power dependant and are saved to the DSR ctrums and Baseline Profiles are grade- Spe Graph database. 21 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

106 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Number Name Description Error Profile off wavelengths for the Power - Displays the error profile information for the cut 16 Spectrums and Baseline Profiles. For the error profile controllable short Information wavelengths the specific range of spatial frequencies is represented by the Panel wavelengths greater then Xc (mm) and shorter than X3dB (mm). The Xc (mm) represents the wavelength where the spatial power drops to 4% of the maximum over the full spatial frequency band. The X3dB (mm) represents the wavelength where the spatial power drops to 50% of the maximum over the full spatial frequency band. dependant parameters shown on the display to the recipe DSR Save Saves all grade - 17 Page database. 22 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

107 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display Identification Sub 4.3.2. -display sub- The Identification display allows for the editing of parameters required for display is sub- Identification closed -loop identification and model validation. The shown in Figure 4- 6 with the display areas, buttons, and items labeled. display -6 Adaptive Alignment Display: Identification Sub- Figure 4 -6. 2 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 4 Table 4- Table 4- 2 Adaptive Alignment Display: Identification Sub- display Items Number Name Description down list of all actuators in the system - Provides a drop 1 Actuator Selector Bar down list of all available scanners downstream of the selected Scanner Provides a drop - 2 Selector Bar actuator 23 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

108 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Description Name Number Displays the Primary Measurement according to the selected downstream Primary 3 scanner of the selected actuator beam. The Primary Measurement is used for Measurement loop identification of CD alignment misalignment detection and closed- parameters. The Primary Measurement is selected as part of the configuration and system build process for the CDDownstreamFrame object. The selection is based on the assumption that Primary Measurement is expected to have the tpoint. most change in the measured value due to a change in the CD actuator se 4 Automatic Displays whether the automatic identification is enabled for the selected actuator - Identification scanner pair. Also allows enabling and disabling of automatic identification. This parameter is grade dependant and is saved to t Enabled - he DSR database. Cascade 5 Displays and allows editing the number of Cascade control scans required before dependant and Automatic Identification becomes active. This parameter is grade- Scans is saved to the DSR database. Displays t Cascade 6 he actual number of Cascade control scans counted before the Automatic Identification becomes active following picketing detection Scans Count Displays and allows editing of maximum number of Consecutive Tests that do not Consecutive 7 generate Good results before further active tests are suspended. This parameter Tests is grade - dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the Start Test button for starting a user -initiated active test with actuator 8 Start Test beam in Cascade or Auto. Stop Test initiated active test with actuator 9 - Displa ys the Stop Test button for stopping a user beam in Cascade or Auto. 10 Basic Displays and allows editing the basic configuration parameters for closed- loop Configuration active tests. Panel 10a Magnitude Displays and allows editing of the Magnitude Target in actuator setpoints engineering. The Magnitude Target parameter specifies the desired amount of Target (units) actuator setpoints changes that will performed during the active tests. It is recommended to set the Magnitude Target to be equal to bump amplitudes that have already been used by IntelliMap for calculating accurate alignment and process models on a grade dependant -by-grade basis. This parameter is grade- and is saved to the DSR database. 10b Interval Tar get Displays and allows editing of the Interval Target. The Interval Target parameter defines the desired amount of spacing between the actuator zones applying the probing signal. The Interval Target is defaulted to 10 for actuator beams that have less tha n 100 zones and 20 for actuator beams that have 100 or more actuator dependant and is saved to the DSR database. - zones. This parameter is grade Active Scans Displays and allows editing of the Active Scans. The Active Scans value specifies 10c the number of scans during which the probing signal is actively applied to the actuator setpoints during the active tests. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. 24 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

109 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display Description Number Name p identification. loo - 11 Basic Displays configuration parameters for closed Information Panel 11a Displays the Configuration Mode that can be edited from the Advanced Configuration Configuration Panel. Available options are Automatic and Manual. Configuration Mode Mode option is set by default to Automatic so that probing signa l is automatically designed according to the entered Magnitude Target, the specified Interval Target and Active Scans in compliance with the hard constraints that are imposed on the ase. - dependant and is saved to the DSR datab actuators. This parameter is grade 11b Total Scans Displays the total number of scans for closed- loop active tests determined according to the specified number of Active Scans, Baseline Scans and the additional amount of scans to account for the dynamic response (time constant and tot al time delay) and average scan time. Displays the estimated duration (in minutes) for closed - loop active tests Estimated 11c determined according to the specified number of Active Scans, Baseline Scans Duration (min) account for the dynamic response (time and the additional amount of scans to constant and total time delay) and average scan time. 11d Shrinkage Displays the Shrinkage Type that can be edited from the Advanced Model Configuration panel. Available options are Linear, Parametric Nonlinear, and Non - Type parametric Nonlinear . This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Advanced - Displays and allows editing the advanced configuration parameters for closed 12 Configuration loop alig nment identification. Panel (not shown in main graphic) Cluster Type Displays and allows editing the Cluster Type. Available options are 1 Actuator 12a Zone, 2 Actuator Zones, and 3 Actuator Zones. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. 12b Magnitude Displays and allows editing of the Magnitude Adjustment (%). Magnitude Adjustment is defaulted to 60% for optimizing the amount of excitation applied by Adjust ment (%) the probing signal for when Cluster Type is automatically incremented from 1 Actuator Zone to either 2 Actuator Zone or 3 Actuator Zone for compliance with the hard constraints that are imposed on the actuators. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. ion Mode for spatial probing. The Displays and allows editing of the Configurat Configuration 12c available options are Automatic and Manual. Configuration Mode option is set by Mode default to Automatic so that spatial probing signal is automatically designed according to the entered Magnitude Target, the specified Interval Target and Active Scans in compliance with the hard constraints that are imposed on the dependant and is saved to the DSR database. - actuators. This parameter is grade 25 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

110 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Number Name Description 12d Edit Display and allows manual editing of the identification test. Available only if Configuration Mode is set to Manual. Displays and allows editing of the number of Baseline Scans that are logged prior Baseline Scans 12e to applying the probing signal for the specified number of Active Scans. This - dependant and i s saved to the DSR database. parameter is grade 13 Advanced Displays and allows editing of the advanced model configuration parameters for Model loop alignment identification and validation. closed- Configuration Panel (not shown in main graphic) Shrinkage ys and allows editing of the Shrinkage Type. Available options are Linear, Displa 13a parametric Nonlinear. This parameter is grade- Parametric Nonlinear, and Non- Type dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays and allows editing o Shrinkage 13b f the Shrinkage Polynomial Order used when the Polynomial Shrinkage Type is set to Non- parametric Nonlinear. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Order 13c Good (defaulted to Displays and allows editing of the Good Threshold (%) parameter 75%) used to determine the Model Validation Qualifier. This parameter is grade- Threshold (%) dependant and is saved to the DSR database. 13d Fair Threshold Displays and allows editing of the Fair Threshold (%) parameter (defaulted to 50%) used to determine the Model Validation Qualifier. This parameter is grade- (%) dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Re Displays the Re Identify button used to perform re identification of alignment - - 13e Identify - parameters according to the selected Shrinkage Type, S hrinkage Polynomial Order, Good Threshold (%) and Fair Threshold (%). 13f Displays the Logging Settings button that launches the Logging Settings display. Logging Settings 14 Filter Displays and allows editing of the dynamic filter configuration parameters for Configuration closed- loop identification Panel (not shown in main graphic) - loop active tests is enabled. 14a Filter Enabled Displays whether the dynamic filtering for closed Also allows enabling and disabling of dynamic filtering. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. 26 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

111 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display Description Number Name 14b Configuration Displays and allows editing of the Configuration Mode for dynamic probing. The available options are Automatic and Manual. Configuration Mode option is set by Mode default to Automatic so that dynamic probing signal is designed according to the automatically calculated Automated Filter Factor based on the process time dependant and is constant and average scan time. This parameter is grade- saved to the DSR database. Displays the automatically calculated Automatic Filter Factor for designing the 14c Autom atic probing signal in the dynamic domain when Configuration Mode is set to Filter Factor Automatic. 14d Manual Filter Displays and allows editing of the Manual Filter Factor (defaulted to 0.33) for designing the probing signal in the dynamic domain when Configuration Mode is Factor set to Manual. 15 Calculated Displays the calculated alignment parameters Alignment Parameters Panel Low Actuator 15a Displays the calculated Low Actuator Offset as a distance in millimeters between Offset (mm) the low edge of the sheet and the edge of the first (low trim) actuator zone. 15b High Actuator Displays the calculated High Actuator Offset as distance in millimeters between Offset (mm) the high edge of the sheet and the edge of the last (high trim) actuator zone. Displays the calculated average value of Low Sheet Edge as the distance in units 15c Low Sheet of CD bins between the low edge of the sheet at the scanner and some reference Edge (CD Bin) point. 15d High Sheet Displays the calculated average value of High Sheet Edge as the distance in units of CD bins between the high edge of the sheet at the scanner and some Edge (CD Bin) reference point. he calculated Overall Shrinkage of the sheet in percentage. 15e Overall Displays t Shrinkage (%) Displays the calculated Low Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters which is 15f Low Trim added to the Measured Low Trim to generate the final Low Trim measurement. Adjustment Measured Low Trim and Measured Low Trim values are shown on the Alignment (mm) display 15g High Trim Displays the calculated High Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters which is added to the Measured High Trim to generate the final High Trim Adjustment measurement. Measured High Trim and Measured High Trim values are shown (mm) on the Alignment display 27 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

112 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Name Description Number 16 Current Displays the current alignment parameters Alignment Parameters Panel distance in millimeters between the 16a Low Actuator Displays the current Low Actuator Offset as a low edge of the sheet and the edge of the first (low trim) actuator zone. Offset (mm) High Actuator Displays the current High Actuator Offset as distance in millimeters between the 16b e of the last (high trim) actuator zone. Offset (mm) high edge of the sheet and the edg 16c Low Sheet Displays the current Low Sheet Edge as the distance in units of CD bins between Edge (CD Bin) the low edge of the sheet at the scanner and some reference point. the current High Sheet Edge as the distance in units of CD bins between Displays High Sheet 16d the high edge of the sheet at the scanner and some reference point. Edge (CD Bin) Displays the current Overall Shrinkage of the sheet in percentage. Overall 16e Shrinkage (%) Low Trim 16f Displays the current Low Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters which is Adjustment added to the Measured Low Trim to generate the final Low Trim measurement. Measured Low Trim and Measured Low Trim values are shown on the Alignment (mm) display 16g High Tr im Displays the current High Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters which is Adjustment added to the Measured High Trim to generate the final High Trim measurement. Measured High Trim and Measured High Trim values are shown on the Alignment (mm) disp lay 17 Displays and allows editing the parameters for model validation of calculated Model Validation alignment parameters Panel Displays the Calculated Model Fit (%) between the Normalized Response Profile 17a Calculated nd the Normalized Response Profile of the Calculated Model of the Process a Model Fit (%) Displays the Original Model (%) between the Normalized Response Profile of the 17b Original Model Process and the Normalized Response Profile of the Current Model Fit (%) Displays the Model Validation Qualifier determined according to the Calculated Model 17c Model Fit (%), Original Model Fit (%), Good Threshold (%) and Fair Threshold Validation (%) values. It is set to Good when the Calculated Model Fit (%) > Original Model Qualifier Fit (%) a nd Calculated Model Fit (%) > Good Threshold (%). It is set to Fair if the Calculated Model Fit (%) > Original Model Fit (%) and Calculated Model Fit (%) > Fair Threshold (%). It is set to OK if the Calculated Model Fit (%) < Original Model Fit (%) and Cur rent Model Fit (%) > Good Threshold (%). It is set to Poor if otherwise than above. It will be displayed as Fail in case of an algorithm error(s). 28 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

113 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display Number Name Description Provides a drop - down list of Normalized Response Profile and Shr inkage Factor 18 Normalized Response Array. Profile Selector Bar Normalized Displays the Normalized Response Profile of the Process and the Normalized 19 Response Response Profile of the Current Model. Profile Graphs 20 Displays the Current and Calculated Shrinkage Factor Arrays. Shrinkage Factor Array Graph (not shown in main graphic) 21 Cursor Position Displays the cursor position of the graph in CD Bin or actuator zone resolution. - Single arrow buttons slide the cursor one CD Bin or one actuator zone at a time. Displays according to the selected cursor position of the graph in CD Bins or Process and 22 actuator zones resolution the Normalized Response Profile of the Process and Model the Normalized Response Profile of the Current Model or the Current and rrays. Calculated Shrinkage Factor A Recipe Stamp Displays the Recipe associated with the Calculated Alignment Parameters. 23 Date/Time Displays the Date/Time associated with the Calculated Alignment Parameters 24 Stamp dependant parameters shown on the display to the recipe Saves all grade DSR Save - 25 database. Page 29 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

114 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Deployment Sub 4.3.3. -display Deployment display allows for the editing of parameters required for the The sub- display is Deployment deployment of calculated alignment parameters. The sub- shown in Figure 4- 7 with the display areas, buttons, and items labeled. display -7 Adaptive Alignment Display: Deployment Sub- Figure 4 Table 4- 3 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 4 -7. Table 4- 3 Adaptive Alignment Display: Deployment Sub- display Items Number Name Description 1 Actuator Selector Bar Provides a drop - down list of all actuators in the system ilable scanners downstream of the Provides a drop - down list of all ava Scanner Selector Bar 2 selected actuator 30 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

115 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Display Name Description Number Automatic Displays whether the automatic deployment is enabled for the selected 3 actuator -scanner pair. Also allows enabling and disabling of automatic Deployment Enabled deployment. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. ZBA Deployment 4 Displays and allows editing of the ZBA Deployment Threshold in units of CD Bins. This parameter (defaulted to 1 CD Bin) is used to specify the Threshold (CD Bin) threshold between the calc ulated and current Zone Boundary Array that is required for the automatic deployment of calculated alignment parameters. This parameter is grade- dependant and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the calculated al 5 Calculated Alignment ignment parameters Parameters Panel Displays the calculated Low Actuator Offset as a distance in millimeters Low Actuator Offset 5a between the low edge of the sheet and the edge of the first (low trim) (mm) actuator zone. Displays the calculated High Actuator Offset as distance in millimeters 5b High Actuator Offset between the high edge of the sheet and the edge of the last (high trim) (mm) actuator zone. Displays the calculated average value of Low Sheet Edge as the distance 5c Low Sheet Edge (CD of CD bins between the low edge of the sheet at the scanner and in units Bin) some reference point. High Sheet Edge (CD Displays the calculated average value of High Sheet Edge as the distance 5d in units of CD bins between the high edge of the sheet at the scanner and Bin) some reference point. Displays the calculated Overall Shrinkage of the sheet in percentage. 5e Overall Shrinkage (%) Displays the calculated Low Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters 5f Low Trim Adjustment Low Trim to generate the final Low Trim which is added to the Measured (mm) measurement. Displays the calculated High Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters 5g High Trim Adjustment which is added to the Measured High Trim to generate the final High Trim (mm) measurement. 31 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

116 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment Description Number Name Displays the current alignment parameters 6 Current Alignment Parameters Panel 6a Displays the current Low Actuator Offset as a distance in millimeters Low Actuator Offset between the low edge of the sheet and the edge of the first (low trim) (mm) actuator zone. Displays the current High Actuator Offset as distance in millimeters 6b High Actuator Offset between the high edge of the sheet and the edge of the last (high trim) (mm) actuator zone. Low Sheet Edge (CD 6c Displays the current Low Sheet Edge as the distance in units of CD bins between the low edge of the sheet at the scanner and some reference Bin) point. Displays the current High Sheet Edge as the distance in units of CD bins High Sheet Edge (CD 6d and some reference between the high edge of the sheet at the scanner Bin) point. 6e Displays the current Overall Shrinkage of the sheet in percentage. Overall Shrinkage (%) Low Trim Adjustment 6f Displays the current Low Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters which is added to the Measured Low Trim to generate the final Low Trim (mm) measurement. 6g High Trim Adjustment Displays the current High Trim Adjustment as a distance in millimeters which is added to the Measured High Trim to generate the final High Trim (mm) measurement. 7 Setpoints Smoothi Displays the parameters for the setpoints smoothing increase applied after ng misalignment detection Panel Original Picketing Displays the original multivariable controller actuator Picketing Penalties 7a before setpoints smoothing increase applied after the misalignment Penalties detection 7b Displays the current multivariable controller actuator Picketing Penalties Current Picketing with setpoints smoothing increase applied after the misalignment Penalties limited by the Maximum detection. Current Picketing Penalties are Picketing Penalties value shown on the Performance Monitoring sub- display. 7c Original Blend Factor Displays the original traditional controller actuator Blend Factor before t detection setpoints smoothing increase applied after the misalignmen 32 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

117 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive A lignment Setup Guidelines Number Name Description Current Blend Factor Displays the current traditional controller actuator Blend Factor with 7d setpoints smoothing increase applied after the misalignment detection. Current Blend Factor is limited by the Maximum Blend Factor value shown on th e Performance Monitoring sub - display. Displays the Model Validation Qualifier determined according to the Model Validation 8 Calculated Model Fit (%), Original Model Fit (%), Good Threshold (%) and Qualifier display. Fair Threshold (%) shown on the Identification sub - 9 Shrinkage Factor down list of Shrinkage Factor Array and Zone Boundary Provides a drop- Array Selector Bar Array 10 Shrinkage Factor Displays the Current and Calculated Shrinkage Factor Arrays. Array Graph Zone Boundary Array Displays the Current and Calculated Zone Boundary Arrays. 11 Graph Update Alignment 12 Displays the Update Alignment button for updating the Current alignment parameters with the Calculated alignment parameters following an identification test. Updated alignment parameters are grade- dependant and are automatically saved to the DSR database. Exercise caution before updating alignment parameters that have the Model Validation Qualifier set to Fair because the original setpoints smoothing is automatically restored af ter pressing the Update Alignment button. Update Alignment button is grayed- out when after identification the Model Validation Qualifier is set to Poor. Displays the Recipe associated with the Calculated Alignment Recipe Stamp 13 Parameters. Displays the Date/Time associated with the Calculated Alignment 14 Date/Time Stamp Parameters - dependant parameters shown on the display to the recipe Saves all grade 1 5 DSR Save Page database. 4.4. Adaptive Alignment Setup Guidelines There are a number of important points to consider when setting up Adaptive Alignment: • Like Process Models, the Adaptive Alignment is grade dependent. Set up the Recipes (DSR) database by creating all necessary groups and pointers so that the grade eved -dependent setup can be stored and retri properly. See Appendix A for details on CD Controls DSR Structure and Variables. -scanner combination: Verify process models for each actuator • alignment between each actuator and each of its downstream scanners (zone boundary array), spatial response ( gain, width, attenuation and divergence), and dynamic response (time constant, and total time 33 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

118 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment delay) of each CD actuator on each primary measurement. See Section 11.1 for details on the Process Model display. The primary measurement configuration is descri bed in the Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual (p/n 6510020588), and is displayed in Figure 11–2. • Verify that multivariable controllers are robustly tuned and optimized iveness, with IntelliMap: measurement weights, actuator aggress energy, and picketing penalties. See Chapter 5 for details on tuning and optimizing multivariable controllers. • Verify that traditional controllers robustly tuned and optimized with IntelliMap: error selection anti- aliasing, decoupling, control law, setpoints smoothing enabled and blend factor. See Chapter 7 for details on tuning and optimizing traditional controllers. • Verify that the system has reached a stead y state and the CD actuator beams are operating in Cascade mode. Performance Monitoring Setup 4.4.1. The following required (and optional) steps set up the performance monitoring function: Click 27. tab on the CD Measurements under the Adaptive Alignment bar to bring -up the Performance Monitoring sub- Display Menu display. 28. Click Start Baseline to start CD controller performance baselining. CD Control under the CD Control display by clicking 29. Open the main tab, and monitor controller performances until CD CD Controls con troller performance baselining is complete. 30. Click Adaptive Alignment under the CD Measurements tab on the Display Menu bar to bring up the Performance Monitoring sub- display. 31. parameters for the Adjustment Factor , increase the Optionally and for systems that are either very Blend Factor Picketing Penalties aggressively tuned in the spatial domain and/or experience severe changes in the alignment due to either sheet wander, shrinkage change or a combination of both. 34 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

119 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Setup Guidelines 32. Optionally , increase the Maximum values for the Picketing Penalties and Blend Factor for systems that are either very aggressively tuned in the spatial domain and/or experience severe changes in the alignment due to either sheet wander, shrinkage change or a combination of both. 33. ing Enabled option. Turn on the Monitor - Click DSR Save Page to save the performance monitoring grade 34. dependent parameters to the recipe database. 4.4.2. Identification Setup The following required (and optional) steps set up the Identification function: Identification display Identification tab to bring up the Click the 35. sub- and the tab. Basic Configuration ). Set the Magnitude Target to be Enter the Magnitude Target (units 36. equal to bump amplitudes that have been used by IntelliMap for calculating accurate alignment and process mo dels. Optionally 37. , edit the Interval Target and Active Scans in case IntelliMap has determined a very wide CD model response and a very low gain. tab, and edit the Advanced Configuration , click on the 38. Optionally in case IntelliMap has required the grouping adjacent Cluster Type actuator zones for calculating accurate alignment and process models (for example, in the case of severe bend limiting). Advanced Configuration tab and set the 39. Optionally , click on the -parametric Non Shrinkage Type to either Parametric Nonlinear or Nonlinear in case IntelliMap has determined a significant non- linearity of the identified shrinkage factor array. tab and reduce the Optionally 40. , click on the Basic Configuration Interval Target in case Shrinkage Type is set to either Parametric Nonlinear or Non -parametric Nonlinear. , click on the Filter Configuration tab to set the filter Optionally 41. Configuration Mode to Automatic and reduce the Manual Filter Factor value for systems that have relative long time constants, short time 35 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

120 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment delays and low process gains (for example, in the case of induction heating systems with very long time constants). 42. Click DSR Save Page to save the identification grade -dependent parameters to the recipe database. Deployment Setup 4.4.3. t up the deployment function: The following optional steps se Deployment 43. Click the Deployment tab to bring up the sub- display and turn off the Automatic Deployment Enabled option to operate the -assisted -assisted mode mode. In the user Adaptive Alignment in a user Alignment to update the alignment parameters. you press Update to save the deployment grade DSR Save Page Click 44. -dependent parameters to the recipe database. 4.5. Adaptive Alignment Reporting Adaptive Alignment provides detailed information on the execution of its system functions and user actions to the Event Summary. These system functions and user actions are logged by the Adaptive Alignment to the Event Summary: • User has started Performance Monitoring Baselining User has stopped Performance Monitoring Baselining • • led Performance Monitoring Enabled option User has enab • User has disabled Performance Monitoring Enabled option System has suspended Performance Monitoring • • System has resumed Performance Monitoring System has detected CD Performance degradation • System has applied Setpoints Smoothing • • User has enabled Automatic Identification Enabled option • User has disabled Automatic Identification Enabled option 36 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

121 Adaptive Alignment Adaptive Alignment Troubleshooting System has started an Identification Test • • System has completed an Identification Test User has started an Identification Test • • User has completed an Identification Test System has aborted an Identification Test • User has enabled Automatic Deployment Enabled option • User has disabled Automatic Deployment Enabled option • System has deployed Alignment Parameters • User has deployed A • lignment Parameters System has restored Original Setpoints Smoothing • To open the Event Summary and view the Adaptive Alignment event log: 45. . From Station, select System Menu (F1) Click the Events icon. 46. 47. Filter based on the Adaptive Alignment keyword in the Source column. Adaptive Alignment Troubleshooting 4.6. The Adaptive Alignment identification function operates normally, provided that its input parameters are within their respective ranges of acceptable values and they do not conflict with the actuator hard constraints. However, the Adaptive Alignment identification function may report a warning or an error when it detects a problem depending on the severity of the problem. The occurrence of an identification error is shown as a message in red displayed on the sub- Identification display. Detailed diagnostic information is logged in Windows Event Viewer. 37 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 4 -

122 CD Controls User Manual Adaptive Alignment 4.6.1. Windows Event Viewer Messages Windows Event Viewer is a source of detailed diagnostic information regarding Adaptive Alignment. To access Event Viewer:  48. Go to the Control Panel Administrative Tools  Event Viewer , Run or select Start menu, and enter the command ... from the . eventvwr Select the 49. folder in Event Viewer, and look for HwPmCdControls messages with CD Adaptive Alignment as the source. Logging Files 4.6.2. Adaptive Alignment is capable of logging the identification files as the -loop identification, model validation, and test application performs the closed optimization sub -functions. Identification log files contain information that can assist in troubleshooting of identification function. tab available Advanced Configuration Logging can be enabled by clicking the on the -8, and turning on the Test Data display shown in Figure 4 sub- Logging option. Logging Enabled -display -8 Adaptive Alignment Identification Display: Logging Sub Figure 4 38 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 4 -

123 5. Multivariable Controller CD Controls supports the multivariable model predictive controller called CDMV (CD Controls Multivariable). The CDMV controller yields significant benefits with respect to paper quality, machine runability, and operational profitability against the traditional controller, especially when there are strong coupling of actuator actions in the process, and/or when actuators are operating close to their s. constraint Comparing Multivariable and Traditional 5.1. Control In paper making processes, several actuator beams are used for CD control. -input Traditional single -output (SISO) CD controllers were initially -single tor beam. But in reality, designed to regulate one sheet property with one actua there is often significant coupling between actuators and sheet properties in that one actuator beam can affect multiple sheet properties, and multiple CD actuator ifficult, if not beams can affect the same sheet property. This situation is very d impossible, to be successfully controlled with a traditional CD controller. In the approach of traditional control, error splitting is used for controlling one sheet property using multiple actuator beams, and error blending is used for controlling multiple sheet properties using one actuator beam. However, it is difficult to obtain optimal control performance without a sound theoretical basis for error splitting and error blending. Therefore, one unifying framework is the optimal control of processes with strong coupling needed for achieving between actuators and measurements. This can be achieved with the use of one or more multivariable controllers controlling multiple measurements with multiple actuators simultaneously. f strong coupling between actuators and sheet properties is When a process o controlled by separate traditional controllers, each controlling an actuator and a sheet property independently, it is very likely that the actuators may counteract P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 5 -

124 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller each other’s action and may subsequently operate at or close to their constraints, that is, with their setpoints saturated. The multivariable controller can resolve this situation by taking into account all the interactions between the actuators and the ints of the actuators, and calculating the optimal sheet properties, and the constra setpoints for all actuators. The multivariable controller can also make use of measurable disturbances to provide feedforward control capability, and deliver more superior control performance. ntage of the multivariable controller over the traditional controller is Another adva that the multivariable controller uses the CD bin resolution -based process models instead of the actuator zone based process models used by the traditional controller. The CD bin resolution is a much higher resolution than the actuator resolution, and hence, the CD bin resolution- based process models are more accurate representations of the responses of the sheet properties to the actuator er can use different process models moves. In addition, the multivariable controll for different parts of the sheet to account for the fact that the process responses in the regions closer to the sheet edges are often different from the process responses in the center part of the sheet. Control Overview Multivariable 5.2. CDMV provides multivariable control capability by simultaneously calculating setpoints for multiple CD actuator beams that control multiple CD measurement profiles. The multivariable controller has a number of features: ontroller is a rate The multivariable c • -based controller generating -specified rate in seconds. The controller is actuator setpoints at a user fast in its calculation to cater for the newer scanners that scan and provide measurement profiles at a much faster rate. The multivar • iable controller can control measurement profiles obtained from scanners scanning at different rates by predicting the measurement profiles based on process models, and correcting the measurement profiles with actual measurement profiles from the (if they are available) at the time of execution. scanners The multivariable controller can take into account measurable • disturbances in its setpoint calculation, and can subsequently provide feedforward control capability. A measurable disturbance is a measurable process input that has known impacts on one or more measurements controlled by a multivariable controller, but is itself not used by the multivariable controller to control the measurements. An example of a measurable disturbance is a CD actuator beam cont rolled by a traditional controller or manually by the operator. This actuator 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

125 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Control Overview beam is upstream of the measurements controlled by the multivariable controller, and has known impacts on these measurements. The It is beneficial to use setpoints of this actuator beam are measurable. this actuator beam as a measurable disturbance in the multivariable controller so that the multivariable controller can make appropriate adjustments to the setpoints of the actuator beams it controls. • The multivariable control problem is formulated as a quadratic programming (QP) optimization problem. The multivariable controller uses a QP solver to solve the problem, and computes actuator setpoints. • A system can have multiple multivariable controllers running at any one time. The benefits of using multiple multivariable controllers are to reduce the complexity of the multivariable control optimization problem each multivariable controller handles, and to achieve regional -making process, it optimization of the process. For instance, in a paper may be beneficial to optimize the wet- end operation with one multivariable controller, and the dryer section with another multivariable controller. • The topology of the multivariable control network has been designed (optionally) run on a very flexible. A multivariable controller can to be dedicated computer on the same TCP/IP network as the Experion MX QCS server, and communicate to the server RTDR database remotely. If there are multiple multivariable controllers in the system, the (optionally) be organized to run on one or more controllers can networked computers. e 5- Figur 1 provides an overview of the multivariable controller. The figure shows all the inputs to the multivariable control system that are required for generating 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

126 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller the output actuator setpoint profiles. These inputs are explained in more detail in Section 5.4. IntelliMap Process Models Tuning Parameters Measurement Targets Actuator Setpoint Targets Actuator Constraints Control Sample Rate Multivariable New Actuator Setpoints Measurement Profiles Controller Actuator Positions Express Moisture Scanner Scanner Calcoil Aqualizer Devronizer AutoSlice Figur -1 Multivariable Control Overview e 5 The inputs are communicated on a regular basis to the multivariable controller from CD Controls on the Experion MX server. They are used to formulate the multivariable QP optimization problem to be solved by the multivariable controller. The optimization involves solving a quadratic objective function subject to linear constraints (hard constraints). The optimization problem is formulated as: ))} ( ( min { t U J ∆ H c ∆ U H c where T T ˆ Q U t U t J ) E ) ( t ( ) ( Q ) ( )) ( ( E t U t + + = ∆ ∆ ∆ 1 2 H H H H H c c p p c T T T t U t U [ ( ) ( )] ( ) ( ) ( ) [ )] t BU Q B t U t U t U Q ( − − + , 3 target , 4 target H H H H H H c c c c c c subject to ( A U t b ) t ( ) ≤ ∆ H c 4 - 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 1/3/18 5

127 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Architecture ) ( E t H p contains the future predicted error profiles of the measurements over the H U ) ( t ∆ p H c Prediction Horizon contains the future delta setpoint profiles of the . H c ol Horizon actuators that are to be determined over the Contr . For the ∆ + ) ( k t U > k H Q H c c are zero for . The prediction it is assumed that matrices contain the tuning parameters (the soft constraints). The Prediction Horizon and Control Horizon are explained in Subsection 5.4.5. The actuator hard cons traints, such as setpoint limits and maximum setpoint and b(t) as in the inequality deltas, are formulated into matrices A U t b t ( ) ( ) ∆ ≤ A H c where A is a constant block matrix and b(t) is a time -varying block matrix being nterval. The actuator hard constraints define updated in each control rate i the boundaries of the QP problem, and they must be obeyed by the multivariable controller. The actuator hard constraints are described in Subsection 5.4.6. The results of the optimization are the optimal setpoints calculated for the actuators. These setpoints are communicated back to CD Controls, which sends the setpoints to the actuators. The multivariable controller str ives to produce optimal actuator setpoints, for some control intervals into the future, as defined by ), without violating any of the hard constraints to achieve the control horizon ( Hc the following objectives simultaneously: • minimize deviations between me asurements and their targets over some control intervals into the future, as defined by the Prediction ) Horizon ( Hp • minimize level of actuation and avoid unnecessary actuator moves minimize deviations of actuator positions from their desired target • ns positio • minimize picketing of actuators Multivariable Controller Architecture 5.3. The core function of the CDMV is to generate setpoint profiles for a number of actuators in order to minimize variations in a number of sheet properties. The CDMV software is to make the use of the main design philosophy of multivariable controller component totally transparent to the operator. To the operator, the multivariable controller is merely another controller option in 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

128 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller nues to monitor the addition to the traditional controller. The operator conti display to view any measurement profile and CD Control process using the actuator setpoint profile. Two additional displays, , and Measurement Overview Actuator Overview , are available to assist the operator in monitoring a process under multivariable control by displaying any one actuator profile with multiple measurement profiles, or any one measurement profile with multiple actuator setpoint profiles together on one display. the multivariable For the control engineer, a higher level of interaction with controller is often needed because the control engineer may want to provide specific inputs, such as measurement targets, actuator setpoint targets, and actuator hard constraints, to tailor the controller to fulfill particular control CDMultivariable Setup objectives. The control engineer can do so through the Multivariable display provided in CD Controls (see Subsection 5.6.1). The play is also available to provide visibility into the multivariable dis Diagnostics controller and important diagnostic information (see Subsection 5.6.2). CDMV does have its own user interface environment that is, by default, minimized when the application is running on the Experion MX server. This user interface environment provides visibility into the individual functions within the r (these functions are covered in Sections 5.5.1 through multivariable controlle 5.5.3). It also provides tools for data logging and diagnostic purposes. Multivariable Controller Requirements 5.4. The Multivariable Controller requires the following inputs to formulate the optimization problem and perform model predictive control: of the sheet properties obtained from the Most recent CD profiles • scanners. Current actuator setpoint/position profiles. • Measurable disturbance profiles (optional): the CD profiles of the • measurable disturbances. If the measurable disturbances are CD actuator beams, the profiles will be the current setpoint profiles of those actuator beams. Targets of the sheet properties including the cascade target modes, MD • targets, and relative (bias) target profiles. Target actuator setpoint profiles, that is, desirable setpoint profiles of • the actuator beams for optimal process operation. 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

129 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Requirements -measurement combination identified Process models for each actuator • by IntelliMap: alignment between each actuator and each of its downstream scanners (zone boundary array), spatial response (gain, width, at tenuation and divergence), and dynamic response (time constant, and time delay) of each actuator on each measurement. -measurement • Process models for each measurable disturbance combination (optional): if the measurable disturbance is a CD actuator beam, th e process models are identical to those identified by IntelliMap for the actuator and all measurements. If the measurable disturbance is a not CD actuator beam, the process models must be identified by some other means. The process models must conform to the format used by IntelliMap based on alignment boundary array, gain, response width, attenuation, divergence, time constant, and time delay. Control sample time: the time interval at which the multivariable • controller executes. The control sample time is specified in seconds. • Control horizon and prediction horizon in units of control intervals. Actuator modes: the modes of the actuator zones, whether the actuator • zones are in Cascade mode or not. The multivariable controller can hat are in Cascade mode. only move actuator zones t • Actuator hard constraints: setpoint limits, maximum allowable setpoint change per move (maximum setpoint deltas), bend limits, deviation limits, and setpoint average limits. Tuning parameters: also known as the Soft Constraints, apply different • weights to sheet properties, and exert different penalties on actuator moves (aggressiveness), deviation from desired setpoint profiles, and picketing of individual actuator zones. These tuning parameters are determined by running a multivari able control simulation using the Multivariable Tuner in IntelliMap. 5.4.1. Current Profiles The measurement profiles input to the multivariable controller are the latest obtained from the scanners, and are processed by the Measurement -Processing system in CD Controls. They are the output profiles of the MD/CD sub- Separation function, meaning they are validated, interpolated, and mapped to the CD bin resolution with the MD variation filtered out. Because the multivariable controller may control measurement profile s from scanners scanning at different rates, the measurement profiles must go through internal prediction and correction 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

130 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller to become synchronized in time before they are used by the multivariable controller. ctuators are required as inputs to The current setpoint or position profiles of the a the multivariable controller. The Feedback Mode of an actuator determines whether the multivariable controller uses setpoints or positions for that given actuator. The Feedback Mode of an actuator is specified from the nstraints Co tab 10). of the CDMultivariable Setup display (see Figure 5- The measurable disturbance profiles are optional and are used only when the multiv ariable controller is configured with measurable disturbances. CD Controls allows any CD actuator beams or process inputs configured as analog input VIOs to be defined as measurable disturbances at system configuration/build time. Target Profiles 5.4.2. The multivariable controller requires you to define the control objectives by specifying the target profiles for the sheet properties, and the target setpoint profiles for the actuator beams. The multivariable controller then strives to control to their target profiles as close as possible. At the same time the sheet properties the controller also tries to maintain the actuator setpoints at their desired profiles. By selecting the Cascade Control Mode of a sheet property, a sheet property can be controlled to any one of these three targets: • a desired CD profile only (CD Only mode) • a desired MD target only (MD Only mode) a combination of both (MD and CD mode) • Select the cascade control modes for the measurements under multivariable DMultivariable Setup display (see Figure control from the Tuning tab of the C 5- 10). The target setpoint profiles represent the desired setpoint profiles for the actuators. Although the set point profiles of the actuators may deviate from the target profiles from time to time in order to control the measurements, the target profiles give the multivariable controller indications of where the actuator setpoints would better be set in the considerations of process stability, runability and energy consumption. If the multivariable controller has extra degrees of freedom, it will drive the actuator setpoints towards their target profiles. Select the target setpoint profiles for the actuators under multivariable control from the display (see Figure 5- CDMultivariable Setup tab of the Tuning 10). 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

131 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Requirements Process Models 5.4.3. Multivariable controller is a multivariable model predictive controller that it requires process models as inputs. Without knowing the process models, there is no theoretical foundation for the prediction of sheet properties in response to actuator moves. And without prediction, no optimization can be att ained. A process model is a mathematical model that describes quantitatively for each -actuator pair the response of the measurement to step changes in the measurement actuator setpoints. The process models, identified through bump tests conducted using Int elliMap, include the following information: Alignment between each actuator beam and each of its downstream • scanners expressed as the Zone Boundary Array. The Zone Boundary Array maps the CD bins in the sheet to the individual actuators with or uneven actuator spacing and non linear shrinkage of compensation f the sheet. • Spatial response characterized by the gain, width, attenuation and divergence as illustrated in Figure 5- 2. The spatial response parameters are zone based, meaning the individual actuators can have different spatial models on a measurement to account for edge effects. divergence nonzero divergence gain high attenuation zero divergence, low attenuation 0 width attenuation -2 Spat Figure 5 ial Response Model 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

132 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Dynamic response characterized by the time constant and time delay • 3. The time constant is zone based, meaning as illustrated in Figure 5- the individual actuators can have different time constants on a measurement. The time constant identified by IntelliMap and used by the multivariable controller is the raw unfiltered process time constant. PROCESS RESPONSE 1.0 time constant filtered model response 0 0.5 - 1000 1200 1400 1600 18 00 2000 800 TIME (SEC) bump test response ACTUATOR BUMP 1 time delay 0 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 -3 Dynamic Response Model Figure 5 The process models must be accurate, otherwise the prediction may be inaccurate, and subsequently, the optimization may not be optimal, or may even be erroneous. We highly recommend that the process models be identified using IntelliMap. IntelliMap is an excellent tool for performing bump tests on actuators, identifying alignment, spatial and dynamic responses, logging the bump test and ferred analysis results. The process models identified by IntelliMap can be trans directly to CD Controls. Process models may be different for different grades of paper. In other words, process models are grade dependent and are stored in the Recipes (DSR) ades database. Bump tests should be performed separately using IntelliMap on gr that are believed to have significantly different process models to ensure accuracy and optimal control performance. If a multivariable controller is configured to use measurable disturbances, it also urbance requires the process models of all measurable dist -measurement pairs as inputs. If the measurable disturbance is a CD actuator beam, the process models 1/3/18 10 - 5 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N

133 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Requirements are identical to those identified by IntelliMap for that actuator and all e measurements. If the measurable disturbance is not a CD actuator beam, th process models must be identified by some other means. The process models must conform to the format used by IntelliMap based on alignment boundary array, gain, response width, attenuation, divergence, time constant and time delay. hould be given to that fact that the process models of the Again considerations s measurable disturbance -measurement pairs may vary among grades. 5.4.4. Control Sample Time The multivariable controller needs to know at what rate (in seconds) to calculate setpoints for the actuators. This rate is known as the Control Sample Time and is specified by the user. The Control Sample Time must be selected carefully to not -loop performance of the multivariable controller. It should be sacrifice closed determined based on the fastest process within the multivariable controller using the following formula: T s [ ] with 2 0 . 1 − + × = ≤ T T T T T λ π c d sample c c ctrl ρ ) ln( 1 − ff where control sample time = T sample ctrl delay time = T d loop to constant ( typically 2.0 ), 1.5 constant t - process o closed of time ratio time = T λ c process time constant raw = T c ρ t sample measuremen time = T s t factor filter measuremen = ff 1 lists some general guidelines on selecting the control sample time for Table 5- different applications. 1 Control Sample Time Guidelines Table 5- Recommended Control Sample Time (no longer tion Fastest Process Applica than) Newsprint Aqualizer – Moisture 20 seconds Press Section Devronizer – Express Moisture 30 seconds 70 seconds Supercalender Caliper – Calcoil P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 11 1/3/18 5 -

134 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Control Horizon and Prediction Horizon 5.4.5. Hp ) are parameters that define Hc The Control Horizon ( ) and Prediction Horizon ( the time range of the multivariable control optimization problem, as illustrated in 4. Figure 5- -4 Control Horizon and Prediction Horizon Figure 5 Hc The Control Horizon ( ) determines the number of discrete control intervals tivariable controller (including the current control interval) over which the mul calculates actuator setpoints. The actuators use only setpoints generated for the current control interval t, and the setpoints for the future control intervals are ultivariable merely for optimization purposes. On the next control interval, the m controller generates a new set of setpoints whereof again only those for the current control interval are passed to the actuators. ) determines the number of discrete control intervals The Prediction Horizon ( Hp in the future over which the multivariable controller minimizes and predicts the 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

135 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Requirements deviations of the measurements from their targets. If the time delay between an actuator and a measurement is Td control intervals, an actuator move made at can only take effect on the me asurement at control interval control interval t t+Td+1 where the prediction begins. Theoretically the longer the control horizon and the prediction horizon, the better the optimization results in terms of stability and robustness. However, a longer control horizon and a longer prediction horizon also increase the dimension of the optimization function, and subsequently, require higher computational load to solve the optimization function. This may result in the multivariable controller being unable to arrive at a solution w ithin the control sample time. Conversely, if the prediction horizon is set too small, there may be insufficient data in the responses of the measurements to the actuator moves used in the optimization function and the optimization may not be sound. 2 lists some criteria for setting the control horizon and the prediction Table 5- horizon. 2 Guidelines for selecting Control Horizon and Prediction Horizon Table 5- Selection Guidelines Control horizon (Hc) An integer greater than zero, in units of control intervals. Should be considerably shorter than the prediction horizon. Typical range: 1 to 3. Control Horizon is typically set to 1. Prediction horizon (Hp) An integer greater than zero, in units of control intervals. Must be greater than the shortest time delay of all actuator -measurement pairs and the control horizon. -measurement pairs. Should be greater than the longest time delay of all actuator Should be long enough to be at or close to the steady state of the measurements. Typical range: 8 to 15 If a multivariable controller is tuned using the Multivariable Tuner provided by prediction horizon is one of the tuning parameters generated by IntelliMap, the the Multivariable Tuner based on the time delays of all the process models involved. Actuator Modes and Hard Constraints 5.4.6. The multivariable controller needs to know the current modes of the individual zones of the actuators it is controlling, primarily which zones are in cascade mode. Zones not in cascade mode may be offsheet, off -measurement, in a failed or alarm state, or may have been requested auto mode. The multivariable 13 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

136 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller controller only ca lculates setpoints for the actuator zones that are allowed to move, that is, in cascade mode. The multivariable controller must comply with hard constraints that are imposed on the actuators when computing actuator setpoints. These actuator hard s include: constraint • maximum and minimum actuator setpoints • maximum setpoint deltas (maximum allowable moves for individual actuator zones in each control rate interval) • maximum and minimum setpoint averages • bend limits • deviation limits Except for the maximum and minimum setpoint averages, all the other constraints are specified on a zone basis as numeric arrays. All the constraints can be enabled or disabled independently. The information about what constraints are enabled is o the controller knows what constraints to sent to the multivariable controller s consider for the optimization problem. The maximum and minimum actuator setpoints are the maximum and minimum cascade setpoint limits of the actuators. The cascade setpoint limits may be identical to the hard setp oint limits of the actuators, or may be more restricted than the hard limits. These constraints are used to protect the actuators and the physical equipment around them. Actuators operate over a certain limited range of setpoints. Going beyond this range m ay cause damage to the actuators or the physical equipment around them. If the Max/Min Cascade Setpoints option is disabled for the actuator, the multivariable controller does not use the cascade setpoint limits as constraints for that actuator. The Max/Min Cascade Setpoints option can be enabled or disabled, and the max/min cascade setpoints can be tab on the see CDMultivariable Setup edited from the Constraints display ( Subsection 5.6.1). The maximum setpoint deltas limit the setpoint changes for individual actuator zones in each control interval. This constraint is for protecting the actuators and the physical equipments around them. The Max Setpoint Deltas option can be enabled or disabled, and the max setpoint deltas can be edited from the see Subsection 5.6.1). tab on the display ( Constraints CDMultivariable Setup imum and minimum setpoints averages are used for limiting the average The max of the setpoint profile calculated by the multivariable controller for a given actuator in practically the same way as the Average Maintenance function in traditional control (see Subsec tion 7.6.1). If the Average Maintenance function is 14 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

137 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Requirements disabled for the actuator, the multivariable controller does not use the maximum and minimum setpoint averages as constraints for that actuator. The Average Maintenance function can be enabled or disabled, and its parameters can be edited tab on the Constraints from the display. CDMultivariable Setup As described in Subsection 7.6.1, the Average Maintenance function can be enabled in one of the two modes: Maintain Value and Keep In Range. If the s in Maintain Value mode, both the maximum and minimum setpoint actuator i averages is set to the Average To Maintain value. If the actuator is in Keep In Range mode, the maximum and minimum setpoint averages is set to the espectively. Keep In Range is Maximum Average and Minimum Average values r the recommended mode unless the Maintain Value mode is specifically requested by the controls objectives. The multivariable controller uses the actuator bend limits for its actuator beams to -to-zone deviations. The bend limits are used to prevent the controller restrict zone from requesting setpoints with large spatial first order and second order deviations between adjacent actuator zones that may damage the physical equipment. An example would be a slice lip at the headbox being damaged from excessive bending, or a poly roll on a calender stack being damaged from excessive temperature gradient. Set the bend limits based on the physical constraints of the equipment, or in some cases process xample, -related limitations, to avoid, for e induced tension from rewetting. If the Bend Limiting function is disabled for the actuator, the multivariable controller does not use the bend limits as constraints for that actuator. The Bend Limiting function can be enabled or disabled, and the tab on the bend limit values can be edited from the Constraints CDMultivariable Setup display. The multivariable controller has an additional option to limit the deviations . This feature provides an additional amount of between adjacent actuator zones actuator setpoints smoothing required to improve multivariable controller robustness for paper machines that operate under significant changes in wire speed and/or slice opening during the production of similar grades . Deviation limits are effective when are set to be less than or equal to the physical bend limits or process constraints. If the deviation limiting function is disabled for the actuator, the multivariable controller does not use the deviation limits as imiting function can be enabled or . The deviation l constraints for that actuator disabled, and the array of deviation limits can be edited from the tab Constraints on the display. CDMultivariable Setup 5.4.7. Tuning Parameters (soft constraints) he performance of The tuning parameters (soft constraints) are used to optimize t the multivariable controller. The tuning parameters are specified in the CD bin resolution for measurements, and in the actuator (zone) resolution for actuators. 15 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

138 CD Controls User Manual tivariable Controller Mul -based tuning parameters allow you to put different The CD bin based and zone emphasis across the sheet for a measurement and to apply different spatial and dynamic aggressiveness across an actuator beam. This can be beneficial if the process is less stable on the sheet edges, or if certain parts of the sheet is particularly important for runability in subsequent processes like rewinding and cutting. It is strongly recommended that the tuning parameters for the multivariable controller be obtained by running a multivariable control simulation in the Multivariable Tuner in IntelliMa p. The tuning parameters can be directly transferred from the Multivariable Tuner to CD Controls. After transferred, the CDMultivariable tab on the tuning parameters are shown under the Tuning Setup display. ements and three for actuators. There are four tuning parameters, one for measur The tuning parameters are formulated into four positive definite diagonal block matrices: Q 1 Measurement Weights, 50. , specifies the relative weights or importance of the controlled sheet properties so the multivariable controller pays more attention to some sheet properties while compromising on others. Q 1 Increasing for a sheet property means increasing the relative importance of that sheet property in the optimization problem. For example, the caliper profile is generally given more importance than the gloss profile in a supercalender application. The Measurement ights are particularly useful in a compromised situation where not We all sheet properties can be controlled perfectly, for instance, when the number of sheet properties exceeds the number of actuators. Q 2 fies the penalties on the dynamic , speci Aggressiveness Penalties, 51. aggressiveness of the actuators, and subsequently, determines the Q 2 aggressiveness of the multivariable controller. In other words, limits the amount of setpoint changes the actuators can have upon eac h Q 2 for an execution of the multivariable controller. Increasing actuator means increasing the penalty on the setpoint change of that actuator in the optimization problem. The multivariable controller can Q Q 2 2 be dynamically detuned by incr easing . is used to prevent an actuator from becoming too aggressive at removing the measurement errors. If the actuator gets too aggressive, it could produce more variations in the sheet properties, and subsequ ently, render the system unstable. 16 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

139 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Operation Q 3 , specifies the penalties on the actuators for 52. Energy Penalties, Q 3 is used for energy deviating from their target setpoints. eracting each maintenance purposes to prevent actuators from count other. Specify the Target Setpoints that are the desired setpoint profiles Tuning for the actuators under the tab on the CDMultivariable Setup Q 3 Figure 5- 10 display (see ). Increasing for an actuator means increasing the penalty on that actuator for deviating from its target setpoints in the optimization problem. The multivariable controller can Q Q 3 3 . is typically used when creasing be spatially detuned by in there is a preferred actuator setpoint average or profile for an actuator Q 3 beam. A common example would be to use to minimize the average level of rewetting of a rewet shower in the dryer section. Q 4 , specifies the penalties on the spatial 53. Picketing Penalties, Q 4 aggressiveness of the actuators. is used to prevent the actuator s from picketing by imposing a penalty on the high frequency contents Q 4 for an actuator means in the actuator setpoint profiles. Increasing increasing the penalty on that actuator for picketing in the optimization problem. . The multivariable controller can be spatially detuned by Q Q 4 4 . By selecting appropriately, it is guaranteed to increasing prevent actuator picketing from building up over time. Use the Picketing Penalties to control picketing among actuator zones since picketing could lead to control deterioration and process instability. It is often necessary to apply different tuning parameters to the multivariable rating controller for different grades of paper since the control objectives and ope conditions could be quite different among the grades. Tuning parameters are grade dependent and are stored in the Recipes (DSR) database. Perform Tuning separately using the IntelliMap Multivariable Tuner on the grades that are believed to require different tuning parameters to ensure optimal control performance. 5.5. Multivariable Controller Operation In order to use a multivariable controller, you first configure a control scenario Edit Scenario involving a multivariable controller. This can be done through the display by assigning actuators and sheet properties to a multivariable controller (see Subsection 2.5.2). After the scenario is configured, switch to the scenario Scenario Switching through the display (see Subsection 2.5.1) to begin control. multivariable 17 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

140 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller The multivariable CD control problem is translated into a classic Quadratic Programming (QP) problem that is defined by several data matrices. Some of these matrices are considered static as they define the dimension and time range of the QP problem, and contain relatively constant information, namely, control sample time, process models, actuator constraints and tuning values (soft constraints). These matrices are built once, and are used in each execution of the multivariable controller. Other matrices are considered dynamic because they have to be updated at each controller execution based on the current measurements and actuator setpoints. The multivariable controller is composed of three functions that are responsible atrices, a measurement predictor function and a for building these data m controller function that solves the QP problem. 5.5.1. Matrices Build Functions The matrices defining the multivariable control QP problem must be rebuilt s and tuning whenever the information they contain, such as process model parameters, are changed. The static matrices are created in a specific order by three matrices build functions: State Space Matrices Build (SSBuild): builds the state space matrices • containing the process models. Prediction Matrices Build (PMBuild): builds the prediction matrices • based on the prediction horizon, control horizon and the output matrices of the SSBuild function. Quadratic Programming Matrices Build (QPBuild): builds the final QP • matrices, including the constraint matrices, bas ed on the actuator hard constraints, tuning parameters (soft constraints) and the output matrices of the PMBuild function. The matrices build functions have data dependencies between one another, and as (sequentially, in the order such all build functions are always executed together listed above). The static matrices are required only for multivariable controllers, which are active in the current control scenario, and thus need only be built for such multivariable controllers. The matrices build functions can be initiated through the Multivariable display. The statuses of the functions are also available through this Diagnostics 18 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

141 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Operation display. Confirm the success of the build functions following any configuration change requiring the matrices to be rebuilt. Such a confirmation can be made by validating the time of the last successful build, presented on the Multivariable Diagnostics display. If more than one multivariable controller is affected by recent configuration changes, rebuild each controller’s matrices in dividually through the display, verifying the success of each individual build Multivariable Diagnostics function using the available diagnostics information. If possible, make all configuration changes affecting a single multivariable controller and rebui ld that controller’s matrices prior to making configuration changes to and rebuilding the matrices of another multivariable controller. tiate the matrices build function for an individual multivariable Manually ini controller after any of the following conf iguration changes are made to that multivariable controller: • Changes to any of the multivariable controller tuning parameters on tab of the display, CDMultivariable Setup the Tuning • tab of Identification Changes to the process model, made through the display, of an actuator the C DMultivariable Setup -measurement pair or of a measurable disturbance -measurement pair which is configured (Active) in the multivariable controller, • Enabling or disabling a multivariable controller constraint for an actuator which is configured in the multivariable controller. These tab of the constraints are those that appear on the Constraints display. Enabling or disabling any of these CDMultivariable Setup constraints through a display other than the CDMultivariable Setup display (for example, enabling Average Maintenance through the Setpoint Maintenance display) also requires the matrices build functions to be manually initiated. These circumstances trigger an automatic rebuild of the matrices when the multivariable controller is active in the current control scenario: process models, constraints, and tuning a grade load is complete– • parameters may have changed after the grade load • a scenario switch has occurred: the matrices build is not necessary if the resultant control scenario after the switch does not involve a multivariable controller • IntelliMap has transferred new process models and tuning data to CD Controls 19 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

142 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller The alignments between the actuators and measurements controlled by • the multivariable controller have changed. The al ignments could vary if the WebTrak™ option of the Alignment function in the -Processing subsystem is enabled (see Subsection Measurement 3.3.4.2). The total time delays of the responses of the measurements to the • tivariable controller have moves of the actuators controlled by the mul changed. The total time delay for the response of a measurement to an - actuator could vary if the Speed Retune function in the Measurement Processing subsystem is enabled for the actuator and the downstream scanner from which the measurement is obtained (see Subsection 3.3.5). The multivariable controller monitors continuously changes in the alignments (zone boundary arrays) between the actuators and measurements under nses of the multivariable control and in the total time delays of the respo measurements to the actuators. If the current zone boundary array for an actuator - measurement pair is different from the previous zone boundary array by more than the threshold, which is the ZBA Threshold (CD Bin) specified under the CDMultivariable Setup tab on the Figure display (see tion (Actuator) Identifica 5- 7), the matrices are rebuilt automatically. If the total time delay of the response of a measurement to an actuator is different from its previous value by more than the threshold, which is the Time Delay Threshold (%) specified under the tab on the Identification (Actuator) CDMultivariable Setup display, the matrices are rebuilt automatically. This is provided that the Speed Retune function is enabled for the actuator and the scanner from which the measurement is obtained. The Speed Retune function can CDMultivariable Setup tab on the Constraints be enabled or disabled from the display (see Figure 11- Process Model Subsection 5.6.1), or from the display (see 2). See Subsection 3.3.5 for details regarding the Speed Retune function. 5.5.2. Measurement Predictor Function The multivariable controller can control measurement profiles coming from scanners scanning at di fferent rates. Since the multivariable controller executes at a rate independent of the scan rates of the scanners, new profiles may have arrived 20 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

143 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Operation for some but not all the measurements at the time of controller execution as 5. shown in Figure 5- Figure 5 -5 Measurement Profiles from Asynchronous Scanners The multivariable controller generates outputs based on measurement profiles sampled at a fixed rate. Therefore, the input measurement profiles must be synchronized in time to reflect measurement data as true as possible at the time of controller execution in the absence of actual readings from the scanners. An additional f unction known as the Measurement Predictor function is called before the multivariable controller executes to provide internal predictions of the measurement profiles based on the process models and correct those measurement profiles with new scan data if available. Controller Function 5.5.3. The controller function of the multivariable controller solves the multivariable control QP problem, resulting in new actuator setpoints at each control interval. Whenever the matrices are being built, the multivariable controller is made unavailable until the matrices build is complete. The actuators controlled by the multivariable controller show up in Cascade Suspended state and stay at their last r also setpoints during the matrices build process. The multivariable controlle becomes unavailable, if it is currently active, on a control scenario switch, a grade load, or an IntelliMap data transfer. When such an event is complete, the matrices are rebuilt and the multivariable controller resumes control. 21 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

144 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Displays 5.6. You can interact with the multivariable controller through the displays provided by CD Controls on the operator station. 5.6.1. CDMultivariable Setup Display The CDMultivariable Setup display can be accessed by clicking CD Display tab on the CDMultivariable Control Multivariable Setup und er the bar (see Figure 5- 6). It is accessible to the control engineer only. Menu Figure 5 -6 Display Menu Bar (CDMultivariable Setup) The CDMultivariable Setup display as shown in Figure 5- 7 contains four sub- displays, which can be accessed by selecting the corresponding tab in the top left - Identification tabs) are: -displays ( hand area of the display. These four sub , and Constraints , Identification (Measurable Disturbance) , (Actuator) . Tuning There are several buttons across the top of the display, which are (from left to right): ): toggles whether ToolTips are enabled. ToolTips a ToolTips ( re • boxes of text that appear when the mouse is hovered over an object, providing helpful information on that object. • : rebuilds the matrices for the multivariable controller. Rebuild CDMV This button, normally grayed out, flashes in red to prompt you to uild the matrices for the multivariable controller because of reb changes to the process models and tuning values. • : saves the edited parameters on the display to the Apply Changes RTDR. This button, normally grayed out, flashes in red when you have edited par ameters on the display to prompt you to save the changes. Discard Changes : undoes the changes made to the parameters on the • display without saving to the RTDR. This button, normally grayed out, becomes available when you have edited parameters on the displ ay. -dependent parameters to : saves all CD Controls grade DSR Save All • the recipe database. This operation typically takes a few seconds depending on the number of parameters involved. 22 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

145 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Displays Rebuild CDMV display and see CDMultivariable Setup You may come to the flashing even though you have not yet edited any parameters from the display. The reason is that you may have changed some parameters from the Process -2) concerning the actuators under multivariable display (see Figure 11 Model control without pressing the button on that display to rebuild the Rebuild CDMV CDMultivariable Setup display by matrices. Initiate the rebuild from the button. Similarly, if you have changed process Rebuild CDMV pressing the model or tuning parameters from the without rebuilding CDMultivariable Setup the matrices, the Rebuild CDMV button flashes in red on the Process Model display when you view the display. It is recommended that you make all the necessary changes to the parameters on CDMultivariable Setup display, or the either the Process Model display, and button to avoid having to perform multiple then press the Rebuild CDMV rebuilds of the matrices. Identification Sub-displays 5.6.1.1. CDMultivariable Setup displays on the Identification There are two sub- Identification (Actuator) display under the tab named display. The first sub- , as shown in Figure 5- 7, shows the process model of any selected actuator and one of 23 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

146 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller and allows you to edit the spatial and its selected downstream measurements, dynamic response models for the selected actuator -measurement pair. -7 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Identification (Actuator) Sub- Figure 5 display display are described in The items labeled on the Identification (Actuator) sub- 3. The descriptions are applicable to items on the Table 5- Identification display as well, by changing the perspective from (Measurable Disturbance) sub- actuator to measurable disturbance. - 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 24 5

147 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Displays 3 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 5 Table 5- -7. Table 5- 3 CDMultivariable Setup Display Identification Tab Item s Description Number Name ZBA Threshold (CD Bin) Displays and allows editing of the ZBA Threshold in units of CD Bins. 1 This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR for details on the ZBA 5.5.1 database. See Subsections 3.3.4.2 and Threshold parameter. Specifies the Time Delay Threshold in percentage. This parameter is 2 Time Delay Threshold saved to the Permanents database. See Subsections 3.3.5 and 5.5.1 (%) for details on the Time Delay Threshold parameter. down list of all actuators in the system. 3 Actuator Selector Bar Provides a drop - 4 Meas urement Selector down list of all measurements obtained from the Provides a drop- Bar scanners downstream of the selected actuator. Shows Active if the selected actuator and measurement are under 5 Active Status Indicator multivariable control in the current control scenario; otherwise, shows . Inactive 6 dependent parameters shown on the display to the - Saves all grade DSR Save Page Button current grade. Alignment Graph down list of alignment arrays to be viewed in the 7 Provides a drop- graph below. These arrays are the Zone Boundary Array, Shrinkage Selector Factor Array and Zone Shrinkage Array. Alignment Graph Cursor Displays the zone number and the value at the cursor position. 8 Value 9 Alignment Graph Displays the Zone Boundary Array, Shrinkage Factor Array or Zone Shrinkage Array based on your selection. See Subsection 3.3.4.1 for definitions of these arrays. Displays the normalized shrinkage. See Subsection 3.3.4.1 for 10 Normalized Shrinkage (%) definition of this parameter. Overall 11 Displays the overall shrinkage. See Subsection 3.3.4.1 for definition of Shrinkage (%) this parameter. 12 Zone Number Selector Displays and allows editing of the zone for which the spatial and to temporal response models are displayed. Click on the indicator enter the zone number directly, or use the left and right arrow buttons to move to the zone number. 13 Process Gain Displays and allows editing of the process gain of the spatial response of the selected measurement to the selected actuator zone. The process gains are grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. Displays and allows editing of the width of the spatial response of the Width 14 selected measurement to the selected actuator zone. The widths are grade dependent and are saved to the D SR database. 15 Displays and allows editing of the divergence of the spatial response Divergence of the selected measurement to the selected actuator zone. The divergences are grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. 25 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

148 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Number Name Description 16 Attenuation Displays and allows editing of the attenuation of the spatial response of the selected measurement to the selected actuator zone. The attenuations are grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. Spatial Response Graph Displays the spatial response shape of the selected zone on the 17 selected measurement. 18 Cursor Position Displays the x - scale position where the cursor is located on the spatial response graph. 19 Process Gain Displays the process gain value where the cursor is located on the spatial response graph. Time Constant Displays and allows editing of the time constant of the temporal 20 response of the selected measurement to the selected actuator zone. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Speed Retune Enabled 21 Displays whether or not speed retune is enabled for the selected -measurement pair. Also allows enabling and disabling of actuator speed retune. The speed retune parameters are edited from the Process Model display (see Figure 11- 2). This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 22 Total Time Delay Displays the total time delay for the selected actuator -measurement pair. All zones of an actuator have the same total time delay on the selected measurement. and allows editing of the fixed time delay. This parameter is Fixed Time Delay 23 Displays grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the temporal response shape of the selected zone on the Temporal Response 24 Graph selected measurement. Displays the time value where the cursor is located on the temporal 25 Time response graph. Displays the % gain value where the cursor is located on the temporal % Gain 26 response graph. Identification (Measurable The second sub- display under the tab named Identification Disturbance) Figure 5- 8, is almost identical to the , as show n in (Actuator) tab, except it allows for independent editing of the process model of a rbance and the selected measurement. This tab is selected measurable distu 26 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

149 Multivariable Multivariable Controller Displays Controller relevant only when there are measurable disturbances involved in any of the multivariable control scenarios. -8 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Identification (Measurable Figure 5 display Disturbance) Sub- If a measurable disturbance is a CD actuator, the process models for those measurable disturbances and all measurements are identical to the process models for the corresponding actuator and all measurements. In fact these process models tab also Identification are shared that changing the process models from one Identification changes the process models on the other tab. If a measurable disturbance is not a CD actuator, the process models for that measurable disturbance and all measurements are distinct and are expected to conform to the format defined by IntelliMap. It is recommended that the process models for the actuator -measurement pairs be from IntelliMap to CD Controls. After the process identified by and transferred Identification model is transferred, it is automatically displayed on the tab. Process model parameters are grade- (Actuator) dependent. 27 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

150 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller ormation display is primarily for inf The alignment data displayed on this sub- purposes. Editing of the alignment data would have to be done from the Alignment -13). display (see Figure 3 5.6.1.2. Constraints Tab tab Constraints The actuator constraints are displayed and can be edited from the Constraints display is shown in sub- display. The CDMultivariable Setup on the 9 with the display areas, buttons, and items labeled. Figure 5- display -9 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Constraints Sub- Figure 5 Rebuild CDMV When any of the constraint enabled flags are edited, the button will flash to prompt the rebuild of matrices for the multivariable controller only if enabled flags are edited is under the actuator for which the constraint multivariable control in the current active control scenario. Editing of the constraint values however does not require rebuilding the matrices. All constraint enabled flags and constraint values are grade dependent. The Feedback Mode of an actuator, though not an actuator constraint, is displayed and can be selected from the Constraints tab. The feedback mode specifies whether the multivariable controller uses setpoints or positions as input for the 28 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

151 Mu ltivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Displays s with accurate and reliable position feedback, positions actuator. For actuator should be used instead of setpoints. Table 5- 4 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 5 -9. 4 CDMultivariable Setup Display Constraints Sub- Table 5- display Items Number Name Description st of all actuators in the system. down li - 1 Actuator Selector Provides a drop Bar if the selected actuator is under multivariable control in the Shows Active 2 Active Status . Inactive current control scenario; otherwise, shows Indicator shown on the display to the current 3 DSR Save Page Saves all grade - dependent parameters grade. Button When checked enables the Average Maintenance function. This parameter 4 Average Maintenance is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection 7.6.1 for details on the Average Maintenance function. Enabled Displays and allows editing of the Average Maintenance mode: Maintain 5 Average Mode . Available only if Average Maintenance is Keep In Range or Value enabled. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR 6.1 database. See Subsection 7. for details on this parameter. Average To Maintain Displays and allows editing of the value at which the setpoint average of the 6 selected actuator is maintained. Available only if Average Maintenance is enabled and the mode is Maintain Value. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection 7.6.1 for details on this parameter. Displays and allows editing of the maximum value of range within which the 7 Maximum Average setpoint average of the selected actuator is maintained. Available only if Average Maintenance is enabled and the mode is Keep In Range. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection 7.6.1 for details on this parameter. Displays and allows editing of the minimum value of range within which the 8 Minimum Average setpoint average of the selected actuator is maintained. Available only if Average Maintenance is enabled and the mode is Keep In Range. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection 7.6.1 for details on this parameter. Update Mode 9 Displays and allows editing of the mode dictating if and how the Average Maintenance parameters should be updated when the actuator beam undergoes a Cascade Request. Parameters are potentially updated when the beam undergoes a Cascade Request if Average Maintenance is enabled and the current setpoint average is either different from the Average to Maintain or is outside of the range for Keep In Range. Available only if Average Maintenance is enabled. This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. See Subsection 7.6.1 for details on this parameter. Update in DSR When checked, any updates to Average Maintenance parameters resulting 10 database. from a Cascade Request will be written through to the DSR Available only when Average Maintenance is enabled and when the Update Mode is set to either Update or Prompt. This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. See Subsection 7.6.1 for details on this parameter. 29 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

152 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Name Description Number Bend Limiting 11 When checked, enables bend limiting. This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. See Subsections 5.4.6 and 9.7.3 for details on the Enabled its. bend lim Displays and allows editing of the bend limits configuration mode. Available Configuration Mode 12 options are Basic or Advanced. The Basic configuration mode allows all individual zones' bend limits to be set by specifying the first and second order limits. The Advanced configuration mode allows each zone's bend limits to be individually configured. Available only if bend limits are enabled. The bend limits are saved to the Permanents database. See Subsections and 9 .7.3 for details on the bend limits. 5.4.6 st Order Limit 13 1 Displays and allows editing of the first order bend limit in actuator setpoint units ( units. The first order limit applies to the edge (for example, first and last) ) zones only. This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. See Subsections 5.4.6 and 9 .7.3for de tails on the bend limits. nd 2 14 Order Limit Displays and allows editing of the second order bend limit in actuator ( ) setpoint units. The second order limit applies to all zones except for the units edge (for example, first and last) zones. This parameter is saved to the and 9.7.3 for details on the Permanents database. See Subsections 5.4.6 bend limits. ) Bend Limits ( units Displays and allows editing of the bend limits for individual zones in 15 actuator setpoint units. The first and last bend limit values are treated as first order limits while all other values are treated as second order limits. The bend limits are saved to the Permanents database. See Subsections 5.4.6 .7.3 for details on the bend limits. 9 and 16 When checked, enables the deviation limits. This parameter is saved to the Deviation Limits Recipe database. See Subsections 5.4.6 Enabled ts. for details on the deviation limi Deviation Limits 17 Displays and allows editing of the deviation limits for individual zones in units ) ( actuator setpoint units. The deviation limits are saved to the Recipe database. See Subsections 5.4.6 for details on the deviation limits. When checked enables the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function for the 18 Max Setpoint Deltas selected actuator. This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. Enabled for details on the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function. 5.4.6 See Subsection ax Setpoint Deltas for individual 19 Displays and allows editing of the M Max Setpoint Deltas actuator zones. The max setpoint deltas are saved to the Permanents database. See Subsection for details on the Max Setpoint Deltas. 5.4.6 Max / Min Cascade 20 When checked, enables maximum and minimum setpoints. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection Setpoints Enabled 5.4.6 for details on the max/min cascade setpoints function. 21 Max Cascade Displays and allows editing of the maximum cascade setpoints. Available only if Max / Min Cascade Setpoints Enabled is checked. The max cascade Setpoints setpoints are grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. See Subsection 5.4.6 for details on the max cascade setpoints. Displays and allows editing of the minimum cascade setpoints. Available Min Cascade 22 only if Max / Min Cascade Setpoints Enabled is checked. The min cascade Setpoints setpoints are grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. See 5.4.6 Subsection for details on the min cascade setpoints. Displays and allows editing of the feedback mode. Two options are Feedback Mode 23 available: setpoints and positions. This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. 30 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

153 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Displays 5.6.1.3. Tuning Sub-display CDMultivariable Setup tab on the ay under the displ sub- Tuning The Tuning display primarily shows and allows editing of the tuning parameters, which make up the Q matrices, for the selected multivariable controller for the selected scenario. It is recommended that these tuning values be determined and validated using the Multivariable Tuner in IntelliMap and be transferred directly from the Multivariable Tuner to CD Controls. After the tuning values are transferred, they are automatically displayed on the Tuning tab. These tuni ng values are scenario - dependent and grade -dependent. sub- with the display areas, buttons, 10 display is shown in Figure 5- Tuning The and items labeled. -10 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Tuning Sub- Figure 5 display Table 5- -10. 5 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 5 5 CDMultivariable Setup Display: Tuning Sub- Table 5- display Items 31 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

154 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Number Name Description - 1 Scenario Selector down list of all configured control scenarios using Provides a drop ition of a control scenario. Bar multivariable control. See Section 2.1 for the defin Provides a drop- down list of the configured multivariable controllers used in the 2 Controller selected scenario. Selector Bar Active meaning the selected Displays the status of the selected scenario, with 3 Active Status Inactive scenario is currently in use, and meaning the selected scenario is not Indicator in use. 4 QP Solver Type Displays and allows selection of the QP solver type used by the selected multivariable controller in the selected scenario. The s olver type is tied to the controller and is scenario independent. The solver type is saved to the er. for details on the solv 5.5.3 Permanents database. See Subsection DSR Save Page dependent parameters shown on the display to the current Saves all grade- 5 grade. Button Control Sample 6 Displays and allows editing of the control sample time (in seconds) for the selected multivariable controller in the selected scenario. This parameter is Time (sec) scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection for details. 5.4.4 7 Displays and allows editing of the Prediction Horizon in units of control interval. Prediction and is saved to the DSR Horizon (Hp – This parameter is scenario and grade dependent Interval) for the definition of prediction horizon. database. See Subsection 5.4.5 the Control Horizon in units of control interval. Displays and allows editing of 8 Control Horizon This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR (Hc – Interval) database. See Subsection 5.4.5 for the def inition of control horizon. Displays the spatial robustness of the multivariable controller. This value is set 9 Spatial through the IntelliMap Multivariable Tuner during the controller tuning. See Robustness for the definition of this parameter. If the tuning of this controller section 5.8.3 has been manually edited through this display, the spatial robustness value that was originally transferred from IntelliMap may no longer be relevant, and this indicator will be grayed out. Displays the recovery speed of the multivariable controller. This value is set 10 Recovery Speed through the IntelliMap Multivariable Tuner during the controller tuning. See for the definition of this parameter. If the tuning of this controller 5.8.6 section has been manually edited through this display, the recovery speed value that transferred from IntelliMap may no longer be relevant, and this was originally indicator will be grayed out. Measurement 11 Displays the cascade control modes of the measurements controlled by the Control Mode selected multivariable controller of the selected scenario. Select the control mode of a measurement for edit by clicking the corresponding cell in the table. Table This pops up a window th at allows the selection of the control mode. There are three options: CD Only, MD Only and, MD and CD. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection 5.4.2 for details on cascade control mode. Measurement 12 Displays the measurement weight of the selected CD bin of the measurements controlled by the selected multivariable controller of the selected scenario. Weights Table Select the measurement weights of a measurement for edit by clicking the corresponding cell in the table. This pops up a numeric array editor for editing the measurement weights. The measurement weights are scenario and grade for 5.4.7 o the DSR database. See Subsection dependent and are saved t details on measurement weights. 32 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

155 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Displays Description Name Number 13 Selects the CD bin to display the measurement weights. Click on the CD bin CD Bin Selector selector and a single numeric entry window pops up for entering the CD bin number. Can also use the arrow buttons to increment or decrement the CD bin number. Displays the aggressiveness, energy and picketing penalties, and target 14 Penalties Table setpoints of the selected zone of the actuators controlled by the selected multivariable controller of the selected scenario. Select the penalties or target setpoints of an actuator for edit by clicking the corresponding cell in the table. the numeric array editor for editing the penalties or target This brings up setpoints. The penalties and the target setpoints are scenario and grade for 5.4.2 dependent and are saved to the DSR database. See Subsection for details on aggressiveness, details on target setpoints and Subsection 5.4.7 energy and picketing penalties. Selects the actuator zone to display the penalties and target setpoint. Click on Zone Selector 15 the zone selector and a single numeric entry window appears for entering the zone number. Can also use the arrow buttons to increment or decrement the zone number. 5.6.2. Multivariable Diagnostics Display display provides visibility into a multivariable The Multivariable Diagnostics controller to troubleshoot any problems relating to multivariable control. This display provides information about the three matrices build functions and the controller function, and allows you to manually initiate matrices rebuild if necessary. Multivariable Diagnostics display can be accessed in CD Controls by The tab on the Display CDMultivariable Control clicking Diagnostics under the Menu bar (see Figure 5- 11). Figure 5 -11 Display Menu Bar (Multivariable Diagnostics) s shown in Figure 5- display i Multivariable Diagnostics 12 with the display The areas, buttons, and items labeled. The entire display, except for the heartbeat 33 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

156 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller indicator at the top right corner, is grayed out when no multivariable controller is involved in the current active control scenario. -12 Multivariable Diagnostics Display Figure 5 Table 5- 6 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 5 -12. Table 5- 6 Multivariable Diagnostics Display Items Description Number Name Provides a drop Controller 1 down list of the multivariable controllers used in the current - scenario. Selector Bar matrices. 2 Force Matrices Clicking this button forces the multivariable controller to rebuild its Only available when the MPC link is active for the currently selected Rebuild Button multivariable scenario. Displays red if CD Controls does not receive a heartbeat from the selected Link Down 3 multivariable controller. 4 allows editing of the rate in seconds at which CD Controls Displays and Link Monitoring monitors the heartbeat from the multivariable controller. This parameter is Rate saved to the Permanents database. 5 Displays the heartbeat value of CD Controls. CD Controls provides a heartb Heartbeat eat to the CDMV to indicate normal operation. 34 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

157 Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller Displays Name Description Number Scenario Switch 6 Displays green if a scenario switch is pending. The display will refresh in this Pending situation. his 7 Grade Loading Displays green if a grade load is occurring. The display will refresh in t situation. Displays red if an invalid scenario has been switched to. 8 Invalid Scenario Setup IntelliMap Data Displays green if IntelliMap is transferring data. 9 Transfer Displays information about the three 10 Matrices Build matrices build functions (SSBuild, PMBuild and QPBuild). Function Panel 10a Error Status Displays the error status of the corresponding matrices build function when it was last called. Details about the error are recorded in Event Viewer on the Experion MX server. 10b Displays green if the corresponding matrices build function is in progress; In Progress otherwise, displays gray. Displays red if the corresponding matrices build function call is pending. This Rebuild 10c he CDMultivariable Setup occurs when you have edited parameters from t display or the Process Model display on the operator station without hitting the Rebuild CDMV button on the display. Click the Force Matrices Rebuild button on this display to rebuild the matrices. 10d Time To Build Displays the time the corresponding matrices build function took to complete. (Sec) 10e Time of Last Displays the date and time when the corresponding matrices build function was Build last called. Displays information about the multivariable controller function. 11 Multivariable Controller Function Panel Error Status Displays the error status of the multivariable controller function when it was last 11a called. Details about the error are recorded in Event Viewer on the Experi on MX server. 11b In Progress Displays green if the multivariable controller is running; otherwise, displays gray. 11c Unavailable Displays red if the multivariable controller is unavailable; otherwise, displays gray. The multivariable controller is unavailable during the matrices bui ld. Displays the time the multivariable controller function took to complete. Time To 11d Execute (Sec) Displays the time and date when the multivariable controller function last Time of Last 11e Execution executed. 35 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

158 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Number Name Description - 12 down list of the measurements controlled by the multivariable Measurement rovides a drop P Profile Selector controller in the current scenario to select from for viewing. Bar Graph Function Freezes, scales and zooms in or out on the measurement profile displayed on 13 the Buttons measurement profile graph. arrowed Moves the cursor on the measurement profile graph. The single- 14 Cursor Moving arrowed buttons move the cursor one CD bin at a time, while the double- Buttons buttons move the cursor ten CD bins at a time. Displays the date/time stamp of the measurement profile displayed. Measurement 15 Profile Date/Time Stamp Measurement 16 Displays the measurement profile selected. Profile Graph measurement profile displayed, the Displays the statistical information of the Measurement 17 cursor position and the measurement value at the cursor position. Enter the Profile Graph Information cursor position directly in the indicator to move the cursor. Panel - 18 Actuator Profile olled by the multivariable down list of the actuators contr Provides a drop controller in the current scenario to select from for viewing. Selector Bar 19 Graph Function Freezes, scales and zooms in or out on the actuator profile displayed on the Buttons actuator profile graph. arrowed buttons cursor on the actuator profile graph. The single - Cursor Moving 20 Moves the arrowed buttons move move the cursor one zone at a time, while the double- Buttons the cursor ten zones at a time. 21 Actuator Profile Displays the date/time stamp of the actuator pro file displayed. Date/Time Stamp Displays the actuator profile selected. Actuator Profile 22 Graph Actuator Profile Displays the statistical information of the actuator profile displayed, the cursor 23 Graph position and the setpoint value at the cursor position. Enter the cursor position Information directly in the indicator to move the cursor. Panel Process Model Identification 5.7. Process models describing the responses of sheet properties to setpoint changes in actuators are identified by performing bump tests on the actuators using IntelliMap. For each actuator, IntelliMap simultaneously identifies the process models between that actuator and all the measurements in the system based on the measurement responses to the step moves in the actuators. The process model ntification is identical for both the traditional controller and the multivariable ide controller. The process models, after identified, can be transferred directly from IntelliMap to CD Controls. 36 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

159 Multivariable Controller Tuning Multivariable Controller easurements used Process models must first be identified for the actuators and m by the multivariable controller before you can proceed with tuning the controller. IntelliMap should be used to perform bump tests on the system to accurately identify the process models. It is strongly recommended that you use the riable Tuner in IntelliMap to perform tuning on the multivariable Multiva controller. Information about how to perform a bump test and implement the process models (p/n can be found in the Experion MX IntelliMap R610.0 User Manual 6510020464). 5.8. Tuning Multivariable Controller Tuning the multivariable controller can be a complex and challenging task without a good tool. IntelliMap is a software package developed by Honeywell, installed on a dedicated computer, for performing process model identification and optimizin g tuning for both tradition and multivariable controllers. The tuning of a multivariable controller generates the desirable measurement weights and dynamic and spatial aggressiveness penalties on the actuators. The tuning of the multivariable controller de pends on a number of factors, such as the control sample time, process models, cascade control modes and targets of the measurements, actuator hard constraints, prediction horizon, and control horizon. IntelliMap provides a tool known as the Multivariable Tuner for tuning a multivariable controller. When connected to a QCS configured with control scenarios involving one or more multivariable controllers, the Multivariable Tuner engages in the Basic Tuning mode where it automatically iterates through all scenarios and multivariable controllers, and performs a balanced tuning to each controller in each scenario. The balanced tuning is further explained in Section 5.8.1. The Multivariable Tuner performs tuning on the multivariable control scenarios offline without affecting the real process. The Multivariable Tuner allows you to validate the effects of the tuning parameters before implementing them by showing the predic ted steady state profiles and dynamic responses of the measurements and actuators. Transfer the tuning parameters from the Multivariable Tuner to CD Controls directly if you are satisfied with them. The tuning parameters for the multivariable controllers in the current control scenario, that is the control scenario currently being used in the system, take effect immediately as you see the multivariable controllers rebuild the matrices and make control actions accordingly. 37 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

160 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Information on the Multivariable Tuner can be found in Experion MX IntelliMap (p/n 6510020464) It is strongly recommended that you take 10.0 User Manual R6 the available multivariable control training course to become familiar with the Multivariable Tuner and get hands -on experience with it in a lab environment. 5.8.1. Balanced Tuning When the Multivariable Tuner first connects to a system with multivariable control scenarios, it runs the Basic Tuning mode by default to generate balanced lly. The balanced tuning for all the multivariable control scenarios automatica -13, applies equal emphasis among the controlled tuning, as illustrated in Figure 5 , and a balanced sheet properties, equal control contribution of CD actuator arrays approach between robust and aggressive control. Figure 5 -13 Multivariable Tuner Balanced Tuning You can see that the positions of the Relative Importance slider bars of all measurements are identical and the positions of the Relative Picketing Prevention slider bars of all actuators are also identical. The term relative used on the interface means relative to other measurements or actuator beams. For instance, 38 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

161 Multivariable Controller Tuning Multivariable Controller nce of a measurement means making that increasing the relative importa measurement relatively more important and other measurements relatively less important. The balanced tuning is based on the control objectives of controlling all sheet properties equally by giving them equal weights a nd using the actuators evenly by giving them equal penalties on their spatial aggressiveness, that is, the degree of picketing and the deviations from their target setpoints. These control objectives are generally applicable to most processes. Provided that these control objectives are what required, the balanced tuning is considered a good starting point for the multivariable controller since it ensures spatial and dynamic robustness and at the same time delivers optimal performance. However, your process may have different control objectives and may therefore require you to make some manual adjustments to change the relative weights on the measurements and fine tune the spatial and dynamic aggressiveness of the multivariable controller. The Multivariable Tuner provides two advanced tuning modes • Fine Spatial Tuning mode • Fine Dynamic Tuning mode -tuning -domain fine The Fine Spatial Tuning mode provides access to spatial sliders/knobs such as Spatial Robustness and Relative Energy Savings. You also can fine tu ne the controller using the Spatial Gain Function option. -domain fine -tuning The Fine Dynamic Tuning mode provides access to the time sliders/knobs such as Recovery Speed and Relative Dynamic Robustness. You mic Gain Function option. also can fine tune the controller using the Dyna You may also enter the weights for the measurements and the spatial and dynamic Tuning aggressiveness penalties for the actuators directly from the tab on the ) in CD Controls. An important 10 Figure 5- display (see CDMultivariable Setup point: unlike the Multivariable Tuner, you cannot validate the tuning by viewing the predicted dynamic and steady state results before implementing the tuning. 5.8.2. Relative Importance of Measurements If the number of controlled sheet properties is greater than the number of actuators in a multivariable control scenario, it is in general physically impossible to control all sheet properties to their target profiles with the actuators available. In this case, you need to advise the controller of the relative importance of the sheet properties by putting more weights on sheet properties that are more important, and fewer weights on sheet properties that are less important. This 39 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

162 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller ensures that the multivariable controller never moves the actuators in a way that it compromises the important sheet properties. A common example where relative importance of measurements is used is the -calendering process. Here, a multivariable controller typically controls the super caliper and the gloss on one or both sides of the sheet using two Calcoils. For runability reasons, the caliper is given more emphasis to ensure that it is controlled to a uniform CD profile, potentially at t he expense of the CD gloss measurements if there is not enough degree of freedom to control all measurements to their targets. The multivariable controller ensures this tradeoff is handled optimally. Change Relative Importance From Multivariable Tuner 5.8.2.1. r the Basic Tuning mode in the Multivariable Tuner, slide the Unde Relative slider bar of a measurement to the right to increase its relative Importance importance, or to the left to decrease its relative importance. The relative importance of the measurements is translated into individual measurement weights that are transferred to CD Controls. A higher relative importance means a higher weight value for a measurement, and vice versa. -14, the for the dry weight Relative Importance As shown in Figure 5 measurement is increased. The results are that the 2 -sigma of the steady state sigma of the weight profile improves further from 1.2963 to 1.2587 whereas the 2- 40 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

163 Multivariable Controller Tuning Multivariable Controller isture profile increases slightly from 0.4125 to 0.4302 as a steady state mo tradeoff. Figure 5 -14 Changing the Relative Importance of a Measurement 5.8.2.2. Change Measurement Weights From CD Controls ement directly by clicking the corresponding cell in Enter the weights of a measur display CDMultivariable Setup the Measurement Weights table from the -10). A numeric array editor appears to enter the weight Tuning tab (see Figure 5 values for the individual CD bins of the measurement. Use the example of a multivariable controller controlling both dry weight and moisture. The balanced tuning typically may give a weight of 0.5 to both measurements. I ncrease the weight on the dry weight by entering a larger value, for example, 0.6, to make the dry weight relatively more important. 41 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

164 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Multivariable Spatial Robustness 5.8.3. The Multivariable Spatial Robustness means the overall spatial robustness level of a multivariable controller. A multivariable controller is said to be less spatially robust if it makes more aggressive moves on the actuators in the spatial domain to remove measurement errors, and more spatially robust if it makes more actuators in the spatial domain. conservative moves on the The multivariable spatial robustness can be adjusted using the Fine Spatial Tuning mode in the Multivariable Tuner. The Fine Spatial Tuning mode provides a tness of the Spatial Robustness tuning knob to adjust the overall spatial robus multivariable controller. Increasing the spatial robustness makes all actuators more conservative in their responses to the spatial frequencies in the errors of the measurements. The resulted steady state setpoint profiles of all actuators are less picketed, and they stay closer to their target profiles. Decreasing the spatial robustness on the contrary makes all actuators more aggressive in the spatial domain. The resulted steady state setpoint profiles of all actuators are more picketed, and they deviate more from their target profiles. Be cautious when adjusting the Spatial Robustness tuning knob. Setting the knob too low may cause the multivariable controller to use the actuators too ctuators may counteract aggressively in the spatial domain that the moves of the a each other. The actuators may also try to go after measurement errors of uncontrollable frequencies (high frequencies that are beyond the bandwidths of the actuators), causing the system to go unstable spatially. But setting the kno b too high may make the multivariable controller too conservative that it does not fully use the bandwidths of the actuators to remove the measurement errors. The general guideline is that if the spatial process models have high uncertainties or if they fl uctuate due to intrinsic process characteristics, set the Spatial Robustness knob towards the higher end of the recommended range to ensure spatial robustness. If the process models are fairly accurate and invariant, set the the lower end of the recommended range to Spatial Robustness knob towards maximize performance. The Spatial Robustness knob position is transferred from the Multivariable Tuner to CD Controls for each multivariable controller. The Spatial Robustness knob position is scenario and grade dependent (stored in the Recipes database). Relative Picketing Prevention (picketing penalties) 5.8.4. With the multivariable controller tuned to a given overall spatial robustness level, ous you can specify the relative contributions of spatial robustness of the vari actuators to make some actuators more spatially aggressive and others less spatially aggressive in removing measurement errors. 42 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

165 Multivariable Controller Tuning Multivariable Controller Here, an example of a multivariable controller controlling dry weight and d to illustrate the effects of moisture using an AutoSlice and an AquaTrol is use the relative picketing prevention. AutoSlice affects both weight and moisture whereas AquaTrol affects moisture only. To prevent the AutoSlice from going after narrow moisture streaks and compromising dry weight, the AutoSlic e should be penalized more heavily on picketing so that the AutoSlice still concentrates more on the dry weight by letting the AquaTrol to control the moisture more. Change Relative Picketing Prevention from Multivariable 5.8.4.1. Tuner Relative In the Basic Tuning mode of the Multivariable Tuner, slide the Picketing Prevention slider bar of an actuator beam to the right to increase its level of picketing prevention, or to the left to decrease its level of picketing prevention. The relative picketing preventions of the actuators are translated into individual actuator picketing penalties that are transferred to CD Controls. A higher relative picketing prevention means a higher picketing penalty for an actuator, and vice versa. As shown in Figure 5 -15, the relative picketing prevention for the AquaTrol is increased. Compare the final steady state setpoint profile (in yellow) of the AquaTrol with that generated by the balanced tuning (see ). The 13 Figure 5- 43 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

166 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller steady state setpoint profile is now smoother and less picketed with a lower 2- sigma (45.308) than that in the balanced tuning (59.168). -15 Changing the Relative Picketing Prevention of an Actuator Figure 5 5.8.4.2. Change Picketing Penalties From CD Controls Enter the picketing penalties of an actuator beam directly by clicking the under the Picketing Penalties column in the Penalties table corresponding cell Figure 5 tab (see Tuning CDMultivariable Setup display -10). A from the numeric array editor appears to enter the penalty values for the individual zones of the actuator. Use the example of a multivariable controller controlling both dry weight and moisture using an AutoSlice and a Devronizer. The balanced tuning may give a picketing penalty of 0.5 to both actuat ors. Increase the picketing penalty on the AutoSlice by entering a larger value, for example, 5.0, to make the AutoSlice less spatially aggressive. Adjust the penalty value by a factor of 10 each step. 44 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

167 Multivariable Controller Tuning Multivariable Controller 5.8.5. Relative Energy Saving (energy penalties) If the number of actuator beams is greater than the number of controlled sheet properties in a multivariable control scenario, the multivariable controller can in theory generate an infinite number of combinations of setpoints for the two actuators that deliver the same recoveries on the measurements. Many of these combinations are not optimal as they result in the actuators canceling off each other’s action. The use of relative energy savings is to prevent the actuators from fighting by keeping the actuato rs close to their target setpoints. An example where relative energy savings apply is when a multivariable controller controls moisture using a Devronizer and an Aqualizer. The Devronizer applies steam to the sheet to remove moisture while the Aqualizer s prays water onto the sheet to add moisture. Since the number of actuator beams exceeds the number of measurements, a conflicting situation could occur that the Devronizer applies too much steam on the sheet causing the Aqualizer to have to rewet the sheet to correct the over dryness. The relative energy saving of the Aqualizer should therefore be increased and the target setpoints set at some low values to minimize the level of rewetting. ergy levels of Use the relative energy savings or energy penalties to control the en certain actuator beams to follow some operating or safety guidelines or to better conserve energy. Change Relative Energy Saving From Multivariable Tuner 5.8.5.1. In the Fine Spatial Tuning mode of the Multivariable Tuner, slide the Relative slider bar of an actuator beam to the right to increase its level of Energy Saving energy saving, or to the left to decrease its level of energy saving. The relative energy savings of the actuators are translated into individual actuator energy penalties that are transferred to CD Controls. A higher relative energy saving means a higher energy penalty for an actuator, and vice versa. y saving for the AquaTrol is increased. -16, the relative energ As shown in Figure 5 The AquaTrol has its target setpoints set to 25%. Compare the final steady state setpoint profile (in yellow) of the AquaTrol with that generated by the balanced 13). The steady state setpoint profile is now at a lower tuning (see Figure 5- 45 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

168 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller energy level with the setpoint average at 27.137% than that in the balanced tuning (30%). Figure 5 -16 Changing the Relative Energy Saving of an Actuator 5.8.5.2. Change Energy Penalties From CD Controls Enter the energy penalties of an actuator beam directly by clicking the corresponding cell under the Energy Penalties column in the Penalties table from CDMultivariable Setup Tuning display the 10). A numeric tab (see Figure 5- array editor appears to enter the penalty values for the individual zones of the actuator. Enter the target setpoints of an actuator beam by clicking the corresponding cell under the Target Setpoints column in the Penalties table from the display tab (see Figure 5- 10 ). A numeric array Tuning CDMultivariable Setup appears to enter the target setpoi nts for the individual zones of the actuator. Enter any value between the maximum and minimum setpoint limits. 46 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

169 Multivariable Controller Tuning Multivariable Controller Take the example of a multivariable controller controlling moisture using a Devronizer and an Aqualizer. The balanced tuning may give a penalty of 0.5 to both actuators. Increase the energy penalty on the Aqualizer by entering a larger value, for example, 5, to more heavily penalize any deviations from the target setpoints. Adjust the penalty value by a factor of 10 each step. Multivariable Dynamic 5.8.6. Robustness The Multivariable Dynamic Robustness means the overall dynamic robustness level of a multivariable controller. A multivariable controller is said to be less dynamically robust if it makes more aggressive moves on the actuators in the time domai n to remove measurement errors, and more dynamically robust if it makes more conservative moves on the actuators in the time domain. The multivariable dynamic robustness can be adjusted using the Fine Dynamic Tuning mode in the Multivariable Tuner. The Fine Dynamic Tuning mode provides a Recovery Speed tuning knob to adjust the overall dynamic robustness of the multivariable controller. Increasing the recovery speed makes all actuators act more aggressively in the time domain to remove the errors of the measurements more quickly. Decreasing the recovery speed on the contrary makes all actuators act more conservatively in the time domain, resulting in slower removal of the errors of the measurements. Use caution when adjusting the Recovery Speed tuning knob. Setting the knob too high may cause the multivariable controller to use the actuators too aggressively in the time domain that the actuators may overshoot excessively causing steady e system state oscillations in the measurements. The worst case scenario is that th oscillates indefinitely and goes unstable. But setting the knob too high may make the multivariable controller too conservative in that it does not drive the actuators enough to remove the measurement errors, resulting in slow recovery. al guideline is that if the temporal process models have high The gener uncertainties or if they fluctuate due to intrinsic process characteristics, set the Recovery Speed knob toward the lower end of the recommended range to ensure dynamic robustness. If the proces s models are fairly accurate and invariant, set the Recovery Speed knob towards the higher end of the recommended range to maximize performance. The Recovery Speed knob position is transferred from the Multivariable Tuner to CD Controls for each multivaria ble controller. The Recovery Speed knob position is scenario and grade dependent (stored in the Recipes database). 47 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

170 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Relative Dynamic Robustness (aggressiveness 5.8.7. penalties) With the multivariable controller tuned to a given overall dynamic robustness ou can specify the relative contributions of dynamic robustness of the level, y various actuators to make some actuators more dynamically aggressive and others less dynamically aggressive in removing measurement errors. For an actuator that has large time constant s on the controlled measurements, such as in the case of a Calcoil using induction heating that behaves like an integrating process, you may want to tune the actuator to be more aggressive to deliver fast recoveries on the measurements. But for an actuator that has large time delays on the controlled measurements, detune the actuator dynamically to prevent the actuator from excessive overshoot that is likely to cause the system to become dynamically instable. riable 5.8.7.1. Change Relative Dynamic Robustness From Multiva Tuner In the Fine Dynamic Tuning mode of the Multivariable Tuner, slide the Relative Dynamic Robustness slider bar of an actuator beam to the right to increase its dynamic robustness, or to the left to decrease its dynamic robustness. The relative dynamic robustness of the actuators is translated into individual actuator aggressiveness penalties that are transferred to CD Controls. A higher relative dynamic robustness means a higher aggressiveness penalty for an actuator, and the reverse is true. results on the moisture recovery and the dynamic response of the AquaTrol The . Here the setpoint of an 17 under the balanced tuning is shown in Figure 5- 48 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

171 Multivariable Controller Tuning Multivariable Controller AquaTrol actuator takes a sharp plunge followed by a sharp rise before it gradually tapers off. The moisture recovers after about 5.5 minutes. Figure 5 -17 Multivariable Control Dynamics Under Balanced Tuning The relative dynamic robustness of the AquaTrol is then increased as shown in Figure 5- 18 to make the AquaTrol act more conservatively in the time domain. The resultant setpoint trend now becomes more moderate with much less initial 49 - 5 1/3/18 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N

172 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller overshoot. Consequently the moisture recovery is compromised a little and the recovery time is increased to 11.3 minutes. Figure 5 -18 Changing the Relative Dynamic Robustness of an Actuator 5.8.7.2. Change Aggressiveness Penalties from CD Controls Enter the aggressiveness penalties of an actuator beam directly by clicking t he corresponding cell under the Aggressiveness Penalties column in the Penalties 10 tab (see Figure 5- Tuning CDMultivariable Setup display ). A table from the ray editor appears to enter the penalty values for the individual zones numeric ar of the actuator. Use the example of a multivariable controller involving a Calcoil beam for caliper control. The balanced tuning may give a penalty of 0.5 to all actuators. Increase the dynamic aggressiveness (decrease the dynamic robustness) on the Calcoil by entering a smaller value, for example, 0.05, to make the Calcoil more aggressive in the time domain. Adjust the penalty value by a factor of 10 each step. 50 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

173 Multivariable Controller Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller lines Additional Tuning Guide 5.8.8. There are a number of important points to consider when tuning a multivariable controller: • Remember to tune a multivariable control scenario before switching to it. It is strongly recommended to use the IntelliMap Multivariable ivariable controller tuning. Tuner to perform mult Define the control objectives, primarily measurement cascade control • modes (CD Only, MD Only, or MD And CD) and targets (bias target profiles and MD targets) and actuator target setpoint profiles, and the nts based on process requirements before tuning actuator hard constrai the multivariable controller. Validate multivariable controller tuning offline in the Multivariable • Tuner by checking the predicted dynamic and steady state results on the system before transferring the tunin g to the Experion MX server. For minor adjustments, enter the tuning parameters directly from the display CDMultivariable Setup tab. The disadvantage is that Tuning you cannot validate the tuning by previewing the predicted results before implementing. Keep in mind the delicate balance between performance and • robustness. If the confidence level of the process models is high, you may want to maximize performance by tuning the multivariable controller to be more aggressive. Always remember to have a e margin of robustness to ensure process stability. reasonabl • Like the process models, the multivariable control tuning is grade dependent. In addition, the multivariable control tuning is scenario et specific as it depends on the actuators and measurements involved. S up the Recipes (DSR) database by creating all necessary recipe groups and pointers so that the grade and scenario dependent multivariable control tuning can be stored and retrieved properly. Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller 5.9. The multivariable controller operates normally, provided that its input parameters are within their respective ranges of acceptable values and that they do not conflict with each other, particularly for the actuator hard constraints. IntelliMap and the Multivariable Tuner ensure that the process models and tuning parameters they provide to the multivariable controller are numerically valid. The 51 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

174 CD Controls User Manual roller Multivariable Cont displays in CD Controls perform sanity checks on user entries to protect the s. multivariable controller from invalid input parameter However the multivariable controller may report a warning or an error when it detects a problem depending on the severity of the problem. The error or warning is shown as a status message in red or yellow respectively in the status bar at the bottom of 19. the screen as shown in Figure 5- Figure 5 -19 Multivariable Controller Error/Warning Status Message Status Bar at the top right corner. The Click on the status bar help button Help 20. Select the status message to view appears as shown in Figure 5- additional information about the warning or error. -20 Multivariable Controller Warning/Error Help Information Figure 5 In the case of an invalid input parameter, such as the Prediction Horizon is set too short for the long time delays in the process models, the multivariable controller stops calculating new actuator setpoints and reports an error. The actuators stay in the Cascade Error state at their last setpoints until the error is corrected and the multivariable controller re sumes normal operation. In the case of conflicting constraints or extreme process condition that the multivariable controller cannot provide optimal actuator setpoints, the controller reports a warning but continues to execute. The actuators stay in the Ca scade Suspended state at their last setpoints until the conflicting constraints are resolved 52 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

175 Multivariable Controller Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller or the process condition has improved that the multivariable controller resumes normal operation. -step If the need for troubleshooting the multivariable controller ari ses, a four approach is recommended and is described in the following sections. Multivariable Diagnostics Display 5.9.1. The first place to check for possible errors in the multivariable controller is the -12) on an Experion MX display (see Figure 5 Multivariable Diagnostics operator station. This display is available from CD Controls operator stations and it requires engineer permissions for access. This display provides diagnostics information on the matrix builds and control actions and is the best place to start for initial troubleshooting information. The diagnostics display provides detailed information on the executions of the le controller. See Subsections 5.5.1 internal functions within the multivariab through 5.5.3 for details on the in ternal functions. If an internal function experiences an error, the Error Status indicator shows the error message and the internal error code. The internal error code is used by the Honeywell Technical Support to identify the problem. rols Overview Display 5.9.2. Multivariable Cont Multivariable Controller has its own user interface desktop environment known as the Experion MX CDMV Controls Overview display. This display is active but is minimized when the application runs on the Experion MX server. For detailed information on the Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment, see Chapter 6. Event Viewer Messages 5.9.3. Event Viewer is a source for detailed diagnostic information regarding the multivariable controller. The event log is another source for troubleshooting information. You will need access to QCS server to view the event log on the e controller is running. machine where multivariabl To open Event Viewer and view the event log:  . Run 54. From Windows, select Start 55. in the command dialog. eventvwr Enter 53 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

176 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Select the Application and Services Logs, and then select the 56. HwPmCdControls log for viewing and find all message s with a source of CDMV. The most common internal warning/error codes are the following quadratic programming (QP) optimization errors: 7410 - • function failure • 7411 - infeasible solution • 7412 – overly constraint In most cases, the occurrence of thes e warnings/errors can be prevented by relaxing the actuator hard constraints: setpoint limits, maximum allowable setpoint change per move (maximum setpoint deltas), bend limits, deviation limits, and setpoint average splayed and can be edited from the Constraints limits . The actuator constraints are di display CDMultivariable Setup tab on the Subsection 5.6.1.2). . (see 5.9.4. Multivariable Controller Warning/Error Codes When there is a warning or error in the multivariable controller, warning or error codes may be given. These codes may be displayed in the Controller Output Display Window of the Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment and/or in the Windows Event View er. The full list of warning/error codes is given in Table 5- 7. Table 5- 7 List of Multivariable Controller Warning/Error Codes Problem Recommended Action Warning/Error Code CD multivariable 7101 Check that the CD Log controller has Files folder exists and is encountered a problem not write protected. when trying to save the Collect log files from the steady state matrix CD Log Files folder and builder inputs to a log send to Honeywell file. Technical Support. Set control interval to be Control interval less 7103 than or equal to 0. greater than 0. 54 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

177 Multivariable Controller Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller 7104 Control interval greate r Set control interval to be 1000 or less. than 1000 7105 Number of CD bins Set number of CD bins to be greater than 0. less than or equal to 0. Number of CD bins is 7106 Set number of CD bins to greater than 10000. be 10000 or less. 7107 Number of Set number of measurements is less measurements to be greater than 0. than or equal to 0. Set number of 7108 Number of measurements to be 100 measurements is greater than 100. or less. 7109 tuators Set number of ac Number of actuators is to be greater than 0. less than or equal to 0. 7110 Set number of actuators Number of actuators is greater than 100. to be 100 or less. 7111 Number of actuator Set number of actuator zones is less than 0. zones to be greater than 0. Number of actuator 7112 Set number of actuator zones is greater than zones to be 2000 or less. 2000. Average time constant 7113 Check time constant is less than 0.1. values. Check time constant 7114 Average time constant is greater than 10000. values. Zone boundary setup Check CD mapping. 7115 problem. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. Error in spatial 7116 Check CD response response matrix. models, zone bound 55 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

178 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller array, actuator zones, and measurement bins setups. Check time delay values. 7120 Time delay is less than 0. Check time delay values. Time delay is greater 7121 than 1000. Check that the CD Log 7201 CD multivariable Files folder exists and is controller has not write protected. encountered a problem when trying to save the Collect log files from the prediction matrix CD Log Files folder and builder inputs to a log send to Honeywell file. Technical Support. Check prediction horizon, Prediction horizon is 7204 less than control control horizon, and time delays. horizon or less than longest time delay. Set prediction horizon to 7205 Prediction horizon is greater than 100. be less than or equal to 100. 7206 Control horizon is less Set control horizon to be 1 or more. than 1. Set control horizon to be Control horizon is 7207 greater than 100 less than or equal to 100. 7208 CD multivariable Check that the CD Log controller has Files folder exists and is encountered a problem not write protected. when trying to save the Coll ect log files from the prediction matrix CD Log Files folder and builder outputs to a log send to Honeywell file. Technical Support. 7301 Check that the CD Log CD multivariable controller has Files folder exists and is not write protected. encountered a problem when trying to save the quadratic program (QP) 1/3/18 P/N 56 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

179 Multivariable Controller Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller matrix builder inputs to Collect log files from the a log file. CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. Review CV error 7304 At least one CV error weight/penalty is set to weight/penalties. 0. Review MV move, At least one MV move, 7305 deviation or picketing deviation and picketing penalties. penalty is set to 0. The CD multivariable 7306 Check model and tuning controller has failed to parameters. build the prediction Collect log files from the matrices. CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. The CD multivariable 7307 Review the CD actuator controller has constraints, including, encounter a problem minimums, maximums, when trying to process move limits, and bend the constraints. limits. Check the actuator zone statuses. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. The CD multivariable 7308 Review the CD actuator controller has setpoints. encounter a problem Collect log files from the when trying to CD CD Log Files folder and actuator setpoints. send to Honeywell Technical Support. Collect log files from the CD multivariable 7309 controller initialization CD Log Files folder and has failed. 1/3/18 P/N 5 57 6510020586 Rev 01 -

180 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller send to Honeywell Technical Support. Review the CD actuator 7310 CD multivariable constraints, including, controller has failed minimums, maximums, when trying to process move limits, and bend the CD constraints. limits. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. CD multivariable 7311 Check that the CD Log controller has Files folder exists and is encountered a problem not write protected. when trying to save the Collect log files from the quadratic program (QP) CD Log Files folder and matrix builder outputs send to Honeywell to a log file. Technical Support. 7400 CD multivariable Check that the CD Log controller has Files folder exists and is encountered a problem not write protected. when trying to save the Collect log files from the controller inputs to a CD Log Files folder and log file. send to Honeywell Technical Support. Check model and tuning 7401 CD multivariable controller calculation parameters. has failed to initialize Collect log files from the Hessian matrix. This CD Log Files folder and may occur for an send to Honeywell incompletely or Technical Support. incorrectly configured CD multivariable controller. Collect log files from the CD multivariable 7402 CD Log Files folder and controller initialization has failed. send to Honeywell Technical Support. 58 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

181 Multivariable Controller Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller Check the actuator zone 7403 CD multivariable statuses. controller initialization has failed. This may Collect log files from the related to actuators CD Log Files folder and having failed zones. send to Honeywell Technical Support. CD multivariable 7404 Check model and tuning parameters. controller model state estimation has failed. Collect log files from the This may occur for an CD Log Files folder and incompletely or send to Honeywell incorrectly configured t. Technical Suppor CD multivariable controller. 7405 CD multivariable Review the CD actuator controller has failed constraints, including, when trying to update minimums, maximums, the CD constraints. move limits, and bend limits. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. 7406 CD multivariable Check input values for controller has failed MVs and DVs. when trying to predict Check the prediction and future CV trajectories control horizons are based on past MV within recommended moves and past and values. current DV moves. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. 7407 CD multivariable Check input values for controller found nan CVs, MVs, and DVs. values in the gradient. Collect log files from the es folder and CD Log Fil 59 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

182 Multivariable Controller CD Controls User Manual send to Honeywell Technical Support. Check input values for CD multivariable 7408 MVs and DVs. controller has found a nan value in the Review the CD actuator constraint equation. constraints, including, minimums, maximums, move limits, and bend limits. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. The CD multivariable 7409 Check input values for controller has CVs, MVs, and DVs. calculated MV moves Review the CD actuator that include nan values. constraints, including, minimums, maximums, move limits, and bend limits. Review the controller cost function weights/penalties. Try switching to the other QP solver. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. The CD multivariable 7410 Check input values for controller has failed CVs, MVs, and DVs. when trying to Review the CD actuator minimize the cost constraints, including, function. minimums, maximums, move limits, and bend limits. 60 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

183 Multivariable Controller Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller Review the controller t function cos weights/penalties. Try switching to the other QP solver. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. CD multivariable 7411 Review the CD act uator constraints, including, controller has encountered a problem minimums, maximums, move limits, and bend with the constraints. limits. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. CD multivariable 7411.1 Review the CD actuator controller has constraints, including, encountered a problem minimums, maximums, when trying to locate move limits, and bend h constraints are whic limits. conflicting. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. CD multivariable 7412 Review the CD actuator controller has constraints, including, encountered a problem minimums, maximums, with the constraints. move limits, and bend limits. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. 61 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

184 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Review the CD actuator CD multivariable 7412.1 constraints, including, controller has minimums, maximums, encountered a problem move limits, and bend when trying to locate limits. which constraints are conflicting. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywel l Technical Support. Review the CD actuator CD multivariable 7413 constraints, including, controller has minimums, maximums, determined that optimization problem is move limits, and bend limits. unbounded. Try switching to the other QP solver. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. 7414 CD multivariable Review the controller controller has cost function determined that weights/penalties. optimization problem is Try switching to the other ill posed. QP solve r. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. Review the controller 7415 CD multivariable cost function controller has weights/penalties and the determined that CD actuator constraints, optimization problem including, minimums, cannot be reliably solved. maximums, move limits, and bend limits. 62 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

185 Multivariable Controller Troubleshooting the Multivariable Controller Try switching to the other QP solver. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. Review the controller 7416 CD multivariable cost function controller has weights/penalties. ined that determ optimization problem Try switching to the other does not have a unique QP solver. solution. Collect log files from the CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. Time for CD Check that prediction and 7418 multivariable controller control horizons follow recommendations. Collect calculation has exceeded control log files from the CD Log interval. Files folder and send to Honeywell Technical Support. 7420 CD multivariable Check that the CD Log troller has con Files folder exists and is encountered a problem not write protected. when trying to save the Collect log files from the controller outputs to a CD Log Files folder and log file. send to Honeywell Technical Support. 7500 CD multivariable Check that the CD Log controller has Files folder exists and is encountered a problem not write protected. when trying to save the Collect log files from the predictor inputs to a log CD Log Files folder and file. send to Honeywell Technic al Support. 63 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 5 -

186 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Collect log files from the CD multivariable plant 7501 CD Log Files folder and model initialization has send to Honeywell failed. Technical Support. 7502 CD multivariable Collect log files from the controller initialization Files folder and CD Log send to Honeywell has failed. Technical Support. 7503 Collect log files from the CD multivariable controller CV CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell prediction update has Technical Support. failed. CD multivariable 7504 Check that the CD Log controller has Files folder exists and is encounte red a problem not write protected. when trying to save the Collect log files from the predictor outputs to a CD Log Files folder and log file. send to Honeywell Technical Support. Collect log files from the 7518 Time for CD multivariable controller CD Log Files folder and send to Honeywell prediction update has Technical Support. exceeded control interval. Contact Honeywell Technical Support 5.9.5. Contact the Honeywell Technical Support group for any is sues or errors regarding the multivariable controller. This step is placed as the final step intentionally because the Honeywell Technical Support is likely to ask for information to be ell obtained by performing the first three steps. Contact the local Honeyw Technical Assistance Centre (TAC). This contact information is also available display. Experion MX CDMV Controls Overview menu on the About from the 64 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 5 -

187 6. Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment The role of the Multivariable C ontroller is to generate actuator setpoints. These setpoints are sent back to CD Controls where the Actuator Management Subsystem further processes them before they are sent to the actuators. To the operator, the Multivariable Controller is merely a controller option, and the use of the Multivariable Controller can be totally transparent. While the operator does not interact with the multivariable controller application, the software package does provide a desktop environment when it starts up and allows for the viewing of system/controller information as well as some basic configuration through a series of displays. For comprehensive information on Multivariable Controller, see Chapter 5 . It contains critical information regarding the Multivariable Controller that is not covered in this chapter. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 - 1 6

188 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Multivariable Controls Overview Display 6.1. The 1 display is shown in Figure 6- Experion MX CDMV Controls Overview with the display areas, buttons, and items labeled. Figure 6 -1 Experion MX CDMV Controls Overview Display The display shows general system configurations as well as information on the current control scenario. It can also provide a view into the multivariable Figure controllers running on the node to see what actions are being taken. See display. Controller Output 6- 7 for the 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 6 - 2

189 Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Multivariable Controls Overview Display Table 6- 1 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 6 -1. Table 6- 1 Multivariable Controller Main Window Display Items Number Name Description Displays the main tit Title Bar le of the window. This title bar also contains a minimize 1 and exit button on the rightmost side. Click the minimize button, the application minimizes to the system tray and no longer appears on the Windows taskbar. Before exiting, there is a prompt to conf irm that the application be shut down. Menu bar 2 Displays the menu options for the CDMV application. 3 File menu item down menu with two items: Displays a drop- Connect to Server is only available when CDMV is not connected to the QCS server. If the connection is lost, the application will automatically continue to try and reconnect. This connect to server command provides the ability to force a reconnect attempt without waiting for the automatic retry. on down. shuts the CDMV applicati Exit 4 Tools menu item Displays a drop- down menu with four items: View Controller Output views a specific controller’s output. If controllers are running on the node, then selecting this menu item will provide a drop- down list of available controlle rs whose output can be viewed. The controller output display is explained in detail in Section 6.6. QCS Server Name Configuration changes the QCS server name. The QCS server name should be the name of the node to which the CDMV application is connecting. Logging Options launches the Logging Configuration Display. For more details, see Section 6.3. launches the Processor Affinity Settings Processor Affinity Settings Display. For more details, see Section 6.4 . Help menu item 5 Displays a drop- down menu with one item: About provides release and support information. Displays basic system configuration information. 6 System Information Panel QCS Server Name 7 Displays the QCS server node’s name. 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 6 -

190 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Number Name Description 8 QCS Server IP Displays the QCS server node’s IP address. Address 9 This CDMV Node Displays the multivariable node’s name. Name This CDMV Node multivariable node’s IP addresses. Displays the 10 IP Address Customer Name Displays the customer name. 11 System Number Displays the system number. 12 13 Control Scenario Displays information relating to the current control scenario that is being used Information by CD Controls. Current Scenario 14 Displays the current control scenario name being used by CD Controls. Name 15 Current Scenario Displays the control scenario identifier in use by CD Controls. ID in the system (with both actuator ID and Displays a list of actuators 16 Actuators To Control In This description) as well as the current controller for that actuator. Scenario Displays a list of available measurements in the system (with both Measurements 17 measurement ID and description) and the current controllers that are Under Control In controlling that measurement. This Scenario Controller Displays information on the controllers that the system is using. The panel 18 displays a snapshot of what controllers are being used by the system and on Information Panel what machines those controllers are running. 19 Multivariable Displays a list of multivariable controllers that are currently running on this controllers table. node. 20 All controllers Displays a list of all multivariable controllers running on other nodes as well table as all traditional controllers. Displays the connection status between CDMV and the QCS server. Connection Status 21 22 Displays descriptive information when the system is switching a scenario, System event loading a grade, or tr ansferring data from IntelliMap. information 23 Current Grade Displays the current grade loaded by the system. Logging Indicator Displays the application’s logging status. Options are: 24 Logging Disabled • Continuous Logging Enabled • • Event -Based Logging Enabled Logging Problem –Not Enough Free Disk Space • 6.3 For more details on logging, see Section QCS Server Configuration Display 6.2. When CDMV is initially installed, you are prompted to input the node name for the QCS server node. That value is then used by CDMV when it starts up and connects to that specified QCS node. If that QCS node name is changed or was the installation, this display can be used to change it. entered incorrectly during 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 6 -

191 Multivariable Controller Desktop QCS Server Configuration Display Environment QCS Server Name After the New QCS Server Name has been entered in the Configuration dialog (see Figure 6- 2), the multivariable controllers assigned to run on this node are restarted. -2 QCS Server Name Configuration Figure 6 2 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 6 Table 6- -2. Table 6- 2 CDMV QCS Server Name Items Name Number Description Displays the name of the QCS server that CDMV is connecting to. 1 Current QCS Server Name New QCS Server Name 2 The new QCS server name that CDMV should connect to. 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 6 -

192 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment 6.3. Logging Configuration Display CDMV is capable of logging matrix build and controller information as the application performs its actions. Logging information can be performed through the Logging Configuration display shown in Figure 6- 3. Figure 6 -3 Logging Configuration nd describes the items labeled in Figure 6 -3. Table 6- 3 lists a 3 CDMV Logging Configuration Items Table 6- Number Description Name 1 Logging Mode Specifies the mode for logging. Options are: • Disabled Always • On Warning • 2 Log File Path Specifies a log file path. Use the ellipsis button to browse to select a folder on the host file system. space allowed on the hard drive to permit logging. Minimum Free Space Enter the minimum free 3 Always Logging can be enabled in one of two ways. The logging mode continuously generates a set of log files for every controller action, while the logging mode generates log files only when a warning or other On Warning 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 6 -

193 Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Logging Configuration Display Disabled unexpected event is encountered. The logging mode turns off all logging functionality. On Warning is the suggested logging mode and as such is the default configuration. This mode is suggested because frequent, unnecessary logging will not occur on every controller action, but any infrequent or unexpected event will generate a relatively small amount of logging data which may serve to be useful in system diagnostics. Logging data will only be generated when it may be needed. The l ogging mode Always should only be enabled after consulting with a Honeywell support professional. Logging data during controller operation can take a considerable amount of time; if such logging occurs for every controller er execution times may be undesirably long. action, matrix build and controll Additionally, a high logging rate can rapidly consume free disk space. Continuously logging can be useful under certain scenarios, but such configuration should only be made after considering these effects. If lo gging is enabled, specify the location of the files, as well as the minimum disk space required to allow logging to continue. If the available free disk space falls below the minimum specified size on this display, logging will not occur. 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 6 -

194 CD Controls User Manual Mu ltivariable Controller Desktop Environment ty Settings Processor Affini 6.4. The processor affinity for each multivariable controller can be configured through the 4. Figure 6- display shown in Processor Affinity Settings Figure 6 -4 Processor Affinity Settings 4 lists and describes the Table 6- items shown Processor Affinity Settings display 4. in Figure 6- - 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 6

195 Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Processor Affinity Settings Table 6- 4 Processor Affinity Settings Items Number Description Name Controller 1 Provides a drop - down list of all multivariable controllers that have been assigned to run on this node. Contains a list of checkboxes, each of which corresponds to a logical Enabled Processors 2 processor on this node. These check boxes display and allow configuration of the processor affinity for the selected multivariable down list. controller in the Controller drop- If a logi cal processor’s checkbox is checked, the selected controller’s process is enabled to execute on that logical processor. If the checkbox is not checked, the selected process is not enabled for that erating logical processor. If all checkboxes are unselected, the op system’s scheduling algorithm will set the affinity. For nodes with multiple logical processors (such as multi -processor or multi -core systems), the processor affinity specifies the list of logical processors on which a s allowed to execute. A logical processor can refer to a multivariable controller i physical processor on a unique physical processor chip, or to an individual core -core processor is a single -core processor chip. For example, a dual on a multi physical chip with two logical processo rs. By default, each multivariable controller is allowed to run on any logical processor, and the operating system’s scheduling algorithm will determine which controller will execute on which processors at any given time. This functionality is ideal as the operating system can adaptively determine the process scheduling more effectively than can a human, and thus this default functionality should be preserved if possible. In some situations, however, it may be desirable to restrict the execution of the multivariable controllers to a subset of all logical processors in order to reserve more processor resources to other processes.. Improperly configuring the processor affinity can cause a considerable slowdown om the default configuration in application performance (because any changes fr will decrease the number of processors available to a multivariable controller). Changes to the processor affinity should only be made after consultation with a Honeywell support professional. 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 6 -

196 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment About Display 6.5. About Figure 6- display (see The 5) provides basic release information as well as support contact information for CDMV. Figure 6 -5 About Display 6.6. Controller Output Window Display On the Tools View Controller Output menu item. If multivariable menu is the controllers are set up to run on this node, then their controller outputs will be available for viewing. In the example given in Figure 6- 6 there are two multivariable controllers running on the node, and their descriptions are made available when the View Controller Output menu item is selecte d. Figure 6 -6 View Controller Output Menu Item 10 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 6 -

197 Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Controller Output Window Display Selecting a controller description toggles the checkmark beside that description name and also toggles the visibility of the controller’s output window. The 6 indicates that the output window for MPC1 is currently checkmark in Figure 6- open. Clicking on MPC1 causes the output window to be hidden and the checkmark to disappear. Figure 6- display after it is CDMV Controller Output Window 7 shows the open. -7 CDMV Controller Output Window Display Figure 6 This display lists all of the actions, with timestamps and time to complete, for the controller being viewed. The controller ID is also specified on the window title bar; in this example the controller output being viewed is the multivariable controller labeled MPC1. The number of buffered output lines is capped to prevent the buffer from growing large. If the controller application reports an error during processing, the output lines will be shown in red. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 6 - 11

198 CD Controls User Manual Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment There are three basic menu items available through this display, File , Selec tion Figure and 6- 10). Help (see Figure 6- 8, Figure 6- 9, and File has one option: Hide Window . Figure 6 -8 File Menu Selection . Select All and Copy Selection has two menu items: Figure 6 -9 Selection Menu , which contains release and support contact Help has one menu item: About information. Figure 6 -10 Help Menu 6.6.1. System Tray Icon When the appl ication is minimized, it no longer appears on the taskbar and is only ). Click the icon in 11 accessible through the Windows system tray (see Figure 6- C DMV main application window. When the the system tray to restore the application starts up on a QCS server (starts up automatically with RAE), it minimizes itself to the system tray immediately. tem -11 Application Sys Figure 6 Tray Icon 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 6 -

199 Multivariable Controller Desktop Environment Cont roller Output Window Display Desktop Icon and Start Menu Program Launch 6.6.2. When the application is installed, it creates a Program Files menu item (see Figure 6- 12) that allows you to start the application. -12 Figure 6 Program Files Shortcut When CDMV is installed on the same multi as the QCS server, it will start up and shut down automatically with RAE. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 13 - 6

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201 7. Traditional Controller A traditional CD controller is a single input single output (SISO) controller that uses one actuator beam to control one sheet property. I n the case where it is desirable to control a sheet property with more than one actuator, the error of the sheet property can be split among a number of actuators. Each actuator using its own traditional controller controls the portion of the measurement e rror it is assigned. Error profiles of sheet properties are generated in the CD bin resolution by the Error Generation function inside the Measurement Processing subsystem. These measurement error profiles are split if error splitting is required, and are mapped down to the resolutions of the actuators. The traditional controller then calculates setpoints for the actuator to minimize the error in the mapped error profile of the sheet property. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 - 1 7

202 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller low diagram in The traditional control processing chain is illustrated in the f 1. Figure 7- Control Error Profiles (MS11-CTRL-ERR) Error Selection (Anti Alias & Error Split) Selected Error Profiles (TC1-SEL-ERR) Mapping Mapped Error Profiles (TC1-MAP-ERR) Decoupling Decoupled Error Profiles (TC1-DECPL-ERR) Control Law (Traditional Controller) Controller Setpoints (TC1-CTRL-SP) Setpoint Smoothing Smoothed Setpoints (TC1-SS-SP) Setpoint Maintenance Maintenance Setpoints (TC1-SM-SP) Actuator Management Subsystem Figure 7 -1 Traditional Control Processing Sequence The flow diag ram uses moisture (MS11) and a traditional controller (TC1) as an example. In this case, the traditional controller typically uses a moisture actuator such as a Devronizer or AquaTrol to control the moisture error. The traditional control processing chain involves the preprocessing of the measurement error profile, the generation of actuator setpoints by the traditional 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

203 Traditional Controller Error Selection controller, and the processing of the actuator setpoints. The preprocessing of the measurement error profile for traditional control involves three steps: Error Selection • Mapping • Decoupling • The actuator setpoints produced by the traditional controller are subject to the Setpoint Smoothing and Setpoint Maintenance functions, before they are passed onto the Actuator Management subsystem for further processing. Error Selection 7.1. e Error Selection function is to select for each traditional The purpose of th controller the portion of the CD measurement error profile it should control using its associated actuator. In the case of multiple CD actuators controlling a single or Selection function produces additional derived measurement variable, the Err error profiles from the original error profile provided by the QCS measurement subsystem. Each derived error component is then made available for further processing along with the other base error profiles. The natural goal is to perform the error selection so that the resultant error components are each tailored to a specific CD actuator. In most cases the multiple CD actuators that affect a single measurement variable do not have the same number and spacing of actuator zones. It is also unlikely that they produce the same response shape in the measurement. In this case, splitting the measurement error profile based on the spatial frequencies of the variations within the profile makes sense. In this way the CD actuator with the narrowest response can be used to control the high frequency variations. Similarly, the CD actuator with a wider response can be used to control the lower frequency variations. In other words each actuator is used to control the portion of the error that it has the best chance of removing. In some cases, however, the multiple CD actuators do have the same number and spacing of actuator zones. This is generally when multiple beams of the same coils). These actuators also produce actuator type are used (for example, dual Cal generally very similar, if not identical, response shapes in the measurement. In this case selecting the error profile based on frequency is not as beneficial, and a straight ratio selection of the error profile is desired. The Error Selection function combines an anti -alias filter and a low pass filter to optimally select the error component for traditional control. Both filters are 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

204 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller optional, and can be enabled or disabled independently. The function performs -alias anti filtering on the error profile, and achieves traditional error splitting using spatial frequency filtering and/or ratio distribution. The anti -alias function is essential in that it prevents any high frequencies in the error profiles that cannot be repres ented in the mapped error profiles from manifesting as phantom low frequencies when the error profiles are down- sampled from the CD bin resolution to the resolution of a given actuator by the Mapping function. 7- 2, allows great flexibility in The Error Selection algorithm, as shown in Figure assigning a CD error component of the measurement to an actuator controlled by a traditional controller. Enable/Disable Anti-Aliasing b a c CD Error Profile Convolution α Window f CD Error Component ∑ Low Pass e d Convolution β Window Enable/Disable -2 Error Selection Algorithm Figure 7 -aliasing window. The whole measurement error profile first goes through the anti The output of the anti -aliasing window function is then input to the low pass window function. The output from the anti -aliasing window is then multiplied by a pass α -through factor , and the output from the low pass window by a low β have a value between 0.0 and 1.0. The and α frequency discard factor β . Both resultant low pass portion is then subtracted from the resultant anti -aliasing portion to produce the CD error component. This allows you to design and employ, if desired, a band pass filter for an actuator. If a band pass filter or frequency error splitting is not required, the anti -aliasing function and ratio error splitting are still available. -aliasing Filter Anti 7.1.1. The measurement error profiles in CD bin resolution have to be mapped down to the resolution of their controlling actuators before they are used by the traditional controlle rs. In signal processing terms, this reduction in resolution is known as , and involves re -sampling the data stream. For the CD error profiles, decimation sampling is done in the spatial domain rather than the time domain. The the re- anti -alias function is essential in that it prevents any high frequencies in the error profiles that cannot be represented in the mapped error profiles from manifesting 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

205 Traditional Controller Error Selection -sampled from the as phantom low frequencies when the error profiles are down on of a given actuator by the Mapping function. CD bin resolution to the resoluti As with any sampling process, the highest frequency in the input profile that can -resolution output profile is half of the sampling be represented in the lower frequency. Depending on the sampling method, fre quencies in the input profile that are higher than half of the sampling frequency can become aliased and show up in the output profile as phantom low frequencies. The phantom low he frequencies are detrimental to CD control because the actuator is driven by t controller to remove these nonexistent low frequencies, which the actuator cannot remove, resulting in poor control performance and process instability. -alias filter with an Aliasing can be reduced generally by applying a low -pass anti appropriate cutof f frequency to the input profile to remove the unwanted high sampled to the lower resolution. The frequencies before the profile is down- default averaging method of the standard profile mapping function provides some his essentially behaves as a rectangular -pass filtering. However, t inherent low window, and does not provide enough protection from aliasing in all cases. Also, in many cases the response in the measurement from the move of a single actuator zone is wider than the width of a single zone. Hence, the highest controllable frequency is determined more by the response shape than by the sampling frequency, and a user -alias filter window is desirable. -specified anti determines what fraction of the frequencies in The anti -through factor α -alias pass the -aliased profile should be passed through to the output error profile of the anti -through factor sheet property. The pass should have a value between 0.0 and α -aliased profile are passed 1.0. A value of 0.0 means no frequencies in the anti - through, and a value of 1.0 means all frequencies are passed through. The pass alias -alias filter is enabled. If the anti- through factor is used only when the anti - filter is disabled, the whole error profile passes through regardless of the pass through factor. -Aliasing function is enabled and configured with the Low Pass The Anti Hamming Window by default. See the description of the Low Pass Hamming Window in Subsection 7.1.1.1. 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

206 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller i-alias Filter Windows Ant 7.1.1.1. To accommodate the range of frequencies that might need to be separated out -alias filter windows are available for the from an error profile, the following anti Error Selection function: Blackman Window • Low Pass Hamming Window • User • -defined Window The anti -measurement pair can be -alias filter window for a given actuator manually configured based on the response shape of the measurement to the setpoint change of the actuator as identified by IntelliMap. However, for p of the anti automatic setu -alias filter window and optimal controller tuning, we recommend using IntelliMap. Blackman Window The Blackman Window is defined by the half order that determines the full order or the number of coefficients in the filter window. The Blackman Window is symmetrical about its midpoint, and has an odd number of coefficients that is equal to two times the half order minus one. The coefficients are normalized so the window, when applied to a profile, has a DC (Direct Current) gain of one. -aliasing purposes, set the half order of a Blackman Window to: For anti Width (mm) Response 1 + (mm) Bin Width 2 CD × The response width of a given sheet property to an actuator move can be identified through an IntelliMap actuator bump test. By setting the half order as cutoff frequency of the Blackman Window coincides reasonably calculated, the well with the absolute cutoff frequency of the response of the sheet property to the actuator move. The absolute cutoff frequency is the frequency at which the actuator has no (zero) gain on the sheet property. This ensures that the uncontrollable high frequencies in the error profile are effectively removed. Low Pass Hamming Window The Low Pass Hamming Window is defined by the half order that determines the full order or the number of coefficients in the filter window and the cutoff frequency. The Low Pass Window is symmetrical about its midpoint, and has an odd number of coefficients that is equal to two times the half order minus one. The coefficients are normalized so the window, when applied to a profile, has a DC gain of one. 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

207 Traditional Controller Error Selection -aliasing purposes, set the half order of a Low Pass Hamming Window in For anti the same fashion as that of a Blackman Window. Set the cutoff frequency to: (mm) Bin Width CD 1 or Bin) (CD Width Response Response Width (mm) -defined Window User -alias functio The anti n also allows the option of using a user -defined spatial filter. To define this custom filter, provide the half order, which determines the number of coefficients in the filter window, and the values of the coefficients. Unlike the Blackman and the Low Pas s Hamming Window whose coefficients are computed and normalized, the coefficients provided for the user -defined window are used directly. Therefore, ensure that the coefficients are normalized in order not to introduce any DC gain to the filtered profile. Edge Padding 7.1.1.2. After the specific window coefficients are determined, the window is applied to the profile in a method independent of the window type and order. Filtering is accomplished by placing the center of the window over a given onsheet profile bin and multiplying the overlaid profile data with the normalized window coefficients to come up with a composite value for the corresponding element. By sliding the filter window through all the valid indices, the full filtered profile can be developed. Howeve r, for the onsheet elements near the edges of the profile, some of the window coefficients are overlaying the offsheet bins with invalid data (zeros) and the nonexistent missing bins off the edges. These offsheet bins and nonexistent bins must be padded wi th appropriate values before applying the filter. Otherwise they introduce undesirable edge effects to the resultant filtered profile, especially when the order of the filter window is high. Two edge padding options are available for padding the edges with reasonable values to reduce edge effects: • Average Reflection • -padding modes ensure that the filter window overlays valid data at Both edge each onsheet profile element and that the entire window is used for filtering. The -edge region at each Average Edge Padding mode extrapol ates the offsheet and off -1)/2 where N is the full end of the profile with a number of elements equal (N order of the filter window, and sets the value of each extrapolated element equal ion of the profile. to the average of all the data in the onsheet reg 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

208 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller -edge region The Reflection edge padding mode extrapolates the offsheet and off -1)/2 where N is the at each end of the profile with a number of elements equal (N full order of the filter window by making the extrapolated region a reflect ion of a section of the onsheet region near the edge as shown in Figure 7- 3. Filter Window Order = 11 Step 1: First Onsheet Bin Mirror the first 5 onsheet bins after the first onsheet bin about the vertical axis of the first onsheet bin. Extrapolated Region First Onsheet Bin Step 2: Mirror the extrapolated values about the first onsheet bin onto the extrapolated region. Extrapolated Region Figure 7 -3 Reflection Edge Padding Mode tical axis -1)/2 onsheet bins is mirrored about a ver At the low edge, a section of (N through the first onsheet bin and then a horizontal axis through the first onsheet bin onto the extrapolated region. The same applies to the high edge. This extrapolation method results in the first and last onsheet bins remaining at the same values in the filtered profile as they were in the original profile. By default, the Average Edge Padding mode is selected for the spatial filter window. The Average Edge Padding mode is most often used because the edge readings are typically not that reliable and should not be given too much weight when filtering the profile. 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

209 Traditional Controller Error Selection 7.1.2. Low Pass Filtering As shown in Figure 7 -2, the low pass filter following the anti -alias filter allows additional band- pass filtering and/or ratio separation to be performed on a profile. The low pass filtering function has the same filter window options and edge padding modes as the anti -alias filter function (see Subsection 7.1.1.1). The low pass filtering function is disabled by default. β determines what fraction of the low The low pass frequency discard factor the low pass filter should be discarded in the output frequencies separated out by error profile of a sheet property. The discard factor β should have a value between 0.0 and 1.0, with 0.0 meaning no low frequencies are discarded and 1.0 meaning all low frequencies are discarded. The discard factor is used only when the low pass filter is enabled. If the low pass filter is disabled, the output profile from the low pass filter is a zero profile regardless of the discard factor. Error Selection Scenarios 7.1.3. -alias and low pa Set up the anti ss filters in the Error Selection function in a coordinated manner so that the desired error component of a sheet property is Table 7- 1 illus trates some typical error selection setups. assigned to the actuator. Table 7- 1 Examples of Error Selection Setup Scenario Anti Low Pass Filtering -Alias Filtering Enabled Window Configuration Enable Window α β d Configuration 1. A single actuator N/A Based on the response No N/A 1.0 Yes controls a single shape of the measurement to the sheet property. actuator move as identified by IntelliMap. -aliased Results: The actuator is assigned all remaining frequencies in the anti error profile. 2. A single actuator Based on what low Based on the response 1.0 1.0 Yes Yes frequencies are to shape of the controls a single measurement to the sheet property. be discarded. actuator move as identified by IntelliMap. aliased The actuator is Results: - assigned only the high frequencies in the anti error profile. All low frequencies are discarded. Two identical 3. No N/A N/A Based on the response 0.5 Yes actuators control a shape of the single sheet property measurement to Actuator 1 as identified with a 50/50 ratio split. by IntelliMap. 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

210 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Anti Scenario Low Pass Filtering -Alias Filtering Enable Window Enabled Window Configuration α β Configuration d No 0.5 Based on the response N/A N/A Yes shape of the measurement to the move in Actuator 2 as identified by IntelliMap. Results: Each actuator is assigned 50% of the frequencies in the anti - aliased error profile. This is the default setting for two actuators controlling a single sheet property under the assumption of 50/50 ratio split. For n for each actuator is erty, the actuators controlling a single sheet prop α set to 1/n by default. Two actuators 4. Based on the 0.5 Based on the response Yes Yes 1.0 response shape of control a single sheet shape of the property. Actuator 1 measurement to the measurement to Actuator 2 as has a higher Actuator 1 as identified resolution than identified by by IntelliMap. Actuator 2. Actuator 1 IntelliMap. controls all the high Yes N/A N/A No Based on the response 0.5 frequencies. The low shape of the frequencies are split measurement to 50/50 between Actuator 2 as identified Actuator 1 and by IntelliMap. Actuator 2. Actuator 1 is assigned all the remaining high frequencies and 50% of the Results: -aliased error profile. Actuator 2 is assigned low frequencies in the anti 50% of the low frequencies in the anti - aliased error profile. 5 . Two actuators Yes Based on the response 5 Based on the 7 0. 1.0 Yes shape of response shape of the control a single sheet the measurement to measurement to property. Actuator 1 Actuator 2 as Actuator 1 as identified has a higher identified by resolution than by IntelliMap. Actuator 2. Actuator 1 IntelliMap. controls all the high Based on the response N/A N/A No 5 7 Yes 0. frequencies. The low shape of the frequencies are split measurement to 25/ 75 between Actuator 2 as identified Actuator 1 and by IntelliM ap. Actuator 2. 25 % of the Actuator 1 is assigned all the remaining high frequencies and Results: -aliased error profile. Actuator 2 is assigned low frequencies in the anti - % of the low frequencies in the anti 75 aliased error profile. 10 - 7 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 1/3/18

211 Traditional Controller Error Selection 7.1.4. Error Selection Display Error Selection display can be accessed by clicking under The Error Selection Display Menu l tab on the CD Traditional Contro the 4) . It is (see Figure 7- bar accessible to the control engineer only. Error Selection -4 Display Menu B Figure 7 ar ( ) -5 with the display areas, display is shown in Figure 7 The Error Selection buttons, and items labeled. Figure 7 -5 Error Selection Display 2 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 7 Table 7- -5. 1 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 - 1

212 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Table 7- 2 Error Selection Display Items Name Number Description 1 Actuator Selector Bar 2 Scenario Selector Bar When clicked provides a drop - down list of the scenarios that are configured with the selected actuator using the traditional controller. Active displayed The scenario that is currently in use (active) has before its name. When an inactive scenario is selec ted, the graph section of the display is grayed out. 3 Measurement List Box Indicates the measurement controlled by the selected actuator using a traditional controller. 4 Database Function Buttons Aliasing Tab - alias filter parameters. - anti Displays and allows editing of the 5 Anti Enabled When checked enables the anti -alias filter. This parameter is scenario a and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. b Pass Through Fraction Displays and allows editing of the anti -alias pass through factor α . This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Window c down list of filter window options to select for the - Provides a drop 7.1.1.1 ). This parameter is scenario -alias filter (see Subsection anti and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. down list of edge padding modes to select for the d Edge Padding Mode Provides a drop- ). This parameter is scenario anti -alias filter (see S ubsection 7.1.1.2 and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Blackman Window Tab e g of the Blackman window. This tab is Displays and allows editin selected as the active tab when the selected filter window is Blackman. 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

213 Traditional Controller Error Selection Description Name Number Half Order e1 When clicked opens the Blackman Window Editor for editing the window half order and viewing the resultant filter window. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Blackman Window Graph e2 Displays the shape of the Blackman Window. Displays and allows editing of the Low Pass Hamming window. This Low Pass Hamming f tab is selected as the active tab when the selected filter window is Window Tab Low Pass Hamming. 13 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

214 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Description Name Number f1 Half Order When clicked opens the Low Pass Hamming Window Editor for editing the window cutoff frequency and maximum half order, and viewing the resultant filter window. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Cutoff Frequency f2 When clicked opens the same Low Pass Hamming Window Editor as the Half Order indicator. This parameter is scenario and grade saved to the DSR database. dependent and is Low Pass Hamming f3 Displays the shape of the Low Pass Hamming Window. Window Graph - defined Window Tab - User defined window. This tab is g Displays and allows editing of the User selected as the active tab when the selected filt - er window is User defined. 14 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

215 Traditional Controller Error Selection Number Name Description - When clicked opens the User Half Order g1 defined Window Editor for editing the window half order and coefficients, and viewing the resultant filter window. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. When clicked opens the same User Coefficients defined Window Editor as the g2 - Half Order indicator. The coefficients are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. g3 defined Window - User -defined Window. Displays the shape of the User Graph Displays and allows editing of the low pass filter parameters. 6 Low Pass Filtering Tab a When checked enables the low pass filter. This parameter is scenario Enabled and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Discard Fraction b Displays and allows editing of the low pass frequency discard factor β . This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. down list of the filter window options to select for the Provides a drop - Window c 7.1.1.1 pass filter (see Subsection low ). This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 15 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

216 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Number Name Description d Edge Padding Mode Provides a drop - down list of edge padding modes to select for the low pass filter (see Subsection 7.1.1.2 ). This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Blackman Window Tab Same as 5e. e f Low Pass Hamming Same as 5f. Window Tab g User - defined Window Tab Same as 5g. 7 Input Profile Selector Bar Provides a drop- down list of input profiles for the function if there are more than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Error Selection Function, there is only one input profile to be displayed that is the error profile of the measurement controlled by the selected actuator using a traditional controller. Graph Funct 8 ion Buttons 9 Input Profile Date/Time Stamp 10 Input Profile Graph 11 Input Profile Information Panel 12 Output Profile Selector Bar Provides a drop- down list of output profiles for the function if there is more than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Error Selection Function, there are five output profiles for display: • Output Profile: see f, Figure 7-2. • Anti -Aliased Error : see b, Figure 7-2. 7-2. c, Figure • Anti -Aliased Pass Through Error : see d, Figure : see • Low Frequency Error 7-2. Figure 2 . - 7 , • Discarded Low Frequency Error : see e 13 Output Profile Graph Mapping 7.2. The Mapping function transforms the error component of a sheet property assigned to a traditional controller from the CD bin resolution down to the resolution of the actuator associated with that traditional controller, producing the that is, the control profile). The Mapping function divides mapped error profile ( the error component profile into sections according to the zone boundary array for the given actuator and the scanner where the sheet property is measured. The function then selects or calculates an error value from each section in the error component profile and assigns the error value to the corresponding zone of the actuator. Mapping Parameters 7.2.1. Besides the input error profile and the zone boundary array, the Mapping function requires two more input parameters: the Mapping Mode and the Minimum 16 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

217 Traditional Controller Mapping display (see Mapping Percentage. These two parameters can be edited from the 7). Figure 7- The Mapping Mode determines how the error value assigned to each actuator zone is selected or calculated. There are two available mapping modes: Average and Midpoint. The Average mode calculates an average of the data points (CD bins) in a section of the error profile defined by the zone boundary array, and maps the average value to the corresponding zone in the control profile. The Midpoint mode selects the midpoint of the data points (CD bins) in a section of the error profile defined by the zone boundary array, and maps the value of this midpoint to the corresponding zone in the control profile. If the midpoint falls between CD bins, the Mapping function rounds to the lower CD bin, and maps the value of that CD bin to the corresponding zone in the control profile. The first and last few zones in the control profile correspond to the first and last few CD bins in the error profile. These CD bins often contain invalid readings (that are substituted with zeros) because they may be offsheet or too close to the edges of the error profile. To prevent unrepresentative error values from being mapped to the actuator zones in the mapped error profile, the Minimum Percentage parameter is used to check against the ratio of the number of CD bins containing valid readings and the total number of CD bins in each section of error profile defined by the zone boundary array. The ratio for a profile section must equal or exceed the Minimum Percentage befor e an error value is mapped from that profile section to the corresponding zone in the control profile. If the ratio for a profile section is below the Minimum Percentage, a zero error value is assigned to the corresponding actuator zone in the control prof ile, and that zone is declared offsheet if it is at the profile edge, or invalid. 7.2.2. Mapping Display Mapping The Mapping display can be accessed by clicking under the CD 6). It is (see bar Figure 7- Traditional Control tab on the Display Menu accessible to the control engineer only. -6 Display Menu B Figure 7 ) Mapping ar ( 17 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

218 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller 7 with the display areas, buttons, and display is shown in Figure 7- Mapping The items labeled. Figure 7 -7 Mapping Display -7. 3 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 7 Table 7- 3 Mapping Display Items Table 7- Number Description Name 1 Traditional Control Contains the Actuator Selector Bar, Scenario Selector Bar, Measurement List Box and Database Function Buttons. Display Top Panel mapping modes, that is, Average and down list of the - Provides a drop Mapping Mode 2 Midpoint to select for the mapping function. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 3 Minimum Percentage Displays and allows editing of the Minimum Percentage (see Subsection ). This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR 7.2.1 database. 18 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

219 Traditional Controller Mapping Description Number Name Alignment Information elected actuator and the 4 Displays the alignment parameters for the s scanner that measures the measurement controlled by the actuator. Panel These parameters, except the Sheet Edge Out Of Range parameter, can be found on the Actuator Alignment display (see Figure 3- 13). low trim offset of the selected actuator. Displays the 4a Low Trim Offset High Trim Offset Displays the high trim offset of the selected actuator. 4b Displays the low sheet edge of the measurement profile controlled by 4c Low Sheet Edge the selected actuator. 4d High Sheet Edge Displays the high sheet edge of the measurement profile controlled by the selected actuator. 4e Displays if the Track Trim Offsets option is enabled (bright green) or not Track Trim Offsets (dark green). Track Sheet Edges 4f dges option is enabled (bright green) or not Displays if the Track Sheet E (dark green). 4g Sheet Edge out of Displays if the sheet edges are out of range (bright red) or not (dark red). Range Input Profile Selector Provides a drop- 5 down list of input profiles for the function if there is more than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Mapping function, there are two input profiles for display: the error profile of the measurement and the zone boundary array. 6 Graph Function Buttons 7 Input Profile Date/Time Stamp Input Profile Graph 8 Input Profile Information Panel 9 Output Profile Selector 10 is Provides a drop - down list of output profiles for the function if there more than one output profile to select for viewing. For the Mapping Bar function, there is only one output profile to be displayed that is the mapped error profile (control profile) of the measurement controlled by the selected actuator. 11 Graph Function Buttons 12 Output Profile Date/Time Stamp Output Profile Graph 13 Panel Output Profile Information 14 19 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

220 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller 7.3. Decoupling The zone boundary array generated by the Measurement Processing subsystem implies a mutually exclusive relationship between the responses in a measurement profile produced by adjacent CD actuator zones that no two CD zones affect the exact same portion of a measurement profile. In reality, this assumption of a fully contained response with no overlap between neighboring actuator zones is not achievable. Heat, steam, coating blades, and slice lips controlled by the CD actuators do not res pect imaginary boundaries, and tend to produce responses in the measurements with smoother shapes that are wider than the spacing between zones. This overlapping of responses in a measurement profile to setpoint moves in adjacent actuator zones is often r to-zone coupling. The extent eferred to as zone- of the coupling varies with the type of CD actuator and the specific application. In many cases the response shape extends less than half of the way into the adjacent zone on each side. This amount of coupling does not severely impact the SISO control laws, and can often be tolerated without any additional processing. In other cases, the response of a single actuator zone may extend over as many as contain negative three adjacent zones on each side. The response shape may also side lobes (that is, areas that exhibit a response gain opposite in direction to that in the main portion of the response). Other responses may exhibit a bimodal shape with higher gain at the sides than in the center of the response. Thes e response shapes represent severe exceptions to the assumptions made by the SISO control laws, and special pre -processing of the control profile is 20 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

221 Traditional Controller Decoupling required. Otherwise the coupling may render the process unstable, as illustrated in 8. Figure 7- -to- Zone Coupling Leading to Unstable Control -8 Zone Figure 7 -8, an error was introduced at zone 8 in the control profile. The In Figure 7 actuator response has a 55% coupling in its neighboring zones. The initial few the control profile from 0.516 -sigma of control actions were able to reduce the 2 -sigma of the control profile began to GSM to 0.282 GSM. However, the 2 increase upon the seventh control action, and the actuator zones became more a sigm picketed. Further actuator moves actually worsened the error with the 2- 21 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

222 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller increasing drastically and becoming infinitely large. The actuator zones were extremely picketed. When actuator zone 8 first moved to correct its error, it rippled the error to its moved neighboring zones due to the coupling effect. The neighboring zones now to correct their corresponding errors, creating some uncontrollable high frequencies in the control profile. The actuator zones continued to go after these high frequencies, causing more picketing, more profile variation and eventually, an unstable process. The Decoupling function is an optional feature that uses a convolution window to resolve zone -to-zone coupling. The convolution window provides a conditioned control profile that results in more optimal setpoint changes by collapsing the known responses into single elements at the centers and altering the shape of the control profile. The Decoupling function is applied to the control profile of each traditional controller and the resultant decoupled control profile is passed to the oller. The Decoupling function is enabled and configured with the traditional contr Blackman Window with half order = 5 by default. 7.3.1. Decoupling Convolution Windows To accommodate the range of response shapes that need decoupling, the available for the Decoupling function: following convolution windows options are Blackman Window • • Low Pass Hamming Window -defined Window User • The available edge padding modes are: Average and Reflection. Details regarding the convolution windows and the edge padding modes can be e decoupling found in Section 7.1.1.1 and Section 7.1.1.2. We recommend th -measurement pair be configured based convolution window for a given actuator on the response shape of the measurement to the setpoint change of the actuator as identified by IntelliMap. 22 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

223 Traditional Controller Decoupling Decoupling Display 7.3.2. under the CD The Decoupling display can be accessed by clicking Decoupling Display Menu tab on the Traditional Control 9). It is Figure 7- (see bar accessible to the control engineer only. Decoupling -9 Display Menu B Figure 7 ar ( ) 10 with the display areas, buttons, display is shown in Figure 7- The Decoupling and items labeled -10 Decoupling Display Figure 7 23 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

224 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Table 7- 4 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 7 -10. Table 7- 4 Decoupling Display Items Number Name Description 1 Traditional Control Display Top Panel 2 When checked enables the Decoupling function. This parameter is scenario Enabled and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 3 Window Provides a drop- down list of the filter window options to select for the Decoupling function. This parameter is scenar io and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Provides a drop- 4 Edge Padding Mode down list of the edge padding modes (that is, Average or Midpoint) to select for the Decoupling function. This parameter is scenario ved to the DSR database. and grade dependent and is sa 5 Blackman Window Tab 6 Low Pass Hamming Window Tab - defined Window Tab User 7 Provides a drop- Input Profile 8 down list of input profiles for the function if there is more than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Decoupling function, Selector there is only one input profile for display that is the mapped error profile (control profile) of the measurement controlled by the selected actuator. 9 Graph Function Buttons 10 Input Profile Date/Time Stamp 11 Input Profile Graph 12 Input Profile Information Panel. down list of output profiles for the function if there are more Output Profile 13 Provides a drop - than one output profile to select for viewing. For the Decoupling function, Selector Bar there are two output profiles for display: the decoupled control profile and the Discarded High Frequency profile of the measurement controlled by the selected actuator. Graph Function Buttons 14 15 Output Profile Date/Time Stamp 16 Output Profile Graph 17 Profile Information Panel Output Controller (control law) 7.4. Functions such as Error Selection, Mapping and Decoupling deal with the spatial characteristics of the process response to a setpoint change in a given CD actuator rol Law) function deals with the dynamics zone. In contrast, the Controller (Cont of the process response to a setpoint change in a given CD actuator zone. The Controller function uses information relating to the magnitude and shape of the imal change in the process response in the time domain to determine the opt actuator setpoint to remove the observed measurement error. 24 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

225 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) Optimal control requires the control law to be matched to the process dynamics as closely as possible. Sheet properties are known to respond differently to setpoint ifferent CD actuators. The types and the locations of sensing devices changes in d used to measure the sheet properties also affect their dynamics. To accommodate the different response characteristics of the sheet properties, four standard control laws are supported i n the Controller function: FVDT Alpha • Adaptive FVDT Alpha • • PI Fastback Modified PI • Select one of the control laws to be used for a traditional controller through the Control Law 7- 16). display (see Figure Because CD control involves controlling a number of CD actuator zones across the sheet, the control law has to be implemented as a series of independent SISO he controller outputs controllers, one for each zone. Process interactions between t of the adjacent zones are ignored, as these interactions are already handled by the up- front processing of the control profile before it is presented to the controller. The Controller calculates an array of desired CD setpoint changes for the individual actuator zones based on the control law selected. The rate at which setpoint changes are calculated for an actuator depends on the Control Rate Interval you set for the traditional controller. The Control Rate Interval is in units ans of the scanner that measures the controlled measurement. If the Control of sc Rate Interval is set to 2, the controller generates new setpoint changes for the actuator at every second scan of the measurement provided that the measurement is valid. The Control Rate Interval should usually be 1 so control actions can take place at every end of scan of the measurement, unless some instability is noticed. The Control Rate Interval for a traditional controller can be edited from the display. Control Law The Control Law function is executed only when the actuator beam is in cascade control (as indicated by the beam -level Cascade Control On flag). Likewise for an individual actuator zone, the controller runs only when the zone is in cascade control (as indicated by t -level Cascade Control On flag). The traditional he zone controller generates setpoint changes for the onsheet actuator zones that are in cascade control with valid measurement errors assigned to them. If the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator, the traditional controller limits the setpoints changes to not exceed the specified maximum setpoint deltas. 25 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

226 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller The setpoint changes are added to the previous actuator setpoints to generate the bsolute setpoints go onto the absolute setpoints for the actuator zones. These a Setpoint Smoothing and Setpoint Maintenance algorithms where they are further processed. Controller Initialization 7.4.1. The control laws in the Controller function calculate actuator setpoint changes based on the previous errors of the controlled measurements. The FVDT Alpha and the Adaptive FVDT Alpha control law also keep history of previous control moves (essentially, pr evious setpoint changes) and previous actuator setpoints/positions in order to perform dead time compensation. These historical data need to be representative in order for the controller to calculate correct setpoint changes. If the historical data is out of date, the traditional controller has to initialize to clear out its history buffer and start the accumulation all over again. In an initialization, the traditional controller zeroes out its previous error and ent time. If the control law is FVDT resets the previous error timestamp to curr Alpha or Adaptive FVDT Alpha, the controller zeroes out its history of previous control moves. It does not update the history for the first execution because there is no valid previous actuator setpoint/position to gene rate the setpoint change. The traditional controller goes into initialization under any of the following conditions: The traditional controller changes from inactive to active as a result of • a control scenario switch. The controller is forced to initialize before it begins to control its first error profile. The Scenario Switching subsystem triggers the initialization . • The controller for each actuator zone checks the difference between the timestamps of the current error and the previous error. If the diffe rence exceeds the History Lifespan (in seconds), the two errors are considered too far apart in time, and the controller has to initialize . The operator switches the beam mode of the actuator beam controlled • by the traditional controller to cascade. The co ntrollers for the individual actuator zones all initialize before they begin correcting their first errors. The Actuator Management subsystem triggers the . initialization The operator switches the zone mode of a particular zone of the • led by the traditional controller to cascade. The actuator beam control controller for that zone initializes before it processes its first error. The Actuator Management subsystem triggers the initialization . 26 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

227 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) The actuator beam controlled by the traditional controller gets out of • an alarm state and returns to cascade control. The Actuator . Management subsystem triggers the initialization • A particular zone of the actuator beam controlled by the traditional controller gets out of an alarm state and returns to cascade control. The . Actuator Management subsystem triggers the initialization 7.4.2. Use of Setpoints or Positions The traditional controller calculates the setpoint changes, and the absolute setpoints are generated by adding the setpoint changes to the last setpoints. However, the actuator positions of the actuator zones may not reach the setpoints yet, or may fail to reach the setpoints for some reason. For the FVDT Alpha and the Adaptive FVDT Alpha control law where past setpoint changes are used to provide dead time compensation, the possible discrepancy between the actuator setpoints and positions may have a negative impact on the control performance. The actuator’s last setpoints to compute new setpoint changes may be less desirable than using the actual actuator positions. use of this, a traditional controller can use either actuator setpoints or Beca provided that the actuator it controls has position feedback available. If positions are used instead of setpoints, the new setpoints and the past control moves in the history buffe r of the FVDT Alpha or the Adaptive FVDT Alpha controller is calculated based on actuator positions. Change the Feedback Mode on the 7- 16) to either display (see Figure Control Law . The Positions or Setpoints Setpoints positions if the , or controller uses setpoints if the Feedback Mode is Positions Feedback Mode is and the positions have been received. If the positions have not been received, the controller uses setpoints instead. 27 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

228 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller FVDT Alpha Control Law 7.4.3. The FVDT Alpha control law is a model -based Dahlin control algorithm with dead time compensation. This control law assumes that the process can be modeled as a first order plus delay system as shown in Figure 7- 11. First Figure 7 Order Plus Delay Process -11 The first order plus delay system can be characterized by the following properties: • : The time it takes for the process measurement to Time Delay (TD) first respond to the actuator move . kes for the process • Open -Loop Time Constant (TP) : The time it ta measurement to reach 63.2 percent of the steady state value after the time delay period. For a first order system, the response reaches 98.2 . percent of the steady state value after 4 time constants Open ge in the process • : The chan -Loop Process Gain (KP) measurement after steady state has been reached, divided by the change in actuator setpoint that caused the process change. The FVDT Alpha control law uses this model together with a tuning parameter α d time constant of the process under closed- (Alpha), which represents the desire should be larger than the open- α loop control. For conservative tuning, loop 28 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

229 Traditional Controller oller (control law) Contr process time constant (T ), about 1.5 to 2 times of T . For more aggressive tuning, P P is around 1.25 to 1.5 α ue for . A nominal val should be close to or less than T α P times of T . If the close -loop control is stable but too slow, you may consider P decreasing α . To generate new actuator setpoint changes, the FVDT Alpha controller requires setpoints or positions, current the process model, current and previous actuator α , control rate interval and and previous measurement errors, past control moves, median scan time. Because the actuator zones are controlled independently, they ocess gain, time can have different process model and tuning parameters. The pr based parameters. Each parameter is associated with two are zone- α constant and numeric arrays, one for the positive direction, and the other for the negative direction. The positive direction array is applied when the measurement error is positive (that is, the current measurement is below target), while the negative direction array is applied when the measurement error is negative (that is, the current measurement is above target). There may be a need for the two arrays to the process dynamics are different when the measurement moves in be different if the positive direction from when it moves in the negative direction upon an actuator move. The time delay or the Total Time Delay is considered identical for all zones across an actuator beam. The Total Time Delay is the combination of the Fixed Time Delay and the Transport Time Delay. The Fixed Time Delay is intrinsic to -measurement pair and does not vary with the machine speed. The the actuator Transport Time Delay is related to the machine speed and the physical distance between the actuator and the scanner where the measurement is obtained. The Total Time Delay is calculated on a per scan basis by the Measurement - Processing subsystem (see Subsection 3.3.5). The FVDT Alpha controller provides dead time compensation by calculating a new actuator setpoint based on past control moves stored in a history buffer. The number of past control moves required is equal to the Total Time Delay divided by the control period. The control period is t he time between successive control actions of the controller, and is obtained by multiplying the Control Rate Interval and the Median Scan Time. This means if the Total Time Delay changes due to changes in the Fixed Time Delay and/or the machine speed, or if the control period changes due to changes in the Control Rate Interval and/or the Median Scan Time, the size of the history buffer has to be adjusted to ensure that it contains enough past control moves. Upon each setpoint change calculation, the FVDT Alpha controller renews the history buffer by bumping off the oldest control move and adding the latest one. Tuning parameters for the FVDT Alpha control law can be edited under the 7- 5). 7- 16 and Table display (see Figure Control Law FVDT Alpha tab on the 29 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

230 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Adaptive FVDT Alpha Control Law 7.4.4. The Adaptive FV DT Alpha control Law is the adaptive version of the FVDT Alpha control law. The Adaptive FVDT Alpha control law is a model -based Dahlin control algorithm with dead time compensation, like the FVDT Alpha control law. The process is modeled as a first order plus delay system with the same process characteristics as described in section 7.4.3. The main difference lies in the tuning of the control law. -loop time pha control law allows the desired closed The Adaptive FVDT Al constant, α (Alpha), for each actuator zone to adapt over time based on the ε magnitude of the measured error in each zone. The tuning parameter, ( Epsilon), α is specified for each actuator zone, instead of , and is defined as the error threshold at which the control switches from conservative to aggressive. The ε and the measurement error are used to fine tune the controller before each control execution by updating the α value by:   ε   α + T = . 5 0 p   error   loop time constant of the process. Based on the equation, for an T is the open- P the closed error equal to ε , is equal to 1.5 times the open- -loop time constant α , resulting in somewhat nominal control. For an loop process time constant T P . If the error is very large, is less than 1.5 times T α α , ε error greater than P , resulting in rather aggressive control. For an error less than approaches half of T P , meaning the control should be conservative. In ε , α is greater than 1.5 times T P ε -sigma spread of the sheet property when under should be set a general, t the 2 satisfactory control. This allows the controller to act aggressively to remove a large error in the sheet property, and slow down when the 2- sigma spread of the sheet property is approaching the desired value. for the Like the FVDT Alpha controller, the process gain, time constant and ε Adaptive FVDT Alpha controller are zone -based parameters. Each parameter is associated with two numeric arrays, one for the positive direction and another for e direction. The time delay or the Total Time Delay is considered the negativ identical for all zones across an actuator beam. The Total Time Delay is the combination of the Fixed Time Delay and the Transport Time Delay. ontrol law can be edited under Tuning parameters for the Adaptive FVDT Alpha c the FVDT Alpha tab on the Control Law display with the Show Adaptive FVDT 7- 16). Alpha option selected (see Figure 1/3/18 30 - 7 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N

231 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) 7.4.5. PI Control Law The PI -integral control algorithm control law is a standard industrial proportional with no dead time compensation. The control law assumes that the process can be modeled as a strict first order system that can be fully characterized by the time constant and the process gain. However, unlike the FVDT Alpha and the Adaptive FVDT Alpha control law, the PI control law does not use the process characteristics as direct tuning parameters. Instead, the tuning parameters are the actual proportional and integral gains of the controller that are applied directly to the current and past errors of the sheet property. The controller proportional and integral gains are zone -based parameters. Each parameter is associated with two numeric arrays, one for the positive direction (that is, current measurement below target) and the other for the negative direction (that is, current measurement above target). Tuning parameters for the PI control law can be edited under the PI tab on the Control Law display (see Table 7- 5). 7.4.6. Fastback Modified PI Control Law The Fastback Modified PI control law is an extension to the standard PI control law. The primary application of the Fastback Modified PI control law is for processes that behave more like a pure integrator than a first order plus delay system. An integrating process is characterized by what appears to be an ever - increasing output in response to a step change in the input, like the control of 12. The attempt to fit this process to a caliper by a Calcoil, as shown in Figure 7- -loop time constant, resulting in a first order model often generates a large closed after a large upset such as a sheet break. long recovery time : Caliper Response to Calcoil Bump -12 Integrator Process Figure 7 31 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

232 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller The primary difficulty with controlling an integrator process with a first -order - based PI control law is that a large proportional gain is required to produce a timely response. The high proportional gain also affects the integral action of the controller, and could cause the control signal to wind up and the process to overshoot. The Fastback Modifie d PI control law attempts to reduce the overshoot by adjusting the integral gain based on the magnitude of the error. When the error is large, the integral gain is reduced to minimize overshoot, allowing more error decreases, the amount of proportional action for quick recovery. As the integral action is increased to ensure that no steady state error remains uncontrolled. The Fastback Modified PI controller requires a standard proportional gain and an integral gain. The integral gain is treated as a nominal integral gain that represents the maximum integral gain to be used as the error approaches zero. The actual integral gain therefore adapts from zero to the nominal gain in an exponential fashion based on the magnitude of the measured error in each actuator zone. The (Lambda), determines the rate at which the adaptation takes λ tuning parameter, place. It can be considered as a variable deadband of the controller, and is defined y the as the error value at which 38 percent of the nominal integral action is used b controller, as indicated by the following equation:   error −   exp K K = I IO   λ   is the nominal K is the actuator integral gain used by the control law, and K IO I sigma spread of the sheet integral gain. In general, λ should be set at the 2- property when under satisfactory control. When the error is larger than λ , the is less than the nominal integral gain K . In fact, the actual integral gain K IO I error gets very large. When the actuator integral gain approaches zero when the λ , K , meaning the proportional action of the error is less than is greater than K IO I controller subsides and the integral action begins. This allows the controller to act aggressively to remove a large error in the sheet pr operty, and slow down when the 2 -sigma spread of the sheet property is approaching the desired value. The controller proportional gains, integral gains and λ are zone- based parameters. ive Each parameter is associated with two numeric arrays, one for the posit direction (that is, when current measurement is below target) and the other for the negative direction (that is, when current measurement is above target). Tuning parameters for the Fastback Modified PI control law can be edited under Control Law display with the Show Fastback Modified PI option the PI tab on the 5). In addition, the Fastback Modified PI controller has two selected (see Table 7- : t he use of Error Clamp optional features , and Multiple Break Protection. 1/3/18 32 - 7 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N

233 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) 7.4.6.1. Error Clamp In applications with large time constants, such as caliper control (that the Fastback Modified PI algorithm caters for), the removal of a large error in the measurement may take a long time. The actuator may become saturated at its maximum or minimum setpo int limit in response to the large measurement error. However, depending on the relative magnitudes of the proportional and integral gains, the controller may start to back a clamped actuator away from its maximum or minimum setpoint limit as soon as the magnitude of the error decreases. The Error Clamp function is designed to deal with this problem by preventing the actuator from backing off too soon from saturation upon a large measurement error and allowing faster recovery of sheet properties, especially after a sheet break. The Error Clamp function first checks if an actuator is already in a clamped state or not. An actuator is in a clamped state if its setpoint is at its maximum or vious minimum limit. If not, the Fastback Modified PI controller uses the pre measurement error together with the current measurement error to calculate the new setpoint change. If the measurement error is large enough so the setpoint change now causes the actuator to exceed the maximum or minimum setpoint clamped low or clamped high limit, the actuator then goes into a state respectively. The Error Clamp function calculates the clamped error (e ), clamped which is typically a fraction of the current error (e ), using the equation: current × ( − Uc ) e Uc previous current current e = clamped Uc ∆ current = current controller setpoint, Uc where Uc = previous controller previous current = current controller setpoint change. The current controller setpoint and ∆Uc current setpoint is clamped at either the maximum or minimum setpoint limit. For the next setpoint calculation, the controller uses the clamped error as the previous error to calculate the new setpoint change for the actuator. Until the current error drops below the clamped error, the actuator stays in the clamped high state at maximum setpoint or clamped low state at minimum setpoint because the new setpoint change keeps the actuator saturated. This prevents the actuator from backing away too soon from saturation when the error starts to decrease, and allows faster recovery of the sheet properties. 33 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

234 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller ion is illustrated in Figure 7- 13. The Error Clamp funct Figure 7 Fast Error Recovery Under Error Clamp Function -13 or Clamp option can be enabled or disabled under the PI tab on the The Err Control Law display with the Show Fastback Modified PI option selected (see 5). Table 7- Multiple Break Protection 7.4.6.2. The Multiple Break Protection feature protects the Fastback Modified PI controller from generating incorrect actuator setpoints when two or more sheet e Break breaks have occurred successively in a short duration of time. The Multipl Protection function is not part of the Control Law algorithm, but is provided by the Actuator Management Subsystem (see Chapter 9). After a sheet break, a measurement typically shows large errors due to the process upset. The proportional action of the Fastback Modified PI controller produces large actuator setpoint moves in order to remove the error quickly. If another irst sheet break and before the control has sheet break occurs shortly after the f reached steady state, the actuator zones are now at some non -steady state setpoint values. In order to correct the large errors in the measurement after the second 34 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

235 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) sheet break, the controller has to make drastic actuator moves that are not desirable. The Multiple Break Protection function prevents the controller from making unnecessary drastic actuator moves in a multiple break situation by performing the following steps: ction function saves the On a sheet break, the Multiple Break Prote • current setpoint profile of the actuator. The Actuator Management . subsystem suspends the actuator from cascade control After the sheet break is cleared, cascade control resumes and the • control. The Actuator Management subsystem st arts the Multiple Break Timer of the actuator that continues to count down until it . expires If another sheet break occurs before the Multiple Break Timer expires, • a multiple break situation is detected. The actuator is again suspended . Actuator zones that were previously in Cascade from cascade control have their setpoints restored to the setpoints saved at the first sheet . break If another sheet break occurs after the Multiple Break Timer expires, • le of the the situation repeats by saving the current setpoint profi . actuator and suspending cascade control The assumption here is that the system is at steady state before the first sheet break occurs. Restoring the setpoints of the actuator to its previously saved tiple break situation prevents the setpoints upon the second sheet break in a mul controller from assuming that the system is already at steady state after the first break. The Multiple Break Timer is used to determine if the system can be considered to have reached steady state between the first break (where the timer starts counting) and the next break. If the timer has expired when the next break occurs, the system is considered to be at steady state. There is no need to restore the actuator to the previously saved steady state setpoints. Enable or disable the Multiple Break Protection option, or enter the timeout display Control Law period of the Multiple Break Timer, under the PI tab on the with the Show Fastback Modified PI option selected (see 16 and Table Figure 7- 7- 5). Choose the timeout period of the Multiple Break Timer very carefully. It should be long enough so the control has reached some steady state when the timer expires. A suggested timeout period for the Multiple Break Timer is in the range –15 minutes (480–900 seconds). of 8 35 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

236 CD Controls User Manual itional Controller Trad -Windup Anti 7.4.7. During a large upset on a sheet property, typically after a sheet break, if the control law requests an actuator setpoint that is larger than the maximum allowabl e setpoint or smaller than the minimum allowable setpoint, the best strategy roughly stated is to stick to the constraint for a certain amount of time then move off the constraint gracefully after the system is in a suitable state to cs of the loop are kept as near as possible to the ideal ensure that the dynami unconstrained case. -windup function and the Theoretical Setpoint function Both the standard anti implemented in previous versions of this application had flaws that could formance of the controller in many practical cases. significantly hamper the per -windup is known to back off too early in a break recovery The standard anti situation, so the actuators spend only a very small amount of time on the maximum or minimum constraints and this time cannot be manipulated. But the theoretical setpoint function allows the actuators to stick to their maximum or minimum constraints for a long duration. Again this time duration cannot be in controlled. While in some cases it responds well, the main failure mode occurs –the a situation when one or more actuators are saturated for a long period of time theoretical setpoints will ramp up in an unstable and unbounded manner such that the control will not desaturate when needed. The Anti -Windup algorithm in CD Controls al lows you to determine the level of -windup protection corresponds to the -windup protection. Maximum anti anti -windup scheme while minimum anti- standard anti windup protection corresponds to the Theoretical Setpoint scheme provided in the previous versions of this application known as Performance CD. -Windup function is an optional function available to all traditional The Anti control laws except the Fastback Modified PI control law that uses its own Error Windup function is performed on the setpoints output Clamp algorithm. The Anti- function as shown in Figure 7- 14.The algorithm allows you to by the Control Law -windup protection for a traditional controller by setting determine the level of anti bda (p) parameter between 0.0 and 1.0. -Windup Lam the Anti When p is set to 0.0, the Anti -windup -Windup function provides maximum anti protection by adding the setpoint changes generated by the traditional controller, c(k), to the last actual actuator setpoints that are limited by cascade setpoint limits or physical hard limits, u (k-1). In this case, the actuator setpoints back off from out their constraints as soon as the error in the sheet property decreases. When p is set windup protection by to 1.0, the Anti -Windup function provides minimum anti- adding the setpoint changes generated by the traditional controller to the setpoints (k-1). In last produced by the Setpoint Smoothing function that are not limited, u s this case, even when the error in the sheet property decreases, the actuator setpoints stay at their constraints for the longest time. By adjusting p, it adjusts the 36 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

237 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) proportions of the last true setpoints and the last Setpoint Smoothing setpoints used in generating the new controller setpoints u (k). This subsequently c determines how long the actuator setpoints stay saturated and the recovery speed of a sheet property upon a major process upset. p E(k) (k) u (k) u (k) c(k u ) c Setpoint Setpoint Control s + (k) c T Maintenance Smoothing law (k-1) u s -1 z p + (k-1) u (k) u true setpoints out out -1 z (1-p) -14 Anti -Windup Function Figure 7 Control Law Display 7.4.8. The Control Law display Control Law under the can be accessed by clicking enu isplay M D . It is tab on the CD Traditional Control -15) Figure 7 (see bar accessible to the control engineer only. ) Figure 7 -15 Display Menu B ar ( Control Law 7 6510020586 Rev 01 - P/N 37 1/3/18

238 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller with the display areas, buttons, 16 display is shown in Figure 7- Control Law The and items labeled. Figure 7 -16 Control Law Display Table 7- 5 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 7 -16. Items Table 7- 5 Control Law Display Number Description Name 1 Traditional Control Display Top Panel related parameters for the traditional 2 Displays and allows editing of the control rate - Control Rate controller controlling the selected actuator. These parameters are independent of Panel the control law. 38 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

239 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) Description Name Number Control Rate traditional controller 2a Displays and allows editing of the frequency at which the executes as a multiple of scans. For the traditional controller to execute at every Interval end of scan, the Control Rate Interval should be set to 1. The Control Rate Interval . is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database Median Scan 2b Displays the median scan time of the scanner that provides the measurement controlled by the selected traditional controller. Time (Sec) Displays the sample time of the traditional controller controlling the selected Sample Time 2c actuator. The sample time is the product of the Control Rate Interval and the (sec) Median Scan Time. Displays and allows editing of the history lifespan of the traditional controller 2d History controlling the selected actuator. The History Lif e Span is scenario and grade Lifespan (sec) dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 2e Measurement Displays the number of measurement profiles the traditional controller has s Received received before it calculates setpoints. editing of the Speed Retune parameters for the traditional 3 Displays and allows Speed Retune controller controlling the selected actuator. These parameters are independent of Panel the control law. See Subsection 3.3.5 for details on the Speed Retune function. 3a s and allows enabling or disabling of the Speed Retune function on the Display Speed Retune actuator (traditional controller) and the scanner frame from which it obtains the Enabled measurement to control. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Scanner 3b Displays the name of the scanner frame where the actuator (traditional controller) obtains the measurement to control. It is grayed out if the Speed Retune function is disabled. - 3c tor Distance, which is the distance Actua - Displays and allow editing of the Frame Frame Actuator between the actuator (traditional controller) and the scanner frame where the actuator obtains the measurement to control. It is grayed out if the Speed Retune Distance (m) function is disabled. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 3d Machine Displays the speed of the paper machine that is used by the Speed Retune function to update the transport time delay and subsequently the total time delay of /min) Speed (m scanner pair. It is grayed out if the Speed Retune function is disabled. the actuator - - Transport scanner 3e Displays and allows editing of the Transport Time Delay of the actuator Time Delay pair if the Speed Retune function is disabled. It is grayed out if the Speed Retune function is ena bled. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR (sec) database. 3f Fixed Time Displays and allows editing of the Fixed Time Delay of the actuator -scanner pair. Delay (sec) This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 3g - Displays the Total Time Delay of the actuator otal Time T scanner pair. Delay (Sec) 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 P/N 39 7 -

240 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Number Name Description Windup parameters for the traditional 4 Anti - Windup - Displays and allows editing of the Anti controller controlling the selected actuator. These parameters apply to all control Panel laws except the Fastback Modified PI control law. - 4a Anti Windup function on the Windup - Displays and allows enabling or disabling of the Anti traditional controller when the control law is not Fastback Modified PI. This Enabled parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. - Anti 4b Windup Lambda for the traditional controller - Displays and allows editing of the Anti Windup if the Anti -Windup function is enabled. It is grayed out when the control law is Lambda Fast back Modified PI or if the Anti -Windup function is disabled for other control laws. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Provides a drop roller down list of control laws to select for the traditional cont - 5 Control Law controlling the selected actuator. These control laws are: • FVDT Alpha • Adaptive FVDT Alpha • PI • Fastback Modified PI The Control Law is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR Database. Feedback Mode of the traditional controller. The Feedback Displays and allows editing of the 6 Mode Feedback mode is saved to the Permanents database. Displays and allows editing of the FVDT Alpha parameters. FVDT Alpha 7 Control Law Tab 40 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

241 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) Description Name Number Numeric Array Edi tor for editing the positive process When clicked opens the 7a Positive gains for individual actuator zones. The FVDT Alpha and the Adaptive FVDT Alpha Process Gain control law share the same positive process gains. The Positive Process Gains are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR dat abase. Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the for editing the negative process 7b Negative gains for individual actuator zones. The FVDT Alpha and the Adaptive FVDT Alpha Process Gain control law share the same negative process gains. The Negative Process Gains are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. When clicked opens the for editing the positive time Numeric Array Editor Positive Time 7c constants for individual actuator zones. The FVDT Alpha and the Adaptive FVDT Constant Alpha control law share the same positive time constants. The Positive Time Constants are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR dat abase. Numeric Array Editor for editing the negative time When clicked opens the 7d Negative Time constants for individual actuator zones. The FVDT Alpha and the Adaptive FVDT Constant Alpha control law share the same negative time constants. The Negative Time Constants are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. for editing the positive alphas for When clicked opens the Numeric Array Editor Positive Alpha 7e individual actuator zones. The Positive Alphas are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. for editing the negative alphas for Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the 7f Negative individual actuator zones. The Negative Alphas are scenario and grade dependent Alpha and are saved to the DSR database. When checked shows the Adaptive FVDT Alpha parameters. When unchecked Show 7g Adaptive shows the FVDT Alpha parameters. FVDTAlpha 1/3/18 P/N 41 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

242 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Number Name Description 8 Adaptive Displays and allows editing of the Adaptive FVDT Alpha parameters. FVDT Alpha Control Law 8a Positive Process Gain Negative Process Gain 8b 8c Positive Time Constant 8d Negative Time Constant for editing the positive epsilons for Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the 8e Positive individual actuator zones. The Positive Epsilons are scenario and grade dependent Epsilon and are saved to the DSR database. When clicked opens the for editing the negative epsilons Numeric Array Editor 8f Negative for individual actuator zones. The Negative Epsilons are scenario and grade Epsilon dependent and are saved to the DSR database. Show Adaptive FVDTAlpha 8g PI Control Law Displays and allows editing of the PI parameters. 9 Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the to edit the positive proportional 9a Positive gains for individual actuator zones. The PI and the Fastback Modified PI control Proportional law share the same positive proportional gains. The Positive Proportional Gains Gain are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR da tabase. to edit the negative proportional Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the Negative 9b Proportional gains for individual actuator zones. The PI and the Fastback Modified PI control law share the same negative proportional gains. The Negati ve Proportional Gains Gain are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. to edit the positive integral gains Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the Positive 9c for individual actuator zones. The PI and the Fastback Modi fied PI control law Integral Gain share the same positive integral gains. The Positive Integral Gains are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. to edit the negative integral gains Numeric Array Editor When clicked opens the 9d Negative for individual actuator zones. The PI and the Fastback Modified PI control law Integral Gain share the same negative integral gains. The Negative Integral Gains are scenario and grade dependent and are saved to the DSR database. 42 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

243 Traditional Controller Controller (control law) Description Name Number Show checked shows the Fastback Modified PI parameters. When unchecked When 9j Fastback shows the PI parameters. Modified PI 10 Fastback Modified PI Control Law 10a Positive Proportional Gain 10b Negative Proportional Gain 10c Positive Integral Gain Negative Integral Gain 10d When clicked opens the Numeric Array Editor to edit the positive lambdas for 10e Positive individual actuator zones. The Positive Lambdas are scenario and grade Lambda dependent and are saved to the DSR database. When clicked opens the to edit the negative lambdas for Numeric Array Editor 10f Negative individual actuator zones. The Negative Lambdas are scenario and grade Lambda dependent and are saved to the DSR database. When checked enables the Error Clamp function for the Fastbac 10g Error Clamp k Modified PI controller. The Error Clamp Enabled flag is scenario and grade dependent and is Enabled saved to the DSR database. Multiple Break 10h When checked enables the Multiple Break Protection function for the Fastback Protection Modified PI control ler. The Multiple Break Protection Enabled flag is grade for details 7.4.6.2 dependent and is saved to the DSR database. See Subsection Enabled on the Multipl e Break Protection function. Displays and allows editing of the timeout period for the Multiple Break Timer if the Timer (sec) 10i Multiple Break Protection function is enabled. It is grayed out if the Multiple Break ultiple Break Protection Timer is grade Protection function is disabled. The M dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 10j Show Fastback Modified PI Max Setpoint Displays and allows editing of the maximum setpoint deltas related parameters for 11 - Deltas Panel the actuator (traditional controller). When checked enables the function to limit the setpoint moves of the individual 11a Max Setpoint zones of the actuator (traditional controller). The Max Setpoint Deltas Enabled flag Deltas is saved to the Permanents database. Enabled When clicked opens the to edit the maximum setpoint Numeric Array Editor 11b Max Setpoint deltas for individual actuator zones if the Max Setpoint Deltas function is enabled. Deltas It is grayed out if the Max Setpoint Deltas function is disabled. The Max Setpoint Deltas are saved to the Permanents database. 43 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

244 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Description Number Name 12 Input Graph down list of input profiles for the function if there are more than Provides a drop - one input profiles to select for viewing. For the Control Law function, there is only Selector Bar ut profile for display that is the mapped (and decoupled, if Decoupling is one inp enabled) control profile of the measurement controlled by the selected actuator. Graph Function Buttons 13 14 Input Profile Date/Time Stamp Input Profile Graph 15 16 Input Profile Information Panel is more than Provides a drop- Output Graph 17 down list of output profiles for the function if there one output profile to select for viewing. For the Control law function, there are four Selector Bar output profiles for display: Output Profile • – the new setpoints calculated by the controller. Previous Actuator Setpoints – Positions – the previous actuator setpoints • or positions. • Delta Actuator Setpoints – the delta setpoints calculated by the controller. • Theoretical Setpoints – the theoretical setpoints calculated by the controller when the Theoretical Setpoints option is enabled. Graph Function Buttons 18 19 Output Profile Date/Time Stamp Output Profile Graph 20 21 Output Profile Information Panel 7.5. Setpoint Smoothing The actuator setpoint profiles generated by the Control Law function are passed onto the Setpoint Smoothing algorithm where the setpoint profiles are manipulated to a smoother shape. The purpose of the Setpoint Smoothing ing, and subsequently to maintain stable algorithm is to prevent actuator picket control by limiting setpoint deviations between adjacent actuator zones. If an actuator setpoint profile is picketed, the individual actuator zones are most likely chasing after uncontrollable high frequencies in the error profile of the measurement. In this case, the actuator may actually be contributing to the error of the measurement. Small amount of actuator setpoint smoothing is shown to enhance sheet formation and facilitate the paper making process. nt smoothing action is provided by two functions : The setpoi Blackman Smoothing • Deviation Limit • can be enabled or disabled independently. By default the Blackman Those Smoothing function is enabled and the Deviation Limit function disabled. The 44 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

245 Traditional Controller Setpoint Smoothing ion applies the Blackman Window to the input actuator Blackman Smoothing opt setpoint profile to smooth out sharp discontinuities. The Deviation Limit option uses an optimization method to primarily limit the deviations between adjacent actuator zones to a preset limit, and addi tionally, provide more widespread smoothing. The two options can be used jointly or separately to achieve optimal smoothing of the actuator setpoint profile. The amount of smoothing is calculated e individual zone based on all zones across the actuator beam regardless of th statuses. 7.5.1. Blackman Smoothing The same Blackman Window as described in Subsection 7.1.1.1 is used in the Setpoint Smoothing algorithm. The Blackman Window is defined by its half order, which determines the shape of the filter window and the level of filtering. The setup of the Blackman Window also requires selecting the Edge Padding Mode to be either Average or Reflection. Because the half order is an integer value, this limits the amount of smoothing that can be obtained through the Blackman Window to discrete values. When dealing with actuator setpoint profiles at lower resolutions, these discrete steps may result in either too much or too little smoothing. To compensate, the Blackman Smoothing option allows a portion of the smoothed setpoint profile produced by the Blackman Window to be blended with a portion of the original y setpoint profile. This blending feature fine -tunes the smoothing function b providing intermediate amounts of smoothing to the actuator setpoint profile. which specifies the Blend Factor, The blending is achieved by entering the percentage of the smoothed setpoint profile that is included in the resultant setpoint profile. The Blend Factor has a value of 0.0 to 1.0. The value 1.0 minus the Blend Factor represents the fraction of the original profile to be kept in the final output. A value of 0.0 means virtually no filtering as 100% of the original setpoint profile is kept as the final output. A value of 1.0 means pure Blackman filtering, as none of the original profile is kept in the final output. The use of any other value in between results in proportionally less smoothing than that achieved by the Blackman Window. The default value of the Blend Factor is 0.005, meaning 0.5% of the smoothed setpoint profile is to be blended with 99.5% of the original setpoint profile to produce the final setpoint profile. 7.5.2. Deviation Limit The Deviation Limit option is applied to the Blackman -smoothed actuator setpoint profile if the Blackman Smoothing option is enabled. The Deviation -to-zone deviations across the actuator beam Limit option basically limits the zone Deviation Limit. to the specified llowable The Deviation Limit is the maximum a 45 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

246 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller difference between setpoints of adjacent actuator zones. It has the same units as the actuator setpoint, and should be entered as an absolute value. -to-zone deviations are below the Deviation Limit for all zones, the If the zone Deviation Limit f unction does not make any adjustments to the setpoints. If one or -to-zone deviations are greater than or equal to the Deviation more of the zone Limit, the function calculates a cost function and adjusts the setpoint of each zone accordingly to not exceed the deviation limit. The cost function generates the output setpoints based on the following objectives: • zone -to-zone setpoint deviations are minimized • the amount of setpoint changes introduced is minimized the setpoints of the first and the last zone are kept unchanged • Because the first two objectives of minimizing setpoint deviations and minimizing setpoint adjustments can potentially conflict with each other, a weighting factor is factor is used to decide the relative importance of these objectives. This weighting , which has no units and must be entered as a positive called the Penalty Gain value between 0.0 and 1.0. The Penalty Gain is multiplied to the Deviation Limit, and the resultant value is input to the cost function. A higher Penalty Gain means putting more emphasis on the objective of minimizing zone -to-zone deviations. This generally results in more reductions in the zone -to-zone deviations; however, the setpoint changes are not as localized and more smoothing, compared to pure deviation limiting, is achieved. A lower Penalty Gain means putting more emphasis on the objective of minimizing setpoint adjustments, and in turn, results in more localized setpoint changes, and thus, less smoothing effect, as the zone -to-zone deviations are less The default value of the Penalty Gain is 0.005. reduced. 7.5.3. Setpoint Smoothing HMI Setpoint Smoothing display can be accessed by clicking Setpoint The CD Traditional Control Smoothing under the tab on the D isplay M enu bar (see ). It is accessible to the control engineer only. Figure 7- 17 ) Setpoint Smoothing ar ( -17 Display Menu B Figure 7 46 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

247 Traditional Controller Setpoint Smoothing 18 with the display areas, display is shown in Figure 7- Setpoint Smoothing The buttons, and items labeled. -18 Setpoint Smoothing Display Figure 7 -18. Table 7- 6 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 7 6 Setpoint Smoothing Display Items Table 7- Number Description Name 1 Traditional Control Display Top Panel When checked enables the Blackman Smoothing function. This parameter Blackman Smoothing 2 the DSR database. is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to Enabled Half Order 3 When clicked opens the Blackman Window Editor for editing the window half order and viewing the resultant filter window. Available only when the Blackman Smoothing function is enabled. This parameter is scenario and dependent and is saved to the DSR database. grade Edge Padding Mode down list of edge padding modes to select for the Provides a drop- 4 ). Available only when Blackman smoothing filter (see Subsection 7.1.1.2 the Blackman Smoothing function is enabled. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 47 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

248 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Number Name Description Blend Factor Displays and allows editing of the blend factor. Available on ly when the 5 Blackman Smoothing function is enabled. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 6 Blackman Window Displays the shape of the Blackman Window. Available only when the Graph enabled. Blackman Smoothing function is 7 Deviation Limit When checked enables the Deviation Limit function. This parameter is Enabled scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Deviation Limit 8 when the Displays and allows editing of the deviation limit. Available only Deviation Limit function is enabled. This parameter is scenario and grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Displays and allows editing of the penalty gain. Available only when the 9 Penalty Gain s parameter is scenario and grade Deviation Limit function is enabled. Thi dependent and is saved to the DSR database. - Provides a drop Input Graph Selector 10 down list of input profiles for the function if there is more than one input profile to select for viewing. For the Setpoint Smoothing Bar function, there is only one input profile for display that is the setpoint profile calculated by the traditional controller for the selected actuator. 11 Graph Function Buttons 12 Input Profile Date/Time Stamp 13 Input Profile Graph 14 Input Profile Information Panel down list of input profiles for the function if there is more Provides a drop- 15 Output Graph than one output profile to select for viewing. For the Setpoint Smoothing Selector Bar function, there are two output profiles to choose from f or the selected actuator: the smoothed setpoint profile and the Blackman Filtered Setpoints. Graph Function Buttons 16 17 Output Profile Date/Time Stamp Output Profile Graph 18 Output Profile Information Panel 19 Setpoint Maintenance 7.6. The smoothed actuator setpoint profiles generated by the Setpoint Smoothing algorithm are passed onto the Setpoint Maintenance algorithm. The purpose of the Setpoint Maintenance algorithm is to control the actuation level of an actuator ng the absolute setpoint values while beam on a measurement by adjusti maintaining the overall actuator profile shape. By moving the actuator setpoints , that is, overall MD effects , can be put into up or down, different levels of energy filing effects. If the Setpoint the process while still achieving the desired CD pro Maintenance is disabled, the actuator setpoints are left to float at whatever level determined from the control law based directly on the error of a measurement from the target. The actuator setpoints output by the Setpoint Maintenance 48 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

249 Traditional Controller Setpoint Maintenance function is written to the Setpoints Cascade array for each actuator that is under the control of a traditional controller. The Setpoint Maintenance algorithm consists of two independent and mutually exclusive functions , Average Maintenance and Energy Maintenance. The Average Maintenance function maintains the average of the setpoints of an actuator beam at a desired level or within a desired range; while the Energy Maintenance function maintains the energy or actuation level of an actuator beam at a desired level. The two functions can be enabled or disabled independently. When the Average Maintenance function is enabled, the Energy Maintenance function is disabled, and vice versa. By default both Average Maintenance and Energy Maintenance funct ions are disabled. 7.6.1. Average Maintenance When the Average Maintenance function for the traditional controller is enabled, choose between two modes: Maintain Value or Keep In Range. Maintain Value actuator zones at a The Maintain Value mode maintains the setpoint average of all value specified by the Average To Maintain value. The maintenance of a fixed setpoint average is achieved by moving up or down all movable actuator zones by the same amount. The Maintain Value function first compares the current setpoi nt average of all actuator zones against the Average To Maintain value to determine whether the actuator setpoints need to be moved up or down, and the amount of overall adjustment required. ffsheet, off- Not all actuator zones can be moved, because some zones may be o measurement, in Manual or Auto, or in an alarm state. Only actuator zones that are in Cascade and have room to move can potentially be adjusted. The function checks whether or not these zones are at their maximum setpoint limits (that is, mum cascade setpoints or hard upper limits) if their setpoints are to be maxi increased, or whether or not these zones are at their minimum setpoint limits (that is, minimum cascade setpoints or hard lower limits) if their setpoints are to be decreased. If the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator beam, the Maintain Value function also checks if the cascade zones can be moved without violating their Maximum Setpoint Deltas. nt adjustment is For a zone whose setpoint is to be moved up, the allowable setpoi the absolute difference between the zone current setpoint and its maximum setpoint limit, or the absolute difference between the zone’s current setpoint and the sum of the zone’s previous setpoint and the maximum setpoint delta if the Maxi mum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator. For an actuator zone whose setpoint is to be moved down, the allowable setpoint adjustment is the 49 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

250 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller absolute difference between the zone new setpoint and its minimum setpoint limit, fference between the zone current setpoint and the difference of or the absolute di the zone previous setpoint and the maximum setpoint delta if the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator. The required overall adjustment is multiplied by the number of z ones of the -zone actuator and divided among the movable zones to get the required per adjustment. The required per -zone adjustment is compared to the minimum of the allowable setpoint adjustments of all movable zones. The lower of the two values is applied to all movable zones. The setpoints of the movable zones are usually adjusted in increments until the setpoint average has reached the Average To Maintain value if the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled. Keep In Range Range mode allows the setpoint average of all actuator zones to float The Keep In within the range defined by the Minimum Average and the Maximum Average value. The maintenance of the setpoint average within a desirable range is ble actuator zones by the same amount. achieved by moving up or down all mova The Keep In Range function first compares the current setpoint average of all actuator zones against the Minimum Average and the Maximum Average value to determine whether or not the actuator setpoints need to be adj usted, and if so, whether the actuator setpoints need to be moved up or down, and the amount of overall adjustment required. If the current setpoint average is lower than the Minimum Average or high than the Maximum Average, the Keep In Range function adjusts the movable zones to keep the setpoint average within the specified range. The allowable setpoint adjustment and the required per -zone adjustment for a zone are calculated in the same way as in the Maintain Value function. The setpoints of the movable zones are usually adjusted in increments until the setpoint average is within the range defined by the Minimum Average and Maximum Average values if the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled. Average Maintenance Updating On Cascade 7.6.2. Request Under vari ous operating conditions, the operator may change a beam from Auto to Cascade (that is, the operat or makes a Cascade Request) when the setpoint average is outside of the configured Average Maintenance constraints. If the enance function enabled on a Cascade actuator beam has the Average Maint Request, and if the current setpoint average violates the configured Average Maintenance settings, the Average Maintenance function may counteract the 50 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

251 Traditional Controller Setpoint Maintenance average at the operator’s action as it moves the actuator setpoints to maintain the specified value or within the specified range. For example, consider an actuator beam configured with the Keep In Range Mode to maintain the setpoint average between 30% and 50%, and has a current setpoint average of 45%. The operator puts the beam into Auto and increases all setpoints by 10%, and subsequently puts the beam back into Cascade. The setpoint average has increased to 55%, which exceeds the configured Maximum Average of 50%. or the average of 55% to be In this case, it is likely that the operator intends f preserved, rather than for the Average Maintenance function to bring the average back down to within 30% and 50%. To accommodate such situations, a decision is made to either update the Average ate the new setpoint average, or to keep the Maintenance parameters to accommod existing setpoint average (in which case the Average Maintenance function will alter the current setpoint average so the Average Maintenance constraints are met). This decision is made according to the configura tion of the Update on Cascade Request parameters: Update Mode • • Update in DSR Update Mode The Update Mode dictates what action should be taken with respect to updating (or not updating) the Average Maintenance parameters on a Cascade Request should the curre nt setpoint average conflict with the Average Maintenance parameters. • Do Not Update is selected, no update will occur and the existing If parameters (which are conflicting with the current average) will be preserved. is selected, the parameters will be updated such that the • If Update current setpoint average is no longer in conflict with the Average Maintenance parameters. If the current maintenance mode is Maintain Value, the Average to Maintain will be replaced with the current setpoint average. If the m ode is Keep In Range, either the upper or lower limit will be replaced with the current average, depending on which was conflicting with the current average. For example, consider a configured Maximum and Minimum Average of 50% and 30% respectively. If the current average is 55% on a Cascade request, the Maximum Average is replaced with 55% while the Minimum Average remains at 30%. On the other hand, if the current average is 25%, the Maximum Average remains unchanged at 50% while the Minimum Average is rep laced with 25%. 51 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

252 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller is selected, the operator is prompted to make the decision to Prompt If • update or not, with the resulting behavior being consistent with that of the Update and Do Not Update modes, respectively. Update in DSR The Update in DSR configuration dictates whether or not any updates to the Average Maintenance parameters, if any were made, should be written through to the recipe database, or if such an action should be deferred until an explicit DSR Save action is taken. This configurat ion is only relevant in the case that the current mode is Update or Prompt. In the case of Prompt, the operator will not be prompted to specify this -through functionality, but rather the configuration of the Update in DSR write value will dictate such beha vior (if the decision was made by the operator to update the parameters). Energy Maintenance 7.6.3. When the Energy Maintenance function for the traditional controller is enabled, choose between two modes: Maximum Energy or Minimum Energy. Maximum Energy mum Energy mode ensures that one zone of the actuator is at a setpoint The Maxi value specified by the High Energy Target. This is achieved by increasing the setpoints of all movable (cascade) actuator zones by the same amount until the nt reaches the high setpoint target. zone with the highest setpoi The Maximum Energy function first compares the highest setpoint of all zones of an actuator beam against the High Energy Target value to determine whether or not the actuator setpoints need to be moved, and if so, whet her the actuator setpoints need to be moved up or down, and the amount of adjustment required. The required adjustment is the absolute difference between the High Energy Target and the highest setpoint. If the highest setpoint is already at the High Target, no adjustment is required. If the highest setpoint is below the High Energy Energy Target, the actuator setpoints need to be moved up. If the highest setpoint is above the High Energy Target, the actuator setpoints need to be moved down. The function che cks if the movable zones have room to move by checking if the movable zones are at their maximum setpoint limits (that is, maximum cascade setpoints or hard upper limits). If the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator, the function further checks if these zones can be moved without violating their Maximum Setpoint Deltas. For a zone whose setpoint is to be moved up, the allowable setpoint adjustment is the absolute difference between limit, or the absolute the zone’s current setpoint and its maximum setpoint 52 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

253 Traditional Controller Setpoint Maintenance difference between the zone’s current setpoint and the sum of the zone’s previous setpoint and the maximum setpoint delta if the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator. For an actuator zone whose setpoint is to be moved down, the allowable setpoint adjustment is the absolute difference between the zone’s new setpoint and its minimum setpoint limit, or the absolute difference between the zone’s current setpoint and the difference of the zone’s previous setpoint a nd the maximum setpoint delta if the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator. The required adjustment is compared to the minimum of the allowable setpoint adjustments of all movable zones. The lower of the two values is applied to all movable zones. Minimum Energy The Minimum Energy mode ensures that one zone of the actuator is at a setpoint value specified by the Low Energy Target. This is achieved by increasing the ntil the setpoints of all movable (cascade) actuator zones by the same amount u zone with the lowest setpoint reaches the low setpoint target. The Minimum Energy function first compares the lowest setpoint of all zones of an actuator beam against the Low Energy Target value to determine whether or not the actuator setpoints need to be moved, and if so, whether the actuator setpoints need to be moved up or down, and the amount of adjustment required. The required adjustment is the absolute difference between the Low Energy is already at the Low Energy Target and the lowest setpoint. If the lowest setpoint Target, no adjustment is required. If the lowest setpoint is below the Low Energy Target, the actuator setpoints need to be moved up. If the lowest setpoint is above the Low Energy Target, the actuator setpoints need to be moved down. The function checks if the movable zones have room to move by checking if the movable zones are at their minimum setpoint limits (that is, minimum cascade setpoints or hard lower limits). If the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function is enabled for the actuator, the function further checks if these zones can be moved without violating their Maximum Setpoint Deltas. The allowable setpoint adjustment and the final adjustment for a zone are calculated in the same way as in the Maximum Energy function. Setpo 7.6.4. int Maintenance Display Setpoint display can be accessed by clicking Setpoint Maintenance The tab on the Maintenance under the CD Traditional Control D isplay M enu bar ). It is accessible to the control engineer only. (see 19 Figure 7- ar ( -19 Display Menu B Figure 7 ) Setpoint Maintenance 53 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 7 -

254 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller -20 with the display Figure 7 display is shown in The Setpoint Maintenance areas, buttons, and items labeled -20 Setpoint Maintenance Display Figure 7 -20. Table 7- 7 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 7 7 Setpoint Maintenance Display Items Table 7- Description Name Number 1 Traditional Control Display Top Panel Max Setpoint When checked enables the Maximum Setpoint Deltas function for the selected 2 Permanents database. actuator. This flag is saved to the Deltas Enabled 3 Displays and allows editing of the Max Setpoint Deltas for individual actuator Max Setpoint Deltas zones. The Max Setpoint Deltas are saved to the Permanents database. 4 Displays the CD control mode of the CD control mode measurement controlled by the selected actuator. 54 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

255 Traditional Controller Setpoint Maintenance Number Name Description 5 Average Displays and allows editing of the Average Maintenance parameters. Maintenance Panel 5a When checked enables the Average Maintenance function. This parameter is Average Maintenance grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Enabled Displays and allows editing of the Average Maintenance mode: Maintain Mode 5b Value or Keep In Range . Available only if Average Maintenance is enabled. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Average To 5c Displays and allows editing of the value at which the setpoint average of the Available only if Average Maintenance is selected actuator is maintained. Maintain enabled and the mode is Maintain Value. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 5d Displays and allows editing of the maximum value of range within which the Maximum erage of the selected actuator is maintained. Available only if setpoint av Average Average Maintenance is enabled and the mode is Keep In Range. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. value of range within which the 5e Minimum Displays and allows editing of the minimum setpoint average of the selected actuator is maintained. Available only if Average Average Maintenance is enabled and the mode is Keep In Range. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 5f Displays and allows editing of the mode dictating if and how the Average Update Mode Maintenance parameters should be updated when the actuator beam undergoes a Cascade Request. Parameters are potentially updated when the beam undergoes a Cascade Request if Average Maintenance is enabled and the current setpoint average is either different from the Average to Maintain or is outside of the range for Keep In Range. Available only if Average Maintenance is enabled. This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. Update in DSR When checked, any updates to Average Maintenance parameters resulting 5g from a Cascade Request will be written through to the DSR database. Available only when Average Maintenance is enabled and when the Update rompt. This parameter is saved to the Mode is set to either Update or P Permanents database. Energy 6 Displays and allows editing of the Energy Maintenance parameters. Maintenance Panel 6a Energy When checked enables the Energy Maintenance function on the selected Maintenance actuator. Enabled 1/3/18 P/N 55 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

256 CD Controls User Manual Traditional Controller Number Name Description Maximum Displays and allows editing of the Energy Maintenance mode: 6b Energy Maintenance Energy or Minimum Energy. Mode High Energy 6c Displays and allows editing of the high target value. Available only if Energy Maintenance is enabled and the mode is Maximum Energy. Target Low Energy Displays and allows editing of the low energy target value. Available only if 6d Energy Maintenance is enabled and the mode is Minimum Energy. Target rofiles for the function if there is more than down list of input p - Provides a drop Input Profile 7 one input profile to select for viewing. For the Setpoint Maintenance function, Selector there is only one input profile for display that is the setpoint profile (smoothed, if Setpoint Smoothing is enabled) for the sel ected actuator. Graph Function Buttons 8 9 Input Profile Date/Time Stamp 10 Input Profile Graph Input Profile Information Panel 11 Provides a drop- 12 down list of input profiles for the function if there is more than Output Profile profile to select for viewing. For the Setpoint Maintenance function, one output Selector there is only one output profile for display that is the setpoint profile for the selected actuator subjected to the Average Maintenance or the Energy Maintenance function. Function Buttons Graph 13 Output Profile Date/Time Stamp 14 Output Profile Graph 15 Output Profile Information Panel 16 56 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 7 -

257 8. Foreign Controller CD Controls provides software interfaces to three types of foreign supervisory control systems to allo w the capability to switch supervisory CD control between CD Controls and the foreign control system online. These foreign control systems are the Voith ProfilMatic system, the Metso DNA system and the VIB system. one manufactured by the same vendor of The actuator to be controlled is typically the foreign control system, such as the Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator (ModuleJet), the Metso dilution profiling headbox actuator (IQHeadbox) . or coating blade actuator (IQCoatMatic), or the VIB steambox The foreign controller software interface is designed specifically for these actuators and foreign control systems. A certain degree of customization may be required at the system configuration and/or software interface level if a different /or control system from Voith, Metso or VIB is used. actuator and The online control switch between CD Controls and the foreign supervisory see Chapter control system is achieved through the Scenario Switching function ( Controls using the traditional 2) . By default, the actuator is controlled by CD controller. You have to configure another scenario to allow the foreign control system to control the actuator. You can also configure the actuator to be controlled by CD Controls using the multivariable controller. ware interface between CD Controls and the foreign control system is The soft implemented at the actuator link interface level within the Actuator Link Interface 1. CD Controls and the subsystem based on the model depicted in Figure 8- foreign control system reside on the same LAN, and communicate with each other -based protocol, such as ODX or OPC. The foreign control through a TCP/IP system interfaces directly with the actuator that it sends mode requests, functional requests, and setpoints to the actuator, and reports status information back from the actuator. The foreign control system is responsible for the regulatory control r can be switched any time of the actuator. Supervisory control of the actuato online between CD Controls and the foreign control system. CD Controls is used as the primary user interface for the actuator. Hence, the operator makes actuator mode and functional requests mainly from CD Controls. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 8 -

258 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller ODX or OPC Foreign Supervisory CD Controls Control System ) (QCS Server AIU LAN Actuator Data Communication Supervisory Control Figure 8 etween CD Controls and Foreign Supervisory Control -1 Interface B System Voith ProfilMatic System 8.1. The software interface between CD Controls and the Voith ProfilMatic system enables dat a communication between the two supervisory CD control systems through the ODX protocol. CD Controls uses the ODX server software provided by RAE to communicate with the ODX client software in the Voith ProfilMatic 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

259 Foreign Controller Voith ProfilMatic System system. Figure 8- 2 provides an overview of the data communication between CD Controls and the Voith ProfilMatic system. Requested Actuator Beam (Global) Modes Requested Actuator Zone (Single) Modes Flush Requests (Headbox Actuators Only) Requested Actuator Setpoints Measurement Profiles Relative Target Profiles Sheet Width Sheet High & Low Edges Scanner Head Position Stock Flow (Headbox Actuators Only) Actuator Modes Dilution Water Flow (Headbox Actuators Only) Actuator Setpoints Jet Speed (Headbox Actuators Only) Wire Speed (Headbox Actuators Only) Reel Speed (Headbox Actuators Only) Wet End Break (Headbox Actuators Only) Slice Opening (Headbox Actuators Only) ODX Client CD Controls ODX Server Voith Actuators Heartbeat Actuator Positions Actuator Beam (Global) Modes Actuator Statuses Voith ProfilMatic System Actuator Zone (Single) Modes Actuator Zone Alarm Statuses (CD Controls -Voith Software Interface) Actuator Flush Statuses (Headbox Actuators Only) Flushing Setpoints (Headbox Actuators Only) Actuator Setpoints Actuator Positions Mapped Control Profiles Mapped Target Profiles etween CD Controls and Voith -2 D Figure 8 ata Communication B ProfilMatic System The CD Controls Voith software interface is responsible for these major tasks: • monitors the status of the ODX communication link between CD Controls and Voith sends mode requests and functi onal requests made by the operator to • Voith • sends measurement profiles and relative (bias) target profiles to Voith hese profiles are needed for Voith to whenever a new scan arrives (t perform supervisory control ) ositions from Voith receives actuator statuses, setpoints and p • receives the mapped control and target profiles from Voith when Voith • is performing supervisory control manages and monitors the flush sequence of a Voith consistency • profiling headbox actuator 6510020586 Rev 01 3 - 8 1/3/18 P/N

260 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller face for the Voith actuator. This means CD Controls acts as the primary user inter that actuator mode and functional requests, and setpoint changes are normally made through the CD Control display in CD Controls. However, such changes can also be made from the Voith station if necessary. CD Controls provides options to monitor these changes and set the appropriate actuator requested modes and statuses to ensure that CD Controls and Voith ar e synchronized at all time. 8.1.1. Data Communication Because Voith acts as the ODX client, Voith determines when to communicate data with CD Controls (the ODX server). The Voith ODX client reads the following data from CD Controls when the corresponding ODX ser ver events are triggered by the CD Controls Voith interface: • actuator beam and zone mode requests • flush request (for Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator only) • measurement and relative (bias) target profiles The Voith ODX client reads the following data from CD Controls on a rate basis: • actuator setpoints sheet width and edges • • scanner head position stock flow and dilution water flow (for Voith consistency profiling • headbox actuator only) • slice opening, jet speed, wire speed and reel speed ( for Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator only) wet end break (for Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator only) • The Voith ODX client writes to CD Controls the following data whenever they the corresponding are changed, and subsequently, the ODX server schedules ODX server events to signal the CD Controls Voith interface to process these data: • actuator beam and zone control modes in Voith zone status word for alarm information • 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

261 Foreign Controller Voith ProfilMatic System flush status (for Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator only) • • Voith supervisory setpoints • Voith flushing setpoints (for Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator only) • Voith mapped measurement and target profiles in actuator resolution The Voith ODX writes the following data to CD Controls on a rate basis: or position feedback • actuat • heartbeat Link Status 8.1.2. The CD Controls Voith software interface monitors a heartbeat from the Voith control system to determine whether or not the ODX communication link to the Voith control system is functional. The interface monitors the heartbeat at a rate Experion MX CD Controls specified on the Links Status display, covered in R701.1 Operator Manual (p/n 6510020587). The ODX communication link is considered functional if the value of the heartbeat is changed from its previous value. If the ODX link to the Voith control system is down, the statuses of the actuator beam and the individual zones are set to Link Down. The CD Controls Voith interface flags that actuator positions are not received due to the link down. When s, the interface flags that the actuator positions are available after the link resume they are received from Voith, so that a bumpless transfer can take place for the actuator by copying positions to setpoints. Mode and Function Requests 8.1.3. There are four control modes for the actuator at the beam level in the Voith ProfilMatic system: Local • • Manual • Remote Automatic • 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

262 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller At the zone level, there is one additional mode, Offsheet, which is more of a status, indicating that the zone is in Automatic mode but offsheet. The control modes in Voith are explained in Table 8- 1. Table 8- 1 Control Modes in Voith ProfilMatic System Control Mode Description Local The actuator is controlled directly at the hand wheels. actuator setpoints from the Voith station. The operator can enter Manual CD Controls performs supervisory control on the actuator. Remote Automatic Voith performs supervisory control on the actuator. 2 to the The operator can make mode and function requests shown in Table 8- actuator from CD Controls. The mode requests can be made at both the actuator beam and zone levels, but the function requests can be made only at the beam level. The CD Controls Voith interface converts the requested mode and/or function into the equivalent control mode in the Voith control system. Table 8- 2 Mode and Function Requests from CD Controls to Voith Comments Requested Mode in Voith Control CD Controls Mode The actuator is controlled directly at the hand wheels. Local Manual The operator can enter setpoints from the CD Control display in CD Remote Auto Controls. The Voith control system sends the setpoints obtained from CD Controls to the actuator. Cascade (by CD Remote CD Controls performs supervisory control on the actuator. The Voith control system sends the setpoi nts obtained from CD Controls to the Controls controller) actuator. (by Voith The Voith control system performs supervisory control on the Automatic Cascade actuator, and sends its own setpoints to the actuator. It provides controller) these setpoints to CD Controls for display and bumpless transfer purposes. Remote CD Controls is ramping down the setpoints of the actuator. The Voith Shutdown control system sends the CD Controls setpoints to the actuator. Remote Restore CD Controls is restoring the setpoints of the actuator. The Voith control system sends the CD Controls setpoints to the actuator. The operator has initiated flushing for the actuator from CD Controls. Manual Flushing CD Controls requests the actuator to go into Voith Manual mode. After the actuator i s in Voith Manual mode, Voith reads the flush ). If the Voith control request from CD Controls (see Subsection 8.1.8 Controls sets the system is already performing a flush sequence, CD Voith control mode to Manual regardless of the requested state in CD Controls to prevent the Voith control system from being stuck in Manual mode if the flush sequence is aborted. 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

263 Foreign Controller Voith ProfilMatic Sys tem If CD Controls determines that the beam status of the a ctuator is Maintenance (see Subsections 8.1.5 and 9.4.3), it does not pass a ny mode or function requests to Voith. When the operator requests cascade for the actuator under supervisory control of the Voith system at either the beam or zone level, the actuator beam or the given zone can go into Automatic mode in Voith when all of t he following conditions are satisfied: the scanner providing the measurement profile for the actuator is • scanning • there is no shee t break detected by the scanner ot in the Cascade Locked status the actuator is n • sabled t have cascade control di the actuator does no • 8.1.4. Measurement and Target Profiles The CD Controls Voith software interface sends the measurement profile (the CD Bin Now Profile) in CD bin resolution to the Voith control system on each new scan of the scanner, provided that no scenario switch is pending and no invalid setup has been caused by a scenario switch. The Voith control system also reads the relative (bias) target profile of the measurement in CD bin resolution. The measurement profile and the relative target profile are used by the Voith control system to calculate setpoints for the actuator when the current scenario is configured with Voith performing supervisory control on the actuator. Actuator Statuses 8.1.5. Voith returns the current beam (global) and zone (single) modes of the actuator to CD Controls, which translates them into internal beam (system) and zone statuses. As mentioned before, actuator mode and function requests can also be made from the Voith station if necessary. You can specify additional options through the 5) to determine how the CD Controls Figure 8- display (see Configure Voith Voith interface handles actuator mode and function requests made from the Voith se station to ensure that CD Controls and Voith are synchronized at all time. The options, applicable at both beam and zone levels, are: : set the actuator beam/zone status to Set Maintenance In Local • Maintenance if the beam/zone mode reported by Voith is Local. The . default for this flag is True 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

264 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller uator beam/zone status to : set the act • Set Maintenance In Manual Maintenance if the beam/zone mode reported by Voith is Manual. The default for this flag is True . : set the actuator beam/zone requested • Force Manual Mode In Local mode to Manual if the beam/zone mode reported by Voith is Local. e default for this flag is False Th . • Force Auto Mode In Manual : set the actuator beam/zone requested mode to Auto if the beam/zone mode reported by Voith is Manual. The default for this flag is False . Force Auto Mode In Remote • ested : set the actuator beam/zone requ mode to Auto if the beam/zone mode reported by Voith is Remote. The default for this flag is False . set the actuator beam/zone • Force Cascade Mode In Automatic: requested mode to Cascade if the beam/zone mode reported by Voith t for this flag is True is Automatic. The defaul . The Maintenance status is meant to be a way of forbidding the operator to change modes and setpoints of the actuator from the Honeywell operator station when the ode and actuator is switched into a maintenance mode in Voith that requires m setpoint changes to be made from the Voith station only. The mode change display in CD Controls. CD Control buttons are grayed out on the 3, the Maintenance status results when the actuator is As shown in Table 8- switched to Local mode in Voith from the Voith station, and the Set Maintenance In Local option is selected in CD Controls, or when the actuator is switched to Manual mode in Voith from the Voith station, and the Set Maintenance In Manual option is selected in CD Controls. Table 8- 3 Actuator Beam/Zone Status Determined by CD Controls Voith Interface Current Requested Beam/Zone Status in Beam/Zone Options Beam/Zone Mode CD Controls Mode in Voith in CD Controls Set Maintenance In Local Local = True Maintenance = False Disabled Force Manual Mode In Local = True Manual = False No Change 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

265 Foreign Controller Voith ProfilMatic System Current Requested Beam/Zone Status in Beam/Zone Options Beam/Zone Mode CD Controls Mode in Voith in CD Controls Manual Set Maintenance In Manual = True Maintenance = False Remote Force Auto Mode In Manual = True Auto = False No Change Force Auto Mode in Remote Remote = True Auto = False No Change Remote Cascade Automatic or Offsheet Force Cascade Mode In Automatic = True Cascade = False No Change Actuator mode and setpoint changes are also prohibited from the Honeywell operator station when the actuator is in the Remote status. This status is resulted when the actuator is switched into Manual mode in Voith from the Voith station, provided that the Set Maintenance In Manual option in CD Controls is disabled. The mode change buttons are grayed out on the display in CD CD Control Controls. the CD Controls Voith software interface determines the 3 illustrates how Table 8- actuator beam (system) and zone statuses based on the current beam and zone modes reported by Voith and the options specified. The default options are indicated in bold text. The beam/zone statuses shown in the table are resulted if there are not other statuses of higher precedence. The order of precedence of the actuator beam/zone statuses is in Subsection 9.4.3. For Voith actuator with the flushing feature, such as the Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator, Voith reports the flush status of the actuator. In order for flushing to take place, the actuator must be in Voith Manual mode. If Voith reports that t he actuator is in a flush sequence, the CD Controls Voith interface sets the Flushing status of the actuator to be active without setting the beam/zone status to Remote. However, if the Set Maintenance In Manual option is selected, till overrides the Flushing status. the Maintenance status s Voith also returns for each actuator zone a 16 -bit zone status word to CD Controls to provide alarm information on each zone. The CD Controls Voith interface 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

266 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller interprets the bits in the zone status word for each zone, and converts them into some internal zone status. The mapping of the bits in the zone status word, the alarm options and required actions for each bit are set up during the configuration Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and of the sys tem. Refer to System Build Manual (p/n 6510020588) for details on configuring the Voith zone status word. The statuses inferred from the Voith control mode of the actuator, zone status ystem status VIOs, together with the actuator mode and words, and external s function requests, are used by the Actuator Management Subsystem to determine the final beam and zone states of the actuator (see Section 9.4). Actuator Setpoints and Positions 8.1.6. Voith reads actuator setpoints from CD Controls on a rate basis. When CD Controls is performing supervisory control on the actuator, or when the operator enters setpoints from CD Controls, Voith sends the setpoints received from CD Controls to the actuator. When Voith is performing supervisory control on the actuator, actuator zones that are under supervisory control receive setpoints calculated by the Voith control hat are put in Auto by the operator from CD Controls system. Actuator zones t receive setpoints entered by the operator. CD Controls reads the Voith supervisory setpoints and combines with the Auto setpoints to display the setpoint profile for the actuator. In the case of flushing , the actuator receives the flushing setpoints directly from the Voith control system. CD Controls reads the flushing setpoints from Voith and displays them to the operator. Voith provides actuator position feedback to CD Controls on a rate basis for ay and bumpless transfer purposes. displ Mapped Measurement and Target Profiles 8.1.7. The Voith control system maps the measurement and relative target profiles received from CD Controls (in CD bin resolution) down to the actuator resolution target profiles in actuator resolution when it performs and generates the absolute supervisory control on the actuator. Voith returns to CD Controls the mapped measurement profile and either the mapped absolute or relative target profile. CD he mapped measurement and absolute Controls provides an option to display t display for an actuator under Voith target profiles from Voith on the CD Control supervisory control. If Voith returns the mapped relative target profile, the CD t profile by adding Controls Voith interface computes the mapped absolute targe the average of the mapped measurement profile to the mapped relative target profile. 10 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

267 Foreign Controller Voith ProfilMatic System To view the mapped profiles from Voith, the operator selects the profile type to CD Control display. The default profile type be Control Profile on the is MIS Profile that displays the mapped measurement profile and the mapped absolute target profile generated by CD Controls. Flush Sequence 8.1.8. The CD Controls Voith interface is responsible for managing and monitoring the flush sequence of a Voith actuator with the flush feature, such as the Voith consistency profiling headbox actuator. A full flush sequence consists of a number of stages, each operating on its own timer and involving some actuator mode changes. The request to start or stop a flush sequence can be made by the operator from either the Honeywell operator station or the Voith station. The CD Controls Voith interface must monitor requests from both systems and perform the appropriate actions. Typically a number of external interlocks (VIOs), suc h as the wet end sheet break and the stock flow rate, must be satisfied before the operator can request flushing from the Honeywell operator station. These interlocks need to be y monitored continuously in case they change and flushing needs to be aborted. B default flushing requires the occurrence of a wet end sheet break and the stock flow rate to be less than or equal to some threshold value. However, you can disregard these interlocks by setting the corresponding options through the ay (see displ Configure Voith 5). Figure 8- 11 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

268 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller Figure 8- 3 illustrates how the CD Controls Voith interface manages a flush sequence from start to stop. Idle State No Operator Set Flushing Request Requested Flushing Started from Honeywell = True Force Flush Yes No Yes from Voith Flushing from Set Remote Request Request ? Honeywell Station? = False Station? No Yes Trigger Voith to Read Set Remote Request Set Remote Request Start Flushing = True = False Request No Timer Expired? Actuator in Voith No Yes (default period = 3 Manual Mode? seconds) Yes Trigger Voith to Read Start Flushing Request Wait For Manual State Yes No Timer Expired? Actuator in No (default period = Yes Flushing Mode? 45 seconds) Wait For Flushing State Yes Abort Flush State Operator Aborted Set Flushing Request Flushing from Yes from Honeywell = Honeywell False Station? No Flush Sequence Trigger Voith to Read Completed or Yes No Stop Flushing aborted at Voith Request Station? No No Wait For Flushing State Trigger Voith to Read Next Flush Delay Interlocks Not Actuator Mode & Yes Expired? (default Satisfied? Functional Requests period = 15 to Resume Mode Prior seconds) to Flushing Next Flush Delay State Flushing State Yes Figure 8 -3 Management of Actuator Flush Sequence by CD Controls Voith Interface 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 - 12 8

269 Foreign Controller Voith ProfilMatic System The CD Controls Voith interface continuously updates the flush status of the actuator based on the status reported back from Voith, and determines whether or not at any time the operator can start or stop a flush sequence on the actuator from the Honeywell operator station. The operator can request flushing on the actuator from the Honeywell operator s tation, if the actuator beam is in Auto and not CD Control on the display. already in a flush sequence, by clicking Start Flush The operator can also stop a flush sequence on the actuator from the Honeywell operator station, if the operator has made a star t flush request from the Honeywell operator station and if the actuator is currently in flushing mode, by clicking Stop Flush on the display. CD Control -3 in the Idle State, when the CD Controls Voith interface detects that In Figure 8 a flush sequence was started from the Voith station, it imitates a start flush request in CD Controls if the Force Flush Request option enabled. This allows the Honeywell operator station a flush sequence initiated operator to abort from the previously from the Voith station. You can enable or disable the Force Flush -5). Figure 8 display (see Configure Voith Request option through the The CD Controls Voith interface must ensure that the actuator is switched to Voith Manual mode before flushing can start, if the operator makes the flushing request from the Honeywell operator station; otherwise the request is cancelled after a certain tim e period. After the actuator is in Voith Manual mode, the interface waits for the flushing status to be reported back by Voith. If the actuator does not go into flushing after a certain time period, the flushing request is cancelled. The flushing request i s also cancelled if the operator aborts flushing, or if the flush sequence is complete, or if the required interlocks are violated. When the flushing request is cancelled, the actuator resumes the previously requested mode or function. There is a time dela y between each flush sequence. The operator can request flushing again after the delay is complete. The time periods the CD Controls Voith interface will wait for the actuator to go into Voith Manual lush sequence can be mode, to go into flushing and before allowing the next f specified from the Configure Voith display. 8.1.9. Configure Voith D isplay display can be accessed by clicking The Configure Voith Configure Voith under bar enu (see Figure 8- 4) . It is the CD Actuator Links tab on the D isplay M accessible to the control engineer only. Configure Voith ar ( -4 Display Menu B Figure 8 ) 13 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

270 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller -5 with the display areas, display is shown in Figure 8 Configure Voith The buttons, and items labeled. All the Voith configuration parameters are saved to the Permanents database. Figure 8 -5 Configure Voith Display Table 8- -5. 4 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 8 Table 8- 4 Configure Voith Display Items Name Number Description Voith Actuator 1 down list of all configured Voith actuators. Provides a drop- Selector Bar Voith 2 Actuator Provides a description for the selected Voith actuator. Description Box 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 8 14 1/3/18 -

271 Foreign Controller Voith ProfilMatic System Number Name Description 3 Beam Mode Parameter Panel 3a Set Maintenance in When checked enables the Set Maintenance in Local option at the beam Local level. checked enables the Set Maintenance in Manual option at the When Set Maintenance in 3b beam level. Manual When checked enables the Force Manual Mode in Local option at the 3c Force Manual Mode in Local beam level. 3d Force Auto Mode in When checked enables the Force Auto Mode in M anual option at the beam level. Manual 3e Force Auto Mode in When checked enables the Force Auto Mode in Remote option at the beam level. Remote 3f When checked enables the Force Cascade Mode in Automatic option at Force Cascade Mode in Automatic level. the beam Zone Mode Parameter 4 Panel 4a Set Maintenance in When checked enables the Set Maintenance in Local option at the zone Local level. 4b Set Maintenance in When checked enables the Set Maintenance in Manual option at the Manual zone level. rce Manual Mode in 4c When checked enables the Force Manual Mode in Local option at the Fo zone level. Local When checked enables the Force Auto Mode in Manual option at the 4d Force Auto Mode in Manual zone level. 4e Force Auto Mode in When checked enables the Force Auto Mode in Remote option at the zone level. Remote When checked enables the Force Cascade Mode in Automatic option at Force Cascade Mode 4f the zone level. in Automatic 5 Flushing Parameter Panel 15 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

272 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller Number Name Description When checked enables the Invert Status option to interpret the flushing Invert Status 5a status from Voith inversely. When checked enables the Force Flush Request option. 5b Force Flush Request 5c Sheet Break Required When checked enables the Sheet Break Required option such that allowed only when there is a sheet break. flushing is Sheet Break VIO ID 5d Displays the Sheet Break VIO ID. 5e When checked enables the Low Stock Flow Required option such that Low Stock Flow than the flushing is allowed only when the stock flow is equal to or less Required specified threshold. Displays the Stock Flow VIO ID. 5f Stock Flow VIO ID When clicked allows you to enter the Low Stock Flow Threshold. 5g Low Stock Flow Threshold Wait for Manual When clicked allows you to enter the Wait for Manual Period in seconds. 5h Period When clicked allows you to enter the Wait for Flushing Period in seconds. 5i Wait for Flushing Period When clicked allows you to enter the Next Flush Delay Period in seconds. 5j Next Flush Delay Period 8.2. Metso DNA System The software interface between CD Controls and the Metso DNA system enables data communication between the two supervisory CD control systems using the OPC protocol. CD Controls uses the OPC client software (HCILink) provided by server in the Metso DNA system. CD RAE to communicate with the OPC Controls may interface to multiple Metso DNA systems, each with a unique ID and controlling one or more actuators. 16 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

273 Foreign Controller Metso DNA System 6 provides an overview of the data communication between CD Controls Figure 8- and the Metso DNA system. Heartbeat Requested Actuator Beam ) Modes (Global Actuator Modes Requested Actuator Zone ) Modes (Single Actuator Setpoints Actuator Alarm Reset Requests Requested Actuator Setpoints Measurement Profiles Measurement Profile Valid Statuses Actuator Positions & Last Valid Elements Measurement Profile First Actuator Statuses Relative Target Profiles Metso Actuator Measurement Bin Width ) 1 Sheet Width Sheet Low & High Edges DNA ( Scanner Scanning Status Scanner Edge Detection Status Scan Direction Scanner Head Position ) Sheet Break Signal OPC Server Actuator Modes Metso DNA System Heartbeat Actuator Setpoints Actuator Beam Statuses (Modes ) ) Actuator Zone Statuses (Modes Actuator Zone Alarm Statuses Actuator Setpoints OPC Client Actuator Positions Metso Software Interface CD Controls - Actuator Positions Metso Actuator Mapped Control Profiles Actuator Statuses Mapped Relative Target Profiles CD Controls ( ) 2 DNA ( OPC Server Metso Actuator Metso DNA System Figure 8 -6 Data Communication between CD Controls and Metso DNA Systems The CD Controls Metso software interface is responsible for these major tasks: monitors the status of the OPC communication link between CD • Controls and Metso sends actuator mode and function requests made by the operator to • Metso P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 - 17

274 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller sends actuator setpoints to Metso • • s measurement profiles and target profiles to Metso whenever a send new scan arrives (these profiles are needed for Metso to perform supervisory control ) • sends scanner and measurement status information to Metso receives actuator setpoints, positions and status information from • Metso receives the mapped control and target profiles from Metso when • Metso is performing supervisory control CD Controls acts as the primary user interface for the Metso actuator. This means that actuator mode and function requests, and setpoint changes are normally made display in CD Controls. However, such changes can also CD Control through the be made from the Metso station if necessary. CD Controls provides options to ensure that CD monitor these changes and set the appropriate actuator statuses to Controls and Metso are synchronized at all time. 8.2.1. Data Communication Because CD Controls acts as the OPC client, CD Controls determines when to communicate data with Metso (the OPC server). The CD Controls OPC client writes the following da ta to Metso when the CD Controls Metso interface triggers the corresponding OPC server events: • measurement profiles, validity statuses and first and last valid elements, measurement bin width, sheet width and edges, and edge sensor fault • actuator zone mode requests The CD Controls OPC client writes the following data to Metso on a rate basis: • actuator beam mode requests and reset all zones requests (at 1 -second rate) actuator setpoints (at 2 -second rate) • measurement relative (bias) target profiles (at 5 • -second rate) 18 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

275 Foreign Controller Metso DNA System second scanner status and additional measurement information (at 1- • rate) -second rate) heartbeat (at 1 • The OPC server polls the required data from Metso on a rate basis. It sends the data to CD Controls and schedules the corresponding OPC ser ver events to signal the CD Controls Metso interface to process these data only when they are changed. These data include: actuator beam and zone control modes and statuses in Metso • zone status word for alarm information • • Metso supervisory setpoints • actuato r position feedback Metso mapped measurement profile in actuator resolution • heartbeat • Link Status 8.2.2. The CD Controls Metso software interface monitors a heartbeat from the Metso DNA control system and the OPC link status reported by the OPC client to e whether or not the OPC communication link to the Metso control determin system is functional. The interface monitors the heartbeat at a rate specified through the Links Status display. The OPC communication link is considered functional if the OPC link status is normal and the value of the heartbeat is changed from its previous value. If the OPC link to the Metso DNA control system is down, the statuses of the Link Down actuator beam and the individual zones are set to . The CD Controls he actuator positions are not received due to the link Metso interface flags that t down. When the link resumes, the interface flags that the actuator positions are available after they are received from Metso, so that a bumpless transfer can take itions to setpoints. place for the actuator by copying pos The CD Controls Metso interface also sends a heartbeat to the Metso DNA system on a one -second rate basis so Metso can detect whether or not the interface, or the OPC client is functional. 19 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

276 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller 8.2.3. Mode and Function Requests There are four cont rol modes for the actuator at both the beam and zone levels in the Metso DNA system: • Local • Manual Auto • Cascade • Th ose control modes are explained in Table 8- 5. Table 8- 5 Control Modes in Metso DNA System Control Mode Description Local The actuator is controlled directly at the hand wheels. operator can enter actuator setpoints from the Metso station. Manual The , CD Controls Auto controls the actuator. Metso performs supervisory control on the actuator. Cascade The operator can make mode and function requests shown in Table 8- 6 to the actuator from CD Controls. The mode requests can be made at both the actuator beam and zone levels, whereas the function requests can be made only at the beam level. The CD Controls Metso interface converts the requested mode and/or function into the equivalent control mode in the Metso control system. Table 8- 6 Mode and Function Requests fr om CD Controls to Metso Comments Metso Control Requested Mode in CD Controls Mode Local Manual (beam level The actuator is controlled directly at the hand wheels. only) CD Control The operator can enter dilution ratio setpoints from the Auto Auto display in CD Controls. Cascade (by CD Auto CD Controls performs supervisory control on the actuator. The Metso control system sends the setpoints generated by CD Controls controller) Controls to the actuator. Cascade (by Metso The Metso control system performs supervisory control on the Cascade actuator, and sends its own setpoints to the actuator. It provides controller) these setpoints to CD Controls for display and bumpless transfer purposes. 20 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

277 Foreign Controller Metso DNA System Comments Metso Control Requested Mode in Mode CD Controls CD Controls is ramping down the setpoints of the actuator. The Auto Shutdown Metso control system sends the CD Controls setpoints to the actuator. CD Controls is restoring the setpoints of the actuator. The Metso Restore Auto control system sends the CD Controls setpoints to the actuator. The code in the CD Controls Metso interface that handles flushing Auto Flushing of the Metso headbox actuator is at a premature stage. Special code and user interface have been implemented to start and stop a flush sequence and display the flushing status and setpoints on the Honeywell operator station. At the actuator zone level, the CD Controls Metso interface does not write the requested control modes to Metso, but instead writes an array of Booleans named D Controls. If an Automatic based on the requested modes and functions from C actuator zone is requested to be under Metso supervisory control, the Boolean value for that zone in the Automatic is set to True; otherwise, the Boolean value is set to False to indicate a request for CD Controls control ( Auto, Cascade, Shutdown, Restore or Flushing). Although you cannot request Manual mode for an individual zone from CD Controls, when you request Manual mode for the beam, the interface also set the Boolean values in the Automatic array to False. s that the beam status of the actuator is Maintenance, it If CD Controls determine does not pass any mode or function requests to Metso (see Subsections 8.2.7 and 9.4.3). When the operator requests cascade for the actuator beam under supervisory control of the Metso system, the actuator beam can go into Cascade mode in Metso when all of the following conditions are satisfied: • the scanner providing the measurement profile for the actuator is scanning • there is no sheet break detected by the scanner • the actuator is not in the Cascade Locked status the actuator does not have cascade control disabled • The CD Controls Metso interface also supports the function of resetting or clearing the zone alarms for the actuator by sending a pulse of configurable duration (default is 5 seconds) to the Metso DNA system. The operator can go to the display in CD Controls and reset alarms for all zones of the Zone Status Experion MX CD Controls display is covered in Zone Status actuator. The R701.1 Operator Manual (p/n 6510020587). 21 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

278 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller CD Controls Setpoints 8.2.4. tem when The CD Controls Metso interface sends setpoints to the Metso DNA sys CD Controls is performing supervisory control on the actuator or when the operator enters setpoints from CD Controls. For the Metso dilution profiling headbox actuator, the setpoints provided by CD Controls are the dilution ratio setpoints. Metso takes the dilution ratio setpoints and converts to position setpoints for the dilution water valve based on the stock flow rate. 8.2.5. Measurement and Target Profiles The CD Controls Metso interface sends the measurement profile (the CD Bin Now Profile) in CD bin resolution to the Metso DNA system on each new scan of the scanner, provided that no scenario switch is pending and no invalid setup has been caused by a scenario switch. It also sends the relative (bias) target profile of olution to the Metso control system. The the measurement in CD bin res measurement profile and the relative target profile are used by the Metso control system to calculate setpoints for the actuator when the current scenario is configured with Metso performing supervisory control on t he actuator. Scanner and Measurement Status Information 8.2.6. The CD Controls Metso interface updates the Metso control system with scanner status information and additional measurement information on a one -second rate basis. The scanner information, obtained fr om the QCS, indicates whether the scanner is running, whether it is scanning, standardizing or offsheet, whether the scanner is in single point mode, the direction of scan, the scanner head position, the edge detection is the low end offset, the maximum sheet width, and whether enabled. The interface provides a sheet break signal and status information on the basis weight and moisture profiles to the Metso system at the same rate. Actuator Statuses 8.2.7. -beam status with Boolean values The CD Controls Metso interface reads three 7, (true/false): HMX Enabled, and Remote and Automatic, as shown in Figure 8- from the Metso system. The interface uses these Booleans in the order speci fied by the numbers in the parentheses to deduce the current control mode of the actuator beam in Metso. If the HMX Enabled flag is False, the actuator is in Manual mode. If the HMX Enabled flag is True, the interface then checks the mote flag is False, the actuator is in Local mode. If the Remote flag. If the Re Remote flag is True, the interface then checks the Automatic flag. If the Automatic flag is False, the actuator is in Auto mode under the control of CD 22 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

279 Foreign Controller stem Metso DNA Sy e mode under Metso supervisory Controls; otherwise, the actuator is in Cascad control. Cascade (controlled by Metso DNA system) 1 0 Manual (setpoints entered from Metso station) ( 3) Automatic 1 Auto (controlled by CD Controls) 0 (1) HMX Enabled 1 0 Local (controlled at handwheels) (2) Remote -7 Beam Status Booleans from Metso Figure 8 The CD Controls Metso interface determines the zone modes of the actuator king the beam zones in Metso by chec -level Remote and HMX Enabled flags (see 7), the Available array and the Automatic status array reported by Metso. Figure 8- If the Remote flag for the actuator beam is False, or if the element in the Available array corresponding to the given zone is False, the zone is in Local mode. If the Remote flag and the Available flag are both True, the interface then checks the HMX Enabled flag. If HMX Enabled is False, the zone is in Manual mode. If HMX Enabled is True, the interface then checks the Automatic status of zone is in Cascade mode, under the zone. If the Automatic status is True, the Metso supervisory control; otherwise, the zone is in Auto mode under the control of CD Controls. The CD Controls Metso interface translates the beam and zone control modes in Metso into internal beam (system) and zone status es. As mentioned before, actuator mode and function requests can also be made from the Metso station if necessary. You can specify additional options through the 9) to determine how the CD Controls display (see Figure 8- Configure Metso Metso interface handles actuator mode and function requests made from the P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 - 23

280 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller Metso station to ensure that CD Controls and Metso are synchronized at all time. These options, applicable at both beam and zone levels, are listed below: • set the actuator beam/zone status to Set Maintenance If Unavailable: Maintenance if the beam/zone mode reported by Metso is Local (unavailable). The default for this flag is False . : set the Set Maintenance In Manual • actuator beam/zone status to Maintenance if the beam/zone mode in Metso is Manual. The default . for this flag is False set the actuator beam/zone requested • Force Manual If Unavailable: mode to Manual if the beam/zone mode in Metso is Local . (unavailable). The default for this flag is False : set the actuator beam/zone requested mode to Force Auto In Manual • Auto if the beam/zone mode in Metso is Manual. The default for this . flag is False Force Auto In Remote • : set the actuator beam/zone requested mode to Aut o if the beam/zone mode in Metso is Auto. The default for this flag . is False Force Cascade In Automatic: set the actuator beam/zone requested • mode to Cascade if the beam/zone mode in Metso is Cascade. The default for this flag is True . The Maintenance status is meant to be a way of forbidding the operator to change modes and setpoints of the actuator from the Honeywell operator station when the actuator is switched into a maintenance mode in Metso that requires mode and setpoint changes to be made from the Metso station only. The mode change CD Control buttons are grayed out on the 7, the display. As shown in Table 8- Maintenance status results when: ed to Local mode in Metso from the Metso station, • The actuator is switch with the Set Maintenance If Unavailable option selected in CD Controls and/or the HMX Enabled flag set to False on the Metso station. The actuator is switched to Manual mode in Metso from the Metso station, • with the Set Maintenance In Manual option selected in CD Controls and/or the HMX Enabled flag set to False on the Metso station. ols Metso software interface determines 7 illustrates how the CD Contr Table 8- the actuator beam (system) and zone statuses based on the current beam and zone modes in Metso and the different options. 24 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

281 Foreign Controller Metso DNA System Table 8- 7 Actuator Beam/Zone Status Determined by CD Controls Metso Interface Current Beam/Zone Requested Beam/Zone Options Beam/Zone Status in CD Mode in CD Controls Mode in Metso Controls Local Set Maintenance If Unavailable = False Maintenance if HMX Enabled is False Disabled if HMX Enabled is True = True Maintenance Force Manual If Unavailable False = No Change Manual = True Manual Set Maintenance In Manual False = Maintenance if HMX Enabled is False Remote if HMX Enabled is True = True Maintenance Force Auto In Manual = False No Change = True Auto Force Auto in Remote Auto = False No Change = True Auto Cascade Remote Cascade Force Cascade In Automatic True = Cascade No Change = False The default options are indicated in bold text. The beam/zone statuses shown in the table are resulted if there are no other statuses of higher precedence. The order of precedence of the actuator beam/zone statuses is in Subsection 9.4.3. In addition to setpoints, positions and current control modes, Metso also returns bit zone status word to CD Controls to provide alarm for each actuator zone a 16- information on that zone. The CD Controls Metso interface interprets the bits in the zone status word for each zone, and converts them into some internal zone status. The mapping of the bits in the zone status word, the alarm options and required actions for each bit are set up during the configuration of the system. 25 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

282 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller Experion CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual Refer to (p/n 6510020588) for details on the Metso zone status word. The statuses inferred from the Metso control mode of the actuator, together w ith mode and function requests, statuses obtained from zone status words, and external system status VIOs, are used by the Actuator Management Subsystem to determine the final beam and zone states of the actuator (see Section 9.4). 8.2.8. Actuator Setpoints (Metso) and Positions Metso reads actuator setpoints from CD Controls on a rate basis. When CD ator Controls is performing supervisory control on the actuator, or when the oper enters setpoints from CD Controls, Metso sends the setpoints received from CD Controls to the actuator. When Metso is performing supervisory control on the actuator, the actuator zones y the Metso that are under supervisory control receive setpoints calculated b control system. Actuator zones that are put in Auto by the operator from CD Controls receive setpoints (dilution ratio setpoints) entered by the operator. CD Controls reads the Metso supervisory setpoints (dilution ratio setpoints) and with the Auto setpoints to display the setpoint profile for the actuator. combines Metso also provides CD Controls with the supervisory setpoints in dilution water valve opening setpoints. Metso provides actuator position feedback to CD Controls in both dilution r atios and valve opening positions for display and bumpless transfer purposes, but CD Controls only uses the dilution ratios. Mapped Measurement and Target Profiles 8.2.9. The Metso control system maps the measurement and relative target profiles received from CD Controls (in CD bin resolution) down to the actuator resolution when it performs supervisory control on the actuator. The mapped measurement and relative target profiles are returned to CD Controls. CD Controls then ofile by adding the average of the mapped calculates the mapped absolute target pr measurement profile to the mapped relative target profile. CD Controls provides an option to display the mapped measurement and absolute target profiles from display for an actuator under Me tso supervisory Metso on the CD Control control. To view the mapped profiles from Metso, the operator selects the profile display. The default profile type is CD Control type to be Control Profile on the MIS Profile, which displays the mapped measurement profile and the mapped absolute target profile generated by CD Controls. 26 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

283 Foreign Controller Metso DNA System Flush Sequence 8.2.10. The code in the CD Controls Metso interface handling flushing of the Metso dilution profiling headbox actuator is at a premature stage. One issue is that CD tio setpoints, not the dilution water valve Controls manipulates the dilution ra position setpoints that are used to move the headbox actuator during a flush sequence. The range of the dilution ratio setpoint is 0–30%, while the range of the valve position setpoint is 0–100%. When the headbox actuator is in a flush sequence, the dilution ratios returned by Metso to CD Controls are invalid because the stock flow is stopped. CD Controls currently does not provide support for the flush feature of the Metso dilution profiling headbox actuator. Nonetheless, special code and a user interface have been implemented by the site personnel to display the flushing status and setpoints from Metso on the Honeywell operator station. They allow starting and stopping of a flush sequence from the Honeywell oper ator station. Startup Profile 8.2.11. The Metso coating blade actuator (IQCoatMatic) has a startup profile, which is an initial setpoint profile for the blade actuator when the blade on the coater is changed. The startup profile can be loaded automatically when the blade is changed. A setpoint profile can also be saved as the startup profile. CD Controls currently does not provide support for the startup profile of the Metso coating blade actuator. Special code and a user interface have been implemented by the site personnel to display the sta rtup profile on the Honeywell operator station. They allow loading and saving of the startup profile from the Honeywell operator station. Configure Metso Display 8.2.12. Configure Metso Configure Metso display can be accessed by clicking The tab on the under the CD Actuator Links 8) . It is D isplay M enu bar (see Figure 8- Figure 8- 8). accessible to the control engineer only (see ar ( -8 Display Menu B Figure 8 ) Configure Metso 27 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

284 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller 8- 9 with the display areas, display is shown in Figure Configure Metso The buttons, and items labeled. All the Metso configuration parameters are saved to the Permanents database. Figure 8 -9 Configure Metso Display Table 8- -9. 8 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 8 Table 8- 8 Configure Metso Display Items Number Description Name Provides a drop- down list of all configured Metso actuators. 1 Metso Actuator Selector Bar Provides a description for the selected Metso actuator. Metso Actuator 2 description box 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 8 28 1/3/18 -

285 Foreign Controller Metso DNA System Number Name Description 3 Beam Mode Parameter Panel When checked enables the Set Maintenance if Unavailable option at the 3a Set Maintenance if Unavailable beam level. When checked enables the Set Maintenance in Manual option at the 3b Set Maintenance in beam level. Manual 3c Force Manu al Mode if When checked enables the Force Manual Mode if Unavailable option at Unavailable the beam level. When checked enables the Force Auto Mode in Manual option at the 3d Force Auto Mode in beam level. Manual enables the Force Auto Mode in Remote option at the When checked Force Auto Mode in 3e Remote beam level. Force Cascade Mode in 3f When checked enables the Force Cascade Mode in Automatic option at the beam level. Automatic 4 Zone Mode Parameter Panel 4a Set Maintenance if When c hecked enables the Set Maintenance if Unavailable option at the zone level. Unavailable When checked enables the Set Maintenance in Manual option at the 4b Set Maintenance in zone level. Manual 4c Force Manual Mode if When checked enables the Force Manual Mode if Unavailable option at Unavailable the zone level. When checked enables the Force Auto Mode in Manual option at the 4d Force Auto Mode in Manual zone level. When checked enables the Force Auto Mode in Remote option at the 4e Force Auto Mode in z Remote one level. When checked enables the Force Cascade Mode in Automatic option at Force Cascade Mode in 4f Automatic the zone level. 29 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

286 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller 8.3. VIB System The software interface between CD Controls and the VIB control system enables data communication between the two supervisory CD control systems through the OPC protocol. CD Controls uses the OPC server software provided by RAE to lient software in the VIB control system. Figure communicate with the OPC c 8- 10 provides an overview of the data communication between CD Controls and the VIB control system. Requested Actuator Beam (Global) Modes Requested Actuator Zone (Single) Modes Requested Actuator Setpoints Measurement Profiles and Statuses Relative Target Profiles Measurement Profile First and Last Valid Bins Sheet Width High and Low Sheet Edges Actuator Modes Measurement Bin Width Actuator Setpoints Scan Direction Machine Speed* Steam Flow, Pressure and Temperature* Stack Oil Temperatures* Actuator Ready Signals* Dry End Sheet Break Signal* Current Grade Name OPC Client VIB Actuators CD Controls OPC Server Actuator Positions VIB Control System Heartbeat Actuator Statuses (Global) Modes Actuator Beam Actuator Zone (Single) Modes CD Controls-VIB Software Interface) ( Actuator Zone Alarm Statuses Actuator Setpoints Actuator Positions Mapped Control Profiles Mapped Target Profiles * These variables are not built as standard OPC variables by CD Controls for the CD Controls VIB Interface since their paths in the RTDR database vary depending on their sources. Instead these variables are configured manually for the OPC server during the QCS system configuration. Figure 8 -10 Data Communication Between CD Controls and VIB Control System 1/3/18 P/N 8 - 30 6510020586 Rev 01

287 Foreign Controller VIB System The CD Controls VIB software interface is responsible for these major tasks: ink between CD monitors the status of the OPC communication l • Controls and VIB • sends mode requests and function requests made by the operator to VIB sends measurement profiles and relative (bias) target profiles to VIB • whenever a new scan arrives (t hese profiles are needed for VIB to perform supervisory control ) • receives actuator statuses, setpoints and positions from VIB receives the mapped control and target profiles from VIB when VIB is • performing supervisory control CD Controls acts as the primary user interface for the VIB actuator. This means that actuator mode, function requests, and setpoint changes are normally made CD Control through the display in CD Controls. The changes can also be made from the VIB station if necessary. CD Controls provides options to monitor these the appropriate actuator requested modes and statuses to ensure changes and set that CD Controls and VIB are always synchronized. 8.3.1. Data Communication Because VIB acts as the OPC client, VIB determines when to communicate data with CD Controls (the OPC server). The VIB OP C client reads the following data from CD Controls on a rate basis: • measurement and relative (bias) target profiles measurement profile statuses and first and last valid bins • • measurement CD bin width • actuator beam and zone mode requests • actuator setpoints sheet width and edges • scan direction • machine speed • 31 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

288 CD Controls User Manual roller Foreign Cont • steam flow, pressure and temperature stack oil temperatures • • actuator ready signal (from DCS) dry end sheet break signal • • current grade name The VIB OPC client writes to CD Controls the following data on a rate basis and -second rate: the CD Controls VIB interface to process these data at a 2 heartbeat • • actuator beam and zone control modes in VIB • zone status word for alarm information • VIB supervisory setpoints actuator positions • VIB mapped measurement and tar • get profiles in actuator resolution Link Status 8.3.2. The CD Controls VIB software interface monitors a heartbeat from the VIB control system to determine whether or not the OPC communication link to the he heartbeat at a rate VIB control system is functional. The interface monitors t specified through the Links Status display. The OPC communication link is considered functional if the value of the heartbeat is changed from its previous value. If the OPC link to the VIB control system is down, the statuses of the actuator beam and the individual zones are set to Link Down. The CD Controls VIB interface flags that actuator positions are not received due to the link down. When the link resumes, the interface flags that the actuator positions are available after they are received from VIB, so that a bumpless transfer can take place for the actuator by copying positions to setpoints. 32 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

289 Foreign Controller VIB System 8.3.3. Mode and Function Requests There are three control modes for the actuator at the beam level in the VIB control system: Manual, Remote , and Automatic. At the zone level, there is one additional mode, Local, which can only be requested from the actuator cabinet. Table 8- 9 explains the control modes in VIB . 9 Control Modes in VIB Control System Table 8- Description Control Mode Local The actuator is controlled directly at the hand wheels. The mode is only available at the zone level, and can only be requested from the actuator cabinet. The operator can enter actuator setpoints from the VIB station. This Manual mode can only be reques ted from the VIB station. Remote CD Controls performs supervisory control on the actuator. Auto VIB performs supervisory control on the actuator. The operator can make mode and function requests shown in Table 8- 10 to the actuator from CD Controls. The mode requests can be made at both the actuator beam and zone levels, but the function requests can be made only at the beam level. The CD Controls VIB interface converts the requested mode and/or function into the equivalent control mode in the VIB control system. The communication of beam mode/function request is achieved by two data bits per actuator beam: Auto bit and Remote bit. The communication of zone mode request is also achieved by two data bits per zone. 10 Mode and Function Requests from CD Controls to VIB Table 8- Requested Mode in VIB Control Auto Remote Comments Bit CD Controls Bit Mode Manual (zone level The operator cannot change the setpoints from the 1 Remote 1 display in CD Controls. The VIB control CD Control only) system sends the setpoints obtained from CD Controls to the actuator. CD The operator can enter setpoints from the 1 Remote 1 Auto display in CD Controls. The VIB control Control system sends the setpoints obtained from CD Controls to the actuator. Cascade (by CD he CD Controls performs supervisory control on t 1 Remote 1 actuator. The VIB control system sends the Controls controller) setpoints obtained from CD Controls to the actuator. 1 0 The VIB control system performs supervisory control Cascade (by VIB Auto on the actuator, and sends its own setpoints to the controller) provides these setpoints to CD Controls actuator. It for display and bumpless transfer purposes. 33 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

290 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller Comments Remote Auto VIB Control Requested Mode in Bit Mode Bit CD Controls Shutdown Remote 1 1 CD Controls is ramping down the setpoints of the actuator. The VIB control system sends the CD Controls setpoints to the actuator. Restore Remote CD Controls is restoring the setpoints of the 1 1 actuator. The VIB control system sends the CD Controls setpoints to the actuator. When the operator requests cascade for the actuator under supervisory control of the VIB system at either the beam or zone level, the actuator beam or the given zone can go into Auto mode in VIB when all of the following conditions are satisfied: • the scanner providing the measurement profile for the actuator is scanning • there is no sheet break detected by the scanner the actuator is not in the Cascade Locked status • • the actuator does not have cascade control disabled Measurement and Target Profiles 8.3.4. The CD Controls VIB software interface sends the measurement profile (the CD Bin Now Profile) in CD bin resolution to the VIB control system on each new scan of the scanner, provided that no scenario switch is pending and no invalid setup has been caused by a scenario switch. The VIB control system also reads the relative (bias) target profile of the measurement in CD bin resolution. T he measurement profile and the relative target profile are used by the VIB control system to calculate setpoints for the actuator when the current scenario is configured with VIB performing supervisory control on the actuator. Actuator Statuses 8.3.5. -bit zone status word to CD Controls to VIB returns for each actuator zone a 16 provide mode and alarm information on each zone. The first two bits (Bit 0 and Bit 1) of the status word are used by the CD Controls VIB Interface to infer the VIB mode of the actuator zone. The interface interprets the bits in the zone status word for each zone, and converts them into some internal zone status. The mapping of the bits in the zone status word, the alarm options and required actions for each bit are set up during the configuration of the system. Refer to 34 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

291 Foreign Controller VIB System (p/n Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual -11 6510020588) for details on configuring the VIB zone status word. Table 8 illustrates how the CD Controls VIB Interface uses Bit 0 and Bit 1 in the zone status word to determine the VIB control mode of the actuator. Table 8- 11 Inferring VIB Control Mode from Zone Sta tus Word Bits Bit 0 Bit 1 VIB Control Mode CD Controls Zone Status 0 Manual Remote 0 1 0 Auto Remote Cascade 0 1 - Remote Local 0/1 1 Disabled In order to distinguish the VIB Auto and Remote zone modes, the interface looks see Subsection at the Auto bit and Remote bit for the zone mode requested ( 8.3.3). If the Auto bit is 1 and the Remote bit is 0, the zone is in VIB Auto mode and its status in CD Controls is Remote Cascade. If the Auto bit and the Remote Remote mode and its status is not determined bit are both 1, the zone is in VIB here. Because VIB does not return beam modes or statuses, the CD Controls VIB Interface has to infer the actuator’s beam mode in VIB based on the zone modes. The assumption is that the actuator beam can be unde r either VIB supervisory control or CD Controls supervisory control at any one time. The interface performs a series of checks on the actuator zones in the order stated below: If at least one zone is in VIB Auto mode, the whole beam is in VIB 57. Auto mode and has the Remote Cascade status in CD Controls. 58. If at least one zone is in VIB Remote mode, the whole beam is in VIB Remote mode. The beam status is not determined here. If at least one zone is in VIB Manual mode, the whole beam is in VIB 59. Manual mode and has the Remote status in CD Controls. The statuses inferred from the zone status words and external system status VIOs combined with the actuator mode and function requests are used by the Actuator states of the Management Subsystem to determine the final beam and zone actuator (see Section 9.4). 8.3.6. Actuator Setpoints and Positions VIB reads actuator setpoints from CD Controls on a rate basis. When CD Controls is perfor ming supervisory control on the actuator, or when the operator 35 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 8 -

292 CD Controls User Manual Foreign Controller enters setpoints from CD Controls, VIB sends the setpoints received from CD Controls to the actuator. When VIB is performing supervisory control on the actuator, actuator zones that are under supervisory control receive setpoints calculated by the VIB control system. Actuator zones that are put in Auto by the operator from CD Controls receive setpoints entered by the operator. CD Controls reads the VIB supervisory setpoints and combines with the Auto setpoints to display the setpoint profile for the actuator. VIB does not have real position feedback from the actuators. Nonetheless it copies setpoints into positions, and returns them to CD Controls on a rate basis for er purposes. display and bumpless transf Mapped Measurement and Target Profiles 8.3.7. The VIB control system maps the measurement and relative target profiles received from CD Controls (in CD bin resolution) down to the actuator resolution ator resolution when it performs and generates the absolute target profiles in actu supervisory control on the actuator. VIB returns to CD Controls the mapped measurement profile and the mapped absolute target profile. CD Controls provides an option to display the mapped measurement and absolute display for an actuator under VIB CD Control ofiles from VIB on the target pr supervisory control. To view the mapped profiles from VIB, the operator selects the profile type to be Control Profile on the display. The default CD Control at displays the mapped measurement profile and the profile type is MIS Profile th mapped absolute target profile generated by CD Controls. 36 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 8 -

293 9. Actuator Management The Actuator Management subsystem provides a series of functions that are ll actuators to which CD Controls interfaces. The common to and required by a functions include monitoring the availability of measurements to the actuators, the statuses of the controllers controlling the actuators and the statuses of the actuators, handling actuator mode and functi on requests made by the operator, determining the beam and zone states of the actuators and calculating the final setpoints of the actuators. The Actuator Management subsystem works closely with the Actuator Link Interface subsystem to control the actuator 1, the Actuator s. As shown in Figure 9- Link Interface subsystem acts as an interface between the Actuator Management tuator Link Interface subsystem -level link drivers. The Ac subsystems and the low processes the control mode and function requests and setpoints generated by the Actuator Management subsystem, sends them to the actuators, and returns status information and setpoints/positions of the actuators to CD Controls. The Actuator Management subsystem uses the information received from the Actuator Link Interface subsystem, the statuses of the measurements and the controllers, and the control mode and function requests made by the operator to determine the beam and zone states, modes and setpoints of the actuators. The Actuator Link Interface subsystem is described in detail in Chapter 10. For actuators with foreign control syst ems to which CD Controls interfaces, the link interface is in Chapter 8. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 9 -

294 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Actuators Voith Metso VIB Profilmatic DNA Profile Managers, CDWeb Managers or Third-Party AIUs Foreign Control Systems Actuator Interface Units (AIUs) OPC ODX OPC Modbus 200/100 ODX OPC SCL Client ABBMicro Server Server RTU (MPU) Server Server HCILink Link Drivers (RAE) Voith Metso VIB Modbus 200/100 ODX OPC OPC SCL ODX OPC ABBMicro RTU CD Bay Foreign Controllers Actuator Link Interface Subsytem Actuator Management Subsystem -1 Actua tor Data Communication Flow Figure 9 9.1. Functional Overview The Actuator Management subsystem runs on a rate basis, approximately every second, to process information to be sent to the actuators and information received from the actuators in a timely manner. The Actuator Management subsystem performs the following major functions: • Measurement Availability Check : checks if the measurement or measurements controlled by the actuator are available or not. If there is no measurement for the actuator to control due to a sheet break or 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 - 2

295 Actuator Management Multiple Break Protection scanner not scanning (excluding standardization), the actuator is not allowed to go into cascade control • : protects the Fastback Modified PI Multiple Break Protection controller from generating incorrect setpoints for the actuator when r more sheet breaks have occurred successively in a short two o duration of time : forces the actuator to wait for a period of time before • Cascade Delay going into Cascade when the scanner from which the actuator obtains its measurement goes offline for an extended period of time and then uator has comes back online. This ensures that the controller of the act reasonably stable and reliable measurements to control • : determines the current beam and Beam and Zone State Calculation zone states of the actuators based on the availability of measurements, es and requests, the actuator beam and zone statuses, functional status requested beam and zone modes. It also activates and initializes the controller when an actuator beam or a particular zone is first switched into Cascade control : performs the Shutdown/Restore function on the Shutdown/Restore • tomatically on a sheet break or on the operator’s request actuators au • : allows the offsheet and off -measurement zones of the Edge Tracking actuators to track the setpoints of some specified onsheet on- measurement zones : calculates the final setpoin • Setpoint Calculation ts for the actuators, based on the current states of the actuator zones, by applying setpoint limits to, deadbanding and bend limiting the setpoints generated by the controllers (except the foreign controllers) and the setpoints requested by the operator Multiple Break Protection 9.2. The Actuator Management subsystem performs this function by maintaining the Multiple Break Timer for an actuator controlled by the Fastback Modified PI controller with the Multiple Break Protection option enabled, and restoring the saved setpoints to the actuator on a multiple break. -multiple break) is detected by the scanner from which When a sheet break (a non an actuator obtains its measurement, the Actuator Management subsystem copies the current setpoints of the actuator to the saved setpoints of the Multiple Break 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

296 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Protection function. When the sheet break is cleared, the Actuator Management subsystem starts the Multiple Break Timer of that actuator. The Multiple Break Timer continues to count down to its timeout period. When the next sheet break occurs, the Actuator Management subsystem checks if the break is a multiple break by checking if the Multiple Break Timer of the actuator has expired or not. If the timer has expired, it means the sheet break is he Actuator Management subsystem again copies the not a multiple break. T current setpoints of the actuator to the saved setpoints of the Multiple Break Protection function. When the sheet break is cleared, the Actuator Management subsystem resets and starts the Multiple Break Ti mer again. If the timer has not expired, the break is considered a multiple break. On a multiple break, like other sheet breaks, the Actuator Management subsystem automatically suspends the actuator beam from cascade control. The Actuator stem flags the multiple break, and copies the previously saved Management subsy setpoints of the Multiple Break Protection function to the current setpoints (Setpoints Out) for those actuator zones that were in Cascade control prior to the actuator resumes Cascade control with the break. When the break clears, the Multiple Break Protection setpoints as the starting setpoints. 9.3. Cascade Delay The Cascade Delay function is an optional feature to force an actuator to wait a period of time before going into cascade control under these circumstances: • the actuator has just been requested Cascade by the operator, and the scanners, where the actuator obtains the measurements for control, has not been scanning long enough the actuator is about to return to Cascade after it has been bum • ped out of Cascade into Auto when the scanners, where the actuator obtains the measurements for control, stops scanning for an extended period of time and resumes scanning The purpose of the Cascade Delay function is to ensure that the controller ng the actuator has reasonably stable and reliable measurements to controlli control. An actuator under the supervisory control of a foreign control system is not subject to the cascade delay even when the actuator has the feature enabled. The Cascade Delay function User Entry and Charge Filter. The has two modes: User Entry mode allows you to delay cascade control for an actuator until the measurement the actuator controls has accumulated the number of scans e MD Trending filter specified. The Charge Filter mode checks whether or not th 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

297 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations of the measurement is charged. If not, the actuator will wait until the MD filter of the measurement is charged before going into cascade control. In the multivariable control case where an actuator controls several measurements, the actuator waits until one of the measurements has accumulated enough scans (if , or until one of the MD filters of the the Cascade Delay mode is User Entry) measurements is charged (if the Cascade Delay mode is Charge Filter) before . going into cascade control When an actuator is undergoing cascade delay, its beam and zone states are in Auto while its requested beam/zone modes are in Cascade. On the CD Control display, the actuator beam state and zone state indicators flash in red background countdown bar appears on the actuator graph to count down and yellow text. A Control Status the cascade delay for the actuator. On the display, the Cascade Delay flag is shown as active. After the delay is complete, the actuator goes into Cascade. The Cascade Delay feature can be enabled or disabled for an actuator, and its Actuator Management Setup display (see parameters can be edited from the ). The Cascade Delay feature i Figure 9- 14 s enabled and set to Charge Filter mode by default. Beam and Zone State Calculations 9.4. At any point in time, an actuator beam is in some sort of state that indicates whether or not the beam is under manual, operator or supervisory control, whether or not it is in an alarm condition, or whether or not it is in the process of flushing, shutdown or restore. Normally the individual zones are in the same state as the actuator beam unless the operator puts the zones in different modes, or the zones experience alarm s. The beam state of an actuator beam and the zones states of its individual zones are determined in a similar process as outlined in Figure 9- 2. Under normal 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

298 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management circumstan ces, the calculated state of an actuator is equal to the requested state, and the actuator is able to go into the requested control mode. Requested Mode Manual Requested State Auto Cascade Requested Function Flushing Shutdown/Restore/Abort Edge Tracking (off-sheet/ off-measurement zones Current State only) Status Link Down Failure Maintenance Disabled Setpoint Locked Remote Cascade Remote Flushing Shutdown Restore Cascade Error Cascade Suspended Cascade Locked Warning Information Controller Type Previous State -2 Actuator Beam and Zone State Calculation Figure 9 Requested Modes 9.4.1. There are three control modes that the operator can request for an actuator: Manual, Auto and Cascade. These modes apply to the entire actuator beam as well as the individual zones. These modes are mutually exclusive; only one may be requested at any one time. In Manual mode, the AIU does not perform regulatory control on the actuator. The AIU does not send setpoints to the actuator, and the actuator can only be moved physically using the hand wheels . The operator cannot change setpoints or send functional requests (for example, a flush request) to the actuator from the 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

299 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculat ions supervisory control system. If the link between CD Controls and the actuator AIU is maintained and position feedback is available, the actuator setpoints are periodically set equal to the current actuator positions to provide bumpless transfer when Auto or Cascade mode is requested. At the zone level, Manual mode can only be requested if the actuator supports Manual zone mode request. In Auto mode, the AIU performs regulatory control on the actuator, and sends setpoints to the actuator. The operator can change setpoints or send functional requests to the actuator from the supervisory control system. The actuator setpoints do not automati cally change in response to errors in the sheet properties. In Cascade mode, the actuator is under the control of a supervisory control system. The actuator is controlled by a traditional controller or a multivariable controller in CD Controls, or a foreig n controller such as Voith, Metso or VIB. The controller calculates the actuator setpoints in order to reduce the errors in the sheet properties. The operator cannot change the setpoints except for zones that are in Auto. For an actuator under the control of a foreign controller, the actuator is put into Remote Cascade state when the operator requests Cascade mode for the display in CD Controls. actuator from the CD Control The beam mode always takes precedence over the zone mode. For an actuator in Auto beam mode, the operator can request one of the three modes for the individual actuator zones, but the resultant modes for the zones cannot be higher be Auto or Manual. For an actuator zone to go into than Auto, they can only Cascade it requires that the actuator beam be in Cascade first. Table 9 -1 des and zone modes. If the summarizes the relationships between beam mo actuator beam cannot go into the state requested by the requested beam mode, the display flashes in red background and CD Control beam state indicator on the yellow text. The same applies to the individual zones. 1 Relationships Between Actuator Beam and Zone Modes Table 9- Beam Mode Requested Zone Mode Resultant Zone Mode Cascade Cascade Auto Cascade Auto Manual Manual Cascade Auto Auto Auto Auto Manual Manual Cascade Manual Manual Manual Auto Manual Manual 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

300 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Requested Functions 9.4.2. In addition to changing the beam mode or zone modes, the operator can apply these functions to an actuator: • Flushing (for certain headbox actuators) Shutdown • • Restore Edge Tracking • Bend Limiting • The Flushing, Shutdown, and Restore functions are applicable at the beam level only, and are available only under certain conditions. The operator can initiate CD Control these functions from the display in CD Controls by clicking the correspondin g buttons. For the ProFlow actuator beam, the flushing function is controlled from a designated display known as the ProFlow Flush display described in Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Operator Manual (p/n 6510020587). - The Edge Tracking function is a zone -level function, and is applicable only to off -sheet and off - -measurement actuator zones. The definitions of off sheet and off measurement zones can be found in Subsection 9.4.6. The Edge Tracking option can be enabled for an actuator through the Actuator Management Setup display Figure 9- ). 14 (see The Bend Limiting function applies to the whole actuator beam to limit the setpoint deviations between adjacent actuator zones. The Bend Limiting function t provides protection to physical equipment such as the slice lip at the headbox tha can be damaged with kinks caused by excessive zone- to-zone setpoint deviations. The function manipulates the setpoints calculated by the controller controlling the actuator, and restricts the setpoint moves made by the operator on zones in Auto to ensure that the bend limits are not violated. See Subsection 9.7.3 for details on the Bend Limiting function. ctuator. In this case, Several functions could be requested simultaneously for an a the Actuator Management subsystem handles the functions in this order of precedence: Flushing, Shutdown/Restore, and Edge Tracking. If Flushing and Shutdown are both requested for the actuator, the actuator first goes into flushing. After flushing is complete, the actuator goes into the shutdown mode. 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

301 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations Flushing 9.4.2.1. Some actuators, typically dilution or consistency profiling headbox actuators, provide a flushing feature. This feature allows the operator to start and stop a sequence of actu ator moves that flushes the headbox flow valves. This is used to open and close the flow valves in a predefined manner to remove any residue that may be lodged inside the valves. The operator can request flushing only if the actuator beam has been requested Auto mode and is not already in a flush sequence. Only actuator zones that are under regulatory control (Auto) undergo flushing. Zones that are in Manual or some failed state do not. CD Controls currently supports flushing for the Voith consistency pr ofiling headbox actuator and the ProFlow actuator. See Subsections 8.1.8 and 10.1.3 for details about flushing for the Voith ProfilMatic actuator and the ProFlow actuator respectively. Some specials are required for handling flushing for the ols. Metso dilution profiling headbox actuator in CD Contr With respect to flushing, the Actuator Management subsystem is responsible for passing the start flush or stop flush request to the Actuator Link Interface subsystem, setting the beam and zone states of the actuator to Flushing when the actuator is in a flush sequence, handling the flushing setpoints, and resuming the actuator to its previous state when flushing is complete. The Actuator Link Interface subsystem initiates and manages the flush sequence. It performs status reporting on whether or not the actuator is okay for flushing to start or stop, and whether or not the actuator is in a flush sequence. For the Voith ProfilMatic actuator, the Voith control system generates the flushing setpoints that are handled by the Actuator Management subsystem, and are passed to the actuator by the Actuator Link Interface subsystem. For the ProFlow actuator, the Actuator Link Interface subsystem actually generates the flushing setpoints based on some user -defined parameters. 9.4.2.2. Shutdown and Restore The Shutdown and Restore functions are available for an actuator under CD Controls supervisory (Cascade) or regulatory (Auto) control provided that the Shutdown/Restore feature is enabled for that actuator. The Shutdown/Restore feature can be enabled or disabled from the Actuator Setup display. Details regarding the Shutdown and Restore functions can be found in Section 9.5. Edge Tracking 9.4.2.3. The Edge Tracking function can be enabled or disabled for the offsheet and off - Cascade Control Setup measurement zones of an actuator from the display. -measurement zones move automatically by When enabled, the offsheet and off 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

302 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management t on- the Edge Tracking function to track the setpoints of some specified onshee -measurement zone have their current measurement zones. The offsheet and off states set to Edge Tracking. Details on how the edge tracking setpoints for the -measurement zones are computed can be found in Section 9.6. offsheet and off 9.4.3. Beam and Zone Statuses The Actuator Management subsystem receives actuator beam and zone status information in the form of system and zone status words from the AIU, or external system status VIOs from some DCS system. Most of these statuses are resulted from alarm or warning co nditions at the actuator, interlock violations in the DCS, or actions performed at the AIU, foreign control system or DCS. The Actuator Management subsystem also generates additional beam and zone bility of measurement, statuses internally based on conditions, such as the availa whether or not the actuator is controlled by a foreign controller, in a flush sequence, shutting down or restoring to some previous setpoints, and so on. The mappings of system/zone status word bits or system status VIOs to beam/zone statuses in CD Controls depend on the particular actuator and the system requirements. They can be configured and customized during system Experio configuration as described in n MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual (p/n 6510020588). The Actuator Management subsystem uses the beam and zone statuses based on the order of precedence of the statuses to calculate the beam and zone states of the actuator. Each a ctuator beam/zone status in CD Controls entails some actions on 2 shows the beam/zone statuses in CD Controls and their the actuator. Table 9- associated actions in the order of precedence from top to bottom. The statuses in bold text are those that can be mapped to a system/zone status bit at system configuration/build time. ols 2 Actuator Beam/Zone Statuses in CD Contr Table 9- Beam/Zone Status Indication Action Setpoint change buttons on the CD Control Communication problem with the Link Down display not available (grayed out). actuator occurs. Last setpoints remain during link down. Bumpless transfer of actuator positions, if available, to setpoints when the communication link to the actuator resumes. The Link Down status is displayed on the Control Status display. 10 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

303 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations Action Indication Beam/Zone Status Actuator has failed. arrow) buttons on the - Setpoint change (double Failed display not available (grayed out). CD Control arrow setpoint change buttons are The single- available for a failed zone if the Allow Setpoint Change When Failed option for the actuator is selected on the CD Setup display. Bumpless transfer of actuator positions, if available, to setpoints. The Failed status is displayed on the Control Status display. D C Mode and setpoint change buttons on the Used for locking out actuator Maintenance Control display not available (grayed out). mode and setpoint changes requested by the operator from Bumpless transfer of actuator positions, if Honeywell operator station. available, to setpoints. The Maintenance status is displayed on the Control Status display. yed as Manual. Regulatory control is off for the Actuator beam state displa Disabled Actuator zone state displayed as Manual if Zone actuator. For a Honeywell uator, the operator can disable act Manual Mode is supported and enabled for the actuator; otherwise, actuator zone state individual actuator zones from display in CD CD Control the displayed as Disabled. Controls if the actuator supports CD Control Setpoint change buttons on the the zone enable/disable function. display not available (grayed out). The Disabled status may also be Manual Mode is supported for Voith Zone caused by some interlock ProfilMatic, Metso IQCoatMatic and IQHeadbox, violations. and VIB steambox actuators. Bumpless transfer of actuator positions, if available, to setpoints. The Disabled status is displayed on the Control Status display. CD Control nt change buttons on the Setpoi Prevent actuator setpoints from Setpoint Lock ed The Edge Tracking changing. display not available (grayed out). algorithm can also set the zone- Last actuator setpoints remain. level Setpoint Locked status (See The Setpoint Locked status is displayed on the Section 9.6 ). Control Status display. Actuator is under supervisory The foreign control system sends the setpoints it Remote Cascade control of a foreign control calculates to the actuator. For an actuator that is m. syste CD Controls setpoints track foreign control interfaced to CD Controls through setpoints. a foreign control system with the The Remote Cascade status is displayed on the control switching capability. display. Control Status 6510020586 Rev 01 11 - 9 1/3/18 P/N

304 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Action Beam/Zone Status Indication The operator enters setpoints for Mode and setpoint change buttons on the CD Remote the actuator from the foreign Control display not available (grayed out). control system station. Used for The foreign contr ol system sends the setpoints locking out actuator mode and requested by the operator to the actuator. CD setpoint changes requested by Controls setpoints track foreign control the operator from Honeywell setpoints. For an actuator operator station. The Remote status is displayed on the Control that is interfaced to CD Controls Status display. through a foreign control system with the control switching capability. e buttons on the CD Mode and setpoint chang Actuator is in a flush sequence. Flushing Control display not available (grayed out). CD Controls receives flushing setpoints from the foreign control system and passes them to the actuator. Mode and setpoint change buttons on the CD Actuator is in a shutdown Shutdown Control display not available (grayed out). process. Actuator setpoints ramping down in steps. Mode and setpoint change buttons on the CD Actuator is in a restore process. Restore Control display not available (grayed out). Actuator setpoints ramping up in steps. The controller controlling the The beam/zone states of the actuator are set to Cascade Suspended actuator is unavailable for Cascade Suspended. calculating setpoints. Last actuator setpoints remain. This may also be caused by a cade Suspended status is displayed on The Cas sheet break or a pending the Control Status display. scenario switch. For an actuator controlled by a multivariable controller, the actuator is cascade s uspended during the matrices build. This is an internal status generated by the Actuator Management subsystem for an actuator under cascade control. The beam/zone states of the actuator are set to The controller controlling the Cascade Error actuator encounters an error Cascade Error. when calculating setpoints. If the Last actuator setpoints remain. actuator is controlled by a The Cascade Error status is displayed on the traditional controller, the error Control Status display. may arise from any of the traditional control processing blocks. This is an internal status generated by the Actuator Management subsystem for an actuator under cascade control. 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

305 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations Action Indication Beam/Zone Status If the actuator is currently in cascade control, it Cascade control is disabled for Cascade Locked is switched into Auto until the Cascade Locked the actuator beam due to some condition disappears. Last actuator setpoints interlocks being violated or the controller engineer has disabled remain. cascade control. The Cascade Locked status is displayed on the Control Status display. The state of the beam or zone is however not set to Cascade Locked. Actuator remains in current beam/zone states. Actuator in warning conditions. Warning No impacts on setpoints. The state of the beam or zone is set to Warning. Actuator remains in current beam/zone states. For information on the actuator Information beam or zone only. No impacts on setpoints. The Information status for the actuator beam or zone is not visible on the CD Control display. The status is shown on the System Status and Zone Status displays. The state of the beam or zone is however not set to Information. 9.4.3.1. Cascade Suspended The Cascade Suspended status applies to the actuator beam only, and is shown on the Control Status display. The Cascade Suspended status is set for an actuator when the signal to suspend the actuator from cascade control is tripped. This signal is configured during system configuration, and is typically the sheet break signal of the scanner(s) where the actuator obtains its measurement(s). If an multiple scanners like in the actuator controls multiple measurements from multivariable control case, the actuator will be suspended from cascade control if a sheet break signal is detected at any of the scanners. The Cascade Suspended status is also set when the controller controlling the actuator becomes unavailable to generate setpoints for the actuator to control the measurement(s). A controller is unavailable during a control scenario switch, or when a control scenario switch has completed with errors resulting in an invalid setup (see Subsecti on 2.2.3). For the multivariable controller, it also becomes unavailable under any of the following situations: a grade is being loaded • • IntelliMap is transferring process model and tuning parameters to CD Controls the communication link between the multiva riable controller and the • QCS server is down 13 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

306 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management the multivariable controller is in the process of rebuilding its matrices • due to changes in input parameters, such as process model and tuning parameters 9.4.3.2. Cascade Error uator beam only, and is shown on the The Cascade Error status applies to the act Control Status display. The Cascade Error is set for the actuator when the controller controlling the actuator reports an error. For the traditional controller, ditional control processing the error could arise from any of the functions in the tra chain. For the multivariable controller, the error could arise from any of the matrices build functions or the controller function. CD Controls currently does not support error reporting for foreign control systems. 9.4.3.3. ed Cascade Lock The Cascade Locked status applies to the actuator beam only, and is shown on the Control Status display. This status, caused by some interlocks (either in the AIU or some DCS) being violated, indicates that the actuator should not be used for cascade co ntrol. The Actuator Management subsystem uses the Cascade Locked status together with a few criteria to determine whether or not an actuator is ready for cascade control. These criteria must all be satisfied in order for an actuator to go into cascade cont rol: • none of the scanners from which the actuator obtains its measurements detects any sheet break at least one of the scanners from which the actuator obtains its • measurements is scanning • fore the actuator has completed its cascade delay, if it is required, be switching into Cascade mode when the actuator has the Cascade Delay function enabled (see Section 9.3) • gineer can the actuator has cascade control enabled (the control en disable cascade control for an actuator from the Cascade Control display) Setup If the actuator is ready for cascade control, the actuator goes into Cascade mode immediately on request. If it is not ready for cascade control, the actuator stays in its current mode until it becomes ready for cascade control and goes into Cascade mode. 14 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

307 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations Beam and Zone States 9.4.4. An actuator beam and its individual zones can be in one of the calculated states listed in Table 9- 3 in their order of precedence (except for Bend Limit and 2, the new beam/zone states of an actuator Warning). As indicated in Figure 9- depend on the mode and functional requests made by the operator, the statuses of the actuator, the type of controller controlling the actuator , and the previous beam/zone states of the actuator. The precedence is used to determine the final beam or zone state of an actuator when several conditions happen simultaneously. For example, if an actuator beam is in Cascade and one zone encounters an alarm condition associated with the s precedence Failed status, the state of that zone is Failed as the Failed state ha over the Cascade state. Certain states are applicable only to the beam but not to the individual zones. In Table 9- 3, the states in bold text are the resul t of a function or mode requested by Color column indicates the colors in which the beam and zone the operator. The states, and the bars representing the actuator zones on the graphs, are shown on the CD Controls displays. 3 Actuator Beam and Zone States Table 9- Results States Color Indication Cascade control is off for the actuator beam. At the beam level, the Red Link Down communication link to the Actuator does not respond to mode changes. actuator (AIU) has failed. Cannot move actuator setpoints, or initiate a function (for example, Shutdown, Restore or Flushing). Last setpoints remain during link down. Bumpless transfer of positions, if available, to setpoints when the link communication resumes. At the zone level, the Cascade control is off at the problem zone. communication between the Zone does not respond to mode changes. AIU and the actuator zone has Cannot move setpoints for the problem zone. failed. ble, to Bumpless transfer of positions, if availa setpoints when the link communication resumes. Magenta One or more system/zone Cascade control is off. Failed major alarms have occurred. Actuator does not respond to mode changes. These alarms are shown on the Cannot move actuator setpoints, or initiate a System Status display and the function (for example, Shutdown, Restore or Zone Status display. Flushing). Bumpless transfer of positions, if available, to setpoints. The AIU or foreign control Magenta Cascade control is off. Maintenance system puts the actuator beam 1/3/18 15 P/N 9 6510020586 Rev 01 -

308 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Color Indication Results States in Cannot switch actuator beam/zone modes this mode to lock out mode and setpoint changes from (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or initiate a function (for example, Shutdown, Honeywell operator station. Restore or Flushing). Bumpless transfer of positions, if available, to setpoints. Cascade control is off. Regulatory control is off for the Magenta Disabled actuator. For a Honeywell Cannot switch actuator beam/zone modes actuator, the operator can (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or disable individual actuator initiate a function (for example, Shutdown, zones from the CD Control Restore or Flushing). display in CD Controls if the Bumpless transfer of positions, if available, to actuator supports the zone setpoints. enable/disable function. The Disabled status may also be caused by some interlock violations. The AIU is requesting that Cascade control is off. Magenta Setpoint setpoints be locked, for Cannot switch actuator beam/zone modes Locked example, when an actuator (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or The Edge beam is retracted. initiate a function (for example, Shutdown, Tracking algorithm can also Restore or Flushing). cause individual zones to go Setpoints hold current values. into Setpoint Locked state (See Section 9.6 ). Applies to an actuator that is Light Cascade control performed by the foreign Remote interfaced to CD Controls Yellow control system. Cascade through a foreign control CD Controls setpoints track setpoints from system with the control ol system. foreign contr switching capability. The Can switch actuator beam/zone modes actuator is under supervisory (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or control of the foreign control initiate a function (Shutdown, Restore or system. Flushing). Cascade control is Applies to an actuator that is off. Dark Remote interfaced to CD Controls Green CD Controls setpoints track setpoints from through a foreign control foreign control system. system with the control Cannot switch actuator beam/zone modes The switching capability. (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or actuator is under the control of initiate a function (Shutdown, Restore or the operator at the foreign Flushing) from CD Controls (for Voith and control system station. For Metso actuator s). Voith and Metso actuators, this mode locks out mode and setpoint changes from Honeywell operator station. 1/3/18 - 16 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 9

309 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations States Results Color Indication Blue Cascade control is off. The beam is in a flush Flushing sequence. CD Controls sends flushing setpoints from Applies to beam only. Voith to the actuator. Only supported for Voith For ProFlow, CD Controls generates the consistency profiling headbox flushing setpoints and sends them to the actuator and ProFlow. actuators. Cannot switch actuator beam/zone modes (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or initiate another function except to stop flushing. Cascade control is off. Actuator receives The beam is shutting down on Blue Shutdown the operator’s request, or if setpoints from the Shutdown function. automatic shutdown is enabled, Actuator does not respond to mode changes, on a sheet break. Applies to except Abort and Restore. beam only. to abort shutdown function to return Need actuator to the mode prior to shutdown. The beam is restoring its Blue scade control is off. Actuator receives Ca Restore setpoint values on the setpoints from the Restore function. operator’s request, or if Actuator does not respond to mode changes, automatic restore is enabled, except Abort and Shutdown. on the clearance of a sheet Need to abort restore function to return break. Applies to beam only. actuator to the mode prior to restore. The controller controlling the Cascade control remains on. Red Cascade actuator reports an error. Setpoints hold current values. Error Applies to beam only. Can switch actuator beam/zone modes (Manual or Auto), move setpoints, or initiate a function (Shutdown, Restore or Flushi ng). The actuator is suspended from Cascade control is suspended until the Yellow Cascade cascade control because the condition is cleared. Suspended controller is unavailable or there or take the Setpoints hold current values, is a sheet break. Applies to Multiple Break Protection saved setpoints if the beam only. actuator is controlled by Fastback Modified PI controller with Multiple Break Protection enabled and a multibreak occurs. Can switch actuator beam/zone modes (Manual or Auto), move setpoints, or initiate a function (Shutdown, Restore or Flushing). Can switch actuator The beam or zone is in Cascade control is on. Yellow Cascade Cascade mode. CD Controls beam/zone modes (Manual, Auto or Cascade), controller is controlling the move setpoints, or initiate a function actuator setpoints. (Shutdown, Restore or Flushing). Yellow The zone is in Edge Tracking Setpoint automatically tracks that of the Edge Applies to offsheet and tracked zone to maintain a constant linear mode. Tracking off - measurement zones only. gradient or the current shape. The operator enters setpoints from CD The beam or zone is in Auto Green Auto mode. Actuator setpoints may Can switch actuator beam/zone Controls. be adjusted from the CD modes (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or initiate a function (Shutdown, Control display. Restore or Flushing). 17 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

310 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Results Indication States Color Both regulatory control and cascade control The beam or zone is in Manual Light Manual mode. The actuator stops are off. Blue receiving setpoints from the Can switch actuator beam/zone modes supervisory control system or (Manual, Auto or Cascade). the AIU. The actuator can only Bumpless transfer of positions, if available, to t the hand wheels be moved a setpoints. or from the AIU. Cascade control remains on. r The setpoint at the actuato Gray Bend Limit zone is at bend limit. Applies to Setpoint of the affected actuator zone limited at individual zones only. bend limit. Can switch actuator beam/zone modes (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints (within bend limits), or initiate a function (Shutdown, Restore or Flushing). Orange One or more minor system or Cascade control remains on. Warning zone alarms have occurred. Setpoints hold current values. These alarms are shown on the Can switch actuator beam/zone modes System Status display and the (Manual, Auto or Cascade), move setpoints, or Zone Status display. initiate a function (Shutdown, Restore or Flushing). The states Bend Limit and Warning are used solely for providing additional information on displays, and are applied on top of other states except any of these states of higher precedence: Link Down, Failed, Maintenance, Setpoint Locked, Remote , and Cascade Error. For instance, an actuator beam is displayed as display to warn of a minor alarm condition if it is not CD Control Warning on the also in any of the aforementioned states of higher precedence. At the zone level, Bend Limit has priority over Warning. For instance, an actuator zone is displayed d limit, in a minor alarm condition of Warning level as Bend Limit if it is at ben and not in any of the aforementioned states of higher precedence. 18 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

311 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations Beam state Calculation 9.4.5. The flow chart in Figure 9- 3 illustrates how the beam state of an actuator is determined. Current State = Link Down Yes Link Down Cascade Control On = False No Current State = Failed Failed? Yes Cascade Control On = False No Current State = Maintenance Maintenance? Yes Cascade Control On = False No Already in Current State = Manual Init Cascade Control = False Yes Disabled? Yes Remote Cascade Control On = False Cascade? No Init Cascade Control = True No Setpoint Current State = Setpoint Locked Yes Locked? Cascade Control On = False Cascade Current State = Cascade Error Yes Error? No No Remote Current State = Remote Cascade Yes Cascade? Cascade Control On = True Current State = Cascade Cascade Suspended Yes Suspended? Cascade Control On = False No No Current State = Remote Remote? Yes Cascade Control On = False Cascade Current State = Auto Yes Ready? Cascade Control On = False No No Current State = Flushing Flushing? Yes Cascade Control On = False Controlled by Current State = Auto foreign Yes Cascade Control On = False controller? No No Current State = Shutdown Shutdown? Yes Cascade Control On = False Current State = Cascade Cascade Control On = True No Already in Current State = Shutdown Restore? Yes Yes Init Cascade Control = False Cascade Control On = False Cascade? No No Init Cascade Control = True Auto Current State = Auto Yes requested? Cascade Control On = False Yes Cascade requested? Current State = Manual No Cascade Control On = False No -3 Actuator Beam State Calculation Figure 9 19 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N - 9 1/3/18

312 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management 9.4.6. Zone State Calculation Before outlining the zone state calculation, a few definitions relating to the actuator zones should be explained. An offsheet zone is a zone located outside of a sheet edge, whereas an onsheet zone is a zone located on the inside of the sheet edges. An of f-measurement zone is an onsheet zone without a valid measurement value mapped to it. An on- measurement zone is an onsheet zone with a valid measurement value mapped to it. Figure 9- 4 illustrates the differences between measurement zones. , and on- offsheet, off -measurement Zone 1, 25, and 26 are the offsheet zones as they fall outside of the sheet edges. Zones 2–4 and 22–24 are the off -measurement zones as they lie outsid e of the measurement zones with valid first and last valid zones. Zones 5–21 are the on- measurement values mapped to them. Described in Subsection 3.2.5, the Measurement Processing subsystem is responsible for calculating the first and last each actuator and each of its downstream measurements. valid zones for High Sheet Edge Low Sheet Edge First Valid Last Valid 15 5 4 3 2 1 6 10 22 17 18 8 9 23 7 12 21 14 13 11 16 20 19 24 26 25 On-Measurement Zones Off-Measurement Zones Off-Sheet Zones -4 Offsheet, Off Figure 9 Measurement Zones , and On- -Measurement o go into cascade The offsheet and the off -measurement zones are not allowed t control even with Cascade mode requested. These zones remain in Auto state with Cascade mode requested. Their zone states are normally shown with flashing red display to indicate that they CD Control background and yellow text on the cann ot go into cascade control though requested. If an actuator controls more than one measurement, as in a multivariable control scenario, an actuator may have different first and last valid zones depending on the measurement concerned. The zone state calculation needs to know which are offsheet or off measurement in order to determine the zones of an actuator Figure 9- zone states (see 5). The calculation looks at the first and last valid zones 20 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

313 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations first valid zone of the actuator refers to the zone with the of an actuator. Here the lowest zone index among all the first valid zones calculated based on the measurements controlled by the actuator, and the last valid zone refers to the zone l the last valid zones calculated based on the with the highest zone index among al measurements controlled by the actuator. 9- 5 illustrates how the zone state of an individual The flow chart in Figure ator zone is determined. The details of how the Edge Tracking function actu affects the zone states of the edge tracking zones can be found in Section 9.6. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 21 - 9 1/3/18

314 Actuator Management CD Controls User Manual Beam State or Current Zone State = Link Down Init Cascade Control = False Yes Zone Status = Link Cascade Control On = False Yes Down? Init Cascade Control = False Zone already in Init Cascade Control = True No No Remote Cascade? Beam State or Current Zone State = Failed Zone status = Yes Cascade Control On = False Failed? Init Cascade Control = False Current Zone State = Cascade Error Beam State = Cascade Control On = True Yes Cascade Error? Init Cascade Control = False Current Zone State = Maintenance No Cascade Control On = False Init Cascade Control = False No Yes Beam State or Zone Status = Current Zone State = Auto Current Zone State = Cascade Maintenance? Beam State = Suspended Cascade Yes Zone Manual Mode Cascade Control On = False Suspended? No supported and Init Cascade Control = False No enabled? Yes No Beam State or Cascade Control On = False Edge Tracking Yes No Zone Status = Init Cascade Control = False enabled? Disabled? Current Zone State = Manual Beam State = Cascade Control On = False Yes Cascade? Yes Init Cascade Control = False No Yes Current Zone State = Disabled Zone Off-Sheet or No Beam State or Cascade Control On = False Tracked zone in Yes Off-Measurement? Zone Status = Init Cascade Control = False Cascade? Setpoint Locked? Yes Beam State = Current Zone State = Setpoint Locked No Auto? Cascade Control On = False No No Init Cascade Control = False Zone already in Beam State or Track Auto Zone Current Zone State = Remote Cascade Cascade? Yes Zone Status = enabled & Tracked Yes Cascade Control On = True Remote Cascade? zone in Auto? No No Yes No Yes Init Cascade Control = True Current Zone State = Beam State or Current Zone State = Remote Setpoint Locked Yes Zone Status = Cascade Control On = False Remote? Init Cascade Control = False No Init Cascade Control = False No All off-sheet/off- No measurement Current Zone State = Auto zones on the same Cascade Control On = False Current Zone State = Flushing edge are requested Beam State = Yes Init Cascade Control = False Cascade Control On = False Cascade and Flushing? Init Cascade Control = False currently in Auto Current Zone State = Manual state? Cascade Control On = False Yes No Init Cascade Control = False Requested Auto for No Current Zone State = zone? Current Zone State = Shutdown Beam State = Edge Tracking Yes Cascade Control On = False Shutdown? Init Cascade Control = False Yes No Yes Yes Beam state = Manual? No Beam State = Requested Yes Restore? Cascade for zone? No Current Zone State = Auto Current Zone State = Restore No Cascade Control On = False Cascade Control On = False Init Cascade Control = False Init Cascade Control = False Figure 9 -5 Actuator Zone State Calculation 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 1/3/18 9 22 -

315 Actuator Management Beam and Zone State Calculations Regulatory Control On 9.4.7. The Regulatory Control On flag applies to the actuator beam as well as the individual zones. At the zone level, the flags are stored as an array of Boolean (true/false) values. The Regulatory Control On flag (or array) is not used to determine the beam and zone states of an actuator, but is generated as a result of a rol is enabled beam/zone mode request. The flag is set to True if regulatory cont for the actuator beam or zone, and False otherwise. If regulatory control is enabled for an actuator, the actuator receives setpoints from the supervisory control system. The setpoints are provided by the operator if the actuator is in Auto, or by the controller if the actuator is in Cascade. When the operator requests Manual mode for the actuator beam, the Regulatory Control On flag is set to False for that actuator to disable regulatory control for ements in the Regulatory Control On the beam. For the individual zones, the el array are set to False to disable regulatory control for the zones. If the actuator is in Auto or Cascade beam state, and the operator requests certain zones to go into Manual (provided that manual zone mode request is s upported), those zones have their Regulatory Control On flags set to False. When regulatory control is -calculated or disabled for an actuator zone, the zone stops receiving the controller -entered setpoint from the supervisory control system. The position of the operator actuator zone can only be changed at the hand wheel or from the AIU. 9.4.8. Cascade Control On The Cascade Control On flag applies to the actuator beam as well as the individual zones. At the zone level, the flags are stored as an array of Boolean (true/false) values. The flag is not used to determine the beam and zone states of an actuator, but is generated as a result of the beam and zone state calculation (see 3 and Figure 9- Figure 9- 5). The flag is True if the actuator or the actuator zone is put into cascade control, and False otherwise. An actuator is under supervisory trol when its setpoints are calculated automatically by a controller (which can con be a CD Controls traditional or multivariable controller, or a foreign controller), and cannot be changed by the operator. The Cascade Control On flag and array are used by the controller to determine whether or not to calculate setpoints for an actuator beam, or for a given zone. Init Cascade Control 9.4.9. The Init Cascade Control flag applies to the actuator beam as well as the individual zones. At the zone level, the flags are stor ed as an array of Boolean (true/false) values. The flag is not used to determine the beam and zone states of 23 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

316 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management an actuator, but is generated as a result of the beam and zone state calculation (see Figure 9- 3 and Figure 9- 5). The Actuator Management subsystem sets the Init Cascade Control flag and array to True to force the traditional controller controlling an actuator to initialize when: • he actuator beam into Cascade mode. The The operator switches t controllers for the individual actuator zones all initialize before they begin controlling their first errors . • The operator switches a particular zone of the actuator beam into one initializes before it begins Cascade mode. The controller for that z . controlling its first error • The actuator beam controlled by the traditional controller gets out of an alarm state and returns to cascade control . A particular zone of the actuator beam controlled by the traditional • ler gets out of an alarm state and returns to cascade control control . See Subsection 4.4.1 for more detail on initialization of the traditional controller. Shutdown and Restore 9.5. The Shutdown and Restore functions are combined as one optional feature for the or. This optional feature can be enabled or disabled for an actuator from the actuat Actuator Management Setup display (see Figure 9- 14). This feature is disabled by default . The Shutdown part of the feature allows actuator setpoints to be lowered to some specified target during events such as sheet breaks. The Restore part of the function allows actuator setpoints to be restored to some desired values when the process is bac k to normal. The Shutdown and Restore functions are mutually exclusive; only one may be requested at any one time. The Shutdown function is useful if the operator wishes to disengage the actuators quickly to not respond to a process upset, to shut down the actuators in an orderly fashion on a sheet break, or to prepare them for maintenance purposes. The Shutdown and Restore functions are designed to slowly ramp the actuator setpoints to the target values within a specified time interval. The display Shutdown/Restore parameters are accessible through the Actuator Setup 14. Set either or both the Shutdown and Restore functions to be shown in Figure 9- lly by an upstream sheet break signal, or manually using the initiated automatica Actuator Management Setup display. See the CD Control buttons on the display for how to set up the Shutdown/Restore option. 24 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

317 Actuator M Shutdown and Restore anagement ly occurs If the Shutdown function is set to be automatic, a shutdown automatical on the actuator when the scanner from which the actuator receives its measurement(s) detects a sheet break. If the Restore function is also set to be automatic, a restore occurs automatically when the sheet break is cleared. If the manual option is selected, and if the operator is allowed to initiate a shutdown, the CD Control operator can start a shutdown from the display. The control engineer is automatically granted the right to initiate a shutdown. Regardless of which option, automatic or manual, is selected, the operator can always abort a shutdown by pressing the Abort button on the CD Control display, or restore the actuator setpoints during the shutdown by pressing the Restore button on the same display. Refer to the Operator Manual for det ails regarding how to manually initiate the Shutdown and Restore functions from the CD Control display. When Shutdown or Restore is requested for an actuator, the actuator goes into Shutdown or Restore beam state and its zones into Shutdown or Restore zone 3 and Figure 9- state respectively as shown in Figure 9- 5. The sequence of events e 6. For the case wher during the Shutdown/Restore process is outlined in Figure 9- the Shutdown/Restore functions are automatically triggered on a sheet break, the sequence of events begins at (A). For the case where the Shutdown/Restore functions are manually triggered, the sequence of events begins at (B), excluding all sheet break checks (denoted by dot -filled diamonds and dotted paths). The ramping setpoints of an actuator during a shutdown or restore process are stored in a separate array known as the Shutdown Restore Setpoints. These he setpoint calculation (see Section setpoints are applied to the actuator during t 9.7). 25 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

318 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management No Sheet Break and Shutdown on Break? No (A) Yes Request Shutdown Current Beam State = Shutdown Initialization (B) Shutdown (Generate target Yes requested? setpoints and rate) Shutting Down (Ramping down setpoints) Current Beam State = Restore Sheet Break Cleared and Request Restore Shutdown Done Yes Yes Restore after Shutdown? No Yes No New Sheet Break? Restore Restore Yes Aborting requested? Requested? No No No Abort Abort Abort Yes Yes Requested? Requested? requested? No No Yes Restoring Request (Ramping up Shutdown setpoints) New Sheet Break? No No Abort Yes Requested No Restore Current Beam State = Auto or Cascade Completing Yes Completed ? Yes Figure 9 -6 Shutdown and Restore Processes 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 26 1/3/18 - 9

319 Actuator Management Edge Tracking Edge Tracking 9.6. The purpose of the Edge Tracking function is to maintain the shapes of the actuator setpoint profile at the edges where the actuator zones fall outside of the edges of the sheet or have no valid measurement value when the actuator beam is in cascade control. This is achieved by automatically moving the setpoints of the -measurement actuator zones (tracking zones) to track the offsheet and off setpoints of the specified onsheet on- measurement zones (tracked zones). The Edge Tracking function is optional, and can be enabled or disabled for an ). The Actuator Management Setup display (see actuator from the Figure 9- 14 nts of an actuator with Edge Tracking function is disabled by default. The setpoi enabled are stored in a separate array known as the Edge Tracking Setpoints. These setpoints are applied to the actuator during the setpoint calculation (see Section 9.7). The Edge Tracking function is primarily used on the headbox actuators, such as the AutoSlice, but can also be used for other actuators. Exercise caution when using the Edge Tracking function, particularly in any of these situations: • on a headbox actuator with more than two offsheet/off -measurement zones on each edge, Edge Tracking may create large changes in stock at the edges leading to edge instability e is no paper for Calcoil, high actuator setpoints at the edges where ther • may create large temperature gradients that could result in cycling of setpoints and undesirable oscillation in the caliper profile • for Devronizer and AquaTrol, Edge Tracking should be disabled if the mill requires that no steam or water be a dded to the rolls by the offsheet actuator zones Edge Tracking Zones 9.6.1. When the Edge Tracking function is enabled for an actuator, the function is performed on the offsheet and off -measurement zones on both ends of the actuator beam when the actuator beam is in cascade control. These offsheet and measurement zones are referred to as the tracking zones. On each end of the off- -measurement zone whose setpoint is tracked by the actuator beam, there is one on me asurement zone is referred setpoints of the tracking zones on that end. This on- to as the tracked zone. The definitions of an offsheet zone, an off -measurement zone and an on- 4. measurement zone are explained in Figure 9- 27 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

320 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management 4 (off- See the actuator beam shown in Figure 9- 7. Zone 1 (offsheet), and Zone 2– measurement) are the tracking zones on the low edge of the actuator; Zone 22–24 (off- rement), Zone 25 and 26 are the tracking zones on the high edge of the measu actuator. For either edge, the tracked zone can be any zone between Zone 5 (the first valid zone) and Zone 21 (the last valid zone) inclusive. The first and last valid zones of an actua tor have the same definitions as in Subsection 3.2.5. High Sheet Edge Low Sheet Edge First Valid Last Valid 15 23 25 21 26 5 4 3 2 1 6 10 9 8 7 12 22 14 13 11 16 20 19 18 17 24 Tracking Zones Tracking Zones On-Measurement Zones Off-Measurement Zones Off-Sheet Zones Figure 9 -7 Edge Tracking Zones The tracking zones on either end of the actuator beam must all be in Auto with Cascade mode requested, and the tracked zone must be in Cascade or Auto (if Track Auto Zone option is selected) in order to perform Edge Tracking. The Track Auto Zone option allows the tracking zones to follow the tracked zone even when the tracked zone is in Auto. If th ere are some tracking zones on one end of the actuator beam that are not in Auto with Cascade mode requested, all tracking zones on that end are put into Setpoint Locked state, and Edge Tracking is not performed. If the tracked zone on one end is not in Ca scade or Auto state, all tracking zones on that end are also put into Setpoint Locked state, and Edge Tracking is not performed. Edge Tracking Modes 9.6.2. Select one of two modes available for the Edge Tracking function: Linear and Shape. The Linear mode maintai ns a linear setpoint gradient between the tracking zones and their tracked zone, while the Shape mode maintains the setpoint profile shape of the tracking zones relative to their tracked zone. Select the Edge Actuator Tracking mode and specify the associated parameters from the display. Management Setup 28 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

321 Actuator Management Edge Tracking Linear Edge Tracking Mode 9.6.2.1. The Linear Edge Tracking Mode maintains a linear setpoint gradient between the tracking zones and their tracked zone. The tracked zone for the low edge of the irst valid zone, and the tracked zone for the high edge of the actuator beam is the f actuator beam is the last valid zone. The setpoint gradient to maintain for the low edge is calculated based on the setpoints of the first zone and the first valid zone. Likewise, the setpoint gradient to maintain for the high edge is calculated based on the setpoints of the last zone and the last valid zone. rks. Before Linear Edge Figure 9- 8 demonstrates how Linear Edge Tracking wo Tracking is applied , as shown in (a), the setpoint difference between the first zone (Zone 1) and the tracked zone (Zone 4) is . When Linear Edge Tracking is x applied, the function calculates the linear line between Zone 1 and Zone 4 , as shown in (b). The linear line determines the representing the setpoint gradient setpoints for Zone 2 and 3 in order to maintain the setpoint gradient. Zone 2 and 3 are then moved to these new setpoints. In (c), the setpoint of Zone 4 is now , due to a new setpoint provided by the controller or the operator. The decreased y setpoint difference between Zone 1 and 4 is reduced to . The Linear Edge Tracking function recalculates the setpoint gradient between Zone 1 and 4, and decrease the setpoints of Zone 2 and 3 accordingly. Sheet Sheet Sheet Edge Edge Edge First Valid First Valid First Valid (tracked zone) (tracked zone) (tracked zone) x x y 6 6 6 4 3 1 7 8 2 5 8 2 1 7 5 3 3 2 1 7 8 5 4 4 (c) (b) (a) -8 Linear Edge Tracking Figure 9 9.6.2.2. Shape Edge Tracking Mode The Shape Edge Tracking Mode maintains the setpoint profile shape of the tracking zones relative to their tracked zone. This means maintaining the setpoint difference between each tracking zone and the tracked zone. Unlike the Linear Edge Tracking Mode where the tracked zones are the first and last valid zones, the Shape Edge Tracking Mode allows you to select the tracked zones to be some onsheet/on- measurement zones other than the first and last valid 29 - 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18

322 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management zones. This is done by specifying the Low Edge Track Offset and the High Edge -14). Figure 9 display (see Actuator Management Setup Track Offset from the -9, the Low Edge Track Offset represents the number of As illustrated in Figure 9 zones the low edge tracked zone is offset from the first valid zone, and the High Edge Track Offset represents the number of zones the high edge tracked zone is offset from the last valid zone. On the low edge, Zone 1–4 track Zone 7 instead of Zone 5, the first valid zone, because the Low Edge Track Offset is 2. On the high edge, Zone 22–26 track Zone 18 instead of Zone 21, the last valid zone, because the High Edge Track Offset is 3. If both track offsets are set to zero, the tracked and last valid zones. zones become the first High Sheet Edge Low Sheet Edge High Edge Track Offset = 3 Low Edge Track Offset = 2 High Edge Tracked Zone Low Edge Tracked Zone First Valid Last Valid 15 26 23 24 25 21 22 17 18 19 20 16 11 13 14 12 7 8 9 10 6 1 2 3 4 5 On-Measurement Zones Off-Measurement Zones Off-Sheet Zones Figure 9 -9 Low and High Edge Track Offsets The setpoint differences between the tracking zones and the tracked zone are s as delta setpoints after the Shape Edge saved for both the low and high edge Tracking Mode is enabled and before any edge tracking has taken place. If the setpoint of the tracked zone changes, the Shape Edge Tracking function adjusts the setpoints of the tracking zones to maintain the same delta setpoints. However, if the position of the tracked zone changes, the adjustment is more involved. In -10, the tracked zone (first valid zone) has moved inwards from Zone Figure 9 5, as in (a) to Zone 6 as in (b). As a result, the number of tracking zones has increased from four (Zone 1 –4) to five (Zone 1–5). In order to maintain the relative shape, the Shape Edge Tracking function moves Zone 5, 4, 3, and 2 to , x with Zone 6 respectively. The function w , y and z maintain a delta setpoint of ecause there is also moves the setpoint of Zone 1 to equal the setpoint of Zone 2 b no previous delta setpoint. 9 1/3/18 P/N 30 - 6510020586 Rev 01

323 Actuator Management Setpoint Calculation Sheet Sheet Edge Edge Tracked Zone Tracked Zone (first valid zone) (first valid zone) x w y x w y z z z 7 6 8 1 2 3 5 4 8 7 2 4 6 3 1 5 (b) (a) : Tracked Zone Moves Inwards -10 Shape Edge Tracking Figure 9 -11, the tracked zone (first valid zone) has moved outwards from Zone In Figure 9 5 as in (a) to Zone 3 as in (b). As a result, the number of tracking zones has decreased from four (Zone 1–4) to two (Zone 1–2). In order to maintain the relative shape, the Shape Edge Tracking function moves Zone 2 and 1 to maintain x a delta setpoint of w and with Zone 3 respectively. Sheet Sheet Edge Edge Tracked Zone (first valid zone) x w Tracked Zone (first valid zone) x w y z 7 6 8 3 2 1 5 4 6 8 7 1 2 3 5 4 (b) (a) : Tracked Zone Moves Outwards -11 Shape Edge Tracking Figure 9 Setpoint Calculation 9.7. The setpoints of the individual zones of an actuator beam depend on the states of the zones, the setpoint limits applied to them, and whether or not the Deadbanding an actuator controlled by the Fastback function is enabled for the actuator. For Modified PI controller with the Multiple Break Protection feature enabled, the actuator setpoints may be restored to some previous saved setpoints on a multiple tor beam when it is in break. The operator may also choose to restore an actua Auto control to some previously saved setpoint profile. Furthermore, a slice lip actuator, such as the AutoSlice, may also have the Bend Limiting function enabled to protect the lip from excessive kinking. The Bend Limiting function 31 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

324 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management further limits the setpoints of the actuator based on the first and second order bend limits specified. In CD Controls, there are a number of setpoint arrays for each actuator: Setpoints Auto: • stores the setpoints for actuator zones in Auto state. oint changes requested by the operator, or as a result of a Any setp restoration of a saved setpoint profile, are first written to the Setpoints Auto array before they are copied to the Setpoints Out array. The Setpoints Out array is then copied back to the Setpoints Auto array to ensure bumpless transfer of setpoints when the actuator is switched from cascade to auto control Setpoints Cascade: stores the setpoints for actuator zones in Cascade • state. The controller controlling the actuator calculates these setpoints. There is one Setpoints Cascade array for each possible controller for the actuator. For an actuator that can be controlled by either the CD Controls traditional controller or a foreign controller, it has two d at any one time Setpoints Cascade arrays, but only one is use : stores the setpoints to be sent to the actuator through the Setpoints Out • communication link between CD Controls and the AIU • : stores the flushing setpoints that are sent to the Flushing Setpoints ng sequence. CD Controls actuator when the actuator is in a flushi currently supports flushing for Voith profiling headbox actuator and ProFlow only. Voith generates the flushing setpoints and sends them to CD Controls. CD Controls monitors the status of the actuator and flush requests made by the operator, and passes the flushing setpoints to the actuator when it is ready for flushing. For ProFlow, CD Controls monitors the flush sequence, generates the flushing setpoints and send them to the actuators e setpoints of the : stores th Multiple Break Protection Setpoints • actuator on a sheet break (a non -multiple break) if the actuator has Multiple Break Protection enabled so that the actuator can be restored to these setpoints on a multiple break • actuator for a Grade Initial Setpoints : stores the saved setpoints of the given grade so the operator can reload the setpoints when the grade is loaded • : stores the saved setpoints of the actuator so the Saved Setpoints operator can restore the actuator to these setpoints at any time. The number of saved setpoints arrays allowed is chosen during system 32 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

325 Actuator Management Calculation Setpoint configuration. The saved setpoints arrays are preserved when the system shuts down and restarts • : setpoints generated by the Shutdown/Restore Setpoints Shutdown/Restore function to ramp down or up the setpoints of the actuator automatically on a sheet break, or on the operator’s request if the Shutdown/Restore function is enabled Edge Tracking Setpoints : setpoints generated by the Edge Tracking • -measurement zones to track the function for the offsheet and off measurement zones if the function is enabled setpoints of some on- : setpoints generated by the Bend Limit function Bend Limit Setpoints • -to-zone setpoint deviations in an actuator beam to limit zone The Setpoints Out array of an actuator may contain a mixture of setpoints from the other setpoint arrays listed above and positions from the positions array depending on the states of the individual actuator zones, whether or not the actuator beam is in the process of a function where its setpoints are manipulated, such as the Shutdown/Restore function and the Flushing function, whether or not the operator has restored the actuator to some saved setpoint profi le, and whether or not there is a multiple break if the actuator has Multiple Break Protection function enabled. For an actuator beam in Cascade mode, the Setpoints Out array may contain a mixture of setpoints from the Setpoints Cascade, Setpoints Auto, ge Tracking Setpoints and Bend Limit Setpoints arrays depending on the state Ed of the individual zones and whether or not the Edge Tracking and Bend Limit functions are enabled for the actuator. 9.7.1. Setpoint Limits There are five types of setpoint limits that c an be applied to the setpoints of an actuator: • : These are the physical setpoint limits Hard Upper and Lower Limits of the actuator determined during system configuration. These limits CD Setup display (refer to the Operator can be viewed on the Manual), but cannot be edited at runtime. The setpoints of the actuator, whether they are calculated by the controller or provided by the operator, can never violate these hard limits. All zones of an actuator share the same hard upper and lower limits. All the other setpoint limits in the following bullets are not allowed to violate the hard limits • : If the Offsheet Limits option is enabled for Offsheet Setpoint Limits the actuator, the offsheet setpoint limits is applied to the offsheet zones of the actuator regardl ess of whether the zones are in Auto, Edge 33 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

326 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Tracking or Setpoint Locked state. These limits are specified by the Max Offsheet Setpoints array and the Min Offsheet Setpoints array. Individual actuator zones can have different offsheet setpoints limits. The O ffsheet Limits option can be enabled or disabled, and the Max Offsheet Setpoints and the Min Offsheet Setpoints array can be edited Figure 9- display (see Actuator Management Setup from the 14). The Offsheet Limits option is enabled by default • Auto Setpoint Limits : If the Max/Min Auto Setpoints option is enabled for the actuator, the auto setpoint limits is applied to both on- measurement and off e in Auto state. These -measurement zones that ar limits are specified by the Max Auto Setpoints array and the Min Auto Setpoints array. Individual actuator zones can have different auto setpoints limits. The Max/Min Auto Setpoints option can be enabled or disabled, and the Max Auto Setpoints and the Min Auto Setpoints display array can be edited from the Actuator Management Setup (see 14 ). The Max/Min Auto Setpoints option is enabled by Figure 9- default • : If the Max/Min Cascade Setpoints option is Cascade Setpoint Limits enabled for the actuator, the cascade setpoint limits are applied to on- measurement zones that are in Cascade, and off -measurement zones that are in Edge Tracking or Setpoints Loc ked. These limits are specified by the Max Cascade Setpoints array and the Min Cascade Setpoints array. Individual actuator zones can have different cascade setpoints limits. The Max/Min Cascade Setpoints option can be enabled or disabled, and the Max Casc ade Setpoints and the Min Cascade Setpoints array can be edited from the Actuator Figure 9 display (see -14). The Max/Min Cascade Management Setup Setpoints option is e nabled by default • Bend Limiting Setpoint Limits : If the Bend Limiting option is enabled for the actuator, the bend limiting setpoint limits calculated by the Bend Limiting algorithm based on the first and second order bend limits is applied to all zones of the actuator provided that they are all not in Auto or Cascade control of a foreign control system (not in Remote or Remote Cascade state) and their Regulatory Control On flags are all set to true. These bend limiting setpoint limits cannot violate any of the setpoint limits, meaning that the bend limiting setpoint limits have to be within the cascade setpoint limits for a zone in cascade, and within the auto setpoint limits for a zone in auto, and so forth. The bend limit function can be enabled or disabled, and the an be edited from the -order bend limits c first and second Actuator 9- 14). The bend limit setpoint limits Management display (see Figure are shown as dashed lines on the actuator graph on the CD Control 9.7.3 for the Bend Limiting algorithm. . See Subsection display 34 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

327 Actuator Management Setpoint Calculation 4 summar izes the setpoint calculation based on zone state and setpoint Table 9- limits. Table 9- 4 Actuator Setpoint Calculation Setpoints Setpoint Limits Zone State Additional Conditions - Max/Min Cascade Setpoints Cascade Cascade Setpoints Max/Min Cascade Setpoints Out (last setpoints) Controller initialization due to for example, zone Setpoints Cascade switched from Auto to Cascade Max/Min Offsheet Edge Tracking Setpoints Offsheet zone Edge Tracking Setpoints Edge Tracking Setpoints Max/Min Cascade Onsheet zone Tracking Edge Setpoints Offsheet zone Max/Min Offsheet Setpoints Auto Auto Setpoints Max/Min Auto Setpoints Setpoints Auto -measurement or on- Off Auto measurement zone Just switched to Auto Setpoints Out (last setpoints) - Auto from some other state except Cascade Setpoints Out (last setpoints) Just switched to Auto - Auto from Cascade Shutdown Restore Setpoints Shutdown - Hard Upper/Lower Limits Setpoints Restore - Hard Upper/Lower Limits Shutdown Restore Setpoints from foreign control - - Remote system Setpoints from foreign control - - Remote Cascade system Flushing setpoints (from AIU or - - Flushing the foreign control system) Flush Open/Close Flushing setpoints generated by - Force Positions or CD Controls Open/Close Positions Flushing (for specified on the ProFlow ProFlow only) Flush display (refer to the Operator’s Manual) - - Positions (if available from the AIU) or Setpoints Out (last Manual setpoints) Positions (if - available from the - AIU) or Setpoints Out (last Link Down setpoints) - - Positions (if available from the Failed AIU) or Setpoints Out (last setpoints) 35 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

328 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Additional Conditions Zone State Setpoint Limits Setpoints Positions (if available from the - - AIU) or Setpoints Out (last Maintenance setpoints) Positions - - (if available from the Disabled AIU) or Setpoints Out (last setpoints) Setpoints Locked - - Setpoints Out (last setpoints) Setpoints Out (last setpoints) Cascade Error - - - - Cascade Setpoints Out (last setpoints) Suspended A multiple break Multiple Break Protection Saved - Setpoints for zones that were in condition occurs. The Cascade prior to the sheet actuator is controlled by Cascade break. Zones that were not in Fastback Modified PI Suspended controller with Multiple Cascade prior to the sheet break remain at last setpoints Break Protection enabled. (Setpoints Out). When an actuator beam (or zone) is switched to Auto from some previous state, the actuator starts from its current setpoints (Setpoints Out) which are copied to the Setpoints Auto array to ensure a bumpless transfer. The last setpoints of an actuator is preserved during a system power cycle. This ensures that when a system starts, before the actuator positions are received from ke place, the the AIU and a bumpless transfer of positions to setpoints can ta actuator is shown in its last setpoints. 9.7.2. Setpoint Deadbanding The purpose of the Setpoint Deadbanding function is to avoid insignificant changes in actuator setpoints and subsequently reduce wear and tear on the actuator. Any setpoint change less than the deadband value specified is ignored. The Deadbanding function is optional and is only applied to the actuator controlled by the CD Controls controller (traditional or multivariable). The function is disabled by default. The function can be enabled or disabled, and the deadband value can be edited from the Actuator Management Setup display (see 14 ). Figure 9- 9.7.3. Bend Limiting Certain actuators that are used to alter the shape of a uniform material, such as a slice lip, are susceptible to causing kinks in the material if the setpoint differences between adjacent zones are over the maximum bending stress allowed for that 36 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

329 Actuator Management Additional Functions material. The Bend Limiting function is an optional feature used to ensure that the setpoints for such actuators are subjected to some adjacent actuator deviation limits, and that the resultant setpoints does not cause the overall shape of the slice lip to bend or kink. The function is disabled by default. If the Bend Limiting option is enabled for the actuator, the setpoints of the individual actuator zones are subjected to adjacent zone deviation limits specified by the First Order Bend Limit and the Second Order Bend Limit. The first and second order bend limits are the maximum bending limits for a slice lip actuator in a first and a second order bending situation. These limits are expressed in the setpoint units of the actuator as a difference in the vertical positions of two points ng the actuator by one actuator zone width. The first order bend limit separated alo is the maximum absolute setpoint difference between two adjacent zones. It applies only to the edge actuator zones (first and last zones) because these zones have just one neighbor. The second order bend limit is the maximum absolute difference between an actuator zone and the average setpoint of its two adjacent , for example, edge zones, which have two non- zones. It applies to all other zones neighbors. The principle of the Bend Limitin g function is to produce an actuator ) ( i u setpoint profile so the setpoint at each zone is within the bend limits: i of number zones where { } , 1 , limit ) first bend order ) ( 1 = − ≤ = ( N N + i u i i u 1 , 1 ,..., 2 { limit } bend order second )} 1 ( ) { 1 ( ( + ≤ = − ) i i N u i u − + − u i 2 The Bend Limiting function also determines the maximum and minimum setpoint values for each zone that do not violate that zone bend limit, nor the bend limits of either of that zones neighbors for the current setpoint values. These limits are Limiting used to constrain setpoint bumps made to zones in Auto when the Bend function is enabled. The Bend Limiting function can be enabled or disabled for an actuator, and the bend limits values can be edited from the Actuator Setup display (see Figure 9- 14). 9.8. Additional Functions The Actuator Management subsystem is responsible for updating the actuator trim positions based on the transducer (VIO) readings or the operator (manual) entries on the CD Setup display (refer to the Operator Manual). If the actuator trims are measured by the transducers, and are received in the form of VIOs, the Actuator Management subsystem processes these trim readings in a linear fashion based on ctuator trims are the slopes and intercepts associated with the VIOs. If the a 37 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

330 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management measured by the operator based on some reference point, the Actuator Management subsystem calculates the trim positions by subtracting the Ref to Zone Midpoint from the Ref to Sheet Edge and adding half the actuator zone ation of the actuator low trim position is demonstrated in Figure width. The calcul 9- 12. Low Sheet Edge Edge Zone Midpoint Reference Point Ref to Sheet Edge Ref to Zone Midpoint Half Zone Width Sheet Actuator Actuator Zone 1 Zone 2 Low Trim Position -12 Calculation of Actuator Low Trim Position Figure 9 The actuator trim positions calculated by the Actuator Management subsystem are Alignment displayed on the –13), and are used by the display (see Figure 3 -Processing subsystem for alignment calculation if the WebTrak Measurement -scanner pair. Track Trim Offsets option is enabled for the actuator For the purpose of recording the amount of time each sheet property is on control in the MIS reports, the Actuator Management subsystem sets a flag for each sheet o indicate whether or not the sheet property is under cascade control. property t The subsystem first finds out what actuators are controlling the measurement in the current control scenario, and which actuators have significant impacts on the measurement. An actuato r is considered having a significant impact on the measurement if its normalized gain on the measurement is greater than or equal to the normalized gain threshold (see Subsection 3.3.6). If at least one of the actuators, which have significant impacts on t he measurement, is in cascade control, the measurement is considered on control. 38 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

331 Actuator Management Actuator Management Displays Actuator Management Displays 9.9. There are two displays associated with the Actuator Management subsystem: display • Actuator Management Setup • Control Status display The Actuator Management Setup display, accessible to the control engineer only, is covered in Section 9.9.1. The Control Status display, accessible to both the Experion MX CD rator and the control engineer, is described in detail in the ope Controls R701.1 Operator Manual (p/n 6510020587). Actuator Management Setup Display 9.9.1. Actuator Management The display allows the control engineer to view and edit the parameters ass ociated with the functions of the Actuator Management display can be accessed by subsystem. The Actuator Management Setup tab CD Actuator Management Actuator Management Setup under the clicking isplay M ). It is accessible to the control engineer Figure 9- (see on the D bar enu 13 only. ar ( -13 Display Menu B Figure 9 ) Actuator Management Setup 39 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

332 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management with the 14 display is shown in Figure 9- Actuator Management Setup The display areas, buttons, and items labeled. Setup Display -14 Actuator Management Figure 9 The display is divided into the top and bottom Sections. The top section labeled Non Grade Dependent contains the non grade -dependent parameters, whereas the -dependent bottom Section labeled Grade Dependent contains the grade parameters. The non grade -dependent parameters are saved to the Permanents dependent parameters are saved to the current grade in database while the grade- the Recipes database. Table 9- 5 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 9 -14. 5 Actuator Management Setup Items Table 9- Description Name Number 1 Actuator Selector Bar Controller Indicator Displays the name of the controller controlling the selected actuator. 2 Apply Changes/Discard Changes Buttons 3 40 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

333 Actuator Management Actuator Management Displays Description Number Name Displays and allows editing of Cascade Delay parameters. See Section 9.3 4 Cascade Delay Panel for details on the Cascade Delay function. checked enables the Cascade Delay function for the selected 4a Cascade Delay When Enabled actuator. or Displays and allows editing of the Cascade Delay mode: User Entry 4b Cascade Delay . Charge Filter Mode hich the actuator Number of Scans Displays and allowing editing of the number of scans for w 4c is delayed before going into cascade control if the Cascade Delay mode is User Entry. Available only if Cascade Delay is enabled and the mode is User Entry. Displays and allows editing of Deadbanding parameters. See Subsection Setpoint Deadband 5 Panel 9.7.2 for details on the Deadbanding function. When checked enables the Deadbanding function on the se lected actuator. 5a Setpoint Deadband Enabled Displays and allows editing of the setpoint deadband value applied to the Setpoint Deadband 5b selected actuator. Available only if Deadbanding is enabled. 6 Shutdown/Restore Displays and allows editing of the Shutdown/Restore parameters. See 9.5 Section Panel for details on the Shutdown/Restore function. 6a Enable Shutdown When checked allows shutdown/restore to be performed on the actuator. The , and Abort buttons may become available on the , Shutdown Restore Restore CD Control display depending on whether or not the actuator is in a shutdown or restore process. The buttons are grayed out if the shutdown/restore functions are disabled. 41 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

334 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Description Number Name Shutdown On When checked enables a shutdown on the actuator to take place on a 6b Break sheet break. Shutdown Period 6c Displays and allows editing of the time period over which the actuator is shut down to its target setpoint value. . % of Last Displays and allows editing of the shutdown mode: or Absolute Shutdown To Mode 6d Shutdown To Value 6e Displays and allows editing of the target setpoint value to which the actuator is shut down. Depending on the shutdown mode, the target value can be an absolute setpoint or a percentage of the last setpoint. the operator to perform shutdown/restore manually When checked allows 6f Allow Operator display by pressing the corresponding CD Control on the actuator from the Shutdown buttons. When checked enables a restore on the actuator to take place after a sheet 6g Restore After Break break. Displays and allows editing of the time period over which the actuator is Period Restore 6h restored to its target setpoint value. . % of Last or Absolute Displays and allows editing of the restore mode: 6i Restore To Mode ting of the target setpoint value to which the Displays and allows edi 6j Restore To Value actuator is restored. Depending on the restore mode, the target value can be an absolute setpoint or a percentage of the last setpoint. Offsheet Limits Displays and allows editing of the parameters concerning the setpoint limits 7 for details on the off 9.7.1 sheet for offsheet actuator zones. See Subsection Panel setpoint limits. 7a Offsheet Limits When checked enables the offsheet setpoint limits to be applied to the Enable offsheet actuator zones. Displays and allows editing of the maximum offsheet setpoint limits for the Max Offsheet 7b individual actuator zones. Available only if the use of offsheet setpoint limits Setpoints is enabled. 7c Min Offsheet Displays and allows editing of the minimum offsheet setpoint limits for the heet setpoint limits individual actuator zones. Available only if the use of offs Setpoints is enabled. 8 Edge Tracking 9.6 Displays and allows editing of Edge Tracking parameters. See Section dge Tracking function. Panel for details on the E 42 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

335 Actuator Management Actuator Management Displays Number Name Description Edge Tracking 8a When checked enables the Edge Tracking function on the selected actuator. Enabled . Shape Displays and allows editing of the Edge Tracking mode: Linear or Edge Tracking 8b Mode Available only if Edge Tracking is enabled. 8c Track Auto Zone? When checked allows the tracking zones to track the tracked zone even if the tracked zone is in Auto mode. Available only if Edge Tracking is enabled. Low Edge Track offset. Available only if 8d Displays and allows editing of the low edge track Edge Tracking is enabled and the mode is Shape. Offset 8e High Edge Track Displays and allows editing of the high edge track offset. Available only if Offset Edge Tracking is enabled and the mode is Shape. ys and allows editing of the parameters concerning the Bend Limit 9 Bend Limiting Displa Panel function. See Subsection 9.7.3 for details on the Bend Limit function. When checked, enables bend limiting. This parameter is saved to the 9a Enable Bend Limiting limits. for details on the bend 9.7.3 Permanents database. See Subsection 9b Configuration Mode Displays and allows editing of the bend limits configuration mode. Available options are Basic or Advanced. The Basic configuration mode allows all individual zones' bend limits to be set by specifying the first and second order limits. The Advanced configuration mode allows each zones' bend limits to be individually configured. Available only if bend limits are enabled. The bend limits are saved to the Permanents database. See Subsection 9.7.3 for details on the bend limits. st 9c 1 Order Limit Displays and allows editing of the first order bend limit in actuator setpoint units. The first order limit applies to the edge (i.e. first and last) zones only. ( units ) This parameter is saved to the Permanents database. See Subsection for details on the bend limits. 9.7.3 nd 2 Order Limit 9d Displays and allows editing of the second order bend limit in actuator ( units ) setpoint units. The second order limit applies to all zones except for the edge (i.e. first and last) zones. This parameter is saved to the Permanents 9.7.3 ts. for details on the bend limi database. See Subsection ) units Bend Limit ( 9e Displays and allows editing of the bend limits for individual zones in actuator setpoint units. The first and last bend limit values are treated as first order limits while all other values are treated as second order limits. The bend limits are saved to t he Permanents database. See Subsection for details on the bend limits. 9.7.3 r for cascade control. The Cascade Control 10 When unchecked disables the selected actuato CD operator cannot switch the actuator into Cascade mode from the Enabled display. Control 43 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 9 -

336 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Management Number Name Description 11 Displays and allow editing of the parameters concerning the Cascade Max/Min Cascade setpoint limits. These parameters are grade dependent. See Subsection Setpoints Panel 9.7.1 for details on Cascade setpoint limits. 11a e setpoint limits to be applied to the Max/Min Cascade When checked enables the cascad Setpoints Enabled actuator zones under cascade control. Displays and allows editing of the maximum cascade setpoint limits for the Max Cascade 11b individual actuator zones. Available only if the use of cascade setpoint limi ts Setpoints is enabled. Displays and allows editing of the minimum cascade setpoint limits for the Min Cascade 11c individual actuator zones. Available only if the use of cascade setpoint limits Setpoints is enabled. 12 Displays and allow editing of the parameters concerning the Auto setpoint Auto Setpoint for dependent. See Subsection 9.7.1 limits. These parameters are grade- Limiting Panel deta ils on Auto setpoint limits. When checked allows the Auto setpoint limits to be applied to the setpoints 12a Enable Max/Min Auto Setpoints when the actuator is in Auto. Displays and allows editing of the maximum Auto setpoint limits for the 12b Max Auto Setpoints individual actuator zones. 12c Min Auto Setpoints Displays and allows editing of the minimum Auto setpoint limits for the individual actuator zones. dependent parameters to the current grade. DSR Save Page Saves all the grade - 13 44 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 9 -

337 Actuator Link Interface 10. The software interface between CD Controls and an actuator is implemented in the Actuator Link Interface subsystem. In the case of an actuator interfacing to CD Controls through a foreign control system, s uch as Voith, Metso or VIB, the software interface is actually between CD Controls and the foreign control system. This interface is described in detail in Chapter 8. The Actuator Link Interface subsystem provides functions required by the different communication links between the actuators and CD Controls. The Actuator Link Interface subsystem works between the Actuator Management subsystem and the link drivers to com municate information back and forth with the actuators, as illustrated in Figure 9- 1. This chapter focuses on the link interface between CD Controls and the AIU of the actuator. For a Honeywell actuator, the AIU is typically a Profile Manager or IP-based ODX communication protocol, or a a CDWeb Manager using the TCP/ newer version of CDWeb Manager using a Local Operating Network (LON) party actuator, the AIU, protocol over TCP/IP network. For a legacy or third- which can be a Profile Manager, a CDWeb Manager or a third , may be -party AIU using serial communication protocols, such as SCL, Modbus RTU or 200/100 (MPU). CD Controls also provides interface support for actuators using the ABB Micro serial and communication with ABB Smart Weight Profiler (SWP) Linear with Accuray Direct protocol protocol. Stepper CD actuators ODX Link Interface (profile 10.1. manager/CDWeb manager) CD Controls communicates to the Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager of an actuator through the ODX protocol. The ODX server is provided by RAE, while the ODX client resides in the Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 10 -

338 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface is used, it will also imply Profile Manager In th is section, whenever the term , because the link interface is identical for the two AIUs. CDWeb Manager cription mechanism based The ODX server handles all data transfer using a subs on rate, event, or demand, depending on the ODX client’s requests. Therefore, the Profile Manager ODX interface is primarily responsible for processing the data to be sent to the Profile Manager (the ODX client), and the data recei ved from it. For data items that are required by the ODX client only when they change, the interface schedule some events to trigger the transfer. The Profile Manager ODX interface is responsible for: monitoring the status of the ODX communication link bet ween CD • Controls and the Profile Manager • -level mode and functional requests triggering the transfer of zone made by the operator to the Profile Manager • processing actuator status information received from the Profile Manager ce does not handle the transfer of heartbeat, The Profile Manager ODX interfa actuator setpoints, actuator positions, setpoint/position scale factor and zero -related Booleans. These data are transferred by offset, and certain actuator mode the ODX server on a periodic basis. The types of data communicated between CD Controls and the Profile Manager vary from actuator to actuator, and depend on the options selected for the actuator link interface during system configuration. Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Refer to Manual (p/n 6510020588), and the manual for the specific actuator for details. Link Status 10.1.1. The Profile Manager ODX interface monitors a heartbeat from the Profile Manage to determine whether or not the ODX communication link is functional. ace monitors the heartbeat at a rate that you specify from the Links The interf Status display under the ODX tab. The ODX communication link is considered functional if the value of the heartbeat is changed from its previous value. If the ODX link to the Profile Mana ger is down, the statuses of the actuator beam and the individual zones is Link Down. The interface flags that the actuator positions are not received due to the link down. When the link resumes, the e after actuator positions are interface flags that the actuator positions are availabl received from the Profile Manager, so that a bumpless transfer can take place for the actuator by copying positions to setpoints. 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

339 Actuator Link Interface ODX Link Interface (profile manager/CDWeb manager) Zone Mode and Function Requests 10.1.2. , controls the The Profile Manager needs to know whether or not CD Controls actuator beam, and subsequently whether or not to use the setpoints received from 9.4.7) -level Regulatory Control On flag (see Subsection CD Controls. The beam is used to provide such knowledge. This flag is communicated directly between the ODX server and client on startup of the link and thereafter on change of state, without involving the Profile Manager ODX interface. The Profile Manager ODX interface sends the Zone Reset and Zone Enable arrays of the actuator to the Profile Manager on link startup and thereafter on change of state if the interface is configured to support the Zone Reset and Zone Enable arrays during system configuration. The Profile Manager ODX Interface processes and sends the Zone Reset array to the actuator whenever the operator resets alarms for all zones or for a selected zone from the Zone Status display. Some actuators may also have the feature of allowing the operator to switch on or off the AC power to the actuator from the System Status display. The request to switch on/off AC power is communicated directly between the ODX server and client on link startup and thereafter on change of state, without involving the er ODX interface. Profile Manag At the regulatory control level, where actuator zones are controlled to the setpoints received from the supervisory control system, an actuator zone may be in Auto, Manual or Disabled mode. This mode scheme applies to most Honeywell CD actuators. A zone in Auto mode, the normal operating mode, is controlled to the setpoint received from the supervisory control system. A zone in Manual mode is not controlled to the supervisory setpoint, but instead its setpoint tracks its current position. The zone can be moved at the hand wheel or from the AIU. A disabled zone is similar to a zone in Manual mode, but it can only be moved at the hand wheel. Depending on the type of the actuator, disabling a zone may result in e, disabling a zone in a Calcoil beam shuts off different behaviors. For instanc output power to that zone. The Profile Manager ODX Interface processes and sends the Zone Enable array to the actuator whenever the operator enables or display. Actuator zones CD Contro disables all zones or a selected zone from the l may also end up in Disabled mode when some interlocks are not satisfied. The Profile Manager ODX interface also supports flushing for the ProFlow actuator. Because the ProFlow flush function involves a number of states and rather complicated logic, the details are described in the next Subsection 10.1.3. 10.1.3. ProFlow Flushing During a flush sequence, the ProFlow actuators open and close headbox flow valves in groups in a predefined manner to flush the valves and dislodge any 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

340 CD Controls User Manual uator Link Interface Act debris trapped in the valves. The flushing function requires that at any one time two adjacent groups of actuators move in opposite directions, from some closed positions to some open positions and the reverse, to perform flushing and maintain a relatively constant high flush water head pressure. The DCS controlling headbox stock and dilution water flow valves must indicate her to permit the ProFlow actuators to engage in flushing. to CD Controls whet The operator can start or stop flushing from the DCS console or the Honeywell operator station. CD Controls reports back to the DCS the flush statuses of the headbox flow valves. The communication between the DCS and CD Controls is of one of these two configurations: the DCS signals are wired as I/Os into a Honeywell HC900 controller • that communicates to CD Controls using a Modbus TCP link • there is a direct OPC link between the DCS and CD Controls. Nonetheless, this link must therefore be functional for such exchange of information The Profile Manager ODX Interface controls the flush sequence for the ProFlow actuators by monitoring the DCS heartbeat and flush ready signal, handling the start/stop flush request made by the operator from the Honeywell operator station -defined or the DCS console, and generating flushing setpoints based on some user parameters. In addition to reporting whether the flush sequence is in progress or complete, the Profile Ma nager ODX Interface also provides current data concerning the flush sequence, such as the number of flush groups, and which flush group pair is undergoing flushing at which flush cycle. figured for The flush function is an optional feature that can be selected and con the ProFlow actuator beam only during system configuration as described in Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual (p/n 6510020588). The ProFlow flush function is controlled and monitored from the ProFlow Flush display that is accessible to both the operator and the control engineer. The display allows the operator to start or stop a flush sequence, to edit -related parameters when the ProFlow actuators are not in flushing, and to flush Experion MX CD Controls lush sequence. Refer to have full visibility into the f R701.1 Operator Manual (p/n 6510020587) for details of the ProFlow Flush display. 10.1.3.1. Calculation of Number of Flush Groups To maintain a constant flush water head pressure for flushing, the actuators are divided into an even number of flush groups. The adjacent flush groups work in pairs and move in opposite directions during flushing. 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

341 Actuator Link Interface ODX Link Interface (profile manager/CDWeb manager) This example explains how the CD Controls ODX Interface calculates the number of flush groups. Z is used here to represent the n umber of zones in the ProFlow beam. G represents the Flush Group Size. If the remainder of Z divided by 2* G is the remainder (that is, the remaining actuators) G, less than or equal to 10% of 1. will be added to the last group as shown in Figure 10- Figure 10 -1 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=61 G=15 divided by 2* If the remainder of Z G is greater than or equal to 190% of G, the remainder minus G number of actuators will be treated as the last group, as shown in Figure 10- 2. -2 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=59 G=15 Figure 10 is more than 10% of G divided by 2* Z In cases where the remainder of and G G , it becomes a wrap -around situation where the last flush less than 190% of group consists of the remainder minus G number of actuators plus a number of . In the actuators from the first flush group to make up the group size of G and =50 Z divided by Z =15, the remainder of G example in Figure 10- 3 where 2* G is 20. Out of the 20 actuators, 15 go to flush group #3, and 5 go to flush group #4. To make up the group size of 15, flush group #4 needs another 10 actuators from flush group #1. When flush groups #3 and #4 eng age in flushing, the 15 actuators in flush group #3 move to the open positions and then the closed positions, and the actuators in flush group #4, that is, the last 5 actuators (zones 46–50) and the first 10 actuators on the low end (zones 1–10) of the act uator beam move to the closed positions and then the open positions. -3 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=50 G=15 Figure 10 Z =15. The G =65 and Another example is illustrated in Figure 10- 4 where actuators are divided into 4 flush groups (2 flush group pairs) with 5 actuators remaining. In order to have an even number of flush groups, the 5 remaining actuators are wrapped around to the first 10 actuators (zones 1–10) to form flush –25) form flush group #6. When group #5, and the adjacent 15 actuators (zones 11 5 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

342 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface flush groups #5 and #6 (that is, flush group pair #3) engage in flushing, zones 61– 65 and zones 1–10 in flush group #5 move to the open positions and then the closed positions, and zones 11–25 in flush group #6 move to the closed positions and then the open positions. Figure 10 -4 Calculating Number of Flush Groups: Z=65 G=15 10.1.3.2. Flush Sequence The following outlines the steps involved in the ProFlow flush sequence and how the Profile Manager ODX Interface controls the flush sequence: tors the Flush 60. The Profile Manager ODX Interface continuously moni Ready signal from the DCS. The signal indicates if it is ready (Flush Ready = 1 (True)) or not (Flush Ready = 0 (False)) for the ProFlow actuators to begin flushing. 61. The interface continuously monitors the heartbeat from the DCS to determine if the communication link with the DCS is functional (DCS Link Down = 0 (False)) or not (DCS Link Down = 1 (True)). If the link is down, flushing cannot take place. If the ProFlow actuators are already in flushing when the link goes down, flushing is abor ted automatically. 62. The interface monitors a start flush request made by the operator from the Honeywell operator station or the DCS console, provided that the communication link is up and Flush Ready = 1. After a start flush request is received that satisf 63. ies the above conditions, the actuator beam enters the Flushing state. The interface calculates the Number of Flush Groups based on the number of zones and the Flush Group Size. It also records the current setpoints of the ProFlow actuators, because the actuators must be restored to these setpoints when the flush sequence is complete. The interface starts the flush sequence from the low end of the actuator 64. beam. It sets the Current Flush Group Pair indicator to 1 (first flush group pair), the Current Flush Cycle indicator to 1 (first flush cycle) and the flush statuses to Flush Active = 1 (True) and Flush Complete = 0 (False). 65. The interface starts the Flush Timer for the first flush group pair on moving the leading group of actuators in the pair to the Open 6 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

343 Actuator Link Interfac e ODX Link Interface (profile manager/CDWeb manager) Positions, the trailing group and the rest of the actuators to the Closed Positions. The ProFlow beam is shown as being in the Flushing state. -5 First Group of Actuators at Open Positions Figure 10 The lead 66. ing group in the flush group pair stays in the Open Positions, and the trailing group stays in the Closed Positions until the Flush Timer counts down to the Flush Time and expires. When the Flush Timer expires, the interface moves the leading group 67. ators to the Closed Positions and the trailing group to the Open of actu Positions, and restarts the Flush Timer. Figure 10 -6 Flushing First Group Pair of Actuators The leading group in the flush group pair stays i n the Closed Positions, 68. and the trailing group stays in the Open Positions until the Flush Timer expires. Flush Cycle. –9 represent one Steps 6 69. When the Flush Timer expires, depending on whether or not the first flush group pair has to go through multiple flush cycles (as specified by the Number of Flush Cycles parameter), either the flush group pair continues to complete the remaining flush cycles, or the second flush group pair starts flushing. The Current Flush Cycle indicator is time the flush group pair completes a flush incremented by one every cycle. 70. The interface moves the leading group in the next flush group pair to the Open Positions, and keeps the trailing group in the Close Positions. It also moves the trailing group of the previous flush group pair to the 7 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

344 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface Closed Positions at the same time, and restarts the Flush Timer for the second flush group pair. 71. The interface sets the Current Flush Group Pair indicator to 2 (second flush group pair) and the Current Flush Cycle indicator to 1 (first flush cycle). The leading group in the second flush group pair stays in the Open 72. Positions, and the trailing group stays in the Closed Positions until the Flush Timer counts down to the Flush Time and expires. When the Flush Timer expires, the interface moves the leading group 73. of actuators to the Closed Positions and the trailing group to the Open Positions, and restarts the Flush Timer. -7 Flushing Second Group Pair of Actuators Figure 10 74. flush group pair stays in the Closed Positions, The leading group in the and the trailing group stays in the Open Positions until the Flush Timer expires to complete one flush cycle. The flush group pair continues to complete the remaining flush cycles if required, or the next flush group pair starts flushing. For the rest of the flush pair groups, Steps 11–15 are repeated until the entire ProFlow beam has completed flushing. The Current Flush Group Pair indicator and the Current Flush Cycle indicator are updated accordingly as the flush sequence propagates along the beam. -8 Flushing Last Group Pair of Actuators Figure 10 After the last flush cycle of the last flush group pair has completed, the 75. interface moves all actuators back to the setpoints and states prior to the start of the flush sequence. The flush statuses are set to Flush 8 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

345 Actuator Link Interface ODX Link Interface (profile manager/CDWeb manager) Active = 0 (False) and Flush Complete = 1 (True). The Current Flush Group Pair indicator and the Current Flush Cycle indicator are reinitialized to 0. completion of the flush sequence, the interface also sends the Zone 76. On Reset array to the ProFlow actuators to reset any actuator alarms that might have occurred during the flush sequence if the interface is configured to support zone resetting. Resetting the actuators allows them to resume normal operation after the flush sequence. 77. If at any time during a flush sequence the DCS link is down or the DCS Flush Ready signal becomes False, the interface interrupts the flush sequence before it comes to completion. The ProFlow actuators return to their previous setpoints and states prior to flushing. The flush statuses are set to Flush Active = 0 (False) and Flush Complete = 0 (False). 78. The interface creates an entry in the QCS alarm log to indicate that the quence is interrupted. It also generates status messages for flush se display on the QCS user interface to indicate that the DCS link is down and that the flush sequence is interrupted. 79. The operator can stop the flush sequence from the Honeywell operator station o r the DCS console at any time during the flush sequence before it comes to completion. The ProFlow actuators then return to their previous setpoints and states prior to flushing. The flush statuses are set to Flush Active = 0 (False) and Flush Complete = 0 (False). When a flush sequence is interrupted or stopped by the operator, the 80. interface records the number of the flush group pair that last underwent flushing. The operator is given an option to start a new , provided that the flush sequence from where it left off last time prerequisites for flushing are satisfied, that is, DCS Link Down = 0 (False) and Flush Ready = 1 (True). DCS Link Configuration 10.1.3.3. As mentioned above, the communication between CD Controls and the DCS s achieved through the Honeywell HC900 required for ProFlow flush function i controller using a Modbus TCP link or through a direct OPC link. For the Honeywell HC900 controller communication option, the Modbus TCP link must first be configured. For the OPC link between CD Controls and the DCS required for ProFlow flush support, CD Controls typically acts as the OPC server and the DCS acts as the 9 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

346 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface OPC client. The option to have CD Controls as the OPC client and the DCS as the OPC server is available in system configuration. If this option is chos en, the OPC client (HCILink) must be configured for CD Controls with OPC variables to receive the Flush Ready and heartbeat signals from the DCS. We recommend that these variables be put in a 2 -second read transfer group. In addition, optional OPC variables may be required in order to process flush requests from the DCS and display flush status information on the DCS. Details on the Modbus TCP link and OPC link configuration can be found in (p/n Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual 6510020588), and Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 DCS Flushing Interface . (p/n 6510020589) Reference Guide 10.1.4. Actuator Setpoints The Profile Manager reads the Setpoints Out array of its actuator from CD Controls on a periodic basis without involving the Profile Manager ODX interface, and sends the setpoints to the actuator. As covered in Section 9.7, the Setpoints Out array may contain a mixture of setpoints calculated by the controller, entered by the operator, positions, and setpoints from the Edge Tracking and Bend Limit functions. 10.1.5. Actuator Positions and Statuses The Profile Manager interface is not involved in receiving positions from the ofile Manager writes the actuator positions to CD Controls actuator because the Pr on a periodic basis. The Profile Manager writes the system (beam) status of an actuator to CD bit status words: System Major, System Minor, Controls in an array of four 16- PLC Major , and PLC Minor. At the zone level, the Profile Manager writes the zone statuses of an actuator to CD Controls in a separate array of 16- bit zone status words, one status word per zone. The individual bits in these system and zone status words are mapped to various system and zone alarms of the actuator. The bit mappings are actuator dependent, and are specified during system configuration. After these system and zone status words are written to CD Controls, the Profile Manager ODX interface is notified to process them. In addition to the system and zone status words, the Profile Manager writes a 16- bit LAN alarm word to CD Controls to indicate problems with the LAN configuration. After the link is established between CD Controls and the Profile requests a lookup of the ODX symbols. It also Manager, the Profile Manager reads the number of actuator zones from CD Controls and compares them to those in it own configuration. Bit 0 of the LAN alarm word indicates ODX symbol 10 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

347 Actuator Link Interface LON Over TCP/IP Interface (CDWeb manager) number of zones between lookup error, and bit 1 for indicates discrepancy in the Profile Manager and CD Controls. The LAN alarm word is written once on link startup when the ODX symbol lookup and the comparison of the number of zones have been completed. The Profile Manager ODX interface is then notified to pro cess the LAN alarm word. Setpoint/Position Scale Factor and Zero 10.1.6. Offset The Profile Manager reads on a periodic basis the scale factor and zero offset from CD Controls in order to scale the actuator setpoints and positions before transferring them between CD Controls and the actuator. The scale factor and offset are specified during system configuration, but can be edited from the Links Status display under the ODX tab. LON Over TCP/IP Interface (CDWeb 10.2. manager) ing a new generation of The actuator link interface for an actuator us • CDWeb Managers, which communicate with CD Controls using the - LON protocol over TCP/IP network, is identical to that for the ODX based CDWeb Managers as described in Section 10.1. The CD Controls installation media installs two applications, • CDWebNet.exe and CDWebRTDR.exe. These applications are required for interfacing to the new generation of CDWeb Managers using the LON protocol over TCP/IP network. 10.3. Serial Link Interface rols provides interface support for four types of serial communication CD Cont and protocols: SCL, Modbus RTU, 200/100 (MPU). ABB Micro link communication with ABB Smart Weight Profiler (SWP) Linear Stepper CD re provides link drivers actuators with Accuray Direct protocol . The RAE softwa for the SCL, Modbus RTU and 200/100 (MPU) protocols. The CD Controls software provides the link driver for the ABB Micro protocol. Data is communicated in a number of messages across the serial link between CD Controls and the AIU. The types of messages supported and when messages should be transmitted depend on the serial link protocol, the actuator and the AIU 11 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

348 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface involved. Refer to the specific product manuals for the serial link protocol, the actuator and the AIU for more information. Data communication can be tailored to the system by selecting certain options and allowing certain messages to be used for the actuator serial link interface during system configuration. Details on Experion MX CD actuator serial link interface configuration can be found in (p/n 6510020588). Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual The serial link interfaces in CD Controls process data sent to and read from the client, and trigger the corresponding link drivers to send read/write messages seq uentially to the client. The client generally returns response messages containing the requested data. The software interfaces for the different serial links are largely similar in terms of the functions they perform: nication link between CD monitor the status of the serial commu • Controls and the AIU trigger the transfer of actuator mode and function requests made by the • operator from CD Controls to the AIU • trigger the transfer of actuator setpoints from CD Controls to the AIU odes, positions and status information • receive and process actuator m from the AIU Each serial link interface has its own list of read and write messages arranged in a predetermined order. All read messages are sent when the serial link first starts and initializes to synchronize CD Con trols and the AIU. Thereafter, the messages can be sent periodically, or on trigger, link initialization, or link down. Although the messages are configured during system configuration, you can enable or disable a message, edit its transfer mode and rate and the message’s delay period at run time from the Links Status display. The delay period is used to delay the sending of the next message in line for a specified period of time after the previous message is sent. There are four message transfer modes: • : the message is sent on link initialization that occurs d On Init Sen when the link starts up or resumes after a link down. The serial link interface processes the entire message list from the top down on each . link initialization • e is sent while the link is down. There the messag Send On Link Down: should be only one message configured to be sent on link down to detect any link activities. This message should be a short status message. The serial link interface processes the message list from the last message s ent to find the Send On Link Down message and triggers the link driver to send the message . 12 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

349 Actuator Link Interface Serial Link Interface : the message is sent at the rate specified. A timer is kept Send On Rate • for each message to notify the serial link interface to send the message ires. The serial link interface processes the message when the timer exp list from the last message sent and triggers the link driver to send the next message in line . Send Now : the message is sent on a trigger from the link interface, • the operator, or if you such as an actuator mode change made by manually force the send from the Links Status display. All messages can be sent on demand from the Links Status display if necessary. The serial link interface processes the entire message list from the top down to find the Send Now message and triggers the link driver to send the message. For the serial links, you can configure the link interface to read or not read actuator positions at run time from the Links Status display by enabling or n. When the Disable Back Transmit disabling the Disable Back Transmit optio option is enabled, the message for reading actuator positions is enabled. When the Disable Back Transmit option is disabled, the message for reading actuator positions is disabled, and the link interface flags that the act uator positions are not received. The Disabled Back Transmit option is preserved during a system power cycle. For the 200/100 (MPU) link, the Disable Back Transmit option can also be selected during system configuration. ore detail the interfaces to AIUs using the The following Sections outline in m SCL, Modbus RTU, 200/100 (MPU) and ABB Micro links. SCL Link 10.3.1. -drop protocol that allows communication The SCL protocol is considered a multi with multiple actuator beams on a single serial line. CD Controls uses the SCL link driver provided by RAE. The AIU contains the client software for SCL communication. The CD Controls SCL actuator link interface initiates all communications with the client. The interface monitors the SCL link status, to the AIU, triggers the SCL link driver to send and read processes data to be sent data, and processes data received from the AIU. A few parameters need to be specified for the CD Controls SCL actuator link rs is the interface for an actuator during system configuration. One of the paramete Default Message Rate, the starting rate at which all messages are sent to the AIU. The Default Message Rate is set to 5 seconds. The rates of the individual messages can be changed at run time from the display. Links Status A number of configura tion templates are available for automatic configuration of an SCL actuator link interface based on various Honeywell actuators using a 13 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

350 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface Profile Manager, CDWeb Manager, or the Measurex Model MN3322 standard SCL actuator link interface can configuration. Details on the configuration of the be found in Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build (p/n 6510020588). Manual Link Status 10.3.1.1. For the SCL link, the CD Controls SCL actuator link interface determines that its connection to the AIU is down if it has not received a response from the last message it sent within the specified response timeout period. The response timeout period can be edited under the SCL tab on the Links Status display. A link error also results in a link down condition. A link error is reported when the data received from the client is erroneous. When the link is down, the CD Controls SCL actuator link interface flags that the actuator positions are not received from the AIU, and triggers the SCL link driver to send the first enabled message out of the Send On Link Down messages. There should typically be one Send On Link Down message for detecting link activities during a link down situation. If there is a Send On Link Down message, the interface triggers the SCL link driver t o send the message immediately if the message is not also a Send On Rate message. If it is also a Send On Rate message, the interface waits for the timer of the message to expire and triggers the link driver to send the message. If there is no Send On Link Down message, the interface goes down the message list and sends the next enabled message out of the Send On Rate messages if it is time to send the message. The interface keeps sending messages until a response riod. This indicates the link is back up. is received within the response timeout pe The link interface then initializes the link by sending all the Send On Init messages one by one. After all the Send On Init messages are sent, the link interface then checks if the actuator positions are received from the AIU if the Disable Back Transmit option is enabled. The message for reading actuator positions is typically a Send On Init message. The link remains in an initializing stage until the actuator positions are received. is complete, the interface proceeds to send all the After the link initialization messages that need immediate attention (that is, the Send Now messages) followed by the next message in line. A message can be sent at any time by Links display. selecting the message and clicking Send Now on the Status 10.3.1.2. Actuator Mode and Functional Requests The CD Controls SCL actuator link interface triggers the SCL link driver to send actuator mode and functional requests to the AIU when the operator changes s. The actuator mode and functional mode on the actuator or resets actuator alarm 14 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

351 Actuator Link Interface Serial Link Interface requests, the corresponding messages, data and transfer modes for the SCL link are summarized in Table 1. The actual messages used for the SCL link depend 10- on the actuator and the types of messages supported by the AIU. The messages are configured during system configuration by selecting the appropriate options for the actuator link interface. 1 SCL Link Messages for Actuator Mode and Functional Requests Table 10- Data to Data from Transfer Mode Message Request Client Host Request beam Send On Init Send Operating Mode Manual Manual mode Send On Link Down Computer Auto & Send On Rate Cascade : mode Send Now change request from CD display Control Reset Device Send On Init No Data No Data Reset the AIU Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Send On Init No Data Reset all system No Data Reset All Alarms or Reset Device (if Use Reset Device alarms Send On Link Down Message option is selected Send On Rate during system configuration) : reset Send Now request from System Status display No Data No Data Send On Init Reset zone Reset Zone Alarms or Reset alarms for all Device (if Use Reset Device Send On Link Down Message option is selected zones Send On Rate during system configuration) : reset Send Now request from Zone Status display Actuator Setpoints 10.3.1.3. The CD Controls SCL actuator link interface processes the setpoints (Setpoints Out) calculated by CD Controls by multiplying the setpoints by the Scale Factor and adding the Zero Offset before triggering the SCL link driver to send the setpoints to the AIU through the Send Zone Setpoints message. The setpoints are sent once on link initialization, and thereafter on a rate basis. The Scale Factor and Zero Offset are specified during the actuator link interface configuration. Change the Scale Factor, Zero Offset and the rate at which setpoints are sent under the SCL tab on the Links Status display at run time. You can also choose to send set points to the AIU when the actuator beam is in Manual or Computer mode by enabling the Send Setpoints In Manual Mode 15 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

352 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface option, or only when the actuator beam is in Computer mode by disabling the option. The Send Setpoints In Manual Mode option can be enabled or disabled during system configuration, or under the SCL tab on the Links Status display at run time. Actuator Modes, Positions, and Statuses 10.3.1.4. The CD Controls SCL actuator link interface triggers the SCL link drive to send read messages to the AIU on a r ate basis to obtain actuator modes, positions or -related last setpoints, system and/or zone status words, and other actuator information from the AIU. These information, the corresponding messages, and transfer modes for the SCL link are summarized in Table 10- 2. The actual messages used for the SCL link depend on the actuator and the types of messages ng system configuration supported by the AIU. The messages are configured duri by selecting the appropriate options for the actuator link interface. Table 10- 2 SCL Messages for Actuator Modes, Positions, Statuses, and -related Data Actuator Message Processin g Transfer Mode Data Self test (a 16 - bit word) Read Self Test None Send On Init Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Interpret the status word and Read System bit - Send On Init System status (a 16 set the individual bits in RTDR Status word) Send On Link Down accordingly. Send On Rate Send Now Send On Init Zone status (an array of Read Zone Interpret for each actuator zone the status word and set the Status 16- bit words) Send On Link Down individual bits in RTDR Send On Rate accordingly. Send Now Actuator positions Subtract the Zero Offset from Send On Init Read Zone setpoints and divide them the Positions Send On Link Down by the Scale Factor to generate Send On Rate the positions. Send Now Send On Init Actuator mode (Manual Read Operating None Mode or Comput er) Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Compare the number of zones Read Number of Number of zones of Send On Init received with the number of actuator Zones Send On Link Down zones expected. If they are Send On Rate erent, a link error is reported, diff Send Now resulting in a link down condition. 1/3/18 16 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

353 Actuator Link Interface Serial Link Interface You can also choose to read positions from the AIU when the actuator beam is in Manual mode only by enabling the Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option, or only when the actuator beam is in Manual or Computer mode by disabling the option. The Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option can be enabled or Links Status disabled during system configuration, or under the SCL tab on the display at run time. The bits in the self test, system status and z one status words are defined during system configuration. If a link interface configuration template is used, these words may be configured automatically with some default bit mappings. If the Read Operating Mode message is disabled, the CD Controls SCL ac tuator link interface writes the requested operating mode as the current operating mode instead of reading it from the AIU. 10.3.1.5. Additional SCL Messages Table 10- 3 shows the additional messages that can be configured for the SCL communication. Table 10- 3 Additional SCL Messages Data Message Processing Transfer Mode Read Zone Reference Zone Reference Values Send On Init None Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now : request from Links Status display Send On Init Send Zone Reference None Send On Link Down Send On Rate : request from Send Now Links Status display Send On Init Send Number of Zones None Number of zones Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now None Send ASCII String Send On Init ASCII string Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now : request from Links Status display 17 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

354 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface The Send Number of Zones message allows CD Controls to set the number of zones that the AIU should configure itself for on a link initialization. The Read/Send Zone Reference and Send ASCII String messages can only be sent manually from the Links Status display. Although these messages can be enabled for the SCL actuator link interface, and RTDR data spaces are provided for storing the data, CD Controls does not provide the functionality for displaying and editing the zone reference values or the ASCII string. Modbus RTU Link 10.3.2. The Modbus RTU protocol is considered a multi -drop protocol that allows communication with multiple actuator beams on a single serial line. CD Controls uses the Modbus RTU link driver provided by RAE. The AIU contains the client software for Modbus RTU communication. The CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator link interface initiates all communications with the client. The interface monitors the Modbus RTU link status, processes data to be sent to the AIU, triggers the Modbus RTU link driver to send and read data, and processes data received from the AIU. A few parameters need to be specified for the CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator arameters link interface for an actuator during system configuration. One of the p is the Default Message Rate, the starting rate all messages are sent to the AIU. The Default Message Rate is set to three seconds. The rates of the individual display. Links Status messages can be changed at run time from the The configuration of messages for the Modbus RTU actuator link interface is quite different from that for the SCL actuator link interface. Unlike SCL where options are used to enable or disable messages, Modbus RTU requires the cified during system configuration. addresses of the registers in the AIU to be spe These registers store the data that is communicated between CD Controls and the AIU. A zero address means the message for communicating the given data is er addresses in the disabled. There is also an option of subtracting 1 from the regist messages to support AIUs where the first register has address 0. A number of configuration templates are available, primarily for Honeywell actuators, for automatic configuration of a Modbus RTU actuator link interface using a Profile Manager or CDWeb Manager. Details on the configuration of the Experion MX CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator link interface can be found in (p/n 6510020588). R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual 18 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

355 Actuator Link Interface Serial Link Interface Link Status 10.3.2.1. The CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator link int erface monitors the status of the Modbus RTU link in the same way as the SCL actuator link interface. See Subsection 10.3.1.1 for details. Actuator Mode and Functiona 10.3.2.2. l Requests The CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator link interface triggers the Modbus RTU link driver to send actuator mode and functional requests to the AIU when the operator changes mode on the actuator or resets actuator alarms. The actuator mode and funct ional requests, the corresponding messages, data and transfer 4. The actual modes for the Modbus RTU link, are summarized in Table 10- messages used for the Modbus RTU link depend on the actuator and the types of messages supported by the AIU. The messages are configured during system he addresses of the registers in the AIU for the data. configuration by specifying t Table 10- 4 Modbus RTU Messages for Actuator Mode and Functional Requests Data to Client Request Message Data from Host Transfer Mode Request beam Same as data Regulatory Control On Send System Send On Init (that is, Auto/Cascade mode from host Enable Send On Link Down = True, Manual = Send On Rate False) : mode Send Now change request from CD Control display Send On Init Send Zone Same as data Regulatory Control On Request zone Array (that is, Enable from host mode Send On Link Down Auto/Cascade = True, Send On Rate Manual = False) Send Now : mode change request from CD Control display Send On Init Same as data Reset Device Reset the AIU Reset Device Request from host Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Reset all system Send On Init Same as data Reset System Alarms Reset System Request alarms Alarms from host Down Send On Link Send On Rate : reset Send Now System request from Status display 19 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

356 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface Request Data from Host Data to Client Transfer Mode Message Same as data Reset All Zones Reset All Zones Reset zone Send On Init alarms for all Request from host Send On Link Down zones Send On Rate : reset Send Now Zone request from Status display Reset zone Send On Init Reset Zone Same as data Zones To Reset array alarms for an from host Alarms Send On Link Down individual zone Send On Rate Send Now : reset request from Zone Status display Send Actuator Same as data Send On Init Toggle AC power Actuator Power Power from host Request to actuator Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now : request from System Status display 10.3.2.3. Actuator Setpoints The CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator link interface processes the setpoints (Setpoints Out) calculated by CD Controls by multiplying the setpoints by the Scale Factor and adding the Zero Offset before triggering the Modbus RTU link driver to send the setpoints to the AIU through the Send Zone Setpoints message. The setpoints are sent once on link initialization, and on a rate basis thereaf ter. The Scale Factor and Zero Offset are specified during the actuator link interface configuration. You can change the Scale Factor, Zero Offset, and the rate at which display. setpoints are sent, at run time under the RTU tab on the Links Status also choose to send setpoints to the AIU when the actuator beam is in You can Manual or Computer mode by enabling the Send Setpoints In Manual Mode option, or only when the actuator beam is in Computer mode by disabling the option. The Send Setpoints In Manual Mode option is enabled by default, but can be changed at run time under the RTU tab on the display. Links Status Modes, Positions, and Statuses Actuator 10.3.2.4. The CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator link interface triggers the Modbus RTU ges to AIU on a rate basis to obtain actuator modes, link driver to send read messa - positions or last setpoints, system and/or zone status words, and other actuator related information from the AIU. This information, the corresponding messages, and transfer modes for the Modbus RTU link are summarized in Table 10- 5. The actual messages used for the Modbus RTU link depend on the actuator and the 20 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

357 Actuator Link Interface Serial Link Interface types of messages supported by the AIU. The messages are configured during system configuration by specifying the addresses of the registers in the AIU for the data. 5 Modbus RTU Messages for Actuator Modes, Positions, Statuses Table 10- Actuator and -related Data Data Message Processing Transfer Mode Send On Init System Major Interpret the status word and set the Read System Major status word individual bits in RTDR accordingly. Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Send On Init System Minor Read System Minor Interpret the status word and set the individual bits in RTDR accordingly. status word Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now PLC Major status Send On Init Read PLC Major Interpret the status word and set the individual bits word in RTDR accordingly. Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Minor Interpret the status word and set the Read PLC PLC Minor status Send On Init individual bits in RTDR accordingly. word Send On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Zone status word Read Zone Status Interpret the status word and set the Send On Init individual bits in RTDR accordingly. Se nd On Link Down Send On Rate Send Now Read Zone Send On Init Actuator positions Subtract the Zero Offset from the setpoints and divide them by the Positions Send On Link Down Scale Factor. Send On Rate Send Now Send On Init Number of zones Compare the number of zones Read Number of received with the number of zones Zones Send On Link Down expected. If they are different, a link Se nd On Rate error is reported, resulting in a link Send Now down condition. You can also choose to read positions from the AIU when the actuator beam is in Manual mode only by enabling the Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option, or only when the actuator beam is in Manual or Computer mode by disabling the option. The Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option is disabled by default, Links Status the RTU tab on the display at and can be enabled or disabled under run time. -5 are based on the configuration of a Modbus RTU The messages in Table 10 actuator link interface using a Profile M anager or CDWeb Manager. The 21 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

358 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface , and PLC Minor status conventional System Major, System Minor, PLC Major words are used. In practice, a Modbus RTU actuator link interface may have any number of status words with user -defined names. The bits in the status words are defined during system configuration. If a link interface configuration template is used, these words may be configured automatically with some default bit mappings. Additional Modbus RTU Messages 10.3.2.5. 6 shows additional messages that can be configured for the Modbus Table 10- RTU communication with the AIU. Table 10- 6 Additional Modbus RTU Messages Transfer Mode Data Message Processing None Read Incoming Send On Init Heartbeat (from Heartbeat Send On Link Down AIU) Send On Rate Send Now None Send On Init Outgoing Send Heartbeat (to Heartbeat Send On Link Down AIU) Send On Rate Send Now If the Send Heartbeat messages is enabled, the CD Controls Modbus RTU actuator link interface triggers the Modbus link driver to send an outgoing terface starts from the Outgoing heartbeat to the AIU at the rate specified. The in Heartbeat Start Value, and increments by one each time the heartbeat is sent, until the heartbeat exceeds the Outgoing Heartbeat Max Value. It then returns to the start value and increases from there. The Outgoing Heartbeat Start Value, the Outgoing Heartbeat Max Value and the rate at which the outgoing heartbeat is sent are specified during system configuration. 10.3.3. 200/100 (MPU) Link The 200/100 (MPU) serial link protocol is a simple binary protocol that can mmunication for up to 127 actuator zones per serial line. If an handle the data co actuator beam has more than 127 zones, multiple physical links are required. The CD Controls 200/100 (MPU) actuator link interface can handle the communication of messages with the multiple links because it knows which actuator zones are controlled by which link. CD Controls uses the 200/100 (MPU) link driver provided by RAE. The AIU contains the client software for 200/100 (MPU) communication. The CD Controls 22 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

359 Actuator Link I Serial Link Interface nterface face initiates all communications with the 200/100 (MPU) actuator link inter client. The interface monitors the 200/100 (MPU) link status, processes data to be sent to the AIU, triggers the 200/100 (MPU) link driver to send and read data, and processes data received from the AIU. he 200/100 (MPU) protocol communicates actuator setpoints and Because t positions only with the AIU, there is no other message that needs to be configured during system configuration. However, a few parameters still need to be specified MPU) actuator link interface for an actuator during for the CD Controls 200/100 ( system configuration. One of the parameters is the Default Message Rate, the starting rate for all messages sent to the AIU. The Default Message Rate is set to three seconds. The Links rates of the individual messages can be changed at run time from the display. Status Another parameter is the Valve Mode for actuators using valves to control zone setpoints. There are three valve mode options: No Valves, Normally Closed, and Normally Open. If an actuator does not use valves, the No Valves option should be chosen. If an actuator uses valves that are normally closed (require air to open) or normally open (require air to close), the Normally Closed option or the Normally Open option should be chosen, respectively. The valve option also d for checking the link status. determines what “Alive and Well” message is use The No Valves option uses the 200/100 message, while the Normally Closed and Normally Open options use the 200/103 and 200/105 messages respectively. See message. Alive and Well Subsection 10.3.3.1 for the There are also options in the configuration of the 200/100 (MPU) actuator link interface to select whether or not the protocol is a 377 variation, whether or not to disable back transmit (that is, disable the read actuator positions message), whether or not the actuator uses separate devices for positive and negative setpoints, what setpoints to send and the format in which the setpoints are sent. Details on the configuration of the 200/100 (MPU) actuator link interface can be Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Configuration and System Build found in (p/n 6510020588). Manual Link Status 10.3.3.1. For the 200/100 (MPU) link, there is no response message from the client when it receives the actuator setpoints. The message for reading actuator positions may be disabled that it cannot be used for detecting link connectivity. The link driver therefore sends an Alive and Well (200/100, 200/103, or 200/105) message to the client and monitors the response from the client on a rate basis to determine whether or not the link is down. The CD Controls 200/100 (MPU) actuator link interface receives the link down status directly from the link driver, and waits until the link driver indicates the link is functional again. If the message for 23 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

360 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface face may also declare link down reading actuator positions is enabled, the inter when the client does not send any response back on a read actuator positions request within the response timeout period. The link interface flags that the actuator positions are not received during link down. When the link comes back up, the interface initializes the link by sending all the Send On Init messages one by one. After all the Send On Init messages are sent, the link interface then checks if the actuator positions are received from the AIU smit option is enabled. The message for reading actuator if the Disable Back Tran positions is typically a Send On Init message. The link remains in an initializing stage until the actuator positions are received. After the link initialization is complete, the interface proceeds to send all the messages that need immediate attention (that is, the Send Now messages) followed by the next message in line. 10.3.3.2. Actuator Mode and Functional Requests Unlike the SCL and the Modbus RTU actuator link interface, the 200/100 (MPU) nterface does not send actuator mode or functional requests to the actuator link i client. Instead, when the operator requests Auto or Cascade mode for the actuator beam, the 200/100 (MPU) link interface triggers the link driver to send actuator nd when the operator requests Manual mode for the setpoints to the client, a actuator beam, the link interface triggers the link driver to read actuator positions from the client. Actuator Setpoints 10.3.3.3. The CD Controls 200/100 (MPU) actuator link interface processes the actuator setpoints (Setpoints Out) calculated by CD Controls before triggering the 200/100 (MPU) link driver to send the setpoints to the AIU through the Send Zone Setpoints message on a rate basis. You can change the rate at which setpoints are sent under the MPU tab on the Links Status display. You can also choose to send setpoints to the AIU when the actuator beam is in Manual or Computer mode by enabling the Send Setpoints In Manual Mode option, or only when the actuator beam is in Computer mode by disabling the option. The Send Setpoints In Manual Mode option is enabled by default, but can Links Status display at run time. be changed under the MPU tab on the The CD Controls 200/100 (MPU) actuator link interface reports a link error if the disabled, thereby causing a link down condition. Send Zone Setpoints message is The interface processes the setpoints depending on whether or not an actuator has separate physical devices for the actuation of positive and negative setpoints. This is most common for hot and cold air shower devices where positive setpoints 24 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

361 Actuator Link Interface face Serial Link Inter ), and positive device represent the need for heat and are sent to the hot air shower ( negative setpoints represent the need for cooling and are sent to the cold air ). The negative setpoints are r negative device shower ( eversed before they are sent to the negative device. Only one device should be active for any given zone, and a setpoint of 0.0 must be sent to the other device. If an actuator requires positive and negative setpoints, the appropriate option should be sele cted during the actuator link interface configuration. If the option of using separate devices for positive and negative setpoints is selected for the actuator, one of the following three options must be set to indicate how the setpoints are handled by the actuator link interface: • Send Positive Setpoints Only : The actuator link interface sends setpoints to the positive device only. In this case it is assumed that another actuator link interface is used to send setpoints to the negative . er serial line device through anoth • : The actuator link interface sends Send Negative Setpoints Only setpoints to the negative device only. In this case it is assumed that another actuator link interface is used to send setpoints to the positive . ine device through another serial l : The actuator link interface • Send Both Positive and Negative Setpoints sends setpoints to both the positive device and the negative device in . one single array If the last option is selected, it can also select to interleave the positive and negative setpoints, or append the setpoints for one device after those for the other device in an array. For either format, it can be selected to have the first element to 25 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

362 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface be a positive setpoint or a negative setpoint. The different setpoint modes available for the 200/100 (MPU) actuator link are illustrated in Figure 10- 9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Setpoints Out 10% 12% -5% -8% 8% 5% Send Positive Setpoints Only Send Negative Setpoints Only /100 (MPU) Actuator Link Interface (1) CD Controls 200 CD Controls 200/100 (MPU) Actuator Link Interface (2) Negative Setpoints Positive Setpoints 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 10% 12% 0% 0% 8% 5% 0% 0% 5% 8% 0% 0% Positive Device (e.g. Hot Air Shower) Negative Device (e.g. Cold Air Shower) Send Both Positive and Negative Setpoints CD Controls 200/100 (MPU) Actuator Link Interface Interleave Positive and Negative Setpoints Together (First Element Positive) 2 1 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 10% 12% 0% 0% 8% 5% 0% 0% 5% 8% 0% 0% Interleave Positive and Negative Setpoints Together OR (First Element Negative) 1 1 3 5 4 6 2 3 4 5 6 2 10% 0% 0% 0% 8% 5% 0% 8% 5% 0% 0% 12% Append Positive and Negative Setpoints Together OR (First Element Positive) 1 4 2 3 5 6 1 2 4 3 5 6 10% 0% 0% 12% 8% 5% 0% 0% 8% 5% 0% 0% Append Positive and Negative Setpoints Together OR (First Element Negative) 1 4 2 3 5 6 1 2 5 3 4 6 0% 8% 5% 0% 0% 0% 10% 12% 8% 0% 0% 5% Positive Device (e.g. Hot Air Shower) Negative Device (e.g. Cold Air Shower) ator Link Setpoint Modes -9 200/100 (MPU) Actu Figure 10 Actuator Modes, Positions, and Statuses 10.3.3.4. The CD Controls 200/100 (MPU) actuator link interface triggers the 200/100 (MPU) link driver to read the actuator positions from the AIU through the Read Zone Positions message. The actuator positions are read once from the AIU on link initialization, and thereafter on a rate basis. The interface processes the actuator position array before saving them to the RTDR depending on whether the interface deals with the positive device only, the nega tive device only or both. If the interface deals with the negative device, the positions received are reversed in sign to generate the negative values. If the interface deals with both the positive - 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 26

363 Actuator Link Interface Serial Link Interface erently depending on and negative devices, it processes the position array diff whether the positive and negative positions are interleaved or appended in the array, and whether the first element is a positive position or a negative position. You can also choose to read positions from the AIU when the actuator be am is in Manual mode only by enabling the Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option, or only when the actuator beam is in Manual or Computer mode by disabling the option. The Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option is enabled by default, display at and can be enabl ed or disabled under the MPU tab on the Links Status run time. 10.3.4. ABB Micro Link CD Controls provides support for interfacing with an actuator using the ABB Micro serial link protocol. The ABB Micro link driver is provided by the CD Controls software package. The AIU contains the client software for the ABB Micro link communication. The CD Controls ABB Micro actuator link interface initiates all communications with the client. The interface monitors the ABB Micro link status, processes data to be sent to the AIU, triggers the ABB Micro link driver to send and read data, and processes data received from the AIU. A few parameters need to be specified for the CD Controls ABB Micro actuator link interface for an actuator during system configuration. One of the parameters is the Default Message Rate, the starting rate at which all messages are sent to the AIU. The Default Message Rate is set to five seconds. The rates of the individual . display messages can be changed at run time from the Links Status A number of configuration templates are available for automatic configuration of party actuators such as an ABB Micro actuator link interface based on some third- Mitsubishi E -Pro, Impact Thermajet, and -Coil, Jetmatic (Metso), Kobayashi K and water spray actuators. Details on the configuration of the some ABB weight Experion MX CD Controls ABB Micro actuator link interface can be found in (p/n 6510020588). R701.1 Configuration and System Build Manual Link Status 10.3.4.1. erface monitors the status of the The CD Controls ABB Micro actuator link int ABB Micro link in the same way as the SCL actuator link interface. See Subsection 10.3.1.1 for details. l Requests Actuator Mode and Functiona 10.3.4.2. The CD Controls ABB Micro actuator link interface triggers the ABB Micro link driver to send the request to reset the AIU through the Reset Device message. The 27 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

364 CD Controls User Manual Actuator Link Interface message is sent on link initialization. Actuator mode requests are not supported for this link. 10.3.4.3. Actuator Setpoints The CD Controls ABB Micro actuator link interface processes the setpoints (Setpoints Out) calculated by CD Controls by multiplying the setpoints by the Scale Factor and adding the Zero Offset before triggering the ABB Micro li nk driver to send the setpoints to the AIU through the Send Zone Setpoints message. The setpoints are sent once on link initialization, and thereafter on a rate basis. The Scale Factor and Zero Offset are specified during the actuator link interface uration. You can change the Scale Factor, Zero Offset and the rate at which config setpoints are sent at run time under the ABB Micro tab on the Links Status display. You can also choose to send setpoints to the AIU when the actuator beam is in Manual or Computer mode by enabling the Send Setpoints In Manual Mode option, or only when the actuator beam is in Computer mode by disabling the option. The Send Setpoints In Manual Mode option is enabled by default, but can be changed at run time under the ABB Micro tab on the display. Links Status 10.3.4.4. Actuator Modes, Positions, and Statuses The CD Controls ABB Micro actuator link interface triggers the ABB Micro link drive to send read messages to AIU on a rate basis to obtain actuator positions, system, and/or zone status words from the AIU. The information, the corresponding messages, and the transfer modes for the SCL link are summarized CL link depend on the actuator 7. The actual messages used for the S in Table 10- and the types of messages supported by the AIU. The messages are configured during system configuration by selecting the appropriate options for the actuator link interface. Table 10- 7 ABB Micro Messages for Actuator Positions and Statuses Data Message Processing Transfer Mode Send On Init Read Zone Actuator positions Subtract the Zero Offset from the setpoints and divide them Positions Send On Link Down by the Scale Factor to generate Send On Rate the positions. Send Now - bit Send On Init Interpret the status word and Read System System status (three 16 words, Status Word 0, set the individual bits in RTDR Status Send On Link Down Status Word 1 & Status accordingly. Send On Rate Word 2) Send Now 28 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 10 -

365 Actuator Link Interface ays Actuator Link Interface Displ Transfer Mode Processing Message Data Send On Init Interpret for each actuator zone Zone status (an array of 16 - Read Zone the status word and set the Status bit words) Send On Link Down individual bits in RTDR Send On Rate accordingly. Send Now You can also choose to read positions from the AIU when the actuator beam is in Manual mode only by enabling the Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option, or only when the actuator beam is in Manual or Computer mode by disabling the option. The Read Positions Only In Manual Mode option can be enabled or Links disabled during system configuration, or under the ABB Micro tab on the display at run time. Status The bits in the system status and zone status words are defined during system configuration. If a link interface configuration template is used, these words may be configured automatically with some default bit mappings. Actuator Link Interface Displays 10.4. There are three displays associated with the Actuator Link Interface subsystem: Links Status display, System Status display and Zone Status display. These displays are accessible to both the operator and the control engineer. tatus display allows the control engineer and the operator to view and The Links S -based (ODX) edit the parameters and link messages of the serial and LAN actuator links. The System Status display shows all the system (beam) level alarms of an actuator and allows resetting sticky alarms that require resetting. The Zone Status display shows all the zone level alarms of an actuator and indicates which zones are in an alarm state. The display also allows resetting alarms that or individual or all zones. Refer to the require resetting, and enabling or disabling f (p/n 6510020587) for Experion MX CD Controls R701.1 Operator Manual detailed descriptions of these displays. 29 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 10 -

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367 Other Displays 11. Process Model Display 11.1. The Process Model display shows primarily process information concerning an actuator, its downstream scanners and measurements. It displays the spatial and temporal response models of the selected actuator on the selected measurement. These models are typically identified by performing bump tests on the actuator using IntelliMap. The display also allows the Speed Retune function to be enabled or disabled and allows editing of the associated parameters. For more detail on the Speed Retune function, see Subsection 3.3.5. The Process Model under the Process Model display can be accessed by clicking Figure 11 bar (see -1). It is accessible to CD Controls tab on the Display Menu the control engi neer only. -1 Display Menu Bar (Process Model) Figure 11 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 11 -

368 CD Controls User Manual Other Displays play areas, 2 with the dis Figure 11- The Process Model display is shown in buttons, and items labeled. -2 Process Model Display Figure 11 2. 1 lists and describes the items labeled in Figure 11- Table 11- 1 Process Model Display Items Table 11- Description Name Number 1 Actuator Selector Bar Provides a drop down list of measurements obtained from scanners - 2 Measurement Selector Bar downstream of the selected actuator. Controller of controller controlling the selected actuator. 3 Displays the type Indicator 4 Database Function Buttons 5 Rebuild CDMV Rebuilds the matrices of the multivariable controller. Flashes in red when one or more parameters on the display are edited and saved. 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 11 -

369 Other Displays Process Model Display Description Name Number Displays and allows editing of Speed Retune parameters. See Subsection 6 Speed Retune 3.3.5 for details on the Speed Retune function. Panel 6a When checked enables the Speed Retune function on the selected actuator. Speed Retune Enabled This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 6b Scanner Frame Displays the name of the scanner from which the selected measurement is obtained. Displays and allows editing of the distance between the actuator and the 6c Scanner - Actuator scanner. Available only if Speed Retune is enabled. This parameter is grade Distance (m) dependent and is saved to the DSR database. Displays the name of the machine speed VIO and the current machine speed. 6d Machine Speed Available only if Speed Retune is enabled. (m in m / ) Displays and allows editing of the transport time delay between the selected Transport Time 6e actuator and scanner. Available for editing only if Speed Retune is disabled. Delay (sec) This parameter is grade dependent and is saved to the DSR database. 6f Fi xed Time Delay Displays and allows editing of the fixed time delay between the selected actuator and measurement. This parameter is grade dependent and is saved (sec) to the DSR database. selected actuator and measurement. 6g Displays the total time delay between the Total Time Delay (sec) Displays and allows editing of the zone for which the spatial and temporal 7 Zone Number response models are displayed. Click on the indicator to enter the zone Selector buttons to move to the zone number directly, or use the left and right arrow number. 8 Process Model Displays the process model parameters of the selected actuator zone on the Parameters selected measurement. Panel 8a Process Gain Displays the process gain of the spatial response of the selected measurement to the selected actuator zone. Displays the divergence of the spatial response of the selected measurement Divergence 8b to the selected actuator zone. Width 8c Displays the width of the spatial response of the selected measurement to the sel ected actuator zone. Attenuation Displays the attenuation of the spatial response of the selected measurement 8d to the selected actuator zone. Displays the time constant of the temporal response of the selected Time Constant 8e selected actuator zone. measurement to the 3 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 11 -

370 CD Controls User Manual Other Displays Number Name Description Displays the total time delay of the temporal response of the selected 8f Total Time Delay measurement to the selected actuator zone. All zones of an actuator have the same total time delay on the selected measurement. 9 Spatial R esponse Graph Displays the spatial response shape of the selected zone on the selected Spatial Response 9a Graph measurement. - Displays the x Cursor X 9b scale position where the cursor is located on the spatial response graph. Displays Process Gain the process gain value where the cursor is located on the spatial 9c response graph. 10 Temporal Response Graph Displays the temporal response shape of the selected zone on the selected Temporal 10a Response Graph measurement. value where the cursor is located on the temporal response Time 10b Displays the time graph. % Gain 10c Displays the % gain value where the cursor is located on the temporal response graph. 4 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 11 -

371 Glossary 12. interface responsible for communicating status information A hardware actuator Actuator Interface and setpoints/positions between the actuator and CD Controls. Unit (AIU) Also known as relative target profile. An array of values entered by the operator Bias Target Profile in relative terms to specify a target profile of a particular shape for a sheet property instead of a flat target profile. lement in a measurement profile at the scanner A unit representing an e Bin (or Measurement resolution. Bin) A unit representing an element in a measurement profile at the CD bin CD Bin resolution. A user - defined resolution, usually lower than the scanner resolution, which all CD Bin Resolution ent profiles are mapped down to after the profiles have been verified measurem and before they are processed further in CD Controls. Refers to the multivariable control application that works with CD Controls or CD Controls the multivariable c ontroller itself. Multivariable (CDMV) An error profile of a measurement in CD bin resolution used for MIS reporting. CD Effect Profile -filtered CD bin The profile is generated by subtracting the exponential measurement profile from the CD bin target profile. From the CD Effect Profile, a CD Effect spread is calculated and reported in the MIS as an indication of CD control performance on a particular measurement. Used to refer to those properties of a process measurement or control device Cross Direction (CD) that are determi ned by its position along a line that runs across the paper machine. The cross direction is transverse to the machine direction that relates to a position along the length of the paper machine. - time application environment (RAE) for storing real A mechanism provided in Data Storage and dependent data, such as tuning, calibration and setup values, or grade- recipe- Retrieval (DSR) or grade- dependent and retrieving them when a recipe is loaded. The recipe- data are saved to a database known as the Recipes database. Distributed Control System (DCS) A filter option provided in the MD/CD Separation algorithm in the CD Controls Dynamic Adaptive Measurement Processing subsystem. This filter adjusts the level of MD noise Trending (DAT) filtering on a CD measurement profile in an adaptive fashion based on the amount of MD noise present in the profile. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 12 -

372 CD Controls User Manual Glossary A profile in CD bin resolution that is the difference between the target profile Error Profile n. and the current profile of a measurement, both in CD bin resolutio The name for Honeywell’s latest quality control system (QCS) of which CD Experion MX Controls is one of the applications. A foreign control system which provides CD supervisory control for typically a Foreign Controller or, for example Voith dilution profiling Honeywell CD actuat foreign non- headbox. The control system and the actuator are generally of the same vendor. The software interface provided by CD Controls to the foreign controller allows switching of supervisory control on an actuator between CD Controls and the foreign control system. Gauge Support Processor (GSP) A graphical interface which displays process data and provides a means to edit Human Machine control -related parameters. Interface (HMI) A TCP/IP network protocol used by the new generation CDWeb Manager Local Operating equipped with the iLON router to communicate with CD Controls. LON / Network (LON) LonWorks ® LonWorks Network. The direction in which paper travels down the paper machine. Machine Direction (MD) An application provided by RAE to accumulate and manipulate production data Management in order to generate reports for management purposes. rmation System Info (MIS) l The multivariable controller in CD Controls that performs multivariable contro Multivariable capability by controlling multiple sheet properties using multiple actuator beams Controller simultaneously based on some prior knowledge (response models) of the process. Object linking and embedding (OLE) for Process Control. A set of connectivity OPC standards for industrial automation from the OPC Foundation, Scottsdale, AZ (www.opcfoundation.org). OPC added extensions to Microsoft's COM and DCOM object technology in order to provide a set of common interfaces for process control. OPC offers interoperability b etween gauges, databases, programmable logic controllers (PLCs), distributed control systems (DCSs) and remote terminal units (RTUs). A TCP/IP LAN communication protocol developed by Honeywell (Measurex) for Open Data Exchange the QCS to communicate with external devices. (ODX) A database provided by RAE to store the last values of certain process Permanents parameters so these values can be restored when the QCS starts up from a Database previous shutdown. A jagged, unstable actuator profile. Picketed A computer system which manages the quality of the paper produced. Quality Control System (QCS) The system software used by Experion MX QCS to manage data exchange Real -Time between applications (with CD Controls being one of them). Application Environment (RAE) 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 12 -

373 Glossary CD Controls User Manual time database managed by RAE to store system data and data for - The real -Time Data Real individual applications. Repository (RTDR) The desired absolute CD profile in CD bin resolution a sheet property should Target Profile be controlled to. The traditional CD controller where one sheet property is controlled by one Traditional Controller actuator. Virtual Input/output (VIO) P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 12 - 3

374 A. CD Controls DSR Structure and Variables -dependent data in CD Controls and how The following tables shows all grade they are organized into various groups (pointers) in the recipe (DSR) database. The names of the groups (pointers) are constructed using the IDs of the scanners, the measurements, the actuators or the control scenarios, or a combination of them, depending on the kind of data the groups contain. These IDs are: • CSXX: represent s the ID of a control scenario, where XX is the scenario number starting from 01 up to the allowable number of scenarios for the system which is chosen during system configuration. For example, a system configured with three scenarios (plus default scenari o) has CS00 (default scenario), CS01, CS02 and CS03. The single letter X is used to represent the number of the scenario starting from 1 for the first configurable scenario (excluding the default scenario), 2 for the second, and so on. • ID of a scanner, where w is the scanner number. SCNw: represents the For example, a system with three scanners will have the scanners identified as SCN1, SCN2, and SCN3. YYYY: represents the ID of a measurement, where the first two Ys • from the left is the measurement symbol, for example MS for moisture, the third Y is the scanner number, and the last Y is the sensor set number. ZZZ: respresents the ID of an actuator, where the first two Zs from the • left is the actuator symbol, for example MP for a moisture actuator, st Y is a number for distinguishing multiple actuators of the and the la same type. For example, if a system has a Devronizer and an AquaTrol, the IDs of the two actuators are typically set to MP1 and MP2. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 A -

375 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls DSR Structure and Variables VTHx: represents the ID of a Voith controller where x is the index of • the controller starting from 1 for the first Voith controller, 2 for the second, and so forth. • DNAy: represents the ID of a Metso DNA controller where y is the index of the controller starting from 1 for the first Metso DNA controller, 2 for the s econd and so forth. • MPCz: represents the ID of a multivariable controller where z is the index of the multivariable controller starting from 1 for the first multivariable controller, 2 for the second, and so forth. DISTBu: represents the ID of a non- CD act • uator measurable disturbance where u is the index of the measurable disturbance starting from 1 for the first measurable disturbance, 2 for the second, and so forth. 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 A -

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382 ODX Events and Variables B. CD Controls The tables in this section show the ODX events and variables used by CD Controls to c file Manager ommunicate with external devices, namely the AIU (Pro or CDWeb Manager), Voith control system, and IntelliMap. The tag names of the ODX events and variables are constructed using the IDs or numbers of the scanners, the IDs of the measurements, the actuators, the controllers or the control pending on the kind of data concerned. scenarios, or a combination of them, de These IDs are: • ActID: represents the ID of an actuator, for example, MP1 for Devronizer. • MeasID: represents the ID of a measurement, for example, MS11 for moisture. ScannerID: represents the ID of a scanner, for example, SCN1. • Scanner#: represents the number of a scanner, for example, 1 for • Scanner 1. ControllerID: represents the ID of a controller, for example, MPC1 for • the multivariable controller. TradControllerID: represents the ID of a traditional controller, for • example, TC1. ScenarioID: represents the ID of a control scenario, for example, • CS01. • MPCID: represents the ID of a multivariable controller, for example MPC1. P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 1 B -

383 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls ODX Events and Variables Description ODX Event Name ODX Event 586 lpn1\evt586 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface ODX Event 588 lpn1\evt588 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface ODX Event 589 lpn1\evt589 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface ODX Event 590 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface lpn1\evt590 ODX Event 591 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface lpn1\evt591 Regulatory Control On Trigger Ordinal p1c'ActID'.lodon Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface p1c'ActID'.aed Zone Enable Trigger Ordinal Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface Zone Reset Trigger Ordinal p1c'ActID'.arst Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface Actuator Power Request Trigger Ordinal p1c'ActID'.acpwr Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface General Register 1 Read Trigger Ordinal p1c'ActID'.genr1 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface General Register 2 Read Trigger Ordinal p1c'ActID'.genr2 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface General Register 3 Read Trigger Ordinal p1c'ActID'.genr3 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface General Register 4 Read Trigger Ordinal p1c'ActID'.genr4 Profile Manager/CDWeb Manager Interface Global (Beam) Mode Status Voith Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.glbst Single (Zone) Mode Status p1c'ActID'.sngst Voith Foreign Controller Zone Status p1c'ActID'.astat Voith Foreign Controller Voith Setpoints p1c'ActID'.aspvo Voith Foreign Controller Voith Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.glbrq Global (Beam) Mode Request Voith Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.sngrq Single (Zone) Mode Request p1c'MeasID'.EOS Measurement EOS Toggle Voith Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.EOS Actuator EOS Toggle Voith Foreign Controller Control Profile p1c'ActID'.vopv Voith Foreign Controller Voith Foreign Controller Control Target p1c'ActID'.votgt p1c'ActID'.flush Flush Request Voith Foreign Controller Flush Status p1c'ActID'.flshng Voith Foreign Controller Global (Beam) Mode Status VIB Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.glbst p1c'ActID'.sngst Single (Zone) Mode Status VIB Foreign Controller Zone Status VIB Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.astat p1c'ActID'.aspvo VIB Foreign Controller Voith Setpoints p1c'ActID'.glbrq Global (Beam) Mode Request VIB Foreign Controller Single (Zone) Mode Request VIB Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.sngrq Measurement EOS Toggle p1c'MeasID'.EOS VIB Foreign Controller Actuator EOS Toggle p1c'ActID'.EOS VIB Foreign Controller Control Profile VIB Foreign Controller p1c'ActID'.vopv VIB Foreign Controller Control Target p1c'ActID'.votgt PCD.GradeUnavailable Grade Unavailable Multivariable Controller Controller Switch Pending Multivariable Controller PCD.CtrlSwitchPending Multivariable Controller PCD.InvalidSetup Invalid Setup MPC Controller Active 'MPCID'.Active Multivariable Controller Multivariable Controller 'MPCID'.Initialize MPC Controller Initialize 'MPCID'SS.RebuildReq SS Rebuild Required Multivariable Controller SS Start Rebuild Multivariable Controller 'MPCID'SS.StartRebuild PM Rebuild Required 'MPCID'PM.RebuildReq Multivariable Controller PM Start Rebuild 'MPCID'PM.StartRebuild Multivariable Controller QP Rebuild Required Multivariable Controller 'MPCID'QP.RebuildReq QP Start Rebuild 'MPCID'QP.StartRebuild Multivariable Controller 'ScenarioID''MPCID'.DataChanged Scenario Data Changed Multivariable Controller IntelliMap Interface Scanner EOS Toggle 'ScannerID'.eostoggle imap.xferingdata IntelliMap Interface IntelliMap Transferring Data 2 1/3/18 P/N 6510020586 Rev 01 B -

384 CD Controls ODX Events and Variables CD Controls User Manual 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 P/N B - 3

385 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls ODX Events and Variables 1/3/18 6510020586 Rev 01 B - 4 P/N

386 CD Controls ODX Events and Variables CD Controls User Manual 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 P/N B - 5

387 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls ODX Events and Variables 1/3/18 6510020586 Rev 01 B - 6 P/N

388 CD Controls ODX Events and Variables CD Controls User Manual 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 P/N B - 7

389 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls ODX Events and Variables 1/3/18 6510020586 Rev 01 B - 8 P/N

390 CD Controls ODX Events CD Controls User Manual and Variables 6510020586 Rev 01 P/N 1/3/18 B - 9

391 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls ODX Events and Variables 1/3/18 6510020586 Rev 01 B - 10 P/N

392 CD Controls ODX Events and Variables CD Controls User Manual 6510020586 Rev 01 1/3/18 P/N B - 11

393 CD Controls User Manual CD Controls ODX Events and Variables 6510020586 Rev 01 - 12 P/N 1/3/18 B

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