A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy's Future


1 a national call to action A CruCible MoMent W College Learning & Democracy’s Future F f The National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement


3 a national call to action A CruCible MoMent W College Learning & Democracy’s Future F F The National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement

4 This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the US Department of Education under contract number ED-OPE-10-C-0078. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the US Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US Government. Thi s publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise—without constraint. 1818 R Street, NW, Washington, DC 20009 Suggested Citation: The National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement. 2012. A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. ISBN 978-0-9827850-5-8 To download a copy of this report, see www.aacu.org/civiclearning/crucible. To order additional copies of this publication, visit www.aacu.org, email [email protected], or call 202.387.3760.

5 W table of Contents Foreword v . . . . . . . . . . Martha Kanter and Eduardo Ochoa, US Department of Education For Democracy’s Future: Five Essential Actions from the National vi ... Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement A Crucible Moment The Catalysts for Producing ... and Its National Call to Action vii National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Members ... ix xi ... Acknowledgments ... Why Education for Democratic Citizenship Matters I. 1 Crucible Moments of Civic Learning: Then and Now ... 17 II. III. Education for Democracy in the Twenty-First Century: ... 25 A National Call to Action 41 ... Trailblazers for Civic Learning: From Periphery to Pervasiveness IV. 51 ... V. A Foundation Partially Laid: Pathways to Democratic Engagement 69 VI. Conclusion ... ... 71 References Appendix A: Civic Investment Plan Templates ... 81 ... Appendix B: Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Project Staff 87 Appendix C: Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement National Roundtables: Participant List ... 89 Appendix D: Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement National Roundtables: Participating Organizations ... 97 A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future iii


7 Foreword W “A socially cohesive and economically vibrant US democracy...require[s] informed, engaged, open-minded, and socially responsible people committed to the common good and practiced in ‘doing’ democracy... Civic learning needs to be an integral component of every level of education, from grade school through graduate school, across all fields of study.” A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future Excerpt from The overarching education goal for the Obama administration is to once again lead the world in the proportion of college graduates by 2020. In this context, we hope this report sparks a national conversation and call to action about how institutions of higher learning can embrace and act on their long-standing mission to educate students for informed, engaged citizenship—an essential quality for all graduates. The completion of postsecondary education and the acquisition of twenty-first-century critical thinking skills in the liberal arts and sciences are an economic necessity as well as a social imperative. To fulfill America’s promise in our global society, our education system at all levels, from early learning through higher education, must serve our nation both as its economic engine and its wellspring for democracy. This report from the National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement finds that civic learning and learning in traditional academic disciplines are complementary, rather than competitive. The report points to research findings that suggest that students who participate in civic learning opportunities are more likely to • persist in college and complete their degrees; • obtain skills prized by employers; and • develop habits of social responsibility and civic participation. We would like to see further research explore these connections. In the months ahead, the US Department of Education will analyze the recommendations advanced in A Crucible Moment and identify actions we can take. For now, we want to express our gratitude to the National Task Force, and the many individuals and organizations who contributed to this ambitious project, for their work and their commitment to educating students as citizens for the twenty-first century. Together we must advance a civic learning and democratic engagement agenda worthy of our great nation. Sincerely, Eduardo Ochoa Martha Kanter Under Secretary Assistant Secretary for US Department of Education Postsecondary Education US Department of Education College Learning & Democracy’s Future A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: v

8 Five Essential Actions For Democracy’s Future: From The National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement 1. Reclaim and reinvest in the fundamental civic and democratic mission of schools and of all sectors within higher education. 2. Enlarge the current national narrative that erases civic aims and civic literacy as educational priorities contributing to social, intellectual, and economic capital. 3. Advance a contemporary, comprehensive framework for civic learning—embracing US and global interdependence— that includes historic and modern understandings of democratic values, capacities to engage diverse perspectives and people, and commitment to collective civic problem solving. 4. Capitalize upon the interdependent responsibilities of K–12 and higher education to foster progressively higher levels of civic knowledge, skills, examined values, and action as expectations for every student. 5. Expand the number of robust, generative civic partnerships and alliances, locally, nationally, and globally to address common problems, empower people to act, strengthen communities and nations, and generate new frontiers of knowledge. See Chapter III for the entire set of recommendations in the National Call to Action. vi

9 the Catalysts for Producing A Crucible Moment and its national Call to Action W A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future was written at the invitation of the US Department of Education, which awarded a contract to the Global Perspective Institute, Inc. (GPI) and a subcontract to the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) to lead a national dialogue that would result in recommendations about strengthening students’ civic learning and democratic engagement as a core component of college study. GPI and AAC&U then formed a National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement, whose members collectively have been involved in virtually all aspects of the civic renewal effort that is already underway in many parts of higher education. Our work was ably led by GPI President Larry A. Braskamp and AAC&U Senior Vice President Caryn McTighe Musil, who organized and guided the year-long national dialogue and A Crucible Moment was framed. analysis through which The charge given us as a National Task Force was to assess the current state of education for democracy in higher education and produce a report with a National Call to Action and specific steps through which multiple stakeholders can make college students’ civic learning and democratic engagement a pervasively embraced educational priority and a resource for democracy. We were invited, in effect, to complement our society’s strong commitment to increased college-going and completion with an equally strong and multi-front effort to ensure that postsecondary study contributes significantly to college students’ preparation as informed, engaged, and globally knowledgeable citizens. The US Department of Education was an involved partner in this entire effort, with key staff attending and attentive at national roundtables, and offering feedback on successive drafts of A Crucible Moment. Yet department leaders also made it clear that this should be a report from the higher education community to the nation, not a brief framed by the department. Guided by an intensive multi-month dialogue with advisers from all parts of higher education and civil society, we shaped the analysis and National Call to Action presented in these pages. Caryn McTighe Musil served as the scribe and lead author for the Task Force. A final report required under the contract was submitted to the Department of Education in October 2011 and posted on its website in December 2011. Following that submission, A Crucible Moment was revised and edited for publication and dissemination in 2012. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future vii

10 The arguments and recommendations made in A Crucible Moment were strongly influenced by the following work, which also was supported by the contract from the US Department of Education: 1. A series of five National Roundtables was held between December 2010 and March 2011 involving 134 people representing 61 community colleges, four-year colleges, and universities; 26 civic organizations; 9 private and government funding agencies; 15 higher education associations; and 12 disciplinary societies. Participants in these National Roundtables helped assess the strengths and limitations of current efforts to engage college students in civic learning and made invaluable contributions to the arguments and recommendations presented in A Crucible Moment . 2. An initial commissioned background paper was written in October 2010 by Nancy Thomas of The Democracy Imperative on the current landscape for civic learning in higher education. This background paper helped focus the dialogue and debate in the initial National Roundtables and served as a crucial point of departure for the work of crafting the present publication. 3. A review of the literature on educational practices that are correlated with students’ gains in civic learning and democratic action was prepared by Ashley Finley, senior director for assessment and research at AAC&U. That analysis is available on the project website (www.civiclearning.org) and on AAC&U’s website (www.aacu.org/civic_learning). A Crucible Moment The analysis and recommendations offered in also benefitted from research being conducted on students’ civic gains in college by several university and college research centers. Ashley Finley’s forthcoming synthesis of findings from these ongoing research studies was made available to the National Task Force in advance of its formal publication in early 2012, and is reflected at several points in A Crucible Moment . Everyone involved in the year of national dialogue behind A Crucible Moment intends this report to serve as a National Call to Action that will underscore higher education’s essential civic mission and make civic learning a key component of every college student’s course of study. We submit this report to serve as a catalyst for action. It represents a collective set of recommendations and requires a collective mustering of coordinated community actions so that colleges, community colleges, and universities can offer the nation the full resources we need to restore and expand our depleted civic capital and fully serve the democracy upon which our common future depends. viii

11 National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Members Program Officer, Derek Barker, President of Richard Guarasci, Donald W. Harward, President Kettering Foundation, and author Wagner College, and political Emeritus of Bates College, and Tragedy and Citizenship: Conflict, of science scholar whose leadership Director of the national civic Reconciliation, and Democratic Politics has led to Wagner’s award-winning initiative Bringing Theory to Practice from Haemon to Hegel civic programs Professor and Sylvia Hurtado, Eric Liu, founder of The Guiding Vice Chairman Gale Muller, Director of the Higher Education Lights Network and co-author (with of Worldwide Research and Research Institute at UCLA, where Nick Hanauer) of The True Patriot Development for Gallup, where she researches student educational and The Gardens of Democracy: A he has overseen research on the outcomes, campus climates, and New American Story of Citizenship, voices of citizens in more than diversity in higher education the Economy, and the Role of 130 countries Government President of De Brian Murphy, Eboo Patel, Founder and Executive President Carol Geary Schneider, Anza College since 2004, where Director of Interfaith Youth Core of the Association of American he spearheaded the creation of De (IFYC) and author of the award- Colleges and Universities, which Anza’s Institute for Community and Acts of Faith: The Story winning book promotes liberal education as a Civic Engagement of an American Muslim, the Struggle resource for economic creativity and for the Soul of a Generation democratic vitality David Scobey, Executive Dean of Carolyn Kathleen Maas Weigert, The New School and founder of Farrell, BVM, Professor of Women the University of Michigan Arts of and Leadership, and Assistant to the Citizenship Program to foster the Provost for Social Justice Initiatives role of the arts, humanities, and at Loyola University Chicago design in civic life A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future ix


13 Acknowledgments W As members of the National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement, we are honored to have had the opportunity to work with so many additional leaders in civic learning and democratic engagement to produce this national report, A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future. We are indebted in particular to the 134 National Roundtable participants who invested their time to come to Washington, DC, for one of A Crucible Moment ’s analysis five day-long discussions where they helped frame and recommendations for the next generation of civic work. As committed and innovative educators for democracy in many contexts, they have helped lay the foundations for civic learning and democratic engagement that are described in Chapters IV and V. They were wise and passionate advisers on what still needs to be done before civic learning can become an expected outcome for every student, and before democratic engagement and civic problem solving with widely diverse people can become everyday occurrences on and off campus. We also express deep appreciation to our colleagues in the US Department of Education who spearheaded the call for elevating civic learning and democratic engagement in the experiences of college students—whatever and wherever they are studying. Department of Education leaders have been stalwart partners in this project and clear about their determination to take seriously the recommendations made to them in the National Call to Action. Their support will help us fulfill the recommendations outlined in Chapter III. We also want to acknowledge the leadership that Larry A. Braskamp, president of the Global Perspective Institute, Inc., has given to this initiative. Bringing decades of scholarly and administrative engagement with civic and global learning to the table, he embraced and managed the fast-paced work behind the writing of this report with unflagging commitment, administrative skill, and intellectual vigor. He was aided in his role by his co-leader in overseeing the project, Caryn McTighe Musil, senior vice president of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), and by the AAC&U staff who so enhanced the work behind this report: the excellent thinking and organizational skills of Nancy O’Neill, the attentiveness to detail of Van Luu, and the resourcefulness and research of Eleanor Hall. We are indebted as well for the editorial oversight of Shelley Johnson Carey and additional editing by Gordon Geise, Debra Humphreys, Wilson Peden, and David Tritelli. The Task Force also expresses its warm appreciation to Caryn McTighe Musil for her extraordinary work as scribe for the National Task Force and all who advised us. Listening attentively to—and reviewing extensive summaries of—all the roundtable dialogues, and drawing from her own decades of leadership on this topic as well, she gave voice to this “next generation” vision for the Task Force by serving as the lead author of A Crucible Moment . We thank her for her commitment and her accomplishment in crafting our collective “National Call to Action.” A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future xi

14 Finally, we want to express our deep gratitude to Donald W. Harward, director of the Bringing Theory to Practice (BTtoP) project and another member of the National Task Force. Drawing on gifts from the Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation and the S. Engelhard Center, BTtoP provided a substantial gift to support the publication and dissemination of A Crucible Moment . The National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement xii

15 Each generation must work to preserve the fundamental values and principles of its heritage...to narrow the gap between the ideals of this nation and the reality of the daily lives of its people; and to more fully realize the potential of our constitutional, democratic republic. We can emerge from this civic recession, but to do so will require a full-scale national investment from every level of government and every sector of society. Charles N. Quigley, Executive Director, Center for Civic Education


17 i. Why education for Democratic Citizenship Matters W We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Preamble to the Constitution of the United States of America Did you...suppose Democracy was only for elections, for politics, and for a party name? I say Democracy is only of use there that it may pass on and come to its flower and fruits in manners, in the highest forms of interaction between men, and their beliefs—in Religion, Literature, colleges, and schools—Democracy in all public and private life... , Democratic Vistas (2010) Walt Whitman Events “are moving us toward what cannot be,” warns David Mathews, president of the Kettering Foundation, “a citizenless democracy” (London 2010, iv). The oxymoronic phrase is chilling. Mathews points to numerous trends in public life that “sideline citizens”: recasting people’s roles from producers of public goods to consumers of material ones, gerrymandering districts and thus exacerbating the deep divides that already shape our politics, diminishing opportunities for civic alliances, and replacing what ought to be thoughtful deliberation about public issues with incivility and hyper­ polarization. The US Census Bureau’s most recent population survey captures citizen passivity in its finding that only 10 percent of citizens contacted a public official between November 2009 and November 2010 (US Census Bureau 2010). Such troubling phenomena are not necessarily news. A decade ago, Robert Putnam in (2000) argued that there was a decline in Bowling Alone social capital, especially in “bridging capital,” which he defined as the capacity to work across differences. Withdrawal into comfortable enclaves and wariness of others who appear different persist. Meanwhile, public confidence in the nation’s political institutions spirals downward: a New York Times /CBS News poll on September 16, 2011, revealed that only 12 percent of American approve of the way Congress is handling its job (Kopicki 2011). In 2007, a conference titled “Civic Disengagement in our Democracy” provided evidence that “among the 172 world democracies the United States ranks 139th in voter participation.” Conference leaders also warned that there was a “decline in both the quantity and quality of civic education” (McCormick Tribune Foundation 2007, 6–7). These assessments echo an earlier warning from the 1998 National Commission on Civic Renewal, chaired by William Bennett and Sam Nunn, which asserted, “In a time that cries out for civic action, we are in danger of becoming a nation of spectators” (1998, 12). A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 1

18 A Crucible Moment: In response to these and other dangerous trends, calls for investing on a massive scale College Learning and Democracy’s Future in higher education’s capacity to renew this nation’s social, intellectual, and civic capital. As a democracy, the United States depends on a knowledgeable, public- spirited, and engaged population. Education plays a fundamental role in building civic vitality, and in the twenty-first century, higher education has a distinctive role to play in the renewal of US democracy. Although the Bennett- Nunn commission overlooked higher education as a potential source of civic renewal, this report argues that colleges and universities are among the nation’s most valuable laboratories for civic learning and democratic engagement. The beneficiaries of investing in such learning are not just students or higher education itself; the more civic-oriented that colleges and universities become, the greater their overall capacity to spur local and global economic vitality, social and political well-being, and collective action to address public problems. Today, however, a robust approach to civic learning is provided to only a minority of students, limiting higher education’s potential civic impact. A Crucible Moment: College Too few postsecondary institutions offer programs that prepare students to Learning and Democracy’s engage the questions Americans face as a global democratic power. A Crucible Moment calls on the higher education community—its calls for investing Future constituents and stakeholders—to embrace civic learning and democratic on a massive scale in higher engagement as an undisputed educational priority for all of higher education, education’s capacity to renew public and private, two-year and four-year. While all parts of the higher this nation’s social, intellectual, education enterprise need to build civic capital for our society, the focus of this report is on undergraduate education. Such engagement will require and civic capital. constructing environments where education for democracy and civic responsibility is pervasive, not partial; central, not peripheral. David Mathews describes democracy as depending on an ecosystem, not only of legislative bodies and executive agencies, but also of civic alliances, social norms, and deliberative practices that empower people to work together in what Elinor Ostrom calls the “coproduction” of public goods (London 2010, iv). Every sector and every person can contribute to this civic enterprise, including the K–12 education sector, where education for democracy and civic responsibility needs to be a bedrock expectation. explores how higher education can serve—for this A Crucible Moment generation of students and for the nation’s globally situated democracy—as one of the defining sites for learning and practicing democratic and civic responsibilities. Since it is now considered necessary preparation for today’s economy, postsecondary education has a new and unparalleled opportunity to engage the majority of Americans with the challenges we face as a diverse democracy. Moreover, today’s US college campuses, physical and virtual, bring together a wider range of students—across class and color, religion and gender, nationality and age—than ever before in our history. As such, two- year and four-year colleges and universities offer an intellectual and public commons where it is possible not only to theorize about what education for democratic citizenship might require in a diverse society, but also to rehearse that citizenship daily in the fertile, roiling context of pedagogic inquiry and hands-on experiences. 2

19 Toward a More Comprehensive Definition of Civic Learning in the Twenty-First Century With its focus on higher education as a site for citizenship, A Crucible Moment: uses the dual terms of “civic learning” College Learning and Democracy’s Future and “democratic engagement” to emphasize the civic significance of preparing students with knowledge and for action. Today’s education for democracy needs to be informed by deep engagement with the values of liberty, equality, individual worth, open mindedness, and the willingness to collaborate with people of differing views and backgrounds toward common solutions for the public good. Anne Colby and her colleagues capture the complexity of civic learning and democratic engagement when they define democracy as “fundamentally a practice of shared responsibility for a common future. It is the always unfinished task of making social choices and working toward public goals that shapes our lives and the lives of others” (Colby et al. 2007, 25). Moreover, as historian Diane Ravitch observes, “a society that is racially and ethnically diverse requires, more than other societies, a conscious effort to “A society that is racially and build shared values and ideals among its citizenry” (Ravitch 2000, 466). The multifaceted dimensions of civic learning and democratic ethnically diverse requires, engagement necessary in today’s United States are suggested in figure 1 (next more than other societies, a page), which maps a contemporary definition of civic and democratic learning, conscious effort to build shared underscoring the breadth and scope of preparation for knowledgeable citizenship that a highly diverse and globally engaged democracy requires. This values and ideals among its newly broadened schema of civic learning expands the historical definition of citizenry” (Ravitch 2000). civics that stressed familiarity with the various branches of government and acquaintance with basic information about US history. This knowledge is still essential, but no longer sufficient. Americans need to understand how their political system works and how to influence it, certainly, but they also need to understand the cultural and global contexts in which democracy is both deeply valued and deeply contested. Moreover, full civic literacies cannot be garnered only by studying books; democratic knowledge and capabilities also are honed through hands-on, face-to-face, active engagement in the midst of differing perspectives about how to address common problems that affect the well­ being of the nation and the world. The framing offered in figure 1 is suggestive, not definitive; much more work is required to better clarify component elements of civic and democratic learning in this global century. In Chapter III, we call for a new commitment to undertake that work. Nonetheless, the four listed categories of knowledge, skills, values, are widely shared—if sometimes differently collective action and emphasized—among civic educators and practitioners. Similarly, in many analyses of civic learning (such as those cited in this report’s list of references), the learning outcomes within those four categories appear—albeit with slight variance in language—with remarkable consistency. This contemporary schema of civic knowledge thus represents a formidable yet exhilarating educational agenda that invites educators, scholars, and policy-makers to creatively and centrally locate education for civic learning and democratic engagement at the heart of our nation’s educational systems, from elementary school through college and beyond. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 3

20 Figur e 1: A Framework for Twenty-First-Century Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Collective Action Knowledge Skills Critical inquiry, analysis, and • • • Integration of knowledge, skills, Familiarity with key democratic and examined values to inform texts and universal democratic reasoning actions taken in concert with principles, and with selected Quantitative reasoning • debates—in US and other other people • Gathering and evaluating societies—concerning their Moral discernment and behavior • multiple sources of evidence applications • Navigation of political systems • Seeking, engaging, and being Historical and sociological • and processes, both formal informed by multiple perspectives understanding of several and informal • Written, oral, and multi-media democratic movements, both • Public problem solving with communication US and abroad diverse partners • Deliberation and bridge building Understanding one’s sources of • • Compromise, civility, and across differences identity and their influence on mutual respect civic values, assumptions, and Collaborative decision making • responsibilities to a wider public • Ability to communicate in Knowledge of the diverse cultures, • multiple languages histories, values, and contestations Values that have shaped US and other Respect for freedom and • world societies human dignity • Exposure to multiple religious • Empathy traditions and to alternative views • Open-mindedness about the relation between religion and government • Tolerance Knowledge of the political • Justice • systems that frame constitutional Equality • democracies and of political levers • Ethical integrity for influencing change • Responsibility to a larger good By investing strategically to educate students fully along the four-part civic continuum, higher education can ignite a widespread civic renewal in America. When deep learning about complex questions with public consequence is coupled with college students’ energies and commitments, democratic culture is reinvigorated. Despite the label of disengagement often pinned to their T-shirts by others, evidence suggests a majority of the current generation of young people care deeply about public issues. True, many are alienated by uncritically partisan debate among the politicians and the polity, by corporate influence over policy making, and by inefficient government processes; yet, a significant portion of college students are interested in community service that leads to systemic social and political change. They also want to have more meaningful opportunities to discuss and address public issues (Kiesa et al. 2007). In reshaping the college experience, we need to capitalize on the yearning, the inclination, and the commitments of such students. In a 2009 survey of entering college students undertaken by UCLA’s Higher Education Research Institute (HERI), 35.8 percent responded that “becoming a community leader” was “essential” or “very important” and reported showing more commitment to treating each other as equal citizens 4

21 when compared with older generations (Pryor et al. 2009, 40). Moreover, students in ever-increasing numbers are flocking to civic engagement opportunities in college—often spurred by volunteer work in the year before entering college. In the same survey, 85.3 percent of entering first-year students reported that they “performed volunteer work” “frequently” or “occasionally” as high school seniors (Pryor et al. 2009, 11). Participation in service is high in the college years as well: according to 2010 HERI data on college seniors, 8 in 10 seniors reported being engaged in some form of community service during college (DeAngelo, pers. comm.). In a national survey using the Personal and Social Responsibility The longer the students Inventory (PSRI), which was conducted by the University of Michigan’s stay in college, the wider Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education, data from twenty-four thousand students at twenty-three diverse colleges, universities, the gap becomes between community colleges, and military academies indicate that students want their their endorsement of social colleges to foster a stronger institutional emphasis on contributing to the larger responsibility as a goal of the community. Moreover, the longer the students stay in college, the wider the college and their assessment gap becomes between their endorsement of social responsibility as a goal of college and their assessment of whether the institution provides opportunities of whether the institution for growth in this area (see fig. 2; Dey et al. 2009). provides opportunities for Students’ assessment of whether their campus valued and promoted growth in this area. contributing to the larger community declined from first to senior year. In addition, while 44.8 percent of first-year students strongly agreed that their campus actively promoted awareness of US social, political, and economic issues, only 34.3 percent of seniors strongly agreed with this statement. There was an even more striking discrepancy in the global arena: among first-year students, 43.3 percent strongly agreed that their campus actively promoted awareness of global social, political, and economic issues, but only half that amount—22.9 percent—of seniors strongly agreed with this statement (Dey et al. 2009, 4–8). emphasizes, community service is not necessarily A Crucible Moment As the same as democratic engagement with others across differences to collectively solve public problems. Nor does service always establish a reciprocal partnership or lead to an analysis of systemic causes of a given issue. But service can be, and often is, the first step toward a more fully developed set Student Views on the Figur e 2: 59% 58% 57% Importance of Contributing 55% to the Larger Community 45% 42% Percentages of students who strongly agree that 41% 38% contributing to community “should be” a major focus of college and “is” a major focus of college, by year in school. Data from Dey et al. (2009). Source: SENIOR JUNIOR SOPHOMORE AR T YE RS FI “S “Is” ” hould be A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 5

22 of civic capacities and commitments—not the least of which is working with Ten Indicators of Anemic others to co-create more vibrant communities to address significant national US Civic Health needs and to promote economic and social stability. Chapter V highlights some colleges and universities that are leading the design of educational Full references for indicators can be found in this report on the page experiences to help students along the civic continuum. The challenge for numbers in parentheses. colleges and universities in the next decade is to make such opportunities 1. US ranked 139th in voter pervasive, rather than random, across the institution. participation of 172 world democracies in 2007 (1). Symptoms of a Civic Malaise 2. Only 10 percent of citizens contacted a public official in Unfortunately, the commitment to foster foundational knowledge about US 2009–10 (1). democracy or to expand civic capacities to shape a better world in concert with 3. Only 24 percent of graduating others has been pushed off the priority list in K–12 schools. Nor is it yet an high school seniors scored at expectation for every college student. Like the ocean at low tide, even the most the proficient or advanced level in civics in 2010, fewer than in nominal gestures toward civic education have begun to recede from the K–12 2006 or in 1998 (7). curriculum. While some state higher education commissions have pushed 4. Less than one-half of 12th for civic matters, these efforts usually focus on promoting community service graders reported studying outside the classroom or on increasing the number of voting citizens. Both are international topics as part of a laudable goals, but even together they are insufficient to offset the civic erosion civics education (7). we are experiencing. 5. Half of the states no longer The times call for visionary leadership that locates education for require civics education for high democracy as a focal point of educational study, reflection, and practice. school graduation (6). This moment in history also calls on us to embrace a comprehensive and 6. Among 14,000 college seniors contemporary vision for civic learning that includes knowledge, skills, values, surveyed in 2006 and 2007, the average score on a civic literacy and the capacity to work with others on civic and societal challenges. Investing exam was just over 50 percent, in these forms of learning will increase the number of informed, thoughtful, and an “F” (7). public-minded citizens and better prepare them to contribute to public life. 7. Opportunities to develop civic The gravitation pull, however, is in exactly the opposite direction—to skills in high school through democracy’s peril. As former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor community service, school observed in 2010, “Half of the states no longer make [civics] a requirement to government, or service clubs are get out of high school,” which she describes as “a remarkable withdrawal from available disproportionately to wealthier students (6). the very purpose we had originally for public school.” 8. Just over one-third of college Secondary schools typically require only three years of history and faculty surveyed in 2007 strongly social studies (combined) to address the entire spectrum of US history, agreed that their campus actively world and Western history, global cultures and challenges, democratic ideals promotes awareness of US and institutions, and the social and political systems that frame our world. or global social, political, and With such compressed time devoted to these topics, students learn too little economic issues (63). about them. In the most recent national test of history competence, only 9. A similar percentage (35.8 12 percent of US seniors performed at or above the proficient level (NCES percent) of college students surveyed strongly agreed that 2011a). Similarly, the Southern Poverty Law Center’s report assigned thirty- faculty publicly advocate the five states an F grade because the history standards in their states “require need for students to become little or no mention” of the civil rights movement (Dillon 2011), which is the active and involved citizens (41). most powerful example in the twentieth century of a transformative, broad- 10. One-third of college students based, intergenerational, and interracial social movement for full democratic surveyed strongly agreed that citizenship. Furthermore, researchers have found that opportunities to work their college education resulted directly on civic issues in high school through community service, school in increased civic capacities (41). government, or service clubs are disproportionately available to wealthier students (CIRCLE 2010). 6

23 Notably, despite all the energy devoted to the development of “Common Civics 2010: Findings Core Standards” by the National Governors Association and the Council of from the Nation’s Chief State School Officers, the standards released in 2010 do not address Report Card the content knowledge students need for democratic citizenship or global participation (Common Core Standards Initiative 2010a, 2010b). At the federal • Twenty-four percent of graduating high school seniors level, the Department of Education’s March 2010 Elementary and Secondary scored at the proficient or Blueprint for Reform Education Act (ESEA) calls for “a complete education” that advanced levels for civics, while includes not only literacy, mathematics, science, and technology but also history, 36 percent scored below the civics, foreign languages, the arts, and other subjects. Yet even here, the report basic level. makes clear that public reporting of student achievement in this more ambitious • Less than one-half of 12th conception of twenty-first-century school learning is left to the discretion of the graders reported studying states (US Department of Education 2010). international topics as part of a civics education, and two-thirds And so we find ourselves in the midst of what Charles N. Quigley (2011), reported learning about certain executive director of the Center for Civic Education, calls a “civic recession.” important areas of domestic The US Department of Education’s 2010 National Assessment of Educational civic knowledge including the Progress (NAEP) in civics for K–12 education underscores one facet of that US Constitution, Congress, the disturbing reality (see sidebar). NAEP examines fourth, eighth, and twelfth court system, or elections and voting. All of these figures reflect grade competencies in five basic civic concepts: civic life, the American political decreases from 1998 levels. system, principles of democracy, world affairs, and the roles of citizens (NCES • Racial gaps in student 2011b). The assessment gauges not the mere recitation of facts but students’ performance continue to be ability to identify and describe concepts, explain and analyze them, and evaluate substantial: a 29-point gap exists and defend a position. between the average scores of The most recent results were abysmal. Comparing the 2010 average white and African American high scores for each grade level against those from 2006 and 1998 shows no school seniors, and a 19-point gap exists between white and significant change in average score for eighth graders, and an actual decline Hispanic high school seniors. for twelfth graders. Fewer high school seniors scored at the proficient or advanced level than in 2006, and a higher percentage scored below basic levels. Source: Data from NCES (2011b). The only heartening finding was that the average score for fourth graders was 3 points higher in 2010 than in 2006. The national deficit in civic knowledge is disturbing and of long duration. With so many students now enrolling in higher education, we might hope that postsecondary study would repair these omissions and build the kinds of civic knowledge a global democracy needs. But here, too, studies consistently find the opposite to be true. Over two years, the Intercollegiate Studies Institute administered a sixty-item civic literacy exam to approximately twenty-eight thousand students—half freshmen and half seniors—at fifty colleges nationwide. Across both years, the average score for both freshmen and seniors was just over 50 percent (Intercollegiate Studies Institute 2007). It is no surprise, then, that most Americans cannot name the liberties protected in the Bill of Rights (Romano 2011). Many cannot name the vice president of the United States, their senators, or their state representatives. Perhaps most discouraging of all, if political talk shows and town hall meetings are any indication, civil discourse and taking seriously the perspectives of others remain largely unpracticed arts. Our nation finds itself in a befuddling juxtaposition of realities. We have the highest access to voting rights in our history, yet we struggle to muster half of eligible voters to exercise their rights. Despite a public that remains largely disengaged with electoral politics, Gallup’s poll on civic health reveals that A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 7

24 Americans contribute more time and money to those in need than citizens of any other nation (English 2011). There is, evidently, not a shortage of individual acts of generosity, but rather of civic knowledge and action. Laying the Civic Groundwork in College In response to the troubling state of civic health in the United States, colleges and universities have been leading the way toward democratic renewal over the last two decades. Though little heralded by many commenting on the nation’s anemic civic statistics, hundreds of trailblazing colleges and universities have been building innovative forms of civic learning for students and establishing transformative partnerships with the wider community at home and abroad. In these programs, citizens, faculty, and students work together on a host of public problems, ranging from education and poverty to health and sustainability. By teaching students to address real-world issues in concert with others, some colleges are helping students move from civic knowledge to civic action, thus better preparing them to serve their communities and the nation as informed, active citizens when they graduate. Distinguished civic scholar and leader Tom Ehrlich describes this civic reform movement: “Civic engagement means working to make a difference in the civic life of our communities and developing the combination of knowledge, skills, values, and motivation to make that difference. It means promoting the quality of life in a community, through both political and nonpolitical processes” (Ehrlich 2000, vi). While the civic reform movement in higher education has affected Civic learning and democratic almost all campuses, its influence is partial rather than pervasive. Civic engagement remain optional learning and democratic engagement remain optional rather than expected rather than expected for almost for almost all students. As this report explains in Chapters IV and V, efforts to elevate civic learning that are already in place in postsecondary education all students. can and should be vastly expanded to integrate higher levels of knowledge, competencies, and commitments regardless of students’ areas of study. Moreover, this emergent kind of civic engagement needs to be better aligned with civic pathways established in K–12. Still, higher education’s investments in education for democracy are sufficiently advanced that researchers now report positive impacts on civic learning and democratic engagement for those college students who avail themselves of their institutions’ civic offerings (Vogelgesang and Astin 2000; Colby et al. 2003; Jacoby and Associates 2009). We know that the more students do engage their civic opportunities in college, the greater their growth along many civic dimensions. As this report explains in more detail, we also know that such involvement positively correlates with increased retention and completion rates (Brownell and Swaner 2010; Campus Compact 2008; Cress et al. 2010). This is promising news indeed for a nation where far too many students leave college without completing a degree. 8

25 Higher Education: More than Workforce Training Two-year and four-year colleges and universities have traditionally prepared students for citizenship and for economic life, and they must continue to do so—now more than ever. The democracy-enhancing flood of first-generation students to college has led appropriately to expectations that an associate or bachelor’s degree will secure a wider range of occupational choices and higher salaries. As the authors of Connecting Workforce Development and Civic Engagement: Higher Education as Public Good and argue, workforce Private Gain development and civic engagement “need not be separate or competing missions” but “can be complementary visions” (Battistoni and Longo 2005, 7). Many business leaders understand that education for the modern workforce should not displace education for citizenship. Charles Kolb, president of the nonpartisan, business-led Committee on Economic Development, argues, “In addition to the obvious labor-force needs, having Many business leaders more Americans with higher levels of postsecondary achievement is vital to understand that education for our civic health. The heart of a vibrant democracy is educated, engaged citizens who are able to make choices for themselves, their families, their communities, the modern workforce should and their country. In this respect, the success of American postsecondary not displace education for education is critical to the success of American democracy” (2011, 16). citizenship. In stark contrast to the both/and approach that Kolb (and this report) embrace, a troubling chorus of public pronouncements from outside higher education has reduced expectations for a college education to job preparation alone. Dominating the policy discussions are demands that college curricula and research cater to “labor market needs” and to “industry availability.” Still others call for an increase in “degree outputs”—much as they might ask a factory to produce more cars or coats. The National Governors Association’s report Degrees for What Jobs? serves Raising Expectations for Universities and Colleges in a Global Economy as only one example of a policy discourse that focuses higher education directly and solely on jobs. The report openly challenges higher education’s historic commitment to provide students with a broad liberal arts education (Sparks and Waits 2011). US higher education, of course, has proudly owned liberal education as a form of college learning that prepares citizens for the responsibilities of freedom. Rejecting the value of what has differentiated US higher education and made it an intellectual powerhouse and an economic driver, the report describes higher education’s function and future funding as dependent singly on promoting “economic goals,” “workforce preparation,” and “competitive advantage” (3). Knowledgeable citizenship—US and global—surely requires a grounding in history, US and world cultures, the humanities, and the social and natural sciences. It also requires what Martha Nussbaum has called cultivation of a “narrative imagination”: the capacity to enter into worldviews and experiences different from one’s own. These capacities are not incorporated into many career and technical programs—but they certainly can be (Nussbaum 1998). The call for educational reform cast only as a matter of workforce preparation mistakenly adopts a nineteenth-century industrial model for complex twenty-first-century needs. Reframing the public purpose of higher A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 9

26 education in such instrumental ways will have grave consequences for America’s intellectual, social, and economic capital. Such recommendations suggest colleges are no longer expected to educate leaders or citizens, only workers who will not be called to invest in lifelong learning, but only in industry-specific job training. Calling for colleges and universities to prepare students for careers and citizenship, rather than only the former, is especially important for students in community colleges. Forty-three percent of first-time undergraduates enroll in this sector, including approximately 50 percent of African American, Latino, and Native American undergraduates (AACC 2011). Since the majority of Since the majority of these these students do not transfer beyond the community college, it is all the more important that civic learning be integrated into the curriculum, including students do not transfer beyond career training programs. the community college, it is all Why must the United States require its educational system to educate the more important that civic for citizenship as well as careers? Public schooling and ever-expanding access to postsecondary education have been distinguishing characteristics of our learning be integrated into the democratic nation. Higher education in a robust, diverse, and democratic curriculum, including career country needs to cultivate in each of its graduates an open and curious training programs. mind, critical acumen, public voice, ethical and moral judgment, and the commitment to act collectively in public to achieve shared purposes. In stark contrast, higher education in a restrictive, undemocratic country needs only to astutely cultivate obedient and productive workers. As A Nation of Spectators asserted, “We believe that economic productivity is important but must not be confused with civic health” (National Commission on Civic Renewal 1998, 7). The National Task Force wants to stress that educating students for purposeful work in a dynamic, complex economy is more than ever an essential goal of higher education. However, we reject a zero-sum choice between the fullest preparation for economic success and education for citizenship. A Crucible Moment outlines a path that prepares students for both knowledgeable citizenship and economic opportunity. As employers themselves make clear, the United States should not be forced to choose between preparing students for informed democratic citizenship and preparing students for successful college completion and career opportunities. Public leaders who believe that the “economic agenda” of higher education is reducible to workforce training also fail to understand that there is a civic dimension to every field of study, including career and technical fields, as well as to every workplace. Industries and services have ethical and social responsibilities of their own, and, in a democracy, citizens and community partners routinely weigh in on such questions. Workers at all levels need to anticipate the civic implications of their choices and actions. The nation—and the world—have experienced disastrous results when civic consequences are ignored and only economic profit is considered, as the subprime mortgage crisis and the bundling of toxic loans have dramatically illustrated. Happily, there are some signature employment models that braid together high standards of work and civic responsibility. For example, more than seven hundred companies worldwide have produced corporate social responsibility reports in accordance with guidelines published by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), which include environmental health, human rights, fair labor 10

27 practices, product responsibility, economic sustainability, and community engagement dimensions (As You Sow 2011; GRI 2011). Likewise, Siemens AG organizes its corporate citizenship activities in support of the UN Millennium Development Goals and the principles of the UN Global Compact. This framework includes mobilizing employees to donate time to worthy causes through the company’s Caring Hands Program and recognizing teams of employee volunteers who undertake outstanding and innovative community service projects (Siemens 2011). Similarly, the Timberland Company employs an “Earthkeepers philosophy” that guides product development, social and environmental performance in the supply chain, energy use, and community engagement. Community engagement is organized through the company’s twenty-year-old Path of Service program, which offers employees paid time to serve in their local communities (Swartz 2011). Even if they are not commonplace, in colleges today there are some nascent models that embed questions about civic responsibilities within career preparation and that therefore point to the next level needed in campus civic work. California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), for example, defines civic literacy as the “knowledge, skills and attitudes that students need to work effectively in a diverse society to create more just and equitable workplaces, communities and social institutions” (Pollack 2011, 8). In addition to a general service-learning course, CSUMB students must complete a second such course rooted in their major. Every business student, for example, takes a Community Economic Development course that includes fifty hours of service to a community organization. Importantly, the overriding question that these students explore is, “How can businesses balance the ‘triple bottom lines’ of profit, people, and planet?” (Pollack 2011, 9). Similarly, for students in the School of Information Technology and Communications Design, the service-learning course is constructed around the guiding questions, “How has digital technology accentuated or alleviated historical inequalities in our community, and what is my responsibility for addressing the digital divide as a future IT professional?” (Pollack 2011, 9). either higher education To strip out such probing civic questions from the workplace is to contribute to the creation of the citizenless democracy or that David Mathews so dreaded. A healthy democracy demands that civic dimensions in thinking and in working be cultivated, not ignored or suppressed. In addition to serving as an engine of economic development, higher education is a crucial incubator for fostering democratic voice, thought, and action. The shared capacities needed both in the modern workplace and in diverse democratic societies include effective listening and oral [Some] colleges today... communication, creative/critical thinking and problem solving, the ability to embed questions about civic work effectively in diverse groups, agency and collaborative decision making, ethical analyses of complex issues, and intercultural understanding and responsibilities within career perspective taking. preparation and...point to Drawn from employer surveys about desirable skills sets in new the next level [of curriculum employees, figure 3 depicts the areas that employers wish higher education change]... would emphasize more. The list closely parallels the framework of essential learning outcomes now widely agreed upon for college graduates (AAC&U A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 11

28 Narrow training is bad 2011). Identified in Chapter III as important stakeholders in education for democracy, employers can become influential allies in defining the more preparation for the economy complex capabilities needed in today’s workplace that so many policy makers as well as for democracy. overlook. They have repeatedly testified that twenty-first-century employees need training in history, global cultures, intercultural literacy, ethical judgment, and civic engagement. Technical skills are important, but employers underscore that for today’s economy, technical skills are not enough (Hart Research Associates 2010; Peter D. Hart Research Associates 2006, 2008). Former Lockheed Martin CEO Norman Augustine (2011) has pointed out that students’ weak grasp of history actually threatens America’s economy as well as its freedom. Narrow training is bad preparation for the economy as well as for democracy. Figu r e 3: ent agem ion, and eng pat tici edge, par wl ic kno Civ 52% Civic Learning Outcomes The role of the US in the world 57% and Workforce Expectations 57% d Cultural diversity in the US and abr oa Percentages of employers who want Global issues 65% colleges to “Place more emphasis” gy ience and technolo Sc 70% on essential learning outcomes ultural compe nce te In terc 71% ng Complex pr oblem sol vi 75% Ethical decision making 75% edge in real­world sett wl plied kno Ap ings 79% Data fromHart Research Associates, 2010. Source: Cr soning ea itical thinking and analytic r 81% Civic Learning and College Completion Along with urging a tighter connection between labor market needs and the college curriculum, policy leaders have also focused with new determination on raising the rates of college completion. The nation’s economic future and social integration rest on achieving this critical national goal. However, suggesting that an institution must choose between graduation rates or education for citizenship is as erroneous as suggesting that an institution must choose between jobs or education for citizenship. In fact, student participation in service learning, which is just one of a number of civic pedagogies, but one whose impact has been widely researched, has been shown in numerous studies to correlate with outcomes that contribute to increased retention and completion rates (Astin and Sax 1998; Gallini and Moely 2003; Vogelgesang et al. 2002; Nigro and Farnsworth 2009; Brownell and Swaner 2010). As a 2010 Campus Compact study, A Promising asserts, Connection: Increasing College Access and Success through Civic Engagement “College students who participate in civic engagement learning activities not only earn higher grade point averages but also have higher retention rates and are more likely to complete their college degree” (Cress et al. 2010, 1). One study in 12

29 the report elaborates by distinguishing the importance of offering more intensive service-learning opportunities. State Campus Compact offices of Northern New England conducted a study at seventeen colleges and universities which found that “students who engaged in more intensive service-learning experiences scored higher on all five measures [retention, academic challenge, academic engagement, interpersonal engagement, and community engagement] than did students who engaged in less intensive service-learning experiences” (6). A smaller, single-institution study at Kapi’olani Community College examined persistence among 660 students who completed service-learning assignments in 2010–11. Director of the Office for Institutional Effectiveness Robert W. Franco noted, “The course success and fall-to-spring persistence rates of the 660 students were 20 percent higher than for all students. It is time to bring two national These results replicate similar findings for more than six hundred students priorities—career preparation completing service-learning assignments in 2009–10. Service-learning students demonstrated learning gains in applying course concepts to community contexts, and increased access and communicating to diverse audiences, recognizing and responding to community completion rates—together in problems, and clarifying personal, academic, and career goals” (Robert W. Franco, a more comprehensive vision pers. comm.). with a third national priority: Similar studies have shown service learning’s positive impact on other factors correlated with retention and completion rates, including career fostering informed, engaged, development (Eyler et al. 2001), satisfaction with college (Astin and Sax 1998; responsible citizens. Berson and Younkin 1998), and deepening students’ connections with faculty (Astin and Sax 1998; Gray et al. 1998; Eyler and Giles 1999). It is well established that students’ closeness with faculty is a key factor in increasing college success (Astin 1993) and persistence (Pascarella and Terenzini 2005). Unfortunately, for most college students, service learning remains optional rather than expected. More than three-quarters of community college students report never having taken a course that included service learning (CCCSE 2011), and nearly half (48.6 percent) of students completing a bachelor’s degree report never having taken a course that included service learning (Franke et al. 2010). Positioning Democratic Renewal as Paramount Despite the cited clear evidence that civic learning in college is compatible with preparation for the modern workforce and improved graduation rates, the dominant external policy discourse about higher education “reform” is silent on education for democracy. Does the civic mission of higher education in our increasingly multicultural democracy need to be scuttled to achieve better jobs for students or higher graduation rates? It does not. And it must not. It is time to bring two national priorities —career preparation and increased access and completion rates—together in a more comprehensive a third national priority : fostering informed, engaged, responsible vision with citizens. Higher education is a space where that triad of priorities can cohere and flourish. argues that A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future a socially cohesive and economically vibrant US democracy and a viable, just global community require informed, engaged, open-minded, and socially responsible people committed to the common good and practiced in “doing” A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 13

30 democracy. In a divided and unequal world, education—from K–12 through college and beyond—can open up opportunities to develop each person’s full talents, equip graduates to contribute to economic recovery and innovation, A socially cohesive and and cultivate responsibility to a larger common good. Achieving that goal economically vibrant US will require that civic learning and democratic engagement be not sidelined but central. Civic learning needs to be an integral component of every level democracy and a viable, just of education, from grade school through graduate school, across all fields of global community require study. informed, engaged, open-minded, We are not suggesting that colleges implement a single required civics and socially responsible people course. That would hardly be sufficient. Rather, we are calling on colleges and universities to adopt far more ambitious standards that can be measured committed to the common over time to indicate whether institutions and their students are becoming good and practiced in “doing” more civic-minded. This report therefore urges every college and university democracy. to foster a civic ethos that governs campus life, make civic literacy a goal for every graduate, integrate civic inquiry within majors and general education, civic action and advance as lifelong practice (see fig. 4 for specific indicators in each of the four areas). In so doing, we seek a more comprehensive vision to guide the twenty-first-century formulation of education for democratic citizenship on college and university campuses. As this report suggests, investing in this broader vision promises to cultivate more informed, engaged, and responsible citizens while also contributing to economic vitality, more equitable and flourishing communities, and the overall civic health of the nation. The Call to Action outlined in Chapter III is designed to make civic learning and democratic engagement—US and global—an animating national priority. It recommends building a foundation for responsible citizenship by making such learning an expectation for all students, whether in schools, colleges, community colleges, or universities. Everyone has a role to play in building the knowledge, skills, values, and civic actions that all students need. The recommendations in Chapter III, derived from a broad base of civic educators, identify some of the multiple courses of collective, coordinated actions that can be undertaken by a broad coalition if we hope to transform civic learning and democratic engagement from aspiration to everyday practice. The National Call to Action seeks to restore education for democratic engagement to its intended high standing and charts a direction for doing so—a direction that keeps sharply in view both the reality of global interdependence and the yearning for greater freedom and self-direction expressed by peoples around the world. Above all, it argues for ensuring that all college students devote time and effort to the kinds of “real-world” challenges that every society confronts, and where civic knowledge and judgment must shape public choices. 14

31 Figure 4: W hat Would a Civic-Minded Campus Look Like? governing campus life CIVIC EtHOS The infusion of democratic values into the customs and habits of everyday practices, structures, and interactions; the defining character of the institution and those in it that emphasizes open-mindedness, civility, the worth of each person, ethical behaviors, and concern for the well-being of others; a spirit of public-mindedness that influences the goals of the institution and its engagement with local and global communities. CIVIC LItEraCy as a goal for every student The cultivation of foundational knowledge about fundamental principles and debates about democracy expressed over time, both within the United States and in other countries; familiarity with several key historical struggles, campaigns, and social movements undertaken to achieve the full promise of democracy; the ability to think critically about complex issues and to seek and evaluate information about issues that have public consequences. CIVIC InqUIRy integrated within the majors and general education The practice of inquiring about the civic dimensions and public consequences of a subject of study; the exploration of the impact of choices on different constituencies and entities, including the planet; the deliberate consideration of differing points of views; the ability to describe and analyze civic intellectual debates within one’s major or areas of study. CIVIC ACtIOn as lifelong practice The capacity and commitment both to participate constructively with diverse others and to work collectively to address common problems; the practice of working in a pluralistic society and world to improve the quality of people’s lives and the sustainability of the planet; the ability to analyze systems in order to plan and engage in public action; the moral and political courage to take risks to achieve a greater public good. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 15


33 ii. Crucible Moments of Civic W learning: then and now [I]n order to navigate our global interdependence, we need processes where we all think through our own responsibilities toward other fellow humans and discuss our answers with our peers. A conversation about a global civics is indeed needed, and university campuses are ideal venues for these conversations to start...we should not wait any longer to start it. Martti Ahtisaari, (quoted in Altinay 2010) The Wingspread [college] students believe that their community experiences [through service learning] encourage them to develop a larger, more inclusive social imagination[,]...a sense of how to advocate beyond their own desires[,] and...the value of subordinating themselves to a larger purpose. Sarah Long, The New Student Politics The sense of urgency that propels many poorly conceived remedies for the challenges facing the United States—the economic recession, the changes in US world power, and the fraying of the social fabric—is certainly understandable. Our nation is indeed at a crucible moment when the intense heat from multiple forces both tests and threatens the country’s resilience. Just as the smelting crucible alters materials from one form to another, so this crucible moment in the United States is fraught with transformative possibilities. If we hope to reinvent and reinvigorate higher education, our economy, and our democracy, it is imperative to take bold and creative action. In other such crucible moments, both the nation and higher education have acted with intrepid, visionary courage. Today we need to do so again. At the crucible founding of our republic, for example—marred as it was by its embrace of slavery—both Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin articulated eloquently how essential an educated citizenry was to the fledgling democracy’s taking root. Franklin, who helped found several schools for African Americans, believed higher education should be available to ordinary citizens and not just the elite, arguing that college should cultivate “an inclination joined with the ability to serve mankind, one’s country, friends and family” (quoted in Isaacson 2003, 147). Before the Revolutionary War, Franklin helped to found what became the University of Pennsylvania after the new republic was established, and Jefferson founded the University of Virginia in 1819. Both men sought to establish institutions committed to public and practical arts that they believed were necessary learning to secure the fragile emerging democracy. Following the end of the Civil War—another crucible moment which at last legally abolished slavery but left the nation bitterly riven even as peace was declared—higher education became one means through which the economy could be expanded and rebuilt, more people could have access to college, and education for active citizenship could be fostered in populations long denied such opportunities. Thus land-grant colleges and universities were established A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 17

34 with the Morrill Act of 1862, many colleges and universities for African Americans were founded, and a score of women’s colleges were created. But perhaps the crucible moment most relevant to today’s situation occurred after World War II, when President Truman established the President’s Commission on Higher Education, chaired by American Council on Education President George F. Zook. The commission included twenty-eight members, primarily college and university presidents along with a handful of public citizens. At that historic juncture, the economy was recovering from the Great Depression, the world was exhausted by the slaughter of war, unequal access to higher education undercut the nation’s claim to democratic commitments, and the grisly horror of bigotry and hatred as state policy was visible for all to see. The commission’s primary achievement was a six-volume report, revealingly titled Higher Education for American Democracy, that remapped federal and state policies, redrew the contours of higher education, recommended the establishment of an expansive and free community college system, and set a bold vision for the nation. Rather than couching Rather than couching its its arguments in the purely economic terms that characterize the dominant arguments in the purely blueprints for higher education today, the Truman Commission foregrounded democracy as the force for driving higher education’s transformation and economic terms that leadership, and with it, the nation’s course toward justice for all (see fig. characterize the dominant A 5). The commission ended its first volume with the very clarion call that blueprints for higher education picks up nearly seven decades later: “The first and most Crucible Moment today, the Truman Commission essential charge upon higher education is that at all levels and in all its fields of specialization, it shall be the carrier of democratic values, ideals, and process” foregrounded democracy... (President’s Commission on Higher Education 1947a, 102). (see fig. 5) This was not a naive rhetorical statement then, nor should it be today. The commission admitted with clear-eyed honesty how higher education had failed democracy by denying most citizens the opportunity to go to college. They also understood what was at stake: “Only an informed, thoughtful, tolerant people can maintain and develop a free society” (1947b, 3). From the 1940s on, the heretofore isolationist United States found itself in a new global role as the leader of the “free” world. The boundaries of the global map had been redrawn, and the United States was at the center of the redesign. It could no longer retreat behind its borders. The commission thus embraced “E Pluribus Unum—From many democracy’s principles in a newly global context: persons one nation, and from many peoples one world—indivisible, with liberty and justice for all” (italics in the original; 1947a, 102). As history of education scholar Philo Hutcheson observed, “Policymakers, especially but hardly exclusively those in education, argued that all levels of education were critical components in creating both a better nation and a better world” (2007, 4). Because the commission described discrimination as “an undemocratic practice” (1947b, 25), its report challenged higher education to become a means to address the largest threat to the nation’s new role as leader of the free world: the racial discrimination and subjugation that were hallmarks of the country in 1947. In that year, all but a handful of the nation’s colleges and universities were racially segregated—by law in one geographic region, and by practice in other parts of the country. “No more in mind than body,” 18

35 Figur e 5. Goals for Higher Education, 1947 “The President’s Commission on Higher Education has attempted to select, from among the principal goals for higher education, those which should come first in our time. They are to bring to all the people of the Nation: living. for a fuller realization of democracy in every phase of • Education and cooperation. directly • Education and understanding international for explicitly the • Education for the application of creative imagination and trained intelligence to solution of social problems and to the administration of public affairs. “Education is by far the biggest and the most hopeful of the Nation’s enterprises. Long ago our people recognized that education for all is not only democracy’s obligation but its necessity. Education is the foundation of democratic liberties. Without an educated citizenry alert to preserve and extend freedom, it would not long endure.” Source: President’s Commission on Higher Education (1947a). the Commission wrote, “can this nation or any endure half slave, half free. Education that liberates and ennobles must be equally available to all. Justice to the individual demands this; the safety and the progress of the nation depend upon it” (1947a, 101). Over the next decades, driven by social movements from within and without its boundaries, higher education eventually became the multiracial, multicultural site for democracy it is today. Both it and the nation were transformed in the process. A Crucible Moment likewise calls for transformations necessary for this generation. A daunting one is to eliminate persistent inequalities, especially those in the United States determined by income and race, in order to secure the country’s economic and civic future. But the academy must also be a vehicle for tackling other pressing issues—growing global economic inequalities, climate change and environmental degradation, lack of access to quality health care, economic volatility, and more. To do that requires expanding students’ capacities to be civic problem-solvers using all their powers of intellect and inventiveness. Sixty-five years after the Truman Commission, the nation faces a different national and global dynamic than in the aftermath of World War II. A Crucible Moment casts its National Call to Action in the context of five trends that shape this historic juncture. Increase in Democratic nations: In 1950, just over 25 percent of countries in the world could be characterized as electoral democracies (Diamond 2011). In 2010, 59 percent of countries could be characterized in this way (Puddington 2011). Moreover, “in 1975 the number of countries that were ‘not free’ exceeded those that were ‘free’ by 50 percent, [but] by 2007 twice as many countries were ‘free’ as were ‘not free’ (Goldstone 2010, 1). According to an official statement released by the Arab Network for the Study of Democracy, the Arab Spring of 2011 brought people in seven countries to the streets united by three notions: freedom, dignity, and justice (Lee 2011). These shifts offer significant opportunities for revitalizing all democracies, A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 19

36 both old and new, as modern democracies learn collectively how to recalibrate democratic processes to meet the new demands of a globalized age. Intensified Global Competition: After World War II, the United States competed only with the Soviet Union for global domination as other nations were busy either putting their devastated economies back in order or developing them. Today, powerful new economies exist on every continent. The European Union is challenging US economic domination, and there is a decided tilt toward the Asian markets of China, India, and Japan. In this globalized world, the budgets of many multinational companies are larger than those of many countries, and they are not bound in their practices by any one nation. Dangerous Economic Inequalities: While the United States had been moving toward a diamond-shaped economy with a larger middle class, recent years have seen an increased gulf between rich and poor across US households. ­ Economist Edward N. Wolff notes, for example, that between 2007 and mid 2009 there was “a fairly steep rise in wealth inequality [where] the share of the top 1 percent advanced from 34.6 to 37.1 percent, that of the top 5 percent from 61.8 to 65 percent, and that of the top quintile from 85 to 87.7 percent, while that of second quintile fell from 10.9 to 10 percent, that of the middle quintile from 4 to 3.1 percent, and that of the bottom two quintiles from 0.2 to -0.8 percent” (Wolff 2010, 33). In sum, as of 2009, nearly 90 percent of wealth was concentrated among the top 20 percent of US households, while just over 10 percent of wealth was spread across the remaining 80 percent. One result of this hyper-consolidation of wealth is that for the first time in US history, the younger generation is not on a trajectory to achieve their parents’ economic level. These same economic inequalities are even more dramatic in a global context. According to former UN Humanitarian Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland. “The richest individuals are richer than several of the poorest nations combined—a http://ucatlas. few billionaires are richer than the poorest two billion people” ( ucsc.edu/income.php). Economist Branko Milanovic (2000) has found that the ratio of the average income of the top 5 percent of the world’s population to the bottom 5 percent increased from 78 to 1 in 1988 to 114 to 1 in 1993. In the case of sub-Saharan Africa, a whole region has been left behind: it will account for almost one-third of world poverty in 2015, up from one-fifth in 1990 (United Nations Development Programme 2007). Demographic Diversity: The United States is “the most religiously diverse nation on earth” (Eck 2002, 4), and is more racially diverse than ever. By 2045 communities of color will constitute at least 50 percent nationwide (Roberts 2008), as is already the case in some states. Immigrants now make up 12.5 percent of the US population (Gryn and Larsen 2010). Intensified immigration and refugee populations swirling around the entire globe have resulted in similarly dramatic demographic shifts on almost every continent. Having the capacity to draw on core democratic processes to negotiate the increased diversity will secure a stable future. technological Advances: In 1945, televisions were a rarity and many sections of the country were just getting telephone lines and electricity. The impact of computers and information technology today is reminiscent of the transformation wrought by the Industrial Age: all facets of everyday living 20

37 are affected, from communication to health care, from industry to energy, and from educational pedagogies to democratic practices. The Internet— particularly the development of social media to organize groups of people around commonly shared values—influences democratic engagement and activism, as dramatically illustrated by the 2011 Arab Spring and the 2008 US presidential election. While the historical dynamics that shaped the Truman Commission’s findings may differ from today’s political and social environment, a number of stubborn problems that existed then continue to erode the foundation of our democracy. The most pressing of these are unequal access to college and economic lethargy. Although access has increased dramatically, unequal access continues to plague democracy’s ability to thrive. Students are underprepared for college Although access has increased because of what writer and educator Jonathan Kozol (1991) refers to as “the savage inequalities” of the nation’s K–12 system. The poorer the young person, dramatically, unequal the less likely he or she will go to college. Yet SAT scores, which directly access continues to plague correlate with income, continue to determine many students’ qualifications democracy’s ability to thrive. to attend college. Failure to graduate from high school shuts off college as an option for nearly 30 percent of our nation’s young people; researchers James Heckman and Paul LaFontaine (2007) note that high school graduation rates have leveled or declined over four decades, and the “majority/minority graduation rate differentials are substantial and have not converged over the past 35 years.” The Drama of Diversity and Democracy: Higher In a new foreword to Ramón A. Gutiérrez illustrates Latinos’ Education and American Commitments, attrition along the educational pipeline in the United States. While they are the fastest growing racial minority, surpassing the percentage of African Americans, education is not providing a democratic pathway to economic independence or social mobility. Drawing on research by Armida Ornelas and Daniel Solórzano, Gutiérrez explains that “of every one hundred Latinos who enroll in elementary school, fifty-three will drop out,” and of the forty-seven who graduate from high school, “only twenty-six will pursue some form of postsecondary education” and “only eight will graduate with baccalaureate degrees” (Gutiérrez 2011, xvi). In the face of troubling discrepancies among racial and socioeconomic groups, there is some good news in the longer term regarding the nation’s increasing college graduation rates. In 1940, only 24 percent of the population 25 years and older had completed high school, and just under 5 percent held a bachelor’s degree (Bauman and Graf 2003). Seventy years later, those numbers have progressed dramatically. “Of the 3.2 million youth age 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2010, about 2.2 million (68.1 percent) were enrolled in college in October 2010” (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2011). Overall college graduation rates have also Digest of Education Statistics 2010 , for example, reports that improved: the for those seeking the bachelor’s degree, the rate of graduation within four years has reached 36.4 percent. Within six years, it jumps to 57.2 percent. For those seeking an associate’s degree, the graduation rate within six years is 27.5 percent (Snyder and Dillow 2011). A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 21

38 report completed by the Education at a Glance According to the 2011 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the labor force in the United States is among the world’s top five most highly educated. However, OECD’s report explains, “The US is the only country where attainment levels among those just entering the labor market (25–34 year-olds) do not exceed those about to leave the labor market (55–64 year­ olds).” As a result, “among 25–34 year-olds, the US ranks 15th among 34 OECD countries in tertiary attainment” (OECD 2011, 2). In other words, the educational attainment level in the United States has remained relatively flat while other countries have rapidly increased and surpassed us. An attainment rate that qualified the United States to be near the top of the world several decades ago is not a guarantee of retaining world leadership educationally. Neither graduation rates nor attainment rates that were sufficient in the past are satisfactory today, when two-thirds of future jobs will require some type of postsecondary credential. There is a strong link between educational level and preparedness for a newly demanding workplace, just as there is a strong link between educational level and other civic indicators, including voting. A high-quality education, workforce preparation, and civic engagement are inextricably linked. A college education—who has access to it, and who completes the degree—affects personal ambitions, the economy, and civic A high-quality education, participation. After World War II, the United States invested in higher education as a workforce preparation, vehicle to jump-start economic expansion. The community college sector in and civic engagement are particular was dramatically expanded to provide people with new access to inextricably linked. A college college and new technical skills. In today’s economy, higher education is once again viewed as a way graduates can achieve greater economic mobility and education—who has access our lethargic economy can be stimulated. to it, and who completes the In 1947, with the world in shambles, new structures, alliances, and degree—affects personal programs were created in an attempt to avert future catastrophic wars, to reconstruct multiple economies, and to establish common principles of ambitions, the economy, and justice and equality. As the Truman Commission demonstrates, political civic participation. and educational leaders agreed that higher education was needed to educate students for international understanding and cooperation to secure a sustainable future. Although today’s world is more globally integrated financially, culturally, and demographically, it is also fraught with civil and regional wars, clashing values, and environmental challenges wrought by rapacious consumption and carelessness. Citizens who have never examined any of these issues will be left vulnerable in the face of their long-term consequences. How to achieve sustainability—understood in its broadest definition as including strong communities, economic viability, and a healthy planet—is the democratic conundrum of the day. If it is not solved, everyone’s future well-being will be in jeopardy. Meanwhile, students’ economic options are heavily influenced by two long-term trends: the requirement of a college credential for the twenty-first­ century employment market, and the inadequacy of federal and state funds that could make higher education more widely available. After World War II, the majority of jobs in the United States did not require a college degree, yet many—especially in unionized fields—offered a middle-class living wage and 22

39 benefits. Today, a college degree is the credential that a high school diploma once was. Projections of Jobs and Education According to a 2010 report, of the 46.8 million new and replacement job Requirements through 2018, openings in 2018, 34 percent will require a bachelor’s degree or better, while 30 percent will require at least some college or a two-year associate’s degree. (Carnevale, Smith, and Strohl 2010, 110). As the report’s authors describe this societal sea change, “...postsecondary education or training has become the threshold requirement for access to middle-class status and earnings in good times and bad. It is no longer the preferred pathway to middle-class jobs—it is, increasingly, the only pathway” (110). This higher educational bar is imposed as colleges and universities continue to cope with the effects of the recession and budget deficits at both state and federal levels. Higher education is often the vehicle that states use to balance their budgets. The sector does well in good times and is hit harder in lean ones. According to a 2011 report issued by the National Conference of State Legislatures, total state support for higher education institutions fell by 1.5 percent in FY 2009. Without federal funding from the American Reinvestment and Renewal Act (ARRA), this decline would have been 3.4 percent. In 2010, twenty-three states decreased state support of public higher education institutions, even after receiving ARRA funds. Eight of these states reported drops in higher education funding exceeding 5 percent (National Conference of State Legislatures 2011). These compounding factors produce our crucible moment today. The country, the economy, and the world demand a different kind of expertise than was required of graduates after World War II. The kind of graduates we need The country, the economy, and at this moment in history need to possess a strong propensity for wading into an intensely interdependent, pluralist world. They need to be agile, creative the world now demand a problem solvers who draw their knowledge from multiple perspectives both different kind of expertise. domestic and global, who approach the world with empathy, and who are ready to act with others to improve the quality of life for all. Another name for these graduates is democratic citizens. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 23


41 iii. education for Democracy in the twenty-First Century: A national Call to Action W I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states... Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Martin Luther King Jr., “Letter from Birmingham Jail” I strongly agree with the Chilean sociologist Eugenio Tironi that the answer to the question “What kind of education do we need?” is to be found in the answer to the question “What kind of society do we want?”...If human beings hope to maintain and develop a particular type of society, they must develop and maintain the particular type of education system conducive to it. Ira Harkavy, Introductory Address, University of Oslo In the face of the constellation of forces described in the previous chapter, this crucible moment in US history might look daunting. Certain lessons from the Truman Commission, however, should spur people to action, not paralysis. Despite the ravages of World War II and the resultant worldwide economic devastation, the Commission was ambitious in its scope, calling for bold leadership and investment of public funds and reaffirming the public mission of higher education as a reservoir for progress for the nation and the world. That same visionary leadership is necessary today. The Truman Commission also imagined long-term, systemic change— within both higher education and the nation at large—as an answer to the dire challenges of the day. In a revolutionary stand, the Commission named racial segregation, inequality of any kind, and intolerance as impediments to economic advancement and affronts to democratic values. This twenty­ first-century juncture likewise demands deep structural reforms in higher education and the broader society. As Charles Quigley’s (2011) epigraph to this report states, “Each generation must work...to narrow the gap between the ideals of this nation and the reality of the daily lives of its people.” Today, colleges and universities must once again serve as “the carrier[s] of democratic values, ideals, and process,” but for a new age confronting new challenges (President’s Commission on Higher Education 1947a). Putting civic learning at the core rather than the periphery of primary, secondary, and postsecondary education can have far-reaching positive consequences for the country and the economy. It can be a powerful counterforce to the civic deficit and a means of replenishing civic capital. That restored capital, in turn, can function as a self-renewing resource for strengthening democracy and re-establishing vitality, opportunity, and development broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum and even beyond national borders. As Martin Luther King Jr. (2011) accurately noted, we are all “tied in a single garment of destiny.” A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 25

42 If indeed we seek a democratic If indeed we seek a democratic society in which the public welfare matters as much as the individual’s welfare, and in which global welfare matters along society in which the public with national welfare, then education must play its influential part to bring such a welfare matters as much as society into being. As Ira Harkavy (2011) asserts in the epigraph to this chapter, the individual’s welfare, and in that will require a commitment to “develop and maintain the particular type of A Crucible Moment education system conducive to it.” posits that the nature of which global welfare matters that particular type of education must be determined at the local institutional along with national welfare, level in order to construct civic-minded colleges and universities. In Chapter I we then education must play its governing campus civic ethos argued that such campuses are distinguished by a integrated within life; civic literacy as a goal for every graduate; civic inquiry influential part to bring such majors, general education, and technical training; and informed civic action in a society into being. concert with others as lifelong practice. If Chapter I established the urgency of reinvesting in education for democracy and civic responsibility and Chapter II demonstrated that ambitious action was possible in the face of earlier difficult historical eras, this chapter comprises a National Call to Action: recommendations that can begin to erase the current civic learning shortfall. These recommendations are meant to shift and enhance the national dialogue about civic learning and democratic engagement and to mobilize constituents to take action. Everyone has a role and everyone must act, with participation and deliberation across differences as vibrant democracies require. We invite each constituent group to use this report and its National Call to Action as a guideline to chart a course of action—tailoring, for example, the strategies and tasks to be accomplished, the entities responsible for each effort, the partners to be engaged, the timeline for action, and other particulars—that would most effectively respond in the exigencies of this crucible moment. We encourage readers to expand and refine this report’s recommendations and make them locally relevant by institution, region, issue, and demographics. In Appendix A, we provide a mechanism for doing so in the form of tools to help each participating entity develop its own . Civic Investment Plan Readers are encouraged to work collectively within self-designated spheres to develop a plan for exactly what they can and will do to make civic learning and democratic engagement a meaningful national priority. The Strategy Propelling the National Call to Action As described in the opening pages of this report, the National Call to Action is the product of a broad coalition of people. The idea for bringing such a group together began with the US Department of Education, which commissioned the report, funded it, and nurtured it. From the beginning, the department acknowledged the widespread civic engagement movement that has been working for decades both on and off campus. The design for the project deliberately drew from that expertise and charged leaders in civic renewal efforts to envision the next frontiers of civic learning and democratic engagement in higher education. Assuming that the best solutions would be generated by people responsible for moving from a set of recommendations to purposeful action, the department charged the National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement with making recommendations—to the government 26

43 and to higher education—that were informed by the expertise and experience of the leaders and essential partners of the civic renewal movement already underway. A staunch partner in promoting civic learning and democratic engagement throughout the process, the department nonetheless made clear that A Crucible Moment was to be the Task Force’s report not the department’s, prepared in dialogue with a very broad community of advisers. Those advisers who were participants in five different national roundtables, and whose names are listed in Appendix C are civic practitioners, scholars, and administrators. They generated what became an evolving set of specific recommendations included in this chapter. The National Task Force continued to refine the recommendations in subsequent drafts. There was consensus among participants that a successful Call to Action would require multiple leaders collaborating from varying constituencies both within and beyond higher education and within and beyond government agencies. The broad swath of recommendations that emerged reflects that consensus. Participants in the national roundtables agreed on another matter: although the charge was to focus on undergraduate higher education, every roundtable discussion inevitably commented upon the robust civic continuum whose origins need to be established in K–12. Acknowledging that reality, we therefore preface the Call to Action for colleges and universities with a discussion of this understood interdependency. K–12: The Initial Pathway to Civic Knowledge and Responsibility K–12 education is the cornerstone for both functioning democracies and college readiness. As Ira Harkavy (2011) said in his address at the international conference “Reimagining Democratic Societies,” “no effective democratic schooling system, no democratic society. Higher education has the potential to powerfully contribute to the democratic transformation of schools, communities, and societies.” Despite all the investment in improving the level of schooling in the United States, particularly over the past quarter century, far too little attention has been paid to education for democracy in public schools. In their foreword to the report Guardian of Democracy: The Civic Mission of Schools, former Justice Sandra Day O’Connor and former Congressman Lee “Knowledge of our system of Hamilton note, “Knowledge of our system of governance and our rights and responsibilities as citizens is not passed along through the gene pool. Each governance and our rights and generation of Americans must be taught these basics” (2011, 5). responsibilities as citizens is The arguments for the civic purpose of K–12 education and the not passed along through the arguments for the civic mission of higher education are similar. Education for democratic engagement is even more urgent than it has ever been, gene pool. Each generation given America’s current diverse populace and global interdependencies. of Americans must be taught Revealingly, the definition of civic learning put forth in Guardian of Democracy these basics” (O’Connor and encompasses a continuum across educational levels—in both pedagogy and curricula—that is consistent with an enlarged definition of civic literacies Hamilton 2011). cited in Chapter I of this report, the framework for twenty-first-century civic learning provided in figure 1, and the examples of campus practices featured in Chapter V. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 27

44 Research in 2009 about civic learning in K–12 by Judith Torney-Purta and Britt S. Wilkenfeld echoes findings in higher education. Torney-Purta and Wilkenfeld suggest, for example, that the educational outcomes proceeding from well-constructed civics curricula overlap with the knowledge and skills needed in the workplace. Similarly, their research finds that engaged pedagogies in K–12 that accelerate empowered, student-centered learning also enhance both constructive civic/political participation skills and parallel skills of collaboration, so valuable in the workplace. Finally, they find that classrooms that are civically oriented across multiple kinds of subjects also contribute to students’ motivation to do well and, therefore, to the likelihood that students will stay in school. The Campaign for the Civic The Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools therefore argues there should be three C’s driving reform in K–12 education: college, career, and Mission of Schools therefore citizenship (see www.civicmissionofschools.org). Unfortunately, the current three argues there should be public discourse—driven by multiple public, business, and governmental C’s driving reform in K-12 sectors—focuses disproportionately on the first two. The 2011 Educational voices this concern in a The Mission of High School Testing Services report education: college, career, chapter called “A Narrowing of Purpose and Curriculum?” Diane Ravitch is and citizenship. quoted about the grievous consequences to democracy’s health of not setting high expectations across an array of subjects in schools but instead focusing on only a few subjects that are narrowly judged in high stakes testing: “A society that turns its back on the teaching of history encourages mass amnesia, leaving the public ignorant of the important events and ideas of the human past and eroding the civic intelligence needed for the future. A democratic society that fails to teach the younger generation the principles of self-government puts these principles at risk” (Barton and Coley 2011, 25–26). The omission of civic goals for education occurs even in the face of evidence that civic engagement contributes to academic success. As reported by the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), “Longitudinal studies show that young people who serve their community and join civic associations succeed in school and in life better than their peers who do not engage” (Levine 2011, 15). Parallel findings across K–12 and postsecondary education suggest that (1) comprehensive civic goals need to be included in standards to be assessed at state and national levels; (2) civic development for teachers in schools needs to be supported; and (3) schools of education need to integrate civic learning and democratic engagement into the curricula that prepare our nation’s teachers. Recognizing the need for a reinvestment in civic learning, thoughtful K–12 educators and leaders have developed a framework that accords with the vision and argument of this report (see particularly the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools 2011a, 2011b, www.civicmissionofschools.org/site/ resources/civiccompetencies.html , and Guardians of Democracy ). The timing is right, then, to form sturdy bridges to civic learning and democratic engagement across students’ lifelong learning trajectories. Without K–12 education laying the foundations for civic responsibility and developing students’ understandings of democracy’s history and principles, any hopes of raising national civic literacy and civic agency are likely to be undermined, both for college students and, even more so, for high school graduates who may never enroll in college. 28

45 Six practices have been proven effective in promoting civic learning at the primary and secondary school levels. Significantly and not coincidentally, these practices are associated with keeping students in school: (1) instruction in the subject matter of democracy itself; (2) discussion of current events and controversial subjects; (3) service learning; (4) extracurricular activities; (5) student participation in school governance; and 6) simulations of democratic processes (Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools 2011a, 6–7). A Crucible Moment focuses on how to make civic learning and Although action an expected capability of every college graduate, K–12 and postsecondary education must serve as each other’s civic safeguards. As the participants in the national roundtables recommended, intentionally and mutually beneficial partnerships across these educational sectors can achieve those goals by co ­ creating a civic learning and democratic engagement continuum, by promoting teacher and faculty development opportunities, and by banding together to push back against the aforementioned narrowing of curricula in schools and in higher education. Finally, school/campus partnerships provide perhaps the best and most accessible means for college students to recognize the profound inequalities of our nation’s school system and communities, to understand the complex structural causes of such inequities, and, in concert with community partners, to begin to devise effective remedies. Higher Education: Connecting College Learning and Democracy’s Future This National Call to Action challenges higher education and all its stakeholders to focus with new intentionality on the role that education should play in helping all students prepare for their roles as citizens in this globally engaged and extraordinarily diverse democracy. The higher education community can certainly take a key leadership role in making civic learning a renewed priority for K–12 education. But there is more to civic learning and democratic engagement for twenty-first-century contexts than the schools alone can address. The framework outlined in Chapter I (see fig. 1) calls for higher education to play a significant educational role as well. The knowledge, skills, and experiences students need for responsible citizenship should be part of each student’s general education program. But civic inquiry and collaborative problem solving also need to be included in students’ major programs, including programs that prepare graduates for immediate entry into careers. Reordering current educational priorities and building new levels of civic knowledge and engagement will require unprecedented, widely coordinated, and collective commitments to action. No single entity can effect change at the level and scale required. Leadership will be essential from multiple groups, including K–20 educators, educational associations, civic associations, religious organizations, business, community members, nonprofits, government agencies, unions, and youth. The first step for all concerned is to recognize the erosion of the national investment in civic learning and democratic engagement—and the dire consequences of that disinvestment. The second step is to mobilize the will and the commitment to reverse the downward spiral. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 29

46 For Democracy’s Future: Five Essential Actions To reframe the way we prepare Americans for civic responsibility, the National Call to Action presented in this chapter presents five overarching actions aimed at addressing the current civic deficit and ensuring that we provide all students with the kind of education that will prepare them to take active responsibility both for the quality of our communities and for the future— US and global—of our democracy. These five essential actions need to be held as shared commitments We call on community across multiple sectors and actors: colleges, four-year colleges, and eclaim and reinvest in the fundamental civic and democratic R 1. universities to assume creative of schools and of all sectors within higher education. mission and courageous leadership as they continue to build civic- 2. Enlarge the current national narrative that erases civic aims minded institutions. as educational priorities contributing to social, and civic literacy intellectual, and economic capital. 3. Advance a contemporary, comprehensive framework for civic learning—embracing US and global interdependence — that includes historic and modern understandings of democratic values, capacities to engage diverse perspectives and people, and commitment to collective civic problem solving. 4. Capitalize upon the interdependent responsibilities of K–12 and higher education to foster progressively higher levels of civic knowledge, skills, examined values, and action as expectations for every student. 5. Expand the number of robust, generative civic partnerships and alliances locally, nationally, and globally to address common problems, empower people to act, strengthen communities and nations, and generate new frontiers of knowledge. In order to achieve a systemic realignment both within an institution and across sectors, the National Call to Action requires leadership from—and offers specific recommendation for—four primary constituent groups: (1) two-year and four-year colleges and universities; (2) policy and educational leaders responsible for educational quality; (3) federal, state, and local governments; and (4) a broad coalition of communities with a key stake in democracy’s future. If these multiple stakeholders take action in a collective and coordinated way, US democracy will be strengthened through a reinvigoration of the quality of learning, the commitment to the well-being of others, and civic responsibilities exercised in workplaces. 30

47 The Role of Higher Education as Intellectual Incubator Key Recommendations and Socially Responsible Partner for Higher Education The central work of advancing civic learning and democratic engagement 1. Foster a civic ethos across faculty members across in higher education must, of course, be done by all parts of campus and across divisions, and by disciplines, by student affairs professionals educational culture in every school and at every level. The fourth prominent group administrators 2. Make civic literacy a core students themselves. The collective work of these groups should of actors are the expectation for all students be guided by a shared sense that civic knowledge and democratic engagement, 3. Practice civic inquiry across all in concert with others and in the face of contestation, are absolutely vital to the fields of study quality of intellectual inquiry itself, to this nation’s future, and to preparation for 4. Advance civic action through life in a diverse world. transformative partnerships, at home and abroad Higher education has particular contributions to make—and corresponding obligations—in terms of understanding the depth, complexity, and competing versions of what “civic” actually means and entails. Specifically, higher education must in this next generation of civic learning investments build a broader theory of knowledge about democracy and democratic principles for an age marked as it is by multiplicity and division. Colleges and universities need to provide far more enabling environments than are now in place through which students can expand their critical abilities to make judgments about issues and actions, their powers to investigate and analyze, and their wisdom and passion to seek justice with keener insight into how to determine what is just, for whom, and under what circumstances. To prevent civic learning and democratic engagement from being sidelined by contending forces that consider it discretionary, we call on community colleges, four-year colleges, and universities to assume creative and courageous leadership as they continue to build civic-minded institutions. We recommend four defined area of endeavor (ethos, literacy, inquiry, and action) to ensure all students and the public benefit from higher education’s civic investment. 1. Foster a civic ethos across all parts of campus and educational culture • Establish a commitment to public-mindedness and a concern for the well-being of others as defining institutional characteristics, and explicitly articulate that commitment via consequential public documents and speeches: mission statements, viewbooks, alumni publications, convocation and graduation addresses, and first-year orientation events. • Ensure that the full range of civic-learning dimensions described in this report—including civic action—are incorporated into every student’s experience, and commit to advancing existing civic work to new levels by attending to pervasiveness, scale, frequency, and impact. Capitalize on students’ civic leadership and experience while further • empowering them through rigorous study, engaged pedagogies, and opportunities to grapple with the pressing public problems of the day. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 31

48 Reward faculty, staff, and students for research, scholarship, and • engagement that expand civic knowledge and that promote committed investment in the common good. • Delineate multiple educational pathways in the curriculum and cocurriculum—appropriate to institutional mission and fields of study— that incorporate civic questions, pedagogies, and practices for all students. 2. Make civic literacy a core expectation for all students Make a comprehensive and contemporary framework for civic learning • and democratic engagement an overarching expectation for every student in general education programs, majors, and technical training. • Articulate the specific elements of civic learning to be addressed in general education and major courses so students can differentiate and design a coherent plan of study for developing the full range of necessary civic skills and knowledge. • Create culminating experiences in which advanced students integrate what they have learned across the full civic continuum by addressing complex public problems in collaboration with others. Deploy across the curriculum and cocurriculum, at increasingly advanced • levels, powerful civic pedagogies such as intergroup and deliberative dialogue, service learning, and collective civic problem solving—each of which requires attentiveness to local and/or global diversity. • Monitor progress in students’ civic development and support research on the correlation between students’ engagement in civic learning and other priorities, including persistence, completion, and preparation for further study and careers. 3. Practice civic inquiry across all fields of study • Define within departments, programs, and disciplines the public purposes of their respective fields, the civic inquiries most urgent to explore, and the best way to infuse civic learning outcomes progressively across the major. Identify expected levels of civic achievement within fields, and design • creative ways for students to demonstrate cumulative proficiencies. • Expect students to map their capacity to make civic inquiries a part of their intellectual biography over the course of their studies and to reflect on and demonstrate their cumulative learning through general education, their majors, and their out-of-class civic experiences. • Incorporate civic inquiries that include global knowledge and engagement across diverse groups within and among countries as a context for expanding knowledge about citizenship, social responsibility, and collective public problem solving. 32

49 4. Advance civic action through transformative partnerships at home and abroad • Model institutional citizenship by employing democratic processes and practices—e.g., reciprocity, mutual respect, co-creation of aims and actions—to construct local and global generative partnerships that are scaled up to address urgent issues and that offer sites where all partners can participate actively as citizens in shaping their worlds. • Design new models for creatively pooling resources—social, economic, cultural—and for empowering collective democratic action as a means to improve the overall quality of people’s lives. Use collaborative, generative partnerships to determine new lines • of research for faculty, to identify sources of expertise located in communities, and to provide additional arenas where knowledge and action for the public good can be integrated. We encourage each college and Multiple incentives may be employed for embracing the public purpose university to construct its own and civic involvement of an institution; we encourage each college and university Civic Investment Plan. to construct its own Civic Investment Plan to fully articulate how its institutional strategies will reinforce its civic mission. Learning outcomes can and should be explicitly defined by how they contribute to civic capacities (see Appendix A). Student affairs professionals can provide more arenas for students to develop their public-oriented leadership. Students already deeply enmeshed in social justice and civic transformational activities can be publicly upheld as contributing to a campus civic ethos, just as athletes are praised for sustaining school spirit. Faculty can be offered reduced course loads when designing community-intensive collaborative projects around which to build courses and research. Similarly, students can make a civic commitments portfolio part of their culminating project before graduation in which they reflect on what they have learned and how they aspire to carry civic literacy and civic action into their workplaces and communities. Alumni offices and institutional researchers can track students at selected intervals to learn more about the impact of college on students’ civic and political participation. Alumni events can feature civic issues when graduates reconvene, and alumni can be tied into ongoing civic networks in the cities and towns where they live. All sectors within higher education can and should make education for democratic citizenship a shared enterprise for the twenty-first century, but colleges and universities cannot and should not presume to do it alone. Higher education will need to create strategic civic partnerships with a range of other entities: community and civic organizations, businesses, hospitals, K–12 schools, policy leaders, local, state, and federal governments, and global partners. Such partnerships, if taken seriously, will likely reconfigure academic inquiry, pedagogy, and scholarship. As these and similar recommendations are enacted for purposeful and progressively sequenced designs for civic learning and democratic engagement, it will be important to assess progress to inform ongoing reforms and identify further areas of research. The field has already generated an impressive body of research, but it is uneven across topics. We invite readers to review a A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 33

50 report commissioned by this project that contributes to what is already known Key Recommendations about the impact of civic engagement on students. The report, Civic Learning for Educational and and Democratic Engagement: A Review of the Literature on Civic Engagement in Polic y Leaders (Finley 2011), is available at www.civiclearning.org. Post-Secondary Education, See the sidebar on page 35 for recommendations from the national roundtables 1. Make civic learning for democratic engagement regarding priorities for future research and assessment. an expected component of program integrity and quality standards at all levels The Role of Educational and Policy Leaders in Making Civic Learning an Integral and Expected Part of 2. Make demonstrated achievement in civic Educational Quality learning—US and global— In the period following World War II, educational leaders took seriously the an integral part of quality assurance and public role that higher education should play in building democratic knowledge and accountability at all levels capacity. The Truman Commission recommended that general studies in the arts and sciences be directly tied to the challenges of democracy. The authors took a similar tack, outlining the role Harvard Redbook of the highly influential of general education in a free society (Harvard University 1945). In practice, however, decisions about whether and how to foreground civic and democratic knowledge and learning were left to the discretion of individual colleges and universities and, frequently, in the purview of those responsible for specific programs of study. While most educators rightly believe that fostering critical thinking skills is an important part of preparing graduates for civil society, preparation for democracy in the broader sense addressed in these pages— literacy, inquiry, and democratic engagement in US and global contexts—has remained elective rather than expected. As a result, civic learning and preparation for democracy have largely been left out of quality frameworks and standards— at all levels of program review and quality assurance. It is time to make education for democracy a core quality commitment, clearly and explicitly. We therefore call on policy and educational leaders responsible for quality at all levels to ensure institutional commitment, capacity, and effectiveness in preparing students as knowledgeable citizens ready to contribute to a democratic and globally engaged polity. 1. Make civic learning for democratic engagement an expected component of program integrity and quality standards at all levels • Review and strengthen the federal standards that govern accreditation to ensure that preparation for democratic citizenship becomes integral rather than optional in educational institutions. • Review state and/or state system learning outcomes and program standards for postsecondary study to ensure all students will be prepared for democratic participation and for knowledgeable involvement in the global community. • Review academic standards for regional, national, and specialized accreditation to ensure they address preparation for democratic participation and global community, in ways appropriate to educational mission. 34

51 Review educational goals and learning outcomes at the campus • Priorities for Future and program levels to ensure students are prepared for informed Research democratic participation and global community in ways appropriate to institutional mission and particular subjects of study. Disseminate more widely • existing assessment tools for Monitor educational practice across the curriculum and cocurriculum • measuring students’ civic to ensure every program provides meaningful opportunities for learning and effective practices students to advance in civic learning and global engagement. in democratic engagement Amass and publicize evidence • that shows how civic learning, 2. Make demonstrated achievement in civic learning—US and global— civic agency, and democratic an integral part of quality assurance and public accountability at engagement result in increased all levels retention and college success; design additional studies to Engage scholars and educational leaders in developing indicators • probe this linkage and reporting frameworks for student achievement that include • Support scholars doing research civic learning. on civic learning and engage Include civic learning in US and global contexts as expected student • students in the process learning outcomes in public reporting frameworks—national, state or • Use the Civic Investment Plan state system, and campus-specific. matrix to identify specific • Create and support an ongoing, integrated research program— research projects that could be initiated at one’s own institution involving scholars from different disciplines and views—to build deeper understanding of practices and policies that foster civic • Establish standards in civic learning to serve as guidelines learning and democratic engagement in US and global contexts. for measuring and reporting • Disaggregate the data on participation in civic learning programs and progress pedagogies to ensure students from all backgrounds are participating. Sponsor and support further • • Make national reporting on students’ gains in civic knowledge, skills, research on the impact of and engagement a signature for US education and a point of widely programs and partnerships shared pride. that foster civic learning and democratic engagement on learning outcomes and student The Role of Federal, State, and Municipal Governments as development Public Advocates and Partners for the Common Good Include additional research • questions in routinely We turn now to the US Department of Education, which initiated the National administered higher education Call to Action, to the Federal Government as a whole, and to state and local surveys to explore how learning governments that collectively wield power to make civic learning a national environments can enhance key priority and a catalytic commitment across all parts of higher education— civic competencies and beyond. Develop national civic indicators • and report on levels of civic and Virtually in chorus, the many civic educators and leaders who joined democratic knowledge, skills, in this analysis through national roundtables affirmed that federal, state, and values, and action achieved local governments can and should play a key role in moving civic learning by high school and college from being incidental to being expected of all college graduates. It takes a graduates community to sustain a democracy. It is important to engage government at multiple levels and multiple agencies to work in concerted partnership with each other and with educators; campus leaders; students; policymakers; and local, state, and regional business and community leaders. In this important public role, the thrust should be to create a far more supportive and enabling public climate for revitalizing and reaffirming higher education’s civic mission. In this spirit, we recommend that the US Department of Education and other federal agencies, such as the National Endowments for the Arts and for A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 35

52 the Humanities; the National Science Foundation; the US Departments of Key Recommendations Labor, Justice, State, Health and Human Services, and Housing and Urban for Federal, State, and Development; and the Corporation for National and Community Service— Municipal Governments to name only a few—work together with the higher education community and civic organizations, state and local governments and other state systems, and 1. Champion civic learning explicitly and repeatedly as a with other policy leaders and influencers, to assume leadership at all levels in fundamental US priority and a the following five key arenas: component of all educational programs 1. Champion civic learning explicitly and repeatedly in its fullest 2. Strategically refocus existing funding streams to spur civic democracy-enhancing dimensions as a fundamental US priority and a learning and practice component of all educational programs, including those that relate to 3. Create financial incentives job training and workforce development for students to facilitate their access to college while Incorporate promotion of civic learning and democratic engagement • expanding their civic capacities in the US Department of Education mission statement as well as those 4. Tie funding for educational of state education departments. reform and research initiatives • Expand the current national narrative about educational reform by to evidence that the funded describing how civic learning and public problem solving contribute initiatives will build civic to sustaining economic vitality, strong communities, and the learning and democratic development of intellectual, social, and political capital. engagement Echo in publications, speeches, and media the comprehensive call from • 5. Report on the levels of civic the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools’ triple C’s—College, and democratic learning, set national and state goals Career, and Citizenship—for both K–12 and postsecondary education. for student achievement Stress evidence that engaging students in large public issues and • in civic learning, and make hands-on action with communities correlates with outcomes that such outcomes a measurable contribute to retention and graduation rates. expectation of school and • Serve as public advocates for contemporary understandings of what degree-granting institutions. civic learning in a diverse US democracy and a global century now requires in terms of leadership, intercultural knowledge, collective public action, and democratic justice. • Designate high-profile civic ambassadors from business, nonprofits, media and arts, the public sector, religious communities, and other constituencies across political parties to champion this robust civic message. • Identify symbolic ways to broadcast the richer understanding of civic learning charted in the Chapter I of this report to the broader public through high-profile public events. 2. Strategically refocus existing funding streams to spur—from school through college and beyond—civic learning and practice in the curriculum, cocurriculum, and experiential education • Find creative, strategic ways to provide financial support, even in a difficult period of shrinking governmental funds and infrastructures, for civic-oriented practices, programs, and pedagogies at two-year and four-year colleges and universities. • Convene a Civic Interagency Policy Alliance—first through the leadership of the US Department of Education, then imitated by 36

53 state and local governments—to launch a civic audit to find funding opportunities across agencies to heighten civic competencies and democratic commitments. Direct existing or new federal, state, or local dollars to entwine • multiple purposes, especially increasing graduation rates, promoting civic learning and democratic engagement, and preparing students for work in a constantly evolving market. Expand the mission of the Corporation for National and Community • Service (CNCS) to address curriculum development for civic learning in US and global contexts so that CNCS can be a more powerful resource for making civic learning part of the expected, rather than the elective, curriculum. 3. Create financial incentives for students, including first-generation students and those studying in career and occupational fields, to facilitate their access to college while expanding their civic capacities as part of their education Examine current federal programs (such as TRIO and Gear Up) and • state funding streams designed to increase access and success to and through college, and investigate how to profitably adapt them to foster expanded civic capacities and hands-on public problem solving. Encourage colleges and universities whose locations allow expansion • to go well beyond the current federal government requirement that at least 7 percent of Federal Work-Study monies fund student jobs in community-based placements. • Evaluate the feasibility of establishing a Civic Action Corps at our nation’s colleges and universities that functions like ROTC, with scholarships, focused courses, and expectations for public service after graduation as a mechanism for combining access, citizenship, and meaningful public service careers. • Increase public awareness of Income-Based Repayment and Public Service Loan Forgiveness policies—which can significantly reduce the cost of higher education—to encourage students to enroll in college and pursue careers in the public service sector. 4. Tie funding for educational reform and research initiatives—at all levels—to evidence that the funded initiatives will build civic learning and democratic engagement, both US and global • Integrate civic expectations in calls for funding opportunities, and expect grantees to report on the civic impact of their funded initiatives. • Review the impact of the shift in funding expectations by examining the final reports from the grantees. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 37

54 5. Report regularly on the levels of civic and democratic learning, set national and state goals for student achievement in civic learning, and make such outcomes a measurable expectation of schools and postsecondary education in public, private, and for-profit degree- granting institutions Set clear expectations at the federal and state levels for improvement • in students’ civic learning and democratic engagement, with the same emphasis with which benchmarks for graduation rates have been advocated. • The US Department of Education should report to the nation annually on the levels of civic learning and skills achieved, and states should report on local levels annually by drawing on multiple data sources. • Support higher education researchers to develop a national framework of civic indicators across knowledge, skills, values, and collective action. • Report at state and federal levels on the synthesized higher education research that measures progress along a spectrum of civic indicators. Other Key Stakeholders in Promoting Civic Learning for a Diverse Democracy in a Global Century The national roundtables that shaped this report included key people representing other entities that interact with, influence, and in some cases are the intellectual lifeblood of colleges and universities. All attendees eagerly participated in formulating the National Call to Action, both as a whole and with respect to the part their own groups could play in elevating education for democracy and civic responsibility as a priority for every college student. We therefore charge these stakeholders below to formulate a civic agenda for their groups and to create their own Civic Investment Plans. We offer the recommendations cited below and developed by participants at the national roundtables, as merely a starting point for further action. K–12 Systems Work with traditional and alternative teacher preparation programs 1. to ensure newly credentialed K–12 teachers receive the necessary training to advance civic knowledge, skills, values, and action at whatever level they will teach and across differing subject areas. Build on the work of the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools 2. and other civic school reform groups to maintain and evolve an understanding of the kinds of civic learning demanded by the increasingly diverse and globally linked democracy; draw from the Campaign’s well-articulated set of civic competencies. 3. Expand curricular opportunities and adopt pedagogies shown by research to enhance civic competencies. 4. Coordinate with higher education, parents, policy makers, and other locally influential groups to form strong alliances that will chart students’ growth in civics and history using state accountability 38

55 d ata systems; secure necessary funding to support civic learning in schools; and elevate civic learning to the prominence it deserves. Higher Education Associations 1. Convene representatives of higher education associations on a regular basis, increasing the visibility and influence of national leadership to promote civic learning and democratic engagement. Accentuate education for democracy in a diverse US society and 2. globe within publications, conferences, projects, and institutes. Encourage member institutions within the differing higher education 3. sectors to track the access of different student populations to opportunities for enhancing civic learning and democratic engagement. 4. Establish new mechanisms at the national and institutional level for strategic planning and collaboration across K–16 to create civic pathways for students. Disciplinary Associations 1. Define and advance new civic and democratic arenas of investigation within academic fields, and make such learning a focus of conferences, publications, and awards. Support public scholarship and sponsor professional development 2. for faculty to enhance their civic literacy and pedagogical expertise, thus highlighting the implications of civic responsibility in their courses, programs, and scholarship. Convene a democracy collaborative across disciplinary associations 3. that can be featured at multiple disciplinary association meetings to investigate civic questions deeply rooted in disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields of inquiry. Civic Organizations and Community Leaders 1. Strengthen ties between higher education and civic organizations to reinvigorate democratic practices, advance collaborative governance, promote dialogue and deliberation, and encourage collaborative community problem solving. 2. Define clearly for colleges and universities the community’s needs, priorities, and expectations for campus-community partnerships; integrate those perspectives into students’ community-based civic learning experiences. Emphasize the connections between workforce competencies and 3. civic and democratic competencies. 4. Ally with campus leaders who are striving to enlarge the civic horizons and capabilities of their students, and assert the value to higher education of the special expertise civic organizations and community leaders contribute to civic learning and democratic engagement. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 39

56 Employers 1. Articulate for the public the civic dimensions of the workplace that are essential for innovation, productivity, and success. 2. Include key civic and ethical competencies as requirements for hiring. 3. Offer ongoing educational opportunities in work environments to continue to develop and practice civic democratic skills. 4. Conduct business-education roundtables focused on the intersection of civic learning, employment, and economic development. Foundations and Philanthropic Entities 1. Use the public stature and influence of philanthropy to raise the visibility and importance of civic learning and democratic engagement as a national priority. 2. Invest in strengthening the national movement to elevate civic learning and democratic engagement as urgent priorities. 3. Convene federal agencies, private foundations, and other key stakeholders to coordinate strategies and identify multiple funding streams to support next-level civic work; expand institutional capacity to sustain it. 4. Promote cross-fertilization and collaborations among the multiple entities funded. We hope to encourage readers We close this chapter with an invitation to all constituents and to believe they can act in concert stakeholders to act, in both the short term and the long term, and singly as well as in collaboration with others. As this report has emphasized throughout, with others to close the civic strengthening our democracy and the lives of its citizens will require a large- achievement gap, reinvigorate scale, collective effort. There is a role for everyone, and everyone is needed. our democracy, and help all To spur that effort, we have created a series of tools to prompt action. We urge people develop the capacities colleges, universities, and nonprofit organizations alike to create their own Civic Investment Plans. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, we have provided to work together to create some tools for getting started in Appendix A. stronger communities, a more In Appendix A, readers will find a Civic Investment Plan for colleges and vibrant economy, and a shared universities along with one for organizational groups. For use with the former, we have also created a Civic Institutional Matrix to function as a resource for democratic commitment to initiating an asset/gap analysis of the civic-mindedness of your institution. We “promote the general Welfare” hope these tools will become part of a larger national repository of existing at home or abroad. and new instruments to facilitate thoughtful deliberations about how to create locally appropriate, strategically designed civic action plans. Above all, we hope to encourage readers to believe they can act in concert with others to close the civic achievement gap, reinvigorate our democracy, and help all people develop the capacities to work together to create stronger communities, a more vibrant economy, and a shared democratic commitment to promote the general welfare at home or abroad. 40

57 iV. trailblazers for Civic learning: From Periphery to Pervasiveness W I’ve...made it a personal mission to ensure that professors and administrators embrace the civic mission. Administrators often talk about creating better citizens, but the mission never filters down to students. Rachel Karess, student, Indiana University Democracy can survive only as strong democracy, secured not by great leaders but by competent, responsible citizens...And citizens are certainly not born, but made as a consequence of civic education and political engagement in a free polity. Benjamin Barber, Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age The foundational work has already begun for reinvesting in education for democracy and civic responsibility in their twenty-first-century global context. But opportunities for civic learning and democratic engagement remain optional rather than expected on most campuses, and peripheral to the perceived “real” academic mission of too many others. Civic learning is still too often random rather than progressively mapped by the institution for its students. Academic professionals spearheading civic investments too frequently go unrewarded, and in some cases, are even penalized for their invention and commitment. Progress has been made in civic learning and democratic engagement, but not enough. A study conducted for AAC&U by the Center for the Study of Higher Of twenty-four thousand and Postsecondary Education at the University of Michigan found that, of twenty-four thousand college students surveyed, only one-third felt strongly college students surveyed, that their civic awareness had expanded in college, that the campus had only one-third felt strongly helped them learn the skills needed to effectively change society for the better, that their civic awareness had or that their commitment to improve society had grown. Likewise, only slightly more than one-third felt strongly that faculty publicly advocated the expanded in college, that the need for students to become active and involved citizens (Dey et al. 2009). campus had helped them learn Reaching the other two-thirds of students should be the benchmark set the skills needed to effectively for 2020. The Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, in investigating change society for the better, the progress students are making across various learning outcomes, offers or that their commitment to similarly clear evidence that higher education has to rethink its curriculum, improve society had grown. pedagogy, and educational experiences to foster higher levels of college learning. Its longitudinal examination of student learning over four years indicates that in six of eleven learning outcomes measured, the majority of students experienced either “no growth or a decline” (this and other Wabash National Study statistics are summarized in Finley 2012). Regarding students’ level of commitment to socially responsible leadership, for example, data reveal moderate to high growth in 52 percent of students, small growth in 13 percent, and no growth or decline in 35 percent. Growth in students’ A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 41

58 valuation of political and social involvement is lower: moderate to high growth posts 35 percent, with small growth at 7 percent and no growth or decline at 58 percent. Openness to diversity and challenge, a critical dimension of civic learning and democratic engagement, is lower still: moderate to high growth is reported in only 31 percent of students, small growth in 8 percent, and no growth or decline in 61 percent. The Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) findings on other aspects of civic learning indicate that seniors’ self-rating on understanding the problems facing their communities had strongly increased throughout college for only 24.9 percent of students. Knowledge of people from different races/cultures fared only slightly better, with 27.1 percent of college seniors reporting “much stronger knowledge” (Finley 2012). The most revealing news in the Wabash National Study is that fewer Fewer than 40 percent of than 40 percent of students engage in any of several key practices correlated students engage in any of with gains on civic learning outcomes, and fewer than 20 percent participate in three or more at a high level (O’Neill, forthcoming). several key practices correlated The positive news in this picture is that, for students who do engage in with gains on civic learning multiple key practices at high levels over time, there is a greater level of growth outcomes, and fewer than 20 in several of the civic learning measures reported above. This suggests that percent participate in three or good practices are in place but are not required and that, even when civic- minded forms of learning are available, too few students opt to take advantage more at a high level...[But] of these opportunities. It also suggests how important it is for students’ for students who do engage in intellectual and civic development to identify and widely publicize campus multiple key practices at high opportunities for civic learning and their availability and location within curricular and cocurricular experiences. levels over time, there is a greater While continuing reforms will be necessary if colleges and universities level of growth in several...civic are to be a significant venue for citizenship development, there is no need to learning measures. start constructing civic-minded campuses from scratch. There already is, as Chapter V demonstrates, a robust array of emergent curricular models, tested pedagogies, and innovative campus life programs; and an accumulating body of evidence points to the positive impact of these new forms of education for democracy, on multiple levels and on various constituencies. Typically, however, these nascent civic learning programs and resources are (1) not deliberately orchestrated in a developmental arc; (2) not pervasive across students’ experiences; or (3) not expected of every graduate. Correcting these omissions would transform higher education into a far more powerful national resource for strengthening democracy, communities, and lifelong citizen engagement. Figure 6 illustrates some ways the academy can move from partial transformation to pervasive civic and democratic learning and practices. In order to advance from partial to fully integrated education for democracy, it is instructive to consider how earlier civic transformations were triggered. Transformations were stimulated by powerful external social movements, internal educational reforms, federal and state incentives, burgeoning civic-oriented nonprofits across the political spectrum, and philanthropic funding. These innovations have been carried forward by civic- minded students and by students who have only recently achieved wider 42

59 Figur e 6. From Partial to Pervasive: Constructing More Advanced Levels of Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement in Higher Education Partial foundation laid... Civic learning is pervasive... • Civic learning is optional for some students • Civic learning is expected for all students, regardless of field or area of study • Civic learning is infused across students’ educational Civic learning is a one-time experience • experiences over time in a developmental arc • Teaching critical thinking does not consider • Teaching critical thinking also occurs in relation to issues of public significance real-world contexts Civic learning is individually oriented • • Civic learning also fosters collaboration with diverse people and groups • Civic learning focuses on external engagement • Civic learning also asks students to reflect on their own social identity and location as well as those of others Faculty in all disciplines and certificate programs raise • Faculty in some disciplines and certificate programs • civic questions in relation to their field raise civic questions in relation to their field • • Community-based scholarship is positively viewed in all Community-based scholarship is accepted in some departments and influences the hiring and promotion departments of faculty • Civic learning practices in the curriculum and • Civic learning practices in the curriculum and cocurriculum are coordinated and connected through cocurriculum are parallel but not integrated partnerships between academic and student affairs Community engagement is reciprocal, with colleges/ • Community engagement is one-directional, • with colleges and universities providing expertise universities and communities working together to to the community identify assets and solve public problems • Mission and vision statements do not explicitly • Mission and vision statements explicitly address address civic responsibility civic responsibility access to higher education; by faculty newly invested in public scholarship and in student-engaged pedagogies; by student affairs staff promoting student leadership and social responsibility; by senior administrative leaders, including presidents, who have embraced the inherent civic mission of a college education; and by community leaders and groups, both local and global, who have organized to address a range of public issues that held their communities back and who have helped colleges and universities understand what reciprocal partnerships mean. The task of advancing to the next level in the coming decade will require efforts no less emphatic and multifaceted. This chapter, therefore, reflects briefly upon the decades-deep history of civic-minded reform in higher education and describes campus actors and their roles in an ever-widening circle of civic advocates. Following this exploration, Chapter V takes the reader onto campuses and into communities where advanced educational practices work to foster a pervasive civic ethos, expand civic capabilities, and invest in creating strong communities. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 43

60 The Trailblazers: Fashioning Civic-Minded Institutions The partial foundation for The partial foundation for wide-scale civic learning and democratic engagement has been laid by a group of trailblazing campus-based actors wide-scale civic learning and who share a passionate commitment to wed intellectual inquiry and expertise democratic engagement has been to a sense of social responsibility for the welfare of others and of the planet. laid by a group of trailblazing Innovative, collaborative, and action-oriented, these actors are primed to elevate civic learning as an essential component of a college degree and a force campus-based actors who share for building stronger local and global communities. But such trailblazers are a passionate commitment to wed still the exception on most campuses: a lone voice in a department, a single intellectual inquiry and expertise program in student affairs, a cluster of presidents often at risk for the very civic leadership they espouse. Mobilizing broad masses of people beyond to a sense of social responsibility just trailblazers is critical if the civic deficit is to be erased. As the following for the welfare of others and of sections illustrate—and as the Civic Investment Plan can help each institution the planet. explore and quantify—there is a role for everyone to play, at every level in academe. Our trailblazer cast begins with students whose initial Student-driven: demands that their education address big questions and complex unsolved social problems have effected real change in their institutions. Despite the common perception of students as self-focused and disengaged, an influential minority has consistently been a leavening agent in education for civic responsibility and democracy for decades. According to HERI research, today’s college students are the most engaged in community-based partnership and social change of any generation. To reiterate an earlier point, HERI reports that 85.3 percent of first-year students responded “frequently” or “occasionally” when asked whether they “performed volunteer work” as high school seniors (Pryor et al. 2009). While volunteerism is but one piece of the civic learning continuum, it is a disposition that can be cultivated into fuller civic agency and an enhanced understanding of how existing structures can be changed to better serve the nation and the world. The immediate antecedents for the current students were, in fact, the first generation of students to be finally admitted to college once the patterns of discrimination so deplored by the Truman Commission were dismantled, nearly forty years after the Commission’s 1947 report was issued. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which officially outlawed most discrimination against racial minorities and women, marked the beginning of the end of racial segregation and gender discrimination in American higher education. Equitable access took several more decades to advance and is still a work in progress. However, the increase of African Americans and other formerly excluded groups in our nation’s colleges and universities engendered challenges to what had previously been largely unquestioned assumptions about history, literature, democracy, justice, cultural norms, and the ultimate purposes of a college education. Women coming to college in ever increasing numbers joined suit across class, color, age, and sexual identity in demanding more from their curriculum, their faculty, and campus life, and in seeking broader public purposes to which their knowledge could be applied. Today, women dominate service learning. 44

61 With the demographic shift, the curriculum shifted as well. New, often Bonner Foundation interdisciplinary, academic programs emerged. Model for Civic A quarter of a century after the 1947 Truman Commission report, the Development campus did not so much go out into the community as the community came onto the campus—as college students. The expansion of community colleges Pre-College Level: • Expectation Ethic of care as core value for accelerated the demographic shift. With a much more representative student engagement and service body, the climate and concerns on campuses altered. Today’s students are a First-Year Level: Exploration • heterogeneous mix —racially, religiously, ethnically, and socioeconomically— Involvement in a variety of much of which comprises first-generation students and new immigrants. service projects Most of these students already define themselves as citizens of multiple Experience Second-Year Level: • communities; thus, they bring to campuses a consciousness of the larger Focus on a set of issues, interdependencies that characterize modern life. neighborhood, and/or agency In the late 1980s and 1990s, a formative wedge of socially-minded • Example Third-Year Level: students were a determining force in the establishment of volunteer service Emerge as leader of peers and centers that now are commonplace on nearly every campus. “The manner begin to manage discrete projects in which we engage in our democracy goes beyond, well beyond, the Fourth-Year Level: • Excellence Continue as project leader or in traditional measurements that statisticians like to measure us by, most notably specialist capacity voting,” ruminated a group of students at a Wingspread civic engagement conference in 2001 (Long 2002, 9). “Many of us at Wingspread perceive Common Commitments for Cocurricular and Curricular service as alternative politics, as a method of pursuing change in a democratic Experiences society” (2), they explained. While admitting their disillusionment with Civic engagement • conventional national politics, they affirmed, “we have more interest in local • Social justice politics and global politics,” which “often involve issues that are of special concern to us” (1). Community building • Some of this student political engagement is reflected in the myriad Diversity • clubs and activities where students organize on issues that matter deeply to • International perspective them: sharp rises in tuition, racial justice, sweatshop labor practices, climate • Spiritual exploration change, abortion, human rights, poverty, hunger, and human trafficking. Some Hoy and Meisel 2008 join nationally with other college students to influence public policy and learn how to lobby their Congressional, state, and municipal representatives. Three examples suggest the range of civic learning and real political works with The One Campaign engagement that a range of students practice. the general public and college students to encourage Congress to allocate at The least 1 percent of the GDP to alleviate global poverty (www.one.org). , founded in 2002, is building a youth movement that Interfaith youth Corps believes “faith can be a bridge of cooperation, strengthening our civil society and promoting the common good” (www.ifyc.org ). Their Interfaith Youth Institute and Better Together Campaign fostered youth-led events in more than 200 campuses last year. The Energy Action Coalition , co-founded by Billy Parish when he was a Yale student, brought twelve thousand students to Washington for its Power Shift 2009—and thousands more in 2011—to learn how to shape legislation and lobby Congress (www.energyactioncoalition. org ). Many student activists committed to sustainability (to focus on only one issue among dozens) are doing their social change civic work locally: securing environmental studies majors; green financial investments; and coalitions with presidents, facilities managers, and boards of trustees who have signed on to honor the American College & University Presidents’ Campus Climate ). http://presidentsclimatecommitment.org Commitment ( A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 45

62 Like students, faculty members across all sectors of Faculty driven: higher education have been drivers of the transformation toward education for democracy and social responsibility. Philosopher Elizabeth Minnich describes them as establishing “a new academy” located (often literally) “on the periphery” in “slightly shabby houses now owned by the university... [and] often hard to distinguish from the community that relinquished them” (AAC&U 1995, 2). Signs on the front lawn announce these “new academy” themes: Center for Collaborative Learning, Women’s Studies, African American Studies, Environmental Studies, American Indian Studies, Interdisciplinary Studies, Deaf Studies, Institute for Technology and Values, Multicultural Studies, Science and the Humanities Programs, Center for Research on Teaching and Learning, Continuing Education Center. Summarizing Minnich’s argument, one scholar in the same 1995 volume says “this new academy...welcomes rather than avoids critical and creative engagement with wider communities. It endorses and produces scholarship that seeks not just to know the world but to work toward a better world...pioneering ways of thinking, learning, and teaching that provide models for engaging differences constructively, rather than divisively” (Schneider 1995, vii). Faculty members have assumed leadership in channeling the volunteer energy of students into opportunities to explore important issues. Using disciplinary and interdisciplinary lenses, faculty committed to civic-minded Using disciplinary and scholarship provide the means to deepen students’ knowledge, investigate interdisciplinary lenses, faculty lines of inquiry, and expand civic skills through public engagement. Service learning has become the term to describe a wide variety of community-based committed to civic-minded learning and research experiences that are embedded within courses and carry scholarship provide the means academic credit. to deepen students’ knowledge, Recent HERI data suggest the timing is propitious for seizing on the investigate lines of inquiry, and increasingly widespread faculty interest in education for personal and social responsibility. In one indicator of a core capacity necessary for civic learning, expand civic skills through 82.5 percent of faculty in 2007–8 said teaching tolerance and respect for public engagement. different beliefs was very important or essential; 72.4 percent said the same for engaging students in civil discourse around controversial issues. Between the 2004–5 HERI faculty survey and the 2007–8 survey, a huge increase—of 19.1 percent, from 36.4 percent to 55.5 percent—emerged in faculty response to the question about instilling a commitment to community service. Enhancing students’ knowledge and appreciation of other racial/ethnic groups jumped from 57.6 percent to 75.2 percent, while helping students develop personal values climbed from 50.8 percent to 66.1 percent (DeAngelo et al. 2009). These shifting faculty priorities reflect a larger trend: civic-oriented scholarship infused with diversity and global perspectives is emerging as part of the fast-growing academic field of public scholarship. The integration of civic, global, and diversity lenses on public questions is also becoming more prominent in pedagogies designed to have students apply their knowledge to real-world problems. Such pedagogies are typically grounded in messy real-world settings where students don’t just theorize how to tackle stubborn, complex public problems, they actually figure them out with others through hands-on experiences. This approach by faculty is transforming the routine experience of, say, an introduction to chemistry course, an American history 46

63 course, or an upper-level nursing course. But again, these faculty members are still exceptional; in the next phase, institutions need systematically to reward faculty for such new forms of public scholarship and learning. There are also existing national civic networks that should be tapped and expanded for leadership in mobilizing the next generation of investment in civic learning. The Research University Civic Engagement Network (TRUCEN), one of many faculty-oriented civic networks, comprises scholars and directors of civic centers at research universities ( http://www.compact. org/initiatives/civic-engagement-at-research-universities ). Typically involving smaller institutions, the nonprofit Project Pericles sustains a network of colleges and universities committed to including “social responsibility and participatory citizenship as essential elements of their educational programs” in courses, campus life, and communities ( http://www.projectpericles. org ). Imagining America (www.imaginingamerica.org ) defines its mission as “animating and strengthening the public and civic purposes of humanities, arts, and design through mutually beneficial campus-community partnerships that advance democratic scholarship and practice.” (See Appendix D for more information on each organization.) Characterized by the use of active learning pedagogies in courses, these civic-oriented faculty members are often practitioners of what AAC&U has termed the Principles of Excellence. As such, they can be leaders for the next expansive generation of civic work on campus because they • teach the arts of inquiry and innovation; • engage the Big Questions; • connect knowledge with choices and action; • foster civic, intercultural, and ethical learning; and • assess students’ ability to apply learning to complex problems (AAC&U 2007, 60). Staff driven: The professionals who first responded to student demands for centers and programs that served the larger community were not faculty but student affairs staff. Student life professionals continue to be perceived by students as mentors guiding students’ development as whole, rounded people attuned to others’ needs and not simply their own. Even where such staff are not explicitly so assigned, students often turn to student affairs professionals to Student affairs staff focus on provide educational environments where they can practice self-development, dimensions central to civic self-governance, and attentiveness to others on multiple levels. Because such practices are essential aspects of democratic citizenship writ on everyday learning : How do groups of life, these trailblazing student affairs staff are especially poised to promote a people live responsibly with one campus-wide civic ethos. another, internalize bedrock Social responsibility has always been as much a cornerstone of student consensus values that offer a affairs as it has of democratic citizenship. Student affairs staff focus on dimensions central to civic learning: How do groups of people live responsibly moral compass to behavior, with one another, internalize bedrock consensus values that offer a moral and establish rules and policies compass to behavior, and establish rules and policies to guide expectations and to guide expectations and consequences when rules/policies are violated? Student affairs staff serve as the midwives of academic integrity, student consequences when rules/ honor codes, student government, student newspapers, student clubs, and policies are violated? student resident assistants. They are first in line to institute procedures to A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 47

64 resolve issues that disrupt the equilibrium and core values of a community— e.g., sexual assault, cheating, acts of bigotry, theft, destroying campus property, and drunkenness. They also often lead the campus volunteer centers that organize students to partner in service projects with local and/or global communities. They oversee student support centers empowering newcomers in higher education to succeed. They frequently manage campus sustainability efforts, organize intercultural programming in partnership with student groups, lead programs that send students abroad, and shepherd international students on campus. Leadership from these trailblazers helps transform a campus into more genuinely and radically intercultural spaces of engagement. Insights of such staff will need to be tapped more fully in the next generation of civic work, and their contributions more widely recognized. Student affairs professionals have prodigious civic skills that can be deployed to expand students’ civic capacities. Their leadership is crucial in any collective effort to make civic responsibility understood as the ethos and daily practice of the campus. Institution driven: Presidents are often critical figures who shape the civic ethos of a campus and embody its core mission. They are the visible symbols of an institution and, as such, often define their institution’s orientation to both internal and external publics. Do they engage with multiple kinds of community groups or just local donors? Do they provide leadership only for campus issues or to solve pressing local issues like inadequate K–12 schools, insufficient housing, crime, and economic development? Is the campus off-limits to the neighborhood, or does the president initiate programs that turn it into a shared public space? As the institutional leader, a president also has the power to sign “Our goal is that every public documents that affirm his/her institution’s stand for explicit values and commitments. Presidents have used this authority to join with others graduate of an American in collective civic pronouncement such as Campus Compact’s Presidents’ community college shall Declaration on the Fourth of July , the American Association of State Colleges have had an education in and Universities’ (AASCU’s) Presidents’ the American Democracy Project, Climate Commitment, Call to Action to Educate for and the AAC&U Presidents’ democracy. This includes all Personal and Social Responsibility. our students, whether they aim The power of presidents and their institutions to develop influential to transfer to university, earn national networks by working in larger institutional collaborations is This recently launched network exemplified by The Democracy Commitment. an associate degree, or obtain of community colleges, which seeks not only presidential endorsement but a certificate” (The Democracy institutional involvement across all levels, describes its aims thus: Commitment 2011). The Democracy Commitment will provide a national platform for the development and expansion of programs and projects aiming at engaging community college students in civic learning and democratic practice. Our goal is that every graduate of an American community college shall have had an education in democracy. This includes all our students, whether they aim to transfer to university, earn an associate degree, or obtain a certificate (2011). 48

65 As the Democracy Commitment and AASCU’s American Democracy Project (with which the Democracy Commitment is affiliated) both understand, institutional leadership derives from more than the office of the president. It comes from every level and division. Its effectiveness relies on everyone contributing to civic literacy and to civic agency. While most institutions focus on being good stewards of their localities, others define their place in regional or national terms, modeling citizenship by investigating large consequential issues like agriculture, energy, health, or environmental sustainability. Still others model what a good global institutional citizen looks like through partnerships for international research, development, and education. Trailblazers...[have] jointly Thus have trailblazers from these four important campus constituents jointly laid the foundation for what a civic-minded institution looks and acts laid the foundation for what like in the twenty-first century. Thanks to their leadership efforts, higher a civic-minded institution education is now poised for a second generation of engagement that can move looks and acts like in the civic enterprises from the periphery to the center as an expected part of every student’s college experience. twenty-first century. Thanks But trailblazers cannot do it alone. To advance such an ambitious to their leadership efforts, agenda, they need support from others who also have a key stake in the future higher education is now poised of democracy, higher education, and economic and social development. Disciplinary societies can applaud, publish, and promote public scholarship for a second generation of and engaged pedagogies; philanthropic groups can fund projects, research, engagement that can move and collaborations; higher education associations can lift up the leadership, civic enterprises from the creativity, and civic commitments of the trailblazers among their members; periphery to the center as an quality assurance specialists can measure their achievements; civic organizations and community groups can partner with them to define and co­ expected part of every student’s create collaborative projects; and government agencies at the local, state, and college experience. federals levels can fund, recognize, and partner with them. The power of external partners will be necessary if significant and lasting progress is to be made in this next phase. Institutions have already been encouraged to create civic-minded institutions by the decision of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Education in 2006 to create a new Community Engagement Classification. Institutions had the opportunity to apply again in 2008, and most recently, in 2010. Thus far, a total of 311 two- year and four-year institutions have achieved the designation. Carnegie invites colleges and universities to submit evidence of how they meet standards of community outreach and partnership as well as curricular engagement. The Foundation examines documentation about mission, culture, leadership, resources, and practices. The process thus establishes national measures that are already useful for benchmarking progress and will be all the more so during the coming generation of civic work. Public and private foundations have certainly fueled civic innovations and will be needed in the coming decades. A privately funded, independent initiative, Bringing Theory to Practice (BTtoP) shows the catalytic impact of strategic funding, a broad civic scope, and building a community of practice (see www.aacu.org/bringing_theory). Launched a decade ago, BTtoP represents the most consistent funding for, focus on, and exploration of the civic mission of both private and public higher education in this century. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 49

66 More than three hundred colleges and universities have been involved in various aspects of the project, and nearly one hundred have received grant support. At the center of its concerns is the interrelatedness of the three core purposes of liberal education: advancing knowledge and understanding; promoting the well-being and actualization of the learner; and acting responsibly toward the surrounding community in all its diversity. To explore this interrelationship, BTtoP has commissioned a series of research monographs, journal articles, and books; funded campus-based research assessing student development; hosted conferences; supported innovative campus civic programs and student-led conferences; and convened think tanks. Throughout, it has been a nurturing influence conceptually as well as financially. Importantly, over the years it has also seeded a network of practitioners and scholars who continue to sustain progress. It is through the collective power of multiple entities inside and outside higher education that there is hope of achieving a more capacious and transformative expression and practice of civic learning and democratic engagement. John Dewey understood the connection when he said, “Democracy needs to be born “Democracy needs to be born anew every generation, and education is the midwife” (Dewey 2008, 139). And former Congresswoman Barbara Jordan anew every generation, and understood that democracy is not simply sustained by a set of eloquent education is the midwife” aspirations but requires as well a capacity for generating collective action: (Dewey 2008, 139). “What the people want is very simple. They want an America as good as its promise” ( Jordan 2011). Together we can make it so. 50

67 V. A Foundation Partially laid: Pathways to Democratic engagement W The first and most essential charge upon higher education is that at all levels and in all fields of specialization, it shall be the carrier of democratic values, ideals, and processes. Higher Education for American Democracy The way we run our classrooms and the way we connect those classrooms to our communities can have a lot to say about whether our teaching and learning practices are advancing a more diverse, socially just, and democratic culture. José Z. Calderón, Race, Poverty, and Social Justice: Multidisciplinary Perspectives through Service Learning Where Chapter IV highlighted the trailblazers driving the civic transformations of two-year and four-year colleges and universities, we turn now to concrete examples of the fruits of their labor. While the foundations for civic learning and democratic engagement have been partially laid, this report challenges readers to advance that crucial educational and democratic work to the next level. And while the leaders featured in Chapter IV show what it means to nurture a civic ethos on campus, this chapter offers concrete illustrations of programs, pedagogies, and partnerships that make a core expectation for all students, that engage civic literacy civic inquiry across multiple fields of study, and that advance civic action through transformative partnerships. The following pages illustrate, in short, what it would mean to fully enact the recommendations for higher education that this Task Force, on behalf of a wide array of advisers, set forth in Chapter III. First, we examine how civic literacy and civic inquiry can be embedded within curricular pathways in both general education and specialized fields of study, with the aim of creating a developmental arc mapped in designs for students’ cumulative civic learning over time. The potential for reinforcing curricular expectations for civic learning might be strengthened by the proposed Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP), that is described in this chapter. The DQP includes civic learning as one of five expected learning areas at three key levels: associate’s, bachelor’s, and master’s degree. Moving from curriculum designs that make civic learning expected rather than optional, the chapter then showcases three of the most promising civic pedagogies: (1) intergroup and deliberative dialogue, (2) service learning, and (3) collective civic problem solving. Finally, we explore a singularly promising means of overcoming the national civic shortfall and building civic capital: the emergence of transformative and civic-minded campus-community partnerships. In a still exceptional design, a handful of two-year and four-year colleges and universities have developed ambitious generative partnerships and alliances between higher education, communities, governments, and other key stakeholders—partnerships constructed to address locally specific A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 51

68 but nationally and globally intertwining problems. As the recommendations Tu l a n e U n i v e r s i t y in Chapter III underscore, the National Task Force sees the expansion of such reciprocal partnerships as a critical next step in making higher education a Tulane University guides students’ commitment to public service by catalyst and resource for the renewal of democracy. including a two-part public service general education graduation requirement. Students Curricular Civic Pathways: Moving Civic Learning from the Margins to the Core Complete an introductory • service-learning course by the In 2002, a civic working group appointed by AAC&U was charged to gather end of their sophomore year; K–12 teachers, heads of nonprofit civic organizations, and representatives • Complete one additional public from higher education to gauge what transparent, coherent curricular service-approved program as a junior or senior with one of the pathways were in place in K–16 that offered students progressively more following: sophisticated levels of civic understanding and civic skills. None were to be Service learning course • found. What did emerge, however, were pockets of innovation that were not (at 300-level or above) yet always connected to one another but that held the promise of possibility. • Academic service-learning Similarly, in the examples below, no institution has put all the pieces together internship to formulate civic pathways for all students, but some institutions have paved • Public service research project some better-lit thoroughfares. (faculty sponsored) As one scholar-practitioner describes this moment, “Over the past • Public service honors thesis decade, spurred by critique within the [civic renewal] movement itself, many project academic institutions have launched ambitious centers and community- Public service–based • learning initiatives, committed to more sustained, intellectually rigorous, international study abroad and socially transformative work. This second wave of engagement program has tended to reframe the discourse of community service into one of Capstone course with public • collaboration and citizenship, to reconnect community work with systemic service component issues of policy, power, and justice, and to work for change not only in Source: http://tulane.edu/cps/about/ individual courses, but at the level of the curriculum and the campus as a gradua tion-requirement.cfm whole” (Scobey 2010, 191). These trailblazers demonstrate that it is possible to map more explicit, intentional, and developmental curricular designs. Through them, students move along multiple experiences in progressively challenging ways which can reverse the current poor showing on civic learning outcomes while also replenishing our nation’s civic capital. 1. Civic literacy as a core expectation for all students in general education programs With growing consensus across colleges and universities about essential learning outcomes (Hart Research Associates 2009), institutions have agreed that personal and social responsibility should be one of the four central outcomes of college learning. In research conducted by University of Michigan scholars for AAC&U, 93 percent of students and 97 percent of campus professionals strongly or somewhat agreed that personal and social responsibility should be a major focus of their institutions (Dey et al. 2009). While increasing this focus is understood to be an institution-wide goal, many campuses first turn to their general education curricula as a vehicle for deepening students’ civic knowledge, skills, values, and capacities for collective action. 52

69 Some institutions, like Franklin Pierce University, for example, include Portland State University public deliberation and sustained dialogue as an integral part of first-year seminars. Others, like Tulane University (see sidebar on previous page), have Portland State University has developed a curricular pathway opted for a two-stage developmental arc requiring both an introductory and an to enhance communication skills, upper-level component. Tulane’s model is notable for the variety of ways that invoke critical thinking, cultivate students can engage in community-based learning beyond service alone. social and ethical responsibility, Other institutions, like Portland State University (see sidebar), also scaffold and foster understandings of civic learning progressively across a vertical general education curriculum. In a the diverse nature of human experience. similar institutional example, St. Edward’s University introduces students to the struggles for justice in the United States, followed by a parallel pair of required • Freshman Inquiry— Exploration: A year-long courses about global issues and social responsibility. Their general education sequence exposes students curriculum culminates in a senior-level course in which students become civic to interdisciplinary themes problem solvers by addressing a social issue in a capstone experience. designed to employ multiple perspectives. Sophomore Inquiry— • 2. Civic inquiry integrated into the major or central field of study Communication: Students One of higher education’s most critical purposes is educating democratic citizens enhance communication skills through dialogue, research who will be both prepared and inspired to ensure the continued vitality of presentation, and composition. our republic. Unfortunately, higher education itself sometimes contributes to The human experience, social suppressing this kind of learning, research, and action. For example, a group of and moral responsibility, and college students from twenty-two states who gathered in 2001 to discuss civic critical thinking are central foci. engagement said their institutions encouraged them to defer social responsibility • Upper Division Cluster— until they were secure in their careers (Long 2002). Individualization: Students Too often, institutions shy away from asking departmental majors to take a grouping of courses to further build upon skills gained address overarching learning outcomes. Still, departments themselves should in previous segments, and to not be excused from playing an appropriate role in educating students for explore topics of special interest civic responsibility and democratic engagement; without their participation, to them. little progress can be made in deploying higher education institutions as sites • Senior Capstone— for citizenship and incubators for new knowledge. Every disciplinary and Cooperation: As a culminating interdisciplinary major should examine the civic questions, dilemmas, and public project, students from a variety purposes of its field. This is the next frontier for civic learning. Pointing the way, of majors work in teams, collaborating with faculty and Worcester Polytechnic Institute has authored a powerful project-based curricular community leaders to address a design that affects all majors (see sidebar on page 54) and asks students to community issue important to consider the civic consequences of choices they make as professionals. them as engaged and informed A ground-breaking book, Citizenship Across the Curriculum , explores learners. the range of ways different disciplines can illuminate civic questions and help http://pdx.edu/unst Source: students develop a stronger civic lens. As Mary Huber and Pat Hutchings assert in their introduction, “To be sure, there are some who think citizenship best—and exclusively—addressed as a subject for study in appropriate political science or history courses... But for those who see preparation for citizenship as a of undergraduate education, the possibilities for where it goal can be taught expand” (Huber and Hutchings 2010, ix). The volume explores a range of fields, from math to communication, from political science to literature, from environmental history to diversity. The authors show how different disciplines can explore distinct civic issues like political voice in a political science course, the ethical and moral dimensions of a world citizen in a Holocaust literature course, the civic “response-ability” in a communication course, or the practical civic consequences of numeracy in a math course. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 53

70 What the disciplinary examples hold in common, the co-editors Worcester Polytechnic argue, is commitment to inculcating a sense of civic agency in students in a Institute pluralistic polity. They explain, “...our definition of education for citizenship encompasses both the political and the personal: the very reasons for WPI students engage in project- individuals to be politically informed and active are inextricably linked with based learning throughout their course of study. First-year students their sense of empathy, ethical consciousness, and capacity to engage in enroll in the Great Problems dialogue with others” (Smith et al. 2010, 5). Seminar (GPS). This two-course Adopting institution-wide goals for civic learning and democratic introduction focuses on global engagement can function instructively as an intellectual and educational themes, societal problems, and guide for departments. Assessing student progress toward achieving human needs. Five seminars center around Educating the World, overall institutional learning goals can also function as an incentive to Feeding the World, Healing the engage departments in education for democracy. University of Alabama at World, Powering the World, and Birmingham has charted its civic pathways through student affairs, general Grand Challenges, which focuses education, and the major to give special emphasis to ethical reasoning, on engineering and sustainable diversity, and civic responsibility (see sidebar on page 55). development. Students are introduced to a broad sweep of Wagner College, an institution that has already won national recognition scholarship and then work in for integrating civic learning across its general education program and small groups to define a specific most recently cocurricular life, has also begun to define what it calls “civic problem, research its dimensions, professionalism” as a goal for majors. Through external funding, faculty offer a public strategy for development opportunities, campus-community partnerships, and leadership addressing their chosen issue, and from departments, civic professionalism has been incorporated into a presents results. cluster of departments. The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee focused During junior year, students complete an Interactive Qualifying attention on its pre-professional schools and created interdisciplinary global Project (IQP), which challenges courses like Global Management, Global Security, Global Cities, and Global them to address a problem that Communication. All integrate service-learning requirements, study abroad, lies at the intersection of science foreign language, and overseas internships. or technology with social issues The foundations laid thus far illustrate the power of intentional and human needs. The IQP is institutional designs, of reaching all students, and of distinguishing specific done under the guidance of one or more faculty, usually in teams of civic outcomes that result from deliberately crafted curricular architecture. The two to four students. The objective major challenge in the next generation is to make such curricular experiences is to enable WPI graduates to commonplace and expected rather than rare and notable. understand, as citizens and as professionals, how their careers will affect the larger society. Civic Learning and the Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP) About 60 percent of all IQPs occur abroad. Faculty and campus leaders who seek to make civic learning expected rather than In their senior year, students optional for all students now have a new resource to test, amend, and, conceivably, complete a Major Qualifying strengthen. In 2011, the Lumina Foundation for Education commissioned and Project (MQP), which asks them released for beta testing a proposed Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP). The to synthesize previous study to DQP outlines five kinds of learning that should be included and integrated in any solve problems or perform tasks college degree at the associate’s, bachelor’s, or master’s level: (1) broad integrative in the major field with confidence, knowledge, (2) specialized knowledge, (3) specific intellectual skills, (4) applied and communicate the results effectively. learning, and (5) civic learning. At each degree level, students are expected to show that they can integrate and apply all five kinds of learning in addressing complex Source: www.wpi.edu/academics/Depts/ .html and www.wpi.edu/ IGSD/iqp problems, challenges, and projects, including civic ones. academics/Undergraduate/FirstYear/gps. in the DQP The recommended areas of broad integrative knowledge html include global, intercultural, and civic democratic learning. The recommended intellectual skills are comparable to those outlined in Chapter I of this report and include “engaging diverse perspectives.” The 2011 beta version of the 54

71 DQP says that, at all degree levels, students need to acquire the knowledge University of Alabama required for responsible citizenship both from their formal studies (the at Birmingham knowledge and skills described above) and from community-based learning, and demonstrate their ability to integrate both kinds of learning in analyzing Capstone Courses in the Major Include Discipline-Specific and addressing significant public problems and questions. The DQP offers Competency in Ethics and Civic numerous examples of ways that students can demonstrate their achievement Responsibility of integrative civic competencies. UAB’s Quality Enhancement Many countries around the world have already adopted “degree Plan (QEP) outlines a shared frameworks” that codify the kinds and levels of learning that college ought vision for every UAB graduate, to represent. The authors of this American version believe, however, regardless of his or her field of that the United States is unique in providing a degree framework that study. This QEP includes ethics and civic responsibility, described makes demonstrated achievement of civic learning a key component of as “the ability to make informed, postsecondary studies. ethical decisions and be prepared With grant support from Lumina, several accreditors, higher education for responsible citizenship in the associations, disciplinary societies, and individual campuses will be testing the community, nation, and world.” DQP framework over the next three to four years—applying it to curriculum Every program at UAB has renewal and testing ways to foster and document students’ demonstrated developed or is in the process achievement of competencies. of developing a senior capstone course or experience. The capstone As the campus work illustrated in this chapter makes clear, there is much provides a summative opportunity more to civic learning and democratic engagement than any summative degree for students to apply what they framework can show. Still, the DQP represents a step forward for civic learning have learned to an original project by lifting it up to new prominence and connecting it to all parts of students’ and/or real-life application. This learning, including community-based learning. If the DQP takes hold, civic might involve such components as collaborative projects, internships, learning in the twenty-first century can take on far more vibrant forms than service learning, fieldwork, twentieth century educational leaders ever achieved. For more information on independent research, community the DQP, visit http://www.luminafoundation.org/publications/The_Degree_ outreach, and/or thesis writing. Qualifications_Profile.pdf . In every case, capstone courses include a set of well-defined learning outcomes, significant Powerful Pedagogies that Promote Civic Learning writing, and integration of discipline-specific competencies in In addition to designing curricular pathways through general education and quantitative literacy and in ethics through a student’s major or technical specialized field of study, how civic and civic responsibility. issues are taught and in what venues delineate yet another arena for enhancing Capstone development is civic literacy, inquiry, and collective action. Three civic pedagogies have supported through a series of emerged as particularly effective: (1) intergroup and deliberative dialogue, (2) “Conversation on Capstones service learning, and (3) collective civic problem solving. Workshops,” which provide opportunities for administrators, faculty, and staff to exchange best 1. Intergroup and Deliberative Dialogue practices and discuss challenges in developing and/or revising Two distinct but closely aligned pedagogies—intergroup and deliberative capstone courses and experiences. dialogue—are each longstanding and recognized pedagogies that educate Sources: http://main.uab.edu/Sites/DOE/ for democracy. They can be found within both the curriculum and the QEP/44503 and http://main.uab.edu/ cocurriculum and enacted both on and off campus. These pedagogies can Sites/DOE/QEP/45086/ serve as a learning-centered design for a course, a widely adaptable dialogic approach, and a mode of collaborative civic problem solving. These two pedagogies also address head-on an essential skill in a diverse democracy: the capacity to deliberate productively and respectfully with others who hold A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 55

72 different views, in order to deepen mutual understandings and, in the best of California State cases, to agree on a shared set of actions. Un iversit y, C h ico Research indicates that 95 percent of Americans believe that civility is important in politics, which is why so many worry that nastiness and California State University, Chico has designed a First-Year polarization are on the rise (Shea et al. 2010). The civic literacy necessary Experience curricular program in a heterogeneous contemporary world where contestation seems the that culminates in an annual town norm is substantial, which is why practices that help refine skills in soliciting hall meeting. The program was multiple viewpoints, negotiating and compromising, and organizing across initiated as a way to build civic differences for democratic ends are so valuable. The classroom and campus literacy in entering students. The first-year program challenges life are perfect laboratories for developing and practicing the democratic skills entering students to research an of perspective taking and engagement. Those skills are also the very heart of issue of public importance and intellectual inquiry. Through courses that emphasize deliberation, students share their findings in a public can learn to listen and speak respectfully; analyze dissenting views without forum through presentations vilifying the speaker; manage conflict; analyze, deliberate, and advocate for and group dialogue. Students are particular solutions; and seek compromises and consensus (Hess 2009). paired with external consultants who advise them in ways to Twenty years ago, the University of Michigan was one of the seedbeds become more deeply involved with of intergroup dialogue programs, which are now offered at numerous their selected issue after the Town campuses across the country. They are specifically designed to bring together Hall is over. small groups of students from diverse backgrounds in a semester-long Initially housed within an academic course to learn discussion skills, the impact of social inequalities, introductory composition course, , David Schoem Intergroup Dialogue and ways to work together. In their book the program later transitioned to diverse and Sylvia Hurtado explain that, “in a sense, intergroup dialogue is a the political science department, which supports the program in the nineteenth-century town twenty-first-century version of the homogeneous introductory course on politics hall meeting: sleeves rolled up, talking directly, honestly, and sometimes and government. Both courses quite harshly about the most difficult and pressing topics of the day, and then are required components of the moving forward together with solutions to strengthen the community and the general education curriculum, and nation” (2001, 4). reach all students. Studies have demonstrated that the more students are able to engage in www.csuchico.edu/fye/thm/ Source: diverse interactions on campus, inside and outside the classroom, the more likely csuc_town_hall_meeting.shtml they are to confront notions of prejudice, take seriously views different from their own, and embrace social justice (ASHE 2006). In a study involving fifty- two parallel field experiments using the Michigan intergroup model, researchers found a significant impact on twenty of twenty-four measures; those outcomes were still present a year later (Gurin, Nagda, and Sorensen 2011). The intergroup dialogues helped students collaborate across differences, think more complexly about others and about larger social issues, and actively commit to working with others to shape the world to be more just (51). California State University, Chico, draws on a deliberation model rather than an intergroup one in their Town Hall Meeting (THM) First-Year Experience program (see sidebar). THM seeks to foster students’ sense of agency in promoting the well-being of the community around them as well as their own well-being. Research begun in 2010 surveying seniors who had participated in the THM program as freshmen reveals a positive effect on civic attitudes and retention rates for participants in the program compared http://www.aacu.org/bringing_theory/documents/ to non-participants ( RetrievalConferenceSummaries.pdf ). Wake Forest University (WFU) offers another example of a program specifically constructed to use deliberative democracy skills to develop 56

73 students’ self-efficacy and political engagement skills. WFU’s Democracy University of California, Fellows program involved a cohort of students participating in a multi-year Irvine fellowship program for democratic learning that charted students’ civic development over time. The program began with a first-year seminar in Founded by a group of Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Druze, and Deliberative Democracy and continued through practices and experiences of non-religious UCI students in deliberation in years two and three. In their fourth year, students determined 2007, the Olive Tree Initiative on their own how best to apply their knowledge as Democracy Fellows to promotes dialogue across multiple issues that concerned them on campus and beyond. perspectives about the conflict Speaking of Politics: Preparing College Students for In their book in the Middle East. To deepen their knowledge, students travel Democratic Citizenship through Deliberative Dialogue (2007), Katy J. Harriger each year to the region to engage and Jill J. McMillan studied the impact of the program on preparing students directly in conversation with for democratic engagement. They found that, by senior year, the Democracy community leaders, religious Fellows had “a more communal sense of citizenship, a set of democratic authorities, activists, academics, skills that other students did not have, a greater democratic sensibility and politicians to explore differing about what it meant to be a citizen in a democratic society, and a stronger perspectives. sense of their own voice in campus governance” (120). These “more robust During a given year, the students organize up to seventy forums democratic dispositions” are characterized by “the promotion of the general both on and off campus. Their welfare, recognition of the common humanity of each person, respecting and April 2009 three-day UC Student protecting rights, taking responsibility for one’s participation, and supporting Leadership Summit resulted in the democratic principles and practices” (143). Olive Tree Initiative being adopted The other arena for deliberative dialogue is campus life. Sustained by other UC campuses. Dialogue programs, which are almost always student led, bring groups Source: www.olivetreeinitiative.org/uci together weekly for an entire semester to discuss an issue of common concern. These programs have taken root on dozens of campuses and are further fostered by the national Sustained Dialogue Campus Network office (see www.sdcampusnetwork.org). Sharing many traits with Sustained Dialogue programs, the Olive Tree Initiative is an interfaith dialogue program developed by students at the University of California, Irvine. It has been adopted by other UC campuses and demonstrates the dialogic and political impact of this civic pedagogy that stresses engaging multiple and competing perspectives from a broad range of positions (see sidebar). Many student affairs professionals incorporate deliberative dialogue into routine training for leaders in residential life and student organizations. They also weave it through many campus activities, often beginning with small-group interactive circles during freshman orientation and carrying through a host of other activities. As colleges and universities increasingly define their sphere to include communities beyond their immediate geographic boundaries as sites for citizenship and democratic engagement, many have created centers and programs designed to engage students with a broader public. As higher education moves beyond the campus borders to engage more widely with others, a number of national civic organizations can serve as valuable partners because of their established leadership in democracy-building and their special expertise in deliberative dialogues. Leaders from several of these groups contributed to the national roundtables that informed this report, including Everyday Democracy, the Kettering Foundation, the National , The Democracy Imperative, the Speaks Issues Forum Institute, America Public Conversations Project, the Guiding Lights Network, and Public A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 57

74 Agenda (for more about these groups, see Appendix D). The civic capital these efforts offer is of inestimable value. Building strong alliances between external civic organizations and colleges and universities promises to be a significant frontier where part of the next generation of civic work can be cultivated. The Kettering Foundation both supports and studies some of these emerging centers that have arisen in the hybrid space between the campus and the larger community. According to a recent Kettering study of a network of fifty such centers, 85 percent are housed on college campuses. The work of these centers is primarily “carried out in public squares, community centers, and neighborhood associations, not behind campus walls” with a focus on “identifying collective problems, developing a sense of common purpose, and working together to solve them” (London 2010, 3–6). The The public deliberation public deliberation so central to these centers requires many skills identified as essential outcomes of both a college education and democratic practice: so central to these centers “listening deeply to other points of view, exploring new ideas and perspectives, requires many skills identified searching for points of agreement and bringing unexamined assumptions into as essential outcomes of the open” (14). In one example from the Kettering study, the New England Center both a college education and for Civic Life at Franklin Pierce University used an inclusive form of public democratic practice: “listening deliberation to seek positive solutions to tensions that arose about the historic deeply to other points of legacy of the town in the face of explosive growth and commercial expansion. In this instance, students became involved through “problem-based service view, exploring new ideas learning.” Similarly, the Institute for Civic Discourse and Democracy at and perspectives, searching Kansas State University partners with many entities to inject the public voice for points of agreement into policy decisions about issues such as immigration, land-use reform, and bringing unexamined health care, and energy policy. The Citizen Leadership Institute at Gulf Coast Community College has used its deliberative strategies to bring its diverse assumptions into the open” community together to discuss various redistricting scenarios and develop (London 2010). recommendations to present to state legislators. 2. Service Learning Without question, service learning, in its many manifestations, has been the dominant curricular vehicle for promoting different dimensions of civic learning and engagement with larger communities. Service learning has been described by higher education researchers as a “teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities” (Engberg and Fox 2011, 88). Innovative faculty members coupled the students’ disposition to serve others with course offerings that provided a deeper knowledge base and required reflection. As Gregory Jay explains, “What makes service learning different from volunteering is its explicit academic component: like any test, paper, or research project, the service-learning experience must be integral to the syllabus and advance the student’s knowledge of the course content” ( Jay 2008, 255). John Saltmarsh further particularizes the goal for high-level service learning by saying it ideally is “rooted in respect for community-based knowledge, grounded in experiential and reflective modes of teaching and 58

75 learning, aimed at active participation in American democracy, and aligned with institutional change efforts to improve student learning” (Saltmarsh 2005, 53). Efforts in service learning have been led primarily by faculty and spurred by presidential leadership and organizational allies. One of the most visible and influential national organizations that has been advocating service learning is Campus Compact. Founded by a handful of presidents in 1985, Campus Compact now has more than 1,100 members, a national office in Boston, and three dozen state offices (see Appendix D). The American Association for Higher Education (AAHE), which unfortunately no longer exists, became one of the other key catalysts for expanding civic work, especially service learning. AAHE both highlighted service learning in its national meetings and magazines and produced a groundbreaking set of still-relevant service-learning disciplinary volumes, edited by Edward Zlotkowski (2006), in which faculty describe how service learning can be integrated within differing disciplinary contexts and courses. In 2003, in partnership with the , the American New York Times Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) launched the American Democracy Project (ADP), which has helped fill the AAHE vacuum for the more than 220 colleges and universities involved (see Appendix D). ADP’s goal is to “produce graduates who are committed to being active, involved citizens in their communities” (see www.aascu.org/programs/ADP). Training students to become “Stewards of Place,” ADP has evolved into an influential network that sponsors national and regional meetings, promotes institutional civic audits, offers assessment tools, and spurs both curriculum reform and community engagement. Service learning has taken root in two-year colleges as well. According to survey findings gathered by the American Association of Community Colleges between 1995 and 2003, “faculty at nearly 60 percent of all community colleges offer service learning,” thus opening up this powerful pedagogy and high-impact practice to 45 percent of the nation’s first-time entering college students (Prentice, Robinson, and McPhee 2003). The Maricopa Community Colleges’ Center for Civic Participation (CCP) is organized to “increase While service learning has awareness about policy issues, civic involvement, and how government works,” and “to increase involvement of Maricopa students, faculty, staff, and the grown, reaching nearly 60 community in civic life at all levels” (see www.maricopa.edu/civic/aboutus. percent of graduating college html ). CCP has a special focus on enriching public discourse and promoting seniors, the percentage needs to civic participation as it partners with civic, governmental, educational, business, and community-based organizations. climb significantly if all students The last two decades have seen an impressive expansion of service- are to benefit from this powerful, learning courses. While service learning has grown, reaching nearly 60 percent proven pedagogy...But the of graduating college seniors (Finley 2012), the percentage needs to climb significantly if all students are to benefit from this powerful, proven pedagogy. vast majority of courses are still In a positive turn of events, some of these service-learning courses are now random electives that students required for every student on campuses like California State University, encounter in no particular order Monterey Bay, and Tulane University. But the vast majority of courses are or time sequencing. still random electives that students encounter in no particular order or time sequencing. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 59

76 As the service-learning movement has evolved, many proponents are of service experience, levels kinds of student defining greater nuances between responsibility, scale of issues addressed, learning outcomes sought, and the of engagement on community partners. The differentiation was driven impact by a concern for both academic rigor and community empowerment. In 2003, Caryn McTighe Musil sought to capture the phases of the emerging service- learning landscape as it began to differentiate among various program designs, to identify the knowledge needed, and to clarify the impact on the community (see fig. 7 below). Service learning has shown positive effects on learning outcomes associated with “complexity of understanding, problem analysis, critical thinking, and cognitive development” (Eyler et al. 2001, 4). It has also had significant impact on students’ intrapersonal and social development including “personal efficacy, personal identity, spiritual growth, and moral development” (1). Further studies show positive outcomes associated with “cultural awareness, tolerance for diversity, altruistic attitudes, moral development, sensitivity and reasoning, and self-esteem” (Finley 2012). The study by The Faces/Phases of Citizenship Figur e 7: CIV IC SCOPE COMMUNITY IS... FACE/PH A SE BENEFITS... LEV ELS OF K NOW LEDGE Exclusionary only your own civic disengagement • one vantage point (yours) one party monocultural • civic detachment Oblivious one party • observational skills a resource to mine • largely monocultural a resource to engage naive civic amnesia • random people no history no vantage point • • acultural the givers’ a resource that needs civic altruism • awareness of deprivations Charitable feelings, the affective kindliness and respect assistance • sufferers’ multicultural, but yours is still the • norm center immediate needs Reciprocal society as a whole legacies of inequalities • a resource to empower civic engagement in the present values of partnering • and be empowered by intercultural competencies • • arts of democracy • multiple vantage points multicultural • Generative an interdependent civic prosperity • struggles for democracy everyone now and interconnectedness resource filled with in the future • • analysis of interlocking systems possibilities • intercultural competencies • arts of democracy • multiple interactive vantage points • multicultural Source: Adapted from Musil 2003. 60

77 Other studies link service Engberg and Fox (2011) links involvement in service learning to global perspective taking with positive relationships across cognitive, intrapersonal, learning with civic learning and interpersonal domains. outcomes that demonstrate Other studies link service learning with civic learning outcomes that efficacy: increasing students’ demonstrate efficacy: increasing students’ sense of social responsibility and citizenship skills such as religious and racial tolerance, prosocial decision sense of social responsibility and making, and exploring the intersections between identity and privilege citizenship skills such as religious (Eyler et al. 2001; Lechuga et al. 2009); the ability to work well with others; and racial tolerance, prosocial leadership and communication skills; and, importantly, a sense of being able to effect change in their community (Gallini and Moely 2003; Rockquemore and decision making , and exploring Schaffer 2000). the intersections between identity In the next generation’s development of service learning—in terms of and privilege; the ability to work achieving greater impact within higher education itself—center directors, well with others; leadership faculty, students, and community leaders should correlate the different service- learning courses with specific outcomes; create introductory, milestone, and communication skills; and, and cumulative levels for service-learning projects; and make differentiation importantly, a sense of being transparent to students and faculty alike. Likewise, center directors, faculty, able to effect change in their student affairs professionals, and students should coordinate regularly to mirror the newly clarified course distinctions with a similarly progressive community. and differentiated set of civic outcomes within student life programs. Finally, academic administrators and faculty should adopt promotion and tenure criteria that recognize the scholarly and pedagogical value of investments in service learning and other pedagogies that foster civic development. While service-learning research initially focused on its impact on students, there is a now an emerging body of literature on its impact on the community. Similarly, service-learning programs have amassed greater understandings about how to establish more democratic, participatory, and reciprocal partnerships. This aspect of community-based learning is influencing the scope and design of the frontier work expressed in transformative partnerships and alliances discussed later in this chapter. 3. Collective Civic Problem Solving The third civic pedagogy we highlight is collective civic problem solving. Though a burgeoning arena of practice and scholarship, it has not had time to produce the rich body of evidence about its impact on students and communities that service learning has accumulated. Civic problem solving certainly builds on the foundations that dialogue and service learning have already laid; yet it seeks to delineate a new conceptual framework for civic work. Saltmarsh and Hartley describe the context in which civic problem solving is taking root. They themselves call for moving from a civic- engagement framework to a democratic-engagement paradigm. They assert that a democratic-engagement paradigm leads to a focus on purpose and process rather than activity and place. They explain: Democratic engagement locates the university within an ecosystem of knowledge production, requiring interaction with other knowledge producers outside the university for the creation of new problem solving knowledge through a multidirectional flow of knowledge and A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 61

78 expertise. In this paradigm, students learn cooperative and creative problem solving within learning environments in which faculty, students, and individuals from the community work and deliberate together... Civic engagement in the democratic-centered paradigm is intentionally political in that students learn about democracy by acting democratically (2011, 21). How this translates into actual programs, courses, and activities is demonstrated by a number of concrete examples reported in Educating for Democracy: Preparing Undergraduates for Responsible Political Engagement (2007) by Anne Colby, Elizabeth Beaumont, Thomas Ehrlich, and Josh Corngold. Like many who believe that not only self-efficacy but also political efficacy are important, Colby et al. recommend that higher education invest in the political development of the nation’s fourteen million college students. “It is important for pluralist democracy...that as many people as possible possess a set of capacities that are intrinsically valuable and also support responsible citizenship by helping them thoughtfully evaluate political choices and effectively contribute to political outcomes”(6). Educating for Democracy range from one The programs described in semester courses to full multicourse programs to courses linked to living- learning residential programs. Rick Battistoni, for instance, uses democratic pedagogies that promote “learning democracy by doing democracy” in his course Ancients and Moderns: Democratic Theory and Practice at Providence College (Colby et al. 2007, 299). Students create models of a perfectly democratic and perfectly undemocratic classroom and keep a “democratic theory journal”; they can also opt for a Democracy in Action project where they work in groups to organize themselves democratically and implement a democratic action plan (299). Alma Blount describes the Service Opportunities in Leadership program at Duke University, which is composed of a two-semester interdisciplinary program: first, a course on service leadership and social change, then a summer internship where students work “on social and political change projects for organizations across the country and abroad” (Colby et al. 2007, 300). On their return, students participate in a policy research seminar culminating with a “Social Issue Investigation Portfolio” that includes an essay on a problem from their summer placement, an interview with a practitioner, and a policy recommendation paper (300). At the University of Maryland, College Park, Sue Briggs describes CIVICUS, a program that involves a two-year interdisciplinary living-learning program with five courses and activities within residence halls. The program collaborates across several colleges, residential life, and the library with foci on citizenship, leadership, community service, and community building in a diverse society. Students become CIVICUS associates and live, study, and plan service activities together; take five courses, including Leadership in a Multicultural Society; and complete a capstone course that involves an internship or a “discovery”/research project (Colby et al. 2007, 300–301). Northern Arizona University (NAU), while not one of the fourteen institutions participating in the Political Engagement Project at the heart of Educating for Democracy , employs the same problem solving, action­ 62

79 focused pedagogy for its Community Re-engagement for Arizona Families, Transitions, and Sustainability (CRAFTS) program. CRAFTS “aims to nurture public scholarship through collaborative research and action with diverse community partners in the NAU region and beyond” (Coles and Scarnati 2011, 35). Creating problem-oriented programs like NAU’s would counteract a study finding that just over one-third of faculty strongly agreed that their campus actively promoted awareness of US or global social, political, and economic issues (Dey et al. 2009). CRAFTS spans a range of courses, but its most intense focus is on first-year seminars organized topically on issues such as water, immigration, indigenous environmental justice, and global human rights. What distinguishes CRAFTS are its Action Research Teams (ARTs). These research teams typically engage a community partner, combine knowledge from the classroom with knowledge from local communities, and include a mentoring component; some are even linked to residential learning communities. “[The problem-based project] Third-year student Nina Porter did her first ARTs project in a first-year seminar, and was transformed by it; she is now in her third year of involvement has taught me not only about in a community-based ART. As she explains, the problem-based project “has the community’s power, but taught me not only about the community’s power, but also about my own also about my own agency as a agency as a political actor...and...by connecting with others I can effect real, immediate change. I have found that democracy means continually acting as political actor...I have found that a community, for the community, rather than simply casting a vote at election democracy means continually time” (Porter 2011, 16). In her case, ARTs also influenced her choice of major as for acting the a community, and stirred ambitions to attend graduate school. Civic problem solving pedagogies are highly varied and still emerging, community, rather than simply as the given examples illustrate. One of their many faces is typically found in casting a vote at election time” US diversity courses and programs, while another is found in global courses (Porter 2011). and programs and experiential study abroad programs. As this chapter demonstrates, US diversity and global issues, contexts, and problems are already a leitmotif in existing civic pedagogies and should inform the next generation of civic work. Both global and diversity work often focus on big questions, perspective taking, and learning across differences, which is why the interface with civic problem solving pedagogies is relatively seamless. Civic problem solving pedagogies overall are closely aligned with a widespread effort across all parts of higher education to involve students more extensively in “real-world” learning, where problem solving can be practiced regularly through such experiences as internships, practicums, study abroad, and community-based research and projects. As noted earlier, employers are in favor of a greater emphasis by higher education on helping students develop problem solving and applied learning skills (Peter D. Hart Research Associates 2008; Hart Research Associates 2010). These civic pedagogies, then, are part of a larger and long-term trend toward better integration of academic and applied learning, and toward giving college students many opportunities to expand and demonstrate capacities they will need both in civic contexts and at work. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 63

80 Advancing Collaborative, Generative Civic Partnerships and Alliances As this chapter illustrates, there are foundations already laid upon which to build the next generation of civic work that seeks to make civic learning and democratic engagement an expected outcome for every student. Some of these foundations have been established in inventive, intentional curricular designs within general education, the major, and other areas of specialized or technical study. Other efforts have taken root in campus life. Still others are embedded in civic pedagogies like intergroup and deliberative dialogue, service learning, and collective civic problem solving, enacted both within and beyond the classroom. To close this chapter on practice, we turn finally to one more notable foundation partially laid: collaborative, generative civic partnerships and alliances. Many campuses have a long list of civic partners, which suggests the nascent form of what could evolve in the coming decade. The most common types of partnerships found among the list in the Faces/Phases of Citizenship (see fig. 7, p. 60) fall into two categories: (1) charitable ones, characterized by civic altruism, and (2) reciprocal ones, characterized by civic engagement. An even more ambitious category of civic partnerships and alliances is a third kind: (3) a generative partnership, characterized by mutual efforts to define and build civic prosperity. Some practitioners use language like social entrepreneurship, democratic civic engagement, public engagement, or public work to describe this new edge of practice. One of the best known champions of social entrepreneurship is the nonprofit Ashoka, which defines itself as a network of “innovators for the public” known for “investing in solutions for our world’s toughest problems” (http://ashoka.org ; see also Appendix D). Ashoka traditionally has allied entrepreneurial individuals with community groups and businesses; in 2008, its Ahoka U program added colleges and universities into the mix, linking higher education and the citizen sector. Their goal is to promote social Where generative partnerships entrepreneurship programs and projects on campuses and link students to the wider world where they are challenged “to solve social problems at the root- exist...interdependency, cause and systemic level using innovative, sustainable, scalable, and measurable innovation, multiple approaches” (http://ashokau.org). perspectives, and a commitment Whatever the language adopted, where generative partnerships exist, the impact on communities can be transformative, on public scholarship far- to a long-range investment reaching, and on student learning empowering. Interdependency, innovation, in the public good define the multiple perspectives, and a commitment to a long-range investment in the partnership’s core values; higher public good define the partnership’s core values; higher education no longer sees itself as going out into the community, but as part of the community, education no longer sees itself as whether that community is local, national, or global. going out into the community, These partnerships create new public space for democratic engagement. but as part of the community, The academy and the community are required to eschew their traditional whether that community is boundaries in order to forge a new alliance with each other. The new space becomes, in effect, a public square for democratic co-creation. But the co­ local, national, or global. creation is enacted in participatory, inclusive, complicated ways that reflect democracy at its best and most challenging. Multiplicity of voices and 64

81 perspectives becomes the norm; defining common purposes, needs, and processes is understood as a shared and contested goal. The partners are bound to one another because they are addressing large, systemic, public problems to, as the US Constitution puts it, “promote the general Welfare.” And they are doing so through inventive, constructive, and mutually agreed upon solutions. In this newly defined territory, economic, educational, political, historic, cultural, and social issues converge. The new space becomes the crucible through which everything familiar is transformed into something beyond In the public space of its original, individual shape. In the public space of generative partnerships, democratic values can be tested and civic skills honed; participants challenged generative partnerships, to work collectively across differences; and civic aspirations transmuted into democratic values can be collective civic action. tested and civic skills honed; Of particular significance to higher education, this terrain offers the landscape most likely to transform the current academic norms about what participants challenged counts as scholarship, about what sorts of expertise are acknowledged, about to work collectively across how to measure academic achievement, and about what the content and differences; and civic pedagogy of the curriculum should be. The conventional classroom suddenly has a new wing for integrated learning and applied research. The means of aspirations transmuted into measuring student learning is no longer seat time alone but also civic time. collective civic action. Scholars find themselves in a different kind of laboratory where cutting- edge, often interdisciplinary investigations can occur. Institutions discover themselves in partnerships that challenge them to rethink how to both allocate and generate resources. Communities are not fragmented entities but are redefined as also part of a larger whole. At the nexus of this generative process is the civic, intellectual, economic, and social challenge of reimagining and shaping a shared future. There are many forms that these partnerships can take. Some organize around a large public issue like the Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH), a nonprofit entity comprising colleges and universities, community-based organizations, health care delivery systems, student service organizations, and foundations and government (see http://ccph. info). CCPH seeks to “leverage the knowledge, wisdom and experience in communities and in academic institutions to solve pressing health, social, environmental and economic challenges” and to “build the capacity of communities and academic institutions to engage each other in partnerships that balance power, share resources, and work towards systems change.” CCPH accomplishes this in part by “mobilizing knowledge, providing training and technical assistance, conducting research, building coalitions and advocating for supportive policies” (CCPH 2011). Another group of institutions involved in cultivating more powerful and generative partnerships between higher education and communities has formed what is called the Anchor Institutions Task Force. It now numbers more than one hundred higher education institutions and is led by the University of Pennsylvania and advised by Marga Incorporated (www. marganic.com/initiatives/aitf ). Anchor Institutions describe themselves as being driven by the core values of collaboration and partnership, equity and social justice, democracy and democratic practice, and commitment to place and community. They work closely with the Department of Housing A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 65

82 and Urban Development, other government entities, businesses, and private Syracuse University philanthropists. Located principally in urban metropolitan areas in the United States, The multiple partners in a wide- scale civic investment venture in they invest their economic, political, cultural, and intellectual capital to Syracuse, New York, established build stronger communities. Layered partnerships of many kinds, long-term a 501(c) (3) organization with a strategies, sophisticated analyses of the deep roots of stubborn problems, and network of community members creative, multi-pronged solutions characterize their community engagement. and organizations to manage a , by Rita The Road Half Traveled: University Engagement at a Crossroads series of wide-ranging projects. Axelroth and Steve Dubb (2010), offers an appraisal of what this potentially The West Side Initiative works transformative reconception of higher education has accomplished thus far, in a racially diverse, working- class industrial neighborhood and what new roads still need to be taken. to renovate old warehouses Often, these institutions stimulate local economies and serve as a into multipurpose facilities that cultural resource for the community and as one of the chief employers within offer space for green technology their locality. Colleges and universities find themselves at the table with enterprises, culinary centers, and hospitals, large businesses, and governments that are playing comparable, artist residencies and studios. complementary anchoring roles in a given community. They understand that Architecture students work the success and vitality of the institution is linked to the economic, social, and with community members to design affordable, green houses, civic health of the surrounding community. keep long-term residents in the Embracing their role as anchor institutions, these campuses have created neighborhood, and attract new formidable partnerships to address shared public problems. Miami Dade residents. College, for example, employs an open-door admissions policy that provides The South Side Initiative works access to education for all community members from multicultural Miami, with predominantly African and is home to one of the largest literacy tutoring programs in the nation. American residents to develop a Widener College has helped initiate economic development projects and digital library of public memory in order to conserve the familial and created a charter elementary school on its campus as it works collectively cultural history of the community, with community partners to address their needs in Chester, Pennsylvania, which dates back to the nineteenth one of the poorest cities in the nation. Similarly, Indiana University-Purdue century. University Indianapolis has built strong K–12 partnerships based on a A city-wide investment was community school model. One of the early pioneers and continued national launched to improve the K–12 leaders, the University of Pennsylvania, in a project spearheaded by the schools, expand art education Barbara and Edward Netter Center for Community Partnerships, has invested through a mobile classroom, and provide health care and greater in long-time commitments and partnerships in West Philadelphia. They literacy to families of K–12 have focused on urban revitalization, community development, and deep students. engagement through various professional and undergraduate schools to extend Sources: www.syr.edu/about/vision.html the boundaries of Penn’s classrooms and research into the K–12 school system and www.syr.edu/suanchorinstitution/ and to transform lives in that neighboring community. .html index One of the anchor institutions, Syracuse University, has launched in central New York an exemplary, ambitious, and generative set of partnerships (see sidebar). The collaborations embody the kind of democratic civic engagement called for in Saltmarsh and Hartley’s volume, which describes the Syracuse partnership thus: “The scope, ambition, and commitment to remapping education for social responsibility at Syracuse offers one of the clearest road maps to what deep institutional transformation might look like when a civic vision is informed by social justice values and a keen sense of the differential experiences of democracy across multiple groups” (2011, 260). As a research university, Syracuse opted to name its campus-based initiative Scholarship in Action, which it describes as “draw[ing] upon [the] institution’s traditional and emerging strengths [and] connecting our academic 66

83 excellence to ideas, problems, and professions in the world as we engage pressing issues of our time” (Syracuse University 2011). The university’s senate also unanimously passed new guidelines to consider public scholarship in tenure and promotion decisions. Such actions emphasize that academic expertise can be a means of promoting the common good and need not be seen as in conflict with those ends. The 501(c)(3) nonprofit that Syracuse University helped establish as a coordinating organization for the accumulating range of partners and community-based projects is significant in marking the nature of this ambitious civic enterprise. The university has opted for a democratic posture as merely one in a collective of many partners. Syracuse’s partnership also represents a long-term commitment to civic prosperity, while combining If we want a vigorous, preparation for college, careers, and citizenship. participatory, and pluralist This chapter has sought to describe how the civic entrepreneurial reforms in higher education over the past two decades have laid the foundation functioning democracy, the for the next generation of commitments to educate for democracy. The power to create the enabling foundation is there. The tools are laid out. The students are eager to lend a educational environment hand in addressing urgent social, economic, and political questions of the “conducive to those ends” is day that have public consequences. If we want a vigorous, participatory, and pluralist functioning democracy, the power to create the enabling educational available. It is time to act upon environment “conducive to those ends” is available. It is time to act upon those those transformative possibilities. transformative possibilities. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 67


85 W Vi. Conclusion Writing ability is not optional for college graduates; science literacy is not optional for college graduates. Why is civic learning optional? National Roundtable Participant, January 13, 2011 Democracy is the defining characteristic of our country and should be the most profound commitment we have as a society. But democratic hopes and visions also drive social, economic, and political movements across the globe, in ways that daily confront US leaders and citizens with difficult choices about priorities, resources, commitments, responsibility, war, peace, and the quest for just societies. And, whether global partners espouse democracy or not, the core challenge of global interdependence is to engage in problem solving together, across differences of many kinds, to overcome the daunting challenges— economic, environmental, political, and humanitarian—that confront the people of every society, whatever their political framework. To be an American means to take responsibility for democratic purposes, practices, vitality, and viability. But unlike liberty, civic knowledge and capability are not bestowed at birth. They are hard won, through education at all levels and through taking seriously the perspectives of others. Democratic insight and competence are always in the making, always incomplete. Therefore, civic learning needs to be an integral component of every level of education, from grammar school through graduate school, across all fields of study. It should also be an important part of our informal educational practices for young people and adults, woven into every community and region in the nation. insists that A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future we dare not be passive about increasing our nation’s civic capacity any more than we are passive about revitalizing its economy. Colleges and universities need to expand education for democracy so it reaches all students in ever more challenging ways. Campuses can be critical sites for honing students’ civic knowledge, skills, values, and actions, and for preparing them for lives of public purpose as well as employment. Advancing reciprocal partnerships with communities both locally and globally promises to invigorate the research, teaching, and learning agendas for higher education while strengthening communities. Creative alliances with public-minded nonprofit agencies, governmental agencies, and businesses can replenish civic capital. We therefore invite all We therefore invite all stakeholders in America’s future to join together stakeholders in America’s to become civic agents of a new promissory note at this crucible moment: to use higher education and the pathways to it as “the carrier of democratic values, future to join together to ideals, and processes.” As Charles Quigley’s epigraph for this report says, “Each become civic agents of a generation must work to preserve the fundamental values and principles of its new promissory note at this heritage...to narrow the gap between the ideals of this nation and the reality crucible moment: to use higher of the daily lives of its people; and to more fully realize the potential of our constitutional, democratic republic.” This is the crucible moment as the United education and the pathways to States faces major challenges at home and abroad. Let us pledge to make it a it as “the carrier of democratic transformative one that advances democratic values of liberty, justice, domestic values, ideals, and processes.” tranquility, and the general welfare of the people and the planet. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 69


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97 Civic investment Plan APPEnDIx A: W templates This appendix contains two templates, one for colleges and universities and one for organizations and groups outside of higher education. The templates are designed to help leaders participate vigorously and visibly in the National Call to Action that is at the center of the Crucible Moment report. Civic Investment Plan Template for Colleges and Universities This is an invitation to take part in a larger national effort to elevate civic learning and democratic engagement as an animating priority for the nation and an expected part of every college student’s academic and campus life experience. Phase I is designed to prompt short-term planning and easily implemented actions. Phase II is designed to generate a more in-depth, longer-term approach. The accompanying Civic Institutional Matrix is designed to help you capture your campus’s overall commitment to civic learning and democratic engagement across several domains of institutional functioning and campus culture. We encourage you to ultimately complete both phases of assessment and action, particularly to address gaps identified through your use of the matrix. Phase I: Quick assessment and potential actions • What single recommendation in the National Call to Action might your institution claim as its own and work to implement in the coming year? What collaborations have to be established to accomplish that? • What is already in place as signature civic enterprises with positive outcomes at your institution? How might you make those available and attractive to more students? How might they be layered with one or two other civic outcomes across the curriculum or in campus life? • What two actions might your institution take to make an existing community partnership more reciprocal, democratic, or influential? And what two actions could you take to be sure those partnerships result in positive benefit to the community participants? What two high-profile events might be instituted that would publicly • demonstrate that your institution values education for democracy and civic responsibility? • In scanning the range of potential stakeholders committed to strengthening democracy and civic responsibility, what persons or entities might you newly engage? • What single activity, program, or practice might your institution undertake in the next year to acknowledge students’ civic and democratic leadership? • What is one way your institution can foster civic responsibility through your existing global or international programs? • How might you publicize a signature civic program at your institution in the coming year? A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 81

98 Phase II: In-depth assessment and long-term action • Work in collaborative teams at your institution to collectively to broadly assess Civic Institutional Matrix complete the attached the assets and gaps along the four dimensions of a civic-minded institution and along the various domains of your institution. Specific guidelines for approaching the matrix mapping are included. • Add any domains that are not yet listed, but which are important to include at your institution. Then create an action plan that builds on the assets and begins to close the identified gaps. Involve students, faculty, student affairs staff, administrators, • community partners, or other important constituents in the Civic Institutional Matrix discussion of the . • Inventory the data sets you already possess and compare them with your qualitative matrix findings through deliberative discussions with colleagues. What discrepancies stand out? What additional research or information might you need, and how might you produce it? How pervasive are your civic learning opportunities for students and • how comprehensively do they include the full range of outcomes across the civic continuum of knowledge, values, skills, and action? • Determine what structures are in place to mobilize sustained action in pursuit of your institution’s goal of educating for democracy and civic responsibility. Determine which structures need to be developed to accomplish your goal. • Select three or four large public problems that you can address at your institution given its mission, location, history, constituents, and academic strengths. Plan how your institution will work with external partners to create effective ways to address the identified problems. Determine how you might address those problems throughout the curriculum, cocurriculum, and engagement with local and global communities. 82

99 C ivic Institutional Matrix: Assessing Assets and Gaps in a Civic-Minded Institution Overview Civic Institutional Matrix is designed to help you map your institution’s This overall commitment to civic learning and democratic engagement, on and off campus, whether locally or globally situated. We invite campus leaders to form a team of key stakeholders to complete the matrix together on behalf of their institutions. We recommend identifying stakeholders who are diverse both positionally within the institution and in terms of perspectives and backgrounds. Overall, the group’s sphere of influence should be broad, reaching across the curriculum, cocurriculum, and beyond the campus borders, and should meaningfully involve students and community partners. As you work together to fill in the matrix, think of yourselves as your institution’s cartographers, mapping how your institution evidences its core values related to civic learning and democratic engagement. MATRIx ELEMENTS The matrix included here consists of a 4 x 6 grid reflecting essential dimensions of a civic-minded institution and key domains of institutional functioning and culture. For a more detailed matrix broken out by each of the four dimensions of civic-mindedness, visit www.civiclearning.org. Horizontal Axis: Four Dimensions of a Civic-Minded Institution As team members fill in the matrix, we invite you to review the descriptions of the four dimensions of a civic-minded institution—civic ethos, civic literacy, civic inquiry, and civic action—and to expand upon and refine these descriptions. As a group, you may also want to identify other important dimensions that are pertinent for your institution. Vertical Axis: Domains of Institutional Functioning and Culture The matrix identifies six domains. You might find it more strategic and relevant to formulate other domains such as scholarly activities, evaluation and assessment, or policies and procedures. Mapping civic learning and democratic engagement across these domains should help you determine where your institution has assets and gaps. Rating Box: The Degree of Pervasiveness of Campus Efforts The matrix asks you to consider two mutually reinforcing aspects of institutional pervasiveness—breadth and depth. Breadth describes the degree to which efforts are present and connected throughout the institution. Depth captures the degree to which efforts are embedded vs. superficial. Significant breadth and depth would be demonstrated by effective, sustainable, and comprehensive institutionalization of programs, policies, and procedures that support civic learning and democratic engagement. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 83

100 COMPLETING THE MATRIx As a group, map your institution’s commitment to civic learning and democratic engagement. Use sources of knowledge readily available: the experience of team members, information in catalogues and on your institution’s website, existing institutional data, etc. Use the space in the boxes provided to summarize and highlight programs, policies, and initiatives that fall into specific domains of institutional functioning and culture and dimensions of civic learning and democratic engagement (e.g., major- specific capstone courses that raise civic questions related to the discipline would be listed under the domain of majors and under Dimension 3: Civic Inquiry). The rating boxes allow you to indicate the degree of pervasiveness for each domain across the four dimensions. Use the following scale to fill in these boxes: = little breadth and depth (i.e., isolated and surface-level Low (L) efforts to implement civic learning and democratic engagement); Medium (M) = some breadth and/or some depth; and High (H) = strong breadth and strong depth (i.e., integrated and embedded efforts to foster civic learning and democratic engagement). ASSET-GAP ANALYSIS (SEPARATE FROM THIS FORM) When your matrix is completed, examine both the (patterns of clearly assets established programs and policies) and the gaps (areas where civic learning and democratic engagement are missing). As a group, ask yourselves what made your assets possible. What caused gaps to occur? From there, begin to develop an action plan to build on your assets and close your gaps, using Civic Investment Plan questions if useful. 84

101 Civic Institutional Matrix: Assessing Assets and Gaps in a Civic-Minded Institution Use this matrix to summarize the scope of your institution’s efforts to educate for civic learning and democratic engagement Dimensions of a Civic-Minded Institution Degree of pervasiveness Dimension 2: Dimension 3: Dimension 1: Dimension 4: Indicate “L” (Low), ”M” (Medium), Civic Ethos Civic Action Civic Inquiry Civic Literacy or “H”(High) Mission, Leadership, & Advocacy General Education Majors Student & Campus Life Community-based Experiences Domains of Institutional Functioning and Culture Reward Structures (Clayton-Pederson et al. 2007) This matrix was inspired by the institutionalization rubric found in Making a Real Difference with Diversity: A Guide to Institutional Change and more fully developed in the Personal and Social Responsibility Institutional Matrix (www.aacu.org/core_commitments/documents/PSR_Institutional_Matrix. pdf ). For a more detailed matrix broken out by dimension of civic-mindedness, visit www.civiclearning.org. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 85

102 Civic Investment Plan Template for Organizations and Groups This is an invitation to take part in a larger national effort to elevate civic learning and democratic engagement as an animating priority for the nation and an expected part of every college student’s academic and campus life experience. This template is designed for organizations and groups that are not colleges or universities. Potential actions What single recommendation in the National Call to Action might • your organization or group claim as its own and work to implement in the coming year? What collaborations with higher education institutions or other • stakeholders have to be established to accomplish that? • What two ways might you publicize this commitment as you begin to take action? • What is already in place as a signature civic program of yours that would be strengthened by the engagement of a college or university in your vicinity? How might you initiate that potential reciprocal collaboration? • What two practices or programs might your organization or group initiate in partnership with a college or university in your area to strengthen some aspect of their civic work? • What two high-profile events might be instituted in the coming year that would underscore the importance of reversing the civic deficit? • In scanning the range of potential stakeholders needed to strengthen democracy and civic responsibility, what other external stakeholders might you reach out to? In order to accomplish what desired goals? 86

103 Civic learning and APPEnDIx B: Democratic engagement W Project Staff Project Director, and President, Global Perspective Larry A. Braskamp, Institute, Inc. Caryn Mctighe Musil, Project Director, and Senior Vice President, Association of American Colleges and Universities nancy O’neill, Director of Integrative Programs, Association of American Colleges and Universities Van Luu, Administrative Assistant, Association of American Colleges and Universities Program Associate, Association of American Colleges Eleanor Hall, and Universities National Roundtables on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Organized to inform this report, the following five gatherings were held over a four-month period. Although each deliberately sought feedback from the differing constituencies named below, most of the meetings, except for the one with college and university presidents, had cross-pollination from multiple groups. Leaders of national, largely off-campus, 1. December 13, 2010 civic organizations and students Leaders of campus-based civic and 2. January 13, 2011 political engagement centers, community representatives, and students 3. February 7, 2011 Faculty, civic scholars, and higher education researchers 4. February 18, 2011 College, community college, and university presidents 5. March 21, 2011 Public policy leaders, foundation leaders, and heads of higher education associations and disciplinary societies A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 87


105 Civic learning and APPEnDIx C: Democratic engagement national roundtables: W Participant list Roundtable 1: Leaders of national civic organizations and students Director of Community Assistance, Everyday Democracy Carolyne Abdullah, Alissa Brower, Service Fellow, Innovations in Civic Participation Shelby Brown, Board Member, The Democracy Imperative Director of Civic Engagement, National Association for the Kirk Clay, Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Jan Cohen-Cruz, Director, Imagining America President, Campus Compact Maureen Curley, President, Public Agenda Will Friedman, Susan Griffin, Executive Director, National Council for the Social Studies Executive Director, American Historical Association Jim Grossman, US Chair, International Consortium for Higher Education, Civic Ira Harkavy, Responsibility, and Democracy Sandy Heierbacher, Co-Founder and Director, National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation Amy Lazarus, Executive Director, Sustained Dialogue Campus Network Peter Levine, Director, CIRCLE (Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement) ted McConnell, Executive Director, Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools Kimberly Mealy, Director, Educational, Professional and Minority Initiatives, American Political Science Association Wayne Meisel, President, Bonner Foundation Cheryl Miller, Manager, Program on American Citizenship, American Enterprise Institute Decker ngongang, Vice President of Programs, Mobilize.org Cecilia Orphan, National Manager, American Democracy Project, American Association of State Colleges and Universities Gail Robinson, Director of Service Learning, American Association of Community Colleges Director, New England Resource Center for Higher John Saltmarsh, Education Matt Schrimper, Intern, American Enterprise Institute Bob Stains, Senior Vice President, Public Conversations Project Susan Stroud, Executive Director, Innovations in Civic Participation nancy Thomas, Director, the Democracy Imperative, and Senior Associate, Everyday Democracy terry tollefson, Chief Strategy Officer, Facing History and Ourselves A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 89

106 National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Members present: Eboo Patel, Founder and Executive Director, Interfaith Youth Core Carol Geary Schneider, President, Association of American Colleges and Universities Project Staff present: Larry A. Braskamp, President, Global Perspective Institute, Inc. Caryn Mctighe Musil, Senior Vice President, Association of American Colleges and Universities nancy O’neill, Director of Integrative Programs, Association of American Colleges and Universities Van Luu, Administrative Assistant, Association of American Colleges and Universities Roundtable 2: Leaders of campus-based civic and political engagement centers, community representatives, and students Maria Avila, Director, Center for Community-Based Learning, Occidental College Justin Bibb, Director, Civic Health Index, National Conference on Citizenship Beth Blissman, Director, Bonner Center for Service and Learning, Oberlin College Jenna Brager, Americorps* VISTA, Maryland Campus Compact, University of Maryland Sean Brumfield, Executive Director, Atlanta Center for Civic Engagement, Georgia Perimeter College Martin Carcasson, Director, Center for Public Deliberation, Colorado State University Family Strengthening Program Manager, Community of Karyn Cassella, Hope Executive Director, Center for Civic Engagement and Public Amy Cohen, Service, George Washington University Lina Dostilio, Director, Office of Service Learning, Duquesne University Andy Furco, Associate Vice President, Office for Public Engagement, University of Minnesota Interim Executive Director, Center for Social Justice, Jane Genster, Georgetown University Paola M Hernandez B., Americorps* VISTA, Maryland Campus Compact, University of Maryland Meg Heubeck, Director of Instruction, Center for Politics, University of Virginia Barbara Jacoby, Senior Scholar, Adele H. Stamp Student Union – Center for Campus Life, University of Maryland 90

107 Gail Jessen, Director, Thayne Center for Service and Learning, Salt Lake Community College Executive Director, Project Pericles Jan Liss, President, AmericaSpeaks Carolyn Lukensmeyer, Jennifer Wilson Marsh, Hotline and Affiliate Services Director, Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network David Maurrasse, President, Anchor Institutions Task Force Director, Human Services, George Washington University Emily Morrison, William Muse, President, National Issues Forums Institute Director, Center for Civic Participation, Maricopa Alberto Olivas, Community Colleges Margaret Post, Director, Donelan Office of Community-Based Learning, College of the Holy Cross Director, Institute on Ethnicity, Culture, and the Modern Clement Price, Experience, Rutgers University–Newark David Procter, Director, Center for Engagement and Community Development, Kansas State University John Reiff, Director, Community Engagement Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Maureen Roche, Director, Campus Kitchens Project, DC Central Kitchen Andrew Seligsohn, Director of Civic Engagement, Office of the Chancellor, Rutgers University–Camden Karen Showalter, Executive Director, Americans for Informed Democracy Wendy Wagner, Director, Center for Leadership and Community Engagement, George Mason University Jo Anne Zarowny, College-Wide Coordinator, Center for Community Involvement, Miami Dade College National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Members present: Derek Barker, Program Officer, Kettering Foundation President, Association of American Colleges Carol Geary Schneider, and Universities Executive Dean, The New School David Scobey, Project Staff present: Larry A. Braskamp, President, Global Perspective Institute, Inc. Caryn Mctighe Musil, Senior Vice President, Association of American Colleges and Universities nancy O’neill, Director of Integrative Programs, Association of American Colleges and Universities Van Luu, Administrative Assistant, Association of American Colleges and Universities A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 91

108 Roundtable 3: Faculty, civic scholars, and higher education researchers Distinguished Senior Fellow at Dēmos, president of Benjamin Barber, CivWorld at Dēmos Rick Battistoni, Professor of Political Science and Public & Community Service Studies, Providence College Chancellor’s Professor of Psychology and Philanthropic Robert G. Bringle, Studies, and Executive Director, Center for Service & Learning, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Dan W. Butin, Dean, School of Education, Merrimack College José Zapata Calderón, Professor of Sociology and Chicano Studies, Pitzer College Associate Professor of Higher Education, and Director, tony Chambers, Centre for the Study of Students in Postsecondary Education, University of Toronto Assistant Professor of Higher Education, Loyola University Mark E. Engberg, Chicago Robert W. Franco, Professor of Anthropology, and Director, Office for Institutional Effectiveness, Kapi’olani Community College, University of Hawaii Senior Fellow, Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Elizabeth Hollander, Service, Tufts University Rhonda Hustedt Jacobsen, Professor of Psychology, and Director of Faculty Development, Messiah College Gregory Jay, Professor of English and Senior Director, Cultures and Communities Program, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Mathew Johnson, Associate Professor of Sociology and Environmental Studies, and Director, VISTA, Siena College Victor Kazanjian, Dean of Intercultural Education and Religious and Spiritual Life, and Co-Director of the Peace and Justice Studies Program, Wellesley College Associate Vice Provost for Engagement, Portland State Kevin Kecskes, University Allison Kimmich, Executive Director, National Women’s Studies Association Judy Krutky, Professor, International Studies, and Director, Intercultural Education, Baldwin-Wallace College Paul Loeb, Author, Soul of a Citizen Harold A. McDougall, Professor, School of Law, Howard University Catherine Middlecamp, Director, Chemistry Learning Center, and Director and Chair, Integrated Liberal Studies Program, University of Wisconsin–Madison tania D. Mitchell, Associate Director for Undergraduate Studies and Director of Service Learning, Stanford University Kerry Ann O’Meara, Associate Professor of Higher Education, University of Maryland, College Park Laurie L. Patton, Professor of Religion and Director of Faculty Development and Excellence, Emory University 92

109 Paul Petrequin, Residential Faculty, Chandler-Gilbert Community College Professor of Service Learning, and Director, Service Learning Seth Pollack, Institute, California State University, Monterey Bay Robert D. Reason, Associate Professor of Education and Senior Research Associate, Center for the Study of Higher Education, Pennsylvania State University R . Eugene (Gene) Rice, Senior Scholar, Association of American Colleges and Universities Marshall Welch, Director, Catholic Institute for Lasallian Social Action, Saint Mary’s College of California Jon Wergin, Professor of Educational Studies, Antioch University National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Member present: Executive Dean, The New School David Scobey, Project Staff present: Larry A. Braskamp, President, Global Perspective Institute, Inc. Caryn Mctighe Musil, Senior Vice President, Association of American Colleges and Universities Director of Integrative Programs, Association of American nancy O’neill, Colleges and Universities Van Luu, Administrative Assistant, Association of American Colleges and Universities Roundtable 4: College, community college, and university presidents Lewis M. Duncan, President, Rollins College President, Butler University Bobby Fong, President, Minot State University David G. Fuller, Philip A. Glotzbach, President, Skidmore College President, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Mary K. Grant, President, American University Cornelius Kerwin, Marvin Krislov, President, Oberlin College Theodore E. Long, President, Elizabethtown College Elaine P. Maimon, President, Governors State University Mark Putnam, President, Central College Brian Rosenberg, President, Macalester College Kenneth P. Ruscio, President, Washington and Lee University Allen L. Sessoms, President, University of the District of Columbia Anthony S. tricoli, President, Georgia Perimeter College Sanford J. Ungar, President, Goucher College Richard H. Wells, Chancellor, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 93

110 National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Members present: Richard Guarasci, President, Wagner College Sylvia Hurtado, Director, Higher Education Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles Kathleen Maas Weigert, Carolyn Farrell, BVM, Professor of Women and Leadership, and Assistant to the Provost for Social Justice Initiatives at Loyola University Chicago Brian Murphy, President, De Anza College Project Staff present: Larry A. Braskamp, President, Global Perspective Institute, Inc. Caryn Mctighe Musil, Senior Vice President, Association of American Colleges and Universities Director of Integrative Programs, Association of American nancy O’neill, Colleges and Universities Van Luu, Administrative Assistant, Association of American Colleges and Universities Roundtable 5: Public policy leaders, foundation leaders, and heads of higher education associations and disciplinary societies James Applegate, Vice President, Program Development, Lumina Foundation Sarita Brown, President, Excelencia in Education Karen Bruns, Assistant Director, Outreach and Engagement, Ohio State University Extension Eva Caldera, Senior Advisor to the Chairman, National Endowment for the Humanities Ida Chow, Executive Officer, Society for Developmental Biology John Churchill, Secretary, Phi Beta Kappa Society Paul Corts, President, Council for Christian Colleges and Universities Executive Officer, American Association of Physics Teachers Beth Cunningham, Susan Dauber, Program Director, Spencer Foundation John Dedrick, Vice President and Program Director, Kettering Foundation Gwen Dungy, Executive Director, NASPA-Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education Paula Ellis, Vice President, Knight Foundation Susan Elrod, Executive Director, Project Kaleidoscope Rosemary Feal, Executive Director, Modern Language Association of America Christopher Gates, Executive Director, Philanthropy for Active Civic Engagement Robert Hackett, President, the Bonner Foundation Robin Hailstorks, Associate Executive Director & Director of Precollege and Undergraduate Programs, American Psychological Association JoAnn Henderson, Executive Director, National Center for Learning and Citizenship 94

111 Mary Kirchhoff, Director, Education Division, American Chemical Society James Leach, Chairman, National Endowment for the Humanities Michèle Leaman, Change Manager (Associate Director), Ashoka: Innovators for the Public tom Lenox, Executive Vice President for Professional and Educational Strategic Initiatives, American Society of Civil Engineers Elson nash, Acting Director, Learn and Serve America, Corporation for National and Community Service William newell, Executive Director, Association for Integrative Studies David Paris, Executive Director, New Leadership Alliance for Student Learning and Assessment Director of Programs and Services, Mathematical Michael Pearson, Association of America Michael Robbins, Senior Advisor for Nonprofit Partnerships, Center for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships, US Department of Education Bernie Ronan, Associate Vice Chancellor for Public Affairs, Maricopa Community Colleges District M a rc R o y, Vice Chair, American Conference of Academic Deans, and Provost, Goucher College Phyllis Snyder, Vice President for Healthcare Services and Mature Worker Initiatives, Council for Adult and Experiential Learning Director, Academic and Professional Affairs Program, Margeret Vitullo, American Sociological Association Jane Wellman, Executive Director, National Association of System Heads National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement Members present: President, Association of American Colleges and Carol Geary Schneider, Universities Gale Muller, Vice Chairman of Worldwide Research and Development, Gallup, Inc. Project Staff present: Larry A. Braskamp, President, Global Perspective Institute, Inc. Caryn Mctighe Musil, Senior Vice President, Association of American Colleges and Universities nancy O’neill, Director of Integrative Programs, Association of American Colleges and Universities Eleanor Hall, Program Associate, Association of American Colleges and Universities Van Luu, Administrative Assistant, Association of American Colleges and Universities A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 95


113 APPEnDIx D: Civic learning and Democratic engagement national roundtables: Participating organizations W American Association of Community Colleges enterprise and the premier professional home for http://www.aacc.nche.edu chemists, chemical engineers, and related professionals Founded in 1920, the American Association of around the globe. The society publishes numerous Community Colleges (AACC) is the primary advocacy scientific journals and databases, convenes major research organization for the nation’s 1,200 two-year, associate’s conferences, and provides educational, policy, and career degree–granting institutions and their 12 million programs in chemistry. The society also plays a leadership students. AACC promotes community colleges through role in educating and communicating with public policy five strategic action areas: recognition and advocacy makers and the general public about the importance of for community colleges; student access, learning, and chemistry in identifying new solutions, improving public success; community college leadership development; health, protecting the environment, and contributing to economic and workforce development; and global and the economy. intercultural education. AACC has specifically promoted the value of service learning and civic engagement American Conference of Academic Deans to its member colleges since 1994. Sixty percent of http://www.acad-edu.org all community colleges offer service learning in their The American Conference of Academic Deans (ACAD) curricular programs, with another 30 percent interested in provides academic leaders who share a commitment to starting service-learning initiatives. student learning and to the ideals of liberal education with networking and professional development opportunities American Association of Physics Teachers to support them in their work as educational leaders. http://www.aapt.org ACAD has chosen to remain a “conference” of deans— Established in 1930, the American Association of Physics small, with intimate gatherings—reflecting a continuing Teachers is a professional membership association of dedication to its founding purpose: to create both formal scientists dedicated to enhancing the understanding and and informal opportunities for deans to meet, network, appreciation of physics through teaching. The association and offer professional support to their colleagues in is committed to providing the most current resources their work as academic leaders. ACAD has an annual and up-to-date research needed to enhance a physics meeting that is held in conjunction with the Association educator’s professional development. It aims to increase of American Colleges and Universities annual meeting, outreach efforts to physics teachers, increase the diversity a biennial meeting, cohosted by Phi Beta Kappa, and and number of physics teachers and students, improve the periodic workshops. pedagogical skills and knowledge of teachers at all levels, and increase the understanding of physics learning and of American Democracy Project ways to improve teaching effectiveness. http://www.aascu.org/programs/ADP The American Democracy Project (ADP) is focused on American Chemical Society higher education’s role in preparing the next generation org http://www.acs. of informed, engaged citizens for our democracy. ADP The American Chemical Society is one of the world’s involves 240 campuses and 2.3 million students. A leading sources of authoritative scientific information. A partnership of the American Association of State Colleges nonprofit organization chartered by Congress, the society and Universities and the New York Times , the goal of is at the forefront of the evolving worldwide chemical ADP is to produce graduates who are committed to being A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 97

114 active, involved citizens in their communities. Since its American Psychological Association inception, ADP has hosted nine national and fifteen http://www.apa.org regional meetings; a national assessment project; and The American Psychological Association is the largest hundreds of campus initiatives, including voter education association of psychologists worldwide. The mission of and registration efforts, curriculum revision projects, the association is to advance the creation, communication, campus audits, specific days of action and reflection (e.g., and application of psychological knowledge to benefit Constitution Day), speaker series, and many recognition society and improve people’s lives. The association and award programs. aspires to excel as a valuable and influential organization advancing psychology as a science; as a uniting force for the discipline; as the major catalyst for the stimulation, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy growth, and dissemination of psychological science and Research, Program on American Citizenship practice; as a principal leader and global partner promoting http://www.citizenship-aei.org psychological knowledge and methods to facilitate the The American Enterprise Institute’s Program on resolution of personal, societal, and global challenges in American Citizenship is a new initiative focused on the diverse, multicultural, and international contexts; and as fundamental principles and challenges of American an effective champion of the application of psychology to self-government. The program brings together a diverse promote human rights, health, well-being, and dignity. group of thinkers and doers to explore matters both practical and theoretical, including public schools and the American Society of Civil Engineers cultivation of civic virtue, voting and the political process, http://www.asce.org immigration policies and integration, and the role of local Founded in 1852, the American Society of Civil communities in inculcating a strong sense of duty and Engineers (ASCE) represents more than 140,000 citizenship. The ultimate goal of this effort is to deepen members of the civil engineering profession worldwide Americans’ appreciation for and attachment to those and is America’s oldest national engineering society. principles that are necessary to keep the United States ASCE aims to advance technology and civil engineering free, strong, and democratic. to enhance quality, knowledge, competitiveness, and environmental sustainability; encourage and provide The American Political Science Association tools for lifelong learning and professional development http://www.apsanet.org within the civil engineering community; support The American Political Science Association (APSA) is the civil engineers as global leaders committed to serving largest scholarly society for political science in the world. the public good; and advocate infrastructure and APSA brings together political scientists from all fields environmental stewardship to protect public health and of inquiry, regions, and occupational endeavors within safety and improve the quality of life. and outside academe to support scholarship teaching, and learning in the field. APSA focuses on promoting American Sociological Association scholarly research and communication; diversifying the http://www.asanet.org profession and representing its diversity; strengthening The American Sociological Association (ASA) is a the professional environment for political science; and nonprofit membership association dedicated to advancing serving the public, including disseminating research and sociology as a scientific discipline and profession serving engaging with public issues. Programs and initiatives the public good. With more than fourteen thousand include major research journals and meetings, the annual members, ASA encompasses sociologists who are Conference on Teaching and Learning in Political faculty members at colleges and universities, researchers, Science, and work by the Committee on Civic Education practitioners, and students. About 20 percent of members and Engagement. work in government, business, or nonprofit organizations. Through its executive office, ASA is well positioned to provide a unique set of services to its members and to promote the vitality, visibility, and diversity of the 98

115 discipline. Working at the national and international services, reducing unemployment, increasing housing levels, the Association aims to articulate policy and opportunities, reducing recidivism, and expanding implement programs likely to have the broadest possible access to technology for those living in rural and urban impact for sociology now and in the future. areas of poverty across America. Through the Campus Compact VISTA program at the University of Maryland, participants work to alleviate poverty while developing Americans for Informed Democracy leadership skills through community organizing, http://www.aidemocracy.org volunteer management, and community partnership Americans for Informed Democracy (AIDemocracy) is a development. student-founded organization that educates, cultivates, and mobilizes a network of young people in the United States Anchor Institutions Task Force to take informed action around individual and collective http://www.margainc.com/initiatives/aitf roles as global citizens. AIDemocracy builds and supports The Anchor Institutions Task Force (AITF) develops student leaders and organizers who understand not only and disseminates knowledge to help create and advance the issues, but also their own power, how to organize democratic, mutually beneficial anchor institution– others, and how to access decision makers. Tactics include community partnerships. The core values of the advocacy, organizing and leadership trainings, and building AITF are: collaboration and partnership, equity and a community of student leaders through regional and social justice, democracy and democratic practice, national meetings, participation in meetings and parallel and commitment to place and community. The AITF events, and network “weaving.” promotes greater alignment across policy, institutions, civil society organizations (such as community-based Speaks America nonprofit organizations), and private resources (such http://americaspeaks.org as philanthropy) in order to strengthen the ways in is to reinvigorate The mission of America Speaks which anchor institutions collaborate in revitalizing American democracy by engaging citizens in the public communities. decision making that most impacts their lives. Since has worked to provide citizens Speaks 1995, America Ashoka U—A Program of Ashoka: with a greater voice in the policy-making process and to Innovators for the Public develop new institutions that can strengthen American , http://www.ashoka.org http://ashokau.org democracy. Since its inception, America has Speaks Ashoka is a global association of the world’s leading social convened large-scale initiatives and brought together entrepreneurs—men and women with system-changing more than 160,000 citizens and leaders in deliberations solutions for the world’s most urgent social problems. about some of the most difficult and critical policy Ashoka develops models for collaboration and designs Speaks issues. America convenes thought leaders, elected the infrastructure needed to advance the field of social officials, and advocates to discuss the state of American entrepreneurship and the citizen sector. Ashoka U— democracy and the kinds of changes that will create a Ashoka’s higher education partnership program—works stronger, healthier democracy. to integrate social entrepreneurship into college and university life, striving to ensure that every aspect of the AmeriCorps*VISTA, Maryland Campus Compact, educational experience is a world-changing experience, University of Maryland and that colleges and universities become more http://mdcompact.org/americorps.html entrepreneurial and innovative. Ashoka U envisions a AmeriCorps*VISTA is a federal service program that world where every student develops the knowledge, skills, helps individuals and communities implement grassroots and confidence to effectively address social problems and solutions designed to alleviate poverty. Founded as drive change. Volunteers to Service in America in 1965, the program places individuals at nonprofit organizations and public agencies that are fighting illiteracy, improving health A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 99

116 Association for Integrative Studies and responsible engagement in local, national, and global http://www.units.muohio.edu/aisorg communities, the center offers superior quality programs, The Association for Integrative Studies is the services, and resources that improve the lives of GPC’s professional association devoted to interdisciplinarity. students, faculty, staff, and communities. Interdisciplinarity combines the insights of knowledge domains to produce a more comprehensive understanding Bonner Center for Service and Learning, of complex problems, issues, or questions ranging from Oberlin College comparison to fully realized integration. The association http://new.oberlin.edu/office/bonner-center promotes the interchange of ideas among scholars, The Bonner Center for Service and Learning at Oberlin teachers, administrators, and the public regarding College works in partnership with the surrounding interdisciplinarity and integration; advocates best- community to link students with educational service practice techniques for interdisciplinary research and opportunities. Community service, advocacy, grassroots teaching; and sponsors the development of standards for organizing, and applied research are the norm at Oberlin, interdisciplinary program accreditation. where each year more than 55 percent of undergraduate students do some form of curricular or cocurricular Association of American Colleges and Universities community service. The Bonner Center for Service and http://www.aacu.org Learning encourages all students to become involved in The Association of American Colleges and Universities community efforts, and develops programs that combine (AAC&U) is the leading national association concerned community involvement with intellectual and artistic with the quality, vitality, and public standing of pursuits, links students with community organizations undergraduate liberal education. Its members are in need of volunteers, and sponsors events and committed to extending the advantages of a liberal conferences designed to enhance college and community education to all students, regardless of academic relationships. specialization or intended career. Founded in 1915, AAC&U now comprises more than 1,200 member Bonner Foundation institutions—including accredited public and private http://www.bonner.org colleges and universities of every type and size. AAC&U The Bonner Foundation supports antipoverty programs in publicly champions civic learning and democratic the area of hunger and education. The foundation’s Crisis engagement as an essential component of a contemporary Ministry Program concentrates its efforts in central New liberal education and advocates both as priorities across Jersey with support for twenty-five community-based and all AAC&U initiatives. To assist campuses in creating educational institutions combating poverty, especially in the educational environments that promote students’ civic area of hunger. The foundation also supports service-based awareness, skills, and commitments, the association college scholarship programs, which have been expanded organizes projects, conferences, research, assessment, and to more than seventy-five schools across the country, four publications, including Diversity & Democracy: Civic providing “access to education, and an opportunity to serve” Learning for Shared Futures. to more than 3,200 students annually. Since its founding in 1989, the Bonner Foundation has awarded more than $86 Atlanta Center for Civic Engagement & Service million in annual grants and $85 million in Bonner Program Learning, Georgia Perimeter College Endowment awards, and has led a number of federally http://www.gpc.edu/engage funded higher education consortium grants. The Atlanta Center for Civic Engagement & Service Learning at Georgia Perimeter College (GPC) serves faculty, staff, students, and the greater Atlanta metropolitan area by coordinating both curricular and cocurricular service and civic activities that meet community-identified needs, while also functioning as a repository of knowledge and resources on civic engagement and service learning. Focusing on active 100

117 Bringing Theory to Practice Campus Kitchens Project http://www.aacu.org/bringing_theory http://www.campuskitchens.org/national The Bringing Theory to Practice project encourages The Campus Kitchens Project (CKP) is an emerging colleges and universities to reassert their core purposes as leader in community service for students and a resource for educational institutions, in order to advance learning and antihunger programs in communities around the country. discovery, to advance the potential and well-being of each The project works with college campuses and student individual student, and to advance education as a public volunteers to recycle food from their cafeterias, turn these good that sustains a civic society. The project supports donations into nourishing meals, and deliver the meals to campus-based initiatives that demonstrate how uses of those who need them most. CKP partners with thirty-one high schools, colleges, and universities across America to engaged forms of learning that actively involve students share on-campus kitchen space, recover unused food from both within and beyond the classroom directly contribute to students’ cognitive, emotional, and civic development. cafeterias, and engage students in preparing and delivering meals to those who need them. Campus Kitchens also provides nutrition education, tutoring for at-risk children, Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools and culinary job training classes for unemployed adults, http://www.civicmissionofschools.org and it promotes sustainable food resources and economic The Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools is a development opportunities. coalition of 60+ organizations committed to improving the quality and quantity of civic learning in American Catholic Institute for Lasallian Social Action, schools. The campaign’s goal is to increase and improve Saint Mary’s College of California civic learning in grades K–12 by working for policies that http://www.stmarys-ca.edu/cilsa Civic Mission implement the recommendations of the The Catholic Institute for Lasallian Social Action (CILSA) of Schools report. This includes efforts to bring about is both an organization and a catalyst to integrate social changes in national, state, and local education policy. justice into the curricular and cocurricular experiences The campaign is cochaired by former Justice Sandra Day at Saint Mary’s College of California. Founded in 1999, O’Connor and former Congressman Lee Hamilton. CILSA is the academic center at Saint Mary’s College for promoting a culture of service and social justice education Campus Compact consonant with Catholic social teaching and for integrating http://www.campuscompact.org the three traditions of the college: Catholic, Lasallian, and Campus Compact is a national coalition of more Liberal Arts. The goal of CILSA is to support students, than 1,100 college and university presidents who are faculty, staff, campus units, and community partners as committed to fulfilling the civic purposes of higher they work together to promote intellectual inquiry, student education. The compact envisions colleges and leadership and development, and actions in academic, universities as vital agents and architects of a diverse cocurricular, and community settings in order to foster democracy, and challenges all of higher education to personal and social responsibility for the common good. make civic and community engagement an institutional priority. The compact promotes forms of community Center for Civic Participation, Maricopa Community service and community-based learning that develop Colleges students’ citizenship skills, helps campuses forge effective http://www.maricopa.edu/civic community partnerships, and provide resources and The Maricopa Community Colleges’ Center for Civic training for faculty seeking both to integrate civic Participation seeks to enrich public life and public and community-based learning and research into the discourse on Maricopa campuses and in the surrounding curriculum and to advance their scholarship. communities. The center also serves to promote effective practices that support Maricopa’s mission area related to civic responsibility. The goals of the center are to increase awareness among Maricopa students, faculty, staff, and the community regarding policy A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 101

118 Center for Comparative Studies in Race and issues, civic involvement, and how government works, Ethnicity, Stanford University and to increase the involvement of Maricopa students, http://ccsre.stanford.edu faculty, staff, and the community in civic life at all levels. Established in 1996, the Center for Comparative Studies Maricopa is comprised of ten colleges, two skill centers, in Race and Ethnicity (CCSRE) provides opportunities and numerous education centers in Maricopa County, for teaching and research on topics of race and ethnicity Arizona, serving over 260,000 students each year. from both domestic and international comparative perspectives. Drawing on the intellectual interests of Center for Community Based Learning, over one hundred affiliated faculty, CCSRE has infused Occidental College ethnic studies with a new vitality through its research http://college.oxy.edu/ccbl and teaching divisions. The service-learning initiative of The mission of the Center for Community Based the center began in 2007 and builds on the traditions of Learning (CCBL) is to institutionalize curriculum- public service and community development that already based civic engagement. The CCBL’s civic engagement guided much of the center’s intellectual activity. Service approach is based on community organizing practices, learning is a vehicle for bringing to bear the broad range and it aims at enriching student learning and commitment of human knowledge needed to solve the complex, to social responsibility by engaging students, faculty, comprehensive, and interconnected problems of society. and off-campus leaders as cothinkers and collaborators, in order to make tangible contributions toward solving Center for Engaged Democracy, Merrimack College social justice–related issues. Since its creation in 2001, http://www.merrimack.edu/academics/education/ CCBL has provided leadership and developed resources center-for-engaged-democracy to institutionalize community-based learning at The Center for Engaged Democracy acts as a central hub Occidental College. To accomplish this goal, the center for developing, coordinating, and supporting academic engages with students, faculty, other campus offices, programs—certificates, minors, and majors—around and community partners, as well as state, national, and the country that are focused on civic and community international networks. engagement, broadly defined. Housed within Merrimack College’s School of Education, the center brings together Center for Community Involvement, faculty, administrators, and community partners to support Miami Dade College such academic programs through a variety of initiatives and http://www.mdc.edu/cci practices: compiling existing research and documentation The Center for Community Involvement aims to to support new and developing programs; sponsoring transform learning, strengthen democracy, and contribute symposia, conferences, and research opportunities to build meaningfully to the common good by awakening and a vibrant research base and academic community; and empowering students for lifelong civic engagement. providing a voice and space for dialogue about the value of Organizationally located within academic affairs, the such academic programs across higher education. center is a hub and catalyst for service, civic engagement, and community-campus partnerships at Miami Dade Center for Engagement and Community College’s eight campuses. Each year more than eight Development, Kansas State University thousand students engage in academic service learning http://www.k-state.edu/cecd through the center, serving with hundreds of community The purpose of the Center for Engagement and partners throughout south Florida. Additional center Community Development is to extend and expand programs include America Reads, student ambassadors, Kansas State University’s historic mission of engagement President’s Volunteer Service Award, AmeriCorps and and outreach. It provides a place where university faculty VISTA, among others. and community leaders can come together to address community challenges, meet community needs, and realize community dreams through effective scholarship- based engagement. The mission of the center is to 102

119 promote engagement across the breadth of the university Center for Leadership and Community Engagement, George Mason University campus—in teaching, research, and outreach—and http://clce.gmu.edu to connect the vast resources of the university to the The Center for Leadership and Community Engagement significant issues of public need facing Kansas and (CLCE) facilitates mutually beneficial partnerships between communities worldwide. the George Mason University (GMU) community and community organizations. CLCE supports these evolving Center for Faith-based and Neighborhood relationships to ensure they contribute to both community Partnerships development goals and student learning objectives. http://www.ed.gov/edpartners Engaging students in the community can enhance academic The mission of the Center for Faith-based and goals as well as civic goals. CLCE allows students to engage Neighborhood Partnerships at the US Department in meaningful work that is integrated into coursework. of Education is to promote student achievement by Students must think critically about what they have learned connecting schools and community-based organizations, about the community, about course topics, and what they both secular and faith-based. The center is part of the have learned about themselves. CLCE helps ensure that White House Office of Faith-based and Neighborhood GMU implements high-quality practice in the curriculum Partnerships within the Domestic Policy Council. and cocurriculum by facilitating the integration of The center is currently working on a pilot initiative community-based learning, leadership, and academic study. to engage community-based organizations in service to support school improvement, and a presidential Center for Politics, University of Virginia program to promote interfaith and community service http://www.centerforpolitics.org on college campuses called the President’s Interfaith and The Center for Politics seeks to promote the value Community Service Challenge. of politics and the importance of civic engagement. Government works better when politics works better, CIRCLE (Center for Information and Research on and politics works better when citizens are informed Civic Learning and Engagement) and involved participants. Therefore, the center strives http://www.civicyouth.org to encourage citizens toward active participation in Based at the Jonathan M. Tisch College of Citizenship the political process and government; to evaluate and and Public Service at Tufts University, CIRCLE conducts promote the best practices in civic education for students research on the civic and political engagement of young of all ages; and to educate citizens through the center’s Americans. CIRCLE provides timely analysis of youth comprehensive research, programs, and publications. voting, volunteering, media use, and activism, along with The premiere program of the center is the Youth detailed studies of what works in civic education for Leadership Initiative, which provides free programming K–12 students, students in higher education, and young and resources for fifty-thousand K–12 educators via its adults without college experience. CIRCLE’s special website, http://www.youthleadership.net. The Civic Mission of Schools report publications, such as (jointly published with Carnegie Corporation of New Center for Public Deliberation, Colorado State Higher Education: Civic Mission & Civic York in 2003), University (jointly published with the Carnegie Foundation Effects http://www.cpd.colostate.edu for the Advancement of Teaching in 2006), and Peter Housed within the communication studies department The Future of Democracy Levine’s book (2007) provide at Colorado State University, the Center for Public literature reviews and summaries. Deliberation (CPD) serves as an impartial resource for the northern Colorado community, dedicated to enhancing local democracy through improved public communication and community problem solving. Deliberation requires safe places for citizens to come together, good and fair information to help structure the conversation, and skilled A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 103

120 facilitators to guide the process; CPD seeks to provide those Civic Health Index, National Conference key ingredients. Undergraduate students participating in the on Citizenship CPD student associate program earn class credit while being http://www.ncoc.net/CHI trained as impartial deliberative practitioners and work on America’s Civic Health Index is an annual report that elevates all aspects of projects, including background research, issue the discussion of our nation’s civic health by measuring a framing, convening, meeting design, facilitation, reporting, wide variety of civic indicators. It is an effort to educate and moving from talk to action. Americans about our civic life and to motivate citizens, leaders, and policy makers to strengthen it. It is conducted nationally, as well as at state and community levels through Center for Service and Learning, Indiana University- partnerships throughout the country. Through gatherings Purdue University Indianapolis and research, National Conference on Citizenship shares www.csl.iupui.edu civic discoveries, energizes discussions, and stimulates The Center for Service and Learning (CSL) involves new approaches that strengthen modern citizenship. The students, faculty, and staff in educationally meaningful conference calls attention to what is learned, makes it service activities that mutually benefit the campus applicable to partners’ action planning, and helps partners and community. The history of CSL began in 1993 take an evidence-based approach to their work. with a focus on service-learning course development. Now, four offices have been established to coordinate a CivWorld variety of campus-community programs: the Office of http://www.civworld.org Service Learning, the Office of Community Service, the CivWorld, an international project at Dēmos, is a global Office of Neighborhood Partnerships, and the Office of interdependence initiative aimed at raising awareness Community Work Study. of the interdependent character of global society and fostering transnational and interdependent solutions to Center for Social Justice, Georgetown University global challenges. Activities include an Interdependence http://socialjustice.georgetown.edu Day forum and celebration, theoretical and policy The Center for Social Justice (CSJ) promotes and research on democracy and interdependence, and integrates community-based research, teaching, and advocacy. The International Program at Dēmos advances service by collaborating with diverse partners and new ideas to cope with a changing world that is faced communities locally, nationally, and globally. Guided with accelerating globalization, starker inequities between by a mission to advance justice and the common good, nations, growing human migration, and profound security CSJ organizes work involving students, faculty, and and environmental threats. community partners in three key areas: community and public service, curriculum and pedagogy, and research. Community Engagement Program, University of CSJ builds upon decades of direct service and civic Massachusetts, Amherst engagement by students that respond to community http://www.honors.umass.edu/cep needs and interests. CSJ also works with faculty and The Community Engagement Program (CEP) integrates students to develop curricular offerings that incorporate academic learning and community engagement to foster social justice issues and community-based learning. leadership development and promote a more just society. Finally, CSJ facilitates research opportunities in which Community service-learning programs and courses faculty and students partner with communities to create place students in community service and use guided and advance knowledge that makes a positive difference. reflection as a source of learning. The service becomes an important “text” for the course in dialogue with other course readings. The CEP emphasizes collaboration among students, faculty, and community members to identify and work on the causes of social problems and to strengthen communities. CEP sponsors a five-course civic engagement and leadership development program, the Citizen Scholars 104

121 Program, and an individualized major in civic engagement programs that promote civic learning and democratic (civic engagement paired with the student’s special engagement for students in their host communities. The area of interest—environmental sustainability, youth council encourages its institutions to be involved in the development, nonprofit management, etc.). public square and provides professional support for their programmatic efforts for student civic learning. The council and its member institutions also promote student spiritual Community of Hope formation through service-learning opportunities designed http://www.communityofhopedc.org to meet social justice needs as a basic civic responsibility For thirty years, Community of Hope has helped improve that stems from personal Christian faith. the health and quality of life of low-income, homeless, and underserved families and individuals in the District Cultures and Communities Program Office, of Columbia by providing health care, housing with University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee supportive services, educational opportunities, and http://www4.uwm.edu/cc spiritual support. Community of Hope’s wide-ranging Learning to work across differences of cultural programs address the array of challenges faced by background and experience is a process essential to homeless and low-income families with children, and intellectual growth and lifelong learning, and ultimately provide hope and stability to low-income and homeless to building a better world. This is the philosophy at the adults and children by promoting strong families, helping heart of the Cultures and Communities Program Office, underserved residents create stable lives for themselves which provides an administrative home for key initiatives and promising futures for their children. in diversity and community engagement, including University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee’s Institute for Service Council for Adult and Experiential Learning Learning, the Cultures and Communities Certificate, and http://www.cael.org Community University Partnership Grants. The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) is a national nonprofit organization whose mission is to The Democracy Commitment: An American expand learning opportunities for adults. CAEL works Community College Initiative to remove policy and organizational barriers to learning http://www.deanza.edu/communityengagement/ opportunities, identifies and disseminates effective democracycommitment practices, and delivers value-added services. Since its The Democracy Commitment is a national initiative founding in 1974, CAEL has been providing colleges and aimed at developing and expanding programs and universities, companies, labor organizations, and state projects that engage community college students in and local governments with the tools and strategies they civic learning and democratic practice. The goal of the need for creating practical, effective lifelong learning initiative is for every graduate of an American community solutions. CAEL is unique in its knowledge of adult/ college—whether they aim to transfer to university, employee learning practices and in its ability to work as achieve an associate’s degree, or obtain a certificate— an active intermediary between colleges and universities; to have an education in democracy. Participating corporations; labor unions; and government, community, community colleges pledge to make a public commitment and philanthropic entities. to civic education; support curricular and cocurricular programs that help students build civic skills and engage Council for Christian Colleges and Universities in public work; provide faculty and staff development; http://www.cccu.org partner with civic, nonprofit, and governmental The Council for Christian Colleges and Universities is agencies whose primary work is the social and economic an international association of intentionally Christian development of local communities; participate in a colleges and universities. Founded in 1976, the council national clearinghouse of programs and curricula for aims to advance the cause of Christ-centered higher community colleges; and develop joint programs with education through various services to its members, partner universities and higher education associations. including domestic and international travel study A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 105

122 The Democracy Imperative community leaders, and serves as a resource to help http://www.unh.edu/democracy communities build their own abilities to create change. Founded in 2007 at the University of New Hampshire, Using innovative, participatory approaches, Everyday the Democracy Imperative (TDI) is a national network Democracy works with neighborhoods, cities and towns, of scholars, campus leaders, and civic leaders committed regions, and states. Issues addressed include poverty to strengthening public life and building a more just and economic development; education reform; racial and deliberative democracy in and through higher equity; early childhood development; police-community education. A unique mix of academics and practitioners, relations; and youth and neighborhood concerns. TDI members work together to share ideas; steward and distribute knowledge; develop, validate, and disseminate Excelencia in Education promising practices; and encourage innovation. The http://www.edexcelencia.org Democracy Imperative acts as a resource and convener Excelencia in Education aims to accelerate higher by sponsoring conferences, workshops, and projects, and education success for Latino students by providing by providing tailored institutional support to interested data-driven analysis of the educational status of Latino colleges, universities, and educational associations. students and by promoting education policies and institutional practices that support their academic Donelan Office of Community-based Learning, achievement. Excelencia in Education believes that using College of the Holy Cross data and analysis to identify factors that influence the http://academics.holycross.edu/cbl success of specific student populations helps establish The Donelan Office of Community-Based Learning baseline information from which to develop more develops academic courses and community learning effective policies, engage diverse stakeholders, and opportunities for students. Holy Cross community-based enhance the active and tactical responses needed to better learning projects aim to support local organizations and serve Latino and all students. community initiatives. Students enrolled in a community- based learning course extend their learning outside Facing History and Ourselves the classroom into the community through work with http://www.facinghistory.org nonprofit, community, and public organizations, or Facing History and Ourselves partners with school through an on-campus project that will benefit the Holy systems, universities, and education ministries to deliver Cross community. Community-based learning courses resources and lessons that inspire young people to take can be found across the curriculum in most academic responsibility for their world. The work is based on departments, concentrations, and programs of the Center the premise that we need to—and can—teach civic for Interdisciplinary and Special Studies. The Donelan responsibility, tolerance, and social action to young Office also supports faculty and curriculum development people, as a way of fostering moral adulthood. Annually, initiatives as well as the Community-based Learning the organization reaches more than 1.9 million students Scholars Program, a peer learning initiative that promotes through its global network of twenty-eight thousand students’ reflective practice. trained facilitators who lead hundreds of seminars and workshops. At the heart of the work is the resource Everyday Democracy book Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and http://www.everyday-democracy.org Human Behavior, which explores the choices that led to Everyday Democracy helps people of different critical episodes in history, and how issues of identity, backgrounds and views talk, plan, and act together membership, ethics, and judgment have meaning today in order to address a variety of public issues and to and in the future. create communities that work for everyone. It places particular emphasis on the connection between complex public issues and structural racism. In the communities where Everyday Democracy provides customized assistance, it coaches local coalitions, organizations, and 106

123 Gallup public values, how to exercise power in a democracy, and http://www.gallup.com how to sharpen all the skills of great citizenship. Gallup has studied human nature and behavior for more than seventy-five years. Gallup’s reputation for delivering Human Services Program, George Washington relevant, timely, and visionary research on what people University around the world think and feel is the cornerstone of the http://departments.columbian.gwu.edu/sociology/ organization. Gallup employs many of the world’s leading academics/undergraduate/bahumanservices scientists in management, economics, psychology, and With a solid grounding in social theory, and experience sociology, and its consultants assist leaders in identifying with issues of social justice, students in the Human Services and monitoring behavioral economic indicators Program at the George Washington University are prepared worldwide. Gallup consultants help organizations boost to conduct research, attain advocacy positions, and organic growth by increasing customer engagement and assume leadership roles in not-for-profit and governmental maximizing employee productivity through measurement agencies. The program weaves together research, service tools, coursework, and strategic advisory services. Gallup’s learning (in every course), literature, and theory to foster two thousand professionals deliver services at client students’ knowledge, skills, and abilities. Furthermore, organizations, through the Web, at Gallup University’s the program provides a spectrum of interaction with local campuses, and in more than forty offices around the world. human service organizations to appropriately prepare students to serve in and work with diverse communities in Global Perspective Institute addressing community-identified needs. https://gpi.central.edu The Global Perspective Institute was established in 2008 Imagining America to study and promote global holistic human development, http://www.imaginingamerica.org especially among college students. The organization Imagining America’s mission is to animate and strengthen houses and administers the Global Perspective Inventory the public and civic purposes of humanities, arts, and (GPI), a measure of a person’s global perspective. The GPI design through mutually beneficial campus-community was developed with the idea that all persons—students, partnerships that advance democratic scholarship faculty, and staff—are on a journey of life, in which they and practice. Imagining America’s programs focus on (the keep asking three major questions: How do I know? building a national community of publicly engaged (the intrapersonal domain), cognitive domain), Who am I? scholars and artists, researching the scope and practices How do I relate to others? (the interpersonal domain). and of public scholarship and art, creating models of program The GPI examines these three dimensions and is now infrastructure, making new forms of knowledge visible being used in more than seventy colleges, universities, and and audible, establishing platforms for civic conversation, third-party study abroad organizations. carrying out strategic educational and policy initiatives, and forging regional alliances. The Guiding Lights Network http://www.guidinglightsnetwork.com Innovations in Civic Participation The Guiding Lights Network specializes in the art of http://icicp.org the gathering, creating experiences that spark civic Innovations in Civic Participation (ICP) promotes imagination and social change. The network brings sustainable development and social change through youth together leaders, catalysts, and innovators in creative civic engagement, and supports the development of ways to generate new solutions to collective challenges. innovative, high-quality youth civic engagement policies Its mission is to restore community and compassion and programs both in the United States and around the through mindful mentoring, imagination, and passionate world. Through its activities, ICP develops ideas and engagement in public life. Programs include Art of models for scaling up national youth service and service Citizenship Workshops as well as the Guiding Lights learning through legislative advocacy, capacity building, Weekend, which brings together hundreds of leaders and research, and publications. ICP has created and continues laypeople, local and national, to learn how to articulate A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 107

124 to strengthen an international community of practice that International Consortium for Higher Education, Civic Responsibility, and Democracy includes policy makers, practitioners, researchers, and http://www.internationalconsortium.org others who share an interest in youth civic engagement. The International Consortium for Higher Education, ICP embraces a positive view of young people that Civic Responsibility, and Democracy (IC) housed at recognizes their potential to create positive and lasting the University of Pennsylvania was established to bring social change in their communities through active together national institutions of higher education in order engagement and service. to promote education for democracy as a central mission of higher education around the world. IC seeks to explain Institute on Ethnicity, Culture, and the Modern and advance the contributions of higher education Experience, Rutgers University–Newark to democracy on college and university campuses, http://www.ncas.rutgers.edu/institute-ethnicity­ their local communities, and the wider society. The culture-and-modern-experience/about-institute consortium works in collaboration with the Council of The Institute on Ethnicity, Culture, and the Modern Europe, through its Committee on Higher Education and Experience serves the greater Newark metropolitan Research, with forty-seven member countries. region by reaching into the community with lectures, symposia, film, performances, exhibitions, and other Kettering Foundation programs that enhance public understanding of urban http://www.kettering.org life, the social construction of difference, race relations, The Kettering Foundation is an independent, nonpartisan local history, urban youth culture, and education. Through research organization rooted in the American tradition programmatic partnerships, the institute provides essential of cooperative research. The foundation explores ways context for the good work of public institutions and that key political practices can be strengthened through sponsors the annual Marion Thompson Wright Lecture innovations that emphasize active roles for citizens. The Series, which is among the nation’s oldest and most foundation seeks to identify and address the challenges to distinguished scholarly series devoted to enhancing the making democracy work as it should through interrelated historical literacy of a local community. program areas that focus on citizens, communities, and institutions. Chartered as an operating corporation, Interfaith Youth Core Kettering does not make grants. The foundation’s www.ifyc.org staff and extensive network of associates collaborate Interfaith Youth Core (IFYC) seeks to make interfaith with community organizations, government agencies, cooperation a social norm. IFYC believes faith can be researchers, scholars, and citizens, all of whom share their a bridge of cooperation, strengthening civil society and experiences with the foundation. promoting the common good, and believes that young interfaith leaders will build these bridges. Since 2002, Knight Foundation IFYC has worked on five continents and with over http://www.knightfoundation.org two hundred college and university campuses, training The Knight Foundation supports transformational ideas thousands in the principles of interfaith leadership, and that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, reaching millions through the media. IFYC’s strategic engage communities, and foster the arts. Knight believes focus on higher education seeks to equip institutions that democracy thrives when people and communities of higher education to be leaders in the movement for are informed and engaged. Based on the belief that interfaith cooperation. IFYC has worked with partners information is a core community need, Knight focuses on including the White House, the Tony Blair Faith projects that promote informed, engaged communities and Foundation, and the Office of Her Majesty Queen Rania lead to transformational change. To help sustain healthy of Jordan. communities in a democracy, Knight fosters initiatives that develop in people a strong sense of belonging and caring; timely access to relevant information; the ability to understand that information; and the motivation, 108

125 opportunity, and skills to take sustainable action on a range of the nation’s top forty private foundations. Lumina’s of issues throughout their lives. goal is to increase the percentage of Americans who hold high-quality degrees and credentials to 60 percent by 2025. Lumina pursues this goal by identifying and supporting Leadership and Community Service Learning effective practice, encouraging effective public policy, and Program, Adele H. Stamp Student Union, University using its communications and convening capacity to build of Maryland public will for change. Lumina has worked with many http://www.thestamp.umd.edu/lcsl colleges, universities, peer foundations, associations, and The mission of the Leadership and Community Service other organizations that work to improve student access Learning Program (LCLS) is to promote positive social and outcomes across the nation. change through transformative learning and community engagement. LCLS strives to serve a greater good and Mathematical Association of America believes in the universal capacity for leadership. As a http://www.maa.org steward for social change, LCLS seeks to be inclusive, The Mathematical Association of America is the largest promote social justice, and integrate multicultural practices professional society that focuses on mathematics at and principles. LCLS’s relationships, communications, the collegiate level. Association members include and goals are informed through the ideals of transparency, university, college, and high school teachers; graduate congruency, integrity, and responsiveness to changing and undergraduate students; pure and applied needs. LCLS engages in and promotes critical thinking by mathematicians; computer scientists; statisticians; integrating a diversity of thoughts and experiences through and many others in academia, government, business, discussion, exploration, and critical reflection. and industry. The association supports learning in the mathematical sciences by encouraging effective Learn and Serve America curricula, teaching, and assessment at all levels. It also http://www.learnandserve.gov supports research, scholarship, and their exposition at Learn and Serve America is a program of the Corporation all appropriate levels and venues, including research by for National and Community Service, an independent undergraduates. The association also works to influence federal agency created to connect Americans of all ages institutional and public policy through advocacy for the and backgrounds with opportunities to give back to their importance, uses, and needs of the mathematical sciences. communities and their nation. Learn and Serve America supports and encourages service learning throughout Mobilize.org the United States, and enables over one million students http://mobilize.org to make meaningful contributions to their communities Mobilize.org is an all-partisan organization that improves while building their academic and civic skills. The the way democracy works by investing in millennial­ program provides grant support to K–12 schools, driven solutions. Through a series of national convenings community groups, and higher education institutions and investments in on- and off-line community projects, to facilitate service-learning projects; offers training and Mobilize.org engages millennials (those born between the technical assistance resources to teachers, administrators, years 1976 and 1996) in identifying our society’s most parents, schools, and community groups; and collects and pressing issues and in creating long-term, sustainable disseminates research, effective practices, curricula, and solutions to address them. In 2007, Mobilize.org program models. launched the Democracy 2.0 Campaign to call attention to the ways that the democratic process and institutions Lumina Foundation for Education were both serving and failing to serve the interests of the http://www.luminafoundation.org millennial generation. To date, Mobilize.org has hosted The Lumina Foundation for Education is the nation’s ten Democracy 2.0 Summits covering topics such as largest foundation dedicated exclusively to increasing financial literacy, money and politics, millennial veterans, students’ access to and success in postsecondary education. the environment, and youth unemployment. It has invested assets in excess of $1 billion, making it one A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 109

126 Modern Language Association of America presidents and deans for student life and professionals http://www.mla.org working within residence life, student unions and Founded in 1883, the Modern Language Association activities, counseling, health services, career development, (MLA) has more than thirty thousand members in one orientation, enrollment management, disability resources, hundred countries and is one of the largest humanities multicultural services, and retention and assessment. organizations in the world. The MLA provides Through high-quality professional development, strong opportunities for its members to share their scholarly policy advocacy, and substantive research to inform findings and teaching experiences with colleagues and practice, NASPA meets the diverse needs, and invests in to discuss trends in the academy. MLA members host realizing the potential, of all its members under the guiding an annual convention and smaller seminars across the principles of integrity, innovation, inclusion, and inquiry. country, work with related organizations, and sustain one of the finest publishing programs in the humanities. The National Center for Learning and Citizenship recent publication of two major reports—the Report of the at the Education Commission of the States MLA Task Force on Evaluating Scholarship for Tenure and http://www.ecs.org/html/ProjectsPartners/nclc/ and Promotion; Foreign Languages and Higher Education: nclc_main.htm New Structures for a Changed World —exemplifies the The mission of the National Center for Learning MLA’s role as a leader in the higher education community. (NCLC) is to help state and district and Citizenship leaders promote, support, and reward service learning and citizenship education as essential components National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Civic Engagement Program of America’s education system. NCLC identifies and http://www.naacp.org/programs/entry/civic-engagement analyzes policies and practices that support effective The National Association for the Advancement of service learning and citizenship education; disseminates Colored People (NAACP) Civic Engagement Program, analyses of best practices and policy trends through along with the half-million adult and youth NAACP issue briefs, tool kits, commissioned papers, and other members throughout the United States, is a frontline publications; and convenes national, state, and local advocate committed to raising awareness for the political, meetings and networks to share information about educational, social, and economic equality of minority service learning and citizenship education. NCLC group citizens in the electoral process. With approximately also works closely with other national, state, and local 2,200 adult branches, youth councils, and college chapters advocacy groups to contribute to a collective public voice in forty-nine states, five countries, and the District of in support of the civic mission of schools. Columbia, the NAACP is actively engaged in increasing the African American responsiveness of citizens to be fully National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation engaged in the democratic process. Issues that the program http://ncdd.org focuses on include the census, reapportionment and The National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation redistricting, and electoral reform, among others. actively promotes learning and collaboration among practitioners, public leaders, scholars, and organizations NASPA-Student Affairs Administrators involved in dialogue, deliberation, and other innovative in Higher Education group processes that help people tackle complex issues. http://www.naspa.org It provides national and regional conferences, online NASPA is the leading association for the advancement, programs and resources, and numerous collaborative health, and sustainability of the student affairs profession. projects that provide opportunities for members of the NASPA serves a full range of professionals who provide dialogue and deliberation community to share knowledge, programs, experiences, and services that cultivate student collaborate, and build relationships. The coalition learning and success in concert with the mission of our embraces and demonstrates the following values and colleges and universities. NASPA comprises more than principles: collaboration and active participation, openness twelve thousand members in all fifty states, twenty-nine and transparency, inclusivity, balance, curiosity and countries, and eight US territories. Members include vice commitment to learning, action, and service to others. 110

127 National Council for the Social Studies preserve and provide access to cultural and educational http://www.socialstudies.org resources; and strengthen the institutional base of the Founded in 1921, National Council for the Social Studies humanities. (NCSS) is the largest association in the country devoted solely to social studies education. NCSS engages and New England Resource Center for Higher Education supports educators in strengthening and advocating for http://www.nerche.org social studies education and defines social studies as the The New England Resource Center for Higher Education integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to (NERCHE) is committed to collaborative change promote civic competence. Organized into a network of processes in higher education that address social justice more than 110 affiliated state, local, and regional councils in a diverse democracy. As a center for inquiry, research, and associated groups, the NCSS membership represents and policy, NERCHE supports administrators, faculty, K–12 classroom teachers, college and university faculty and staff across the region in becoming more effective members, curriculum designers and specialists, social practitioners and leaders as they navigate the complexities studies supervisors, and leaders in the various disciplines of institutional innovation and change. NERCHE’s that constitute the social studies. research projects, programs, and activities draw upon the practitioner perspective to improve practice and to National Issues Forums Institute inform and influence policy, moving from the local to http://www.nifi.org regional and national levels. The center’s work is informed National Issues Forums Institute is a nonpartisan, by a grassroots approach to developing collaborative nationwide organization that supports national issues leadership, oriented to building diverse and inclusive forums through a network of locally sponsored public communities. forums for the consideration of public policy issues. It is rooted in the simple notion that people need to come New Leadership Alliance for Student Learning together to reason and talk—to deliberate about common and Accountability problems. These forums—organized by a variety of http://www.newleadershipalliance.org organizations, groups, and individuals—offer citizens The New Leadership Alliance for Student Learning the opportunity to join together to deliberate, to make and Accountability leads and supports voluntary and choices with others about ways to approach difficult cooperative efforts to move the higher education issues, and to work toward creating reasoned public community toward gathering, reporting on, and using judgment. The forums focus on an issue such as health evidence to improve student learning in American care, immigration, social security, or ethnic and racial undergraduate education. The alliance envisions a self- tensions. They provide a way for people of diverse views directed, professional higher education community that and experiences to seek a shared understanding of the produces an increasing number of college graduates problem and to search for common ground for action. with high-quality degrees in preparation for work, life, and responsible citizenship. Through the promotion National Endowment for the Humanities of shared principles, recommended actions, and http://www.neh.gov innovative initiatives, the alliance aims to shape attitudes, Created in 1965, NEH is an independent federal agency practices, and policies related to gathering, reporting that promotes excellence in the humanities and is one of on, and using evidence to improve student learning the largest funders of humanities programs in the United and to increase public confidence in the quality of States. The endowment provides grants for high-quality undergraduate education. humanities projects in four funding areas: preserving and providing access to cultural resources, education, research, and public programs. The grants strengthen teaching and learning in the humanities in schools and colleges across the nation; facilitate research and original scholarship; provide opportunities for lifelong learning; A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 111

128 National Women’s Studies Association The Office has responsibility for the development http://www.nwsa.org and leadership of intercultural activities, trainings, Established in 1977, the National Women’s Studies and programs that educate and promote awareness, Association (NWSA) is a professional organization understanding, and appreciation of diversity and dedicated to leading the fields of women’s studies inclusion on campus as well as for increasing multicultural and gender studies, as well as their teaching, learning, competency throughout the campus community. research, and service wherever they be may found. NWSA members actively pursue a just world in which Office for Public Engagement, University of all persons can develop to their fullest potential—one Minnesota free from ideologies, structures, or systems of privilege http://engagement.umn.edu that oppress or exploit some for the advantage of others. Public engagement at the University of Minnesota is NWSA is committed to a vision of education and the partnership of university knowledge and resources scholarship that includes faculty, students, centers, other with those of the public and private sectors in order campus organizations, and community scholars, and the to enrich scholarship, research, and creative activity; association serves its members through publications, enhance curriculum, teaching, and learning; prepare meetings, professional development activities, and educated, engaged citizens; strengthen democratic values support for scholarship that transforms knowledge of and civic responsibility; address critical societal issues; women and puts that knowledge into practice. and contribute to the public good. The university’s engagement work is facilitated across more than two Office of Civic Engagement, Rutgers University– hundred public engagement units and centers across Camden the system’s five campuses. Along with addressing http://www.camden.rutgers.edu/about-us/ important and challenging societal issues (domestically community-outreach and internationally), public engagement enhances the The goal of the Office of Civic Engagement at Rutgers– university’s capacity to conduct rigorous, significant Camden is to develop strategies for integrating civic research that benefits society and to offer its students engagement into every aspect of Rutgers–Camden a broad array of meaningful and transformational campus life—teaching, research, and the student community-based learning experiences. The office experience—by building effective partnerships with is home to the International Center for Research public and private entities working to improve Camden on Community Engagement, which is composed of and the region. The Office of Civic Engagement supports international research collaboratives that examine a broad faculty and curricular development, student learning range of issues pertaining to community engagement in through engagement, and the creation and improvement primary, secondary, and higher education. of sustained partnerships to advance Rutgers–Camden’s mission to serve the public interest. Office of Service-Learning, Duquesne University http://www.duq.edu/service-learning Office of Intercultural Education, Wellesley College Duquesne University’s Office of Service-Learning (OSL) http://www.wellesley.edu/DeanStudent/Diversity/ supports faculty, students, and partners involved in intercultural.html community-based learning. It also supports academic The Office of Intercultural Education (OIC) is charged facets of community-university partnerships. Because of with educating students for national and global citizenship its emphasis on students’ civic development; promotion of through an integrated cocurricular program of intercultural critical reflection; and sustained, reciprocal partnerships, education that equips students with the awareness, the OSL is recognized as a significant organizer of the knowledge and skills they will need for leadership and university’s community engagement mission. The OSL life in a diverse and interdependent world. OIC works in is responsible for the administration of the community partnership with the associate provost, academic director engagement scholars program and the Gaultier Faculty of diversity and inclusion, the director of employment, Fellowship. At Duquesne, service learning is embedded faculty, staff, and students on intercultural programming. in existing courses throughout degree programs. It is a 112

129 central and valuable learning activity, bringing to life the pr actice. PACE members share the belief that broad and university’s mission and identity. informed public participation is the bedrock of a free, democratic, and civil society. Ohio State University Extension Project Kaleidoscope http://extension.osu.edu http://www.pkal .org The Ohio State University Extension is the world’s largest Since its founding in 1989, Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) nonformal educational and university outreach and has been one of the leading advocates in the United engagement system. Extension professionals develop and States for building and sustaining strong undergraduate implement educational programs that integrate the needs programs in the fields of science, technology, engineering, of the local community with the research developed and mathematics (STEM). With an extensive network of by faculty at land-grant universities across the country. over 5,500 faculty members and administrators at more The extension fulfills the land-grant mission of the Ohio than 750 colleges and universities, PKAL has developed State University (OSU) by interpreting knowledge far-reaching influence in shaping undergraduate and research so that Ohioans can use the scientifically STEM learning environments that attract and retain based information to better their lives, businesses, and undergraduate students. PKAL accomplishes its work communities. The OSU Extension works in four major by engaging campus faculty and leaders in funded program areas: family and consumer sciences, 4-H youth projects, national and regional meetings, community- development, community development, and agriculture building activities, leadership development programs, and natural resources. These program areas—and many and publications that focus on advancing what works in other special topics—are continuously being evaluated STEM education. PKAL merged with the Association of and updated to meet the changing needs and issues facing American Colleges and Universities in 2010. each community. Phi Beta Kappa Society Project Pericles http://www.pbk.org http://www.projectpericles.org The Phi Beta Kappa Society is the oldest and most widely Project Pericles is a not-for-profit organization that encourages and facilitates commitments by colleges known academic honors society. Founded in 1776, Phi Beta Kappa has embraced the principles of freedom of and universities to include social responsibility and inquiry and liberty of thought and expression, as well participatory citizenship as essential elements of their as disciplinary rigor, breadth of intellectual perspective, educational programs. Founded in 2001 by educational philanthropist Eugene M. Lang, Project Pericles works cultivation of skills of deliberation and ethical reflection, pursuit of wisdom, and application of the fruits of directly with its member institutions as they individually and collaboratively develop model civic engagement programs scholarship and research in practical life. It celebrates and advocates excellence in the liberal arts and sciences in their classrooms, their campuses, and their communities. Signature programs include the Civic Engagement Course by sponsoring activities to advance these studies— Program, Debating for Democracy, and the Periclean Faculty the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences—in higher education and in society at large. Leadership Program. Across the country, Periclean colleges and universities are each implementing their own curricular and cocurricular programs that prepare and encourage Philanthropy for Active Civic Engagement students to become active, responsible citizens. http://www.pacefunders.org The mission of Philanthropy for Active Civic Engagement Public Agenda (PACE) is to inspire interest, understanding, and http://www.publicagenda.org investment in civic engagement. PACE is an affinity group Since its founding in 1975, Public Agenda has worked of the Council on Foundations and serves as a learning to enhance democratic problem solving by helping collaborative of grant makers doing work in the fields of leaders better understand and more effectively engage civic engagement, service, and democratic theory and A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 113

130 Service Learning Institute, California State University, citizens. Public Agenda pursues this through research, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) engagement, and communications that bridge the http://service.csumb.edu divisions and disconnects among leaders and publics, The Service Learning Institute (SLI) serves as the home of thereby achieving sustainable solutions to tough the California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) challenges like improving K–12 and higher education, service-learning program. Housed in the College of addressing climate change, and reforming health care. University Studies and Programs, the SLI serves as an By doing so, Public Agenda seeks to contribute to a instructional unit, an academic resource center, a center democracy in which problem solving triumphs over for developing community partnerships, and the home gridlock and inertia, and where public policy reflects the of an innovative student leadership program. The SLI has deliberations and values of the citizenry. been recognized nationally for its work in helping students examine issues of justice, diversity, and social responsibility Public Conversations Project through service learning. http://www.publicconversations.org The Public Conversations Project (PCP) works in the Society for Developmental Biology United States and internationally to help people with http://www.sdbonline.org profound identity, values, and religious differences to The Society for Developmental Biology (SDB) was enhance the ways they relate to one another by changing founded in 1939 to promote the field of developmental the ways they speak together. PCP has fused thinking biology and to advance our understanding of and techniques from family therapy and other disciplines developmental biology at all levels. The SDB fosters into a dialogic approach that rehumanizes opponents excellence in research and education in developmental and raises mutual understanding and regard through biology and related areas and provides advice and resources reflection, preparation, and intentional speaking. For on careers and information for the public on relevant more than twenty years PCP has offered teaching, topics in developmental biology. The SDB provides a consultation, conference design, and dialogue facilitation communication hub for all developmental biologists. to leaders, practitioners, university faculty, students, Developmental The SDB is associated with the journal and partisans in such major conflicts as abortion, sexual and organizes scientific meetings that focus on Biology orientation, postwar living in Africa, and the Israeli- developmental biology and related fields. The SDB also has Palestinian conflict, among others. established programs to interface with the international community of developmental biologists, and maintains a Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network website that covers all aspects of developmental biology. http://www.rainn.org The Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) Spencer Foundation is the nation’s largest anti-sexual violence organization. http://www.spencer.org RAINN operates the National Sexual Assault Hotline The Spencer Foundation believes that cultivating at 1.800.656.HOPE and the National Sexual Assault knowledge and new ideas about education will Online Hotline at rainn.org, and publicizes the hotlines’ ultimately improve students’ lives and enrich society. free, confidential services; educates the public about The foundation pursues its mission by awarding sexual violence; and leads national efforts to prevent research grants and fellowships and by strengthening the sexual violence, improve services to victims, and ensure connections among educational research, policy, and that rapists are brought to justice. RAINN is a frequent practice through its communications and networking resource for television, radio, and print news outlets— activities. Established in 1962, the Spencer Foundation as well as local, state, and national policy makers, law investigates ways in which education, broadly conceived, enforcement, and rape treatment professionals—on can be improved around the world. Founded on the belief issues related to rape and sexual violence. that research is necessary to improvement in education, the foundation is committed to supporting high-quality investigation of education through its research programs 114

131 Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service, and to strengthening and renewing the educational Tufts University research community through its fellowship and training http://activecitizen.tufts.edu programs and related activities. The Jonathan M. Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service is a national leader in civic education. Serving Sustained Dialogue Campus Network every student at Tufts University, Tisch College prepares http://sdcampusnetwork.org young people to be lifelong active citizens and creates an The Sustained Dialogue Campus Network (SDCN) enduring culture of active citizenship. By continuously develops everyday leaders who engage differences as developing and introducing new active citizenship strengths to improve their campuses, workplaces, and programming in collaboration with Tufts schools, communities. It is an initiative of the International departments, and student groups, Tisch College builds Institute for sustained dialogue, an organization founded a culture of active citizenship throughout the university. in 2002 to promote the process of sustained dialogue This entrepreneurial approach grows the university’s for transforming racial, ethnic, and other deep-rooted capacity for engagement, and allows the college to reach conflicts in the United States and abroad. With fourteen every student at all of Tufts schools. member campuses and an annual participation of one thousand students and four thousand alumni, SDCN builds the capacity of students, administrators, and communities to create inclusive environments through a proven dialogue-to-action process. Participation in sustained dialogue is associated with increased academic achievement, empathy, and civic agency. Alumni—sought after by top hiring organizations—apply their awareness, commitment, and tools to create inclusive civic and professional environments. Thayne Center for Service & Learning, Salt Lake Community College http://www.slcc.edu/thaynecenter The Thayne Center for Service & Learning at Salt Lake Community College envisions a world in which people’s basic needs are met and in which the values of equality and social justice are realized. The center believes that institutions of higher education have a historic responsibility to cultivate an engaged citizenry, and is therefore dedicated to empowering students and faculty with the knowledge and skills needed to create positive change in their communities. The center’s mission is to establish capacity-building relationships with community organizations, facilitate service-learning development opportunities for faculty, and coordinate service leadership programs for students who are out to change the world. A CRUCIBLE MOM ENT: College Learning & Democracy’s Future 115


133 About AAC&U The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) is the leading national association concerned with the quality, vitality, and public standing of undergraduate liberal education. Its members are committed to extending the advantages of a liberal education to all students, regardless of academic specialization or intended career. Founded in 1915, AAC&U now comprises more than 1,200 member institutions—including accredited public and private colleges and universities of every type and size. AAC&U functions as a catalyst and facilitator, forging links among presidents, administrators, and faculty members who are engaged in institutional and curricular planning. Its mission is to reinforce the collective commitment to liberal education at both the national and local levels and to help individual institutions keep the quality of student learning at the core of their work as they evolve to meet new economic and social challenges. Information about AAC&U membership, programs, and publications can be found at www.aacu.org. 1818 R Street N W, Washington, DC 20009 www.aacu.org



136 1818 R Street N W, Washington, DC 20009 www.aacu.org

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