nf2005

Transcript

1 N ATION AL C URRICUL UM F RAMEW ORK 2005

2 F OREW ORD I have had the privilege of participating in a remarkable process of social deliberation initiated by NCERT to focus public attention on what should be taught to our children and se of this wide-r anging c hur ning of ideas and e xpecta tions , I ha w. In the cour orked ho ve w closely with a large number of very special individuals for the preparation of the National Curriculum Framework presented in this document. The names of these individuals are given in this document. There is much analysis and a lot of advice. All this is accompanied by frequent reminders that specificities matter, that the mother tongue is a critical conduit, that social, economic and ethnic backgrounds are important for enabling children to construct their own knowledge. Media and educational technologies are recognised as significant, but the teacher al. Di versities ar e emphasised b ut ne ver vie wed as pr oblems . T remains centr e is a her contin eco gnition tha t societal lear ning is an asset and tha t the f or mal cur riculum will be uing r greatly enriched by integrating with that. There is a celebration of plurality and an understanding that within a broad framework plural approaches would lead to enhanced . creativity The document frequently revolves around the question of curriculum load on children. eg ar d w e seem to ha ve fallen into a pit. W In this r ve bar ter ed a wa y under standing f or e ha memor y-based, shor t-ter m inf or ma tion accum ula tion. T his m ust be r ev ersed, par ticular ly no w tha what could be memorised has be gun to e xplode . W e need to gi ve our t the mass of children some taste of understanding, following which they would be able to learn and create their own versions of knowledge as they go out to meet the world of bits, images and transactions of life. Such a taste would make the present of our children wholesome, yab le; the y w ould not be tr auma tised b creative and enjo xcessi ve b urden of inf orma tion y the e that is required merely for a short time before the hurdle race we call examination. The document sug gests some w ays of getting out of this self-imposed ad versity . Ac hie ving some degree of success in this area would also signify that we have learnt to appreciate the capacity f ning and the futility of filling up c hildr en’s memor or lear orma tion y banks with inf that is best kept as ink marks on paper or bits on a computer disc. Education is not a physical thing that can be delivered through the post or through a teac her . Fer tile and r obust educa tion is al wa ys cr eated, rooted in the ph ysical and cultur al soil of the child, and nourished through interaction with parents, teachers, fellow students and teac unity . T he r ole and dignity of the comm her s in this function m ust be str engthened and underlined. There is a mutuality to the genuine construction of knowledge. In this

3 iv transaction the teacher also learns if the child is not forced to remain passive. Since children y per cei ve mor e than g ro wn-ups , their potential r ole as kno wledg e usuall ve and obser creators needs to be appreciated. From personal experience I can say with assurance that a lot of my limited understanding is due to my interaction with children. The document does dwell on this aspect. The rich and comprehensive nature of this document would not have been achieved without a special ignition that enveloped all those who got involved. I do not know who ppened a . Perha ps the ef fort ha as no one in par t a k — perha ticular ps it w struck the spar point in time when a critical mass of discomfort had accumulated. Enough is enough, was ticipants . Perha ps the enthusiasm of a f ew w as eeling amongst most of the f the par . infectious It was tempting to assign blame for many things that have not gone as well as we go. W e ha ve tried to a void pla wished man lame g ame – perha ps due to y decades a ying the b act tha e ar e all r esponsib le in one w ay or another . Most of us ar e responsib le as the f t w members of a middle class that had begun to emotionally secede from the mass of people e ‘plur uck b y the fr equenc y of words lik as str alism’, ‘equity’ and ‘equality’ in the countr y. I w during our discussions ve tha t the y ar e par t of a political rhetoric , because w e . I do not belie talk er y little politics in our e xtensi ve discussions . I belie ve this came a bout because w e ed v were led to a conviction that our strength lies in the presently deprived three-fourths of our people. Marrying their socially acquired competences and skills with academic pursuits in ould lead to a special f lowering of talent and skills . our educa tional institutions w gests w mo ving in tha t dir ection. Some of the systemic The document sug ays of es sug g ested w ould def initel y help . I hope w e can become oper ational on ideas of a chang hool system, work and educa tion, and letting c hildr en enter the w orld of for mal common sc learning through the language of their home and environment. We do not f y the task. W e feel it is doa ble. I hope this ef for t might star t eel daunted b a freedom movement for the education of our young — away from some of the tyrannies veloped our h w e ha ve en in w selv es. hic Yash P al

4 A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS tional Cur riculum F work (NCF) 2005 o wes its pr esent sha pe and f or m to the Na rame flurry of ideas generated through a series of intensive deliberations by eminent scholars from different disciplines, principals, teachers and parents, representatives of NGOs, NCERT ved signif s at various le vels. It r ecei veral other stak icant contrib utions faculty eholder , and se etaries of Educa tion and Dir ector s of SCER Ts, and par ticipants of the from sta te Secr ganised a s or . Experiences shar ed b y principals of pri va te sc hools re gional seminar t the RIEs and Kendriya Vidyalayas and by teachers of rural schools across the country helped in ents oices of thousands of people—students , par shar , and pub lic a t pening our ideas . V ough r egular mail and electr large—thr pping m ultiple vie wpoints . onic media helped in ma The document has benefited immensely from a generous flow of constructive wn esta gestions and per om member s of NCER T’s o ve comments fr blishment sug cepti and its higher-level committees, i.e. Executive Committee, General Council and Central Advisory Board of Education. State governments were specifically requested to organise workshops to discuss the draft NCF during July-August 2005, and we are grateful for the ts r ecei ved fr om se veral sta tes and the Azim Pr emji F ounda tion w hic h or re por ganised a seminar in collaboration with the governments of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, etc. Discussions richur) and ganised b a Sahith ya P arishad (T er ala Sastr All India P eople’ s were also or y K Science Netw richur), Bhar at Gy an Vig yan Samiti (Ne w Delhi), SIEMA T (P atna), or k (T The Concer ned f or Working Childr en, Bang alor e, Tr ust f or Educa tional Inte g ra ted De velopment (R hi), Koshish Charita ble Tr ust (P atna), and Dig antar (J aipur). T he Council anc for Indian School Certificate Examination (New Delhi), Central Board of Secondary Education (New Delhi), Boards of Secondary Education of States, Council of Boards of School Education (COBSE) in India (New Delhi) actively helped us in the crystallization e ac kno wledg of our ideas or hosting meetings is due to the Academic Staf f . Sincer ement f College of India, Hyderabad; Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Mumbai; vpur Uni versity , Kolka ta; Ali Jada ar J ung Na tional Institute of Hearing Handica pped, Yav Mumbai; tional Institute of Mental Health, Secunder abad; Na . Founda tion, Secunder abad; M.V Sewagr am, W ardha; Na tional Institute of Pub lic Cooper ation and Child De velopment, Centr Guw te Council of Educa tional R esear ch and Tr aining , T hir uv anantha pur am, ti; Sta al aha Institute of lish and F oreign Langua ges, Hy Eng abad, Centr al Institute of Indian der Languages, Mysore; National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad; SMYM Samiti, Lonawala, e Pune; th Easter n Hill Uni ver sity , Shillong; DSER T, Bang alor e; IUCAA, Pune; Centr Nor her for En tion, Ahmeda bad and Vijay Teac vironment Educa s Colle ge, Bang alor e.

5 vi NCF-2005 has been translated into the languages of VIII Schedule of the Constitution. e thanks ar e due to Dr kataki (Assamese), Shri De bashish Sengupta (Bang la), Sincer . D. Bar Pr Dr gri), Shri K ash ya p Mank odi (Gujar ati), of. V . Anil Bodo (Bodo), eena Gupta (Do th thi Sax . Prabha t Ranjan (Hindi), Shri S . S. Y adur aga (K annada), Dr . Somna ena and Mr Ms . Pr ajan, Shri Damodar Ghanekar (K onkani), Dr . Neeta Jha (Maithili), Shri K. K. ashmiri), Raina (K yalam), Shri T. Sur jit Singh Thokc hom (Manipuri), Dr . Da tta Desai Krishna K umar (Mala Dr (Mar gen Sar ma (Ne pali), Dr . Madan Mohan Pr adhan (Oriy a), Shri R anjit athi), . Kha bi), olkan (Sanskrit), Shri Subodh Hansda (Santhali), angila (Punja Shri Dutta Bhushan P Singh R . Lekhw ani (Sindhi), Mr A. V allina yag am (T amil), Shri Dr aman yam . K.P V Balasubhr . Nazir Hussain (Ur W e place on r ecor d our g du). agha vendr a, (Telugu) and Dr ra titude to Mr R . Ritu, Dr Ms poor vanand, and Ms . La tika Gupta, Dr . Madha vi K umar , Dr . Manjula . A Ma . Indu K umar f or editing the Hindi te xt; and to Shri Har sh Sethi and thur and Ms . Malini Sood f or a meticulous scr y of the man uscript and Shri Nasir ud din Khan Ms utin ya Sahoo f uscript and making helpful sug eading par ts of the man . Sandh g estions . and Dr or r xpr ra titude to Ms . Shw eta R ao f or the design and la yout of the document, We also e ess our g . R obin Baner jee f or photo gra phs on the co ver and pa ge 78 and Mr . R.C Mr CIET f or other photo gra phs , our collea gues in DCET A f or pr oviding . Dass of support in dissemination of NCF through the NCERT website and the Publication De tment f or bringing out the NCF in its pr esent f or m. W e ar e most g ra teful to par o car . R. Mr or g ranting us per mission to r eprint tw K. toons (P . 11 and P . 77) Laxman f drawn by him. The list is by no means exhaustive, and we are grateful to all those who contributed in the making of the document.

6 E XECUTIVE UMMAR Y S The Executive Committee of NCERT had taken the decision, at its meeting held on 14 and 19 July 2004, to revise the National Curriculum Framework, following the statement made by the Hon’ble Minister of Human Resource Development in the Lok Sabha that the y, Ministr h a r y, the Educa tion Secr etar Subsequentl y of evision. Council should tak e up suc HRD communicated to the Director of NCERT the need to review the National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE – 2000) in the light of the report, ithout Burden (1993). In the conte xt of these decisions , a Na tional Steering ning W Lear , chair ed b y Pr of . Y ash P al, and 21 Na tional F ocus Gr oups w ere set up . Committee Membership of these committees included representatives of institutions of advanced lear , NCER T’s o wn f aculty , sc hool teac her s and non-g ov er nmental or ganisa tions . ning tions w er e held in all par ts of the countr y, in ad dition to f iv e major r egional Consulta seminar t the NCER T’s R egional Institute of Educa tion in Mysor e, Ajmer , Bhopal, s held a Bhubanes war and Shillong . Consulta tions with sta te Secr etaries , SCER Ts and e xamina tion boards were carried out. A national conference of rural teachers was organised to seek their advice. Advertisements were issued in national and regional newspapers inviting public opinion, and a large number of responses were received. The revised National Curriculum Framework (NCF) opens with a quotation from th Tag ore’s essa y, Ci vilisation and Pr ana in w hic h the poet r eminds us tha t a Ra bindr ogress, ‘creative spirit’ and ‘generous joy’ are key in childhood, both of which can be distorted by an unthinking adult w T he opening c hapter discusses cur ricular r efor m ef forts made orld. since Inde . T he Na tional P olic pendence tion (NPE, 1986) pr oposed the Na tional y on Educa Curriculum Framework as a means of evolving a national system of education, recommending a core component derived from the vision of national development enshrined in the Constitution. ogr amme of Action (PO A, 1992) ela bor ated this f T he Pr ocus by emphasising r ele vance , flexibility and quality . Seeking guidance from the Constitutional vision of India as a secular, egalitarian and plur alistic society , founded on the v alues of social justice and equality , cer tain br oad aims of education have been identified in this document. These include independence of thought and action, sensitivity to others’ well-being and feelings, learning to respond to new situations in a flexible and creative manner, predisposition towards participation in democratic processes, and the ability to work towards and contribute to economic pr ocesses and social c hang e. For teac hing to ser ve as a means of str engthening our democratic way of life, it must respond to the presence of first generation school-goers, whose retention is imperative owing to the Constitutional amendment that has made

7 viii elementary education a fundamental right of every child. Ensuring health, nutrition and an inclusive school environment empowering all children in their learning, across differences of caste , disa bility , is enjoined upon us b y the Constitutional amendment. , r eligion, gender The fact that learning has become a source of burden and stress on children and their ents is an e p distor tion in educa tional aims and quality . T o cor rect this vidence of par a dee distortion, the present NCF proposes five guiding principles for curriculum development: (i) connecting knowledge to life outside the school; (ii) ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods; (iii) enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks; (iv) making examinations more flexible and integrating them with classroom life; and ormed b y caring concer ns within the democr atic (v) n urturing an o ver riding identity inf y. the countr polity of All our pedagogic efforts during the primary classes greatly depend on professional planning and the significant expansion of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Indeed, the revision of primary school syllabi and textbooks needs to be undertaken in the ell-kno wn principles of ECCE. T he na tur e of kno wledg e and c hildr en’s o wn light of the w ning ar e discussed in Cha pter 2, whic h f or mula tes a theor etical basis f or the strategies of lear pter 3 in the dif ricular ar eas . The f act tha t tions made in Cha fer ent cur recommenda knowledge is constructed by the child implies that curricula, syllabi and textbooks should her in or ganising c lassr oom e xperiences in consonance with the c hild’ ena tur e ble the teac s na vironment, oviding oppor tunities f or all c hildr and thus pr T eac hing should aim a t and en en. hildr en’s na tur enhancing c e and str ategies to lear n. Kno wledg e needs to be al desir distinguished fr or ma tion, and teac hing needs to be seen as a pr ofessional acti vity , not om inf hing f or memorisa ansmission of facts . Acti vity is the hear t of the c hild’ s as coac tion or as tr the w her ound him/her . T e sense of efore, ever y r esour ce m ust be attempt to mak orld ar deployed to enable children to express themselves, handle objects, explore their natural and and to g ro w up health y. If childr en’s classr oom e xperiences ar e to be or ganised social milieu, t per mits them to constr uct kno wledg e, then our sc hool system r equir in a manner tha es substantial systemic r pter 5) and r econce ptualisa tion of cur ricular ar eas or sc hool efor ms (Cha subjects (Chapter 3) and resources to improve the quality of the school ethos (Chapter 4). In all the four familiar areas of the school curriculum, i.e. language, mathematics, science and social sciences, significant changes are recommended with a view to making education more relevant to the present day and future needs, and in order to alleviate the hic h c hildr en ar e coping toda y. T his NCF r ecommends the softening of subject stress with w boundaries so that children can get a taste of integrated knowledge and the joy of under . In ad dition, plur ality of te standing terial, w hic h could xtbooks and other ma incorporate local knowledge and traditional skills, and a stimulating school environment

8 ix tha hild’ s home and comm unity en vironment, ar e also sug gested. In t responds to the c ge, a r wed a ttempt to implement the thr ee-langua ge f ormula is sug g ested, along langua ene gnition of childr , inc luding tribal with an emphasis on the r eco en’s mother tongues languages, as the best medium of education. The multilingual character of Indian society should be seen as a resource to promote multilingual proficiency in every child, which includes proficiency in English. This is possible only if learning builds on a sound language peda y in the mother tongue . Reading and writing , listening and speec h, contrib ute to the gog child’ ricular ar eas and m ust be the basis f or cur riculum planning . s pr og r ess in all cur Emphasis on reading throughout the primary classes is necessary to give every child a solid or sc hool lear ning . founda tion f ma tics should enhance the c hing of hild’ s resour ces to think and r eason, The teac thema actions um or mula te and solv e pr ob lems . T his br oad spectr bstr to visualise and handle a , to f of aims can be covered by teaching relevant and important mathematics embedded in the s e child’ thema tics should be seen as the right of every c hild. . Succeeding in ma xperience , widening its scope and r elating it to other subjects is essential. The infr astr uctur al For this available computer hardware, and software and connectivity challenge involved in making . to every school should be pursued The teaching of science should be recast so that it enables children to examine and yse e ver yday e . Concer ns and issues per taining to the en vir onment should be anal xperiences emphasised in every subject and through a wide range of activities involving outdoor project the inf tion and under standing f lowing fr om suc h pr ojects could wor k. Some of or ma bor ation of a pub licly accessib le , transpar ent da contrib s ute to the ela tabase on India’ environment, which would in turn become a most valuable educational resource. If well planned, many of these student projects could lead to knowledge generation. A social Childr en’s Science Congr mo should be visualised in or der to vement along the lines of ess promote discovery learning across the nation, and eventually throughout South Asia. In the social sciences, the approach proposed in the NCF recognises disciplinary markers gra tion on signif icant themes while emphasising inte h as w ater. A par adigm shift is , suc recommended, proposing the study of the social sciences from the perspective of ginalised g roups vity to wards issues r ela ted to SC and ST mar . Gender justice and a sensiti unities and minority sensibilities m orm all sector s of the social sciences . Ci vics comm ust inf should be recast as political science, and the significance of history as a shaping influence on hild’ s conce the c the past and ci vic identity should be r eco gnised. ption of This NCF draws attention to four other curricular areas: work, the arts and heritage crafts, health and physical education, and peace. In the context of work, certain radical y sta ning with w ork fr om the pr ste ps to link lear ge up wards ar e sug gested on the e-primar

9 x gr ound tha or k tr ansf or ms kno wledg e into e xperience and g ener ates t w important personal and social values, such as self-reliance, creativity and cooper es ne w f or ms of kno wledg e and cr eativity . At the senior le vel, a ation. It also inspir or k is r or mall gnise out-of-sc hool r esour ces f or w eco ecommended to benef it str ategy to f y r children who opt for livelihood-related education. Such out-of-school agencies need accreditation so that they can provide ‘work benches’ where children can work with tools ces . Cr aft ma pping is r ecommended to identify z ones w her e v oca tional and other r esour or aft f volving local cr aftper sons can be made a vaila ble training in cr ms in to children. Art as a subject at all stages is recommended, covering all four major spheres, i.e. music, dance, visual arts and theatre. The emphasis should be on interactive approaches, not instruction, because the goal of art education is to promote aesthetic and personal bility to e xpr ess oneself in dif aw or ms . T he impor tance of India’ s ar eness and the a ferent f ge cr afts , both in ter ms of their economic and aesthetic v alues , should be r eco gnised herita as being relevant to school education. The c s success a t sc hool de pends on n utrition and w ell-planned ph ysical acti vity hild’ programmes, hence resources and school time must be deployed for the strengthening of the midday meal programme. Special efforts are needed to ensure that girls receive as much attention in health and physical education programmes as boys from the pre-school stage up wards. Peace as a precondition for national development and as a social temper is proposed as a comprehensive value framework that has immense relevance today in view of the growing tendency across the world towards intolerance and violence as a way of resolving . T he potential of peace educa conf or socialising c hildr en into a democr atic and just licts tion f culture can be actualised through appropriate activities and a judicious choice of topics in all t all sta ges. Peace educa tion as an ar ea of stud y is r ecommended f or inc lusion subjects and a in the curriculum for teacher education. The school ethos is discussed as a dimension of the curriculum as it predisposes the child towards the aims of education and strategies of learning necessary for success at As a r esour ce, school time needs to be planned in a f lexib le manner . Locall y planned school. le xib h per hool calendar s and time ta bles w hic and f mit time slots of dif ferent lengths le sc required for different kinds of activities, such as project work and outdoor excursions to natural and heritage sites, are recommended. Efforts are required for preparing more learning resources for children, especially books and reference materials in regional languages, for school and teacher reference libraries, and for access to interactive rather than dissemina tive tec hnolo . T he NCF emphasises the impor tance of multiplicity and f luidity gies

10 xi of options at the senior secondary level, discouraging the entrenched tendency to place children in fixed streams, and limiting opportunities of children, especially from the rural areas . systemic r efor ms engthening Panchay ati xt of In the conte , this document emphasises str Raj institutions by the adoption of a more streamlined approach to encourage community ticipa bility . A v ariety of par hool-based sc enhancing quality and accounta tion as a means of onment could help cr eate the kno wledg e base f or the Panchay ati taining to the en projects per vir g e and r eg ener ate local en vir onmental r esour ces . Academic Raj institutions to better mana planning and leadership at the school level is essential for improving quality and strategic ferentia roles is necessar y a t b loc k and c luster le vels. In teac her educa tion, radical dif tion of e r ecent tr ed to r ev erse the r ps ar end to wards the dilution of pr ofessional nor ms as ste equir vice tr ttopadh a Commission (1984). Pr e-ser yay aining pr ogr ammes recommended b y the Cha need to be mor ehensi ve and length y, incor por ating suf ficient oppor tunities f or e compr obser childr en and inte g ra tion of peda go gic theor y with pr actice thr ough sc hool va tion of nship . inter efor ms constitute the most impor e to be tak en f or Examina tant systemic measur tion r curricular renewal and to find a remedy for the growing problem of psychological pressure that children and their parents feel, especially in Classes X and XII. Specific measures include the question pa changing the typolo t reasoning and cr eative a bilities r eplace gy of per so tha memorisation as the basis of evaluation, and integration of examinations with classroom life by encouraging transparency and internal assessment. The stress on pre-board examinations must be reversed, and strategies enabling children to opt for different levels of attainment should be encouraged to overcome the present system of generalised ica ca ‘pass’ and ‘fail’ classif teg ories . tion into y, the document r tner ships betw een the sc hool system and other Finall ecommends par roups , inc luding non-g ov ernmental or ganisa civil society g her or ganisa tions . tions and teac The innovative experiences already available should be mainstreamed, and awareness of the challenges implied in the Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) should become a subject of wide-ranging cooperation between the state and all agencies concerned about children.

11 N M C TEERING S AL ATION OMMITTEE THE OF EMBERS Prof. Y person ) than amina . Mina Sw Ms 6. 1. al ( Chair ash P Former Chair man Hon y. Dir ector University Grants Commission Uttara Devi Centre 11B e F , Super Delux lats for Gender & Development Sector 15A, . Sw A NOID M.S amina than R esear ch F Uttar Pradesh 3rd Cr oss R oad ounda tion, Area Taramani Institutional Chennai 600113 Acharya Ramamurti 2. man Chair Tamil Nadu Shram Bharti, Khadigram P.O. Khadig ram . Padma M. Sar 7 apani ang Dr Dist. Jamui 811313 ello Associa w te F Bihar National Institute of Advanced Studies Indian Institute of Science Campus . Shailesh Bangalore 560012 3. Dr A. Shir ali Karnataka Principal hool esidential Sc y R Amber Valle Prof. R. Ramanujam 8. K.M. Road, Mugthihalli Institute of Mathematical Science Chikmagalur 577101 4th Cross, CIT Campus Karnataka Tharamani, Chennai 600113 Tamil Nadu 4. Shri Rohit Dhankar Dir , T odi R amzanipur ector , Dig antar a Khonagorian Road, Prof. Anil Sadgopal 9. a tpur P.O. Jaga (Department of Education, Jaipur 302025 Delhi University) Rajasthan E-8/29 A, Sahkar Nagar Bhopal 462039 ya Shri P 5. or omesh Madhya Pradesh Achar (For mer Member , Educa tion est Beng W Commission, al) 10. a Prof. G . Ravindr L/F9, Kusthia Road Principal Government Housing Estate Regional Institute of asam Av antika Av Education (NCERT) Kolkata 700039 Manasgangotri, Mysore 570006 West Beng al Karnataka

12 xiii bla Da . B.A. Dr 18. . Modi 11. yanti J Prof. Dam Professor and Head (For mer Head, tment par Educa tion De par De gy & Sociolo tment of Bhavnagar University) Wor k Social 2209, A/2, Ananddhara University of Kashmir ark, Hill Dri ve Vadodaria P Near Srinagar 190006 Bhavnagar 364002 Jammu & Kashmir Gujarat 19. Vajpe yi Shri Ashok 12. Ms . Sunila Masih Vice Chancellor (For mer hool . Sc Teac her , Mitr a G .H.S Mahatma Gandhi International Soha , P.O. gpur Hindi University) Dist. Hoshangabad 461 771 C-60, Anupam Apartments Madhya Pradesh a Enc Vasundhar B-13, lave Delhi 110096 . Har Ms 13. umari sh K Headmistress, CIE Prof. V alson Thampu 20. Experimental Basic School St. Stephen's Hospital Department of Education G-3, Administration Block University of Delhi Delhi 110054 Tis Hazari, Delhi 110007 21. Prof. Shanta Sinha g han Dass Gar Triloc Shri 14. Director ya No a Vidyala Kendriy Principal, . 1 ounda aiy tion a F tarang V enka M. Bhatinda 151001 201, Narayan Apartments Punjab redpall West Mar y Secunderabad 500026 umar vind K Prof. Ar 15. Andhra Pradesh Centre Director Homi Bhabha Centre for 22. ijaya Mula . V Dr y Science Education (Founder Principal, CET g ao Mar V.N. Pur NCERT) Mankhurd, Mumbai 400088 President, India Documentary Maharashtra Producers Association B-42, y (W Friends Colon est) Prof. Gopal Guru 16. New Delhi 110065 olitical Studies e f or P Centr School of Social Science 23. Prof. Mrinal Miri Jawaharlal Nehru University Vice-Chancellor New Delhi 110 067 North Eastern Hill University P.O. NEHU Campus handr Dr 17. a Guha . Ramac Mawkynroh Umshing 22 A, Brunton Road Shillong 793022 Bangalore 560025 Meghalaya Karnataka

13 xiv ulka . Anita J Dr 31. t Aziz Prof. T ala 24. T , NCER , DEGSN Reader IASE, Faculty of Education, Sri Aurobindo Marg Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi 110016 Jamia Nagar New Delhi 110025 32. Prof. Krishna Kumar Director, NCERT Prof. Savita Sinha 25. Sri Aurobindo Marg Head, DESSH, NCERT New Delhi 110016 Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110016 Mr IAS aul, s. Anita K 33 y, NCER etar Secr T 26. V asishtha Prof. K.K. Sri Aurobindo Marg Head, DEE, NCERT New Delhi 110016 Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110016 34. Shri Ashok Ganguly Chair man Dr 27. aranjpe ya P . Sandh Central Board of Reader, DEE, NCERT Secondary Education (CBSE) Sri Aurobindo Marg Shiksha Kendra New Delhi 110016 2, Community Centre Preet Vihar, Delhi 110 092 28 garaju Prof. C.S. Na , NCERT Head, DERPP ) Khader ( etar y 35. Prof. M.A. Member Secr Sri Aurobindo Marg oup riculum Gr Cur T Head, , NCER New Delhi 110016 Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110016 Dr 29. ari Tiw . Jyotsna Lecturer, DESSH, NCERT Sri Aurobindo Marg , oup Member s of riculum Gr Cur New Delhi 110016 NCERT Prof. M. Chandra 30. Dr Aror a . R anjana Head, DESM, NCERT Dr . Amar endr a Beher a Sri Aurobindo Marg Mr . R. Me gana than New Delhi 110016

14 C ONTENTS OREWORD iii F V A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS XECUTIVE S UMMARY vii E OF THE N ATIONAL S M C OMMITTEE xii EMBERS TEERING Perspective 1 1. 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Retrospect 3 National Curriculum Framework 4 1.3 Guiding Principles 1.4 4 The Quality Dimension 7 1.5 9 1.6 The Social Context of Education Aims of Education 10 1.7 2. wledg e 12 Lear ning and Kno 2.1 12 Primacy of the Active Learner 2.2 13 Learners in Context Development and Learning 14 2.3 2.4 17 Implications for Curriculum and Practice 2.4.1 Teaching for Constr uction of Knowledge 2.4.2 The V alue of Interactions 2.4.3 Designing Lear ning Experiences Approaches to Planning 2.4.4 edago gy 2.4.5 Critical P 24 Knowledge and Understanding 2.5 2.5.1 Basic Capabilities 2.5.2 Knowledge in Practice 2.5.3 Forms of Understanding 2.6 29 Recreating Knowledge 2.7 en’s Kno wledg e and Local Kno wledg e Childr 30 2.8 School Knowledge and the Community 32 2.9 Some Developmental Considerations 33 3. Curricular Areas, School Stages and Assessment 35 3.1 Language 36 Language Education 3.1.1 Home/First Language(s) or Mother T ongue Education 3.1.2 3.1.3 Second Language Acquisition 3.1.4 Lear ning to Read and W rite 3.2 Mathematics 42 3.2.1 Vision for School Mathematics 3.2.2 The Cur riculum 3.2.3 Computer Science 3.3 Science 46 3.3.1 The Cur riculum at dif ferent Stages 3.3.2 Outlook

15 xvi 3.4 50 Social Sciences The Pr oposed Epistemolo rame 3.4.1 gical F riculum 3.4.2 Planning the Cur edago gy and Resour ces 3.4.3 oaches to P Appr 54 3.5 Art Education 3.6 56 Health and Physical Education 3.6.1 Strategies 58 3.7 Work and Educa tion 61 3.8 Education for Peace 3.8.1 Strategies 3.9 Habitat and Learning 64 65 3.10 Schemes of Study and Assessment Early Childhood Education 3.10.1 y School 3.10.2 Elementar y School 3.10.3 Secondar Higher Secondar y School 3.10.4 3.10.5 Open Schooling and Bridge Schooling Assessment and Evaluation 71 3.11 pose of Assessment 3.11.1 The Pur ners 3.11.2 Assessing Lear Teaching 3.11.3 Assessment in the Course of 3.11.4 ricular Ar eas that Cannot be ‘T ested for Marks’ Cur Design and Conduct of Assessment 3.11.5 3.11.6 Self-assessment and F k eedbac Ar eas that Requir resh Thinking 3.11.7 e F 3.11.8 Assessment at Different Stages 4. School and Classroom Environment 78 79 The Physical Environment 4.1 Nurturing an Enabling Environment 82 4.2 83 4.3 Participation of All Children Children's Rights 4.3.1 4.3.2 Policy of Inclusion 87 Discipline and Participatory Management 4.4 4.5 88 Space for Parents and the Community 4.6 Curriculum Sites and Learning Resources 89 Texts and Books 4.6.1 Libraries 4.6.2 Educational T echnolo 4.6.3 gy Tools and Laboratories 4.6.4 4.6.5 Other Sites and Spaces Need for Plurality and Alter nati ve Materials 4.6.6 Or ganising and P ooling Resour 4.6.7 ces 4.7 95 Time Teac her’ s Autonom 4.8 ofessional Inde pendence 98 y and Pr 4.8.1 Time for Reflection and Planning

16 xvii 5. eforms 101 Systemic R Concern for Quality 102 5.1 Academic Planning and Monitoring for Quality 5.1.1 Academic Leadership in Schools and for 5.1.2 School Monitoring anchay ats and Education 5.1.3 The P tion f or Cur riculum R ene wal 5.2 Teac her Educa 107 ns in T eacher Education Present Concer 5.2.1 5.2.2 Vision for T eacher Education eacher Education Pr ogramme 5.2.3 Major Shifts in the T In-Ser raining of Teachers 5.2.4 vice Education and T ves and Strate vice Education Initiati gies for In-Ser 5.2.5 tion R efor ms 5.3 Examina 114 Paper Setting , Examining and Re por ting 5.3.1 Flexibility in Assessment 5.3.2 Board Examinations at Other Levels 5.3.3 Entrance Examinations 5.3.4 ed Educa tion 116 5.4 Work-centr raining Vocational Education and T 5.4.1 Innovation in Ideas and Practices 119 5.5 Textbooks 5.5.1 Plurality of Encouraging Innovations 5.5.2 The Use of Technolo gy 5.5.3 5.6 New Partnerships 121 5.6.1 Role of NGOs, Civil Society Groups and T ganisations eacher Or 124 Epilogue 126 Appendix I Summar y Appendix II 131 om Education Secr etar Letters fr nment of India, MHRD , y, Gover Depar tment of Secondar y and Higher Education Index 134

17

18 “W hen I w eedom to mak e m y own to ys out of trifles and cr eate m y own as a child I had the fr games from imagination. In my happiness my playmates had their full share; in fact the complete enjo my games de pended upon their taking par t in them. One day , in this paradise of yment of our childhood, entered a temptation from the market world of the adult. A toy bought from an English shop was given to one of our companions; it was perfect, big and wonderfully life-like. He became proud of the toy and less mindful of the game; he kept that expensive thing carefully om us , glorying in his ex away fr ve possession of it, f eeling himself superior to his playmates clusi whose to ys w ere cheap . I am sur e if he could ha ve used the moder n language of histor y he w ould have said that he was more civilised than ourselves to the extent of his owning that ridiculously perfect toy. One thing he failed to realise in his excitement – a fact which at the moment seemed to him insignificant – that this temptation obscured something a great deal more perfect than his toy, the r evelation of the perf ect child. The to ely expr essed his w ealth, but not the child’ s y mer creati ve spirit, not the child’ s gener ous jo y in his play , his open invitation to all w ho w er e his compeers to his play-world”. Fr om Ci vilisa tion and Progr ore by R abindr ana th Tag ess

19

20 1 1.1 I NTRODUCTION xtr ee na arie ga ted histor y, an e h v aor dinaril y India is a fr tion with a ric complex cultural diversity and a commitment to democratic values tional P ell-being f Ev er since 1986 w hen the Na or all. olic y on and w Education was approved by Parliament, efforts to redesign the curriculum have been focused on the creation of a national system of educa tion. Gi ven the enor mity and impor tance of the task of t, from time to educa hildr en, it is necessar y tha y’s c ting the countr time, we create occasions to collectively sit back and ask ourselves, “What is it that we are doing in our engagement with this task? Is it time for us to refresh what we provide to our children in the name of education?” If we look at what the system of education has accomplished since Independence, perhaps we have much to be satisfied with. her y, our countr y eng ag es near ly 55 lakh teac Toda s spr ead o ver around 10 lakh schools to educate about 2,025 lakh children. While 82 per cent of habitations have a primary school within a radius of

21 2 unreasonable stress on children, and thus distorts one kilometre, there is an upper primary school within . At least 50 values . It also mak tions 3 kilometr es lear ning fr om eac es f h other a ma tter or 75 per cent of ha bita per cent of our children who appear at the of little consequence. Education must be able to promote values that foster peace, humaneness and school-leaving examinations pass out of the . ulticultur ance in a m toler al society secondary school system. Despite these trends, 37 This document seeks to provide a framework per cent people in India lack literacy skills, about 53 per cent children drop out at the elementary stage, and within which teachers and schools can choose and plan over 75 per cent of our rural schools are multigrade. experiences that they think children should have. In Further, there is a deep disquiet about several aspects order to realise educational objectives, the curriculum of our educational practice: (a) the school system is should be conceptualised as a structure that articulates dress some characterised by an inflexibility that makes it resistant , it should ad . For this xperiences ed e requir vity ted acti ning has become an isola basic questions: , e; (b) lear hang to c What educational purposes should the schools which does not encourage children to link knowledge (a) with their lives in any organic or vital way; (c) schools seek to achieve? What educational experiences can be provided promote a regime of thought that discourages creative (b) thinking and insights; (d) what is presented and that are likely to achieve these purposes? (c) How can these educational experiences be transmitted in the name of learning in schools bypasses vital dimensions of the human capacity to create new meaningfully organised? (d) knowledge; (e) the “future” of the child has t aken How do we ensure that these educational hild’ the c xc lusion of s e sta ge to the near e centr purposes are indeed being accomplished? The review of the National Curriculum “present”, which is detrimental to the well-being of the child as well as the society and the nation. Framework, 2000 was initiated specifically to address the problem of curriculum load on children. A The basic concerns of education—to enable children to make sense of life and develop their committee appointed by the Ministry of Human potential, to define and pursue a purpose and recognise Resource Development in the early 1990s had analysed the right of others to do the same—stand uncontested y s tendenc oots to the system’ tracing its r oblem, this pr ything , we need to r eiter ate tion as kno orma ea t inf to tr wledg and v alid e t, ven toda epor y. If e. In its r an the m utual inter dependence of humans , and, as Tag ore Learning Without Burden, the committee pointed out that learning at school cannot become a joyful says, we achieve our greatest happiness when we realise our selv es thr ough other s. Equall eaf firm y, we need to r experience unless we change our perception of the child as a receiver of knowledge and move beyond , within the equality pt of our commitment to the conce landscape of cultural and socio-economic diversity the convention of using textbooks as the basis for examination. The impulse to teach everything arises from which children enter into the portals of the school. Individual aspirations in a competitive economy tend from lac k of faith in c hildr en’s o wn cr eative instinct and their capacity to construct knowledge out of their to reduce education to being an instrument of terial success . T he per ception, w hic h places the ma experience. The size of textbooks has been growing individual in exclusively competitive relationships, puts over the years, even as the pressure to include new

22 3 topics mounts and the effort to synthesise knowledge attention such as the need for plurality of textbooks er. Flabb y te eak , ets w and urgent improvement in the examination system. eat it holisticall xtbooks y g and tr and the syllabi they cover, symbolise a systemic failure 1.2 R ETROSPECT hild-centr to ad . T hose dress c ed manner hildr en in a c who write such encyclopaedic textbooks are guided Mahatma Gandhi had visualised education as a means by the popular belief that there has been an explosion ’s conscience to injustice , of awakening the na tion of knowledge. Therefore, vast amounts of knowledge violence and inequality entr enc hed in the social or der . should be pushed down the throats of little children in eliance and dignity of Nai T alim emphasised the self-r ould f . ning order to ca social or m the basis of Lear h w whic vidual, the indi tch up with other countries Without Burden recommended a major change in the relations characterised by non-violence within and across . Gandhiji r the ecommended the use of design of syllabi and textbooks, and also a change in society the social ethos, which places stress on children to immediate environment, including the mother tongue and work, as a resource for socialising the child into a ggr essi . become a ecocity ve and e vely competiti xhibit pr hild’ s e teac hing a means of har To mak nessing the c transf society . He dr eamt of tive vision of an India orma in which every individual discovers and realises her or creative nature, the report recommended a fundamental change in the matter of organising the school curriculum, his talents and potential by working with others towards restructuring the world, which continues to and also in the system of examination, which forces tion and to r eproduce orma en to memorise inf childr be characterised by conflicts between nations, within society and between humanity and nature. it. Learning for the sake of being examined in a mechanical manner takes away the joy of being young, After Independence, the concerns of education eedom str ere r ug gle w evisited articula ted during the fr and delinks school knowledge from everyday p str . T al pr experience dress this dee uctur o ad oblem, by the National Commissions — the Secondary Education Commission (1952 - 53) and the Education the present document draws upon and elaborates on the insights of Learning Without Burden. Commission (1964 - 66). Both Commissions elaborated s tma Gandhi’ Maha ging out of on the themes emer Rather th an prescribe, this document seeks to enable teachers and administrators and other agencies educational philosophy in the changed socio-political context with a focus on national development. involved in the design of syllabi and textbooks and examina ef orm mak e r ational c hoices and tion r Education under the Indian Constitution until 1976 allowed the state governments to take decisions . It will also ena ble them to de velop and decisions implement inno locale-specif va tive, ic pr og r ammes . By on all matters pertaining to school education, including curriculum, within their jurisdiction. The Centre could contextualising the challenges involved in curriculum ary social r wal in contempor eality , this document rene . It y issues tes on polic ovide guidance to the Sta y pr onl is under such circumstances that the initial attempts of draws attention to certain specific problems that tive r esponse . W e expect tha t it will demand an ima gina the Na tion P 1968 and the y of olic tional Educa Curriculum Framework designed by NCERT in 1975 str suc engthen ong h as oing pr ocesses of ref orm, devolution of decision making to teachers and elected were f ormula ted. In 1976, the Constitution w as amended to include education in the Concurrent List, local-level bodies, while it also identifies new areas for

23 4 and for the first time in 1986 the country as a whole remained unresolved. The current review exercise takes y on Educa tion. The NPE had a unif orm Na olic into cognizance both positive and negative tional P developments in the field, and attempts to address the (1986) recommended a common core component in y. T riculum thr the sc y he polic oughout the countr hool cur future requirements of school education at the turn of also entrusted NCERT with the responsibility of the centur y. In this endea vour , se veral inter ted rela developing the National Curriculum Framework, and dimensions ha ept in mind, namel y, the aims of ve been k ame re vie wing the fr equent inter . t fr vals work a education, the social milieu of children, the nature of NCERT in continuation of its curriculum-related knowledge in its broader sense, the nature of human work carried out studies and consultations subsequent lear human ocess of and the pr . ning development, to 1975, and had drafted a curriculum framework as a riculum F rame wor k is The ter m Na tional Cur part of its activity in 1984. This exercise aimed at often wrongly construed to mean that an instrument making school education comparable across the of unif or mity is being pr oposed. T he intention as countr y in qualita tive ter ms and also a t making it a articulated in the NPE, 1986 and the Programme of means of ensuring national integration without ar y. NPE as quite the contr oA) 1992 w Action (P y’s plur acter compr omising on the countr alistic c har . proposed a national framework for curriculum as a s w k or h e xperience , the Council’ Based on suc means of evolving a national system of education culminated in the National Curriculum Framework for versity of s di capa ble of responding to India’ School Education, 1988. However, the articulation of geographical and cultural milieus while ensuring a this framework through courses of studies and common core of values along with academic textbooks in a rapidly changing developmental context ged a visa oA en he NPE - P . “T components resulted in an increase in ‘curricular load’ and made child-centred approach to promote universal enrolment g at school a source of stress for young minds learnin and universal retention of children up to 14 years of orma and bodies during their f c tive year s of hildhood age and substantial improvement in the quality of and stress for young minds and bodies during their oA fur T he P P. 77). (PoA, hool” tion in the sc educa ther his tive y ear s of childhood and adolescence . T forma elaborated on this vision of NPE by emphasising aspect has been coher entl y br ning Lear ought out in relevance, flexibility and quality as characteristics of the epor the r t Without Burden, the Committee of 1993, National Curriculum Framework. Thus, both these manship of Pr ofessor hair al. under the c Yash P documents envisioned the National Curriculum Framework as a means of modernising the system of 1.3 N ATIONAL C URRICULUM F RAMEWORK education . In spite of the recommendations of the NPE, 1986 to identify competencies and values to be nurtured at UIDING RINCIPLES 1.4 G P different stages, school education came to be driven more and more by high-stake examinations based on We need to plan and pa y attention to systemic ma tter s . Despite the r xtbooks tion-loaded te evie infor ma that will enable us to implement many of the good w of ideas that have already been articulated in the past. the Curriculum Framework in 2000, the vexed issues of curriculum load and the tyranny of examinations Paramount among these are :

24 5 The National System of Education will be based on a national curricular framework, which contains a common lude the histor cor e fle xib le. T he common cor e will inc t ar y of India’ s fr eedom e along with other components tha mo vement, the constitutional ob ligations and other content essential to n urtur e na tional identity . T hese elements will cut acr oss subject ar eas and will be designed to pr omote v alues suc h as India’ s common cultur al herita ge, egalitarianism, democracy and secularism, equality of sexes, protection of environment, removal of social barriers, tion of ried ammes will be car ogr tional pr . All educa ic temper scientif obser m and inculca y nor amil small f vance of on in strict conformity with secular values. India has always worked for peace and understanding between nations, y tr hole w orld as one f amil y. Tr ue to this hoar treating the w adition, educa tion has to str engthen this w orld-vie w and motivate the younger generations for international cooperation and peaceful co-existence. This aspect cannot y in access b be ne glected. T o pr omote equality , it will be necessar y to pr ovide f or equal oppor tunity f or all, not onl ut also in the conditions of success. Besides, awareness of the inherent equality of all will be created through the core curriculum. The purpose is to remove prejudices and complexes transmitted through the social environment and the accident of birth. National Policy on Education, 1986 • characteristics are able to learn and achieve success in connecting knowledge to life outside the school, wa y fr om r t lear ensuring tha school. In this context, disadvantages in education • ning is shifted a ote , methods arising from inequalities of gender, caste, language, culture, religion or disabilities need to be addressed enriching the curriculum to provide for overall • dir ut hemes b ough policies and sc y thr y, not onl development of children rather than remain ectl also through the design and selection of learning tasks , textbook centric tions mor e flexib le and inte ted gra • and pedagogic practices, right from the period of early making e xamina into classroom life and, childhood. or med b ver-riding identity inf nurturing an o • y UEE makes us aware of the need to broaden caring concerns within the democratic polity of curriculum to include the rich the the scope of y. inheritance of different traditions of knowledge, work the countr In the present context, there are new afts these tr aditions toda y face a serious . Some of and cr commodification the developments and concerns to which our curriculum threat from market forces and must respond. The foremost among these is the of knowledge in the context of the globalisation of he de self-esteem and y. T velopment of importance of including and retaining all children in the econom hildr en’s cr eativity , must ethics fir ms the v t reaf amme tha ogr ough a pr school thr , and the need to culti va te c alue ve primac recei y. In the conte a f xt of of each child and enables all children to experience ast-changing world and dignity and the confidence to learn. Curriculum design a competitive global context, it is imperative that we r tion. must reflect the commitment to Universal Elementary espect c hildr gina tive wisdom and ima en’s na Decentralisation and emphasis on the role of Education (UEE), not only in representing cultural en fr Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are to be viewed as om diversity , but also b y ensuring tha t c hildr different social and economic backgrounds with fer an major ste ps to wards systemic r efor ms . PRIs of variations in physical, psychological and intellectual opportunity to make the system less bureaucratic,

25 6 to work, to gain a definite edge and respect among equality of treatment , in The formal approach, of their peers from privileged sections; and (c) facilitating epresenta ms of equal access or equal r ter tion f or a growing appreciation of cumulative human te. T oda e is a need to adopt gir ls, is inadequa y, ther experience, knowledge and theories by building ve a a substanti ppr oac h, towards equality of outcome , ge ar vanta versity e di wher e tak en ference and disad , dif xperiences . xtual e y upon the conte ra tionall into account. Making children sensitive to the environment and the need for its protection is another important curricular A critical function of education for equality is to enable all learners to claim their rights as well as to concern. The emergence of new technological choices e need to . W contrib ute to society and the polity and living styles witnessed during the last century has rights and choices in themselves recognise that cannot be exercised until central human capabilities led to environmental degradation and vast imbalances . Thus, in order to make it possible for are fulfilled between the advantaged and the disadvantaged. It has marginalised learners, and especially girls, to claim become imperative now more than ever before to their rights as well as play an active role in shaping collective life, education must empower them to Educa nur tur e and pr eser ve the en vironment. tion can ntage overcome s of unequal socialisation the disadva provide the necessary perspective on how human life f and enable them to develop their capabilities o autonomous and equal citizens. can be reconciled with the crisis of the environment so ing becom wth and de emain tha t sur vival, gro velopment r le . T tion, 1986 he Na tional P olic possib y on Educa emphasised the need to create awareness of teachers more accountable, and the schools more environmental concerns by integrating it in the autonomous and responsive to the needs of children. educational process at all stages of education and for These steps should also stimulate questions and all sections of society . entanglements with local physical conditions, life and y within oneself and with one’ s mon Living in har environment. Children acquire varied skills naturally natural and social environment is a basic human need. while growing up in their environment. They also an indi vidual’ velopment of Sound de s per sonality can obser ve lif e and the w orld ar W hen ound them. take place only in an ethos marked by peace. A disturbed imported into classrooms, their questions and queries natural and psycho-social environment often leads to can enrich the curriculum and make it more creative. ance and gering intoler , trig ela stress in human r tions acilita the actice of te the pr Suc h r efor ms will also f ge of W e live in an a lict. conf ecedented violence— unpr widely acknowledged curricular principles of moving local, national, regional and global. Education often from "known to the unknown", from "concrete to plays a passive, or even insidious role, allowing young om "local to g For this pur lobal". , and fr act", abstr pose minds to be indoctrinated into a culture of intolerance, pt of the conce actised in y has to be pr gog critical peda denies the fundamental importance of human which all dimensions of school education, including teacher sentiments and the noble truths discovered by different education. It is here that, for instance, productive work civilisa tions . Building a cultur e of peace is an can become an effective pedagogic medium for (a) incontestable goal of education. Education to be connecting classroom knowledge to the life experiences meaningful should empower individuals to choose of children; (b) allowing children from marginalised peace as a way of life and enable them to become society , ha ving kno e and skills r ela wledg sections of ted

26 7 A citizen needs to internalise the principles of • managers rather than passive spectators of conflict. omote fr ty to pr , justice and liber equality nity ater Peace as an integrative perspective of the school among all. curriculum has the potential of becoming an ular democratic state, which means India is a sec • enterprise for healing and revitalising the nation. that all faiths are respected, but at the same time As a nation we have been able to sustain a the Indian state has no preference for any particu acy democr robust democr atic polity . T he vision of elt need, aith. te among y, is to inculca toda lar f T he f articulated by the Secondary Education Commission children a respect for all people regardless of their (1952) is worth recalling: religious beliefs . Citizenship in a democracy involves many India is a multicultural society made up of numerous intellectual, social and moral qualities...a democratic es. People’ re gional and local cultur s religious beliefs , ways citizen should have the understanding and the of life and their understanding of social relationships intellectual integrity to sift truth from falsehood, are quite distinct fr roups ha ve . All the g om one another facts from propaganda and to reject the dangerous equal rights to co-exist and flourish, and the education appeal of fanaticism and prejudice ... should system needs to respond to the cultural pluralism inherent neither reject the old because it is old nor accept in our society . T o str engthen our cultur al herita ge and , but dispassionately the new because it is new national identity , the cur riculum should ena ble the y oung er examine both and courageously reject what arrests generation to reinterpret and re-evaluate the past with . the forces of justice and progress ... reference to new priorities and emerging outlooks of a changing societal context. Understanding human e r ather lif ay of acy as a w oster democr For us to f evolution should make it clear that the existence of than only a system of governance, the values enshrined distinctness in our country is a tribute to the special spirit in the Constitution assume paramount significance. lourish. h allo wed it to f of our countr T he cultur al y, whic • The Constitution of India guarantees equality of diversity of this land should continue to be treasured as tus and oppor sta tunity to all citiz ens . Contin ued our special attribute. This should not be considered a exclusion of vast numbers of children from result of mere tolerance. Creation of a citizenry conscious education and the disparities caused through of their rights and duties, and commitment to the halleng pri hool systems c lic sc va te and pub e the principles embodied in our Constitution is a prerequisite tion effor ts to war ds ac . Educa hie ving equality in this context. social ument of should function as an instr . transf or ma tion and an e galitarian social or der HE T 1.5 Q IMENSION D UALITY Justice—social, economic and political—to all • acy. ens is inte citiz gr al to str engthening democr Even as th e system attempts to reach every child, the Liberty of thought and action is a fundamental • quality pr issue of esents a ne w r ang e of challeng es. value embedded in our Constitution. Democracy oes with pri t quality g lear ly vile g e is c The belief tha requir ell as cr eates a kind of citiz es as w en w ho irreconcilable with the vision of participatory hosen ends and y c wn autonomousl sues her o pur democracy that India upholds and practises in the respects others’ right to do so as well. political sphere. Its practise in the sphere of education

27 8 for constr ucting kno wledg e in meaningful w ays. Moreover, the exclusion of the poor from their Democracy is based on faith in the dignity and admission process implies the loss of learning worth of every single individual as a human a democratic . ... The object of being opportunities that occur in a classroom with children education is, therefore, the full, all-round . kgrounds al bac ver se socio-economic and cultur from di ever s personality y indi development of . vidual’ Physical resources by themselves cannot be ... i.e. an education to initiate the students into regarded as an indicator of quality; yet, the extreme the many-sided ar t of living in a community . It is obvious, however, that an individual and chronic shortage of physical resources, including cannot live and develop alone. ... No basic infrastructural amenities, in schools run by the education is worth the name which does not state or local bodies does present a serious quality inculcate the qualities necessary for living constraint. The availability of qualified and motivated moniously and ef ficiently with graciously , har tion one’ s f ellow men. (Secondar y Educa teachers who perceive teaching as a career option p. 20) Commission, 1952 - 53, applies to all sectors of schools as a necessary . Recent sug precondition f or the gestions f or quality dilution of standards in teacher recruitment, training vice conditions ar and ser ted in the NPE, and, ticula demands that the education available to all children in before it, by the Chattopadhyaya Commission (1984), different regions and sections of society has a educa . No system of arouse anxiety bove tion can rise a compar le quality . J.P. Naik had described equality , ab the quality of its teachers, and the quality of teachers quality and quantity as the ‘elusive triangle’ of Indian greatly depends on the means deployed for selection, education. Dealing with this metaphorical triangle procedures used for training, and the strategies adopted etical under es a dee requir quality standing of per theor for ensuring accounta bility . vaila than has been a lished s recentl ble. UNESCO’ y pub The quality dimension also needs to be examined global monitoring r t discusses systemic standar ds epor from the point of view of the experiences designed as the appropriate context of the quality debate. From e and skills wledg kno ms of hild in ter for the c . this point of vie w, the c hild’ s perf or mance needs to be Assumptions about the nature of knowledge and the . In a system tor of treated as an indica systemic quality child’ hool ethos and the pe the sc e sha tur s o wn na ro wing ast-g een a f of educa tion tha t is di vided betw approaches used by those who prepare the syllabi and y pri va te sector and a lar g er sta te sector mar ked b textbooks, and by teachers as well. The representation ead of shor ven spr ces resour , the issue tages and the une of knowledge in textbooks and other materials needs of quality poses comple x conce ptual and pr actical to be viewed from the larger perspective of the t pri ve higher hools ha va te sc questions tha he belief . T tion toda challeng es f y. No acing humanity and the na quality treats examination results as the sole criterion subject in the school curriculum can stay aloof from . T his kind of per ception ignor es for judging quality these larger concerns, and therefore the selection of the ethos-related limitations of the privileged private knowledge proposed to be included in each subject . T act tha he f glect the c schools s y often ne t the hild’ area r tion in ter equir es car ms of xamina eful e mother tongue warrants us to wonder about the socio-economic and cultur al conditions and g . T he oals opportunities that they are able to provide to the child

28 9 greatest national challenge for education is to strengthen the interest of all to liberate human beings from the our participatory democracy and the values enshrined existing inequalities of gender . in the Constitution. Meeting this challenge implies that Schools range from the high- cost ‘public’ (private) we make quality and social justice the central theme of schools, to which the urban elite send their children, to the ostensibly ‘free’, poorly functioning local- body - aining has been an enship tr Citiz efor m. ricular r cur impor run primary schools where children from hitherto for mal educa tant aspect of T oda tion. y, it needs se educationally deprived communities predominate. A to be boldl y reconce ptualised in ter ms of the discour striking recent feature is the growth of multigrade of universal human rights and the approaches A c schools in rural areas, based on the mechanical tion lear orienta associa ted with critical peda gogy. towards v r - pupil ratios’ to the need to ted with peace and har monious application of ‘teache alues associa xistence is called f provide a school within 1 km. of each habitation, yet or. Quality in educa ludes tion inc coe unsupported by the necessary curricular concepts or . T his is e in all its dimensions lif or quality of n f a concer terials or peda gog y. Suc h de velopments why a concern for peace, protection of the clarity on ma unintentionally reinforce privilege and exclusion in environment and a predisposition towards social change tion and under educa quality mine the constitutional v alues of must be vie wed as cor e components of , not equality of opportunity and social justice. If ‘free’ . mer ely as v alue pr emises education is understood as the ‘removal of constraints’ OF 1.6 T HE S OCIAL C DUCATION E ONTEXT to education, then we must realise the importance of ting y for suppor te’s social polic s of other sector the sta The education system does not function in isolation from and facilitating the achievement of UEE. the society of which it is a part. Hierarchies of caste, Globalisation and the spread of market relations economic status and gender relations, cultural diversity to every sphere of society have important implications as well as the uneven economic development that for education. On the one hand, we are witnessing characterise Indian society also deeply influence access the increasing commercialisation of education, and, to education and participation of children in school. This on the other hand, inadequate public funding for is reflected in the sharp disparities between different education and the official thrust towards ‘alternative’ social and economic groups, which are seen in school . T actor te a shifting of s indica schools hese f ls belonging ates. T olment and completion r enr , gir hus responsibility for education from the state to the SC and ST communities among the rural and urban to famil unity e need to be vigilant . W y and the comm poor and the disadvantaged sections of religious and about the pressures to commodify schools and the other ethnic minorities are educationally most vulnerable. application of market-related concepts to schools In urban locations and many villages, the school system . T hool quality easing ly competiti ve he incr and sc itself is stratified and provides children with strikingly environment into which schools are being drawn and . Unequal g dif fer ent educa tional e xperiences ender the aspirations of parents place a tremendous burden relations not only perpetuate domination but also create of stress and anxiety on all children, including the anxieties and stunt the freedom of both boys and girls very young, to the detriment of their personal growth to develop their human capacities to their fullest. It is in

29 10 human ideals . At an y gi ven time and place the y can be and development, and thus hampering the inculcation called the contemporary and contextual articulations of the jo . ning lear y of alues ations and v oad and lasting human aspir of br . The 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments, Educational aims turn the different activities and the institutionalised statutory space they provide undertaken in schools and other educational institutions for local communities to participate in decision making into a creative pattern and give them the distinctive in education for their children, are important character of being ‘educational’. An educational aim ations f er, par ental aspir or de velopments . Ho wev helps the teacher connect her present classroom activity education are belied by endemic poverty and unequal to a cherished future outcome without making it social relations, and by lack of adequate provision of instrumental, and therefore give it direction without ble quality . T the ns of he concer equita schooling of om cur rent concer ns. T hus divorcing it fr , an aim is a burgeoning population of the urban poor are still not foreseen end: it is not an idle view of a mere spectator; ations reflected in planning . T he e xpecta tions and aspir rather, it influences the steps taken to reach the end. An of the poor for education cannot be set aside as being aim must provide foresight. It can do this in three ways: ns. ricular concer outside the fr ame of cur eful obser es car volv st, it in Fir ven the gi va tion of The social context of education in India thus conditions to see what means are available for reaching presents a number of challenges, which must be the end, ay. ances in the w ver the hindr and to disco addressed by the curriculum framework, both in its This may require a careful study of children, and an design as well as its implementation. The discussion on understanding of what they are capable of learning at guiding principles has drawn attention to these challenges ges. Second, this f different a oresight sug oper gests the pr as well as some of the ways in which they can be order or sequence that would be effective. Third, it addressed. Opening the concept of knowledge to makes the choice of alternatives possible. Therefore, include new areas of knowledge and experience, ws us to act intellig he y. T entl acting with an aim allo inclusivity in selecting learning tasks, pedagogic practices school, the classroom, and related learning sites are that are alert to promoting participation, building spaces where the core of educational activity takes self-confidence and critical awareness, and an openness place. These must become spaces where learners have to engaging with the community to explain and share experiences that help them achieve the desired curricular curricular decisions are among the new ideas discussed s, educa ner lear standing of ves. An under objecti tional in different sections of this document. aims, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the school as a social space can help us arrive at principles OF E DUCATION 1.7 A IMS to guide c oom pr . actices lassr The guiding principles discussed earlier provide ve as br educa The aims of oad guidelines to tion ser align educational processes to chosen ideals and the landscape of social values within which we locate he f irst is a commitment to our educa tional aims . T acce he aims of tion . T educa pted principles simultaneously reflect the current needs and aspirations democr acy and the v alues of equality , justice , freedom, concern for others’ well-being, secularism, respect for of a society as well as its lasting values, and the immediate concerns of a community as well as broad human dignity and rights . Educa tion should aim to b uild

30 11 a commitment to these values, which are based on standing . T riculum, ther efore, reason and under he cur should provide adequate experience and space for dialogue and discourse in the school to build such a commitment in children. points to a Independence of thought and action capacity of carefully considered, value-based decision , both inde making y and collecti vely. pendentl A sensitivity to others’ well-being and feelings, together with knowledge and understanding of the orm the basis of a r world, should f ational commitment to v . alues Learning to learn and the willingness to unlearn and relearn are important as means of responding to tions in a f lexib le and cr eative manner . T he new situa curriculum needs to emphasise the processes of constructing knowledge. Ah, my son is off to school !... Luckily I managed to Choices in life and the ability to participate in port ! om the air these fr get one of democratic processes depend on the ability to (Courtesy : R. K. Laxman in the Times of India) contrib ute to society in v arious w ays. T his is w hy Education must provide the means and opportunities education must develop the ability to work and xpr s cr hild’ to enhance the c eative e ession and the . participate in economic processes and social change capacity for aesthetic appreciation. Education for This necessitates the integration of work with education. aesthetic appreciation and creativity is even more e tha xperiences ar e We m t w or k-r ust ensur ela ted e important today when aesthetic gullibility allows for ficient and br suf oadbased in ter skills and ms of opinion and taste to be manufactured and manipulated attitudes,that they foster an understanding of by mar ble the fort should be to ena ket f orces . T he ef socio-economic processes, and help inculcate a mental lear ecia . orms veral f te beauty in its se ppr ner to a frame that encourages working with others in a spirit However, we must ensure that we do not promote W or k alone can cr . of cooper ation. eate a social temper tha tainment, enter or ms of ster eotypes of beauty and f t orms is an beauty and ar tion of t f Appr ecia might constitute an affront to women and persons with Creativity in arts, literature integral part of human life. bilities disa . and other domains of knowledge is closely linked.

31 12 This chapter establishes the need to recognise the child as a natural ner , and kno e as the outcome of the c hild’ s o wn acti vity . wledg lear ves outside the sc hool, w e enjo y the curiosity , ver yday li In our e veness and constant quer ying of childr en. T hey acti vel y in venti ag e with the w eng ound them, exploring , responding , inventing orld ar orking things out, . Childhood is a period and w and making meaning g ro wth and c hang e, in volving de of s ph ysical and veloping one’ mental ca pacities to the fullest. It in volv es being socialised into adult society , into acquiring and cr eating kno wledg e of the w or ld and oneself in relation to others in order to understand, to act, and to transf h ne w g ener ation inherits the stor ehouse of cultur e orm. Eac wledg e in society b y inte gra ting it into one’ s o wn w eb of and kno acti vities and under standing , and r ealising its ‘fruitfulness’ in cr eating afresh. EARNER RIMACY OF THE A CTIVE L 2.1 P Infor mal lear ning in society b uilds on the lear ner s’ na tur al a bility to draw upon and construct their own knowledge, to develop their

32 13 student’ that are promoted emphasise obedience to capacities, in relating to the environment around them, the teacher, moral character, and acceptance of the For both ph and to the task a t hand. ysical and social, wledg ‘authorita ords as s w her’ teac e. tive’ kno this to happen, opportunities to try out, manipulate, make mistakes and correct oneself are essential. This is IN C ONTEXT EARNERS 2.2 L as true of learning language as it is of a craft skill or a discipline. Schools as institutions provide new ind xperiences do not f oices and e ’s v en Childr expression in the classroom. Often the only voice heard opportunities for all learners to learn about themselves, age , to access their inheritance and eng s, and society other with it irrespective of and outside the access provided Common sources of physical . T unity y and a comm he th into a f s bir by one’ amil discomf ort ocesses of lear t sc hool mak es possib le for mal pr ning tha Long walks to school. • can open up new possibilities of understanding and • Heavy school bags. relating to the world. Lack of basic infrastructure, including support • books for reading and writing. Our current concern in curriculum development en • ves childr Badly designed fur nitur e that gi lusi ve and meaningful e it an inc ef orm is to mak and r inadequate back support and cramps their legs and experience for children, alongwith the effort to move knees. away from a textbook culture. This requires a • Time tables that do not give young children enough fundamental change in how we think of learners and etch, move and play breaks to str prive , and that de . Hence the need to eng lear ocess of the pr ning ag e in older children of play/sports time, and encourage girls to opt out. detail with the underpinnings and implications of ‘child- • toilets and Especially for girls, the absence of centred’ education. sanitar . ements y r equir ving primac ‘Child-centr ed’ peda gog y y means gi poral punishment—beating • ysical ard ph , awkw Cor oices , their v ve en’s e hildr to c , and their acti xperiences postures. y r tion. T his kind of equir es us to gog peda par ticipa en’s psy hildr cholo plan lear eeping with c ning in k gical development and inter ests . T he lear ning plans ther efore the teac is tha the e t of y ar her . W hen c hildr en speak, wering the teac y onl y ans her’ s questions or usuall must respond to physical, cultural and social preferences within the wide di versity of . char acteristics and needs , hey r ords. T s w her’ ting the teac re pea ar ely do things nor do they have opportunities to take initiative. The Our school pedagogic practices, learning tasks, and the texts we create for learners tend to focus on the curriculum must enable children to find their voices, nurture their curiosity—to do things, to ask questions socialisation of children and on the ‘receptive’ features en’s lear . Instead, we need to n urtur of childr ning e and and to pursue investigations, sharing and integrating their experiences with school knowledge—rather than build on their active and creative capabilities—their inherent interest in making meaning, in relating to the their ability to reproduce textual knowledge. Reorienting the curriculum to this end must be among our highest world in ‘real’ ways through acting on it and creating, and in r ela ting to other humans . Lear ning is acti ve and ation of teac her s, the priorities , inf or ming the pr epar annual plans of schools, the design of textbooks, y, the notions of social in its c har acter . Frequentl ‘good

33 14 learning materials and teaching plans, and evaluation The precondition for all development is healthy 2.3.1 physical growth of all children. This requires that the and e xamina tion pa tter ns. te n adequa ms of basic needs in ter ysical ph utrition, Children will learn only in an atmosphere where exercise and other psycho-social needs are addressed. they feel they are valued. Our schools still do not convey hildr en in fr Participa tion of all c or mal and y, inf ee pla this to all children. The association of learning with vities is essential f ames , yog a and spor ts acti for mal g or fear, discipline and stress, rather than enjoyment and their physical and psycho-social development.The range hildr . Our c en need satisf action, is detrimental to lear ning of abilities as a result of games, sports and yoga will to feel that each one of them, their homes, improve stamina, fine and gross motor skills and communities, languages and cultures, are valuable as dexterities, self-awareness and control, and coordination resources for experience to be analysed and enquired . Simple ada in team g ames pta tion of pla ygr ounds , into at school; that their diverse capabilities are accepted; equipment and rules can make activities and games that all of them have the ability and the right to learn accessible to all children in the school. Children can achieve and to access knowledge and skills; and that adult society , gymnastics , ts, athletics high le vels of excellence in spor pable of ards them as ca reg e ar e becoming W the best. hen the . W h as dance yog ts suc or ming ar a and perf more aware of the importance of these needs as our emphasis shifts from enjoyment to achievement, such schools expand and increasingly include children from training can make demands of discipline and practice day meal and the he mid . T society all sections of that can create stress at this stage. Whereas all students provisioning of infrastructural support and pedagogic must be involved in health and physical education concern for inclusive education are among the most activities, those who choose to excel in games and sports signif . A str ong stand ecent times velopments in r icant de need to be pr ovided adequa . tunities te oppor must be tak en a gainst all f or ms of cor por al punishment. Physical development supports mental and The boundaries of the school need to become more cognitive development, especially in young children. por ous to the comm unity . At the same time , the The capacity to think, reason and make sense of the problems of curriculum load and examination-related self and the world, and to use language, is intimately g ent a ttention in all their dimensions . equir e ur stress r connected with acting and interacting—doing things Physical and emotional security is the cornerstone for s. and with other by oneself 2.3.2 Cognition involves the capacity to make sense all learning, right from the primary to the secondary of the self and the world, through action and language. ards. ven afterw s, and e ear school y Meaningful learning is a generative process of 2.3 D L EARNING EVELOPMENT AND representing and manipulating concrete things and mental representations, rather than storage and retrieval The period from infancy to adolescence is one of rapid ge (v of inf or ma tion. T hinking , langua erbal or sign) and growth and change. The curriculum must have a holistic doing things are thus intimately inter-twined. This is a approach to learning and development that is able to ough process tha t be gins in inf anc y, and de velops thr see the interconnections and transcend divisions between inde pendent and media ted acti vities . Initiall y, childr en physical and mental development, and between are co gniti w, able to e and no vely oriented to the her action with other indi vidual de velopment and inter s.

34 15 development of theories that children have about the vate and gover , both pri schools e is a range of Ther nment, natural and social worlds, including themselves in catering to different socio-economic groups. According relation to others, which provide them with explanations to the Kothari Commission: “In a situation of the for why things are the way they are, the relationships type we have in India, it is the responsibility of the between causes and effects, and the bases for decisions education system to bring the different social classes and gr gether and thus pr omote the emer oups to gence . Attitudes and acting , emotions and mor e thus an als ar of an egalitarian and integrated society. But at present integral part of cognitive development, and are linked instead of doing so, the education system itself is tending to the development of language, mental representations, greg ation and to per ease social se to incr petuate and conce easoning pts and r . As c hildr en’s metaco gniti ve widen class distinctions hat is w . ...W , this orse segregation is increasing and tending to widen the gulf y become mor e a ware of their capabilities de velop , the between the classes and the masses..." (196 6:10). own beliefs and capable of regulating their own Are we telling our children that we value them . ning lear differently? If the answ gently need to e ur es’, w er is ‘Y All children are naturally motivated to learn and • take steps for realising the goal that the Kothari Commission had placed before us by recommending a ning . are ca pable of lear system of common schools. A common school system Making meaning and developing the capacity for • can be defined as a national system of education that abstract thinking, reflection and work are the most is founded on the ideals and values of the Constitution ning lear tant aspects of impor . of India, and which has the capacity to provide education of a comparable quality to all children in an Children learn in a variety of ways—through • , cr their caste ve of respecti le manner ir equitab eed, experience, making and doing things, gender, class or location. In such a system, all categories experimentation, reading, discussion, asking, nment, local gue (i.e. gover esently in vo of schools pr ve the r , or pri oviding pr body esponsibility of vate) ha listening, thinking and reflecting, and expressing for basic infrastructural and pedagogic norms and oneself in speech, movement or writing—both ensuring free education to all children residing in the y and with other e indi s. T hey r equir viduall vicinity of the school. opportunities of all these kinds in the course of their development. • Teac hing something bef ore the c hild is co gniti vely gicall ete e y on concr reason and act lo . As xperiences ready takes away from learning it at a later stage. their linguistic capabilities and their ability to work in Children may ‘remember’ many facts but they other s de , it opens up possibilities y of the compan velop may not understand them or be able to relate of more complex reasoning in tasks that involve them to the world around them. abstraction, planning and dealing with ends that are • Learning takes place both within school and out- w. T not in vie her pability ease in the ca ver all incr e is an o side school. Learning is enriched if the two arenas of working with the hypothetical, and reasoning in the h other ovide or k pr inter act with eac . Art and w world of the possible. opportunities for holistic learning that is rich in Conceptual development is thus a continuous xperiences tacit and aesthetic components h e . Suc process of deepening and enriching connections and are essential for linguistically known things, acquiring ne w la yer s of . Alongside is the meaning

35 16 especially in moral and ethical matters, to be learnt vulnerable to risky situations like sexually transmitted through direct experience, and integrated into life. diseases, sexual abuse, HIV/AIDS and drug and • substance abuse. Learning must be paced so that it allows learners It is a time w to a g e with conce pts and dee eng hen the gi ven and inter nalised nor ms pen understanding, rather than remembering only to and ideas are questioned, while at the same time the xamina forget after e opinions of the peer group become very important. It . At the same time tions ariety and c is important to recognise that adolescents need social ust pr ning m lear e, and halleng ovide v be inter and emotional support that may require reinforcement esting and eng aging . Bor edom is a sign ve become mec hanicall y ve beha positi ms of of nor viour , acquisition of skills tha t the task ma y ha ve or the c hild and of little co gniti ve f re petiti essential to cope with the risky situations that they . encounter in their lives, manage peer pressure and deal value Lear . T he a ning can tak e place with or without bsence of • eotypes with g ender ster suc h suppor t the la tter , the social mediation. can lead to confusion and misunderstanding about these In the case of conte changes, and affect their academic and extracurricular y with those actions xt and inter , especiall acti who ar e ca pable, pr ovide a venues f or lear ner . s to vities 2.3.4 work at cognitive levels above their own. It is important to create an inclusive environment in the classroom for all students, especially those who Adolescence is a critical period for the 2.3.3 acquiring are at risk of marginalisation, for instance, students with ocess of he pr . T self-identity development of belling an indi vidual student or a g roup disa . La a sense of self is linked to physiological changes, and bilities of students as learning disabled etc. creates a sense of also learning to negotiate the social and psychological being y helplessness, inferiority and stigmatisation. It tends to . Responsib le handling demands of oung adults overshadow difficulties that children may be facing in of issues lik e inde pendence , intimac y, and peer g roup dependence are concerns that need to be recognised, schools due to diverse socio-cultural backgrounds and inappropriate pedagogical approaches being used in and appropriate support be given to cope with them. ysical space of the classroom. A student with a disability has an equal s access orld, one’ the outside w The ph right to membership of the same group as all other to it, and free movement influence construction of the ust be vie self. This is of special significance in the case of girls, ferences betw . Dif students wed een students m who are often constrained by social conventions to as resources for supporting learning rather than as a s. T hese v er y con ventions pr omote the problem. Inclusion in education is one of the sta y indoor inc . opposite stereotype for boys, which associates them components of lusion in society ocess ysical pr s and ph with the outdoor Schools, therefore, have a responsibility of hese . T providing a flexible curriculum that is accessible to all stereotypes get especially heightened as a result of . T biological maturational changes during adolescence. students or his document can f or m a star ting point f These physiological changes have ramifications in the planning a curriculum that meets the specific needs of he indi vidual students or g roups of students . T psychological and social aspects of an adolescent's life. curriculum must provide appropriate challenges and Most adolescents deal with these changes without full knowledge and understanding, which could make them create enabling opportunities for students to experience

36 17 that knowledge needed for a complex task can reside success in learning and achievement to the best of their in a group situation. In this context, collaborative ocesses in the potential. hing and lear ning pr T eac learning provides room for negotiation of meaning, classroom should be planned to respond to the diverse sharing of multiple views and changing the internal e positi eac ve . T xplor needs of students her s can e uction . Constr eality nal r xter the e tion of re presenta strategies for providing education to all children, indicates that each learner individually and socially luding those per cei ved as ha ving disa bilities . T his can inc constr ns. Constr ucting ucts meaning as he/she lear be achieved in collaboration with fellow teachers or ucti he constr . T ning meaning is lear ve specti vist per with organisations outside the school. provides strategies for promoting learning by all. 2.4 MPLICATIONS FOR C URRICULUM AND I wn r The teac her's o gnition ole in c hildr en’s co P RACTICE could be enhanced if they assume a more active role in relation to the process of knowledge construction in e hing f Teac 2.4.1 Kno wledg uction of or Constr In the constr ocess ning is a pr ve, specti vist per ucti lear which children are engaged. A child constructs her/his ocess of ning . ag ed in the pr hile eng e w wledg kno lear vely of the constr uction of kno wledg e. Lear ner s acti constr uct their o wn kno wledg e b y connecting ne w ideas Allowing children to ask questions that require them to relate what they are learning in school to things to e xisting ideas on the basis of ma terials/acti vities xperience). , using a presented to them (e For e xample happening outside, encouraging children to answer in their own words and from their own experiences, t system es/visuals on a tr pictur text or a set of anspor ner s to coupled with discussions will allo w y oung lear rather than simply memorising and getting answers right in just one way — all these are small but important anspor t system. uct the idea of ted to constr be f acilita a tr tion) ma epr esenta Initial constr uction (mental r y be en de ps in helping c ste velop their under hildr standing . ‘Intelligent guessing’ must be encouraged as a valid based on the idea of the r anspor t system, and a oad tr child fr om a r emote r ural setting ma y f or m the idea pedagogic tool. Quite often, children have an idea arising from their everyday experiences, or because of s constr centr ed ar ound the b ulloc k car t. Lear ner uct mental r epresenta tions (ima ges) of exter nal r eality their exposure to the media, but they are not quite ready to articulate it in ways that a teacher might appreciate. acti ough a gi t system) thr (transpor vities ven set of (experiences). ucturing and r estr ucturing of T he str It is in this ‘zone’ between what you know and what you almost know that new knowledge is constructed. e essential f ea tur ideas ar ner s pr ogr ess in es as the lear ning . F or instance , the initial idea of a tr anspor t lear or m of Suc h , whic skills h kno es the f e often tak wledg are cultivated outside the school, at home or in the oad tr ound r system b uilt ar anspor t will be r econstr ucted f transport to accommodate other types o . All suc comm unity e and skills h f or ms of kno wledg or med teac ve and inf her is espected. must be r A sensiti opria vities te acti systems—sea and air—using a ppr . T he ough r elevant acti vities eng ag ement of lear ner , can s, thr aware of this and is able to engage children through well-chosen tasks and questions, so that they are able ther f acilita te in the constr uction of mental ima ges fur of the relationships (cause-effect) between a transport to realise their developmental potential. ve eng ation, y, explor es enquir volv ag ement in Acti er, ther system and human lif e/econom y. Ho wev e is a social aspect in the construction process in the sense questioning, debates, application and reflection, leading

37 18 uilding and the cr eation of ideas/positions . to theor y b Schools must provide opportunities to question, Framing Questions... enquire, debate, reflect, and arrive at concepts or create ‘5’, what might be the If the answer is or the e is critical f challeng new ideas . An element of questions? Here are some ‘answers’. process of active engagement and learning various e? What is f our and one mak ocess hat ough the pr , skills and positions thr pts conce . W What is thir ven enty-se wa y tw e a ee tak ty-thr is challenging for a particular age group becomes easy plus one? , and ma and uninter esting f or the other a ge g roup y be ees do y ou w ant? w man Ho y b urf remote and uninteresting at another stage. y y g hed m I reac randmother’ s house on Sunda So often, in the name of ‘objectivity’, teachers and I left on Thur sda y. Ho w man y da ys did I er y often teac her s, in sacrif ice f lexibility and cr eativity . V spend there? government as well as private schools, insist that all hen E, A, B, C came F, G , H joined them. . T en m ust gi ve identical ans wers to questions . T he childr Then A and G left. Then G came back, and B argument given for not accepting other answers is that, w man inall y w y? Ho way. went a ere left f “They cannot give answers that are not there in the ‘It was red’, what might If the answer is, textbook. froom and e discussed it in the staf ” “W be the questions? decided that we will only accept this answer as right!”, What was the colour of the flower? her t “T or tha wer s. ans y types of e will be too man Why did you put the letter into that box? Then should we accept them all?” Such arguments t the tr y a denl affic Wh y did she stop so sud make a travesty of the meaning of learning and only light? ser en and par ents tha t sc hools ar e hildr ve to con vince c W e m ust ask our selv es w hy w e onl y irra tionall y rigid. Much of our school learning is still individual ask c hildr en to wers to questions . Ev give en the ans based (although not individualised!). The teacher is seen ability to make a set of questions for given answers is as transmitting ‘knowledge’, which is usually confused ning lear . alid test of a v ganising and or en, hildr to c orma with inf tion, experiences in order to help children learn. But Value of actions Inter 2.4.2 The interaction with teachers, with peers, as well as those Learning takes place through interactions with the who are older and younger can open up many more environment ar ound, na tur e, things and people , both rich lear ning possibilities . Lear ning in the compan y of ough langua thr ge. T he ph ysical ough actions and thr others is a process of interacting with each other and vity of mo ving , exploring and doing things , on one's acti also through the learning task at hand. This kind of own, , and adults y of s or in the compan s peer with one’ learning is enriched when schools enrol children from ge — to r ead, to e xpr ess or ask, to listen using langua . kgrounds dif ferent socio-economic bac ocesses thr ey pr ough w act — ar and to inter h hic e the k In the early primary school years, a beginning has hic xt in w he conte s. T ning occur lear ning tak h lear es been made in the area of group work. Projects and place is thus of direct cognitive significance. activities that can be carried out by groups need to

38 19 tion ning Situa vist Lear ucti Constr Langua Process Science g e Situation Situation s read a te xt on mammals and vie ner w Lear Lear ner s read the stor y ‘Kab uliw allah’. kgr ound ma Later , the a video on the life of mammals in y ar terial e gi ven bac dif ations of cer tain scenes of the ferent locales . Suc h e vents or acti vities with illustr ving in g mammals mo consist of ew . A f descriptions y and brief stor roups on o scenes de picted king a pr ey, lear ner land or in w ater, g razing , attac s enact one or tw ations . gether a t the time giving bir in the illustr th, floc king to vents . ela er and r of dang ted e e note of ner Lear ey e vents or atch the scenes enacted. s w Obser va tion Lear ner s mak the k . mammals vities of viour or acti beha Contextualisation ysis to the te xt. xt with the They rela They r ela te the stor te their anal the te y of illustr the bac kground ma terial. ations of w he/she w Using a scene enacted, the teac Teac Co gniti ve her illustr ates ho ould her models yse and inter anal tion using y and the eading the stor te r gra w to inte apprenticeship ho orma h inf pret suc . ations of the bac kground ma terial. illustr the e xample of mammals ork in g roups to g Collaboration ate Lear ner s w ork on the task roups to w s form g ner Lear ener her sug while the teac hile the teac her sug gests/ inter preta gests/guides them as tions w they proceed. guides them as they proceed. y anal The ener ate e vidence to tion Lear ner s anal yse and g Inter preta wn ate their o ener yse and g uction inter verify their h ypothesis r ela ted to mammals constr y. the stor tions of preta living on land or w ater , etc . tions within and preta Comparing the inter Multiple tions and def They pr ovide e xplana end their betw inter ypotheses using their anal ideas or h tions preta yses and een g roups gi ves the lear ner s the idea t people can ha tha roups een g text both within and betw eactions to . ve dif ferent r the stor Evidence and arguments along with the text ab uliw allah’. y, ‘K expose them to v finding ays of arious w ta. preting da wers or inter ans k and f orth thr ough the pr ations and Multiple By g oing bac Using the te xt, bac kground illustr ocess wn r their o kg round on xtual bac h conte elating eac and r manifestations w s see ho ner , the lear ef lections various e viour of the same c har acter s and themes can be vents and the beha veral w mammals , the lear ner manif ested in se s notice tha ays . t the g ener al principles embedded in what they are doing become manifested. In this context, the teacher is a facilitator who encourages learners to reflect, analyse Role of the Teac her : and interpret in the process of knowledge construction.

39 20 become a feature of learning in the middle and high have grown up in this kind of learning environment, ays in w school also her e ar e w . T hic h suc h g roup lose their self-confidence and their ability to express es or mak learning can be assessed and evaluated. Schools could their e e meaning out of xperiences themselv y r also consider giving mixed age groups of children hool. T hey r epea tedl in sc esor t to mec hanical r ote roups . tions memorisa xamina e is , ther tion to pass e ed g h mix . In suc gether projects to do to Instead, tasks that are challenging and allow much that children can learn from each other, such as team w ork and social v alues . In the compan other s, independent thinking, and multiple ways of being y of solved, encourage independence, creativity and self- one has opportunities of participating in larger tasks quizzing , he to contrib , thus ute to discipline in lear ner y f e one ma wher s. Instead of a cultur e of ind a nic wn potential, s o bove one’ ving something a achie of answering quickly and always knowing the right and one may be able to try out what one does not fully answer, we need to allow learners to spend time on , taking r ning tasks oup lear w. Gr kno esponsibility , and dee per , meaningful lear ning . contributing to a task at hand are all important facets Learning tasks that are designed to ensure that of not only acquiring knowledge but also in the learning children will be encouraged to seek out knowledge from sites other than the textbook, in their own of arts and crafts . In a multi-grade class situation, such vertical grouping, which cuts across different grades, experience, in the experiences of people at home and aries and other sites outside in the comm unity , in libr and which allows a single activity to be used across different age groups, could provide a pedagogically the school, communicate the philosophy that learning and knowledge are to be sought out, authenticated and feasible and sound curriculum plan. thereby constructed, and that neither the textbook nor ning Experiences 2.4.3 Designing Lear ge sites xt, herita . In this conte her is an authority the teac lear ning . Not onl y assume g reat signif icance as sites of The quality of the lear ning task inf luences its nability and its v e lear the history teacher, but also teachers of all subjects need alue f or the lear ner . T asks tha t ar to inculcate in the children under their care a sense of e r tha ficult, too easy or too dif t ar ve and epetiti t ar e based on r t do xt, tha ecalling the te respect for sites of archaeological significance and the tha hanical, mec desire to explore and understand their importance. not per xpr mit self-e y the c hild ession and questioning b t de rection, pend solel There have been efforts aimed at improving the y on the teac her f or cor and tha classroom environment and curriculum planning for e the c mak obedience ve stance of hild assume the passi . ner hile these en in Classes I and II in r ecent y ear s. W Lear childr s lear n not to v alue their o wn a bility to think need to be reviewed and strengthened, there is also a and r tha eason, wledg e is cr eated b t kno y other s and ust onl alls teac T he on ve it. y recei us f y m t the tha need to engage with questions of designing learning her to experiences for older children that help them understand ally tur ho do not seem to be na en w va te’ childr ‘moti s acce va ted. moti concepts and create and ‘own’ the knowledge that they n olled and lear pt being contr ner Lear lear e ar e no w seeing a small shift a wa y fr om the n. W tely detrimental to e ultima T hese ar ol. ant to contr to w le xibility ve self-r focus on ‘factual knowledge’, but teacher preparation, the g ro wth of co gniti efle xivity and f planning of classroom practice, textbook preparation, whic h ar e essential if lear ning is to empo wer the lear ner . t this shift mor e decisi tion need to suppor vely. valua and e By the time they reach Class VII, many children who

40 21 There is a need for incorporating flexibility in planning Organising experiences and adapting textbook content to designing topic seed Obser ving something happen, say , the pr ocess of learning, so as to move towards the NPE-86 goal of germination, in a r eal situation or obser ving dif ferent breaking out of tments watertight compar . For this , it is stages of milk collection, processing and packaging oducts in a dair different kinds of pr y far m. necessary to build the capabilities and confidence of teachers to autonomously plan their teaching in response cise involving body and mind Participating in an exer such as planning a role play around a theme and en’s lear childr to the needs and demands of . ning presenting it. gic r ef orm ef forts ar go y, peda rentl Cur ery e still v Talking about and r eflecting on something the child centralised. Effective decentralisation would be possible has experience of (e.g. dialogue on gender-differentiated through the greater involvement of Cluster and Block practices in the family and society or participating in a mental game of numbers). Resource Centres, the availability of local resource persons, and of resource and reference materials for , say gear w heels or Making something , a system of trying out an experiment to lift a load using a system the use of her teac s. of pulleys. 2.4.4 Approaches to Planning , teachers could or ganise a After the experience , drawing and cise involving , writing discussion, an exer Our educational practice is still based on limited ‘lesson display. She could identify along with the children questions to be thought about and answered. ving measur hie aimed a plans’ s’; t ac ‘beha ab le viour accor w, the c hild is akin to a cr eatur ding to this vie e She could connect the experience with textbook knowledge and other references and deepen the that can be trained, or a computer that can be experience. ocus on Hence , ther uc h f ammed. e is too m progr Such experiences and post - experience activities would e di ‘outcomes’, and pr esenting kno wledg vided into bits be valuable at any level of schooling. Only the nature tion to be memorised dir of inf ectl y fr om the te xt orma and complexity of the experience would need to change en, and ough acti vities after ‘moti va ting’ or thr childr over the y . Language is k ey to or ganising ears experiences. Hence, there should be a proper hat finall y on e valua ting to see if childr en r emember w coordination between the kind of experience and the hild as the y ha nt. Instead, we need to vie w the c ve lear level of language development. ‘constr wledg e’ all the time . T his is tr ue not ucting kno onl y of ‘co gniti ve subjects’ suc h as ma thema tics and talk of competencies, but these competencies are science , langua ge and social science , but equall y of uch in the manner of gg ed onto lessons m still pe . ttitudes values , skills and a teac her s need to de velop the ‘outcomes’. Instead, This perspective on the learner may sound ‘obvious’, or of four or f ability to plan ‘units’ iv e sessions f but, in fact, many teachers, evaluators, and textbook writers velopment of under standing he de . T eac h topic reality t this can become a viction tha k the con still lac . and of competencies is also possible only through m ‘acti of egister the r • The ter is no w a par t of vity’ re pea ted oppor tunities to use the competencies s, but in man her hoolteac y sc most elementar y in dif ariety of ferent situa and in a v tion, ways. rafted onto the cases this has just been g While the development of knowledge, ‘Herbartian’ lesson plan, still driven by ‘outcomes’ understanding and skills can be assessed both at at the end of each lesson. There is now more

41 22 One concern is that a focus on activities would the end of a unit, and revisited at a later date, the become too time consuming and make greater assessment cycle for competencies needs to be her y, doing er. tainl . Cer s, time long demands on teac ble teac her s to gi ve activities requires that time be spent in planning • Acti vities could ena e vities y, teac her s acti and preparing for . Initiall and to mak en, hildr ttention to c vidualised a indi need to make an effort to establish the classroom ations in a task de pending on their alter aria ements and v vel of tions in the le requir culture for activities and to establish the rules that s could also consider teac ov er n the space and use of her ma terials inter est. In f will g act, . Planning with the support of appropriate material involving c hildr • en and older lear ner s in planning ould bring ariety w the c lass w resources for individualised, small group and ork, suc h v whole group work is the key to effective tremendous ric lassr oom pr ocesses . hness to the c It would also allow teachers to respond to the mana gement of instr uction in a m ultig rade , hildr en without making lassr special needs of oom. rouped c y g erticall or v bility some c multia it seem as if T her finding wa ys of jug e is gling lesson plans exce ption. vious it is an ob Instead of s w based on mono-g xtbooks , teac her rade te ould still not enough eng ag ement on the par t of the , thema vance , in ad vise eac ning of her with the lear teac childr en hild; h c tic topic plans need to de e s with e are tr eated en masse , and onl eated xer cises cr y those w ner ag e lear der to eng in or ho ar oblema for their le e noticed. ar tic’ vel. ‘pr s’ or arded as reg ‘star h a ttention. te , the ma ooms lassr s in c her teac The pr • actices of All c hildr en w ould benef it fr om suc lass rials the valua tion tec hniques y use , and the e ve c lusi or an inc A lesson plan or unit plan f • should indica oing y consistent with eac nall ust be inter yed m h te ho w the teac her alter s the ong emplo other . acti vity to meet the dif ferent needs of childr en. y hanicall y being mec rentl n is cur e to lear Failur 2.4.5 Critical Pedagogy ough h usuall hic ’, w tion ‘remedia addressed thr y means simpl epea ting lessons . Man y teac her s y r ag ement is critical in the her and student eng Teac are also looking for ‘cures’ to set right the ine w wer to def oom because it has the po classr hose prob lems tha t some c hildr en ma y e xperience . wledg kno t of sc hool-r ela ted e will become a par vidualise lear They still f ind it dif ficult to indi ning wledg hose v oices will sha pe it. e and w Students kno uilding upon the str y b en b hildr for c t engths tha hom adults should or w are not just y oung people f y ha ve. childr en ma e critical obser devise solutions their vers of hey ar . T w to plan lessons s need to under her Teac • stand ho own conditions and needs, and should be participants so that children are challenged to think and to try in discussions and problem solving related to their out what they are learning, and not simply repeat hildr e oppor en need educa tion and futur . Hence c tunities what is told to them. A new problem is that in to be aware that their experiences and perceptions are the name of ‘activities’ and ‘play way’ methods, a important and should be encouraged to develop the lot of learning is being diluted by giving children mental skills needed to think and reason independently ar belo e f t ar pability things to do tha . w their ca and have the courage to dissent. What children learn

42 23 out of school — their capacities, learning abilities, and y should ster eotypes persist? Wh knowledge base — and bring to school is important n is the persistence of serious concer A matter of ocess . T ning pr ther enhance the lear to fur his is all the eotypes r ster , oups ginalised gr om mar en fr eg arding childr more critical for children from underprivileged ST SC , who traditionally ha ve not had including and bit bac , especiall y gir ls, as the w or lds the y inha kgrounds access to schooling or lear ve ners ha . Some lear ning been historically viewed as uneducable, less educable, and their realities are under represented in school n, and e ven scar ed of lear ning slow to lear e is a . Ther kno wledg e. similar stereotype regarding girls, which encourages the Participatory learning and teaching, emotion and belief that they are not interested in playing games, or experience need to have a definite and valued place in eotypes ster et another set of in mathematics and science. Y the classroom. While class participation is a powerful , per petuating en with disabilities is applied to childr hen it is ritualised, e w it loses its peda strategy, go gic edg the notion that they cannot be taught along with other children. These perceptions are grounded in the notion or merely becomes an instrument to enable teachers to that inferiority and inequality are inherent in gender, . Tr wn ends om the ue par ticipa meet their o tion star ts fr caste and physical and intellectual disability. There experiences of both students and teac her s. ew success stories , but much lar ger ar e the are a f ners w numbers of lear ho fail and thus inter nalise a sense of inadequacy. Realising the constitutional values tunity to r eflect Critical pedago gy pr ovides an oppor of equality is possible only if we prepare teachers to critically on issues in terms of their political, social, e need to train teachers to treat all childr . W en equally economic and moral aspects. It entails the acceptance of help them cultivate an understanding of the cultural multiple views on social issues and a commitment to and socio-economic diversity that children bring with democratic forms of interaction. This is important in them to school. view of the multiple contexts in which our schools our schools now ha first- ge numbers of Many of ve lar function. A critical framework helps children to see social eoriented gy must be r generation school goers . P edago issues from different perspectives and understand how s home pr ect suppor ovides any dir when the child’ t to such issues ar ves. F or instance , e connected to their li formal schooling. First-generation school goers, for understanding of democracy as a way of life can be example, would be completely dependent on the school chartered through a path where children reflect on how for inculcating reading and writing skills and fostering they regard others (e.g. friends, neighbours, the opposite eading , and for familiarising them with a taste for r sex, elders, etc.), how they make choices (e.g. activities, the language and culture of the school, especially when vate the eer, etc.), and how they culti , car , friends play the home language is different from the language of ability to make decisions. Likewise, issues related to school. Indeed they need all the assistance they can get. human rights, caste, religion and gender can be critically Many such children are also vulnerable to conditions reflected on by children in order to see how these issues prevailing at home, which might make them prone to , and also ver yday experiences are connected to their e punctuality re gularity and inattenti , ir lack of veness in how different forms of inequalities become compounded the classroom. Mobilising intersectoral support for freeing e per petuated. Critical pedago and ar gy facilitates children from such constraints, and for designing a collective decision making through open discussion and curriculum sensiti ve to these cir cumstances , ther efor e is by encouraging and recognising multiple views. essential.

43 24 When children and teachers share and reflect on important for some children, while for others it may their individual and collective experiences without fear be lear ning to listen to other s. The role of teachers is to provide a safe space of judgement, it gives them opportunities to learn about others who may not be a part of their own for children to express themselves, and simultaneously ela bles them to under to b uild in cer tain f orms of inter stand and r actions . T hey need to eality social r te . T his ena step out of the role of ‘moral authority’ and learn to fearing them. If childr en’s ferences instead of to dif social experiences are to be brought into the classroom, listen with empathy and without judgement, and to it is inevitable that issues of conflict will need to be ena ble c hildr en to listen to eac h other . W hile en’s lict is an inesca pable par t of childr consolidating and constructively stretching the limits addressed. Conf t call f tions tha or of the learner's understanding, they need to be y encounter situa lives. T hey constantl moral assessment and action, whether in relation to conscious of how differences are expressed. An atmosphere of trust would make the classroom a safe subjective experiences of conflict involving the self, xposur e to violent space, where children can share experiences, where , or in dealing with e y and society famil conflict can be acknowledged and constructively conf lict as or ld. T o use conf ary w lict in the contempor questioned, and where resolutions, however tentative, a peda hildr en to deal with g o gic str ateg y is to ena ble c can be mutually worked out. In particular, for girls conflict and facilitate awareness of its nature and its role in their li ves. and children from under-privileged social groups, y, e criticall wledg ved kno ecei ning to question r Lear schools and classrooms should be spaces for discussing whether it is found in a ‘biased’ textbook, or other processes of decision making, for questioning the basis literary sources in their own environments, can be built , and f of their decisions or making inf or med c hoices . by encouraging learners to comment, compare and 2.5 K WLEDGE AND U NDERST ANDING NO think about elements that exist in their own ve used songs vists ha W omen and dalit acti environment. The question, ‘What should be taught to the young’? as a powerful medium for discussion, comment and y, W hat aims ar e ves fr om a dee namel per question, deri fer ent xist in dif e e kno . Repositories of ysis anal wledg worth pursuing in education? The answer is a vision mediums , hence all these f or ms , whether tele vision of the capabilities and values that every individual must programme, advertisements, songs, paintings, etc., need have and a socio-political and cultur or society al vision f . to be brought into create a dynamic interaction among This is not a sing aims . So also the but a set of le aim, lear ner s themselv es. content selected seeks to do justice to the entire set of A peda y tha t is g og , class ender ve to g sensiti , caste aims; it has to be comprehensive and balanced. The and g lobal inequalities is one tha t does not mer ely af firm curriculum needs to provide experiences that build the different individual and collective experiences but also knowledge base through a progressive introduction to locates these within larger structures of power and raises thinking r stand the y, to under ationall pabilities of the ca questions such as, who is allowed to speak for whom? world through various disciplines, foster aesthetic Whose knowledge is most valued? This requires appreciation and sensitivity towards others, to work s. For ner or dif ferent lear ev olving dif ferent str ategies f and to par ticipa te in economic pr ocesses . T his section example, encouraging speaking up in class may be discusses the na tur e and f or ms of kno wledg e and

44 25 Talking Pictur es Show the class a picture of a household with various members of the family performing different tasks. The difference is that the father is cooking , the mother fixing a light bulb , the daughter r etur ning fr om school on a bic ycle, ee, and the other son sw ee ping the floor . The and the son milking a cow , the other sister climbing a mango tr grandfather is sewing on a button, and the grandmother is doing the accounts. Ask the children to talk about the picture. orks’ What ar e the ‘w they can identify? Do they think that there is any work that these people should not be doing? y? Wh Involve them in a discussion on the dignity of labour, equality and gender. Discuss the importance of each individual being self - sufficient and complete. This can be done for other topics such as good and bad work, caste stereotyping and the value - added nature of work through similar talking pictures. ha understanding as necessary elements terrains for making t in the g ests tha or. It sug t it is used f it, and w ppr infor med cur ricular c hes to content. oac curriculum, there must be as much focus on the process hoices and a Knowledge can be conceived as experience of learning, on how learners engage with and reconstruct knowledge, as on the content of what is organised through language into patterns of thought (or structures of concepts), thus creating meaning, which learnt. in turn helps us understand the world we live in. It can If, on the other hand, knowledge is regarded as a as pa tter ns of acti vity , or ph ganised in the f also be concei finished pr oduct, then it is or ved of or m of ysical tion to be or ma erred’ to the c hild’ s mind. dexterity with thought, contributing to acting in the ‘tr ansf inf Education would concern itself with maintaining and world, and the cr eating and making of things . Human bodies of beings over time have evolved many transmitting this store - house of human knowledge. ways of thinking , In this view of knowledge, the learner is conceived of , whic h inc lude a r eper toir e of knowledge e is a ve r of feeling and of doing things, and constructing more as a passi ecei ver, w hile in the f or mer ther knowledge. All children have to re-create a significant dynamic engagement with the world through , feeling , acting , and sharing part of this wealth for themselves, as this constitutes . , reflecting obser ving the basis for further thinking and for acting appropriately The curriculum is a plan to develop capabilities that are likely to help achieve the chosen educational in this world. It is also important to learn to participate e of . T aims he r ang , in the very process of knowledge creation, meaning human ca pabilities is v ery wide making and human action, i.e. work. Conceiving and through education we cannot develop them all. knowledge in this broad sense directs us to the The concern is therefore with those that are necessary tance of impor e in ter not ms of and significant in relation to our aims, which offer wledg examining kno potential for further development, and for which we only the ‘product’, but also the underlying principles of how it is created, how it is organised, who accesses have some pedagogic knowledge.

45 26 Many of them involve abilities that are developed. 2.5.1 Basic Capabilities These include the ability to conceptualise and imagine pabilities ar e those tha t for m the Childr en’s basic ca products that are useful or aesthetic, the knowledge of broad basis for the development of understanding, and ability to work with materials to fashion a product, . values and skills bilities , appr ecia s o team e of wledg kno wn a one’ tion of expr ession pr or ms of ovide a. ge Langua and other f work, and attitudes of persistence and discipline. This or meaning making , and sharing with other s. the basis f is true whether it is an object being fashioned or They create possibilities of development of whether it is a play a to be presented to an audience. understanding and knowledge, providing the ability to Describing these activities as skills draws attention symbolise , codify d. , and to r emember and r ecor to only the dexterities that are involved, but not to the Development of language for a child is synonymous considerable understanding of the social and natural , and standing and identity under velopment of with de practice these f t eac tha world and the self orms of h of rela y s. It is not onl also the ca pa bility of ting with other , these cr pted academic disciplines es. Lik e acce afts involv verbal languages with scripts, but also languages without and trades too have their traditions and expert scripts, sign languages, scripts such as Braille and the he kno s. T practitioner these h of e relevant to eac wledg ts, tha or ming ar perf t pr or making ovide the bases f crafts , occupa tions and ar t forms is cum ula tively meaning and the expression. developed and is passed on through experience and tionships b. Forming and sustaining r ela with the tur al w orld, and with one’ s social w orld, with the na . T his alues vity and v hness , with emotional ric self , sensiti A craft like carpentry involves the ability to conceptualise and design the object to be made, an gives meaning to life, providing it with emotional understanding of its value in the society content and purpose. This is also the basis for ethics (socio-cultural, aesthetic and economic significance), ality . and mor knowledge of materials available and the most Capabilities for work and action involves the c. suitable in terms of quality and cost for the product coordination of bodily movement with thought and to be made, knowledge of where to source materials, the ability to plan and execute the fashioning of the volition, drawing on skill and understanding, and ginning to end, using one’ wn s o product fr om be directing oneself to achieve some purpose or create skills and sourcing relevant skills from others, es handling tools and volv . It also in something y tools , maintaining the necessar or quality , judging f technologies, and the ability to manipulate and organise creativity and e xcellence in cr aftsmanship . things and experiences, and to communicate. kabaddi A sport like involves physical stamina and 2.5.2 Knowledge in Practice endurance, knowledge of rules of the game, skills A vast array of human activities and practices sustain s own one’ e of wledg , and kno xterity ysical de and ph capacities, ability to plan and coordinate as a team, to social living and culture. Crafts such as weaving, assess the other team, and to strategise to win. y and potter y, and occupa tions suc h as f ar ming car pentr and shopk , constitute alongwith and perf eeping or ming orm of ble f alua ts a v ts and spor and visual ar pr ation of ener xt g ref lection to the ne s. actitioner orms of kno a e of e ar wledg kno hese f e. T wledg Therefore, each one of them is a discipline of practical practical nature, tacit and often only partially articulated. he Indian herita kno wledg orms of h f suc ge of e. T

46 27 function. It also has its own validation procedure, namel y, a ste the necessity ation of p demonstr y-ste p-b Tr aditions Or al and Cr aft procedures of what is to be established. The validation The oral lore and traditions of craft are a unique of mathematics are never empirical, never based on ty, varied and sophistica oper intellectual pr ted, the w orld or on e xperiment, but ar e obser va tion of preser y inn , roups in our society ab le g umer ved b including women, marginalised, and communities, demonstrations internal to the system specified by an and tribal people. By including these in the curriculum appr opria te set of axioms and def initions . for all children, we could provide them with windows Sciences , like the systems of mathematics, have The of understanding and kernels of ideas, skills and capabilities that could be worked into forms and their own concepts, often interconnected through inventions that could enrich their own lives and theories, and are attempts to describe and explain the . Sc ford society ate, but cannot af hool pri vile ges the liter natural world. Concepts include atom, magnetic field, to continue to ignore the oral. Sustaining oral skills ic inquir y in volv cell, va tion and neur on. Scientif es obser of all kinds is important. and experimentation to validate predictions made by theory (hypotheses), which may be aided by instruments practical knowledge is vast, varied and rich. As and contr ols y and model . For malisa tion into theor productive skills, they are an invaluable part of the building can sometimes involve mathematics, but it is econom y. va tions and not to eference to obser y with r onl More reflection and research is needed in order to mathematical accuracy that truth is tested. The attempt understand the epistemological structure of these practical is to furnish a narrative that in some way ‘corresponds’ e pr disciplines . Under standing ho w the actised and y ar to r eality . , are questions lear nt, and ho w to f ning ormalise their lear Humanities and The Social Sciences have their own of sociological importance as traditional occupations , comm conce pts , for e xample unity , moder nisa tion, are linked to caste groups and are gendered. It is necessary e, identity cultur , and polity . T he Social Sciences aim a t to r ealise their cur ricular signif icance , not onl y as f or ms developing a generalised and critical understanding of kno wledg orms of e, and as y as f of w ork b ut equall human beings and human g roups in society . T he Social tant ar . T mediums f or other lear ning his impor ea of Sciences concern themselves with description, human knowledge needs to become a substantial part explanation and prediction in the social world. The of the school curriculum. Social Sciences deal with hypotheses that are about human behaviour in collective living, and their validation standing 2.5.3 F orms of Under pends on the obser y de . va tions made in the society finall Knowledge can be categorised based on distinct kinds e for ma tion, With r ocess of kno eg ard to the pr wledg of concepts and meanings involved and processes of Science and the Social Sciences are almost identical. validation and justification. Each involves its own kind of t ar ferences tha But ther e ar e tw o dif great relevance e of ‘critical thinking’, its own way of verifying and y in cur riculum planning . Fir st, the Social Sciences stud authenticating knowledge, and its own kind of ‘creativity’. human behaviour which is governed by ‘reasons’, while has its own distinctive concepts, such Mathematics nature is governed by ‘cause and effect’. Second, the as prime number, square root, fraction, integer and findings of the Social Sciences often raise issues of

47 28 for anyone; reason, equality and personal autonomy ethics and desirability while natural phenomena can be understood, raising ethical questions only when they . pts tely connected conce ery intima efor e v are ther Philosophy enter into the domain of human action. involves a concern, on the one hand, have many words in common, with analytical clarification, evaluation and synthetic Art and aesthetics tion of dina coor the af orementioned f orms of suc h as rh ythm, har mon y, expr ession and balance , though giving them new senses or new ranges of understanding in relation to life, and, on the other hand, with the whole, the ultimate meaning and the application. Art productions cannot be judged against transcendent. reality or investigated for ‘truth’. Although there is ample The basic capabilities, the knowledge of practice scope for subjective judgement in art, it is also possible under standing ar ays in e w e the cor or ms of to educate the artistic imagination to critically assess and the f what is good and what is not. which human experience has been elaborated in the is concerned with all human values, and human ut the simplest kinds of y. All b Ethics se of cour histor with the rules, principles, standards and ideals which activity draw upon them—the liberal professions, industr tec give them expression. In relation to action and choice, hnolo gy, al y and commer ce. T he y ar e centr therefore, ethics must be conceded primacy over each to human culture. Imagination and critical thinking are standing or ms of . Ethical under of the f standing under linked in obvious ways with the development of and so ar . eason, e the emotions involves understanding reasons for judgements—for under standing and r Each of these knowledge areas involves a special what makes some things and some acts right and others y, conce bular voca wrong—regardless of the authority of the persons , descriptions and , theories pts thr easons mor ther Fur ed. involv methodolo gies . Eac h pr ovides a ‘lens’ e, suc ough w hic h easons will be r h r to view the world, to understand, to engage, and to act in it. These areas have developed, and continue to grow, thr ough the contrib utions of people in the past. under standing La yers of e and emphasis . They ha ve also c hang ed in their str uctur Comprehension: understanding the language, and or ms of kno intellig wing come ariety of ence and f A v the (linguistic) contents of what is said. into pla of ‘formal modes’ eas: ning these ar hile lear y w Reference: understanding what is being talked explicit reasoning and articulation; looking for and about—w hat the ter ms and conce pts r ef er to . evaluating evidence; ‘experiential’ and tacit knowing Epistemic: understanding what counts as evidence, through doing and undergoing the experience; what makes a statement true, how to seek evidence actical’ coor dina ting and obser ving; and ‘pr eng ag ement, and judge truth. either by oneself or in coordination with others in Relational and Significant: understanding through making or accomplishing something, in addressing developing interconnections between different facts and concepts and weaving them into an problems and issues while charting a course of action. interconnected web of ‘known things’, Creativity and e orms gr al to all these f e inte xcellence ar understanding relationships between different things, and the significance of each in relation to the . wing e and kno wledg of kno other. This accumulation of human culture and knowledge, and ways of knowing and doing things, is

48 29 ble par t of a valua part of the curriculum. These rarely receive the attention the inheritance of human society . All s or our children have a right to access this knowledge, to pr epar ation b y teac her ms of the y deser ve in ter school time. Areas of knowledge such as crafts and educate and enrich their common sense, to develop sports, which are rich in potential for the development and discover themselves and the world of nature and eativity , resour cefulness and team ough these lenses and tools of skill, aesthetics , thr people , cr . work, also become sidelined. Important areas of 2.6 R ECREATING K NOWLEDGE knowledge such as work and associated practical intelligences have been completely neglected, and we These capabilities, practices, and skills of understanding hool still do not have an adequate curriculum theory to velop thr e seek to de hat w ar e w ough the sc support the development of knowledge, skills and eadil them r Some of riculum. es to y lend themselv cur h as ‘subjects’ ted as ormula y suc stud . eas attitudes in these ar of being f Second, the subject areas tend to become s, ts. Other , and the visual ar , histor tics thema ma y, science suc h as ethical under standing , need to be interw ov en esult, . As a r tments tertight compar wledg e seems wa kno fragmented rather than interrelated and integrated. The he basic ca into subjects and acti vities . T pabilities of wing the ppr , r ather than the c s w ay of hild’ vie langua ge r equir discipline oac , and aesthetic hes e both a world, tends to become the starting point, and understanding also readily lends itself to both hes oac appr boundaries get constructed between knowledge in the or tunities f . All these ar equir eas r e oppor school and knowledge outside. project acti vities , thema tic and inter disciplinar y cour ses atories . Third, what is already known gets emphasised, of studies , field trips , use of libr aries and la bor hildr e wledg sub ver ting c en’s o wn a bility to constr uct kno This approach to knowledge necessitates a move tion tak . Inf away from ‘facts’ as ends in themselves, and a move wing kno ays of es vel w e no xplor and e or ma precedence over knowledge, lending itself to producing towards locating facts in the process through which they come to be known, and moving below the surface bulky textbooks, ‘quizzing’ and methods of mechanical oblem solving standing and pr val r retrie . ather than under of facts to locate the deeper connections between them orma mistaking inf or kno wledg e y of tion f This tendenc that give them meaning and significance. leads to ‘loading’ the curriculum with too many facts In India, we have traditionally followed a to be memorised. subject-based approach to organising the curriculum, luding inc e is the issue of ther th, w Four ‘ne ppr oac drawing on onl y the disciplines . T h tends his a subjects’. The need for subjects addressing to present knowledge as ‘packaged’, usually in contemporary concerns of society is important. But textbooks, along with associated rituals of examinations there has been a misplaced tendency to address these to assess, knowledge acquisition and marks as a way concerns in the school curriculum by ‘creating’ new of judging competence in the subject area. This subjects, producing related textbooks and devising approach has led to several problems in our education methods of evaluation for them. These concerns may system. First, those areas that do not lend themselves be far better addressed if they are incorporated in the to being organised in textbooks and examined through curriculum through existing subjects and ongoing marks become sidelined and are then described as acti vities . Needless to sa y, ad ding ne w ar eas as ‘subjects’ being an integral ‘extra’ or ‘co-curricular’, instead of

49 30 ea . This ar ves meaning e and deri wledg ucts kno constr only increases the curriculum load, and perpetuates undesirable compartmentalisation of knowledge. has generally been neglected both in the conceptualisation of textbooks and in pedagogic Finall y, the principles f e for or selecting kno wledg . Hence practices inclusion in the curriculum are not well worked out. we emphasise the , in this document, significance of contextualising education: of situating There is insufficient consideration of developmental learning in the context of the child's world, and of appropriateness, logical sequencing and connection making the boundary between the school and its natural between different grades, and overall pacing, with a vironment por and social en etur lier conce pts . tunities to r fe w or no oppor y because n to ear . T his is not onl ous hild’ xperiences wn e s o vironment and the c the local en Further, concepts that cut across subject areas, such as are the best ‘entry points, into the study of disciplines in secondary school mathematics and in physics, are of knowledge, but more so because the aim of not placed in relation to one another knowledge is to connect with the world . It is not a means to NOWLEDGE C ’ S K HILDREN AND L OCAL 2.7 an end, but both means and end. This does not require NOWLEDGE K us to reduce knowledge to the functional and The c hild’ s comm unity and local en vir onment f orm immediately relevant, but to realise its dynamism by connecting with the world through it. the primary context in which learning takes place, and in which knowledge acquires its significance. It is in Unless learners can locate their individual standpoints in relation to the concepts represented in interaction with the environment that the child textbooks and relate this knowledge to their own society , kno experiences of wledg e is r educed to the Selecting Knowledge ant to e or ma e inf mer xamine e w w If tion. level of kno mousl ro wn enor Domains of e ha wledg y, ve g how learning relates to future visions of community so that it is necessary to select what is to be included what it means life, it is crucial to encourage reflection on in the curriculum. , and how to use what we have learnt. to know something Relevance: This could lead to very functionalist The learner must be recognised as a proactive participant choices, with mistaken notions relating to usefulness in later adult life. This may be completely unsuited ning wn lear in his or her o . en’s eng wledg uction ag ement in kno to c hildr e constr Day after day children bring to school their in the present, and hence in no way contributes to experiences of the world around them the trees that learning for the future. they have climbed, the fruits they have eaten, the birds Interest: A useful measure, but this should not be reduced to simplistic notions of y, en enjo what childr they have admired. All children are alive to the natural such as ‘cartoon’ figures or games. Rather the measure cycles of day and night, of the weather, the water, the should be the ability to engage a child and keep her plants and the animals that surround them. Children, interested and self - motivated to engage in the task at hand. when they enter Class I already have a rich language Meaningful: The most important measure. Only if base of small numbers, and the rudiments of the child finds the activity or knowledge being learnt arely do w e hear oper ations ar e alr ead y in place . Y et r meaningful, will its inclusion in the curriculum be the knowledge that they already have and which they justified. bring into the classroom. Rarely do we ask children to

50 31 talk about or refer to the world outside the school e r esor t to during our lessons and teac hing . Instead w Par ticipa ting in the Gener ation of the convenience of the printed word and picture, all Knowledge e poor r the na tur h ar al w or ld. W orse eplicas of of whic esta h manif , eac bility aria Given its intrinsic v tion of still, today in the name of computer-aided learning, the environment tends to be unique. Its the living world is being turned into animation strips understanding cannot, therefore, be arrived at solely on the basis of the classical scientific approach of that children are expected to watch on their computer experimentation, calling for extensive replication. ving and non-li ving eens . Bef ore star ting a lesson on li scr , Instead, an understanding of such complex systems if a teacher was to take her class out on a walk through requires extensive locale-and time-specific a field near the school, and on returning asked each eful documenta tion, obser and an , car va tions elucidation of the patterns and underlying processes child to write the names of ten living things and ten based on comparisons of systems that differ from ould be non-li esults w w, the r ving things tha t she/he sa each other in some specific ways. There is hardly any . Childr en in Maha Tamil Nadu am in balipur amazing good quality documentation available today of the many facets of India's environment, such as the may include in their list of things sea shells, pebbles depth of the underground water table, and it is and fish, and those in Chhattisgarh near the feasible to create such documentation on the basis Dandakaranya forest may include nest, bee hive, and of student projects. It would be possible to upload the results of such projects on a publicly accessible anklet. Instead, children are usually required to look at website, thereby creating a transparent and a drawing in the textbook, or a list of words, and sort comprehensive database on India's environment. By ving ving and non-li the things out as li . During a lesson inviting not only experts, but also all interested on water pollution, children could examine the water citizens to assess the quality of such projects and augment their results, a self-correcting system could sources and water bodies and then connect these with be set up that would lead to an organic growth of different types of pollution. This exercise could also our understanding of the Indian environmental raise issues regarding how lack of safe water affects scenario and concrete ways of undertaking positive action. Such information collated annually over the health. Instead, children are expected to see pictures years, and also shared with and compared with other of polluted water and comment on them. When regions, and collated centrally would produce a studying the moon and its phases, how many teachers significant understanding of ecological changes and actually ask the children to look at the moon at night develop a perspective on what is happening and why through comparisons. Including such knowledge- and then talk about it the next day? Instead of asking generation activities as a part of the educational children the names of local birds and trees, our process would also greatly enhance the quality of the textbooks name ‘ubiquitous’ things that seem to belong educational experience. everywhere and yet belong nowhere. Only if children in, say Class VIII, can connect the chapter on the school will children become alive to the issues of photosynthesis with the real plants around would they the environment and nurture their concern for it. think of asking questions such as, ‘How do crotons, The local environment is thus a natural learning which have coloured leaves but no green leaves, manage to manufacture their food?’ Only when the living world resource, which must be privileged when making around becomes available for critical reflection within choices regarding what should be included, what

51 32 concrete examples should be cited in planning for their should also be able to compare life there with life transaction in the classroom. In the case of content hat , and ask w unity around them in their local comm ould ha selection for the Social Sciences and language, it is things w hat things ay, and w ppen in the same w ferentl y. ppen dif would ha important to keep in mind the ideals and values enshrined in the Constitution. Inclusion of the local The local environment consists not only of the physical and natural world but also the socio-cultural context in classroom transaction would imply a serious world. All children have a voice at home, and it is attempt by the teacher to make choices in a manner essential for the school to ensure that their voices that is pedagogically imaginative and ethically sound. When children living in Kerala are introduced to the continue to be heard in the classroom as well. habitat of the desert in Rajasthan, the descriptions must Communities also have rich cultural resources: local stories, songs, jokes and riddles, and art, all of which be rich and detailed so that they can get a feel of the ticularities and di hey . T hools e in sc ge and kno h langua versity can enric , wledg e, in all its par orld ther al w natur also ha rather than evoking images of the typical sand dune ve ric h or al histories . By imposing silence w e and the camel. They should wonder how in a place so stifle children. hot people w hey . T lothes er c e rather than f ew ear mor S CHOOL K NOWLEDGE AND THE 2.8 OMMUNITY C wledg e Tr aditions Local Kno Experiences of the socio-cultural world also need to riculum. Childr the cur t of become a par en need to f ind Many communities and individuals in India are a aspects many about rich storehouse of knowledge examples of ays of peoples and w ality of the plur e lif of India's envir onment, acquired over generations re pr esented in the te tray als need to . T hese por xtbooks and handed down as traditional knowledge, as well ensur e tha t no comm unity is o versimplif ied, labelled, as through an individual's practical experience. Such knowledge may pertain to: naming and categori sing en to stud y or judg ed. It ma y e ven be better f or c hildr plants ays of har vesting and storing w ater, or , or w ener and g roups as a the local social g tray als of ate por of practi sing sustainable agriculture. Sometimes . T hey can then par t of their social science studies these may be different from the way s in which school , knowledge approaches the subject. At other times y inter act with the g tive, haya t representa ram panc directl it may not be recogni sed as something that is bout the hool to speak a vited to the sc y be in who ma help important. In these situations, teachers could children develop projects of study based on local extent to w hic h decentr alisa tion has helped in tradition s and people's practical ecological knowledge; . Local or al histor addressing local ci vic issues y could with the this may also involve comparing these y and na tional egional histor also be connected with r school approach . In some cases, as in the case of classifying plants, the two traditions may be simply y. But the social conte uch or a m histor xt also calls f be based on different criteria considered parallel and gr eater critical a wareness and critical eng ag ement on significant. In other cases, for example the the par t of cur riculum de veloper s and teac her s. es, it may also classification and diagnosis of illness challenge and contradict local belief systems. Comm , caste , class and , of gender unity-based identities However, all forms of local knowledge must be , but the y can also be e primar religion ar y identities mediated through Constitutional values and principles. essi ve and r eaf firm social inequalities and oppr hier e can also pr archies . Sc hool kno wledg ovide a lens

52 33 through which children can develop a critical their social r eality . It could also eg arding the a ppr oac Some principles r h to under standing of knowledge in the curriculum : provide them space to talk a bout their e xperiences and . anxieties within their homes Acquiring a critical perspective on social reality √ and the natural environment through the Communities may also have questions about the lenses provided by the subject matter. inclusion or exclusion of particular knowledge and experiences in the school curriculum. The school must Connecting with the local and the √ contextualised in order to ‘situate’ knowledge then be prepared to engage with communities to listen and realising its ‘relevance’ and to their concerns, and to persuade them to see the to r firm one’ eaf s experiences ‘meaningfulness’; her , teac educa suc tional v h decisions . For this alue of s outside school; to draw one's learning from , inter ving obser acting with, , c lassifying must know the reasons why something is included while categorising, questioning, reasoning and something else is not. They must also be able to win arguing in relation to these experiences. the trust of parents in matters like allowing children to √ Making connections across disciplines and use home language in school, or teaching about sexuality bringing out the interrelatedness of and reproduction, or play-way methods in primary knowledge. school, or encouraging boys to sing and dance. It is √ Realising the ‘fruitfulness’ and ‘openness’ of not a good enough explanation to say that the decisions tr uth. y, and the pr ovisional na tur enquir e of were taken at the state level. If we are to ensure Engaging with ‘local knowledge’/indigenous √ participation of children of all groups in our secular practices in the local area, and relating these to education, we will have to discuss our curricular choices school knowledge wherever possible. with others who are legitimate stakeholders in education. √ Encouraging questions and leaving space open for the pursuit of new questions. OME OPMENT EVEL D ONSIDERA 2.9 S TIONS C AL √ Being sensitive to the issues of ‘equality’ in pacity Childr en’s inter ests , ph ysical skills , linguistic ca , and classroom transaction as well as established ability for abstract thinking and generalisation develop stereotypes and discrimination regarding learnability of the knowledge area by different over the span of schooling, from the pre-school period ven f gr oups (e .g. gir ls not being gi ield-based through higher secondary school. This is a period of projects, the blind being excluded from the intensive growth and development, and also of option of learning mathematics, etc.). fundamental shifts and changes in interests and √ Developing the imagination, and keeping capabilities . Hence , it is an impor tant dimension of imagination and fantasy alive. mining the a ppr deter oac h to , and selection and organisation of the areas of the curriculum. learn later will be in relation to this knowledge that The creation or recreation of knowledge requires they bring into the classroom. This knowledge is also an experiential base, language abilities, and interaction intuitive. School provides opportunities to build on with other humans and the natural world. Children . At the entering school for the first time have already begun this in a mor e conscious and eng ag ed manner constructing knowledge of the world. Everything they early stage of learning, from pre-school to the primary

53 34 school years, an important place must be given to categorise, and also analyse the same through certain language and mathematics in all activities across the knowledge areas such as ethical understanding and xplor or e a space f eation of he cr . T critical thinking curriculum. The division into subjects is not very ations into social issues and knowledge without boundaries significant, and the knowledge areas discussed above could at this stage go a long way in encouraging rational can be totally integrated and presented to children in the f . thinking vironment. or m of lear ning e xperiences of the en By the time children reach the secondary stage This should include an enriching interaction with the of education, they have acquired a sufficient knowledge natur vir onment, w al and social en or king with one’ s base, experience, language abilities and maturity to hands, and understanding of social interactions, and developing one’ wledg or ms of ferent f ag e with dif eng kno e in the full s aesthetic a bilities ted gra ly inte . T hese ear experiences of the natural and social environment sense: concepts, structure of body of knowledge, es. ocedur tion pr would later become demarcated into science and the alida in vestig ation methods and v social sciences in the mid dle sc hool y ear s. Therefore, the subjects could be more closely linked bo with the basic f The upper primary or middle school period may ve and the disciplines orms as listed a be the place for the emergence of better defined y. tion toda gnised in higher educa e reco y ar as the adequa subject areas, taking into consideration the or ms all f tion of epresenta te r The issues of or ms of kno wledg e. At this sta ge above-mentioned f of knowledge, and emphasis on similarities, special characteristics, and the widest possible interconnections it should be possible to create spaces across subjects in which children engage in the process of data collection, between them, become important when the subject natural, social, mathematical or linguistic, to classify and areas are more clearly defined .

54 35 The main areas relevant for curricular planning have remained remarkably stable for a long time, despite major changes in social expecta y of dif ferent br oad disciplines . tions and the academic stud It is important that each curricular area is revisited in depth, so that specific points of entry can be identified in the context of emerging . In this r espect, social needs tus and r ole of the ar ts and health the sta and ph ysical educa tion deser ve special a ttention in vie w of the peculiar orbit of the 'extra-curricular' to which they were relegated almost a centur y a Aesthetic sensibility and e xperience being the go. the g prime sites of hild's cr eativity , we m ust bring the ar ts ro wing c squarely into the domain of the curricular, infusing them in all areas of learning while giving them an identity of their own at relevant tion ha ges. W ork, peace , and health and ph ysical educa sta ve a similar case. All three have a fundamental significance for economic, social and personal development. Schools have a major role to play in ensuring that children are socialised into a culture of self-reliance, resourcefulness, peace-oriented values and health.

55 36 AGE ANGU 3.1 L understanding and use of languages(s) enables the child to make connections between ideas, people and things, Language in this document subsumes bi-/ and to relate to the world around. multilingualism. And when we talk of home language(s) If we wish to launch any sound programme for or mother tongue(s), it subsumes the languages of language teaching in schools, it is important to recognise , str eet and neighbourhood, home roup ger kinship g , lar i.e. languages(s) that a child acquires naturally from the inbuilt linguistic potential of children as well as to her/his home and societal environment. Children are remember that languages get socio-culturally n with an inna om te langua ge f aculty . W bor w fr e kno constr . hang e in our da ucted and c y-to-da actions y inter our everyday experiences that most children, even Language(s) in education would ideally build on this before they start their schooling, internalise an extremely resource, and would strive to enrich it through the complex and rule-governed system called language, and development of literacy (scripts including Braille) for possess full linguistic ca pabilities , childr y cases . In man en the acquisition of academic knowledge. Children with come to school with two or three languages already in langua ted impair ela oduced to ments should be intr ge-r place at the oral-aural level. They are able to use these standard sign languages, which can support their ately b langua ges not onl y accur ut also a tely. ppr opria continued growth and development to the fullest. A Even differently talented children who do not use the recognition of the linguistic abilities of learners would spoken languages develop equally complex alternative encourage them to believe in themselves and their sign and symbol systems for expression and cultur . al moorings communication. Languages also provide a bank of memories and 3.1.1 Language education symbols inherited from one's fellow speakers and The linguistic diversity of India poses complex created in one's own lifetime. They are also the medium challeng . India is tunities es b ut also a r ang e of oppor through which most knowledge is constructed, and unique not only in that a large number of languages hence they are closely tied to the thoughts and identity ms of are spok en her e b ut also in ter umber and the n of the individual. In fact, they are so closely bound variety of language families that are represented in those with identity that to deny or wipe out a child's mother langua ges. T her e is no other countr y in the w orld in tongue(s) is to interfere with the sense of self. Effective which languages from five different language families exist. Even though they are so distinct structurally as to Multilingualism, which is constitutive of the ication as dif ferent langua ge families merit c y, lassif , namel identity of a child and a typical feature of the Indian linguistic landscape, must be Dr avidian, A ustr o-Asia tic, Tibeto-Bur man Ind o-Ar yan, gy and oom strate ce, classr esour used as a r and Andamanese , they constantly interact with each . This a goal by a cr eati ve language teacher . T e se veral linguistic and sociolinguistic e ar her other is not only the best use of a resource readily available, but also a way of ensuring that bear that features that are shared across languages every child feels secure and accepted, and witness to the fact that different languages and cultures that no one is left behind on account of his/her linguistic background. , enriching each have coexisted in India for centuries Arabic tin, h as La ges suc . Classical langua other , Persian,

56 37 every local authority within the State to provide Several studies have shown that bilingual adequate facilities for instruction in the proficiency raises the levels of cognitive mother-tongue at the primary stage of education growth, social tolerance, divergent to children belonging to linguistic minority thinking and scholastic achievement. Societal or national-level multilingualism groups’. is a resource that can be favourably Children will receive multilingual education from • compared to any other national resource. T he thr the outset. ee-langua ge for mula needs to be implemented in its spirit, promoting h in their inf Tamil and Sanskrit ar lectional e ric multilingual communicative abilities for a grammatical structure and aesthetic value, and can y. multilingual countr illuminate our lives, as many languages keep borrowing • In the non-Hindi-speaking states, children learn words from them. Hindi. In the case of Hindi speaking states, tain tha t bilingualism or y, we kno w f or cer Toda children learn a language not spoken in their area. ges. er s def gniti ve ad inite co multilingualism conf vanta Sanskrit may also be studied as a Modern Indian The thr or mula is an a ttempt to ad dress ge f ee-langua ges. dition to these langua ge (MIL) in ad Langua the challenges and opportunities of the linguistic At later stages, study of classical and foreign • t should r ategy tha situa y eall tion in India. It is a str languages may be introduced. hing pad f ges. e langua ser ve as a launc ning mor or lear It needs to be followed both in letter and spirit. Its 3.1.2 Home/First language(s) or Mother-tongue primary aim is to promote multilingualism and national education he f wing guidelines ma y help us ac ollo hie mon har y. T ve It is clear that through their innate language faculty and this aim: interaction with the family and other people around • Language teaching needs to be multilingual not them, children come to school with full-blown langua onl y in ter the n umber of ms of ges of fered communicative competence in their language, or, in ms of en b hildr to c evolving str ategies ut also in ter hool not onl g es. T , langua y cases hey enter the sc y man that would use the multilingual classroom as a with thousands of words but also with a full control resource. of the rules that govern the complex and rich structure • Home language(s) of children, as defined above of language at the level of sounds, words, sentences in 3.1, should be the medium of learning in and discourse. A child knows not only how to . schools understand and speak correctly but also appropriately in her language(s). She can modulate her behaviour in • If a school does not have provisions for teaching y has ms of place and topic . She ob viousl son, per ter in the child's home language(s) at the higherlevels, the cognitive abilities to abstract extremely complex primary school education must still be covered om the f lux of sounds . Honing systems of langua ge-fr through the home language(s). It is imperative these skills by progressively fostering advanced-level that we honour the child's home language(s). communicative and cognitive abilities in the classroom According to Article 350A of our Constitution, is the goal of first-language(s) education. From Class III ‘It shall be the endeavour of every State and of

57 38 Language education is not confined to the language classroom. A science, social science or mathematics class en’s e can also be a spur to childr Literatur y, poem vity eati own cr . After hearing a stor lass ge c a langua ipso facto is ning the subject means . Lear or song, children can be encouraged to standing the conce gy, under ning the ter lear minolo , and pts write something of their own. They can being a bout them criticall y. For ble to discuss and write a also be encouraged to integrate various some topics, students should be encouraged to consult for eati ve expr ms of cr ession. books or talk to people in different languages, or gather material in English from the Internet. Such a policy of onwards, oracy and literacy will be tools for learning languages across the curriculum will foster a genuine and for developing higher-order communicative skills multilingualism in the school. At the same time, the language y sta ge, c hild's and critical thinking . At the primar , poems , fers some unique oppor class of . Stories tunities languages must be accepted as they are, with no attempt songs and drama link children to their cultural heritage, to cor rect them. By Class IV , if ric h and inter esting and also give them an opportunity to understand their exposure is made available, the child will herself acquire vity to other s. We xperiences and to de own e velop sensiti the standard variety and the rules of correct may also point out that children may effortlessly abstract gra phy, but car e m en to honour and ortho ust be tak more grammar from such activities than through explicit respect the child's home language(s)/mother tongue(s). and often boring g rammar lessons . It should be accepted that errors are a necessary part While many of the differently abled learners may of the process of learning, and that children will correct pic k up basic langua ge skills thr ough nor mal social . Instead themselv y w hen the y ar es onl e r ead y to do so interactions, they could additionally be provided with of focusing attention on errors and 'hard spots', it especially designed materials that would assist and would be much better to spend time providing children enhance their growth and development. Studying sign le, inter esting and c hallenging inputs . ehensib compr language and Braille could be included as options for It is indeed har d to e tance xag g erate the impor s without disa lear ner bilities . of teaching home languages at school. Though children come equipped with basic interpersonal communicative 3.1.3 Second-language Acquisition skills, they need to acquire at school cognitively English in India is a global language in a multilingual langua g e pr y. Basic langua advanced le vels of oficienc ge countr ang e of Eng lish-teac hing y. A v ariety and r skills are adequate for meeting situations that are situations prevail here owing to the twin factors of contextually rich and cognitively undemanding such as teacher proficiency in English and pupils' exposure to peer-group interaction; advanced-level skills are required English outside school. The level of introduction of in situations that are contextually poor and cognitively English is now a matter of political response to people's demanding such as writing an essay on an abstract issue. aspirations rather than an academic or feasibility issue, It is also now well established that higher-level and people's choices about the level of its introduction proficiency skills easily transfer from one language to in the curriculum will have to be respected, with the . It is thus imper ative tha another t w e do e verything w e can to strengthen the sustained learning of Indian proviso that we do not extend downwards the very system tha ver. ailed to deli t has f languages at school.

58 39 The goals for a second-language curriculum are is not being taught as language, through exposure in y, suc oficienc a basic pr meaningful context. Thus English must be seen in attainment of h as is twofold: relation to other subjects; a language across the acquired in natural language learning, and the curriculum is of particular relevance to primary development of language into an instrument for abstract thought and knowledge acquisition through education, and later all teaching is in a sense language specti his per . T hing teac ve will bridg (for e xample) liter acy. T his ar e the g ap betw een gues f or an lish as medium". "Eng lish as subject" and "Eng across-the-curriculum approach that breaks down the We barriers between English and other subjects, and English should in this way move towards a common school lish system that does not make a distinction between " and other Indian langua ges. At the initial sta ges, Eng teaching a language" and "using a language as a medium may be one of the languages for learning activities that of instruction". create the child's awareness of the world. At later stages, Input-rich communicational environments are a prerequisite for language learning, whether first or Within the eight years of education second. Inputs include textbooks, learner-chosen texts, constitutionally guaranteed to every child, it and class libraries, allowing for a variety of genres: should be possible to achieve basic English- print (for example, Big Books for young learners); language proficiency in a span of about four oach to schooling . A multilingual appr years parallel books and materials in more than one language; from the very outset will counter possible ill media support (learner magazines/newspaper columns, effects such as loss of one's own languages he and "authentic" ma radio/audio cassettes); . T terials and the burden of sheer incomprehension. language environment of disadvantaged learners needs to be enriched by developing schools into community va tions successful inno ariety of es. A v ning centr lear all learning happens through language. Higher-order linguistic skills generalise across languages; reading, (for exists whose generalisability needs exploration and example) is a transferable skill. Improving it in one encouragement. Approaches and methods need not language improves it in others, while reading failure in be exclusive but may be mutually supportive within a gniti ges ad y af otskian, fects second-langua ge s o one’ broad co versel ve philosoph y (incor por ating Vyg wn langua Chomskyan, and Piagetian principles). Higher-order . reading skills (including literary appreciation and role of language English does not stand alone. The aim of English in gendering) can be developed once fundamental teaching is the creation of multilinguals who can enrich all our languages; this has been an abiding national vision. competencies are ensured. oing and onsite Teac English needs to find its place along with other Indian her educa tion needs to be ong t systems), or mal suppor ormal or inf ough f (thr languages in different states, where children's other as w ell languages strengthen English teaching and learning; and ofessional a as pr oficienc epar y and pr y. Pr ator wareness in "English-medium" schools, where other Indian are equally to be promoted, the latter imparted, wn languages need to be valorised to reduce the perceived wher e v er necessar y, thr ough the teac her s' o hegemony of English. The relative success of "English- lish should ha h Eng ho teac ve s w her ges. All teac langua basic proficiency in English. All teachers should have medium" schools shows that language is learnt when it

59 40 while listening to somebody on the phone, several skills the skills to teach English in ways appropriate to their . We r y need to be used to en gether ma eall y wish c hildr situation and levels based on some knowledge of how standing . Langua ge – as a ead and write with under to r languages are learnt. A variety of materials should be constellation of skills, thought encoders and markers available to provide an input-rich curriculum, which of identity–cuts acr oss sc hool subjects and disciplines . . focuses on meaning Speech and listening, reading and writing, are all Language evaluation need not be tied to generalised skills, and children's mastery over them "achievement " with respect to particular syllabi, but becomes the key factor affecting success at school. In must be reoriented to the measurement of language many situations, all of these skills need to be used tion is to be made an ena alua actor y. Ev proficienc bling f . This is w hy it is impor tant to vie w langua ge together for learning rather than an impediment. Ongoing education as everybody's concern at school, and not as assessment could document a learner's progress her alone ge teac esponsibility of a r the langua , . Also through the portfolio mode. National benchmarks for the foundational role of the skills associated with language proficiency need to be evolved preliminary language does not stop with the primary or elementary to designing a set of optional English language tests classes, but extends all the way up to secondary and that will balance curricular freedom with standardisation senior secondary classes as new needs arise in the subject tifica t cer tion tha of evalua es, and ser equir ve to tion r areas . De velopment of h as critical thinking life skills suc counter the current problem of English (along with skills, interpersonal communication skills, negotiation/ Mathematics) being a principal reason for failure at the refusal skills, decision making/ problem-solving skills, Class X level. A student may be allowed to "pass and coping and self-management skills is also very without English" if an alternative route for English critical for dealing with the demands and challenges of certification (and therefore instruction) can be provided everyday life. outside the regular school curriculum. The conventionally trained language teacher 3.1.4 Lear ead and Write ning to R associa aining of rather cor rectness h with speec tes the tr than with the expressive and participatory functions Though we strongly advocate an integrated approach of language. This is why talking in class has a negative to the teaching of different skills of language, the school value in our system, and a great deal of the teacher's does need to pay special attention to reading and hildr ee ping c oes into k gy g ener etting them or g en quiet, writing in many cases, particularly in the case of home to pr hild's talk s see the c her teac y. If rectl onounce cor langua second and thir d, or c lassical ges. In the case of as a resource rather than as a nuisance, the vicious cycle or foreign languages, all the skills, including of resistance and control would have a chance to be communicative competence, become important. turned into a cycle of expression and response. There Children appear to learn much better in holistic situations is a vast body of knowledge available on how talk can that make sense to them rather than in a linear and vice teac be used as a r e- and in-ser esour ce , and pr her additi . Ric t often has no meaning ay tha ve w h and . educa tion pr ogr ammes m ust intr oduce teac her s to this comprehensible input should constitute the site for Designers of textbooks and teacher manuals could also acquisition of all the different skills of language. In plan and provide precise guidance to teachers regarding several communicative situations, such as taking notes

60 41 ways in which the subject matter can be explored Why don’t children learn to read? further with the help of small group talk among k basic pedago Teachers lac √ gic skills children, and undertaking activities that nurture the (understanding where the learner is, abilities to compare and contrast, to wonder and explaining, asking appropriate questions and, an understanding of the remember, to guess and challenge, to judge and processes of learning to read, which evaluate. In the orbit of listening, similar detailed range from bottom-up processes such as syllable recognition and letter-sound planning of activities for incorporation in textbooks matching, to top-down processes of and teacher manuals would go a long way in resurrecting whole-word recognition and meaning the significant skill and value area. It covers the ability om texts making fr . They also often lac k class-management skills . They tend to to pay attention, to value the other person's point of focus on errors or hard spots rather than olding utter vie h with the unf , ance w, to sta y in touc on imaginative input and articulation. and to make flexible hypotheses about the meaning of vice training does not gi ve the Pre-ser √ teacher adequate preparation in reading , thus , forms as comple x what is being said. Listening gy , and neither does in-ser vice pedago a w eb of skills and v alues as talking does . Locall y training address the issue. e written in an ad-hoc Textbooks ar √ available resources include folklore and storytelling, fashion, with no attempt to follow a community singing and theatre. Storytelling is uction. gy of ent strate coher reading instr appropriate not only for pre-school education, but Children from disadvantaged √ backgrounds, especially first-generation contin ra tive ter. As a nar ven la icant e ues to be signif learners, do not feel accepted by the discourse, orally told the stories lay the foundations of teacher, and cannot relate to the logical understanding even as they expand the textbook. imagination and enhance the capacity to participate A workable approach to beginning vicariously in situations distant from one's life. Fantasy reading and mystery play an important role in child √ The classroom needs to provide a print- rich environment, displaying signs, development. As a sector of language learning, listening charts, work-organising notices, etc. that also needs to be enriched with the help of music, which promote 'iconic' inc . classical and popular compositions olk, ludes f recognition of the written symbols, in addition to teaching letter-sound Folklor e and m usic also deser ve a place in the langua ge . respondences cor textbook as discourses capable of being developed √ There is a need for imaginative input with the help of exercises and activities unique to them. that is read by a competent reader with appropriate gestures, dramatisation, etc. While reading is readily accepted as a focus area √ rated by Writing down experiences nar for language education, school syllabi are burdened children, and then having them read the written account. , so tion-a or ma with inf bsorbing and memorising tasks Reading of additional material: stories, √ much so that the pleasure of reading for its own sake poems, etc. is missed out. Opportunities for individualised reading √ First-generation school goers must be given opportunities to construct their need to be built at all stages in order to promote a own texts and contribute self-selected culture of reading, and teachers must set the example texts to the classroom. of being members of such a culture. This requires the

61 42 freely, in his or her o hool and comm unity libr aries . The wn dialect, for instance , the demand nurturing of sc perception that the reading of fiction is a waste of for writing in mechanically correct ways blocks the urge ve y one's ideas time acts as a major means of discour . to use writing to e xpr ess or to con eading . aging r Teac The development and supply of a range of ained to place suaded and tr s need to be per her supplementary reading material relevant to all school writing in the same domain as artistic expression, and to cease perceiving it as an office skill. During the subjects and across the grades require urgent attention. terial, primary years, writing abilities should be developed A g var ying quality though of reat deal of h ma suc , holistically in conjunction with the sensibilities associated is available in the market, and could be utilised in a , listening with talking methodical manner to expand the scope of classroom dle and senior . At mid eading , and r levels of schooling, note making should receive teac hing of a subject. T eac her tr aining pr ogr ammes need attention as a skill-development training exercise. This to familiarise teachers with such material, and to give h to select and use it ef ks b y w will go a long way in discouraging mechanical copying ardstic them y fecti vely. hic from the b lac kboar d, textbooks and guides . It is also The importance of writing is well recognised, but the curriculum needs to attend to its innovative necessary to break the routinisation of tasks like letter her . Teac treatments rect and essay writing, so that imagination and originality en write in a cor t childr s insist tha are allowed to play a more prominent role in education. hether the way. W wn thoughts and ess their o xpr y e feelings through writing is not considered too 3.2 M ATHEMATICS important. Just as the prematurely imposed discipline of pronunciation stifles the child's motivation to talk Developing children's abilities for mathematisation is the main goal of mathematics education. The narrow aim of school mathematics is to develop 'useful' Some problems in school Mathematics capabilities, particularly those relating to education numeracy–numbers, number operations, 1. A majority of children have a sense of measur , decimals and per centa ements ges. The higher e r fear and failur eg arding Mathematics . aim is to develop the child's resources to think and Hence, they give up early on, and drop sue assumptions to their reason ma thema ticall y, to pur ning . serious mathematical lear out of logical conclusion and to handle abstraction. It includes The curriculum is disappointing not only 2. , but also ticipating majority to this non-par a way of doing things, and the ability and the attitude to the talented minority by offering them e pr . te and solv or mula to f oblems . no challenges This calls for a curriculum that is ambitious, Problems, exercises and methods of 3. coherent and teaches important principles of evaluation are mechanical and repetitive, with too much ma thema tics . It should be ambitious in the sense tha t it emphasis on computation. Areas of seeks to achieve the higher aim mentioned above, rather Mathematics such as spatial thinking are than only the narrower aim. It should be coherent in not developed enough in the curriculum. the sense that the variety of methods and skills available 4. Teachers lac k confidence , pr eparation and piecemeal (in arithmetic, algebra, geometry) cohere into support. an ability to address problems that come from other

62 43 • Childr en pose and solv e meaningful pr ob lems . domains such as science and social studies in high school. It should be important in the sense that students Children use abstractions to perceive • feel the need to solve such problems, that teachers and relation-ships, to see structures, to reason out , to ar sta uth or f gue the tr students f things alsity of . tements dress gy to ad orth their time and ener ind it w the Ma thema tics oblems . T he twin concer these pr ns of Children understand the basic structure of • Mathematics: Arithmetic, algebra, geometry and curriculum are: what can mathematics education do to engage the mind of every student, and how can it hool sc eas of y, the basic content ar onometr trig or strengthen the student's resources? Ma thema tics , all of fer a methodolo gy f mathematics is a compulsory subject at the As abstraction, structuration and generalisation. lass with the mathematics education • Teac her s eng ag e e ver y c hild in c secondary stage, access to quality n ma t e ver yone can lear viction tha con . is the right of every child. In the context of tics thema Many general tactics of problem solving can be univeralisation of education, the first question to ask is, taught progressively during the different stages of what mathematics can be offered in eight years of quantif action, school: abstr , ysis gy, case anal analo tion, ica schooling that will stand every child in good stead rather than be a preparation for higher secondary education reduction to simpler situations, even guess-and-verify xts y pr , are useful in man ex er cises alone? Most of the skills taught in primary school lem-solving conte . ob mathematics are useful. However, a reorientation of Moreover, when children learn a variety of approaches the curriculum towards addressing the 'higher aims' , and they also richer becomes (over time), their toolkit best. Children also need mentioned above will make better use of the time that learn which approach is the ms of hool in ter , childr en spend in sc prob the lem-solving exposur e to the use of heuristics , or r ules of thumb that Mathematics is an 'exact rather than only believ ing and analytical skills that it builds, and in preparing children science'. The estimation of quantities and approximating lems in lif , e. Also ob pr ariety of to better meet a wide v the tall shape of mathematics (where mastery of one proof: Visualising topic is a prerequisite for the next) can be de-emphasised X 5 = 5 X Why is 3 3? in favour of a broader-based curriculum with more . T his will ser ve the needs om the basics ts fr t star topics tha ferent lear of dif . s better ner Three groups of five Five groups of three 3.2.1 Vision for School Mathematics When a f armer estima tes solutions is also essential skill. ticular cr a par the yield of ab le skills consider op, he uses • Children learn to enjoy mathematics rather than in estimation, approximation and optimi sation. School fear it. Mathematics can play a significant role in developing Children learn important mathematics: • suc h useful skills . thema tics is mor e than f mulas and or Ma Visualisation and representation are skills that es. ocedur hanical pr mec tics can help to de velop . Modelling situa tions thema Ma • Children see mathematics as something to talk orms ar e the best use of using quantities , sha pes and f about, to communicate through, to discuss among epresented pts can be r tical conce thema . Ma tics thema ma themselves, to work together on.

63 44 in m ays, and these r epresenta tions can ser ve a ultiple w pur ferent conte xts . All of this variety of poses in dif Problem posing Ma thema tics . For e xample , a adds to the po wer of √ If you know that 235 + 367 = 602, how much is y be r function ma epr esented in alg or m or in ebraic f 234 + 369? How did you find the answer? T he r ra ph. tion p/q can be a g or m of the f epr esenta Change any one digit in 5384. Did the number √ used to denote a fraction as a part of the whole, but increase or decrease? By how much? can also denote the quotient of two numbers, p and q. Learning this about fractions is as important, if not ning the arithmetic of mor e, than lear . For instance fractions t setting up , this means tha and their use . There is also a need to make connections between of equations should get as much coverage as solving hildr Ma tics and other subjects of stud y. W hen c thema en them. In discussing many of these skills and processes, learn to draw graphs, they should also be encouraged to think of functional relationships in the sciences, we have referred to a multiplicity of approaches and hool ating sc or liber ucial f e all cr hese ar es. T procedur gy. Our c eolo hildr en need to a ppr ecia te luding g inc Mathematics from the tyranny of applying them only the fact that Mathematics is an effective instrument in to those algorithms that are taught. the study of science. The importance of systematic reasoning in 3.2.2 The Curriculum Mathematics cannot be overemphasised, and is At the pre-primary stage, all learning occurs through intimately tied to notions of aesthetics and elegance so ticians . Pr oof is impor but in tant, dear to ma thema play rather than through didactic communication. Rather than the rote learning of the number sequence, children addition to deductive proof, children should also learn when pictures and constructions provide proof. Proof need to learn and understand, in the context of small sets, the connection between word games and counting, is a process that convinces a sceptical adversary; school mathematics should encourage proof as a systematic een counting and quantity . Making simple and betw comparisons and classifications along one dimension way of argumentation. The aim should be to develop arguments, evaluate arguments, make and investigate at a time, and identifying shapes and symmetries, are appropriate skills to acquire at this stage. Encouraging conjectures, and understand that there are various methods of reasoning . children to use language to freely express one's thoughts ays, is and emotions , rather than in pr edeter mined w Mathematical communication is precise and employs unambiguous use of language and rigour in emel extr ges. t la ter sta t this and a tant a y impor Having children develop a positive attitude tant c h ar hic w formula tion, har e impor acteristics of mathematical treatment. The use of jargon in towards, and a liking for, Mathematics at the primary stage is as important, if not more than the cognitive Mathematics is deliberate, conscious and stylised. Mathematicians discuss what is appropriate notation skills and concepts that they acquire. Mathematical games, puzzles and stories help in developing a positive since good notation is held in high esteem and believed to aid thought. As children grow older, they should be attitude and in making connections between tant to . It is impor ver yday thinking tics and e thema ma taught to appreciate the significance of such conventions

64 45 which is important not only in the application of note that mathematics is not just arithmetic. Besides numbers and number operations, due importance must mathematics, but also within mathematics in providing . At this sta be given to shapes, spatial understanding, patterns, g ra s inte ge , student te oofs tions and pr ica justif ement and da learnt into they have that the many concepts and skills . T riculum m measur he cur ta handling ust tical modelling , da explicitly incorporate the progression that learners make -solving a ta a pr bility thema . Ma oblem from the concrete to the abstract while acquiring analysis and interpretation taught at this stage can ust ac y. tical liter thema ma vel of te a high le consolida ess m , str tional skills om computa t fr par . A conce pts Individual and group exploration of connections and be laid on identifying, expressing and explaining sation and generali sation, and making patterns, visuali patterns, on estimation and approximation in solving and proving conjectures , are important at this stage problems, on making connections, and on the and can be encouraged through the use of appr opriate development of skills of language in communication easoning tools that include concrete models as in Mathematics . and r s. atories and computer At the upper primary stage, students get the first labor The aim of the Mathematics curriculum at the taste of the power of Mathematics through the higher secondary stage is to provide students with an application of powerful abstract concepts that appreciation of the wide variety of the application of compress previous learning and experience. This Mathematics, and equip them with the basic tools that enables them to revisit and consolidate basic concepts enable such application. A careful choice between the and skills learnt at the primary stage, which is essential often conflicting demands of depth versus breadth from the point of view of achieving universal needs to be made at this stage. The rapid explosion of e intr tical liter ma thema acy. Students ar oduced to Mathematics as a discipline, and of its range of algebraic notation and its use in solving problems and application, favours an increase in the breadth of in generalisation, to the systematic study of space and coverage. Such increase must be dictated by shapes, and for consolidating their knowledge of mathematical considerations of the importance of measurement. Data handling, representation and tur luded. T opics tha t ar e mor e na ally topics to be inc tion f t of preta inter bility of the a icant par orm a signif the province of other disciplines may be left out of h is an essential dealing with inf orma al, whic tion in g ener the Mathematics curriculum. The treatment of topics 'life skill'. The learning at this stage also offers an must have an objective, that is, the communication of opportunity to enrich students' spatial reasoning and mathematical insights and concepts, which naturally visualisa . tion skills students est and curiosity of arouse the inter . s begin to perceive At the secondary stage, student the structure of Mathematics as a discipline. They 3.2.3 Computer Science become familiar with the characteristics of mathematical The tremendous effectiveness of the computer and ined ter pts , y def ms and conce efull car tion: unica comm computing tec n society has ping moder gy in sha hnolo the use of symbols to represent them, precisely stated created the need for an educated public that can utilise opositions propositions , and pr oofs justifying pr . T hese fecti hnolo ment or the better gy most ef suc h tec vely f aspects are developed particularly in the area of of society and humankind. There is, therefore, a acility with alg velop their f y. Students de geometr ebra,

65 46 3.3 S CIENCE growing realisation of the need to have a place for these domains of knowledge in the school curriculum. One important human response to the wonder and A distinction must be made between the awe of nature from the earliest times has been to gy (IT) cur riculum, w hic Inf or ma tion Technolo h ysical and biolo ve the ph obser gical en vir onment , tions ela ns and r tter y meaningful pa or an y, look f efull car involves the use and application of tools of the make and use new tools to interact with nature, and inf and the Computer g e, tion and computer a or ma build conceptual models to understand the world. This Science (CS) curriculum, which is concerned with how human endeavour has led to modern science. Broadly these tools are designed and deployed. Both of these speaking, the scientific method involves several have their place in school education. ps: inter connected ste obser va tion, looking f or While several countries have implemented CS and/ regularities and patterns, making hypotheses, devising or IT curricula in schools, we need to be aware of the qualitative or mathematical models, deducing their challenges that Indian school students face. The first consequences, verification or falsification of theories or ces f of these is the paucity of tec hnolo g y r esour , and xperiments olled e va tions and contr ough obser thr thus arriving at the principles, theories and laws computer science. It is absurd to teach computer science governing the natural world. The laws of science are (let alone computer usage) without access to computing wed as f en the most . Ev uths nal tr ixed eter never vie vity . Pr ces oviding computer access and connecti resour established and universal laws of science are always for all children is a tremendous technological and regarded as provisional, subject to modification in the economic c halleng vasive e. Ho wev er, gi ven the per , experiments and anal ne light of yses . va tions w obser impact of computer technologies, we need to address Science is a dynamic, expanding body of this infrastructure challenge seriously and explore viable knowledge, covering ever-new domains of experience. and innovative alternatives with regard to hardware, ard-looking society , science can ogr In a pr essi orw ve f software and connectivity technologies appropriate for play a truly liberating role, helping people escape from rural and urban Indian sc . hools yc le of the vicious c stition. ance and super verty, ignor po The ad ve gy ha hnolo vances in science and tec We also need to ad dress the issue of the aditional f h as ork suc w ields of ormed tr tr ansf development of a comprehensive and coherent ag ricultur e and industr y, and led to the emer gence of riculum model in computer science and IT , w hic h cur wholly new fields of work. People today are faced ve as the basis f or the be ginning of a discussion can ser with an increasingly fast-changing world where the most between educators, administrators, and the general impor , inno tant skills ar va tion and cr e flexibility eativity . public. Certain core elements are common to several These different imperatives have to be kept in mind in CS and IT curricula, and are applicable to Indian shaping science education. schools as well. These include the concepts of iterative Good science education is true to the child, true processes and algorithms, general problem-solving va tion . This simple obser ue to science e and tr to lif strategies arising from computing, possibilities of leads to the following basic criteria of validity of a science curriculum: computer usage, the place occupied by computers in requires that the content, 1. Cognitive validity the modern world, and the societal issues that arise process, language and pedagogical practices of ther eby.

66 47 the curriculum are age appropriate, and within the cognitive re ach of the child. Asking questions requires that the curriculum must 2. Content validity "Air is everywhere" is a statement that every convey significant and correct scientific schoolchild learns. Students may know that the h is tion. inf Simplif ica tion of content, whic orma earth's atmosphere consists of several gases, or that ppy We might be ha ther e is no air on the moon. that they know some science. But consider this w? gy do students kno What biolo exchange in a Class IV classroom. : Is ther her e air in this g Teac lass? "These students don't understand science. They kg round!" We fr equentl y come fr om a de prived bac Students (in c us): Y es! hor hear such opinions expressed about children from hat these r ural or tribal bac kg rounds . Yet consider w The teacher was not satisfied with the usual general children know from everyday experience. statement, "Air is everywhere." She asked the students to apply the idea in a simple situation, and Janabai lives in a small hamlet in the Sahyadri hills. ormed some une y had f xpectedl t the y, tha found, She helps her parents in their seasonal work of rice "alternative conceptions". ar ming and tuar f . She sometimes accompanies her brother in taking the goats to graze in the bush. her : No w I tur Is Teac lass upside do n the g wn. She has helped in bringing up her younger sister. there still air in it? Nowadays she walks 8 km. every day to attend the nearest secondary school. Some students said "yes", others said "no", still others were undecided. Janabai maintains intimate links with her natural environment. She has used different plants as Student 1: The air came out of the glass! sources of food, medicine, fuelwood, dyes and ts of she has obser terials; building ma ved par Student 2: There was no air in the glass. different plants used for household purposes, in religious rituals and in celebrating festivals. She In Class II, the teacher put an empty glass over a recognises minute differences between trees, and burning candle and the candle went out! notices seasonal changes based on shape, size, distribution of leaves and flowers, smells and The students had performed an activity whose textures. She can identify about a hundred different memory had remained vivid even two years later, types of plants around her — many times more but some of them at least had taken away an than her Biology teacher can — the same teacher incorrect conclusion from it. who believes Janabai is a poor student. After some explanation, the teacher questioned the Can we help Janabai translate her rich understanding students further. Is there air in this closed cupboard? into formal concepts of Biology? Can we convince Is there air in the soil? In water? Inside our body? her that school Biology is not about some abstract Inside our bones? Each of these questions brought world coded in long texts and difficult language. up new ideas and presented an opportunity to clear Rather it is about the farm she works on, the animals some misunderstandings. This lesson was also a she knows and takes care of, the woods that she message to the class: do not accept statements ough e y then will she tr y. Onl very da uly walks thr y not f uncriticall y. Ask questions . You ma ind all learn science. the answers but you will learn more.

67 48 with it. The objectives at this stage are to nurture the necessary for adapting the curriculum to the curiosity of the child about the world (natural cognitive level of the learner, must not be so environment, artifacts and people), to have the child trivialised as to convey something basically flawed engage in exploratory and hands-on activities for less . and/or meaning acquiring the basic cognitive and psychomotor skills requires that the curriculum should 3. Process validity classif inf tion, ica ough obser va tion, thr .; to , etc er ence engage the learner in acquiring the methods and emphasise design and fabrication, estimation and processes that lead to the generation and validation measurement as a prelude to the development of of scientific knowledge and nurture the natural technological and quantitative skills at later stages; and curiosity and creativity of the child in science. to develop basic language skills: speaking, reading and Process validity is an important criterion since it writing not only for science but also through science. helps the student in 'learning to learn' science. Science and social science should be integrated as 4. requires that the science Historical validity 'environmental studies' as at present, with health as an y a historical cur riculum be inf or med b important component. Throughout the primary stage, perspective, enabling the learner to appreciate ormal periodic tests ther , no a e should be no f warding how the concepts of science evolve over time. of grades or marks, and no detention. It also helps the learner to view science as a social At the upper primary stage, the child should be enterprise and to understand how social factors engaged in learning the principles of science through influence the development of science. familiar experiences, working with hands to design Environmental validity requires that science 5. gical units and modules (e hnolo .g. designing simple tec beplaced in the wider context of the learner's and making a working model of a windmill to lift environment, local and global, enabling him/her weights) and continuing to learn more about the to appreciate the issues at the interface of science, environment and health, including reproductive and hnolo , and equipping him/her tec gy and society ough acti thr vities and sur ve ys. Scientif ic sexual health, with the requisite knowledge and skills to enter concepts are to be arrived at mainly from activities the world of work. t this sta . Science content a xperiments and e g e is not to 6. Ethical validity requires that the curriculum be regarded as a diluted version of secondary school alues of promote the v , honesty , objecti vity science. Group activities, discussions with peers and cooperation, and freedom from fear and tion of s, sur y data and their displa teac her ve ys, organisa prejudice, and inculcate in the learner a concern through exhibitions, etc. in schools and the va tion of eser vironment. for lif e and pr the en neighbourhood should be important components of ell as gogy. T peda her e should be contin uous as w 3.3.1 The Curriculum at different Stages T he m-end tests). , ter periodic assessment (unit tests Consistent with the criteria given above, the objectives, system of 'direct' grades should be adopted. There y and assessment f peda or dif fer ent sta ges content, g og should be no detention. Every child who attends eight of the curriculum are summarised below: years of school should be eligible to enter Class IX. At the secondary stage, students should be At the primary stage, the child should be engaged engaged in learning science as a composite discipline, ound and har monising orld ar the w y exploring yfull in jo

68 49 reduce the divide based on economic class, gender, in working with hands and tools to design more caste , religion and r egion. W xtbooks as ust use te e m advanced technological modules than at the upper primary stage, and in activities and analyses on issues or the primar one of , since f or equity uments f y instr a great majority of school-going children, as also concerning the environment and health, including reproductive and sexual health. Systematic for their teachers, it is the only accessible and We m tion. or educa ce f esour affordable r ust experimentation as a tool to discover/verify theoretical principles, and working on locally significant projects encourage alternative textbook writing in the country gy, hnolo involving science and tec are to be impor tant within the broad guidelines laid down by the parts of the curriculum at this stage. National Curriculum Framework. These textbooks At the higher secondary stage, science should be vities ate acti should incor , obser va tion and por introduced as separate disciplines, with emphasis on experimentation, and encourage an active approach hnolo g y and pr experiments/tec ob lem solving . T he to science, connecting it with the world around the current two streams, academic and vocational, being . ning child, or ma tion-based lear rather than inf pursued as per NPE-1986, may require a fresh look in , co- ditionall y, ma terials suc Ad orkbooks h as w the pr esent scenario . Students ma y be gi ven the option curricular and popular science books, and children's of choosing the subjects of y, though their inter est fr eel encyclopaedia would enhance children's access to it may not be feasible to offer all the different subjects t need not g tion and ideas tha inf or ma o into the in every school. The curriculum load should be textbook, loading it further, but would enrich rationalised to avoid the steep gradient between learning that takes place through project work. There secondary and higher secondary syllabi. At this stage, is a dearth of such materials with rich visuals in the core topics of a discipline, taking into account recent re gional langua g es. advances in the field, should be identified carefully and The development of science corners, and treated with appropriate rigour and depth. The providing access to science experimentation kits and tendency to cover a large number of topics of the laboratories, in rural areas are also important ways of discipline superficially should be avoided. ovisioning f bl y pr equita tion or ma . Inf ning or science lear gy (ICT) is an impor tant Technolo tion unica and Comm 3.3.2 Outlook vides . ICT should be used in or bridging social di tool f Looking at the complex scenario of science education in such a way that it becomes an opportunity equaliser by lear thr ly. Fir India, st, science educa tion ee issues stand out c tion, comm tion and computing providing inf orma unica is still far from achieving the goal of equity enshrined in eas or connecting resour ces in r emote ar used f . ICT if our Constitution. Second, science education in India, even children and teachers with scientists working in at its best, develops competence but does not encourage universities and research institutions would also help in inventi veness and cr eativity . Thir verpowering d, the o demystifying scientists and their work. examination system is basic to most, if not all, the For an y qualita tive c hang e fr om the pr esent fundamental problems of science education in India. situation, science education in India must undergo a The science curriculum must be used as an paradigm shift. Rote learning should be discouraged. instrument for achieving social change in order to Inquiry skills should be supported and strengthened

69 50 hools . Sc tive skills design and quantita gy. Social opolo gy and anthr ge, , economics science by langua , sociolo should place much greater emphasis on co-curricular Science perspectives and knowledge are indispensable to building the knowledge base for a just and peaceful and extra-curricular activities aimed at stimulating bility , inventi veness and cr eativity , even if he content should aim a . T society t raising students' investig ative a awareness through critically exploring and questioning these are not part of the external examination system. of familiar social r There should be a massive expansion of such activities luding inc .T he possibilities of eality along the lines of the Children's Science Congress, being new dimensions and concerns, especially in view of held successfully at present. A large-scale science and students' own life experiences, are considerable. Selecting hnolo gy f air a t the na airs at tional le vel (with f and organising material into a meaningful curriculum, tec eeder f cluster/district/state levels) may be organised to one that will enable students to develop a critical , is ther efore a c society standing of under hallenging task. encourage schools and teachers to participate in this Because the social sciences tend to be considered movement. Such a movement should gradually spread non-utility subjects and are given less importance than to every corner of India and even across South Asia, the natural sciences, it is necessary to emphasise that unleashing a wave of creativity and scientific temper among y they provide the social, cultural, and analytical skills her s. oung students and their teac required to adjust to an increasingly interdependent Examina tion r eform should be initia ted as a na tional ealities high-quality world, and to deal with political and economic r . mission, supported by adequate funding and It is believed that the social sciences merely s, he mission should bring teac . T ces her human r esour educa tionists and scientists on a common pla tfor m; ed. xt centr e te tion and ar orma transmit inf efore, T her the content needs to focus on a conceptual launch new ways of testing students that would reduce understanding rather lining up facts to be memorised the high level of examination-related stress; curb the ating the r ecommenda xamina for e maddening multiplicity of entrance examinations; and tions . Reiter tions of (1993), emphasis has to be laid ' undertake research on ways of testing multiple abilities ning W ithout Burden Lear on developing concepts and the ability to a nalyse socio- other than f or mal sc . holastic competence These r efor ms , ho wev er, fundamentall y need the political realities rather than on the mere retention of tion without compr orma inf ehension. ov erarching r efor m of teac her empo wer ment. No There is also a peception that not many career refor m, ho wev er w ell moti va ted and w ell planned, options are open to students specialising in the social can succeed unless a majority of teachers feel sciences empowered to put it in practice. With active teacher e ar y, the social sciences ar . On the contr becoming increasingly relevant for jobs in the rapidly ve bove could ha gested a efor ms sug the r ticipa par tion, , and also in de exapanding ser vice sector veloping skills a cascading effect on all stages of science teaching in of anal ysis and cr eativity . . hools our sc In a pluralistic society like ours, it is important 3.4 S OCIAL S CIENCES that all regions and social groups be able to relate to The social sciences encompass diverse concerns of the te xtbooks . Rele vant local content should be par t of the teaching-learning process, ideally transacted awn society , and inc lude a wide r ang e of content dr y, political gra y, geo Histor from the disciplines of ph . ough acti vities dr awing on local r esour ces thr

70 51 It is also necessary to recognise that the social 'development' has often been overemphasised. An sciences lend themselves to scientific inquiry just as much epistemolo gical shift is sug gested so as to accommoda te ell as to tur as the na al and ph , as w the multiple ways of imagining the Indian nation. The ysical sciences do indicate ways in which the methods employed by the national perspective needs to be balanced with reference to the local. At the same time, Indian History should (but in no way inferior to distinct social sciences are not be taught in isolation, and there should be reference those of the natural and physical sciences). The social sciences car ry a nor tive ma to developments in other parts of the world. responsibility of creating a strong sense of human m gested tha vics It is sug , the ter Ci t instead of espect, and Ci Political Science be used. vics a values , namel y, fr eedom, ppear d in the Indian tr ust, m utual r or di versity . Social science teac hing should aim school curriculum in the colonial period against the respect f at generating in students a critical moral and mental background of increasing 'disloyalty' among Indians making them aler t to the social f or ces tha t towards the Raj. Emphasis on obedience and loyalty ener gy, ey featur es of eats . Political Science tr vics Ci eaten these v were the k alues . thr The disciplines that make up the social sciences, civil society as the sphere that produces sensitive, , and y, political science ph y, g eogra inter namel roga . tive, deliber ative, and tr ansf or ma tive citiz ens y, Histor economics, have distinct methodologies that often justify Gender concer ns need to be ad dressed in ter ms . At the same time of making the perspectives of women integral to the , cr oss etaining of the r boundaries discussion of any historical event and contemporary disciplinary approaches that are possible should also be his r ns. T concer pistemic shift fr indica ted. For an ena bling cur om the riculum, cer tain themes tha t es an e equir the patriar t inf or m m uch of ptions tha facilitate interdisciplinary thinking need to be incorporated. econce chal pr social studies at present. 3.4.1 The Proposed Epistemological Frame The concerns related to the health of children, and also those related to social aspects of changes and Based on the above considerations of popular developments occurring in them during adolescence perceptions, and the issues to be addressed in the study ents , peer g roup , like c hanging r ela tionships with par of the social sciences , the Na oup on ocus Gr tional F the opposite sex and the adult world in general, need the Teac hing of the Social Sciences pr oposes tha t the following points be treated as basic for the revised dressed a to be ad esponses to the ppr he r tel y. T opria health needs of children and adolescents/youth through extbooks themselv es should be seen as (T sylla bi. policies and programmes at different levels are closely y, and students ther enquir or fur venues f opening up a ns. related elements of these concer should be encouraged to go beyond the textbook to ther r The concept of human rights has a universal frame fur vaion.) eading and obser of reference. It is imperative that children are introduced As pointed out by the Kothari Commission, the social science curriculum hitherto emphasised to universal values in a manner appropriate for their oblem , e.g. the pr y issues ag e. y-to-da Reference to da developmental issues . T ut not tant b e impor hese ar suf of getting water, can be discussed so that young tive dimension, ma standing the nor or under ficient f students become aware of issues related to human , justice , and dignity in society and like issues of equality uting to this viduals in contrib indi ole of . The r polity dignity and rights .

71 52 3.4.2 Planning the Curriculum vironment V, the subject En For Classes III to Studies (EVS) will be introduced. In the study of the tur al and the social rades For the primar , the na y g natural environment, emphasis will be on its environment will be explained as integral parts of ving it fr sa y of genc preser va tion and the ur om en should be eng tics ag ed . Childr langua ges and ma thema degradation. Children will also begin to be sensitised in activities to understand the environment through ver ty, child la bour e po to social issues lik acy, caste , illiter illustrations from the physical, biological, social, and he ural and urban ar and c eas . T lass inequalities in r cultur he langua es. T al spher ender ge used should be g content should reflect the day-to-day experiences of tive ve. T eac hing methods should be in a par ticipa sensiti childr en and their lif e w orlds . and discussion-oriented mode. THE ENVIR AND TER WA ONMENT NA CES OF WA TER TURAL SOUR ater come fr e does w om? Wher ater gr ound w es, seas River s, lak , under e seas , rivers formed? w ar Ho , oceans WA CE MAPPING TER RESOUR ater r esour Wha t ar e our local w ces? Local/regional/national RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURAL AND ells dr y do w Wh y up? WA CES OF MAN-MADE SOUR TER w do handpumps w Ho ork? ble Handpump System of ater ta standing the w Under Are big dams more beneficial than small dams? ir rig ation En big dams onmental impact of vir TER IN DIFFERENT ECO-SY STEMS WA How do people in deser ocur t ar eas pr e Wa ter sour ces in deser t ar eas ter? wa Wa egions ces in mountainous r ter sour Wha t causes dr oughts? Dr oughts and f loods TER WA ASPECTS OF SOCIAL Who contr ge w ell? ols the villa CASTE AND CLASS ces Purity and pollution contr ol o ver w ater r esour GENDER DIVISION OF LABOUR AND hes w Who f ater? etc AV AILABILITY OF WA TER egional conf Local and r licts o ver drinking and ir rig ation ater? e ha Do w ve enough w ter wa ter as a mar orce Wa ket f HEAL TH Wh ater essential? lean w y is c Bod y's need f or w ater ble c lean w Right to pota ater -bor ter Wa ne diseases

72 53 to inculcate in the child a critical appreciation for At the upper primary stage, Social Studies will om Histor y, g eogra phy, political draw its content fr ns along with vironmental concer va tion and en conser , the f olitical Science . In P developmental issues science and economics . Histor y will tak e into account ocus developments in different parts of India, with sections should be on discussing the philosophical foundations on events or developments in other parts of the world. that underlie the value framework of the Indian pth discussion of , liber Geography can help develop a balanced perspective Constitution, i.e. in-de equality ty, ality justice ater related to issues concerning the environment, resources nity , secularism, dignity , plur , fr , and freedom from exploitation. As the discipline of and development at different levels, from local to global. Economics is being introduced to the child at this level, In P olitical Science , students will be intr oduced to the gov er nments a tion and functioning of t local, it is important that the topics should be discussed from forma state, and central levels and the democratic processes the perspective of the people. The higher secondary stage is important as it of participation. The economics component will enable hoice of subjects to students . For some of fer s a c students to obser ve economic institutions lik e the famil y, or mal their f y be the end of ge ma , this sta students the market and the state. There will also be a section education, leading to the world of work and that will indicate a multidisciplinary approach to these . themes employment; for others, the foundation for higher education. They may choose either specialised academic At the secondary stage, the Social Sciences he ses or job-oriented v cour . T ses tional cour oca gy, political science comprise Histor y, geogra phy, sociolo foundation at this stage should equip them with basic he f . T and economics ocus will be on Contempor ary knowledge and the necessary skills to make a India, and the learner will be initiated into a deeper meaningful contribution in the field they choose. A range understanding of the social and economic challenges of courses from the social sciences and commerce may facing the nation. In keeping with the epistemic shift be offered, and students may exercise their choice. proposed, these will be discussed from multiple Subjects need not be grouped into separate 'streams', perspectives, including those of the SC and ST and and students should have the freedom to opt for disenfr tions . Ef hised popula for ts should be made anc subjects or courses according to their need, interest to relate the content as much as possible to the and aptitude. The social sciences will include disciplines eedom y, India's fr ves. In Histor veryday li en's e childr , geogra like political science y, economics , y, Histor ph movement and other aspects of its modern History g y. lude y inc ce ma Commer cholo gy and psy sociolo can be studied, as well as significant developments in business studies and accountanc y. other parts of the world. History should be taught with the intent of enabling students better understand 3.4.3 Approaches to Pedagogy and Resources their own world and their own identities came into Social science teaching needs to be revitalised for helping being as shaped by a rich and varied past. History the learner acquire knowledge and skills in an interactive should now help them discover processes of change environment. The teaching of the social sciences must and continuity in their world, and to compare ways in , and adopt methods tha t pr omote cr eativity , aesthetics which power and control were and are exercised. critical perspectives, and enable children to draw Geography should be taught keeping in mind the need

73 54 the class, and work towards creating increasing ner s. es and the lear self-a wareness amongst themselv Theatre in Education Theatre is one of the most powerful, yet least utilised RT 3.5 A E DUCATION art forms in education. In the exploration of self in ts in the For decades no w, the impor tance of the ar relation to others, the development of understanding of education system has been repeatedly debated, y, not only for humans , and of the self critical empath discussed and recommended, but without much but also towards the natural, physical and social worlds, progress in this direction. The need to integrate art theatre is a medium par excellence. educa tion in the f ormal sc hooling of our students no w Dramatising texts is only one small part of theatre. requires urgent attention if we are to retain our unique Much more significant experiences are possible through . Far fr hness versity and ric al identity in all its di cultur om , theatr e exer cises ol and , body and voice contr role play movement, and group and spontaneous enactments. encouraging the pursuit of the arts, our education Such experiences are important not only for teachers in system has steadily discouraged young students and their own development, but also for teachers to provide , at best, per creative minds fr mits om taking to the ar ts or to children. them to consider the arts to be 'useful hobbies' and 'leisure activities'. The arts are reduced to tools for enhancing the prestige of the school on occasions like relationships between past and present, to understand ual Da Ann y, y, Founder's Da pendence Da Inde y, or ob chang es taking place in society , lem solving . Pr during an inspection of the school's progress and dramatisation and role play are some hitherto bandoned ts ar e a or e or after tha . Bef working t, the ar underexplored strategies that could be employed. for the better part of a child's school life, and the reater r hing should utilise g Teac ces of esour audio-visual materials, including photographs, charts On a winter morning, the teacher asked the children and maps, and replicas of archaeological and material to draw a ‘morning scene’. One child completed the drawing and then darkened the background, es. cultur almost hiding the sun. “I asked for a morning scene! In order to make the process of learning The sun should be bright!” the teacher exclaimed. participative, there is a need to shift from mere imparting s e hild’ ’t notice the c She didn ting to the yes dar as windo w; it w as still dar k toda y, and the sun w T his a of inf orma tion to de h oac ppr bate and discussion. behind heavy wintry grey clouds. to learning will keep both the learner and the teacher . alive to social r ealities Concepts should be clarified to students through student is headed towards subjects that are perceived the li . xperiences of viduals and comm ved e unities indi as being more worthy of attention. General awareness ved tha It has often been obser t cultur al, social and c lass of the arts is also ebbing steadily among not just differences generate their own biases, prejudices and students, but also their guardians, teachers and even attitudes in c lassr h to oac ppr . The a xts oom conte among polic tionists er s and educa . y mak teac s efor e needs to be open-ended. Teac her hing ther arts the Schools and school authorities encourage should discuss different dimensions of social reality in of a superficial and popular nature and take pride in

74 55 putting up events that showcase song and dance ge Cr aft Tr aditions Herita y enter ve but ha perf or mances and pla ys tha t ma tain, . W e little aesthetic quality ford to ignor e can no long er af Craft is a productive process, a wonderful indigenous om outmoded. The raw materials gy that is far fr technolo the importance of the arts and must concentrate all are all indigenously available, and environmentally possible energies and resources towards nurturing friendly. There is a rich resource of living craft skills, artistic capabilities and creating cultural and artistic techniques, designs and products that would and could the vast and varied awareness amongst the students of eas of e resour ce for the cur ricular ar form a rich cor cultural inheritance we have. The arts in India are living orking with hands , with materials t and w both ar ork. W and with techniques helps in understanding processes, the examples of country's secular fabric and cultural becoming resourceful, taking initiative, and in problem . T lassical ariety of lude a v diversity y inc he folk and c e of solving . Such experiences ar irre placeab alue for le v , thea y, clay w or k, music and dance forms of tre, puppetr all children. This area is also well suited as a meaningful visual arts, and crafts from every region of India. site for inclusive education. Learning any of these arts would enrich the lives of Craft must be taught both as a creative and aesthetic our young citizens, not only in their school years but activity and as work. It could be integrated into the Histor y, social and envir onmental studies , study of also thr oughout their li ves. geography and economics. Developing a perspective on The ar ts, visual and perf or ming , need to become gender, environment and community should also be an an important component of learning in the curriculum. gral par inte ning craft lear . t of ‘critical’ Children must develop skills and abilities in these areas, and not treat these as a mere entertaining fringe. • Crafts could enter into the cur t riculum as a par Through the arts curriculum students must be of ‘art’, with an emphasis on creative and aesthetic aspects. introduced to the rich and varied artistic traditions of Crafts persons themselves should be teachers and • ts educa y. Ar the countr ust become both a tool tion m trainers for craft, and ways of enabling them to and a subject taught in every school as a compulsory serve schools on a par t-time basis need to be subject (up to Class X), and facilities for the same may evolved. be provided in every school. All the four main streams • Crafts should be taught as a li vely , experiential exercise. y the ter usic ar ts, i.e the m . m covered b , dance , visual • Crafts should be taught as projects, and not as areness also tre, should be inc arts and thea Aw luded. classroom exercises. needs to be built among parents and guardians, school fer ent ricula should be planned for dif fer ent cur Dif • authorities and administrators regarding the importance crafts; resources such as design books, of the arts. Emphasis should be gi ven to lear ning r ather samplers,source books, tool guides, and crafts oac than teac hing , and the a ppr y, h should be par ticipa tor maps are needed. Craft labs equipped with adequate materials • interactive, and experiential rather than instructive. and tools need to be developed. Throughout the years of school, during all stages, en ganised to expose childr • Craft melas could be or en to de velop the mediums and f or ms of art allo w c hildr to crafts persons and craft traditions, and also both a playful as well as a disciplined exploration of for children to showcase their own creative themselves and diverse materials, and allows them to endeavours. y f Music , ession. expr or ms of experiment with man

75 56 lassical and dance and theatre all contribute to the development eat c e, nor tr cultur or ms of w f high or lo epar y. It w self, both cognitive and social. The importance the of folk ar t for ms dif ferentl ould also pr e those y hoose an ar t for m f or specialised stud who wish to c of such experiences during the pre-primary and during the +2 stage, or even consider pursuing a career primary school years cannot be overemphasised. ar ts. in the Language, exploration of nature, and an More resource material on arts education should the self and others can all be understanding of experientially learnt and understood by children through be made a vaila ble f or ar ts educa tion teac her s. T eac her tur education and orientation must include a significant various ar t for ms . By their v er y na e, the ar t forms component that will enable teachers to include arts allow all children to participate. arts and the Resources for the integration of educa tion ef ficientl y and cr eatively. In ad dition, mor e Bal Bhavans, which have played an important role in heritage crafts should be available in every school. Thus, it is important that the curriculum provide adequate the urbanscape, should be established at district ang time f or a r headquarters, and eventually at all block centres as well. e of ar t acti vities . Bloc k periods of and half hour s ar e necessar y, These would facilitate the additional teaching of arts about one hour to one and crafts activities, and provide opportunities for especially where theatre , dance, and clay work are children to learn these at first hand. involved. The emphasis should not be on attaining some adult standards or notions of 'perfect art', but E HYSICAL P AND 3.6 H EALTH DUCATION on supporting the child's own expression and style It is widely acknowledged that health is influenced by through exposure to material, skills and technique, but without overemphasis ing them. Over the years , teachers gical, . al and political f , cultur economic social, biolo orces Access to basic needs like food, safe drinking water would help c ve to wards f or mula en to mo hildr ting and executing their own art projects independently with suppl y, housing , sanita luences vices inf tion and health ser the health status of a population, and these are reflected a sense of while cultivating dedication and persistence, aesthetic quality and excellence. tor thr utritional indica tality and n ough mor s. Health is a critical input for the overall development of the child, In the secondary and higher secondary school stages, the art curriculum may allow children to specialise and it influences enrolment, retention and school completion r ea riculum ar his cur y. T icantl ates signif in some areas of their interest. Along with learning the skills and practising them, children could also at this adopts a holistic definition of health within which physical education and yoga contribute to the physical, stage learn about the theory of art and aesthetic experience, which could deepen their appreciation and social, emotional and mental development of a child. Undernourishment and communicable diseases are also help them understand the significance of this area of knowledge. Discussions about popular cultural art the major health problems faced by the majority of children in India, from the pre-primary to the higher t tr aditions (cultur ar , dif forms al ferent kinds of differences) and creativity would also provide them dress ges. Ther secondar y sc hool sta efore, the need to ad this aspect at all levels of schooling, with special attention ve on the v specti with a per for ms and the ariety of development of 'taste'. It is important, therefore, that to vulnerable social groups and girl children. It is proposed that the midday meal programme and medical the curriculum not be biased and judgemental about

76 57 inte g ra check-ups be made a part of the curriculum and tion. Acti vities suc h as the Na tional Ser vice education about health be provided that address the age- Scheme, Bharat Scouts and Guides, and the National ps ar e some suc h ar eas . The sciences pr ovide specific concerns at different stages of development. Cadet Cor tunities f oppor The idea of a comprehensive school health programme, health and g y, ysiolo bout ph ning a or lear disease, and the interdependencies between various conceived in the 1940s, included six major components, living organisms and the physical habitat. The social viz., medical care, hygienic school environment, and sciences could provide insights into community health school lunch, health and physical education. These components are important for the overall development as well as an understanding of the spread, control and of the child, and hence need to be included in the cure of infectious diseases from a global socio-economic perspective. This subject lends itself curriculum. The more recent addition to the curriculum to applied learning, and innovative approaches can be is yoga. The entire group must be taken together as a adopted for transacting the curriculum. comprehensive health and physical education curriculum, The importance of this subject to overall replacing the fragmentary approach current in schools riculum, time alloca development needs to be reinforced at the policy level, ted toda y. As a cor e par t of the cur with participation by administrators, other subject for games and for yoga must not be reduced or taken teachers in schools, the Health Department, parents awa y under an y cir cumstances . and children. Recognising this subject as a core subject There is growing realisation that the health needs of adolescents, particularly their reproductive and sexual health Health and Physical Education must continue to be a y subject fr y secondar the y, to primar the om compulsor needs, require to be addressed. Since these needs xuality stages, and as an optional subject at the higher secondary predominantl y relate to se ally h is cultur , whic x and se a very sensitive area, they are deprived of opportunities stage. However, it needs to be given equal status with ppr et the a to g As suc h, their other subjects, a status that is not being given at present. tion. or ma te inf opria ansact the cur understanding of reproductive and sexual health and their der to tr In or riculum ef vely, it is fecti behaviour in this regard are guided predominantly by essential to ensure that the minimum essential physical myths and misconceptions, making them vulnerable to space and equipment are available in every school, and risky situations, such as drug/substance abuse and HIV/ that doctors and medical personnel visit school or this ar ation f AIDS transmission. Age- appropriate context-specific her pr ea needs re gular ly. T eac epar ventions f ocused on adolescent r eproducti ve and ea, his subject ar for ts. T ted ef well-planned and concer inter sexual health concerns, including HIV/AIDS and drug/ consisting of health education, physical education and substance abuse, therefore, are needed to provide children yoga, must be suitably integrated into the elementary and secondar y pr opportunities to construct knowledge and acquire life skills, e-ser vice teac her educa tion cour ses . the so that they cope with concerns related to the process of The potential of existing physical education training . tely. wed and utilised adequa wing up gro institutes should be r evie her tr Similar ly, their a ppr opria te sylla bi and teac aining 3.6.1 Strategies for transaction of yoga in schools need to be reviewed and r eformula ted. It is also essential to ensur e tha t these Given the multidimensional nature of health, there are National concerns are integrated into the activities of the many opportunities for cross-curricular learning and

77 58 DUCATION E AND ORK 3.7 W vice Sc heme , the Scouts and Guides Ser , and the tional Cadet Cor ps. Na vity dir Work, under stood simpl y, is an acti ected to ward The 'needs-based approach' could guide the . It also means making making or doing something dimensions of the physical, psychosocial and mental , or both, pa bilities ork or ca s w one’ or ble f availa aspects that need to be included at different levels of orms someone else’ s pur poses f or monetar y or other f the concer ns is schooling . A basic under standing of of return. A number of these activities are related to t e impor y, but the mor necessar tant dimension is tha producing food, articles of daily use, looking after the of experience and development of health, skills and physical and mental well-being of people, and other physical well being through practical engagement with activities related to the administration and organisation pla actices of per y, exer cise ts, and pr , spor sonal and o basic of society . In an y society , in ad dition to these , tw community hygiene. Collective and individual dimensions (producing goods and establishing smooth responsibilities for health and community living need functioning), various other activities also contribute to to be emphasised. Several national health programmes human well-being, and in that sense are considered eproducti like R ve and Child Health, HIV/AIDS , w forms of ork. geting Tuber culosis and Mental Health ha ve been tar Understood in this sense, work implies a hese ocus g roup with pr ev ention in vie w. T childr en as a f commitment to other members of the society and/or demands on children need to be integrated into existing s w ork and uting one’ unity as one is contrib comm curricular activities rather than adding these on. . Second, illing their needs or fulf capabilities f it implies a ma Yog y be intr oduced fr om the primar y le vel s contrib ork will be ough w ution made thr t one’ tha onw or mal intr ays, but f or mal w ards in inf oduction submitted to pub lic standar or mance and perf ds of of yogic exercises should begin only from Class VI alued and judg hence will be v ed b y other s. T hir d, work ventions , inc luding e ards. All inter ven health and onw implies contributing to the functioning of social life as hygiene education, must rely on the practical and it either produces something that makes life possible experiential dimensions of en's li ves. T c hildr her e ma y al. Finall y, ener or helps in the functioning of society in g be more emphasis on the inclusion of sports and games work enriches human life as it opens up new dimensions from the local area. of appreciation and enjoyment. It should be possible to organise the utilisation However, we must not forget that children are of school space, at the block level at least, for special often socialised into discriminatory practices and sports programmes both before school hours and after values and that adults socialise children within the school hours to enable children with special talents for dominant socio-cultural paradigm. It is important sports to come here for special training and during to recognise that both adults and children are vaca tion periods . It should also be possib le to de velop emember ve to r socialised in the same w ay. W e also ha these sports facilities so that many more children can that work as forced labour is perhaps the most avail of these for leisure-time sports activities and engage demeaning of all coer cions . T her e ha ve to be adequa te with team games such as basketball, throwball, measures in place to ensure that introduction of work and local f volle yball, orms of spor ts. as an integral part of the curriculum should never

78 59 lead to a situation where work is thrust on unwilling involvement in productive work in an educational setting children, or that the ‘work’ itself is a hindrance to the should make one appreciate the worth of social life mal g child’ wth and ro s educa ted in society ecia ppr alued and a hat is v and w . Since tion and nor development. Routine and repetitive activity carried work defines some achievable targets and creates a on for the sake of production or work that is web of interdependence, it entails making efforts in a disciplined manner, thus creating possibilities for greater associated with the division of labour based on caste her , a teac Also y avoided. ender should be strictl and g self-control, focusing mental energies and keeping making children work without him/herself emotions under check. The value of work, particularly skills tha t in volv e g valued as a e under participating in the work is unlikely to achieve the inish, ood f ar means of achieving excellence and learning objectives of integrating work with the curriculum. The inclusion of work within the school must also self-discipline. The discipline exercised by the material y, clay or w (sa tively ve and qualita never be used as the justification for the exploitation e ef ood) is mor fecti different from the discipline exercised by one human of children. volv ork in . W hildr being o en, ver another Work is also an ar ena f or lear ning f or c action with es inter materials or other people (mostly both), thus creating whether in the home, the school, the society or the workplace. Children begin to absorb the concept of a deeper comprehension and increased practical ear s. Childr en imita te knowledge of natural substances and social work as ear ly as the a ge of tw o y . All this is in ad dition to the usual ph ysical ork. For etending to do w e pr s and lik their elder relationships skills involved in learning a trade that may be turned example, it is not unusual to see very young children into a means of earning a livelihood. The aspects of pretending to ‘sweep’ the floor, or ‘hold meetings’, or work mentioned here draw attention to the ‘build houses’, or ‘cook’. W ork as an educa tional tool go meaning-making and knowledge-construction xample or e is used b y man y peda , the gies . F dimension of work. This is the pedagogic function Montessori system integrates work concepts and skills ginning bles, cleaning eg eta . Cutting v that work can play in the curriculum. er y be from the v the classroom, gardening and washing clothes are all a Benefits of this nature can be drawn from work part of the learning cycle. Beneficial work that is in only if it becomes an integral part of the school g e and a s a hild’ curriculum. Pursued in an academic setting, work carries bility h hic , and w kee ping with the c contrib hild’ s nor mal g ro wth and or ms of utes to the c ating ne g ener kable potential of emar the r w f en’s lives can creativity and understanding while opening up the development, w hen intr oduced into c hildr en to lear . e of tur orming the na transf possibility of ic , basic scientif alues n v ser hildr ble c ve to ena work itself This has become even more essential as in a majority concepts, skills and creative expression. Children gain an identity through work, and feel useful and productive of families in India contributing to household work as work adds meaning and brings with it membership and family trade is a way of living, but this pattern is hildr hool on c sc e of essur changing due to the pr to society and enables children to construct knowledge. en’s ork one lear time and the rampant competition in memorisation Through w ns to f ind one’ s place in of society vity with an inher tional acti ent . It is an educa inf orma tion. Academic acti vity tends to be potential for inclusion. Therefore, an experience of imprisoned within disciplinar y boundaries . W hen

79 60 learning for other children. This is especially important academic learning and work are simultaneously in the context of the growing alienation of the collocated, there is a chance of greater creativity in middle-upper-class children from their cultural roots academic pursuits as also in the methods and tools of e o ver. and the central role played by the education system in doing w ork. A syner getic enhancement can tak ocess ating this pr ting and acceler agg rava That is how efficient hand pumps were designed. e is her . T immense potential for utilising the knowledge base of High-flying polythene balloons used to burst while going through the extremely cold stratosphere untill a the vast productive sections of society as a powerful orker sug y minded w icall scientif ork W tion system. or ming the educa ansf or tr means f t putting a gested tha ws one to seen as a f or m of ‘valid’ kno wledg e allo little carbon powder in the fabric would help to keep rea t re-examine the invisibility of the contributions of bsorbing sunlight. y a Indeed, all g it w arm b inventors were tinkerers who knew a little science. women and non-dominant groups to what is regarded tegor y, ed to this ca y belong arada Ford and F Edison, as v alua ble in society . Pr oducti ve w ork w ould need to so also those who invented the first pair of spectacles find a place at the centre of the curriculum in order to telescope. There is little doubt that much of the the or act as a powerful corrective to the ‘bookish’, inf ally unc traditional knowledge of our potters, craftsmen, hallenging orma tion-oriented and g ener ough s and medical men has come thr character of school education and, in turn, help relate weavers, farmer such pursuits – where these individuals were life needs of the child. Pedagogical the the latter to simultaneously engaged in physical work and academic experience in using work would become an effective . W thinking e need to infuse suc and critical developmental tool at different stages of e of h a cultur childhood and adolescence. Thus, ‘work-centred innovation, curiosity and practical experience in our education’ is different from vocational education. education system. However, schools at present are not geared for The school curriculum from the pre-primary to riculum in ter senior secondary stages should be reconstructed ms of the the cur t of work as a par e or lear for realising the pedagogic potential of work as a infr astr uctur ning ma terial. W ork is necessaril y y acti pedagogic medium in knowledge acquisition, an inter disciplinar ork ting w gra efore, inte . T her vity into the school curriculum would require a substantial developing v alues and m ultiple-skill f or ma tion. As the amount of pedagogical understanding of how it would child matures, there is a need for the curriculum to be integrated with learning and the mechanisms for or the w ed f epar s need to be pr hild’ reco gnise the c orld of gog ed peda assessment and evaluation. y can be ork-centr ork, and a w w pursued with increasing complexity while always being Institutionalising work in the school curriculum will require creative and bold thinking that breaks out equir ed f le xibility and conte enric . hed with the r xtuality A set of work-related generic competencies (basic, of its stereotyped location in periods of Socially Useful h hic bout w something a ve Work (SUPW), oducti interpersonal and systemic) could be pursued at all and Pr s ar e need iabl y sce e justif W ptical. her en and teac hildr all c stages of education. This includes critical thinking, , transf er of lear ning , cr eativity , comm unica tion skills to examine how the rich work knowledge base and aesthetics, work motivation, work ethic of collaborative skills of marginalised children can be turned into a source of their own dignity as well as a source of functioning, and entrepreneurship-cum-social

80 61 . For this e tion, par ameter s w ould bility accounta valua also need to be redesigned. Without an effective and Activities for Peace Awareness universal programme of work-centred education, it is Let children stand in a Age 5 + Handle with Care: unlikely that UEE (and later Universal Secondary Gi ee or canna row. a teak tr of per leaf ve them a pa Education too) would ever succeed. or banana plant. Let them pass the leaf over their heads in any way they want until it reaches the back DUCATION FOR P EACE 3.8 E of the r ow. A c hild then brings the leaf to the fr ont and the cycle starts again. Children are then asked to ecedented le ge of unpr violence We li ve in an a vels of , look at the damage caused to the leaf as it has been with constant threats posed by intolerance, fanaticism, handled. This activity could lead to a discussion about leaves and the different trees from which they dispute and discordance. Ethical action, peace and come from. Damage to a single leaf is representative e f halleng w c welfare ar es. W ar and violence acing ne of damaging nature. The leaf stands for the whole occur due to unresolved conflicts, though conflicts may of creation. ys lead to violence and w ar. V iolence is one not al wa hildr c le en sit in a cir Age 7+ Sharing F eelings: Let c of the many possible responses to conflict. Non-violent and ask each other, “Which was the happiest day in conflict-resolution skills could be nurtured and applied your life? Why was it so happy?” Let each child between the individuals, constructively to disputes answer the question. Let some of the children role play one or more of the experiences. As, children or peace educa he space f tions gr oups and na . T tion become more familiar with the idea of sharing their within the framework of National School Curriculum feelings, ask more difficult questions such as “What document is compellingly clear in the light of the makes you really afraid? Why do you feel that way? escala ting tr ends of , and taste f or, violence g y, loball How do you feel when you watch someone fighting? Why do you feel that way? What makes you really icant tion is a signif y. Educa y and locall na tionall sad? Why?” building up ocess of m pr the long-ter dimension of peace – tolerance, justice, intercultural understanding Age 10 + Overcome Injustice with Justice: Explain that there are many reasons for injustice in this world, er, educa tion as pr actised and ci vic r esponsibility . Ho wev that justice is a basic means for creating peace in the in sc hools often pr omotes f or ms of violence , both world. Give two or three examples of injustice. Ask real and symbolic. Under these circumstances, the need the children to give more examples. Then ask the to reorient education and therefore the school questions: “What was the cause of the injustice? How would you feel in the same situation?” Have cur . As a v riculum tak oss all , it cuts acr alue es priority some children share their answers with the rest of other curricular areas, and coincides with and the class. complements the values emphasised therein. It is, Age 12 + Be a P en tha eace Lawy T ell the c hildr t er: therefore, a concern cutting across the curriculum and they are peace lawyers drawing up peace laws for a s. is the concer n of all teac her tant la t ws tha the most impor iv e of y. List f countr Education for peace seeks to nurture ethical the la y w ws the Whic ould eac h sug gest? h of development, inclucating the values, attitudes and skills d to epar ou pr e y y other gested b sug ed to ad s ar your list? Which laws are you not prepared to accept? or li and with y with oneself mon requir ed f ving in har Why not? joy of living others, including nature. It embodies the and personality development with the qualities of love,

81 62 Peace educa tion m ust be a concer n tha t per mea tes hope and courage. It encompasses respect for human the entire school life – curriculum, co-curriculum, rights, justice, tolerance, cooperation, social responsibility , in ver sity al di or cultur espect f , and r classroom environment, school management, -pupil r her teac ela addition to a f ir m commitment to democr acy and tionship , ocesses ning pr hing-lear , teac , it is and the entir ang sc hool acti vities . Hence e r non-violent conflict resolution. Social justice is an e of important aspect of peace education. The concern for important to examine the curriculum and examination system from the point of view of how they may equality and social justice, which refers to practising y, frustr inadequac en's sense of hildr ute to c contrib non-exploitation towards the have-nots, the poor and ation, impa y , the need to consciousl . Also tience and insecurity the underprivileged and creating a non-violent social counter the negative influence of the increasing violence system, is the hallmark of education for peace. e centr around them, and its representation in the media, on Similar ly, human rights ar al to the conce pt of peace. Peace cannot prevail if the rights of individuals the minds of children, and in its place promote a are violated. Basic to human rights are the values of reflective engagement with more meaningful aspects non-discrimina tion and equality , whic h contrib ute to of living an ethical and peaceful life. Education in the true sense should empower individuals to clarify their . T hese issues ar e peace in society building a cultur e of inter related. Peace education is thus a host of values; to enable them to take conscious and deliberate ov er lapping v . decisions, taking into consideration the consequences alues of their actions; to choose the way of peace rather than violence; to enable them to be makers of peace Suggestions for Peace Activities rather than only consumers of peace. √ Set up special clubs and reading rooms in schools 3.8.1 Strategies that concentrate on peace news and events that violate Ethical development does not mean the imposition the norms of social justice and equality. vising means of do's and don'ts . Rather it calls f or de Compile a list of films — documentaries and feature √ and ways of helping children learn to make choices films— that promote the values of justice and peace. and decide what is right, what is kind, and what is best Screen them from time to time in schools. for the common good, keeping in view the broader √ Co-opt the media as a stakeholder in education for . implica tions f or per sonal and social v alues nalists and editors to peace. Invite influential jour Children can understand almost everything they address children. Ask for space in news papers hear and see, but are often not able to reconcile lished en’s views to be pub nals for childr and jour contradictions between what is said and what is done. at least once a month. Even a minor disagreement at home can affect children Celebrate the cultural and religious diversity of India √ fection amongst per te of manent disaf ply. A sta very dee in schools. the elders in the house or a disintegrating relationship omote an attitude of √ Organise pr ogrammes to pr between parents creates the kind of incalculable fear respect and responsibility towards women. and de ession a ggr ested as a t is often manif pression tha few years later in early youth. There is a need to bring

82 63 parents and teachers together for more than only poses de velopment esponsibility of . T he r academic pur ving beings Work done b y other li of personal ethics does not rest solely with either parents Ask children to choose an animal or bird they know , specifying if well and then list the it ‘wor k’ the y do or with the school. is the male, female or young of the species. Discuss Ethical development follows different patterns the reason for such distribution of labour and the char acterising dif ferent a ge groups . During the primar y rationale behind this. Ask them to write a poem or essay on what they have learnt and put these up as years, children are still exploring their immediate posters in the classroom. environment and developing a consciousness of their own self. Their behaviour revolves around avoiding teaching or social message. Along with this is the universal punishment and seeking r ew ards. T hey for m notions fact that every child, no matter how dull or uninspired of good and bad, right and wrong depending upon y, some insight to his home lif e, has something to sa ov ed b y their elder what is a ppr s. At ppr ov ed or disa contribute to a class discussion. The teacher needs to this stage, what they see in the behaviour and action of draw out the children, gain their confidence, and avoid adults prompts them to construct their own using threatening language or hostile body language. under standing of viour . ethical beha hing v alues has often meant e xhor tations Teac As children grow older, their reasoning capabilities about desir ab le beha the . It has also meant viour tur e still not ma y ar er, the wev . Ho develop e enough to suppression and denial of "improper" and question assumptions and nor ed b . Inspir ms y the need pta ble" f eelings and desir es. T his often leads "unacce to impress others and validate their self-image as strong children to hide their own real feelings, desires, thoughts y tend to viola te r ules . At and ca , the pable indi viduals y lip ser vice to mor and con al victions and simpl y pa this stage, facilitating reflection on the basis of rules values and ideals, without making any commitment. , duties and , constr , restrictions ms and nor aints Hence the need to move away from mere talk, to a obligations, etc., through discussion and dialogue, meaningful discussion of experiences and reflections, produces insights into the linkage between the collective eschewing a simplistic approach to moral behaviour, good, the value of restraint, sacrifice, compassion, etc., and instead exploring and understanding complex whic . being ays of al w h constitute the mor motivations and ethical dilemmas associated with human Still later, as abstract thinking is fully developed, . viour and actions beha individuals can make well -reasoned judgements about Teac ttempts to ate a e deliber s should mak her y lead to the . This ma viour what constitutes ethical beha infuse and reinforce the importance of peace-related acceptance and internalisation of ethical principles, which values that are commensurate with the textual material then can be sustained in the long run. Even in the absence taught in school and the developmental stages of e indi tur y ma , ethicall nal authority xter of an e viduals her en. For e xample , teac childr s can tak e ad vanta ge of behave in just and appropriate ways, and understand the hidden components in a lesson by using appropriate ms the basis of rules and, nor , and a ppr ecia te ho w these strategies to awaken positive feelings, identifying . der in society verall peace and or ute to o contrib experiences worth reflecting and, exploring, discovering, Our earliest and best teachers found stories and ela alues ucting under constr ted v . standing peace-r anecdotes the best way to get across an important spiritual

83 64 as part of different disciplines while ensuring that Strategies like questions, stories, anecdotes, games, tinent acti adequa te time is ear . T his vities experiments, discussions, dialogues, clarification of or per ked f mar values, examples, analogies, metaphors, role playing, approach can be meaningfully employed in the , chemistr tics thema , Ma ysics and simulation are helpful in promoting peace through treatment of y, content in Ph he teac hing and pr actise of ethics , health and y, political science phy, Histor geog ra g y, Biolo teac hing-lear ning . T physical education, art, music etc. Actvities constructed go from the personal sphere to social and for life situations become a meaningful means for the community-oriented thinking and then link up with , exhibits for instance all, s. Rainf ner lear ag ement of ves. A teac eng ho is oriented to the her w global per specti intricate variations over space and time. Data on such perspective of peace can introduce such opportunities and can be used to promote variations are available for reflecting at these scales, and identifying the inter tion pr ammes ogr . tics thema ysics and Ma esting acti y inter man vities in Ph linka ges betw een them. Teac her educa In Physics, simple experiments may be devised to should consider introducing peace education as an visualise patterns of flow of fluids over uneven terrain, optional subject of stud y. as well as to demonstrate how the ascent of air leads EARNING AND L 3.9 H ABIT AT to cooling and precipitation and descent to the opposite , a car da ysis of eful anal ta f tics thema . In Ma effects or a The habitat is where any species finds conditions that ear y, 50 y sa er period, long ainf all line in r s, on dec ve. per mit it to thri Lear ning is a vital f aculty of all provides excellent possibilities for projects relating to es of eatur n about the f . Animals lear animal species their data representation, visualisation and interpretation. own habitat by picking up clues as to where they may Likewise, effluents from sewage treatment plants can expect to find food or meet social companions or form meaningful r aw ma or a v ariety of projects terial f e thus encounter enemies wledg . For our ancestor s, kno in c ork with hools could w , sc y. Besides hemistr began with the exploration of their habitat. But as panchayats, municipalities and city corporations to human beings' control over the environment has document biodiversity resources and associated increased, and as people have begun to mould the world wledg kno gy ojects in Biolo e up pr hools can tak e. Sc more and more to suit their needs, this component of addressing specific issues of interest, such as the kno wledg e has diminished so m y for mal t toda uch tha occurrence and utilisation of medicinal plants or the education has become largely alienated from the habitat protection of rare and endangered fish in a body of vir onmental de gr ada tion of the students . But as en wa ter. People's r epresenta tions of the en vironment proceeds at an uprecedented pace, we are beginning and its specifics (animals, forests, rivers, plants etc.) to realise the importance of taking good care of our orms of usic , dance and cr aft thr ough v arious f art, m habitat. Humankind must, therefore, make an attempt versity h an . Suc illustr ate their under standing of biodi to comprehend its roots, to re-establish links with its understanding is also linked to the life of members of habitat, and to understand and take good care of it. In Scheduled Caste and Sc heduled Tribe comm unities as substance and spirit, then the theme ' Habitat and they often depend on natural biodiversity resources to Learning' is equivalent to environmental education. e is sustain their li velihoods . Recor ding suc h kno wledg These significant concerns are best realised by part of the mandate of preparing of people's infusing the components of environmental education

84 65 biodiversity registers, and students can fruitfully be yearly requirements spelt out for each class, in hierarchical s. ation of ojects on the pr ag ed in pr eng epar h register progression. This would allow more respect for suc lear Projects assessing the nutritional role of wild plants, childr h as the hemes suc . Sc ning en's pace of which provide important nutritional supplements in Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) reinforced not the diets of tribal communities, can be worthwhile only the rigid adherence to year-end outcomes, but ther nar ed to lessons . components of health education. Likewise, preparation also allo wed f or these to be fur row Describing the characteristics and concerns of the of maps of the immediate environment, onmental Histor y, and anal ysis riculum, g og cur y and assessment in sta peda ges allo documenta w tion of en vir of political issues related to the environment may be syllabi, textbooks and learning resources, and for teachers to plan for children's development and the ojects in g y and phy, Histor eo gra made par pr t of gradual and cumulative deepening of abilities, political science. Conflicts over water at the local, state, competencies and conce pts . national and international levels offer a rich source for designing a variety of activities and projects connecting 3.10.1 Early Childhood Education these descriptions of knowledge. The early childhood stage, until the age of 6–8 years, is TUDY S OF CHEMES 3.10 S A SSESSMENT AND the most critical period when the foundations are laid for life-long development and the realisation of full The word 'school' all over the country by and large potential; research shows that there are 'critical periods' refers to Classes I to X, extending to class XII in some at this stage for full development of the brain's potential. states, while in other states Classes XI and XII are orma tion of alues as w The f ell as ttitudes and v la ter a regarded as pre-university or junior college. Some the desire to learn are also influenced at this stage, while schools also include two to three years of pre-school lack of support or neglect can lead to negative g es' classes . The br eaking up of schooling into f our 'sta consequences, sometimes irreversible. Early Childhood extends far beyond mere administrative convenience. Care and Education (ECCE) requires that young children From the point of view of curriculum design and be provided care, opportunities and experiences that teacher preparation, these stages have a developmental lead to their all-round development — physical, mental, ge-wise per om a sta . Seen fr ve, riculum cur specti validity eadiness hool r and sc social and emotional, . A holistic thinking and school organisation can overcome and integrated perspective views the health and nutritional problems created by the current preoccupation with needs of children as integrally related with their m, with rigid lassr gr ade' c 'mono ooms as being the nor psychosocial/educational development. The curriculum application of age-based grouping of children, and work and peda frame ust be based y f gog or ECCE m le and ves. Sing hing and lear class-wise teac ning objecti on this holistic perspective, taking into account the various two- teacher primary schools could be reconceptualised domains of development, the characteristics of children as a learning group with different abilities and learning at eac h sub-sta ge, and their lear ning needs in ter ms of needs rather than as 'multigrade' classrooms requiring experiences . or time- mana gement tec hniques . Assessing c hildr en f It is well known that children have a natural desire what they have learnt could also then take place over a to learn and make sense of the world around them. longer cycle of years spent in school, rather than as

85 66 Learning in the early years must hence be directed by contextuality and continuity between home and school) oughout en thr childr xperiences of ning e orm lear can inf the child's interests and priorities, and should be contextualised by her experiences rather than being the childhood stage and lead to a smooth transition An ena onment f y. into the elementary school stage. vir or str uctur ed f ormall bling en The ECCE programmes present a picture of children would be one that is rich in stimulation and ov non-g ernment, ov , with g ality plur experiences, that allows children to explore, experiment ernment (voluntary sector) and private agencies providing a and freely express themselves, and one that is embedded ve them a sense of t gi tions tha ela in social r wev warmth, variety of ser vices . Ho er, the co ver ag e of these security and trust. Playing, music, rhyming, art and other ammes is e progr xtr and the quality row, y nar emel of ser ovided is v aria ble and lar gely poor . vices pr activities using local materials, along with opportunities A vast majority of children, especially those belonging for speaking, listening and expressing themselves, and to poor and marginal groups, are not covered by e essential components of inf ormal inter action ar early care programmes and are left to fend for learning at this stage. It is important that the language ang e fr used in early education is one that the child is familiar themselv es. Pr om hool pr ogr ammes r e-sc onment, or mal while an inf those that subject children to a dull and monotonous with in the immedia te en vir multilingual classroom would help children to routine to those where children are exposed to or mal lear lish, , often in Eng ning comfortably adjust to the early introduction of a second ed f uctur str made to do tests and homework, and denied their right to language (English) and the medium of instruction from e undesir hese ar y. T pla Class I onw actices mful pr ab le and har ards. As the childr en w ho come under the , ranging w of that result from misguided parental aspirations and pur ECCE ar e a heter roup og eneous g vie the growing commercialisation of pre-schooling, from infants to pre-schoolers, it is important that activities and experiences for them are developmentally and are detrimental to children's development and motivation to learn. Most of these problems derive appropriate. from the still 'unrecognised' status of ECCE as a Early identification of disabilities assessment and par provision of appropriate stimulation would go a the mainstr Polarised tion system. t of the eam educa disad vanta ultiple ay in pr te the m petua ef lect and per vices both r ser ge ev enting the a long w gg rava tion of ov er lapping social di vides in our countr y. T he dee on this account. The caution would be against p alues in Indian pressurising children into the three R's (reading, writing ve pa vasi gender bias and per triar chal v and arithmetic) and the ear ly intr oduction of for mal society are responsible for the failure to recognise instruction, i.e. against making pre-schools into training the need for cre'ches and day-care facilities, especially centr es f y sc hools . In f act, the for children of poor rural and urban working or admission to primar ear roup 0–8 y ge g ver the a t ECCE co gestion is tha sug women; this neglect has also had an adverse impact s tion of (i.e. so as to include the early primary school years). ls. gir on the educa This is in order that the holistic perspective of ECCE Good quality ECCE programmes have a positive and its methodologies (all- round and integrated impact on children's all-round development. This in itself development, activity-based learning, listening and is reason enough to demand that all children have a right speaking a language before learning to write it, to ECCE, and it is hence unfortunate that the 0–6 age

86 67 standards need to become the hallmark of education Ar ticle vie xc luded fr gr oup has been e om the pur w of for this period. Education during this period must be 21. In addition, ECCE is also seen to have critical linkages of an integrated character, enabling children to acquire with enrolment of children in schools and learning facility in language and expression and to grow in self- ovide ECCE of ble quality to all . T o pr equita outcomes confidence as learners, both within and outside school. children, it is not only necessary to vastly enhance the The first concern of the school is on the funds committed for this purpose, but also to address development of the child's language competence: issues through different strategies the five basic dimensions of acy, and related to ar ticula ability to use the tion and liter opria ppr y, de velopmentall y a te cur , namel quality riculum, language to create, to think and to communicate with trained and adequately rewarded teachers, appropriate e ar t ther e tha ess is needed to ensur s. Special str other e teacher-child ratio and group size, infrastructure maximum opportunities for those who wish to study supportive of children's needs, and an encouraging style in their mother tongue, including tribal languages and or decentr W hile ther e is need f vision. alisa tion, of super linguistic pockets, even if the number of students is flexibility and contextuality in these programmes, there small. The ability of the system to promote and nurture e a ppr opria te nor ms and gent need to e volv is also an ur these options, along with working out mechanisms to guidelines and set in place a regulatory framework so ensure that future options remain open, should become that children's development is not compromised. a marker of its ability to provide for quality education. Capacity building at all levels in relation to the plurality hie To ac , ther e m ust be a cr eative and concer ted ve this t dif of roles tha ferent functionaries pla air ell as f y, as w effort to maintain the multilingual genius of Indians wages, must also be ensured. and implement the thr ee-langua ge f ormula. While hool y Sc 3.10.2 Elementar English may be taught during this period, it must not t the e be a ges. ning Indian langua lear xpense of The period of elementary school (from Class I to The development of mathematical thinking, Class VIII) is now also recognised as the period of beginning with learning numeracy and moving towards compulsory schooling vide the constitutional the enjoyment of and facility with more abstract ideas, amendment making education a fundamental right. The needs to be supported with concrete experiences and beginning of ormal intr this period mar oduction ks the f ear ly y . It is in the ear tions work with manipula s, up to of the child to reading, writing and arithmetic, , tha Class IV ficulties ning dif gnosing lear t dia forts a t ef ting in the intr oduction of the f ormal disciplines culmina and addressing remedial work in language and such as the sciences and the social sciences towards the mathematics must be directed. end of elementary school. This period of eight years Such concrete experiences are also essential in the is one of tremendous cognitive development, shaping introduction to the integrated study of the environment reason, intellect and social skills, as well as the skills and through which children's intuitive knowledge of the attitudes necessary for entering the work place. world is integrated into school knowledge. Over the hie , the pped up ve UEE is ste fort to ac As the ef years, this study should move towards a more elementary school classes now cater to many children disciplinary approach, but with integrative themes, . kgrounds verse bac om di ge coming fr oing a of school-g within which there are located opportunities to develop Plurality and flexibility without compromising on

87 68 intense vibr anc y and ener gy. The a bility f or a bstr act concepts and learn the vocabulary and methods of the reasoning and logical thinking emerges, allowing children discipline. the possibility of deep engagement with both The study of arts and crafts is essential for understanding and generating knowledge beyond the developing not only the aesthetic sensibility but also w. e and no her in the self standing of A critical under for learning how to manipulate materials and relation to society also emerges during this period. developing attitudes and skills essential for work. The The courses at this level generally aim at creating curriculum must expose children to practical life skills an awareness of the various disciplines and introduces ork e and w ysical . Ph varied kinds xperiences of students to the possibilities and scope of study in them. development through sports activities is also a must. A Through such engagement, they also discover their own variety of activities at this stage of schooling should be ests and a gin to f inter hat or m ideas on w ptitudes and be made available, including participating in cultural courses of study and related work they might like to programmes, organising events, travelling to places h needs could be ef fecti sue la y pur vely met b ter. Suc outside the school, providing experiences to develop ganised ventions of an or guidance and counselling inter socially and emotionally into creative and confident nature with the support of trained teachers and individuals sensitive to others, and capable of taking ge n or a lar s. F professional counsellor umber of . T eac esponsibility her s with a bac kg round initia tive and r ve when the y lea ge, minal sta this is also a ter en, childr in guidance and counselling can design and lead or k skills ve w school and be gin acquiring pr oducti . activities to meet the developmental needs of children, minal on Those f or w hom this sta ge becomes ter thus laying the foundation for the necessary attitudes account of socio-economic circumstances need the and perceptions towards self and the world of opportunities for learning creative and productive work work. They can also provide the needed support and skills while the system as a whole moves towards guidance to children belonging to various strata of universalising secondary education. Providing access to society for their sustenance through the elementary libraries and experience in laboratories is essential, and ppr h to the w school y riculum hole cur s. T he a ear oac hence there must be a concerted effort to ensure that should be process oriented rather than outcome all c hildr en ha h facilities ve access to suc . oriented. All these arenas of development should be These two years are shadowed by the spectre of made available to all children. Care must be taken to achieving respectable 'board examination' marks in this ensure that the curriculum does not reinforce examina tion since this will deter mine futur e options . stereotypes about preferences, choices and capabilities Schools often proudly state that they finish the entire the g roups ferent g of dif radual xt, . In this conte m, and sylla bus f or Class X b y the end of the f irst ter inclusion of vocationally oriented skills as a part of so spend the r evision, est of the y ear (tw o ter ms) on r exposure to work would be an important aspect of that students are well prepared for their examination. an inclusive curriculum. Class IX of this stage, and later Class XI, are sacrificed hool y Sc 3.10.3 Secondar for the same reason. This preoccupation with the examination, and its deleterious effect on learning, Secondary school is a period of intense physical change orma and f identity . It is also the period of tion of needs to be reviewed and challenged. Is it worth

88 69 , these y cases . In man e and skills wledg related kno wasting a year of perhaps the most fruitful period of courses have degraded into routine credentialing a child's life in such non-productive engagement? Is it courses, and make no distinction between learning to not possible that by pacing learning more evenly y ser et a job ning to g er sus lear do a job v or thr ough out the y ear , we ma ve pr epar ation f . the examination itself in a much better way? On 3.10.4 Higher Secondar y Sc hool account of the examinations, many other curricular areas, especially sports and arts, are also compromised. The status of the academic and vocational streams at It is necessary to ensure that these areas are protected, the higher secondary stage needs to be reviewed in and also that a serious attempt is made to institute view of the continued preoccupation with and influence meaningful experiences of work during this period. of the board and entrance examinations, and in view Most boards in the country offer limited or no of the continued privilege given to the so-called optional courses in this period; two languages (one of academic stream and the failure of the vocational stream to take off. During this period of two years students which is English), Mathematics, science and social . In this tion subjects e the typical e xamina sciences ar make choices based on their interests, aptitudes and needs regarding their future life. tics and Eng lish, w hic h ses of , the cour Ma thema gr oup are responsible for the 'failure' of a large number of The possibilities of choosing optional courses of study for exploring and understanding different areas students, need to be revisited and redesigned. The of knowledge, both in relation to one's interest and one's policy of declaring pass–fail in the whole examination, future career, is integral to this stage. Exploring and the meaning of the 'pass mark', may also need to disciplines and approaching problems and issues from be reviewed. Related issues are discussed in rich interdisciplinary perspectives are possible at this stage. xamina pter 5, Cha in the section on e tion r . efor ms There is a need to allow for such investigations to take A few boards also encourage students to choose place betw y. een and outside the 'subjects' c hosen f or stud an optional course from a range that includes Most boards of study offer a variety of subject , music and cook economics ery. Suc h options could be dition to the compulsor . ses areas in ad ge cour y langua increased, and the possibilities of substituting the more bout the f ormal or inf ormal e is a concer Ther n a traditional disciplines with these options could also be restrictions that operate to narrow the choice of subjects tional options could also be consider ed. V oca estrict the y f of stud ver al boar . Se ds r or students introduced. Many such vocational options may arise 'the eam', orm of tions in the f combina 'the science str from the world of productive work in the local arts stream' and 'the commerce stream'. The CBSE does xample , auto maintenance in g unity arag es, comm . For e not restrict the possibility of combinations that students tailoring and par or fer possibilities f vices of amedical ser can choose, but in view of the increasing popularity of collaboration to create meaningful vocational courses; stud subjects of some combina tions of y, and also school boards could accredit such learning and thereby because of a perception of status of subjects in relation also recognise the many sites of learning that are situated to each other, many such options are now foreclosed to y, man y v oca tional str eam outside sc hool. In our countr w their students . Fur ther , uni versities also need to r evie ated in their quality , and hence ar e cour ses ha ve deterior admission criteria as they currently restrict admission unable to provide students with meaningful work-

89 70 based on the kinds and combinations of courses studied Under pressure to 'cover' vast syllabi, many at the +2 stage. As a consequence, many significant and important aspects of learning such as practicals and xample , meaningful combina tions of y, suc h as , for e field trips, and ways of learning such as reference work, stud e, atur Physics , Mathema tics and Philosoph y, or Liter project work and presentations, are not fully utilised, y, are c losed to students . g y and Biolo . W ning overall lear to the detriment of Histor ell -equipped laboratories and libraries, and access to computers, are Recent trends of schools tailoring their classes to essential, and all efforts must be made to ensure that medical and engineering courses have led to an artificial schools and junior colleges are well equipped with such restriction on the courses they offer in school, arguably ces on g rounds of popularity and timeta . bling . In man y resour The vocational stream originally was meant to ts of the countr y, students w ho w ant to stud y the par arts and liber al subjects ar e left with v ery few options . work the address the needs of those who would enter Schools also discourage students from opting for force earlier than those who would enter the professions unconventional combinations, often on account of via the traditional academic streams, or those who bling consider timeta . We belie ations esear ch. W e r ve it is essential to would pur sue stud ecommend y and r infusing productive work as a pedagogic medium for keep all options open f or students e e ar . In case ther not enough students in a school opting for a particular knowledge acquisition, developing values and multiple luding skill f t all sta ges of educa tion, inc tion a the subject, schools could consider working out orma stage. +2 arrangements with other schools in the neighbourhood Given the developmental nature of this stage, . gether her to ce teac esour y a r y could emplo t the so tha Such resource teachers could also be employed at the guidance and counselling by trained professionals must en. hildr be made a ble to c block level to teach such special subjects that would vaila ventions to enhance Inter self/career awareness, career exploration and planning not otherwise be available in a school. School boards are also essential. Besides, this stage coincides with may also consider a more active role in promoting subjects and str eams of stud y. adolescence, a period in an individual's life that is The courses offered at the +2 stage need to be marked by personal, social and emotional crises created due to alive to recent and current developments in the amil ed in f equir adjustment r demands of the y, e car eas ar e ar wledg , as ne disciplines peer g roup and sc hool situa tions . T w kno ovision of ved out, he pr these ser vices in sc t suppor eate the ould help cr hools w disciplinary boundaries shift and multidisciplinary studies w students to eng system required to cope with increasing academic and eas of ag e with ar . To allo develop essur es. study that are growing in importance within the social pr disciplines and fields, courses could also be designed 3.10.5 Open Schooling and Bridge Schooling to offer optional modules, rather than trying to cover Beginning with the National Open School, open school everything and packing courses with too much boards, which have begun to function in a few states, inf orma tion. xample , Histor y could ha ve an For e now are able to provide much more flexibility and chaeolo gy or World optional module to stud y either Ar . The r y of subjects the e of fer ang options f or students ysics could of ly, Ph options of Histor the y; similar fer is wide. With more flexibility in examination taking, y etc Astr onom y, Space Science and R ocketr .

90 71 this would exacerbate the deprivation that these children pose of evalua tion is not have already suffered, and constitute a flagrant disregard The pur velopment of ch and de esear orous r . Rig of their rights to motivate children to study under threat. √ the peda h or suc ed f equir terials r y and ma gog ners’, or en as ‘slow lear to identify or label childr √ programmes to succeed, stringent implementation ‘bright students’, or ‘problem children’. Such , as w facilities ovisioning of ms and pr nor ued ell as contin categories segregate children, placing the onus for academic and social support for these children after they om the r ole lear ning solely on them, and detract fr have been placed in school are essential. pedago pose of and pur gy. √ to identify children who need remediation (this need TION UA A SSESSMENT AND E VAL 3.11 not wait for formal assessment; it can be detected by In the Indian educa tion system, the ter m e valua tion is the teacher in the course of teaching and attended to ted with e tion, str ess and anxiety . All ough xamina associa as a par t of pedago gic planning , thr individualised attention). efforts at curriculum definition and renewal come to naught if they cannot engage with the bulwark of the √ oblem ar eas— ning dif ficulties and pr to diagnose lear evaluation and examination system embedded in while broad indications about conceptual difficulties can be identified via evaluation and formal testing. bout the ill ef fects tha t schooling . We ar e concer ned a Diagnosis requires special testing instruments and examinations have on efforts to make learning and training. It is also specific to foundational areas of hing meaningful and jo rentl y, teac Cur yous f or c hildr en. y and numerac literac y, and is not meant for subject the board examinations negatively influence all testing areas. and assessment through out the school years, beginning with pre-school. and the possibility of credit transfer from other boards, At the same time, a good evaluation and examination system can become an integral part of open schools have been able to provide a more humane approach to the process of certification. the learning process and benefit both the learners themselves and the educational system by giving Knowledge about and access to open schools could be more widely disseminated along with efforts to credible feedback. This section addresses evaluation se and assessment as the mal cour vant to the nor e rele y ar address misconceptions regarding equivalence with . By sc d e heduling these xamina tions other boar of teaching-learning in the school, as a part of the curriculum. Issues relating to the examination system, examinations closer to the dates of other board examinations, it would also be possible to ensure that and in particular to the board examinations, are addressed separately in Chapter 5. students do not lose a sc . hool y ear Bridge courses are conducted widely in many parts 3.11.1 The Purpose of Assessment of the country to enable children who are out of school Education is concerned with preparing citizens for a to study in programmes and become integrated into meaningful and productive life, and evaluation should ble to their a ge. In the medium ter classes suita m, it is be a way of providing credible feedback on the extent essential to have well - conceived programmes that are to which we have been successful in imparting such an able to meet this curricular objective. Anything less than

91 72 education. Seen from this perspective, current other schools and educational institutions, the processes of evaluation, which measure and assess a community and prospective employers with lear . infor ma tion r very limited range of faculties, are highly inadequate eg arding the quality and e xtent of ning The popular notion that evaluation can lead to and do not provide a complete picture of an individual's abilities or progress towards fulfilling the aims of identifying the needs of remediation, to be attended education. to with remedial teaching, has created many problems But even this limited purpose of evaluation, of he ter in cur m r emedia tion needs to riculum planning . T providing feedback on scholastic and academic be restricted to specific/special programmes that enable development, can be achieved only if the teacher is children who are having a problem with literacy/reading prepared even before the course of teaching begins, (associated with reading failure and later with comprehension) or numeracy (especially the symbolic assessment b hniques of y the tec armed with not onl ut parameters for evaluation and the various tools aspects of mathematical computation and place value). also the Teac her e specif ic tr aining f or ef fecti ve dia gnostic s requir that will be employed. In addition to judging the quality assistance in r emedia tion ef for ts. of the students' achievements, a teacher would also t can be of testing tha need to collect, anal yse and inter pret their perf or mances equir ould r ork w ly, remedial w icall y Similar e specif developed materials and planning so that the teacher is on various measures of the assessment to come to an able to give one-on-one time to work with the child, the understanding of the extent and nature of pose . The pur students' lear ferent domains ning in dif of assessment is necessarily to improve the Competencies teaching-learning process and materials, and to be able Competencies is an attempt to shift the focus of to review the objectives that have been identified for teaching and related assessment away from superficial different school stages by gauging the extent to which textbook-based factual content. However, in the MLL approach, competencies are broken up into the capabilities of learners have been developed. detailed sub-competencies and sub-skills, assuming t tests and y, this does not mean tha Needless to sa these sub-skills is the competenc tha t the sum of y. y. On equentl ve to be conducted fr tions will ha examina y, with the f Fr equentl ocus on beha viour and the contr vities and e xercises can be ary, routine acti performance concepts may not even feature in the assessment. This logical yet mechanical listing of vely to assess lear ning . emplo yed ef fecti sub-skills and rigid timetables for their achievement t car ds epor egular r Well-designed assessment and r does not reflect either the concern that learning and provide learners with feedback, and set standards for use of the competency may itself be more flexible, ents orm par them to stri ve to ve to inf wards. They also ser or that the cycle over which competencies are learnt need not follow the timing or pace described, or about the quality of learning and the development and that the whole may be greater than the sum of the progr ar ds. This is not a means of their w ess of parts. encouraging competition; if one is looking for quality in Designing learning and test items for these detailed education, then segregating and ranking children and lists, and teaching to these learning outcomes, is injecting them with feelings of inferiority cannot do it. impractical and pedagogically unsound. Last, credible assessment provides a report, or oviding y, pr stud a cour tifies the completion of cer se of

92 73 beginning with what she/he knows and moving to es t he lik ys tha . He sa tive and brief orma ere inf t w tha simple and clear language. In noting down facts, he what she/he needs to learn, through a continuous process of assessment and car va tion. eful obser t it helps him or shor t ans wer s. He sa ys tha goes f m distr om the acts fr Indiscrimina te usa ge of the ter s a pr stand things easil under y. He f av our actical al pr ob ve peda fecti ef lems of gener es and mak gogy, appr oac h." Similar ly, keeping samples and notes of the child solely responsible for her/his learning and the child's work at different stages provides both the also learning 'failure'. teacher and the learner herself or himself with a ecor ogr ess d of his/her lear tic r systema ning pr . ner s 3.11.2 Assessing Lear The belief that assessment must lead to finding learning difficulties to then be remediated is often very Any meaningful report on the quality and extent of a ehensi ve. We need a child's lear ning needs to be compr impractical and not founded on a sound understanding hose cr , inno va tiveness , and riculum w cur ea tivity of pedagogic practice. Problems regarding conceptual development of the whole being, the hallmark of a or mal tests in or f ait f development cannot and do not w t assess tion mak good educa orm tests tha es unif order to be detected. A teacher can, in the course of memorised facts and textbook -based learning obsolete. teaching itself, come to know of such problems by w par We need to r edef s f or and ameter ine and seek ne asking questions that make children think or by giving ways of evaluation and feedback. In addition to the . She can then a ttend to them in them small assignments learner's achievements in specific subject areas that lend the process of teaching–by ensuring that her planning is es to testing easil y, assessment w ould need to themselv . flexib le and r esponsi ve to the lear ner s and their lear ning encompass attitudes to learning, interest, and the ability Cur 3.11.4 ricular eas tha ested Ar t cannot be 'T to lear n inde y. pendentl for Marks' Assessment in the Cour 3.11.3 T eac se of hing Each area of the curriculum may not lend itself to being Preparing report cards is a way for the teacher to think 'tested'; it may even be antithetical to the nature of about each individual child and review what she/he learning in the curricular area. This includes areas such as m, and w has lear nt during the ter hat she/he needs to work, health, yoga, physical education, music and art. work on and impr ove. To be a t epor h r ble to write suc While the skill-based component of physical education cards, teachers would need to think about each and yoga could be tested, the health aspect needs individual child, and hence pay attention to them during rentl . Cur tive assessments uous and qualita contin y, this their everyday teaching and interaction. One does not has the effect of making these subjects and activities 'less need special tests for this; learning activities themselves important' in the curriculum; these areas are inadequately provide the basis f va tional and oing obser h ong or suc ces and cur esour ms of ricular provided f or in ter terial r ma qualitative assessments of children. Maintaining a daily y a lac planning , and mar ked b k of seriousness . Fur ther , y based on obser va tion helps in contin uous and diar the time allocated for them is also frequently sacrificed comprehensive evaluation. An extract from the diary to accommoda te special c lasses . This is a serious of a teacher for a week notes the following: "Kiran compromise with parts of the curriculum that have deep enjoyed his work. He took an instant liking to the books educational significance and potential.

93 74 Even if 'marks' cannot be given, children can or their de eas be assessed f velopment in these ar . Posing Questions Participation, interest, and level of involvement, and State four considerations to be kept in mind while the extent to which abilities and skills have been setting up an iron-smelting plant. honed, are some markers that can help teachers to Versus gauge the benefits of what children learn and gain If an industrialist wanted to establish an iron - smelting plant, which site should she choose and hildr . Asking c vities h acti ough suc thr en to self- why? report on their learning can also provide teachers d’s beak help in a bir pe of w does the sha Ho with insight into children's educational progress and adaptation? give them feedback on improving curriculum or Versus gogy. peda Draw the beak of a common bird seen in your neighbourhood. Based on the shape of the beak, 3.11.5 Design and Conduct of Assessment explain what are likely to be the bird's food habits and where in your neighbourhood it is likely to find Assessments and examinations must be credible, and its food. ays of gauging lear ning . alid w based on v As long as examinations and tests assess children's ability to remember and recall textbook knowledge, all attempts to redirect the curriculum towards learning competitions ust be designed s m per . All question pa or dif hildr gr aded f will be thwarted. First, tests in knowledge-based mit all c der to per en to ficulty in or experience a level of success, and to gain confidence in subject areas must be able to gauge what children have their a bility to ans wer and solv oblems . learnt, and their ability to use this knowledge for e pr fecti problem solving and application in the real world. In ve open-book ood and ef vise a g Tr ying to de addition, they must also be able to test the processes examination can be a challenge that we must try to of thinking to gauge if the learner has also learnt where take up in our curricular efforts at all levels of school. tion, and ho w inf to f ind inf orma w to use ne This would require teachers and examination setters to or ma tion, to analyse and evaluate the same. emphasise the interpretation and application of learning over the arguments and facts that can be located in the The types of questions that are set for assessment book. There have been successful demonstrations that need to go beyond what is given in the book. Often such examinations can be carried out on a large scale, children's learning is restricted as teachers do not accept and that teachers can themselves be trusted with their answers if they are different from what is presented . In this . moder ating the r esults of suc h e xamina tions in the guide books the assessment of b w ork can also way, pr ojects and la Questions that are open-ended and challenging be made credible and sound. could also be used. Designing good test items and It is important that after receiving their corrected questions is an art, and teachers should spend time bout and de thinking a h questions est he inter vising suc . T papers, children rewrite the answers and that these are again reviewed by teachers to ensure that children have and ability of teachers to design good questions can be promoted through district- or state-level learnt and gained something out of the ordeal.

94 75 children about why they answered what they did assists Competition is motivating, but it is an extrinsic teachers in going beyond the written answer to engage se, moti orm of ra ther than intrinsic f va tion. , of cour It is en's thinking e away ocesses also tak h pr with c hildr . Suc much easier to establish and to manipulate, and the frightening judgemental quality of marks obtained therefore frequently resorted to by teachers and school in a test, and enable children to understand and focus systems as a way creating and nurturing the drive for es and lear on their mistak es. ough these mistak n thr excellence. Schools begin 'ranking' children as early as Sometimes head teachers object, claiming that their pre-primary years as a way of inculcating in them correction in the presence of the child reduces a competitive spirit. Such a competitive drive has 'objectivity'. This is a misplaced concern for 'objectivity', several negative side effects on learning; often superficial stemming from a competitive system that believes in learning is sufficient to create and maintain impressions, judging children. Such a concern for 'objectivity' is and over time students lose their ability to take initiative misplaced in evaluation, which is consistent with or do things for the fulfilment of one's own interest; educa tional g oals . hence, areas that cannot be 'marked' are neglected. This Not only learning outcomes but also learning has unhealthy consequences for classroom culture, experiences themselves must be evaluated. Learners making children individualistic and unsuited to team happily comment on the totality of their experience. work. There is an absurd and unnecessary importance Exercises, both individual and collective, can be tions , often accompanied b y m e xamina given to ter designed to enable them to reflect on and assess their rang ements of hile ecy. W tion and secr invigila extr eme ar ovide lear ning e xperiences . Suc h e xperiences also pr the physical and psychological effects of this may not them with self-regulatory capabilities essential for be readily visible until middle school, they frequently 'lear n'. Suc ning to lear h inf orma tion is also v alua ble lead to high levels of stress in children, and cause early feedback to the teacher, and can be used to modify burnout. Schools and teachers need to ask themselves the learning system as a whole. whether there is really much to be gained out of such Every classroom interaction with children practices and to what extent learning requires such requires their evaluation of their own work, and a mar . systems of anking king and r discussion with them about what should be tested 3.11.6 Self-assessment and Feedback and the ways of finding out whether the competencies are being developed or not. Even very young children The role of assessment is to gauge the progress that both learner and teacher have made towards achieving are able to give correct assessments of what they can or cannot do well. The role of teaching is to provide the aims that have been set and appraising how this . Oppor tunity f or f eedbac k, leading could be done better an opportunity to each child to learn to the best of his or her ability and provide learning experiences , should or mance perf ov ement of evision and impr to r constantly be available, without exams and evaluations that develop cognitive qualities, physical well-being and athletic qualities, as also affective and aesthetic eat to stud y. being used as a thr Grading and correction carried out in the qualities . Report cards need to present to children and presence of students and providing feedback on the Asking ans wer s the y g et right and wr ong , and w hy. parents a comprehensive and holistic view of the child's

95 76 their activities into items for assessment, or making them ields . Teac her s m ust be a ble to development in man y f say things about each child/student, that conveys to them experience the teacher's 'power', then it defeats the indi reaf firms a positi ve a sense of vidualised a ttention, purpose of education. Unless a system is adequately geared for such assessment, it is better for teachers to self-image, and communicates personal goals for them rades tha t ar e but tion, evalua ms of or e limited f ag e in mor eng to w ork to wards. Whether it is mar ks or g reported, a qualitative statement by the teacher is necessary incorporating into them more features that will make d of ning to support the assessment. Only through such a the assessment a meaningful r ecor lear . Finall e is a need to e volv e and maintain y, ther relationship with each child can any teacher succeed in credibility in assessment so tha . y perf orm their influencing him/her , and contrib uting to his/her lear ning t the Along with the teacher assessing each child, each student pr function of oviding f ay. k in a meaningful w eedbac could also assess himself or herself and include this self- 3.11.8 Assessment at Different Stages assessment in the report card. or ma tion rentl y r epor t car y, man ds car ry inf Cur ECCE and Classes I and II of the Elementar y Stag e : At on subject areas and have nothing to say about other this stage, assessment must be purely qualitative aspects of the child's development, including health, judgements of children's activities in various domains physical fitness and abilities in games, social skills, and and an assessment of the status of their health and abilities in art and craft. Qualitative statements about physical de velopment, based on obser va tions thr ough these aspects of children's education and development . On no account should the y be ev eryday inter actions would provide a more holistic assessment of y for m of e an made to tak al or written. or test, tional concer educa ns. the Elementar Class III to Class VIII of y Stag e : A variety of methods may be used, including oral and 3.11.7 Areas that Require Fresh Thinking en should be written tests and obser va tions . Childr There are many areas of the curriculum that can be assessed aware that they are being assessed, but this must be seen by them as a part of the teaching process and not but for which we still do not have reliable and efficient t is car instr his inc uments ried . T ning tha ludes assessing lear as a fearful constant threat. Grades or marks along out in groups, and learning in areas such as theatre, work with qualitative judgements of achievement and areas requiring attention are essential at this stage. Children's and craft where skills and competencies develop over eful obser equir va tion. own self-evaluation can also be a part of the report er time scales and r e car long om Class , Continuous and comprehensive evaluation has car d fr tions V onw ards. Rather than e xamina frequently been cited as the only meaningful kind of there could be short tests from time to time, which are evaluation. This also requires much more careful criterion based. xamina T erm-wise e tions could be thinking through about when it is to be employed in a commenced from Class VII onwards when children system ef h e valua tion places a lot of are more psychologically ready to study large chunks vely. Suc fecti demand on teachers' time and ability to maintain of material and, to spend a few hours in an examination ain, room, wor king a t ans wering questions . Ag meticulous records if it is to be meaningfully executed the ess car progr and if it is to have any reliability as an assessment. If d m ust indica te g ener al obser va tions on this simply increases stress on children by reducing all health and n utrition, specif ic obser va tions on the o verall

96 77 progr the lear ner , and inf or ma tion and ad vice ess of ents for the par . the Secondar y and Higher Class IX to class XII of y Stage Secondar : Assessment ma y be based mor e on s tests, examinations and project reports for the knowledge-based areas of the curriculum, along with self-assessment. Other areas would be assessed through obser va tion and also thr ough self-e valua tion. Reports could include much more analysis about the students, various skill/knowledge areas and percentiles, etc., This would assist them by pointing out the areas of study that they need to focus on, and It’s really cr e this uel burdening kids lik e that bo . I had to hir y to also help them by providing a basis for further choices help my son ! (Courtesy : R. K. Laxman in the Times of India) . y ther hat to stud e reg arding w y mak t the tha eafter

97 78 Lear es place within a w eb of social r ela tionships as teac her s ning tak act both f or mall ormall y. Sc hools ar e and pupils inter y and inf unities of ner or comm s, inc luding both institutional spaces f lear s. Pla y and scuf fle with one’ s friends on the students and teac her rounds , free time to sit on the benc hes and c hat with one’ s school g friends during br eaks g ether f or mor ning assemb ly and , gathering to esti icant occasions in the sc hool, studies car ried other f ve and signif lassr oom, anxious tur out in the c pa ges bef or e a c lass test, ning of and trips made with one’ s classma tes and teac her s to places outside the sc hool — all these ar e acti vities bring ing the comm unity to gether , giving it the c har a lear ning comm unity . Behind the scenes , acter of icant in gi s hool its c har acter , are the teac her but still signif ving the sc , planning and car y r and the headmaster outines , rying out dail tions and special e examina t mar k the sc hool calendar . Ho w vents tha can w e or ganise the en vir onment in the sc hool and c lassr oom so tha h inter actions suppor t and enhance both teac hing and t suc lear ning? Ho w can the space of the sc hool be n urtur ed as a conte xt ppy and w wher hildr en f eel saf e, ha e c anted, and w hic h teac her s

98 79 ofessionall tisfying? The find meaningful and pr y sa cholo the ysical and psy ph gical dimensions of Lear ning thr ough the ph ysical space: environment ar e impor tant and ar e inter related. In this Children perceive their world through multiple senses, stand onments to under vir e e cha pter w xamine these en especially the tactile and visual senses. A three- ning hildr . luence c y inf icantl y signif how the en’s lear dimensional space can offer a unique setting for a child oduce a multiple sensor y to lear n because it can intr P 4.1 T HE NVIRONMENT E HYSICAL experience to accompany the textbook or blackboard. Spatial dimensions, textures, shapes, angles, movements Children are constantly interacting with the physical y, and spatial attributes lik e inside – outside , symmetr their sc onment of uctur envir hools during str ed or up – down, can be used to communicate some basic y. Y et unstr uctur ed time , consciousl y or unconsciousl concepts of language, science, mathematics and the ttention is paid to the impor not enough a tance of environment. These concepts can be applied to existing ning onment f or lear physical en . Often c lassr ooms vir as w ell as new , to - be - built spaces . ded, are o ow with no alter native spaces to lear n, vercr √√ Classroom space: A window security grill √ √√ ve to wards e the y a ttracti ve, nor ar viting or sensiti in can be designed to help children practise pre-writing y childr en’s needs . Ina ppr opria te sc hool design ma skills or understand fractions; a range of angles can y af fect the teac her’ s pr oducti ve output and drasticall be marked under a door shutter on the floor to explain the concept of angles; or a classroom cupboard this all - ole of the r In f classr oom mana g ement. act, can be modified to be used as a librar y; or a ceiling estricted onment has been r vir ysical en , ph encompassing fan can be painted with a range of colour wheels for vity tional acti ely to shelter the educa mer . children to enjoy the ever-changing formations. When children are asked about the kinds of spaces √√ Semi-open or outdoor space: The √ √√ they like, very often they want to be in a place that is moving shadows of a flag-pole acting like a sundial colourful, friendl open y, and peaceful, with lots of to understand the different ways of measuring space offering with small nooks and corners, animals, time; planting winter deciduous trees that shed , flower s, trees plants , and to ys. In or der to a ttract and their leaves in winter and are green in summer to retain children, the school environment must have all table outdoor lear e a comfor mak ning space; an these elements in and around them. adventure playground could be developed here using discarded tyres; a counter space to simulate a Classrooms can be brightened up by first ensuring ; an acti bus/train/ post of fice/shop counter vity adequate natural light inside and then made lively by space for playing with mud and sand and making lassr alls as displa ying c hildr en’s w ork on the c oom w alleys in an vers , ri s own mountains one’ , and v well as in different parts of the school. Drawings, art outline map of India; or space exploration and and craftwork put up on the walls and shelves send e thr ee dimensions; or discover y; space to explor out a powerful message to children and their parents the outdoor natural environment with plants and that their work is appreciated. These must be displayed trees that allow children to explore and create , discover nooks , colours ning materials their own lear at locations and heights that are physically and visually ow a herbal g arden; and actually ners; gr and cor various a le to c en of ges. comf ortabl y accessib hildr see and practise rainw . vesting ater har Many of our schools continue to function in dilapidated dr and ding y b uildings , pr esenting a dull, ab and

99 80 unstim ting ph ysical setting . T his can be c hang ed with ula simple innovations, with the combined efforts of ‘Class size’ is an important factor that influences the schoolteac chitects . s, administr her s and ar ator choice of desirable methods and practices that the Buildings are the most expensive physical assets ocess of teacher uses in the pr riculum transaction. cur of a school. Maximum educational value should be national experiences ha ve shown National and inter derived from them. Creative and practical solutions that a ratio higher than 1:30 is not desirable at any can be used to maximise this educational value while stage of school education. W ay bac k in 1966, the repairing or upgrading existing schools or making new t had w ge Kothari Commission Re arned that lar por ysical en buildings . T he enhancement of the ph onment vir classes would do ‘serious damage to the quality of through this can bring about not just a cosmetic change ansf teaching’ and that ‘in crowded classrooms, all talk ay tha but also an inher ent tr orma tion in the w t y and the c hild. physical space connects with the peda gog of creative teaching ceases to have any significance’ ooms lassr y, schools and c the countr ts of y par In man (196 6: p. 233 and 234). ys painted on the w . alls manent displa have lar g e per Such visuals are over-stimulating, and with t ime they become monotonous and cease to enhance the quality or sit on their own for carrying out some individual sized, judiciously chosen of the space. Instead, smaller murals may be a better way of adding colour to the reading or writing tasks, or assemble in a group near the r , the or this F TV f oadcast. or a br adio or school. Most of the wall display area should be utilised ts made b , daris for c hildr arrangement of desks and chairs, benches and or k, or c har y the teac her en’s own w could be altered. Many schools have begun to acquire and these should be replaced every month. Preparing such wall displays, and participating in putting them simple furniture that is suitable for such flexible chowkis vities f or c hildr alua , or desks and chairs ble lear en. ning acti organisation. Single small up, can be also v Many schools lack playgrounds for outdoor for individual or pairs of children, and daris are well suited for such classrooms, and could be adapted or lear vities . T his compr omises the quality of ning acti bilities . learning provided through the curriculum. alter ed to suit the needs of childr en with disa Ensuring that minimum requirements of But still many schools invest in heavy metal benches infrastructure and materials are available, and supporting and long desks, which can only be placed in rows, and flexible planning that will help achieve curricular aims which reinforce the teacher and blackboard-centred lear y of are important features that heads of school, cluster these do not ning man system of . Wor se still, have adequate place for children to keep their books and block functionaries should focus on in their support her and belongings, nor are they wide enough or with back to teac s. This a pplies to almost all aspects of school support suitable for the physical comfort of the child. life. The many new pedagogies that have been hool spaces om sc e should be banned fr nitur h fur . Suc promoted thr gested h as the one sug forts suc ough ef The maximum use can be made of available by DPEP — that the physical layout of the classroom . ces could be altered so that children can sit together in go gic r oom spaces as peda lassr school and c esour small groups, or gather in a large circle for story telling, In some areas, the walls of primary school classrooms

100 81 In fact, the structuring of infrastructural facilities is till the height of about 4 feet have been painted black y ser ve as a fr ee sla so tha awing boar d f or t the essential for paving the way for creating a learner - friendly te and dr ms and standar xt. Setting nor vity-centric conte and acti children. In some schools geometric designs that can ds, especially relating to space, building and furniture, would ner . A cor loor e painted on the f vities ar or acti be used f help in f ostering a discer ning sense of quality . of the room may be used to organise learning materials, to keep some appropriate story books, puzzle or riddle ted to a ela e r ms ar Nor Space • roup to g ge, . When terials ning ma ds, and other self-access lear car size, the teac tur her – c hild r atio, and to the na e some children finish their assigned lessons befor the of activities to be carried out. allotted time, they should feel free to come and pick Building materials, architectural styles Building • om this cor up something fr ner to occup es. y themselv and craftsmanship are also location-specific Children can be encouraged to participate in and culture-specific in relation to climate, activities to make the school and classroom attractive and a vaila bility ecolo , w gy, hile saf ety and y. Most g for stud y, work and pla ov ernment sc hools ha ve hygiene are non-negotiable. Low-cost designs the healthy practice of giving children the charge of for toilets are plentiful, and the same cleaning, thereby encouraging the inclusion of work into standardised school building need not be the routine of the school. But it is also distressing to found across India. note that there are schools where it is the girls or children Fur Nor ge and elated to a ust be r ms m e nitur • from the lower the castes who are expected to do this the nature of the activities, with preference work. In elite schools, children do not take on any such given to the easily relocated, except in case of responsibilities, and cleaning activities are often meted . atories and other specialised spaces labor ‘punishments’ h pr s. Suc out as f or misdemeanour actices Lists of essential and desirable • Equipment vision the di ms of al nor orce cultur einf om and r stem fr equipment (including books) should be of labour, and the association of distasteful jobs with specified, emphasising the use of local materials traditional hereditary occupations of lower – caste and products, which may be culture specific, e pub t m gr oups . As sc lic spaces tha hools ar ust be low cost, and easily available. or infor med b y the v alues of equality as w ell as r espect f Time The need for location and age-specific • labour/work of all kinds, it is important that teachers y to time ta ppl ms also a bles and seasonal nor consciously avoid distributing tasks on the basis of calendar s. al notions . On the other hand, k ee ping the cultur classroom clean and putting things in place are important E NABLING E NVIRONMENT 4.2 N URTURING AN curricular experiences through which children learn to As public spaces, schools must be marked by the values take individual and collective responsibility and to keep , social justice and r , as versity of equality espect f or di their classrooms and schools as attractive as possible. well as of the dignity and rights of children. These The understanding of being part of a larger collective, values must be consciously made part of the perspective and the abilities needed to work within a collective, can hool of the sc hool and f or m the f ounda tion of sc be internalised in children in a variety of ways as they practice. An enabling learning environment is one where interact in groups within the classroom and the school.

101 82 clarify their doubts and ask questions, they will not en’s hildr ignoring c . If, instead of ning ag e with lear eng ‘On an average, teachers and children spend around comments or sealing their tongues with strict rules of ear, in 6 hours a day , and over 1,000 hours a y silence and restrictions on the language to be used, school. The physical environment in which they go teachers encourag would find to talk, e children they about their tasks must be congenial, providing a level that the classroom is a more lively place and that teaching of comfort, and offering a pleasant space to work in. is not predictable and boring, but rather an adventure ve minimum facilities , the school must ha For this of inter . Suc h an en vir onment will acting minds that include essential fur nitur e, basic amenities (toilets , facilitate the self-confidence and self-esteem of learners ater) and so on. Ther ge number e a lar e ar drinking w of all ages; it will also go a long way in improving the of schools in rural areas, especially in SC and tribal quality of learning itself. habitations, as well as in poor urban settlements, en are par Teac her s and c hildr ger society t of the lar which have not been able to provide these basic facilities, where identities based on membership of caste, gender, although there are official norms for the same. religious and linguistic g roup , as w ell as economic sta tus , including the headmaster and the Village Teachers infor m social inter though this v aries in dif fer ent action, Education Committee or School Development and egional conte xts . SC and ST social, cultur al and r Monitoring Committee, need to be aware of the official communities, members of minority groups, and women are usually placed in situations of disadvantage norms of the state regarding the essential physical because of their identities, and are denied equal access infrastructure and amenities. In places where they to valued resources in society and participation in are not adequate, efforts need to be made for their ocesses dif fer ent institutions . R esear ch on sc hool pr provision so that the school routine proceeds with en contin luence sug gests tha t identities of childr ue to inf minimum discomfort. If the official response is not their treatment within schools, thereby denying them forthcoming or is delayed, local communities should meaningful and equal opportunities to learn. As part ith their involvement and willingness lobby for these. W of the experience of schooling, children also receive to make this effort fruitful, the school would assist implicit messages through interpersonal relations, . teachers in concentrating on academic work , and nor ms and v t ar e par t teac her a ttitudes alues tha of the culture of the school. These often reinforce notions of purity and pollution in relation to social where there is absence of fear, children feel secure, hierarchies, desirable qualities of ‘masculinity’ and and which is governed by relationships of equality and ‘feminity’, and privilege in certain ways of living, mainly equity . Often this does not r equir e an y special ef for t that of the urban middle class, while rendering all others on the part of the teacher, except to practise equality invisible. Children belonging to SC and ST groups, T eac s should her and not discrimina en. hildr te among c and other socially discriminated against groups such also nurture their classroom spaces as places where x w ents with HIV , ar e often as se orkers and par childr en can ask questions fr eel y, eng gue aging in a dialo subjected to demeaning treatment in the classroom, with the teacher as well as their peers, during an ongoing y teac y b not onl e s. Gir y their peer ut also b s b her ls ar lesson. Unless they can share their related experiences,

102 83 t is w often subject to stereotypical expectations based on of eac h thr ead tha h Indian ov en into a ta pestr y, eac notions of their future roles as wives and mothers rather child can be enabled to not only participate in a than enabling them to develop their capabilities and act and f democr ac y, but to also lear n ho or m w to inter . Childr claim their rights tner ships with other s to pr eser ve and enhance en with disa par bility often confr ont the insensitive environments where their needs are e of tur democr acy. It is the quality and na t deter viduals tha tionships among indi rela inter mines the completely ignored. Schools must be conscious of the socio-political fabric of our nation. However, children importance of creating equitable classroom tor y pr environments in which students are not subjected to . ar e often socialised in to discrimina actices Children and adults learn from what they experience unfair treatment and denied opportunities on the basis at home, the community and the world around them. of their sex or membership of a caste, tribe or minority It is important to recognise that adults socialise children the sc hool gr oup . On the other hand, the cultur e of within the dominant socio-cultural paradigm. This must be one that highlights the students, identities as paradigm would include the role models that children ‘learners’ and creates an environment that enhances the potential and interests of each child. see the mass media including television. This experience conditions their perceptions of caste and class, gender, TICIP ATION OF 4.3 P LL C HILDREN AR A democracy and justice. These perceptions, if and when reinforced by repeated experiences of the same kind, y itself has little meaning . It is the Par ticipa tion b are con verted into v alues . At a comm unity le vel, when ame work sur tion tha rounding par t ticipa ideolo gical fr a group of people have the same experience and , ines it and gi ves it a political constr uct. For e xample def therefore share the same values, these values get ould ame w tion within an authoritarian fr ticipa work par ven ideolo verted into cultur e, and sometimes e gy. con ticipa tion a v ery dif ferent f orm fr om give par This is a spiral, and each time the cycle is repeated the par ticipa tion within a democr ac y. T oda y, the values and culture get reinforced unless there is a par ticipa tion of ‘civil society’ the t of has become par variation in the experience. The counter - experience rhetoric in de cles, but the na e of tha t tur velopmental cir ansf or m the eal enough to tr ong and r needs to be str tha tion ha ve t par civil society and the object of ticipa ake up one f en cannot w . Childr ceptions lier per ear ine preta what it tion of ic inter y a specif been moulded b morning when they are 18 and know how to participate en. means to be a citiz T oda y, civil society par ticipa tion the ve and enhance a democr y if acy, especiall y in, preser has come to mean NGO par ticipa tion, ttempts and a have had no prior personal or even second - hand to ena tion of indi vidual citiz ens , f or ble the par ticipa experience of it, nor any role models to learn from. ov ernance is posing a major , in local g example The participation of children is a means to a much challeng e. pr w ding a ne ving and ad eser t of tha ger end, lar India is one of the largest and oldest democracies y to our cultur anc vibr e of egalitarianism, democr acy, in the world; this curriculum framework is built on an secularism and equality . T hese v alues can be best r ealised understanding of this foundation. Education defines through an integrated and well-designed curriculum the fabric of a nation, and has the capacity to provide tion. xisting he e T t ena ticipa en’s par hildr bles c tha each child a positive experience of democratic environment of unhealthy competition in schools e and na ength, , str tur xtur e the te . Lik functioning e, colour

103 84 ticles of eover, all the ar . Mor ammes progr the CR C promotes values that are the antithesis of the values have to be seen within the overarching principle, that enshrined in our Constitution. A positive ‘experience’ of democracy and democratic participation must be provided both within and outside the school. This √ Inclusive education is about embracing all. experience must actively engage children and young Disability is a social responsibility — √ people in ways that encourage values of inclusion, accept it. eventually leading the way to the realisation of the vision No selection procedures to be adopted for tor acy. y democr √ ticipa of a par denying admission to lear ners with disabilities . Enabling democratic participation is also a means of empowering the weak and the marginalised. If India Children do not fail, they only indicate failure √ of the school. is to realise her dream of a nation based on egalitarianism, democracy and secularism, where all her Accept difference... celebrate diversity. √ y justice , liber , aternity ty, equality and fr citiz ens enjo Inclusion is not confined to the disabled. It √ enabling the participation of children would be the also means non-exclusion. ocess bling lear most fundamental ste ning p in this pr . Ena √ n human rights ... conquer human Lear through participation in the life of a community and wrongs. tion a t lar ge is cr ucial to the success of schooling . the na Handicap is a social construct, deconstruct √ The failure to provide this will result in the failure of handicap. the system, and hence needs to be treated as the utmost Make provisions — not restrictions; adjust √ hing of y as essential as the teac . It is not onl priority to the needs of the child. mathematics and science, but takes on even greater √ Remove physical, social and attitudinal importance as an indispensable component of all . riers bar disciplines . It is a r unning theme , and has to be inte gra ted √ ength such as Partnership is our str into all learning processes and arenas, and given top priority in the development of all curricula and syllabi. school – community; school – teachers; teachers – teachers; teachers – children; 4.3.1 Children’s Rights children – children; teachers – parents; school systems and outside systems. India has signed the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The three most important principles of √ All good practices of teaching are practices of inclusion. this Convention are the rights to participation, to association or the right to organisation, and the right to √ very child. gether is beneficial for e ning to Lear childr T hese ar tion. orma inf en and e essential rights if vices e essential ser Suppor √ vices ar t ser . youth ar e to r C does not . CR ealise all their other rights If you w ant to teach, lear n fr om the child. √ concern itself only with the protection of children and Identify strengths not limitations. the deli , ammes ogr vices and pr ser very or pr ovision of √ Inculcate mutual respect and inter-dependence. mine but also ensur es tha t childr en ha ve the right to deter these ser the quality and na tur e of vices and

104 85 ving the best inter ests of eser of upholding and pr 4.3.2. Policy of Inclusion A policy of inclusion needs to be implemented in all children. schools and thr oughout our educa tion system. T he Although CRC guarantees children the right to par ticipa tion of all c hildr ed in all en needs to be ensur express their views freely in all matters affecting them, hool. hools their lif es of spher Sc e in and outside the sc and to exercise freedom of expression, children are es tha t pr epar e c need to become centr en f or lif e hildr frequently denied the opportunity to participate in y the dif especiall en, hildr t all c e tha and ensur y fer entl decision-making processes and activities that effect their ginalised sections en fr ab led, childr om mar , and c en hildr lives and futur es. T he right to par ticipa tion also de pends um benef it of in dif ficult cir cumstances g et the maxim on the realisation of other primary rights such as access tunities to displa Oppor educa ea of y this critical ar tion. to inf or ma tion, the fr eedom of associa tion, and the s ar e these with peer werful tools in talents and shar e po luence and om inf ee fr te opinions fr or mula right to f va tion and in nur turing moti en. hildr ement among c volv coercion. The principle of participation should be ver In our sc hools w e tend to select some c hildr en o integrated into all areas of concern for children. roup benef hile this small g W gain. ver a and o om its fr In r eality es , social, political and economic str uctur these oppor tunities , becoming mor e self - conf ident are still very much hierarchical; children and youth are other c xperience en e le in the sc hool, and visib hildr the most marginalised sections of society; their effective re pea ted disa ppointment and pr ogr ess thr ough sc hool participation depends largely on the extent to which with a constant longing for recognition and peer ganise themselv tunity to or ven the oppor e gi y ar the es. bility ma or led out f y be sing cellence and a ov al. Ex appr Coming to g ether gi ves them visibility , str ength and a tunities need tion, ecia but a t the same time oppor appr collective voice. The participation of individual, hildr ven to all c to be gi ic a bilities en and their specif ‘hand-picked’ children or youth is fraught with need to be recognised and appreciated. discrimination, and is ineffective because such This includes children with disabilities, who may ‘representatives’ represent no one but themselves; it need assistance or more time to complete their assigned excludes the less vocal and less visible; and it gives more , while planning f ven better if ould be e . It w tasks or room for manipulation. such activities, the teacher discusses them with all the On the other hand, the organised participation children in the class, and ensures that each child is given of children and youth, especially the more an opportunity to contribute. When planning, therefore, disadvantaged children, gives children strength, access teachers must pay special attention to ensuring the to mor conf , an identity and idence tion, e inf orma participation of all. This would become a marker of epresenting en or y outh r owner ship . Indi vidual c hildr fecti their ef s. her veness as teac such groups voice the views and aspirations of the Excessive emphasis on competitiveness and collective. Their coming together also enables them to individual achievement is beginning to mark many ve w find collecti wev . Ho oblems e pr ays to solv er, what of our schools, especially private schools catering needs to be ensured is that all children and youth have as soon as to the urban mid dle c lasses . V ery often, an equal right to participate in the development of this children join, houses are allocated to them. collective voice. Thereafter, almost every activity in the school is

105 86 things arising from the fear of failure, doing less well counted for marks that go into house points, losing their r in e adding up to an end-of-the-year prize. Such ‘house xamina tant . It is impor anks tions , and of to allow making errors and mistakes to remain an loyalties’ seem to have the superficial effect of getting all children involved and excited about integral part of the learning process and remove the fear of not achieving ‘full marks’. The school needs to winning points for their houses, but also distorts educational aims, where excessive competitiveness ho ents w , par unity ong signal to the comm send out a str promotes doing better than someone else as an . ectionists ly age to be perf om an ear en fr hildr pressurise c s o xcelling on one’ rather than e Instead of spending time in tuitions or at home ms and wn ter aim, learning the ‘perfect answers’, parents need to encourage for the satisfaction of doing something well. Often placed under the monitoring eye of other children, their children to spend their time reading storybooks, playing and doing a reasonable amount of homework this system distorts social relations within schools, and revision. Instead of looking for courses on stress adversel y af fecting peer r ela tions and under mining values suc management for their pupils, school heads and school h as cooper ation and sensiti vity to other s. her hic h managements need to de-stress their curricula, and Teac s need to r eflect on the e xtent to w they want the spirit of competition to enter into ents to de-str e outside the en’s lif hildr ess c advise par school. and per mea te e ver y aspect of sc hool lif e— perf Schools that emphasise intense competitiveness or ming mor e of a function in r egula ting and disciplining than in nurturing learning and interest. must not be treated as examples by others, including verse ca pabilities sta te-r un sc hools . T he ideal of Schools also under mine the di hooling common sc er y ear tegorising them v y ca en b childr and talents of advocated by the Kothari Commission four decades ly, ago continues to be valid as it reflects the values on narrow cognitive criteria. Instead of relating to each enshrined in our Constitution. Schools will succeed in child as an individual, early in their lives children are inculcating these values only if they create an ethos in placed on cognitive berths in the classroom: the ‘stars’, which every child feels happy and relaxed. This ideal is the average, the below - average, and the ‘failures’. Most often they never have a chance to get off their berth even more relevant now because education has become by themselv h la a fundamental right, which implies that millions of belling suc fect of es. T he demonising ef is devastating on children. Schools go to absurd lengths first-generation learners are being enrolled in schools . va te to make children internalise these labels, through verbal To r etain them, the system — inc luding its pri name calling such as ‘dullard’, segregating them in seating sector — must recognise that there are many children t no sing tha arrangements, and even creating markers that visually le nor m of ca pacity , per sonality or divide children into achievers and those who are unable aspir ation can ser ve in the emer ging scenario . Sc hool he f ear of not ha ving the right ans administrators and teachers should also realise that to perf orm. T wer when boys and girls from different socio-economic keeps many children silent in the classroom, thus denying them an equal opportunity to participate and learn. and cultural backgrounds and different levels of ability Equally paralysed by the fear of failure are the so- study together, the classroom ethos is enriched and called achievers, who lose their capacity to try out new becomes mor e inspiring .

106 87 4.4 AND P AR TICIP AT OR Y D ISCIPLINE our aims of educa tion. For instance , rules suc h as the ANAGEMENT M length of socks and the whiteness of sports shoes are of no educationally defensible importance. Rules The pupils ‘own’ the school as much as the teachers regarding maintaining silence in classrooms, answering y in g and headmaster ov er nment sc hools s, especiall . ‘one at a time’, and answering only if you know the een de y betw pendenc Ther inter tionship of ela e is a r alues of mine the v wer, can under right ans equality and her a w y in this er , especiall her and the pupils the teac e . Suc tunity equal oppor ules ma y also discour h r age or ma ning tr lear ansaction is based on access to inf tion, en’s lear t ar , the processes tha e inte gr al to c hildr ning e cr and kno tion of ounda eation is based on a f wledg development of a sense of community among peers, resour ces of w hic h the teac her is the pi vot. One cannot though they may make the class ‘easy to manage’ for ansaction has . Educa function without the other tional tr the teacher and facilitate ‘covering the syllabus’. actor (teac to shift fr om the benef her) and the Inculcating the value/habit of self-discipline is benef iciar y (pupil) to a moti va tor and f acilita tor and important for the systematic pursuit of learning and lear ner , all of whom ha ve rights and r esponsibilities in ests and potential. the de s inter hild’ the c velopment of es place . tional tr t educa ensuring tha ansaction tak ust ena Discipline m or mance of , and be ble the perf ventions sc hool r ules , nor ms and con esent, At pr conduci ve to , the task a t hand. It should ena ble fr eedom, and ‘g ood’ mitted viour f def ine per or beha oper’ ‘pr choice and autonomy for both teacher and child. It is . Maintaining discipline indi vidual and g roups of students necessary to involve children themselves in evolving in schools is usually the prerogative of teachers and rules, so that they understand the rationale behind a adults in positions of authority (often the sports master rule, and feel a sense of responsibility in ensuring that it y, the and administr ator s). Frequentl en hildr y also induct c is followed. In this way they would also learn the as ‘monitors’ and ‘prefects’ and delegate the process of setting codes of self-governance and the responsibility of maintaining ‘order’ and ensuring skills required to participate in decision making and control. Punishment and reward play an important role ly, the c hildr . Similar atic functioning en democr , ules arely question the r ho implement r . T hose w in this themselves could also evolve mechanisms for conflict or the implications that ensuring compliance may have resolution between teachers and students, and among velopment, en’s o verall de self-esteem and also for c hildr . T he teac her should ensur e tha t ther e ar e as students disciplining suc h as their inter est in lear ning . For ms of few rules as possible, and that only rules that can be corporal punishment and, verbal and non-verbal abuse reasonably followed are created. It does no one any of children, continue to feature in many schools, and good to humiliate children for breaking rules, ont of te c are used to humilia hildr en in fr their peer s. particularly when there are good reasons for the rule ents still belie ven par s and e her y teac Yet man t ve tha ar e being br ok en. F or instance , ‘noisy c lassr ooms’ such punishment is important, unaware of the frowned upon by teachers as well as headmasters, but fects of these immedia te and long-ter m detrimental ef it is possible that rather than the noise being evidence her s to r tant f practices . It is impor eflect on the or teac of the teacher not being in control, it may be evidence rationale that underlies the rules and conventions that govern schools, and whether these are consistent with of a li vel y and par ticipa tor y c lass .

107 88 ricular pr luencing the cur inf ocess . P arents and bl y strict ly, headmaster s can be unr easona Similar community members could come into the school as or an e tion te f ho is la hild w . A c about punctuality xamina resource persons to share their knowledge and on account of a traffic jam must not be penalised, and experiences in relation to a particular topic being studied. yet we find such rules being imposed in the name of , for a lesson on mac , local mec hanics xample For e hines easona bleness on the par t of . Unr higher v alues could talk about sharing their experiences on repairing authorities in such matters can demoralise children, their les. epair v nt to r y lear w the bout ho and also talk a ehic s. It ma emember to , and also teac ents par her y help to r ticipa 1. The par tion of the comm unity in the c hild’ s first ask a child why he or she broke a rule, to listen to world of education and learning should allow for hild sa ys, and act accor ding ly. It is bef itting a what the c the community to: school head or teacher to exercise authority rather than a. olklor y ( dealing with f al histor er or Tr ansf e, e bleness ar easona ariness and unr wer. Arbitr po migration, environmental degradation, traders, characteristics of power, and are feared, not respected. settlers, etc.) and traditional knowledge (sowing Systems for the participatory management of the and har ted ela ocesses r , pr , monsoons vesting school by children and schoolteachers and to traditional crafts, etc.) to children, while the administrators need to be evolved. Children should be school encourages critical reflection wherever encouraged to elect their own representatives to it is required ly the teac , and similar childr her s and en’s councils Influence the content of subjects and add local, b. administrators of a given school need to be organised practical, and appropriate examples ents . es, so also the par themselv Support children in their exploration and c. P AND PA CE FOR 4.5 S ARENTS OMMUNITY C THE tion e and inf wledg kno creation of or ma d. Support children in their practise of The school is a structured space for guided learning, but democracy through their participation in the process of constructing knowledge is a continuous , monitoring planning ation, ener tion g orma inf one, which goes on even outside the school. If learning and evaluation with local governments and is continuous, and takes place in arenas other than the schools unity orkplace , the w , the comm suc school, , h as home etc., then school assignments or homework should be childr tion of ealisa Monitor the r e. en’s rights as well as violations of these rights planned dif fer entl y. It need not de pend on par ents Participate in addressing the constraints faced reinforcing what the school has already done. It could f. by children set dif ferent kinds of acti vities f , on hildr or c en to do their o ents . T his could also pr wn or with their par g. Participate in setting criteria for vocational ovide training opportunities for parents to understand a little more h. about what their child is learning in the school and give Enable the village to become a learning environment for children realising the concept children the initial impetus to explore and recognise the ning or lear ena f hool as an ar world outside the sc . of the ‘village as a school’. en to use their home Similar ly, w hile helping c hildr Schools could also invite the community into their premises, and give the larger world outside a role in language and make a transition to the school language,

108 89 not mean the economic b urdening of poor f amilies . teachers may seek inputs from local language speakers to facilitate communication in the mother tongue(s), On the other hand, there can be an understanding that school space can be shared with the community for teaching of languages and creating material. The choice local events and that there will be some collective would depend upon the particular curricular plan . adopted and the kinds of expertise that are available responsibility in maintaining its pr emises and accessible. The school must explore opportunities 4.6 C URRICULUM S ITES AND L EARNING for active engagement by parents and the community ESOURCES R elationship will help in in the pr ning . T his r ocess of lear 4.6.1 xts and Books Te sharing the content and peda gog y of institutionalised ception tr lear ning . xtbook as the prime eats the te Popular per site f or cur riculum designing . T hough cur riculum All schools need to look for ways in which planning is a m parental participation and involvement can be efor m riculum r , cur ocess uch wider pr Impr seldom g oes be yond c hanging the te xtbook. ov ed encouraged and sustained. Many schools do not treat textbooks parents’ questions and concerns regarding the activities that are carefully written and designed, professionally edited and tested, offering not merely of the sc hool as v alid questions . Frequentl y, pri va te tion b factual inf ut also inter acti ve spaces f or or ma schools turn parents into mere consumers and ask them efor m can g o childr en ar e impor tant. But cur ricular r to take away their wards if they do not like something e accompanied b veral y se xtbooks ar te arther if much f tha t the sc hool is doing ents as eat poor par s tr . Other for , dictionaries . Subject terials ma other kinds of not having any legitimate stand when they come to bout their w ards. Both types of instance , can r mak elie ve the main te xtbook fr om becoming e enquiries a enc initions of rying def y car , bur dened b yc lopaedic attitudes are disrespectful of parents and their legitimate ms hnical ter tec , and instead allo ocus her to f w the teac concern for their children. standing conce pts tionship on under . The triangular r ela Overall, in order to make the school environment oom teac lassr , hea vy supportive of children, and to strengthen the een high-speed c betw hing va te tuition, whic wor k and pri home h is a major sour ce relationship of the school with parents and the local ened if comm unity , ther e ar e institutionalised str uctur es suc h ocus s f xtbook writer te of str , can be w ess eak or on ela bor ation of , spaces f pts , acti vities conce as parent-teacher associations, local - level committees, bout pr wondering a , exercises encour ob aging lems . In e hools tions in some sc and also alumni associa vents reflective thinking and small-group work, leaving the held to celebrate national festivals and other occasions . y ms to a subject dictionar hnical ter tec inition of def suc h as cultur al da y and spor ts da y, most sc hools in vite Supplementar a xtr , and e , workbooks y books parents to participate. By inviting alumni and local come next. In certain subjects, such as reading the sc hool as a residents also , the impor tance of languages, the importance of such material needs no community site can increase. Community involvement fresh recognition, but the concept of such material does can also be sought for maintaining the school and its xtbooks contain rent te call f or fr esh thinking . Cur local contrib utions f xamples of e e e ar . T her or facilities uninteresting content covering different genres, and building school boundary walls, augmenting facilities, workbooks simply repeat exercises of the type already and so on. However, community participation must

109 90 . In ma tics , and the na tur al xtbooks found in te of resource materials, audio and video materials and thema and social sciences, such supplementary materials still sites on the Internet. These would provide tips for need to be developed. Such books could draw . Suc her teac h the y could use f or lesson planning h s, w hic orld ttention a y fr en’s a om the te xt to the w childr wa sour ce books need to be a vaila vice ble during in - ser around them. Indeed, for subjects like art, workbooks training of teachers and during meetings when they e ma y f or m the main c lassr oom ma terial. Ther e ar hing units . plan their teac fine examples of such materials produced for the study roup c lassr ooms (m ultig rade y or Ver ticall ganised g of the environment, introducing children to the or multiability) require a shift away from textbooks ds and the na tur al ha bita , bir ees tr va tion of obser t. designed for monograde classrooms, which assume Such resources need to become available to the teacher that all children are being addressed by the teacher and for use in the classroom. together and that they are all at the same stage and are all have a similar role to play in enriching Atlases e is a need ther . Instead, expected to do the same thing s under standing of the c the ear th, both as a na tur al hild’ for alternative types of materials to be made available and as a human habitat. Atlases of stars, flora and fauna, to teachers as a basis of planning lessons and units: people and life patterns, history and culture, etc. can • Thematic lesson with a variety of exercises and gr eatly enlar g e the scope of y and g eogra phy, histor ferent g or dif vels f ferent le t dif vities a acti . roups eas of s on these ar . Poster economics a t all le vels • Graded self - access materials that children can knowledge, as well as other matters of concern on engage with on their own with minimum which general awareness needs to be promoted, can scaffolding from the teacher, allowing them to also enhance lear ning . Some of these concer ns inc lude work on their own or with other children. gender bias, inclusion of children with special needs, • Whole - g roup acti vity plans , say, stor ytelling or . Suc h ma and Constitutional v alues terial could be perf ama, based on w hic h orming a small dr available in a resource library and at the cluster level to , xample . For e vities fer ent acti en can do dif childr be borrowed by schools for use, or they could be all children from Classes I to V may enact the y ble b placed in the sc hool libr ar y, or made a vaila folk story of the rabbit and the lion together, teac her s. and after this Groups I and II may work with Manuals and resources for teachers are just as flashcards with the names of various animals; impor tant as te xtbooks . An y mo oduce a ne ve to intr w Group III and IV may make a series of set of textbooks or a new kind of textbook should drawings and then write out the story against ation of handbooks f or teac her s. inc epar lude the pr each drawing, working in small groups; and These handbooks should reach principals and teachers ewrite the stor y r V ma oup Gr gesting y, sug her s' handbooks bef ore the ne w te xtbooks do . T eac alternative endings to it. Without the support ays. T hey need not ferent w can be designed in man y dif of appropriate materials, most teachers find cover the content of the textbook chapter-wise, though lass themselv es tr ying to jug gle mono gr ade c or ma oac ts can the a t can be one of tha hes ppr . Other f groups, with the result that for the majority of be equally valid: offering a critique of established er y lo time on the task becomes v en, childr w. , and inc methods and sug gesting ne w ones luding lists

110 91 4.6.2 Libraries School libraries have been a subject of policy Libraries or a long time recommenda tions f , but a functioning One period a w eek to be de voted to librar y reading . . It is libr ar y in the sc ues to be a r arity hool contin During this time, children sit and read silently in the tant tha t futur e planning tr eats the libr impor ar y as an y. They r etur evious rowed the pr n the books bor librar row new ones . week and bor t all le vels. Both hool a the sc essential component of teac ained en need to be moti hildr s and c her va ted and tr If ther y room, the teacher can bring out e is no librar esour ce f or lear ning , pleasur e, ar y as a r to use the libr books appropriate to the age group and allow children ation. T he sc hool libr ar y should be and concentr to choose from the set. It is important to let the child conce her ptualised as an intellectual space w s, her e teac choose rather than having the teacher distribute the books. s of unity can e xpect the comm childr en and member to f ind the means to dee pen their kno wledg e and . Librar y books can be br ought into the language class imagination. A system of cataloguing books and other en can be ask , childr ojects For class pr ed to look up a ary needs to be de veloped ma terials a vaila ble in the libr reference in the librar y. ary user s. eliant libr en can become self-r hildr t c so tha , a sc gazines om books and ma t fr Apar ary hool libr Children can be asked to write about the book they ovide access to the ne w inf orma tion should pr have read that week during the language class. her s to connect en and teac hildr ble c g y to ena hnolo tec Childr ed to shar e a stor y they ha ve r ead en can be ask ges of with the wider w orld. planning , In the initial sta with the other children in class. aries can be set up -level libr luster vel or c k-le bloc . In e, India m the futur very wards equipping e ve to ust mo The sc hool libr ary should be k ept open its le school, ary. In man y ve of irrespecti vel, with a libr during vacations. par y, comm unity libr aries ar e the countr ts of ural ar eas , and g ov ernment libr aries e xist functioning in r teac y district headquar s. Futuristic planning w ould Tr aining of ter in man s in libr ary mana gement and use is her ama h str requir required to meet the demands of this situation. Where suc uctur es in a sc hool e the amalg tion of mits a se ate r oom uilding per der to maximise the use of ork in or par libr hool b the sc e of the siz ar y netw . T ces resour for the libr ar y, it is impor tant to pa he R eating aja R am Mohan R oy Libr ary y attention to cr ven ad ditional r esour ces to act as tion can be gi Founda a positive ethos in this space by providing good lighting . It should e ven be possib le a nodal agency for conceptualising a library network rang ting ar and sea ements for a teacher to conduct a class in the library by drawing for schools and for monitoring it after it has been ve as a place f created. upon its r esour ces . It could also ser or In the day-to-day life of a school, the library can holding discussions, watching a craftsman from the community giving a demonstration, or listening to a ve man y dif fer ent kinds of pur poses . Restricting ser yteller . Cr t stor the use of the library to one period a week seldom eating suc h r esour ce libr aries to suppor ws c allo . Facilities eading or r va te a taste f en to culti teachers at the cluster and block levels will complement hildr ro w books en to bor hildr w c and strengthen curriculum renewal. Each block could are to be pr . ovided to allo

111 92 specialise in a subject area so that together there are way, can la y the f ounda tion f or f ar better utilisa tion of acilities acti the countr y’s enor mous ET f ve, . Inter adequate resources in the district. Net - enabled computers, rather than only CD-based 4.6.3 Educa tional Technolo gy computer usage, would facilitate a meaningful integration of computers and enhance the school gy (ET) as a tional Technolo The signif icance of Educa curriculum in rural and remote areas by increasing site for curriculum planning has been widely recognised, connectivity and enhancing access to ideas and but detailed guidelines and strategies for its educationally It is suc vity r h tw ather than o-w tion. orma ay inter acti inf optim ve not y all y, et been w um use ha orked out. Gener e tec ould mak t w ption tha ece ay r one-w gy hnolo gy has been used as a medium to dissemina tec hnolo te educational. ad orma tion, and as a w ay of inf dressing the scar city Rather than trying to of good teachers—usually reproduce and mimic the consequence of poor For primar y school childr en, video simulations and classroom situations, or recr . uitment policies demonstrations cannot substitute for hands-on teaching the textbook ET , w hic h is used to ning experiences and lear . content, or animating lab redress the problem experiments, ET could of quality of teaching, can realise far better potential if topics are taken up but only exacerbate the disillusionment of teachers with developed into non-didactic explorations, leaving hing . If ET is to become a means of enhancing teac learners free to relate to the knowledge web ricular r efor m, it m cur ust tr eat the majority of teac her s est. inter vels of wn le t their o n a vely, and lear essi progr and children not merely as consumers but also as active Such access to knowledge in regional languages is still producer tion ead consulta s. Ther e m ust be widespr very limited, and is one of the main reasons for the regarding use during development and implementation. persistent and growing divide between learners from ET facilities need to be used at all levels of schools — urban and rural schools, and learners from regional - cluster and block resource centres, district, state and . T hools lish - medium sc ge and Eng langua he potential national level institutions — in order to provide hands- of such encyclopaedias and documentaries for children xperiences pr on e ovided xperience in using ET . Suc h e is still underdeveloped. Materials such as textbooks, to children, teachers and teacher educators, could workbooks and handbooks for teachers can be include something as simple as the audio-recording of designed with the awareness of existing stocks of vie an inter w with a villa ge elder , to making a video good-quality audio or video material and sites where film or a video game. Providing children more direct extra resources are available on the Net. Classics of orma ultimedia equipment and Inf tion access to m cinema need to be made accessible through such gy (ICT), Technolo tion unica Comm wing them and allo , a c measur bout villa ge es. For instance hild stud ying a to mix and make their own productions and to present tyajit R lassic , ve easy access to Sa life should ha ay’s c their own experiences, could provide them with new Pather Panchali, either as a CD to be borrowed from opportunities to explore their own creative imagination. the CRC or to be viewed on a nationally managed Such an experience of ET production, rather than website. Future textbooks need to be conceptualised only watching and listening to programmes in a passive

112 93 and designed in ways that might integrate knowledge also learning to take care of and maintain them, are vestment in In en. hildr or all c xperiences f ble e invalua in different subjects and experiences, thus facilitating aculties with the help tion of dle , a mid e. For instance wledg kno the assimila training of the c hild’ s senses and f acy ts pla ys a vital r ole in str engthening liter of the ar - school textbook that discusses the history of Rajasthan and de veloping a cultur e of peace . and mentions Meera should be able to offer the text bhajan Schools, particularly those in rural areas, are poorly of a composed by her, and also refer to a has been archived, so that bhajan source where that equipped with science labs, or equipment for ma en can listen to M.S bulakshmi singing it. . Sub childr thema tical acti vities . T he a bsence of suc h f acilities drastically narrows subject options for children, denying Integration of knowledge and experience along them equal opportunities for learning and future life these lines would take away the sense of burden and edom tha tant tha ces ar e made . In tion induces y educa esent-da t our pr t resour bor chances . It is hence impor science and mathematics, and in teaching children with available for laboratories with adequate facilities in hools can benef y sc hile elementar . W schools y om a it fr disa bilities , the potential of ET , inc luding IT , is widel science and mathematics corner, secondary and higher appreciated. It is important to realise this potential in bor ell-equipped la e w equir hools r y sc secondar achieving curricular goals, with more age-specific . atories planning on the use of ver nments and other . Go ET 4.6.5 Other Sites and Spaces agencies responsible for financial planning need to take its. s demands and benef ET’ e of ang this fuller r Sites of curriculum that are physically located outside the school premises are just as important as the ones bor atories Tools and La 4.6.4 uments discussed so f e sites lik e local mon ar. These ar and museums, natural physical features such as rivers hool with tools tha t ar e necessar y for Equipping the sc ork is an imper and hills, everyday spaces such as marketplaces and art and cr aft w ative. T hese cur ricular bility to plan the sc hool ving the aim of hie ute to ac areas can contrib making s a her’ he teac . T fices post of the sc w e can eative space hool space a cr schedule in a manner tha t per mits ima , onl gina tive use of y if equir afts r mindfull y plan f e, such resources directly affects the quality of education or r ge cr . The herita ces esour in their weekly or fortnightly cycles of routine, tools that children might receive at a school. Restriction of classroom activities to what is written in the textbook and instruments such as looms, lathes, scissors and embroidery frames, depending on the craft. It is implies a serious impediment to the growth of en’s inter ests and ca impor tant not to let this sector of cur ricular planning pabilities . Quite a f ew suc h childr , or else one of va tion of esult fr impediments r ey its k om the rigid obser ender or caste bias fer fr suf the om g pr omoting y is not . The night sk outine ual r y or ann promises will be lost, s dail school’ namel omise of y, the pr a cultur available for the study of stars simply because the school e of acti ve eng ag ement with one’ terial and s ma does not open its gates or allow access to its roof at human environment, with imagination and cooperation. tching the setting sun or obser The same is true for the arts, which in addition to being rival ving the ar Wa night. of the monsoon in J integrated into other curricular areas would also need une f all outside the sc hool’ s . T he oppor tunity to terials and tools specialised ma timetable. Exchange visits between schools in different handle tools and acquire dexterity in using them, and par ts of the countr y, and e ven the neighbouring SAAR C

113 94 countries, could become important ways of promoting . standing mutual under eg ards as necessar y Any experience that the teacher r s w ould s and educa for the child’ s de velopment is cur ricular , ir respecti ve of ator her Teac tional administr ptualisation econce ganised. This r hereit is or how or w have to join hands to release the system from such eceives it r riculum can be accomplished only if of the cur bus mak sylla dition, . In ad rigidities er s and the writer s of ficial the understanding ptance of t and acce , suppor of textbooks and teachers, handbooks would also authorities. have to get into the details of the planning of learning activities, which would widen the scope of the curriculum. This would require breaking away from the mindset that excursions and activities related to the been of an ad-hoc character and that the curriculum ed a epar arts and crafts are ‘extra-curricular’. te le t the sta is pr y or ml escribed unif vel and pr for all sc hools es under y mine the a ocedur h pr . Suc genc or Plur tive Ma na Alter ality and terials 4.6.6 Need f of teachers and head teachers, and render the spirit of exploration and innovation impossible. The Report The pluralistic and diverse nature of Indian society categorically stated that basic to the success of any definitely makes a strong case for preparing a variety attempt at curriculum improvement is the preparation of not only textbooks but also other materials, so as of suitable textbooks, teachers, guides and other kinds to pr omote c tion and ticipa , par ea tivity en ’s cr hildr . ces ning r of lear esour y enhancing their lear ning inter eb . No one est, ther textbook can cater to the diverse needs of different 4.6.7 Organising and Pooling Resources . Fur , the same content/ students ther gr oups of ferent w ays. Sc hools conce hing aids and other ma terials , as w ell as books , pt can be taught in dif , Teac , help mak e sc hool inter esting f or toys and g government or private, could have the choice of ames fer ent subjects tes of y, good use has childr textbooks to f In some sta ds . Boar the countr or dif w f ollo en. funding assistance through DPEP or textbook bureaus could consider developing more been made of the or acquiring and de veloping than one series of books, or even endorsing books and other pr og r ammes f read published by other publishers, and allowing schools teac hing-lear ning ma terials . A lot of y-made materials do exist, and teachers, cluster and to choose from a range. As far back as 1953, the block - level resource persons need to become better Report of the Secondary Education Commission e of acquainted with the r ble and vaila terials a made a number of recommendations for removing ma ang e also man y ne w kinds the defects in textbooks, wherein it was pointed out wa ys of using them. Ther e ar that: “No single textbook should be prescribed for of printed ma terials f or teac her en being hildr s and c any subject of y NGOs and small entr umber of ble n epreneur produced b easona y, but a r stud s. In addition, there are locally available materials that cost books which satisfy the standards laid down should be recommended, leaving the choice to the school little but which are very useful for keeping in a hool g rads . concerned”. In its section on the Essentials for classr especiall y in the primar y sc oom, e v Curricula Development, the Kothari Commission terials raw ma arious types of Teac xplor s need to e her that can be used to make teaching aids that will last Report emphasised that the curricular revision had

114 95 plan if the materials he/she introduces into the year after year, so that the precious time they invest in making these things is put to good use. Styrofoam and classroom are for the purpose of demonstration. If an activity is being planned, then there must be enough cardboard are neither strong enough nor attractive for this purpose. Other materials such as rexine, rubber sets for everyone in the class to use, individually or in hild is a y one c onl . If roups small g e inter natives. esting alter and c loth ar ble to handle Other kinds of resource materials, such as maps materials while all the others watch, it is a waste of learning time. and picture folders, and specific equipments could be shared among schools if they are placed in the cluster have always been talked about as Laboratories a part of science teaching in middle and high school. ary so ce libr esour centr e, whic h can then ser ve as a r equir e still not a Yet these ar ed. ble on the scale r vaila that for the period of teaching the teacher borrows As a part of the effort to provide all children with the materials from the cluster and thereafter returns them to the cluster to enable some other teachers to borrow necessary hands - on experience of equipment and experiments given in their science curriculum, at least ay, the r esour ces g ather ed b y one teac In this w her them. e ma vel, the r at the c luster le esour ve as a y ser ce centr can also be utilised by others, and it would become luster could plan their cluster lab. Sc hools in the c possible to have multiple sets necessary for the whole timeta eek, y, once a w a da or half t f ble so tha their class to use. vel la lass is held a b c science la b. Cr luster - le t the c aft The availability of such resources depends on labs too could be developed at least at the cluster or the funds available and the member of schools that block levels in order to facilitate access to better need assistance. How can the school build such equipment. resources? Some government programmes, for In engendering a culture of learning, not only the instance, Operation Blackboard, have laid down classroom but also in the space of the school itself and nor ms f terials tha t should be um ma or the minim the world outside, the school could become the landscape available in each Primary and Upper Primary school. her s can in w hic h a r ang e of acti vities ar e or ganised. Teac yc les or c ly, ther Similar e ne w sc hemes tha t allo w f e ar devise activities, projects and studies, both drawing from and to hools . chased f luster of sc ys to be pur or a c textbooks and going beyond them, to encourage children Schools could benefit from these opportunities, and to explore, investigate and construct knowledge. also explore the possibilities that are available at the local level for augmenting their teaching-learning and IME 4.7 T play material. There is a growing emphasis on tional Educa Tec hnolo gy for ‘effecti ve’ lear ning . Some ments have all included a section on Earlier docu tant . Impor uctional time tions on instr recommenda schools are now being equipped with computers, and in some ar eas r uction is being -based instr TV adio and concerns that we endorse from earlier documents include the need for the system to ensure that the total introduced. tely, the use of suc h ma terials r equir es Ultima number of instructional days are not compromised, the total number of days for the curriculum and that planning if it is to be effective and become a part of the overall plan to enhance participation and should be 200 days as recommended in NCF-1988. ays in w gest w , we sug ork Within this e can w h w hic e and ould need to pr s w her . Teac standing under epar

115 96 enrich ing the total out possibilities and methods for time spent by each child in school from the point of is an essential The concept of time on task . ning vie w of reckoner for taking stock of the total time that lear vely on lear childr ning . This w ould include The school annual calendar is currently decided at en spend acti time spent on listening , doing , writing , reading the sta gestions ha veral sug vel. Se te le ve been made in vities aiting ould not include w , etc. It w , discussing acti the past that the annual calendar could be planned at a for one’ s tur n, copying fr om the board or r evising . more decentralised level, so that it is closer to the calendar , planning and Particularly in multigrade classes vities and c he plan f . T eather or of local acti lima te/w en need to vities for childr ning acti designing of lear such calendars could be decentralised to the district level, e that childr en’s time on task is maximised. ensur zilla panchay . and decided in consulta ats tion with the Considerations for making any required Total stud y time that is expected fr om students . ea ther conditions es could be based on local w chang in both face-to-face and self - study or homework her xample , w vy and For e e monsoons ar e v ery hea needs to be accounted for while planning the syllabus areas are prone to flooding, it is better for schools or course of study for students, especially as they go to remain closed and have a vacation period at that into higher grades. time. Parents in some areas ask schools to function Total home work time during summer months as it is too hot to go out y. T ev en to pla e par her eas w e ar e also ar her ents ork up to Class II and tw o Primar y: No homew would prefer that the vacation coincides with at the hours a week from Class III. t c hildr har time of en can par ticipa vest so tha te in Middle school: One hour a day (about five to six the family occupation. Such adjustments would hours a week). orld in w per h mit c hildr en to lear n fr om the w hic Secondar y: T wo hours a day y and Higher Secondar they live which by acquiring important lifeskills and eek). T (about 10 to 12 hours a w eachers need to attitudes, instead of forgoing their lives in the local work together to plan and rationalise the amount of community and becoming alienated from it for the homework that they give children. sake of attending school. Local holidays could be decided at the block level. The scheduling of various school events would need to be planned by all school faculty together, along with inputs from the village/ cultural practices that are discriminatory or stereotype school education committee. Thematic learning children along the lines of gender, religion or caste. across the school grades and excursions would also It also could lend itself to children getting drawn need to be planned in advance. e ve a right to leisur into c bour . Childr en ha hild la gainst es. Some or themselv ve time f y, and ha d a eguar e need to saf y, w Needless to sa and to pla h f the misuse of le xibility . Not all comm unities suc local traditions and cultures are supportive of such a c hildhood, other s less so . Often gir are benign spaces for children. It would go against ls ar e b urdened the educational aims of the school if the community ly from an ear ly a ge with domestic c hor es. Incr easing takes advantage of such flexibility to perpetuate y, and ar childr en ar e under g reat pr essur e to stud e

116 97 three hours for the ECCE period). Where teachers placed in tuition classes before and after school, and et little time to pla y. Sc hools m ust and children travel to school from a far - off place, it hence the y g unities would befit the overall societal concern for children if eng ag e with c hildr en’s families and their comm in a continuous dialogue to argue for and protect bus timings are changed to enable teachers and students these rights of children. to reach the school and leave at a convenient time, instead of compelling them to routinely come late and could be decided The timings of the school day gram leave ear ly. at each school level, in consultation with the panchayat , keeping in mind issues such as how far The sc ear need m and y ter month, y, w eek, hool da children need to travel to get to school. This flexibility to be planned for as a mixture of routine and en’s hildr te c acilita der to f y in or gested onl is sug as children need a little of both, and the variation, participation in school. While saying this, we strongly kinds of learning we would like them to experience . We shar have dif ferent r equir ements maintain that the time spent in school itself, and on e some learning in the school, cannot be in any way tional ideas tha t could f or m the basis f or or ganisa planning and enric hing c hildr en’s time spent in sc hool, compromised or reduced below six hours a day (and and also some aspects that relate to institutional arrangements for the same. ning Assemb ly Mor In most sc ning gins with a y be , the da hools mor hool g ather s to do things assemb ly, w hen the entir e sc The day begins with teachers and children getting the together . This time can be used f or r eading the school and class rooms ready for the day ahead. headlines of per , perf orming ning ne the mor wspa Cleaning the rooms, including the toilets, putting up some physical exercises and singing the national ooms display boards in the classr ganising materials , or anthem. Other activities could also be added, for and getting equipment, all these activities conveys a gether , or listening to a stor y, or , singing to example sense of ownership among students and teachers and inviting a person from the local community or an foster a sense of responsibility towards the material outside guest to speak to the children, or hold small and space they use. This also gives them time to talk events to mark some significant local or national to each other and catch up on the events of the previous t ha happening ve under en some . Classes tha tak day. This reduces the need for such talk during class interesting projects could also use this time to share time. not e their w ork with the w hole sc hool. If ver yday, During the general assemb , gether ybody sits to ly, ever such longer morning assemblies could be planned not according to their classes or in lines, but younger once or twice a week. In composite schools, ones in front and older ones behind. One day a week depending on the theme, a junior school assembly y. On another day they listen to an inspiring stor and a senior sc hool assemb par ly could be held se atel y. they listen to music, a guest talk, or share a moving News headlines that are significant, for example, the experience, read out and discuss an interesting report bus journey to Muzaffarabad, could provide a theme from the newspaper . Then e ver yone goes to class . ov en into y, and be w t da for a special session on tha the curriculum.

117 98 en w headmaster and teac ricular e is cur hen ther her . Ev In most documents, a period has been presented freedom, teachers do not feel confident that they can as a basic unit of 45 minutes of teaching-learning in exercise it without being taken to task by the y, ho the timeta er, this is compr omised ble. Frequentl wev administr ferentl or doing things dif ation f y. It is ther efore into 30 to 35 minutes, which cannot constitute a essential to enable and support them in exercising choice. meaningful length to eng ag e with lear ning . A period As much as the classroom needs to nurture a tional unit f or man y can, ener in g al, ser ve as an or ganisa democratic, flexible and accepting culture, so also the . text-based lessons school institution and the bureaucratic structure need But there is also a need for the school timetable to do the same. Not only should the teacher receive to allow for other kinds of longer periods lasting an hour, or one and a half hours (a double period), for s and inf oice of the or ma order tion, but equall y the v other kinds of activities such as craft or art work, , who often teac her should be hear d b y those higher up projects, and lab work. Such lengths of time are also take decisions that affect the immediate classroom life essential for undertaking cross-subject integrated and culture in the school. Relationships between teachers learning, and for effective group work. Needless to and their heads and principals m ust be inf ormed b y say, in a m rade c the teac ultig her needs a tion, lass situa equality and mutual respect, and decision making must hildr ay of le w or c e flexib mor en’s lear ning planning f be on the basis of dialogue and discussion. The annual, time in sessions that are teacher led, those that are monthly and weekly calendars of activities need to self-directed, those in which two or more grades could provide time for such staff interactions for reviewing be combined, etc. While certain subject areas such as e is a need to encour e an . Ther and planing ag tics need lear thema ge and ma langua ver yday, ning time e atmosphere that facilitates collaborative efforts among others do not. The weekly time table could allow for ust also be mec e m her s. T her teac lict or conf hanisms f variation from the regular routine but should be resolution. balanced over the week. It is essential to take stock of Often technologies such as radio and TV are the time spent in learning different subject areas and to introduced into their classrooms without consulting introduce corrections if the teacher finds that more or teachers on whether they would like to have these and less time is being spent or is needed, than originally what they would like these to do for them. Once foreseen/planned. these there in the classroom, teachers are expected to use them, when they have no control over what will be P AND 4.8 T EACHER ROFESSIONAL S A UTONOMY ’ I NDEPENDENCE delivered, or how it will integrate with their own teac . hing plans Teac y is essential f or ensuring a lear ning her autonom hildr t ad environment tha . verse needs en’s di dresses c 4.8.1 ef lection and Planning or R Time f , fr eedom, uc h as the lear As m ner r equir es space • On a daily basis (at least 45 minutes) to review equir es the flexibility , and r espect, the teac her also r w up ollo en to f hildr e notes on c y, mak the da archies ative hier administr same rentl . Cur y, the system of the ne or the xt da y, and or ganise ma terials f and control, examinations, and centralised planning for next day's lessons (this is in addition to the y of cur riculum r efor m, all constr ain the autonom the

118 99 time that they may need to correct homework). Topic plan f or the w eek: Mac hines (middle school, inclusive Classes V-VI) On a weekly basis (at least two/three hours) • hen I say the w ord, write down all Class I: to take stock of learning, to work out details Game. W the things that come to your mind. Then (pairs or of activities and projects proposed, and to groups) discuss the list. Categorise these machines based plan a group of lessons (unit) for the coming upon some similarities. week. Think of some other way of categorising these and um of reclassifying them. Children to volunteer to make charts one • On a monthl y/ter m basis (minim of machines of different types, to collect pictures and/ wn w day) to r w their o evie ork, childr en’s or make drawings and paste them. learning, and map the contours of the learning Class II: Write down as many questions about activities planned for the groups they teach. ould lik machines as y ou w k . Chec ers to e to find answ At the beginning and the end of the year, • those to which you already know the answers as well as those that y t. ou don’ h need to be alloca two or thr ee da ys eac ted gests to him/her how Teacher visits each child, and sug hool, to e volv e an ann in ual plan f or the sc ef erring to par ers by r ticular books he/she can find answ vities suc te acti y loca h the whic h as local or other sources, including talking to people. , ys, ann ual e vents (na tional e holida vents ork: “W en think about questions for homew hich Childr spor vents) and da ys f or al e ys, cultur ts da is the ‘best’ machine you know? Give reasons why you volv ould in par e ent-teac her meetings tha t w think it is so good.” This question is to be discussed at home with parents, siblings and friends. hey w ould also plan T hool. the w hole sc or their c lass ex cur sions and f ield trips f Class III: Children discuss their homework question. ojects tha e t tw o or mor gr oups , and f or an y pr They continue to seek answers to the questions from students in Class III, and show their work to the classes w ould do to gether . They w ould also any eacher also asks if . T teacher one knows a poem eparing the ed in acti volv be in pr vities of about a machine, and if not, he/she teaches them vironment, putting up and lass en school and c ( she must come prepared). ys, or g anising s and displa changing poster Now r ead the chapter on machines in the Class IV : . Suc childr en’s w h planning time is or k, etc textbook. See w e w e can lear hat mor n about machines also essential f evie w its or the sc hool to r . er the questions that follow from it. Answ unity , and identify relationship with the comm V: uck’ toy, following e a ‘tipper tr en mak Childr Class ear suc h as points of focused action in the y the instructions in a reference book. Materials have retention, olment, enr school a ttendance and already been collected and are available in the classroom. Or the teacher can provide a list at the end of Class hie school ac vement. IV and ask the children to come prepared. Cur rent in-ser aining-r ela ted time • vice tr Class VI: Time to catch up and complete the work. ys per y ear) alloca tion (compulsor y 20 da Topic ends with the teacher asking childr en to put down could be partly diverted towards making any additional questions that they want to explore for time available for such reviewing, reflecting themselves after the class. and planning .

119 100 • Monthly meetings organised for teachers at Extending this topic for children in the cluster level could be based on groups inclusive Classes VII – VIII of teachers teaching similar subjects and Science: Can anyone explain what a machine is? grade levels, so that they can share ideas and Do not gi , but an explanation. Let’ s now ve examples plan teaching for the forthcoming month y, and write the meaning on the ref er to a dictionar together . k a science textbook or s chec blackboard. Next let’ e science dictionar o meanings e the tw y. Compar . Is ther ference? W a dif hich definition is easier to understand, or which do you think is more precise? Can we now also differentiate between a tool, an instrument and a machine? e to find out w Social Studies: ould lik hen Who w , , automobile , bulb phone ess, tele the first printing pr radio/television, wheel- chair, hearing aid, cooking gas and stove, sewing machine, refrigerator, and computer y s tr y. Let’ hom, and in w , by w wer e made hich countr to imagine, and later find out, how people lived before the invention of a particular machine or tool or ould it mean not to ha ve that instr ument. W hat w machine in e veryday lif e? W hat could be used instead? Are there mere machines invented Discussion topic: for work used by (i) the privileged sections or the privile omen, or (iii) men. Explain w hy. under ged, (ii) w Who uses machines mor omen? e—men or w Essay topics: A machine that changed my English: life (hearing aid, wheel - chair or any other). Or the machine I would like to buy and why. Projects: Machines that changed our lives—positive, e ha ve, and how t ha negati ve. Machines that w ve/don’ they affect our lives in terms of time, ease/convenience, cost? OR Can you visualise how a machine (pick ou can draw or e? Y oved in the futur any) might be impr describe, or design a machine for the future. , hat considerations go into designing a car OR W motorcycle, bullock cart, or wheelchair? How can its efficiency and aesthetic appeal be enhanced?

120 101 The dimensions of the national framework for school curriculum that have been outlined in the preceding chapters are derived from related aims of education with a social conscience, focusing on learners who are actively engaged with constructing rather than only receiving wledg e thr ough their indi vidual and collecti ve endea vour s. Suc kno h a curricular vision needs to be supported and sustained with systemic reforms of str uctur es and institutions tha t nurture pr actices suppor tive of childr en's inc lusion in sc hool and their lear ning . Impor tant among these are the system for preparing teachers and supporting their professional practices through monitoring and academic leadership; the system for producing textbooks and learning materials; Panchayati Raj Institutions; work-centred decentralisation and educa tion and Voca tional Educa tion and Tr aining (VET) and the most important structural feature — the examination system. The curriculum is realised in the activities planned for by the teachers and experienced by the children. The school ethos and practices of teachers depend critically on the architecture of the system. The critical areas tha . e attention ar e identif ied and discussed her eafter t requir

121 102 FOR ONCERN Q 5.1 C UALITY pacity to r bility f or enhancing its a eform itself system's ca to remedy its own weaknesses and to develop new t of t the hear y wide- an e a Cur riculum r efor ms ar capabilities . T he k ey r efor ms r equir ed in our system ranging initiative that may be taken to improve the today are those that will enable it to overcome its fer ent sta quality of educa tional pr ovision a t dif ges. T he internal rigidity and its indifference to changing prevailing curricular reality needs to be addressed in his c . T circumstances ha t e is identical to w halleng the f ms: wing ter ollo PO essed in the need to moder nise f or A-l992 had str The tendency to confuse knowledge with • aining pr ricular and tr . For cur lexibility gr eater f actices tion m T his tendenc ust be curbed. y orma inf to remain relevant in a decentralised system, it is encourages the transfer of topics from higher necessary to articulate the objectives and methods of to lo wer le vels. larity and pr ve refor m with c ecision. ollo wing deser T he f ted ning as an isola en's lear childr Tr eatment of • priority: outcome should be replaced by the application • Equipping the school for taking decisions at of de t assume a holistic ms tha velopmental nor its own level in areas such as purchase of . pacity va tion and ca gro wth in moti n of patter material, collaboration with local institutions, Productive work needs to be viewed as a • and involvement with other schools in the area, pedagogic medium for knowledge acquisition, luding pri inc va te sc hools . developing v alues and m orma tion ultiple-skill f y, upper primar • een primar ges betw Linka y and from the pre-school to the senior secondary secondary levels in the processes of syllabus stages. designing and textbook preparation. Curricular choices have to be made with due • Setting up of structures that enable school • regard to the child's context, ensuring the teachers and subject experts drawn from flexibility and diversity of the approaches institutions of higher learning to work together A-l992. emphasised in NPE-l986 and PO for syllabus and textbook revision. Professionalisation of teaching along the lines • Creation of spaces where local-level • recommended by the Chattopadhyaya representative institutions can work closely with Commission-l984 should be reflected in ficienc teac s to enhance ef her y. policies g ov erning r , and vice pre-ser uitment, ecr • Cooperation between decision-making bodies . orking conditions , and w aining vice tr in-ser . and NGOs • Educa tional tec hnolo g y should be vie wed as • Encouraging greater communication and a supplement rather than as a substitute for transparency between different structures and hands-on experience, both for classroom levels of decision making . . teac hing and f or teac her training Quality is not merely a measure of efficiency; it also has a value dimension. The attempt to improve These recommendations should suffice to indicate our primary concern, that quality is a systemic attribute the quality of education will succeed only if it goes hand in hand with steps to promote equality and social rather than only a feature of instruction or attainment. As an overarching characteristic, quality expresses the justice. Multiplicity of subsystems and types of schools

122 103 teacher education, curriculum, and in the procedures tend to have a detrimental effect on the overall quality used for syllabus and textbook preparation. of the education system because the attention of the ogr Teac her -educa tion pr more articulate sections of society gets passed on a .Ed. ammes , lik e B and small fraction of the student population. It is desirable y, pa y inadequa ttention to the in place toda M.Ed. te a to evolve a common school system to ensure responsibility that a teacher has in constructing a ab le quality in dif ferent r egions of the countr compar y, classroom culture that might provide an inclusive which is the goal of this National Curriculum environment for children, especially girls from Framework, and also ensure that when children of ginalised social bac essed or mar oppr . In kg rounds different backgrounds study together, it improves the syllabus designing and textbook writing, the items hes the sc ov erall quality of . hool ethos lear ning and enric showing sensitivity to cultural differences often come ricular vision (f xtuality and , conte lexibility If the cur in as afterthoughts rather than as in-built features of plur or ms the basis ted in this document f ticula ality) ar the pr . T ocess gender and special needs is he case of for developing a common school system, then a ved b similar . One of y NCER T y messa ges r ecei the man national system of education where no two schools in the course of deliberations over the National ve of . As an objecti eality will be identical becomes a r Curriculum Framework review came from a teenage curriculum planning, social justice has many obvious girl, who sug gested tha t specif ic measur es ar e needed implications, but there are some subtle implications as to inculcate greater self-awareness among boys well. One obvious implication is that special efforts ar ding their beha reg viour to wards gir ls. Suc h an idea will be required to ensure that education promotes an could be extended to cover all aspects of a culturally . Childr lusi en belonging to r eligious and inc ve identity oom and sc inc lusi ve c lassr hool polic y. linguistic minorities need special provision and care in accordance with the perspective reflected in the Academic Planning and Monitoring 5.1.1 Constitution . In the case of tribal languages, certain for Quality states have taken significant measures to facilitate early The current practice of academic planning for school schooling in the child's home language. A more adequate set of measures providing for multilingual . Its educa tion is lar gely a 'top do wn' ann ual e xercise w teac or ted f hing time should be alloca focus is on ho t of facility on the par her is needed. Similar ly, the teac policy measures taken to widen the curricular scope , and ear ver the y subject content o hing of teac ting other acti stipula t will be conducted in vities tha of madrasa education need to be strengthened. The subtler implications of social justice as an Ts or the . T schools ypicall y, this is done b y SCER and Dir ates/De par tments of Educa tion, ector y ar riculum polic cur ve of objecti . hallenging e c e mor These relate to awareness and capacities, flexibility and te. T he hools in the sta or all sc ormly f presecribed unif hool-le as emphasised vel planning w sc impor tance of imaginative coordination, among syllabus designers, s. textbook writer her s and teac by the K othari Commission w hen it under scor ed the need f or eac hool to pr h sc e an 'institutional plan' epar emain a n xperience For educa tion to r urturing e for all children, irrespective of their socio-economic ead o and e volv e a 'de velopment pr og r amme spr ver a period of time'. and cultural background s, concrete steps are needed in

123 104 academic planning has to be To be meaningful, responsible for them would then become feasible at s. ticipa done in a par tive manne y heads and teac her r b vels . all these le One component of planning will include augmentation 5.1.2 Academic Leadership in Schools and for and improvement of the physical resources of the School Monitoring school. The second is to address the diverse needs of The potential role of headmasters in providing academic students and to identify the inputs and academic support leadership to their schools has yet to be adequately tha hool needs in or der to r espond to these needs t the sc . realised. At present, they are seen largely as the The planning exercise is an important process through administrative authority within the school, though they which schools can enlist the involvement and support lack the necessar , or xercise this authority ol to e y contr of the larger community in the education of children. hool functioning . Often the y ev en to ensur e regular sc This includes village education committees and other are equipped with neither the capacity nor the the . Micr y bodies ludes , w o planning tutor hic sta h inc authority to exercise choice and judgement relating to village-level mapping of school participation the school curriculum. Headmasters (and teachers) need (non-enrolled children, attendance patterns, children with to be able to identify the specific supports that they special needs, etc.), as well as identification of human require for their schools, articulate their expectations resources, allows the school to plan on a more realistic regarding the content of training and school visits from basis for every child. In order to have more the cluster and block personnel, and participate in the independence at the school level, both at the stage of rentl y, the process of monitoring and super vision. y Cur planning and at the stage of implementation, it is are not differentiated enough from teachers with regard t the headmaster ole tha to their academic r . The r oles s, reater mit g necessar y tha t financial alloca tions per and indeed the community of headmasters, can play flexibility r eg ar ding sc hemes and nor ms , and also within a cluster of schools must be highlighted. greater transparency and accountability of budget Capacity building for this must receive attention. allocations and expenditure. Schools are now the focus of an increasing number There is a need to prepare the system to engage of programmes aimed at enhancing quality and w, xtensi ve and g om belo e e in mor enuine planning fr spreading awareness about societal concerns relating to rather than only applying the arithmetic of unit costs the environment, health and so on. Headmasters are often ogr ammes deter mined a t the sta te or na tional for pr besieged by the numerous programmes they are called y' and 'c hoice' of y then can 'autonom es. Onl centr upon to conduct and participate in. Programmes often schools and teachers, as well as the responsibility of larity r ves and methodolo eg arding their objecti gy, lack c the school towards the needs of children, become verlap. It is impor and their acti vities tend to o t as tant tha substantive. A broad framework for planning part of the process of school-level planning, they should upwards, beginning with schools identifying focus areas, be able to participate in decisions about the programmes with subsequent consolidation at the cluster and block they need and how they should be integrated into regular ammes could then be school acti vities . T hese pr ogr levels, could create a genuinely decentralised district- k le loc luster and b vels. coor dina ted a t the c or and being gets, planning f . Setting tar level planning

124 105 schools has been constitutional mandate of decentralised democracy Con ventionall y, monitoring of thr ough the inspector ate system. This system has ser ved and development. largely to exercise authority and control rather than Overlaps and Ambiguities in Functions s. T he sc hool her t to teac pr ovide academic suppor or m a n umber of , one of s perf functions inspector Several states in the country have identified functions h one is to visit sc whic hools under their pur vie w. T heir and activities for implementation at different tiers of visits are usually few and far between, during which at raj . In se veral sta tes, a v ray panchay functioning ast ar the students and teachers tend to present a positive of functions is assigned to PRIs at every level. In picture of the school regardless of ground realities the practice, however, PRIs, especially taluk and gram due to fear of punishment. This reduces monitoring . Bar ew tasks ge f har haya ts, disc panc ur sement ring disb to a 'policing' function. Monitoring for quality must be of salaries in some states, taluk and gram panchayats seen as a process that enables and provides constructive discharge practically no functions of any significance feedback in relation to the teaching and learning in the sectors of education, health, women and child lassr oom conte xts . T he pr ocesses within specif ic c development, and social welfare. Moreover, there are monitoring system put in place must be carefully huge ambiguities and overlaps in the functions and tasks ms tion to its objecti ela ysed in r anal ves, and the nor ged a har to be disc hese ambiguities vels. T ferent le t dif and practices that are to be institutionali sed to achieve often result in conflicts between the three-tiers, especially the objecti ves. It m ust pr ovide f or sustained inter action with respect to: Who plans? Who decides? Who selects? with indi hools in ter ms of teac hing-lear ning vidual sc Who accords approval? Who implements? Who processes within the classroom context. releases funds? Who monitors? Indeed, there is no role vels. clarity betw een the functions a t the dif fer ent le 5.1.3 The Panchayats and Education Principle of Subsidiarity The principle of subsidiarity is the bedrock of panchayat The 73rd Constitutional Amendment established the ee-tier panchay ati raj system in the countr y, with . The principle of subsidiarity stipulates: 'What can raj thr levels to be done best at a particular level should be done at elected bodies at the gram, taluk zilla and vel and not a t le enable people to think, decide and act for their t can be done tha vels. All tha t higher le collective interest, to provide for greater participation optimally at the lowest level should be done at that of the people in development, to ensure more level.' This necessitates a rational and realistic analysis effective implementation of rural development of the functions that are required to be discharged at programmes in the state, and to plan and implement different levels of PRIs, devolution of those functions programmes for economic development and social to those levels of panchayati raj , simultaneously ensuring that required funds are devolved to that level for justice. The 73rd Constitutional Amendment identified 29 subjects for transfer to the t function and tr panchayats disc har ging tha , ansacting the acti vity . including primary and secondary education, adult and Str engthening P anchay ati R aj : The pr actice of setting orm of allel bodies in the f up par non-f or mal educa tion, libr aries , tec hnical tr aining and autonomous vocational education. All state governments enacted registered bodies, for example, Zilla Saksharta Samitis , Acts in order to realise the Panchayati Raj their state DPEP Societies, SSA Societies at the state level, and

125 106 similar bodies at the taluk and village level, has severely been set up at the district level. Lack of role clarity and . T hese par allel bodies under mined the po PRIs wers of overlap of activities afflict the functioning of these s acr oss dif ferent sector s. ge n ged in lar have emer umber tions organisa ce centr esour es sonnel in r per . Quite often, Each village has them; there are village education are mostly reduced to administrative and data-collection committees, watershed committees, Rytu Mitra ve of decentr alised . Gi functionaries ven the per specti committees, forest committees, water users associations, school-level academic planning, and the active and . T none of w hic h ar e ans werab le to hese panchay ats creative involvement of teachers in defining the nature committees receive large funds from external donor of curriculum transaction for addressing the needs of agencies, and are dominated largely by the village elite. children, it is urgent that BRCs and CRCs are energised In short, the major problems in Panchayat Raj so that they can play a facilitating role. It would be functioning are that there is: necessary to define the roles of resource persons in these • No one-to-one correlation between the functions assigned to the different tiers of centres, to build their capacities by deepening their subject Panchayat Raj and the funds developed. knowledge and training competence, and to provide allel committees a t • The tendenc y to f or m par them space to function with some autonom y. R ather the village level marginalise democratically than routinely conducting workshops designed elsewhere, mine hese committees under . T elected bodies these centres could focus on conducting workshops along the stature of democratically elected bodies with follow-up activities based on the needs they identify and make a mockery of peoples' participation y. Nor locall or systema , guidelines f hools visits or sc tic ms f . in local planning monitoring, feedback and academic support will also Over the recent past, there has been a growing have to be evolved. There is also a need for institutional emphasis on maintaining a large database at the block/ district level on indicators such as rates of enrolment, mechanisms that coordinate and build upon the work drop-out, achievement, etc. These are also used as done by resource centres at different levels in order that yardsticks for monitoring schools and for larger school synergies can emerge. management. While official insistence on the regular In order to strengthen school-based academic maintaining of detailed records in relation to these support for teachers, it is necessary to identify and create indicators has burdened schools, it has also led to an a pool of resource persons at the level of the village, unnecessary emphasis on quantitative indices of school cluster and block, and similarly in urban areas, that can perf ta of ble questiona ormance (often leading to da contribute to the regular inputs that teachers require, quality) at various levels without adequate steps to link provide support to new ideas and practices, and help academic planning and the process of curriculum work them through. It should be possible to transaction. institutionalise such support at the level of the cluster/ Block Resource Centres (BRCs) and Cluster block, which can then be integrated into a regular Resource Centres (CRCs) are now present in almost all teacher-support programme; funds should be made districts for monitoring schools and teachers through ilable for it. ava s ha follo w-up . In or der to pr ovide tr aining , DIET ve

126 107 EACHER DUCATION FOR C E T 5.2 URRICULUM education programmes neither accommodate the ENEWAL R emer y nor ad dr ess g og xt and peda ging ideas in conte hool and society g es betw the issue of linka een sc . Though the professional preparation of teachers has There is little space for engagement with innovative been recognised as crucially important since the 1960s, . educa tional e xperiments the ground reality remains a matter of great concern. Experiences in the practice of teacher education The Kothari Commission (1964–66) emphasised the indicate that knowledge is treated as 'given', embedded need for teacher education to be brought into in the curriculum and accepted without question. mainstream academic life, but teacher education Curriculum, syllabi and textbooks are never critically ganisa ue to e tions institutes contin . xist as insular or egular teac . her or the r y the student-teac examined b her The Chattopadhyaya Committee (1983–85) Language proficiency of the teacher needs to be recommended that the length of training for a enhanced, and the existing teacher education secondary teacher should be five years following programmes do not recognise the centrality of ges gested tha t colle Class 12; it also sug completion of language in the curriculum. It is assumed that links of science and arts introduce an Education between instructional models and teaching of specific Department to allow students to opt for teacher ticall y f ormed during the e automa subjects ar T educa t (1993), epor Yashpal Committee R he tion. programme. Most teacher education programmes , noted: "The emphasis in Learning Without Burden provide little scope for student-teachers to reflect on these programmes should be on enabling trainees to their experiences and thus fail to empower teachers as acquire the ability for self-learning and independent agents of change ." thinking Vision f or Teac her Educa 5.2.2 tion 5.2.1 Pr tion her Educa ns in esent Concer Teac ust become mor tion m her educa Teac ve to the e sensiti y tr s her Teac her educa tion pr og r ammes toda ain teac emer hool system. For this it om the sc ging demands fr to adjust to a system in which education is seen as must prepare the teacher for the roles of being an: inf the tr ansmission of Attempts a orma tion. t • encouraging, supportive and humane facilitator efor ricular r cur tel y m ha ve not been adequa in teaching-learning situations to enable learners supported by the teacher education. Large-scale (students) to discover their talents, realise their recruitment para-teachers has diluted the identity of physical and intellectual potentialities to the the teacher as a professional. Major initiatives during fullest, and to develop character and desirable the mid 1990s w ere f ocused on in-ser vice tr aining social and human values to function as ted the di vide betw een of teac her s. T his has accentua responsible citizens; and her educa in-ser pre-ser vice and vice teac tion. active member of a group of persons who • her y and secondar Pre-primar y teac y, primar s makes a conscious effort for curricular renewal continue to be isolated from centres of higher so that it is relevant to changing societal needs learning, and their needs for professional s. and the per sonal needs of lear ner development remain unaddressed. Existing teacher

127 108 ealise this vision, teac her educa tion To be a ble to r must comprise the following features to enable s need to be pr epar ed to Teac her student-teachers to : care for children, and should love to be with them. √ understand the way learning occurs and to create • understand children within social, cultural and √ le situa . tions conduci ning plausib ve to lear political contexts. • view knowledge as personal experiences . ning eceptive and be constantly lear be r √ constructed in the shared context of teaching- learning, rather than embedded in the external ning as a sear ch for meaning out of view lear √ personal experience, and knowledge generation as textbooks reality of . a continuously e volving pr . ning ve lear r eflecti ocess of be sensitive to the social, professional and • nal r view knowledge not as an exter √ eality embedded administrative contexts in which they need to in textbooks, but as constructed in the shared operate. teaching-lear context of ning and personal experience. • develop appropriate competencies to be able ork to , and w ards society esponsibility tow own r √ to not only seek the above-mentioned build a better world. understanding in actual situations, but also be appreciate the potential of productive work and √ able to create them. hands-on experience as a pedagogic medium both attain a sound knowledge base and proficiency • inside and outside the classroom. in language. ricular framew ork, polic y √ analyse the cur • identify their own personal expectations, implications and texts. tions per ceptions of self , ca pacities and inc lina . ttempt to f y a • consciousl wn te one's o ormula professional orientation as a teacher in 'helper' of children needing specific kinds of . ic conte tion-specif situa xts help in finding solutions for day-to-day view appraisal as a continuous educative • probelmes related to educational, personal and process . . tions social situa • develop an artistic and aesthetic sense in • learn how to make productive work a children through art education. pedagogic medium for acquiring knowledgein address the learning needs of all children, • various subjects, developing values and learning including those who are marginalised and . multiple skills disabled. tion her Educa 5.2.3 Major Shifts in Teac • In the context of change perspective, it is Programme imperative to pursue an integrated model of teacher education for strengthening the Understanding that the learner needs to be • her teac professionalisa tion of s. ner is seen as an acti he lear . T given priority ve • develop the needed counselling skills and participant rather than a passive recipient in competencies to be a 'facilitator' for and the process of leaning, and his/her capabilities

128 109 and potential are seen not as fixed but dynamic being a source of knowledge to being a and capable of development through direct facilita tor , of transf or ming inf orma tion into self-experience. The curriculum will be knowledge/ wisdom, as a supporter in designed so as to provide opportunities to enhancing learning through multiple exposures, ve lear ner s a dir ork; t pla ectl y obser y and w encouraging the learner to continuously achieve assignments to help teachers understand tional g his/her educa . oals bout va tions a s' questions and obser ner lear • Another signif icant shift is in the conce pt of natural and social phenomena; insights into wher ge, wlde kno en e is to be tak wledg ein kno and childr en's thinking and lear ning; ener uum, as a contin as g om e ated fr xperiences hildr en with tunities to listen to c oppor va tion, in the actual f ield thr ough obser thy. attention, humour and empa T and so on. wledg ica verif tion, he kno e • Learning should be appreciated as a participatory ved tion is deri her educa component in teac process that takes place in the shared social from broader areas of the discipline of context of the learner's immediate peers as well tion, educa epresented as and it needs to be r wider social community or the nation as the t conscious ef suc h. It means tha e forts ar as a whole. Ideas expressed by educational needed to r om the epresent an e xplana tion fr ore, Sri ers suc think Aurobindo , h as Gandhi, Tag ely per specti ve of educa tion r ather than mer Gijubhai, s we y and other urty, De J. Krishnam specifying theoretical ideas from related are often studied in a piecemeal manner, without disciplines with "implications for education". the necessary context and without concern about • tion is wledg her educa e in teac Kno where these ideas emanated from. No wonder tur y in na xt multidisciplinar e within the conte they are studied and memorised, but seldom ptual ords, conce In other w of educa tion. applied, by the very same teacher educators who inputs in teac tion need to be her educa s. T her ainee teac present these ideas to the tr he articulated in such a manner that they describe participatory process is a self-experience-based and explain educational phenomena—actions, process in which the learner constructs his/her , ef pts and e , conce ocesses for ts, pr vents tasks . knowledge in his/her own ways through Such a teacher education programme would • ption, obser absor va tion and action, inter wing a or vie te scope f provide adequa reflection. theoretical understanding and its practical teacher's role where the The major shift is in • aspects in a mor gra ather than ted manner r e inte he/she assumes a position centr ge as a e sta the bles . It ena ate components par o se as tw e, as custodian and wledg kno ce of sour lass student-teac her and the teac her in the c manager of all teaching learning processes, and room to develop a critical sensitivity to field executor of educational and administrative appr oac hes . T hus , once tried out b y self and ricula or cir cular manda tes gi s. ven thr ough cur others, it will lead to evolving one's own vision Now his/her role needs to be shifted from of an ideal setting f or lear ning . Suc h teac her s

129 110 would be better equipped for creating a Different contexts lead to differences in • learning environment, would try to improve hool is inf lear luenced and ning . Lear ning in sc existing conditions rather than merely adjusting y the wider social conte xt outside enhanced b to them with the necessary technical know- the sc hool. how and confidence. • Teac her educa ammes need to tion pr ogr Another major shift is in understanding the or eng ag ement with issues provide the space f the social conte xt in educa tive pr ocesses . impact of , ary Indian society contempor ns of and concer y the social luenced b ning is g Lear • rea tly inf its plur alistic na tur e, and issues of identity , om w hic s and ner environment/conte xt fr h lear ver ty. T , livelihood and po gender , equity his can he social c lima her s emer teac g e. T the te of tion and xtualising educa s in conte her help teac oom e lassr school and the c p xert a dee the per under ev olving a dee standing of inf luence on the pr ocess of lear ning and pur tionship with ela tion and its r educa pose of , ther tion as a w educa hole . Gi ven this e is a society . wa tak need to under y fr om an e a major shift a ppr The shift in perf aisal in the ormance a • cholo ov erw gical helming emphasis on the psy om an ann tion pr amme fr ogr ual teac her educa vidual lear ner to his/ char acterisics of the indi affair to a contin uous f eatur e needs to be her social, cultural, economic and political recognised. The teacher-educator evaluates context. the student-teacher's ability to cooperate and MAJOR SHIFTS To From Teac her centric , sta ble designs • Lear ner centric • le pr ocess , fle xib • Teac her dir ection and decisions • Lear ner autonom y • Teac her guidance and monitoring • Facilita tes , suppor ts and encour ag es lear ning Passi ning ption in lear ning • Acti ve par ticipa tion in lear • ve rece Lear ning within the f our w alls of • Lear ning in the wider social conte xt • the class room • Kno wledg e as "gi ven" and f ixed • Kno wledg e as it e volv es and is cr eated • y focus • Multidisciplinar y, educa tional f ocus Disciplinar • Linear exposure • Multiple and di vergent e xposur e • Appr aisal, shor t, few • Multif arious , contin uous

130 111 collaborate, investigate and integrate, and also should be based on research inputs; that training appraises written and oral skills, originality institutions should work on a 12-month basis and in approach and presentation, and so on. organi se programmes like refresher courses, seminars, • Several kinds of appraisals take place in the the t of epor he R . T ops and summer institutes wor ksh ppr her's self-a ppr for m of aisal, aisal, teac peer a tional Commission on Teac her s (1983–85) mooted Na feedbac k, and f tion a ormal e valua t the end of es tha the idea of Teac her s' Centr t could ser ve as meeting ear the y . All a ppr t impr aisals aim a ov ement, places, where talent could be pooled and teaching standing one's o engths and under wn str It sug s could g experiences shar ed. o her t teac gested tha t has to be ha standing w , under weaknesses to centres of learning on study leave. The NPE (1986) oals in ing the ne xt g strengthened, and identif her educa e-ser link ed in-ser vice and pr vice teac tion on ocess ning pr . the lear a continuum; it visualised the establishment of District ks aisal mostl y will not be gi The a ppr ven in mar • Institutes of h tion and Tr aining (DIET s) in eac Educa (quantita tive), but on a scale (qualita tive), wher e district, upgradation of 250 colleges of education as the student's ac vement is e valua ted as a hie and tion (CTEs), her Educa eac T ges of Colle contin uum and he/she is placed accor ding to establishment of 50 Institutes of Advanced Studies in vities his/her perf ormance in v arious acti . Education (IASEs), and strengthening of the State w vision of teac her educa tion • In brief , the ne Councils of tional R esear ch and Tr aining Educa esponsi hang ve to c e r will be mor es in the har w evie thi R ur amam ya R Ac he Ts). T (SCER icant school system as it en visa ges a signif Committee (1990) r ecommended tha t in-ser vice and ve been par adigm shift. T he major shifts ha refresher courses should be related to the specific needs stated on the left. of teachers, and that evaluation and follow-up should be part of the scheme. tion and 5.2.4 In-Ser vice Educa aining of Tr In places where multigrade schools have been her s Teac established in order to facilitate access to primary In-ser vice educa tion can pla y a signif ole in the icant r schooling, teachers need special training in managing s and function as an her teac ro wth of prof essional g such classrooms, which must be conducted by those ag ent f e in sc hool-r ela ted pr actices . It helps hang or c who have experience in classroom management and s g her y eng aging with their teac idence b ain conf lasses or these c tion f organisa escriptions on ho w to . Pr xperiences . It pr ovides practices and r eaf firming their e manage, without the support of appropriate materials, ag e with other teac oppor tunities to eng her s or guidance in planning units and topics, does little to professionally and to update knowledge. The Education assist teachers whose experience and imagination is Commission (1964 ecommended tha t in-ser –66) r vice gr ade setting . Instead completel y oriented to the mono education for teachers should be organi sed by of being mer ely told w hat to do , detailed unit planning sations to enable every universities and teacher organi ve tw ecei her to r teac vice ee months of o or thr in-ser exercises, along with direct practical experiences in education once in five years; that such programmes places where multigrade class teaching practices have

131 112 progr amme of in-ser vice educa tion and sc hool-based become established, and films depicting such situations, teac tion cannot be an her suppor t. In-ser vice educa need to be used in training and for helping teachers event but rather is a process, which includes knowledge, overcome their lack of confidence. development and changes in attitudes, skills, disposition or In-Ser ategies f tives and Str 5.2.5 Initia vice and practice — through interactions both in workshop Education settings and in the school. It does not consist only of receiving knowledge from experts; promotion of wing NPE 1986, ef ve been made to forts ha Follo experiential learning, incorporating teachers as active develop institutions lik or s, IASEs and CTEs f e DIET learners, and peer group-based review of practice can tion to primar vice educa providing in-ser y and eflection t of the o verall str ategy. Self-r also become a par hoolteac y sc , 38 s, 87 CTEs s; 500 DIET her secondar needs to be acknowledged as a vital component of ve been set up ha Ts, , and 30 SCER IASEs , although suc . A tr h pr ogr ammes aining polic y needs to be w orked esour ce centr es. man y of them ha ve y et to function as r ameter xt def out, s suc h as the periodicity , conte ining par DPEP also brought in the block and cluster resource and methodolo pr ogr ammes . But ef forts to gy of centr es and made in-ser vice teac her educa tion and cluster-level schools as the follow-up for the main strengthen quality and ensure vibrant rather than routinised interactions would require far more strategies for pedagogic renewal. In spite of the widespread efforts and specific geographical areas decentralised planning with clarity on goals and methods which have shown improvements, by and large the aining and tr ansf er. 'Mass tr aining usin g’ ne w for tr technologies may be of use in some aspects of training, vice inputs ha in-ser y noticea ble impact ve not had an on teacher practice. but much greater honesty and bold creativity are required A major indicator of quality of training is its for addressing the concerns of practising teachers vance to teac s' needs h pr ogr ammes . But most suc rele her vironments y, inc directl luding the de pr ofessionalised en ding to actual needs ganised accor ar e not or he . T h the y, and their k of ork, their lac y w hic in w agenc approach adopted has remained lecture based, with alienation. little opportunity for trainees to actively participate. uild a tion tec Dissemina hnolo gies can ser ve to b h as acti Ironicall , hing y, conce vity-based teac pts suc positi e used y ar the ef orms if ricular r or cur ve ethos f classroom management of large classes, multigrade as sites of discussion and debates in which teachers, teaching, team teaching, and cooperative and training personnel and community members can collaborative learning, which require active te. T ticipa par s requir xperience of e first-hand e her eac demonstr es. ar e often taught thr ation, ough lectur making programmes themselves in order to develop School follow-up has also failed to take off, and bility of an inter est in the ne w tec hnolo g y. T he a vaila cluster-level meetings have not been able to develop computers and linkage facilities remains quite inadequate into professional fora for teachers to reflect and plan in tr aining institutes . T his is one r eason w hy the potential . together of the ne w comm unica tion tec hnolo gy f or c hanging Any curriculum renewal effort needs to be the ethos of schools and training institutions has supported with a well thought-out and systematic remained inadequately tapped.

132 113 teac vice Pre-ser her educa tion ust aining m as w ell as in-ser vice tr Reducing Stress and Enhancing Success in the X and XII Public Examinations build the necessary orientation and capacities in teachers so that they y based testing om content based testing to pr ob lem solving and competenc , Shift fr content based testing induces bad pedago gy and r ote lear ning , both of which can appreciate, understand and cause stress during examinations. Basic tables and formulae could be provided to meet the challenges of the reduce emphasis on memor , evaluation and application. y and focus on analysis work. In-ser cur riculum fr ame vice Shift towards examinations of shorter duration with flexible time in which 25 to training, in particular, must be 40 per cent is for short answer type questions and the remaining for well designed situated within the context of the multiple choice questions. 90 per cent of all students taking the examination teac xperiences of oom e classr s. her should be able to complete the paper and review/revise the same. √ Better conduct examinations in student's own school or nearby school. h ha ve the DIET hic s, w Malpractices could be minimized by having invigilation teams from responsibility of organising such other schools. training, should do so in a manner Postponement of examination should be avoided under all √ in which both teachers and their circumstances. om suc it fr . aining h tr schools benef , instead of the ad hoc For instance √ Permit students to appear in as many subjects as they are prepared for and complete the board certification requirements within a manner in which teacher trainees ork tow ards 'on- ear window ee-y thr . The boards could w or in-ser are sent f y vice tr aining b demand'examinations, in which students can take as and when the educational administration, it they feel prepared. would be better for a cluster of gy of minolo Eliminate the ter adequate k of √ ‘pass’-‘fail’; indicate lac schools to be identified and a proficiency through re-examination or reappear or retake minimum number of trainees (at recommended’ ble some peer o, to ena least tw Board should conduct re-examination immediately after √ sharing and reflection) invited announcement of results to enable students needing retake in one or from each school to participate in two subjects to move to the next stage without losing a year. . amme aining pr vice tr an in-ser og r Subjects such as Mathematics and English could be examined at √ tion with DIET s, in coor dina two levels; standard and higher level. In the long term all subjects BRCs, could identify the schools could be offered at two levels with students doing at least for this purpose. In order that three/two of the six at standard level and the remaining three/ teaching time is not unduly four at higher level. affected, and teacher trainees are √ Examination with a 'flexible time limit' can be an effective way to able to make the link between reduce stress among children. theory and practice, the mandatory √ Guidance and Counselling be made available in schools to deal days for training could be split up with stress related problems and to guide students, parents and over the course of the year to teachers to lessen thestudents stress. Helplines in boards can also help students and parents. on-site work in their own include classrooms as well.

133 114 5.3.1 Paper Setting, Examining and Reporting ariety of acti vities in Tr aining could comprise a v In order to improve the validity of current addition to contact lectures and discussions in the teacher the entire process of paper examinations, training institutions and include workshops in schools setting needs to be framing should shift to The focus hauled. over in the cluster, projects and other assignments for teachers s rather than question good vice and in-ser h . Suc setting e paper vice in their c lassr mer ooms . To link pr e-ser y. ts onl xper y e ated b ener questions need not be g training, the same schools can become sites for pre- nship Through wide canvassing, good questions can be vice inter ed to ser s can be ask , and student teac her college professors pooled all year round, from teachers, obser ve c lassr oom tr ansaction in these sc hools . T his in that discipline, educators from other states, and even her educa k to teac tor s could ser ve not onl y as f eedbac eful v etting b for strengthening the training programme but can also students . These questions , after car y become the basis of critical reflection by teacher trainees experts , could be categori sed according to level of dif during the la aining pr . To amme ogr the tr y being pt/competenc conce /ar ea, , topic ficulty t of tter par evaluated time estimated to solve. These could be take the process forward, there could be interactive and maintained along with a record of sessions with headmasters from the concerned schools their usage and testing so that they can play the role of a facilitator in the record to be drawn upon at the time of generating s. question pa per changes in classroom practices that the teacher trainees Compelling teachers to examine without paper may like to make. Systems for monitoring and feedback lude SCER offering adequate remuneration makes it difficult to Cs so Cs and CR s /BR Ts/DIET must inc that academic support can be envisaged in follow ups', motivate them to ensure better quality and consistency documentation and research. in evaluation. Considering that most boards are in good financial health, funding issues should not come in the XAMINATION R EFORMS 5.3 E way of improving the quality of evaluation. With computerisation, it is much easier to protect the identity t, epor The r t pub notes tha lic ning without Burden Lear . It is also easier to xaminer xaminee and e of both e examinations at the end of Class X and XII should randomise examination scripts given to any particular be reviewed with a view to replacing the prevailing examiner, thus checking malpractices and reducing text-based and quiz-type questioning, which induces hea h as c actices suc . Malpr bility aria -examiner v inter ting an inordinate level of anxiety and stress and promotes with help from outside the examination hall can be rote lear en ar hildr lass c dle-c . While urban mid ning e tes ar candida reduced if e not per mitted to lea ve the xtr om the need to perf stressed fr y w emel or m e ell, exam centre in the first half time, and also are not rural children are not sure about whether their per mitted to car ry question pa per hile s out with them w preparation is adequate even to succeed. The high the examination is still going on. The question paper failure rates, especially among the rural, economically ver. tion is o xamina ble after the e can be made a vaila weaker and socially deprived children, forces one to Computerisation makes it possible to present a critically review the whole system of evaluation and s on the ameter ormance par perf ang wider r e of orking air and w examina tion. F or if the system w as f marksheet —absolute marks/grades, percentile rank en should hildr hy c eason w e is no r tely, ther adequa that among all candidates taking the examination for not progress and learn.

134 115 ank among peer .g. sc hools centile r and per subject, Open-book exams and exams without time limits are s (e in the same rural or urban block). It would also be worth introducing as small pilot projects across the ded possible to analyse the quality and consistency of various countr ve the ad ould ha va tions w hese inno y. T , we belie ve advantage of shifting the focus of exams from testing , in par ameter ticular examiner he last par s. T memory to testing higher-level competencies such as tion orma merit. ucial test of to be a cr Making this inf public will allow institutions of higher learning to take ysis and pr anal . Ev en tion, preta inter oblem-solving skills conventional exams can be nudged in this direction a more complex and relativist view of the notion of h anal ysis will pr omote tr Suc enc y. Requests merit. through better paper setting and providing standard anspar have declined dramatically in places for re-check and desir h as periodic ab le inf orma tion to candida tes (suc ing tables, trigonometric identities, maps and historical dates, where students have access to their answer papers in for a or m, on r , etc .). either scanned or x formulae er ox ed f equest, nominal Because of the differing nature of learners, and fee. In the medium ter the widely variable quality of teaching, the expectation e need to be a ble to m, w that all candidates should demonstrate the same level increasingly shift towards school-based assessment, and devise ways in which to make such internal assessment of competence in each subject in order to reach the next level of education is unreasonable. In the light of more credible. Each school should evolve a flexible the urban–rural gap in India, this expectation is also and implementable scheme of Continuous and socially regressive. It is well documented, for instance, Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE), primarily for tion and enhancing of , remedia gnosis dia ning . T he that much of the higher failure and dropout rates in lear ormance uted to poor perf scheme should take, into account the social environment ttrib hools can be a rural sc in two subjects — Maths and English. Boards should and the facilities available in the school. Sensitive teachers usually pick up the unique explore the possibility of allowing students to take exams in these subjects at one of the two (or even strengths and w eakness of students her e should be . T e tha ricula or t cur h insights utilising suc ys of wa , to equir his need not r . T vels ee) le thr . At the same time vels ferent le . or dif fer f textbooks will dif prevent abuse by schools (as is currently the case in The "one-exam-fits-all" principle, while being practical examinations), they could be graded on a relative, not an absolute, scale and must be moderated organisationally convenient, is not a student-centred one. Nor is it in keeping with the rapidly evolving nature of and scaled against the marks obtained in the external examination. More research is required on the Indian job market, with its increasing differentiation. development, teacher training and relevant institutional The industrial assembly-line model of assessment needs ements to be replaced by a more humanistic and differentiated . arrang 5.3.2 Flexibility in Assessment one. If, as economists predict, four out of every four vices xt decade will be in the ser new jobs in the ne A lot of psy cholo gical da ta no w sug gest tha t dif fer ent sector, a paradigm shift in Indian education is called y. Hence ther ifferentl n (and test) d s lear ner lear e should dised for. As f ew er and f ew er Indians mak e standar be more varied modes of assessment beyond the widgets, and more and more work to solve problems examination hall paper-pencil test. Oral testing and group work evaluation should be encouraged. for their fellow citizens, the Indian exam system will

135 116 also need to become more open, flexible, creative and w ork in the sc forms of hool, inc luding social engagement. This pedagogy is expected to facilitate user friendl y. a child-friendly route to disciplinary knowledge, 5.3.3 Board Examinations at Other Levels values primaril de velopment of om the awn fr y dr tion, and Under no circumstances should board - or state-level Constitution and r ela ted to social tr ansf orma m ele e r t ar ultiple skills tha vant f tion of orma the f or examinations be conducted at other stages of schooling, a g x c halleng es of facing the comple lobalised econom y. ds should suc h as Class V, VIII or XI. Indeed, boar It is this educational process that calls for the application consider , as a long-ter m measur e, making the Class X xperience of or linking the e y f g og of critical peda examina thus per tion optional, mitting students continuing in the same school (and who do not need a w orms of ve and other f producti ork with g lobal board certificate) to take an internal school exam instead. kno wledg e. The introduction of productive work as a 5.3.4 Entrance Examinations pedagogic medium in the school curriculum will have arious ansf orma tive implica tions f or v major tr There is a need to delink school-leaving board dimensions of the education system—philosophical, ance e . tions xamina ve entr examina tions fr om competiti ricular , str uctur al and or cur ganisa tional. Work-centr ed These entrance examinations can be made less stressful education will call for the reconceptualisation and if students had to take fewer of them. A single nodal restructuring of specific aspects such as academic agency could coordinate the conduct of entrance autonomy and accountability; curriculum planning; examinations several times a year, at centres located all sources of texts; teacher recruitment and teacher y e the timel y, and monitor and ensur ov er the countr education; notions of discipline, attendance and school conduct and r s. tor vement indica hie student ac elease of inspection; knowledge across subject boundaries, The scores obtained by students at such a organisation of the school calendar, classes and periods; national-level examination could be used by all creating learning sites outside the school; evaluation institutions for the purpose of admitting students to parameters and assessment procedures and public uni versities and pr ofessional cour ses . T he actual design t cur . All this implies tha examina tions eforms ricular r and test pr epar ations should not f vie w all within the pur and quality improvements are intricately linked to y. g enc of this nodal a . eforms systemic r ORK 5.4 W - CENTRED E DUCATION Voca aining Tr tion and tional Educa 5.4.1 ed educa Work-centr tion implies tha t the kno wledg e ovided onl esent, At pr V oca tional Educa t y a tion is pr , social insights and skills of childr tion to ela base en in r e, it is r even her estricted to a distinct ge and, the +2 sta velihood can be ces and li al r tur t, na bita their ha esour stream that is parallel to the academic stream. In turned into a source of their dignity and strength in the contr vering 25 per cent co oal of ast to the NPE 1986 g school system. It is to be recognised as a meaningful of the +2 enr olment in the v tional str eam b y the oca y point f or or ganising the cur ricular xtual entr and conte hoose this year 2000, less than 5 per cent of students c experience in the sc , the e In this sense xperiential hool. option at present. The programme has been debilitated base can be further developed through more evolved

136 117 by a range of conceptual, managerial and resource their auxilliar y ser vices), engineering , agricultur al and om being constr or mor e than 25 y ear s. A par t fr medical colleges, S & T laboratories, cooperatives and aints f specialised industrial training in both the private and viewed as an inferior stream, it suffers from poor s. T ould na es w pub lic sector infrastructure, obsolete equipment, untrained or under- hese measur or ally call f tur qualified teachers (often on a part-time basis), outdated shifting and adjusting the resources of the present al mobility , and inf lexib 6,000 - odd senior secondary schools with vocational ter le cour k of ses , lac vertical or la streams by dovetailing them with the new VET absence of linkage with the ‘world of work’, lack of a programme. The vocational education teachers engaged credible evaluation, accreditation and apprenticeship t of epor ya bility (R w emplo finall and, system, in these schools at present should have the option of the y, lo or the R evision of the Centr ally either being absorbed in to the work-centred education Wor king Gr oup f y programme in the same school or being able join a Sponsor ed Sc heme of Voca tionalisa tion of Secondar Clear new VET centre or institution in the region. antic and Educa tion, NCER T, 1998). ly, the gig VET would be designed for all those children ur gent task of building an ef fecti ve and d ynamic voca verdue who wish to acquire additional skills and/or seek . amme of tional educa progr tion is long o Institutionalisation of work-centred education as an livelihoods through vocational education after either integral part of the school curriculum from the pre- discontinuing or completing their school education. ge is e y primar Unlike the present vocational education stream, VET y the necessar xpected to la y to the +2 sta estr ucturing founda tion f or r econce ptualising and r should provide a ‘preferred and dignified’ choice rather a halleng esor ‘last-r minal or than a ter es of t’ option. As with the voca tional educa tion to meet the c school, these VET institutions would also be designed globalised econom y. inclusive, providing for skill development of not to be It is proposed, therefore, that we move in a phased manner towards a new programme of just those children who have historically suffered due hic tional Educa Voca w Tr aining (VET), h is tion and to their economic, social or cultural backgrounds, but also of the physically and mentally disabled. A conceived and implemented in a mission mode, g y and well-designed pr ovision of car eer psy involving the establishment of separate VET centres cholo counselling as a critical development tool would enable and institutions from the level of village clusters and blocks to sub-divisional/ district towns and children to systematically plan their movement towards their future vocations or livelihoods, and also guide metr opolitan ar eas . W her ev er possib le, it w ould be in the institutional leadership in curricular planning and the national interest to utilise the school infrastructure evaluation. The proposed VET shall offer flexible and (often utilised for only a part of the day) for setting up . Suc modular certificate or diploma courses of varying e f this ne w institutional str uctur or VET h VET centres/ institutions also need to be evolved in durations (including short durations) emerging from collaboration with the nationwide spectrum of facilities the conte xtual socio-economic scenario . Decentr alised y e alread xisting in this sector . T his will impl y the planning of these courses at the level of individual VET expansion of the scope of institutions like ITIs, centres/ institutions and/or clusters thereof would have hools , Krishi Vig yan K as, to keep in mind the ongoing rapid changes in pol ytec endr , tec hnical sc hnics rural development agencies, primary health centres (and tec hnolo g y and pa tter ns of production and ser vices in

137 118 The success of the VET programme is also a given area, along with the diminishing access to natural critically dependent upon building up a credible system resources and livelihoods for the vast majority of the of evaluation, equivalence, institutional accreditation people. The courses would provide multiple entry and (extending to ‘work benches’ and individual expertise) uilt cr ula tion f acility . Eac h exit points with in-b edit accum e has to be tak t e tha en to ensur course will also have an adequate academic component . Car enticeship ppr and a (or a provision for a bridge course or both) in order such standardisation does not become a negative tool for rejecting/ disqualifying the diverse knowledge and to ensure lateral and vertical linkages with the academic a VET skills that characterise the different regions of India, and pr ofessional pr ogr ammes . The str ength of centre would lie in its capacity to offer a variety of especially the economically underdeveloped regions like the North-east, hilly tracts, the coastal belt and the central pending upon the f options de . the aspir ants elt need of Indian tribal region. An appropriate structural space The VET curriculum should be reviewed and updated from time to time if the programme is not to and a welcoming environment will have to be created in the VET centres and institutions for engaging become moribund and irrelevant to the vocations and livelihoods in a given area or region. The centre farmer s, animal husbandr y, fisher ticultur y and hor e in-charges or institutional leadership would need to have specialists, artisans, mechanics, technicians, artists, and ovider access to adequate infrastructure and resources as well esour luding IT) as r s (inc ce other local ser vice pr aculty sons or guest f as be vested with the necessary authority and academic . per The eligibility for VET courses could be relaxed freedom to establish ‘work benches’ (or ‘work places’ to include a Class V certificate until the year 2010, when or ‘work spots’) in the neighbourhood or regional rural Sar the xpected to ac hie ve UEE, is e an crafts, agricultural or forest-based production systems va Shiksha Abhiy , ther vaila vices but subsequently it must be raised to Class VIII and industries and ser eb y utilising the a ble certificate and eventually to Class X certificate when his y. T ces optimall esour terial r human and ma ative ar st, colla the target year of universal secondary education is g es. Fir vanta ee ad ement has thr rang bor reached. In no case, however, would children below the VET programme can be set up with minimum the age of 16 years be eligible for admission to a VET capital investment. Second, the students would have access to the la test tec hniques and tec hnolo gy tha t programme. VET centres could also act as skill and become available in the area. Third, the students would hobby centres for all children from the primary stage get on-the-job experience and exposure to real-life onwards, and could be accessed before or after school es should also be a designing hools or sc , pr ble f keting . For vaila problems of hour s. Suc h centr oduction and mar to negotiate a collaborative arrangement for the this purpose, it should be made obligatory for all kinds of facilities eng ag ed in pr oduction and ser vices suc h s. hool hour ven during sc riculum e ed cur work-centr In order to translate this vision of VET into lic sector va te and pub y, pri e, forestr gricultur as a practice, several new support structures and resource industries (including cottage and small-scale institutions will have to be created at various levels, manufacturers) to collaborate with the schools in the s and the centr area by providing the required ‘work benches’ (or inc luding districts , sta tes/ UT e, besides ‘work places’ or ‘work spots’), in the addition to strengthening and reviving the existing national resource offering training and monitoring support. institutions lik e NCER T’s PSSCIVE a t Bhopal.

138 119 DEAS VA TION IN I NNO AND P RA CTICES 5.5 I the class while also receiving feedback from both tant w his is also impor . T her and students teac hen ality of 5.5.1 Plur Te xtbooks innovating with textbook content (for instance, Given the perspective that curricular content must providing space for integrating children's experiences) meaningfully incorporate experiences of children and in order to understand and place them within the their diverse cultural contexts, including languages, it is realities of the classroom and teacher preparation. important that textbook writing is decentralised keeping It follows that we are ideally looking at the in view the capacities that are required as well as the availability of multiple textbooks for schools as they systems that will make this possible. The writing of widen teachers' choices and also provide for the textbooks requires a range of capacities that include incorporation of diversity in relation to children's needs academic and research inputs, understanding of hen a n books and umber of . W ests and inter children's developmental levels, effective skills of supplementary materials are available, the teacher can h comm unica tion and design, etc . W hile SCER T, whic be encouraged to decide which text lessons are has been given the task of textbook writing at present, or her pupils ic themes f or specif te f opria appr . This can continue to be the nodal organisation for this would substantively enhance the teacher's autonomy purpose, the actual envisioning of the process, selection and c hoice . Alter na y can also pr ovide tively, the and writing of content must be done in a collaborative opportunities to encourage children to explore diverse manner by teams rather than by individual subject sources and understand how the same content may be bor exper ative ts. Among the r h a colla or suc easons f ferent w ary ag e libr his will encour presented in dif ays. T exercise are perspective building, clarification of work. The support system that must be ensured will assumptions about how children learn, undertaking of include training programmes/workshops to orient and the required revisiting of subject knowledge and enable teachers to use textbooks and supplementary research input, understanding of processes of how to materials as resources for curriculum transaction and communicate with children, providing structured space access to library facilities within the school or in a for reflection and feedback by peers as an ongoing e f he sharing of . T hools sc resour or a set of ce centr process in the making of textbooks, and so on. libraries between schools must also be consciously Academic and research support from universities, and planned for, and this can be built into partnerships ov er nment sc hools . T he setting betw va te and g een pri the rich experiences of NGOs as well as practitioners, up of community libraries can also be explored. must be important inputs in this exercise. Encouraging the production of multiple The trial of the textbook is extremely critical given textbooks that are officially prescribed by schools will that at present children often find text lessons difficult increasingly bring the private sector into the area of to comprehend, with content that is dense or at times textbook production. In this context, it is important to trivial. Lessons are often written without relating them equip state institutions for research and training in time that is assigned for the subject to be taught to the education (whose responsibilities include textbooks ear hool y in the sc or the initial ood idea f y be a g . It ma production) to compete with private publishers and lessons to be piloted, i.e. to be taught on a trial basis, capacities built for this purpose. As mentioned earlier, ansaction in with the te xtbook writer obser ving its tr

139 120 ag e ne Ts can mak e the pr oduction of te xtbooks a w ideas and if SCER his will also encour . T h other eac collaborative exercise, it will improve the quality of facilitate innovation and experimentation. How can their textbooks, build capacities, as well as energise these innovative and creative ways of teaching and learning be encouraged and supported by the system so that xcellent ve also pr . NGOs ha institutions oduced e they can become a body of practice that can be brought textbooks and supplementary materials that can be used in sc to a stage when they can be built back into the system? ven to the ust also be gi . Some thought m hools e is a need to cr t, ther For a star regulatory mechanism that must be set in place to ensure ed spaces uctur eate str within schools, and at the level of the cluster and block that textbook writers abide by the guiding principles where teachers are encouraged to share and discuss and v alues of the Constitution (especiall y equality , . If classr secularism and democracy), the aims of education, oom pr actices and e xperiences seen as authenticity and developmental appropriateness of worthwhile, some of these ideas and practices can be wed up y follo content, and so on. In addition, it is essential to see that systema ticall tant to bring . It is also impor together groups of teachers within and across schools textbook production does not lend itself to private resour and pr ovide suppor ces as t to them in ter ms of profiteering and deny easy access to education. or , a need f well as time to w or k to Discussion of textbooks by parents, teachers and gether . Ther e is also citizens' groups must be encouraged, and they must be documentation and research of identified 'good practices'. At present, there are funds for this purpose made available in the public domain (the Internet can te is provide space for this purpose, and textbooks can be s (par t of w hose manda both with DIET feedbac k, identification and documentation of innovative We ble on the b) f or discussion, vaila made a critique, etc. Universities can be encouraged to conduct practices). SSA also has funds for school-based research. Some of this could be used to document the studies of textbooks so that regular research output diverse practices that teachers use in different classroom on school knowledge is available. conte xts , y funding dition to pr oviding the necessar . In ad 5.5.2 Encouraging Innovations the creation of an enabling environment that nurtures and provides support to such initiatives is also important. Individual teachers often explore new ways of As mentioned earlier, efforts to mainstream innovative transacting the curriculum in addressing the needs of actices will be necessar processes and pr the y. One of students within their specific classroom context main objectives of creating resource centres at the (including constraints of space, large numbers, absence cluster level was to break the isolation of individual of teac , di ver sity in the student bod y, the hing aids schools and bring teachers together on a regular basis compulsions of examinations, and so on). These efforts, s. for sharing their e xperiences and ideas with their peer often pragmatic but also creative and ingenious, by This is important if teachers are to develop their own and large remain invisible to the school and the larger professional identities and sense of belonging to a larger y unity hing comm teac y not v , and ar e usuall alued b teac ay of . It could also be one w unity hing comm hing e teac her s themselv es. The sharing of teac xperiences creating among them a sense of their own agency and and diverse classroom practices can provide fostering a sense of greater involvement and opportunities for an academic discourse to develop commitment to their work. within schools as teachers interact with and learn from

140 121 curriculum development, academic support, as well as hnolo gy The Use of 5.5.3 T ec monitoring and research. Civil society groups have also gy can incr tec The judicious use of ease the r hnolo eac h helped to give education a visible public space, and of educational programmes, facilitate management of facilitated the emergence of a discourse on the child's the system, as well as help address specific learning right to education. The dissemination of the perspective , mass media can . For instance ements equir needs and r eative and ansla tion into cr , their tr the NCF and ideas of be used to suppor te c lassr aining t teac her tr , facilita oom actices within the sc va tive pr inno unity , hool and comm or ad y. P ossibilities of vocac , and be used f ning lear critical feedback on different aspects of the curriculum, teaching and learning at varied paces, self-learning, dual as well as the nurturing of an environment of modes of om the use of . could all benef stud it fr y, etc commitment to the right to education of children, would ticular ly ICT . T he incr tec the hnolo g y, par easing use of all need collaboration and sustained involvement of tion and or ma inf bled the sharing of net has ena Inter vil society g . diver se ci roups or de verse gue on di bate and dialo provided space f s' associa her Teac tions can pla y ganisa tions and or ble on suc h a scale . vaila to una issues hither a far greater role in strengthening school education than va tions ar e also necessar y f or Technolo gical inno y can help , the . For instance to been the case has hither opria te equipment and aids f or meeting the lear ning appr y using e sc hool functioning b ms to impr e nor ov ev olv en with special needs . W requir ements of childr hat their influence over their teacher members to ensure needs to be under hnolo scor ed is tha t tec gy could be that teaching time is not compromised, and help create inte ocesses of gra oals and pr ger g ted with the lar a cultur accounta bility . T hey can also dr aw a ttention e of tional pr ogr ammes r ather than vie wed in isola tion educa to the inputs and supports that are necessary for or as an ad In this conte d-on. t gical use tha hnolo xt, tec effective curriculum transaction, and act as constructive s and tur e consumer en into mer hildr s and c her ns teac pressure groups on issues such as school resources, tec hnolo gy oper ator s needs to be r evie wed and quality of teacher education and professional Inter action and intimac y ar e k ey to quality discour ag ed. development. These associations can work with education, and this cannot be compromised as a local-level organisations as well as with BRCs and CRCs y cur principle in an ricular inter vention. in defining the nature of academic support required, ARTNERSHIPS P 5.6 N EW provide feedback and so on. The r Ts need to oles and functions of SCER 5.6.1 Role of NGOs, Civil Society Groups, and include providing support not only in purely academic Teac her Or ganisa tions Ts m SCER ell. gical aspects as w cholo ut psy areas b ust One of the distinct features of the last decade was the take steps to strengthen the guidance bureaus/units increasing involvement of non-government organisations already existing with them by setting them up as and civil society groups in education. NGOs have played resour her ce centr vice teac es a t the sta te le vel f or in-ser a major role in creating innovative models of schooling, training in this area, production of psychological tools/ training of teachers, development of textbooks and eer liter e, etc e counselling ser . and mak vices tests , car atur curricular materials, community mobilisation and available at district/block and school levels by tion with sc advocac y. Their f ormal associa hools and positioning professionally trained guidance personnel. resource centres would be extremely important for

141 122 expertise. Higher education can also provide space for Universities have a critical role to play in reflection, discussion and debate on educational ideas responding to the wide-ranging aims of the curricular and practices as well as facilitate the interface between framework, especially in emphasising and encouraging y mak ers. pluralism in education, addressing the needs of children, schools and polic gent and inte e is an ur . Ther gra ting ne w cur ricular ar eas There is also need for institutional linkages between uni need to expand the knowledge base of education h as SCER Ts and DIET s versities and institutions suc keeping in view the diverse socio-cultural contexts to to strengthen their academic programmes of teacher educa which children belong as well as the complex nature velop ell to de aining as w vice tr tion and in-ser ch ca pacities ould be of classroom realities in India. University departments their r esear xt, . In this conte it w appropriate to explore once again the idea of creating of education, social science as well as the sciences should be urged to include the study of education in their school/educational complexes that would bring , SCER ges, schools versities together uni , colle research agenda. Mutlidisciplinary and collaborative s Ts/DIET as well as NGOs within a geographical area to evolve research bringing together scholars from different networks and mechanisms for providing academic disciplines would be particularly important in generating a research base that is critical for translating the ideas in support and participating in monitoring, and evaluation ammes ogr of pr the curriculum framework into enabling classroom . The preparation of curricula, syllabi and , uni versities need to k practices eep . At the same time teaching-learning resources, including textbooks, could their doors open to children coming from schools with be carried out in a far greater decentralised and y. Rather stud tions of esting combina unusual and inter participative manner, increasing the participation of than using admission criteria to eliminate, they should remain inclusive and encouraging of diversity of teachers, along with representatives and experts from y impor . This is especiall tions ganisa other or tant w hen ests , pur suits and oppor tunities . Suc h open and inter inclusive admission policies are also crucial if children we are exploring the possibility of producing more than one textbook for each grade and subject, so that are to seriously consider vocational courses of study there is far greater local relevance in materials, and also as non-ter minal options . Institutions of higher education have an a plurality of materials from which teachers can choose. important role to play in teacher education and in Such large teams could also produce supplementary enhancing the professional status not only of secondary materials such as reading cards and small stories based her y sc ut also elementar on local lore and illustrations, which are often more hoolteac s b schoolteac her s. For en. hildr esting to c inter the, 'reflective teacher' who possesses the professional xist h e , whic ariety Choice and v competence and orientation that the curriculum in more elite schools, can become common features hools framework rests on, it will be necessary to review and of all sc . tion pr her educa e teac uctur restr tment of y . Equall ammes oman and Child ogr The De par W important will be the sustained involvement of scholars Development, Department of Health, Department of in curriculum development, writing and reviewing Youth Af fairs and Spor ts, De par tment of Science and textbooks as part of a collaborative exercise, which Technolo gy, De par tment of T ribal Af fair s, brings together practitioners and academics with diverse De par tment of Social J ustice and Empo werment,

142 123 schools, funding special programmes that enrich the tment of Cultur e, De par tment of T ourism, De par gical Sur ve y of , to name a f ew, India, curriculum, such as sports clubs and sports equipment PRIs Archeolo along with special instructors, organising visits and are all stakeholders with an interest in the welfare and progress of children, school, and curriculum. All these excursions to historical, archeological and natural sites departments have the ability to contribute to enriching and providing materials about these places, providing s. For e xample , health educa tion f or c hildr en and teac reference materials, photographs and charts (including her and physical education requires synergies across different films and photographs), ensuring regular health check- departments since the curricular content falls within the ups, and monitoring the quality of the midday meal. These are some of the ways in which these departments iv e ministeries pur w of der to ensur . In or e at least f vie can directly contribute to and enhance the quality of the effective transaction of the curriculum, there must the school curriculum. Educationally meaningful be some system of coordination across the key hool cur riculum tha t m ust contributions need to be planned in consultation with depar ments , and it is the sc education departments rather than being conceived lead programmes rather than the stand- alone independently and simply delivered. This is necessary T hey riculum. hool cur vening in the sc ammes inter progr need to explore and discover ways in which they can to ensure that what is being designed is useful and equests made ble. Similar usa contribute to children's education, by converging their ly, the y could r espond to r inputs with the efforts of departments of education. by the department of education for specific They can do so by providing additional facilities to progr ammes or inputs .

143 124 Computers, Moral Science etc., etc. recently became hit and This framework for curriculum presents a vision of oduced as a new subject because the quiz as intr G.K. w ble ab le f en. It seeks to ena or our c what is desir hildr show "Kaun Banega Crorepati... en and their volv e in ho ar those w ed with c hildr Our syllabus gets more massive and moves beyond the teaching h the hic y can mak e schooling with the bases on w capacity of the teachers, so they rush through the contents ovides t deter choices tha T his pr mine the cur riculum. with tedious methodolo gy . Students cannot meet the attention hildr en's an under standing of issues r ela ting to c span requirement in the classrooms and either fail at tur e of kno wledg e and the sc hool as an lear ning , the na comprehension or blank out into daydreaming. Newer topics h to the cur institution. This a ppr oac riculum dr aws of many different subjects are covered even before the previous ones have been chewed over. The burden of the syllabus is the sc tance of attention to the impor hool ethos and then passed on to the parents or tuition classes. Little children teac ning s, lear her cultur actices of oom pr lassr e, the c burdened with loads of education on their shoulders, trip and lear ning r esour sites outside the sc , as m uch hool, ces from school to tuition classes, bypassing childhood. A section the system tha t e xer t dir ect as to the dimensions of of students study harder and harder to beat each other for luence . T he designing of lar ge-scale and indir ect inf the top slot. Majority of the students are hounded by parents ricular inter , key acti h as the cur ventions vities suc and teachers to study harder and become stressed, some prepar ation of sylla bus and te xtbooks , and e xamina tion requiring even clinical treatment. Only children who excel in h other and with ust be consistent with eac reform m the main subjects are regarded as successful. Children with accomplishments in other fields like sports and arts are tional aims f or pr ogr ess and impr ov ement in the educa e ear nestly discouraged fr om pursuing under rated. They ar t w e pr ovide to our c hildr en. quality of educa tion tha sports and hobbies as these don't count in the mark list. s sent messa Hundr eds of par ents and teac her g es to riculum and success dynamics demand that they The cur esponse to ad ver tisements in viting pub NCER T in r lic shut out the real world with real experiences and lock tional Cur work. rame riculum F or the Na utions f contrib themselves up in the world of books. Even sixth standard. these messa One of ges w as fr om a Mumbai-based students must study four hours in addition to school hours if her mother and teac s. Neeta Mohla. ote: , Mr She wr they want to enter into the race for marks. e ears spend mor velopmental y en in their de When childr time in books than in the r ver y ve e orld, they ha eal w en face the same lear ning Today as students m y childr chance of becoming fragmented. Education ventures into a experiences as me 20 y ears ago . Ever ywhere ar ound the o. A negative course. It splits a student's mind into tw world new methods of teaching and evaluation are being bookish worldview that he memorises without proper practised but our children continue to just copy exercises comprehension and the real world that is not in his/her from the board, mug them up and reproduce them in the contr ol due to lac k of focus . T ake the example of a exam. If there are changes, they are for the worse. Children typical fourth standard child; he knows how stopping now have access to more information channels, yet more and osion but he cattle graz ing on hilltops can pr event soil er more subjects and content are added to the school bag.

144 125 cannot keep track of his/her notebooks and pencils. laid alongside the old academic pillars of Ultimately he grows into an adult with a lot of knowledge ths ma y, etc , histor , science . sense but no common sense, a "padha likha bevakoof" (an • Contents must be linked to the challenges of educated fool). Good characters and personalities develop ferent sta ges. Students and eer a t dif life and car through focus on their development. Instead, a lot is taught teachers must be given the requisite time to which he cannot relate with his/her day-to-day life focus on them. Acquisition of pure knowledge ho b lank out experiences and sur . F or those w roundings should be for the purpose of self-discovery into daydreaming education fails to make any impression, of the child's own interest. This should be leaving them vulnerable to other dangerous influences. There arents is no suppor it. P t system for childr en in need of covered through alternative study today ar e just as str essed as their w ards . A stag gering 75 methodolo oject method and e pr gy lik percent children preparing for Board Examinations today alternative evaluation models like open-book suffer from stress-related disorders. exams . W e need onl y implant the seeds of every subject. Whole plants do not have to be Mr s. Neeta Mohla of fers se veral concr ete hammered in. Education should inspire e the f sug gestions wing : ollo , some of h ar whic children to become learners for life. • Balance what should be taught in favour of e it tion and mak ust humanise educa We m • what can possibly be learnt. The structures of relevant for the pursuit of the wide variety ein eac her vels w al mar chitectur e are ar natur h tion and native evalua ptitudes of human a . Alter part functions in coordination with the whole. grading models must be sought to encourage The real challenge is to plan the curriculum so the di ner talents among the lear versity of s. that it has the main elements that work to keep Achievers in sports, arts and crafts should get the broad objectives of education on course, due r t par with academic ac gnition a vers. hie eco and are well grounded in the realities of Expanding the achievement list would . aints bilities and constr av aila definitely de-stress parents and children by • Instead of a structure built to promote success spr acks. T e tr eading them out on to mor he e uctur ust adopt a str e m w ew, for a select f change to grading would shift the society's that engages participation in learning by all. The focus away from the social Darwinian base should be sturdy so it lasts a whole life. the curriculum. implications of The pillars should be broadened and redefined. Let us hope that curriculum, syllabi and textbook acter , ph ysical Ne w pillar s lik e per sonality , char designers across the country will pay adequate and fitness, creative and critical thinking should be urgent a ttention to this mother's w ords.

145 126 – I PPENDIX A 1 HAPTER C educa tion in a plur alistic society . Str • tional system of engthening a na Reducing the curriculum load based on insights provided in 'Learning Without Burden'. • • Systemic changes in tune with curricular reforms. • Curricular practices based on the values enshrined in the Constitution, such as social justice, equality , and secularism. Ensuring quality education for all children. • Building a citizenry committed to democratic practices, values, sensitivity towards gender • heduled Castes and the Sc heduled justice , needs of the , pr oblems f aced b y the Sc Tribes disabled, and capacities to participate in economic and political processes. C HAPTER 2 Reorienta lear ner s and lear ning . tion of our per ception of • ning h in the tr lear ner s' de velopment and lear ea tment of . ppr Holistic a • oac Creating an inclusive environment in the classroom for all students. • agement f Lear uction of kno wledg e and f ostering of cr eativity . • ner eng or constr Active learning through the experiential mode. • or v oicing c hildr en's thoughts , curiosity , and questions in cur ricular pr oom f . Adequa te r • actices Connecting knowledge across disciplinary boundaries to provide a broader frame work for • insightful construction of knowledge. ner eng ag ement — obser ving , exploring • vering , anal ysing , critical r eflection, Forms of lear , disco etc. — are as important as the content of knowledge. Activities for developing critical perspectives on socio-cultural realities need to find space in • curricular practices. books and Local knowledge and children's experiences are essential components of text • pedagogic practices. • Children engaged in undertaking environment-related projects may contribute to generation of knowledge that could help create a transparent public database on India's environment. • The school years are a period of rapid development, with changes and shifts in

146 127 children's capabilities, attitudes and interests that have implications for choosing and organising the content and process of knowledge. C HAPTER 3 Language Language skills — speech and listening, reading and writing — cut across school subjects and • disciplines. Their foundational role in children's construction of knowledge right from elementary classes through senior secondary classes needs to be recognised. • A renewed effort should be made to implement the three-language formula, emphasising the recognition of children's home language(s) or mother tongue(s) as the best medium of instruction. These include tribal languages. • English needs to find its place along with other Indian languages. The multilingual character of Indian society should be seen as a resource for the enrichment • of school life. Mathematics te and handle Ma tisa tion (a bility to think lo gicall • thema abstr actions) r ather than y, for mula 'knowledge' of mathematics (formal and mechanical procedures) is the main goal of teaching mathematics. • The teaching of mathematics should enhance children's ability to think and reason, to visualise and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems. Access to quality mathematics education is the right of every child. Science • Content, process and language of science teaching must be commensurate with the learner's age-range and cognitive reach. • Science teaching should engage the learners in acquiring methods and processes that will nurtur eativity , par ticular l y in r elation to the en vironment. e their curiosity and cr • Science teaching should be placed in the wider context of children;s environment to equip them with the requisite knowledge and skills to enter the world of work. Awareness of environmental concerns must permeate the entire school curriculum. • Social Sciences • Social science content needs to focus on conceptual understanding rather than lining up facts to be memorised for examination, and should equip children with the ability to think independently and reflect critically on social issues. • Interdisciplinary approaches, promoting key national concerns such as gender, justice, hu man rights, and sensitivity to marginalised groups and minorities. • Civics should be recast as political science, and the significance of history as a shaping influence on the children's conception of the past and civic identity should be recognised.

147 128 Work School curricula from the pre-primary stage to the senior secondary stage need to be • reconstructed to realise the pedagogic potential of work as a pedagogic medium in knowledge acquisition, developing values and multiple-skill formation. Art y, clay w lassical f or ms of music and dance , visual ar • Arts (f ork, thea tre, olk and c ts, puppetr etc.) and heritage crafts should be recognised as integral components of the school curriculum. • Awareness of their relevance to personal, social, economic and aesthetic needs should be built among parents, school authorities and administrators. The arts should comprise a subject at every stage of school education. • Peace • with Peace-oriented values should be promoted in all subjects throughout the school years the help of relevant activities. • Peace education should form a component of teacher education. Health and Physical Education • Health and physical education are necessary for the overall development of learners. Through health and physical education programmes (including yoga), it may be possible to handle successfully the issues of enrolment, retention and completion of school. Ha t and Lear ning bita • Environmental education may be best pursued by infusing the issues and concerns of the environment into the teaching of different disciplines at all levels while ensuring that adequate time is earmarked for pertinent activities. C HAPTER 4 acilities Av bility of minim um infr astr uctur e and ma • aila , and suppor t for planning a terial f flexible daily schedule, are critical for improved teacher performance. • A school culture that nurtures children's identities as 'learners' enhances the potential and interests of each child. • Specific activities ensuring participation of all children — abled and disabled — are essential conditions for learning by all. • The value of self-discipline among learners through democratic functioning is as relevant as ever. • Participation of community members in sharing knowledge and experience in a subject area helps in f orging a par tner ship betw een sc hool and comm unity . • Reconceptualisation of learning resources in terms of - textbooks focused on elaboration of concepts, activities, problems and exercises encouraging reflective thinking and group work. - supplementary books, workbooks, teachers' handbooks, etc. based on fresh thinking and new perspectives.

148 129 - multimedia and ICT as sources for two-way interaction rather than one-way reception. school library as an intellectual space for teachers, learners and members of the community - to deepen their knowledge and connect with the wider world. • Decentralised planning of school calendar and daily schedule and autonomy for teacher professionalism practices are basic to creating a learning environment. HAPTER 5 C • Quality concern, a key feature of systemic reform, implies the system's capacity to reform itself by enhancing its ability to remedy its own weaknesses and to develop new capabilities. • It is desirable to evolve a common school system to ensure comparable quality in different regions of the country and also to ensure that when children of different backgrounds study together, it improves the overall quality of learning and enriches the school ethos. • A broad framework for planning upwards, beginning with schools for identifying focus areas and subsequent consolidation at the cluster and block levels, could form a decentralised planning strategy at the district level. Meaningful academic planning has to be done in a participatory manner by headmasters • and teachers. • Monitoring quality must be seen as a process of sustaining interaction with individual schools in terms of teaching–learning processes. t the her educa tion pr ogr ammes need to be r ef ormula • engthened so tha Teac ted and str teacher can be an : - encouraging, supportive and humane facilitator in teaching–learning situations to enable learners (students) to discover their talents, to realise their physical and intellectual potentialities to the fullest, to develop character and desirable social and human values to function as responsible citizens; and - active member of a group of persons who make conscious efforts for curricular renewal so that it is relevant to changing social needs and the personal needs of learners. Reformulated teacher education programmes that place thrust on the active involvement of • learners in the process of knowledge construction, shared context of learning, teacher as a facilitator of knowledge construction, multidisciplinary nature of knowledge of teacher education, integration theory and practice dimensions, and engagement with issues and concerns of contemporary Indian society from a critical perspective. • Centrality of language proficiency in teacher education and an integrated model of teacher education for strengthening professionalisation of teachers assume significance. In-ser • tion needs to become a ca tal yst f or c hang e in sc hool pr actices . vice educa • The P anchay ati R aj system should be str engthened b y evolving a mec hanism to r egula te the functioning of parallel bodies at the village level so that democratic participation in development can be realised. • Reducing stress and enhancing success in examinations necessitate: - a shift a wa y fr om content-based testing to pr oblem solving skills and under standing . The prevailing typology of questions asked needs a radical change. - a shift towards shorter examinations.

149 130 - an examination with a 'flexible time limit'. setting up of a single nodal agency for coordinating the design and conduct of entrance - examinations. • Institutionalisation of work-centred education as an integrated part of the school curriculum from the pre-primary to the +2 stage is expected to lay the necessary foundation for reconceptualising and restructuring vocational education to meet the challenges of a globalised y. econom • tional Educa tion and Tr aining (VET) need to be concei ved and implemented in a Voca mission mode, involving the establishment of separate VET centres and institutions from the level of village clusters and blocks to sub-divisional/district towns and metropolitan areas in collaboration with the nation wide spectrum of facilities already existing in this sector. ovide f Av aila bility of multiple te xtbooks to widen teac her s' c hoices and pr • or the di versity in children's needs and interests. • Sharing of teaching experiences and diverse classroom practices to generate new ideas and facilitate innovation and experimentation. • Development of syllabi, textbooks and teaching-learning resources could be carried out in a decentralised and participatory manner involving teachers, experts from universities, NGOs and teachers' organisations.

150 131 – II PPENDIX A Hkkjr ljdkj ekuo lalk/u fodkl ea=kky; ekè;fed vkSj mPprj f'k{kk foHkkx ubZ fnYyh&110 001 Go v er nment of India y of Human R esour ce De v elopment Ministr HkkjrsUnz flag cloku par tment of Secondar y & Higher Educa tion De , New Delhi - 110001 f'k{kk lfpo 128 ‘C’ Wing, Shastri Bhavan el. : 23382698 F ax : 23385807 T 23386451, B.S. BASW AN E-mail: [email protected] EDUCA TION SECRET AR Y 21-7-2004 Dear Professor Dixit, es the f ollo wing: he Na y on Educa tion 1986, as modif ied in 1992, en T visa tional P g olic arious par e ust be r y m olic w P the Ne s of ameter the v tion of he implementa T “11.5 vie w ed ppr ear v ess of y f er v e s . A e y aisals a t shor t inter v als will also be made to ascer tain the pr o g r i implementation and trends emerging from time to time”. T par 2. ed under the Na y on g r olic amme of Action (PO A) 1992, tional P pr e he Pr o . tion 1986 la ys do wn some of the concer ns to be ad Educa essed thr ough the r e vie w dr the PO Y our a ttention is dr a A. wn to Cha pter 8 of or , 3. Since the pr esent cur riculum fr ame w k w as r eleased f our y ear s a g o it is time to te the pr ocess of r e vie w and r ene w al of the cur riculum. T he NCER T ma y initia te initia action f or cur riculum r ene w al. wn e tha 4. W hile under taking the r e vie w , y ou ma y kindl y ensur t the pr ocesses as laid do , the criticism t ha v e e v olv ed o v er a period of time or tha ar e not viola ted. Y ou ar e a w ar e of regarding the short-circuiting and the inadequacies of procedures followed during the vie w . inalisa f the ear lier r e tion of 5 The textbooks of the NCERT have drawn serious academic criticism during the last f e w y ear s . Y ou ar e alr ead y in the pr ocess of handling the contr o v er sy r e g ar ding the Histor y vie books W hile under sta ting the pr esent r e . w , y ou ma y lik e to ad dr ess the question of om ho w the books emana ting fr om a ne w cur riculum fr ame w or k could be insula ted fr h distor . tions suc W hile under taking the r e vie w w 6. ashpal Y e into account the ould tak ou w e y e sur e ar , t on ’ e Committee r A. the PO pter 8 of and Cha den ithout Bur W ning ‘Lear por 7. T he NCFSE should al w a mon y with the idea of India, as enshrined in its ys be in har eminding e hile to k er y one associa ted with the thw or be w It could Constitution. p r ee v

151 132 review of the following words in which the noble idea of India has been given in the Preamble to the Constitution: “ WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA , having solemnly resolved to SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR constitute India into a DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE , social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQ Y of sta tus and of oppor tunity; U ALIT and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the ...” Nation ula e ar e conf ident tha t the f 8. m W tion of the ne w NCFSE will g ener a te enthusiasm or among the academic comm unity and the wider ci vil society . Y ou ma y accor ding l y set in motion all the a ttendant acti or this pur pose . vities f . ith r g ar ds and best wishes f W entur e e or this v sd/- [B .S . Bas w an] Pr of . H.P . Dixit Director r tional Council f or Educa tional R esear c h and T Na aining 17-B , Sri A ur obindo Mar g New Delhi- 110016

152 133 Hkkjr ljdkj ekuo lalk/u fodkl ea=kky; ekè;fed vkSj mPprj f'k{kk foHkkx ubZ fnYyh&110 001 India Go v er nment of elopment v Ministr y of Human R esour ce De HkkjrsUnz flag cloku & Higher Educa tion De par tment of Secondar y f'k{kk lfpo 128 ‘C’ Wing, Shastri Bhavan , New Delhi - 110001 el. T 23385807 : 23386451, 23382698 F ax : AN B.S. BASW E-mail: [email protected] AR TION SECRET EDUCA Y h.4 .11-17/2004-Sc 2 Ma y, 2005 D.O.No Dear Professor Krishna Kumar, Kindly recollect the discussions we had on the National Curriculum Framework for School Educa tion (NCFSE). In this r eg ard please r efer to m y D .O. letter of even n umber dated 21.7.2004 regarding initiating the process of review and the renewal of the National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE)-2000. I had mentioned in para t on “Lear Without 6 of this letter to tak e into account the Yash P al Committee r epor ning Burden”, while undertaking the review of NCFSE-2000. Now that the National Curricu- T, we hope tha lum F rame work has been pr epar ed b y the NCER hile pr t, w eparing the textbooks based on the new curriculum, the principles underlined in the ‘Learning Without Burden’ report will be fully taken into account. With r eg ards and best wishes . sd/- (B.S. BASWAN) Prof. Krishna Kumar Director, NCERT Sri Aurobindo Marg NEW DELHI-110016

153 134 INDEX viii, 2, 4, 10, 12, 21, 22, 26, 29, 34, 46, 55, 58–60, 61, 66, 79, 82, Activity 88, 95, 102, 105, 107, 111, 112, 123. 16, 51, 57. Adolescent Adult vii, xviii, 12–14, 105, 124, 125. Aesthetic x, 11, 16, 29, 31, 35, 37, 55, 56, 68, 75, 100, 108. Aim viii, 10, 29, 33, 37, 39, 42, 45, 51, 88, 98, 111. Arts x, 11, 15, 22, 28, 30, 31, 35, 54–56, 69, 70, 99–100. ix, Assessment xvi, 25, 28, 4,0 48, 60, 65–66, 71–76, 115, 116. xi, 42, 44, 62. Attitude Biology 64,70. Calendar 79, 116. Capability 12, 26, 30. Chemistry 64. Childhood vii, xviii, 4, 5, 12, 60, 65–66, 124. 7, 9. Citizenship 31, 36, 37, 40, 41. Classical 37, 39, 44, 47, 48, 75, 88. Cognitive Collaborative learning 20, 112 Commerce 53, 69. Commission 3, 7, 8, 15, 81, 89, 102, 103, 107, 111. Commitment 1, 2, 5, 7, 11, 23, 58, 62, 63, 121. Common core 4, 5. Common School System iv, 15, 103. Community iii, ix, xi, 8–10, 13, 14, 20, 33, 39, 41, 78, 84–86, 89–93, 95– 96, 104, 109, 112, 119, 120, 121. Computer Science 45, 46. Concurrent List 3.

154 135 Constitution 3, 7, 9, 37, 49, 53, 86, 89. 17. Construction of knowledge 73, 76, 115. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) Corporal punishment 13, 14, 90, Crafts ix, x, 5, 22, 31, 32, 55, 56, 92, 98, 100, 118, 125. iii, vii, xi, xviii, 2, 3, 6, 10, 11, 13, 38, 54, 55, 60, 67, 68, Creative 80–81, 97–98, 106, 116, 120, 121, 125. Cultural 13, 18, 23, 29, 36, 38, 52, 54, 55, 62, 82, 83, 85, 89, 93, 103, 108, 110, 117, 122. Curriculum load iii, 2, 4, 14, 49. Dance x, 15, 55, 56, 64. Decentralisation 5, 24, 67, 101. Democracy 5, 7, 8, 23, 62, 85, 86, 92, 105, 120. DIETs 106, 111–114, 120, 122. Disabilities 5, 11, 18, 23, 38, 66, 84. 13–15, 24, 29, 31, 32, 42, 45, 49, 59, 89, 90, 109, 114, 116. Discipline 1, 4–7, 9, 13, 23, 36, 51, 54, 62, 83, 84, 102, 119, 120, 122, Diversity 125. Drama 38, 95. Drawing 21, 31, 51, 54, 61, 81, 95–96. Duties 7, 63. ECCE viii, 65–67, 76. Economics 50, 53, 55. Educational Technology 97, 102. Egalitarianism 5, 86. Elementary viii, xi, 2, 5, 25, 40, 57, 66–68, 76, 99, 122. English v, ix, xviii, 38–40, 66, 67, 69, 98, 100, 113, 115. Enquiry 51.

155 136 Environment iv, viii, ix, xi, 3, 5, 6, 9, 13, 17, 21, 23, 24, 28, 31, 52–54, 57, 62–67, 79, 80, 83, 86, 92–94, 99, 103, 104, 110, 115, 118, 120, 121. Equality vii, 7, 23, 25, 34, 51, 53, 62, 82–83, 86, 90, 102, 120. 57, 83, 96–97, 99, 101, 103, 112. Equipment Equity 49, 83. 5, 26, 28, 63, 64. Ethics Ethos viii, x, 3, 6, 8, 89, 96, 124. Evaluation xi, 14, 24, 27, 34, 40, 60, 61, 71–73, 75–77, 92, 111, 113–117, 122, 124–125. 52. EVS Facilitator 19, 89, 107, 109, 114. Faith 7, 8. Flexibility vii, 4, 21, 23, 24, 46, 60, 67, 75, 102–105, 115. Fraternity 7, 53, 86. Freedom i v , xviii, 3, 5, 9, 10, 40, 48, 51, 53, 118. Furniture 13, 81–83. xviii, 15, 23, 30, 44, 57, 58, 76. Games viii, 5, 9,17, 21, 23, 25, 28, 49, 51–53, 59, 66, 83, 85, 94, 99, 103, Gender 110. Geography 50-51, 53–55. Globalisation 5, 9. Grades 22, 42, 48, 52, 76, 97, 122. Guiding Principles viii, 4, 10, 120. Habitat 57, 64, 94, 116. Health and physical education ix, x. 15, 35, 56, 57, 64, 123. Heritage ix, x, 5, 7, 24, 32, 38, 55–56, 98. Higher Secondary 43, 45, 57. HIV/AIDS 17, 57, 58.

156 137 Home language 36–38, 92, 103. 96. Home work Human Rights 9, 23, 51, 62, 84. 49. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Inclusive viii, 13, 14, 17, 26, 55, 68, 84, 99, 100, 103, 117, 122. vii, 1, 3, 11, 17,24, 54, 104. Independence In-service 40–41, 102, 107, 111–114, 121–122. Justice ix, 7, 9, 10, 29, 61, 83, 85, 86, 103, 105, 123. vii, Kothari Commission 15, 51, 81, 89, 103, 107. 36, 38, 40, 41. Language Education Learning Without Burden vii, 2–4. Liberty 7, 53, 86. Libraries 39, 41, 70, 90, 91. Literacy 2, 36-37, 39, 45, 67, 71–72, 99. Literature 38, 70. ix, 6, 60. Mariginalisd Marks iii, 48, 67–68, 75–76, 88, 111, 114, 115, 124. Material viii, 2, 38, 41,–42, 54, 56, 60, 73, 92, 94, 96, 98, 99, 102, 118. Mathematics xv, 23, 25, 32, 33, 38, 40, 42, 79, 86, 94, 98, 99, 113. Mathematics Laboratories 45. Mental representation 20. Minority ix, 37, 42, 83–84. Modern xviii, 37, 45,–46, 53. Moral 7, 14, 16, 23, 28, 30, 51, 63, 124. Morning assembly 78, 96. Mother tongue iii, ix, 3, 8, 36, 37, 67, 92. Motivation 42, 61, 66, 75, 87, 102.

157 138 Multicultural 2, 7. 96, 98. Multigrade Class Multigrade Schools 9. 36–37. Multilingualism Music x, 41, 55–56, 64, 66, 73, 96. Nai Talim 3. National Identity 5, 7. National Integration 4. National policy on education vii, 1, 4, 5. National System of Education 103. 5. Native wisdom 4. National Curriculum Framework for School Education,1988 ms Nor xi, 17, 62–63, 71, 82–84, 89, 102, 104, 105, 121. Panchayti Raj 5. Paradigm ix, 85, 111, 115. Parents iii, v , vi, xi, 9, 21, 46, 51, 55, 57, 62,–63, 72, 77 113, 120, 124– 125. Participation vii, xi, 9, 10, 13, 15, 27, 50, 53, 74, 83, 85–88, 92–93, 104, 105, 110, 122. Peace ix, x, 2, 5, 6, 9, 35, 61–64, 99. P g o g y ix, 13, 23, 28, 41, 48, 53, 60, 65, 71, 80, 92, 107, 113, 116. eda Physics 64, 70. Play xviii, 6, 13, 15, 21, 23, 26, 34, 35, 41,–43, 46, 54, 58, 59, 67, 78, 81, 90, 94, 104, 106, 109, 111, 114, 121, 122. Plurality iii, viii, 3, 53, 66, 67, 100, 103, 122. P olitical Science 50–51, 53, 65. P olity viii, 5, 6, 7, 33, 51.

158 139 Practices 5, 10, 13, 21, 27, 31, 33, 46, 58, 66, 75, 81, 82, 84, 85, 90, 101, 102, 105, 106, 111, 112, 114, 120–122, 124. Pre-primary 44, 56, 60. vice Pr 41, 57, 102, 107, 111, 113, 114. e-ser Primary 37, 38, 42–44, 57. holo g y 53. Psy c 102, 108. Professionalisation Psychomotor 48, 117. Quality vii, viii, xi, 7, 9, 22, 26, 31, 42, 43, 55, 56, 66, 67, 69, 72, 73, 75, 80–84, 92, 93, 102–106, 112, 114–116, 120–124. Question iii, xi, 14, 20, 21, 28, 29, 34, 43, 61, 63, 74, 107, 114. Religion viii, 23, 49, 96. Rights 23, 52, 62, 81, 83–85, 87, 88, 97. 91–93, v vii, xi, 20, 46, 49, 53, 66, Rural , 105, 114, 115, 117, 118, 83, Sanskrit vi, 36, 37. SC ix, 23, 53, 82, 83. Science v , viii, ix, xii, xiii, xv , 19, 23, 25, 31, 32, 33, 38, 42, 44, 46, 48, 79, 84, 93, 95, 100, 107, 122, 124, 125. Scientif T emper 50. ic 48, v xi, xi v , xvi, xvii, Secondary 40, 43, , 57, 68, 93, 94, 97, 102, 105, 14, 107, 112, 117, 118, 122. Secondary Education Commission 94. Secularism 53, 83 84, 120. Sharing 14, 20, 30, 61, 88, 89, 113, 119–121. Skills i v , viii, 14, 15, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 30–32, 37–41, 44, 48, 50, 56, 59, 67, 72, 76, 79, 87, 108, 111, 112, 115–119. Social Science viii, ix, xvi, 25, 32, 50, 51, 53, 112. Sociolo g y xiii, 50, 53. ST ix, 2, 23, 82.

159 140 Stereotype 17, 23, 96. 18. Stigmatisation Syllabi viii, 40, 41, 49, 51, 58, 70, 84, 107, 122, 125. x, xi, xvii, 6, 39, 40, 56, 57, 64. Teacher Education Test 21, 72 74, 76, 78, 115, 116. viii, xvii, 2–4, 8, 14, 41, 49, 51, 72–74, 89–90, 92, 94, 95, 102, Textbooks 103, 119, 120, 122, 124. Theatre 41, 55, 56. iii, i v , x, Time 1, 7, 10, 13, 14, 17, 19, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 35, 38, xvi, 41, 43, 44, 51, 55–56, 58, 60, 64–65, 71, 73, 74, 76, 103, 113– 115, 117–122. Time T a b le 98. University v xii, xiii, 65, 122. , 9, 10, 46, 53, 66, 106. Urban V alues vii, x, 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30, 34, 35, 41, 48, 51–52, 60–64, 66, 102, 107, 108, 116, 120. V oca tional Educa tion and T r aining (VET) xvii, 117. W k as a P eda g o gic Medium 116. or W or k–center ed educa tion 101, 116, 117. Y o g a 15, 56–58, 73.

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