21789 spm unfccc lowres

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1 Climate Action Now Summary for Policymakers 2015

2 © 2015 United Nations Climate Change Secretariat All rights reserved. This publication is issued for public information purposes and is not an official text of the Convention in any legal or technical sense. Unless otherwise noted in captions or graphics all matter may be freely reproduced in part or in full, provided the source is acknowledged. For further information contact United Nations Climate Change Secretariat Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1 53113 Bonn, Germany Telephone +49 228 815 10 00 Telefax +49 228 815 19 99 For more information, please visit: ISBN 978-92-9219-163-4 Design and layout: Phoenix Design Aid A/S

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword by Christiana Figueres iv Introduction 1 2 Key messages for policymakers 4 CHAPTER I – Scientific and policy context for climate action The scientific case for urgent action 6 8 The effects of inaction Barriers to action 10 11 Realizing mitigation potential and harnessing multiple co-benefits from action 12 CHAPTER II – Priority thematic areas 14 Renewable energy Energy efficiency 20 Transport 25 30 Carbon capture, use and storage 35 greenhouse gases Non-CO 2 Land use climate action 40 45 Adaptation co-benefits CHAPTER III – The power of international cooperation 50 The catalytic role of the UNFCCC 53 Intergovernmental organizations and development institutions that foster climate action 54 Inspiring action by non-State actors 55 CHAPTER IV – The path towards greater ambition and action through 2020 and beyond 58 National policies that stimulate investment in low-carbon development and sustainable growth 61 Fostering international cooperation on climate change 62 Encouraging further engagement by non-State actors 62 Endnotes 64

4 iv FOREWORD By Christiana Figueres Executive Secretary United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Climate action now offers every nation on the planet a clear path towards the shared aim of a healthier, more prosperous and more secure future. Nations now increasingly understand that economic prosperity, sustainable development and environmental stewardship present an intertwined challenge that must be addressed with coor- dinated and consistent policies both in and across ministries and nations. Nations all also understand that climate change presents the single biggest threat to the hard won advances the world has made under the Millennium Development Goals and will be a defining factor in the success or failure of the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals, depending on whether or not we allow the global temperature rise this century to exceed 2 degrees Celsius. Yet at the heart of this sobering dynamic lies its remarkable solut ion: the very policies that must deal with climate change also offer the most effective, readily achievable set of respo nses to reach a prosperous and stable environ - mentally healthy world for all. In the past two years, this fact has been recognized at every level of government, business and civil society. Under the UN Climate Change Convention governments have led a significant effort during their series of technical expert meetings to identify and sco pe out the type and form of policies that lead to effective climate action. That is why I am delighted and honoured to present this Summary for Policymakers, representing as it does the distillation of these efforts and insights from across the globe. Th is summary, for example, shows how the strong deployment of policies within renewable energy, energy efficiency, transport, land use, carbon capture, use and storage and non-CO gases dramatically reduces greenhouse gas emissions at the same time as advancing goals 2 ealth and work, lower government spending in no less than 15 other areas, including citizens’ quality of life, h and higher tax revenues, better energy security and delivery and improved private sector profits. Moreover, these good practice policies, which relate specifically to sectors and areas with a high mitigation potential, can be replicated, tailored and scaled up based on countries’ national ci rcumstances. This summary also identifies specific actions and avenues of cooperation that countries could pursue to increase their ambition to reduce greenhouse gases. Many of these also speak to the urgency of adaptation and building more resilient countries and communities. This comprehensive vision must also be realized through an unprece- ugh full engagement with the already massive dented level of cooperation regionally and internationally and thro and ever increasing mobilization of non-state actors in support of and as a supplement to public climate policy. As a result, this summary serves as a straight forward, inspiring go-t o-reference providing comprehensive informa - tion to assist ministers, advisors and policymakers pursuing climate actions now and into the future. The world will emerge from Paris in 2015 with a new, universal climate change agreement which articulates a far reaching and long-term vision of a world free from of povert y through the social and economic opportunities created by the transition to a low-emission and climate resilient f uture. We are at a turning point which sends a loud, clear and serious signal from governments to citizens and the private sector that the transformation of the global economy is inevitable, beneficial and already underway. Responding to climate change is a generational journey, an effort that must be sustained and increased over decades to come. But the sooner and faster the world acts the greater chance of arriving at the future we all need. This summary can help to elevate the global response now and into the future by setting out options for clear, well-designed and cooperative policies that have been tested and proven to work to the benefit of all people. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

5 1 INTRODUCTION Parties have been actively engaging a broad range of stakeholders to encourage climate action and enhance ambition in the pre-2020 period. A prominent forum under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to facilitate this engagement and participation is the in-session technical expert meetings organized under the technical examination process. These technical expert meetings, which began in anizations, civil society, subnational authorities, 2014, provide a platform for Parties to engage international org academic institutions and the private sectoron climate change; identify policy options, practices and technologies with high mitigation potential; and support the accelerated implementation of policy options by Parties. To reflect on the information resulting from the in-session technical expert meetings, the SPM draws on the associated technical papers on the mitigation benefits of actions, submissions from Parties and observer organizations, initiatives and options to enhance mitigation ambition identified during discussions, and other relevant information on the implementation of policy options. The aim of this SPM is to transform this informa - tion into a comprehensive, high-level summary of concrete actions Parties can pursue, in accordance with their - national circumstances, in the pre-2020 period to increase their ambition and strengthen broad-based interna tional cooperation. Specifically, the SPM: Highlights key messages for policymakers; • Provides a brief overview of the current global state of play of clima te change; • Identifies good practice policies, initiatives and actions that could be scaled up and replicated by Parties to • realize significant mitigation potential in the areas of renewabl e energy, energy efficiency, carbon capture, use and storage, transport, non-CO greenhouse gases (GHGs) and land use. Related adaptation co-benefits are 2 also highlighted; 1 Identifies international organizations and cooperative initiatives that can help to support and increase pre-2020 • ambition by Parties, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its constituted bodies; Highlights the numerous commitments and actions being taken by non-State actors to address climate • change, as well as their vital role in achieving future emission red uctions; and Identifies overarching, concrete actions Parties can take now to increase their pre-2020 ambition and further • engage non-State actors. By utilizing the information contained in the SPM, Parties can in crease their pre-2020 ambition, further reduce the emissions gap to limit global warming to 2°C, and lay the fo undation for post-2020 action. For the online version of the SPM, please visit: Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

6 2 KEY MESSAGES FOR POLICYMAKERS Enhanced action is 1. urgently needed as current pre-2020 pledges fall short The pre-2020 emissions pledges made by more than 90 Parties through the Cancun Agreements under the UNFCCC are significant but do not go far enough to limit global warming to 2 °C, the upper Solutions exist to limit Parties have agreed upon. The 2. limit warming to 2 °C United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that global emissions Failure to close the gap between the current will continue to increase, reaching 53 emissions pathways implied by the Parties’ gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents pledges and the 2 °C compatible emissions (Gt CO pathways will result in significantly eq) (range 52-54 Gt CO eq) in 2 2 greater climate risks, higher mitigation 2020 and 60 Gt CO eq (range 58-62 Gt 2 and adaptation costs and negative CO eq) in 2030, taking into account the 2 impacts on human health and sustainable Cancun pledges and commitments under development. To address the emissions the Kyoto Protocol. This would result in gap, there is a range of policies, measures global emissions remaining well above and actions that Parties could replicate the 2 °C-compatible emissions pathways, and scale up now as part of their efforts to resulting in a significant “emissions gap”. accelerate pre-2020 mitigation action. This could also lay the foundations for post-2020 action as identified in Parties’ Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted in the context of the new agreement to be adopted in Paris in December 2015. Parties have identified, through the technical examination process under the UNFCCC, six thematic areas with high mitigation potential, opportunities for action and various co-benefits, namely renewable energy, energy efficiency, the urban environment (including transport), carbon capture, use and storage, methane and other non-CO GHGs and land use. 2 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

7 Leadership and 3 3. willingness to act are required to overcome barriers to mitigation action Financial support, Realizing this mitigation potential and 4. harnessing the multiple co-benefits technology transfer associated with climate action and and capacity- sustainable development requires both building at scale sustained political will and concerted are urgently needed efforts to overcome a range of financial, technological and capacity-related barriers. The provision of financial resources, Overcoming these barriers will require technology transfer and capacity-building leadership at the national and international support to developing countries is central to levels, and the cooperation of governments achieving significant progress in developing at all levels, working with civil society and and implementing mitigation actions in private sector actors, with the support of all thematic areas. Targeted support at the multilateral organizations. Such leadership necessary scale would contribute to efforts is also essential to communicate the linkages by developing countries to implement between climate change, economic growth climate policies, transition to low-carbon and sustainable development to encourage economies, build climate resilience and immediate action of the necessary scale. ensure future sustainable development. Cooperative initiatives The UNFCCC has 5. 6. the potential to play are essential to a catalytic role in mobilize climate action across a range helping countries of stakeholders and overcome barriers need to be further and realize their promoted mitigation potential Cooperative initiatives allow Parties and UNFCCC, through its Technology and Financial various non-State actors to actively engage Mechanisms, which include the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the Climate one another in efforts to encourage more ambitious climate action at the subnational, Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), the national and international levels. In addition, Technology Executive Committee (TEC), the cooperative initiatives help accelerate Green Climate Fund (GCF) and the Global the development and implementation of Environment Facility (GEF), provides essential low-emission solutions by coordinating elements of the overall framework and tools efforts among Parties and non-State actors, that are urgently needed for delivering finance, technology development and transfer, such as cities, regional authorities and and capacity-building to developing countries. the private sector. To build on the recent In addition, the technical examination process mobilization of climate action, such as the has begun to inspire further ambition by UN Secretary-General’s Climate Summit in September 2014 and the Lima-Paris Action providing a forum for Parties, international Agenda, further promotion and scaling up of organizations, subnational authorities, civil society and the private sector to discuss cooperative initiatives is essential. actions and activities that are transformative, replicable and scalable. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

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9 “Human influence on the climate system is clear and growing, with impacts observed on all continents. However, many options are available to adapt to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to ensure the risks from climate change remain manageable.” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CHAPTER I Scientific and policy context for climate action

10 6 The scientific case for urgent action The scientific community has established that it is This warning, from the Intergovernmental Panel extremely likely that human influence has been the on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) published in 2013, is the strongest yet from dominant cause of the global warming observed the global scientific community. Moreover, the IPCC over the past 50 years. That warming has already led to observed changes in the global water cycle, report is only one of numerous warnings over recent reductions in snow and ice, global mean sea level decades from scientists regarding the effects of - rise and temperature extremes. The future climate humankind’s increasing GHG emissions on com change impacts could be unprecedented in scale, and munities, ecosystems and economies around the world. As GHG emissions have continued to rise, these limiting them will require “substantial and sustained 2 warnings have become more urgent and dire. reductions of GHG emissions”. World by sector All +24% 2000–2010 50 All +5% 1990–2000 All +14% 1980–1990 -eq/yr) 2 40 All +21% +36% 1970–1980 +18% 30 +27% +18% +41% +25% +9% +25% +1% 20 +35% +5% +45% +9% +2% +4% +15% 10 +8% +11% +11% +11% +13% +9% +26% +27% 0 Annual GHG Emissions (GtCO 1980 2010 2000 1990 1970 Buildings Energy Waste Transport Industry AFOLU Source: IPCC Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report - Summary for Policymakers Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

11 7 1.5 °C. That goal was reaffirmed in the following year’s At the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Confer- Cancun Agreements, under which more than 90 coun - ence in Copenhagen, the world’s leaders pledged at tries, accounting for 80 per cent of total global GHG the highest political level to limit the increase in global 3 emissions, pledged to reduce their emissions by 2020. average temperatures to below 2 °C, or potentially Greenhouse Gas Emissions Target Type of Pre-2020 Pledges Baseline scenario target Not applicable Base year target Fixed level target Intensity target No pledge submitted is> Source: World Resources Institute,. Available at

12 8 The effects of inaction The global community has deemed that limiting the temperature rise to below 2 °C would offer a reasonable chance of avoiding the worst impacts of climate change. However, in the absence of efforts beyond those already in place, global mean surface temperatures will increase by 3.7-4.8 °C above pre-industrial levels this century (with a full range of 2.5-7.8 °C when uncertainty is taken 7 into account). Such a temperature rise would have profound effects on the global environment and human society – and there is no certainty that adaptation measures in the face of a 4 °C global average temperature rise 8 would be successful. Highest Emissions Scenario Annual carbon dioxide emissions continue to rise through 2100, rising 108 percent above 2010 levels by 2050. 35 30 25 Global 20 temperature increases by 15 2045 up to 4.8°C. Year the carbon budget is exhausted, 10 locking in 2°C of warming. 5 0 -5 2040 2012 2060 2050 2090 2030 2020 2070 2100 2080 Annual Emissions (PgC) - °C of tempera More than 4 About 38% more of the In the 2080s, about 12 projected global ture rise will likely bring times as many people are decreased agricultural population will face expected to be annually production, loss of critical reduced renewable exposed to the amount of ecosystem functions, and groundwater resources water associated with a extinction of many animal by the 2080s compared 100-year flood compared and plant species. to the 1980s. to the 1980s. ises the risks humankind faces from climate But even delaying the actions needed to meet the 2 °C objective ra change. The longer emission reductions are postponed, the more difficult and expensive it becomes to stay below xample, if emissions continue unabated and the 2 °C target and ensure future sustainable development. For e reach 55 Gt CO eq by 2030, global emissions will need to be reduced by an unprecedented 6 per cent annually 2 9 between 2030 and 2050 to limit warming to 2 °C. This would increase mitigation costs by 44 per cent. Source: World Resources Institute. Available at Based on information contained in the IPCC AR5 and the Representative Concentration Pathway Database. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

13 9 co-benefits include cost savings, poverty reduction, The good news is that there are cost-effective food security, job creation, energy security, improved mitigation actions with economic, social and - public health, reductions of pollutants and asso environmental co-benefits that can close the esti - ciated health risks, reduction in adaptation needs mated emissions gap. These types of co-benefits can and biodiversity improvements. The figure below - influence policy choices and assist Parties in achiev provides an overview of mitigation co-benefits, with ing their economic priorities and the sustainable more specific information on co-benefits for each development goals adopted by the United Nations thematic area provided in chapter II. General Assembly in September 2015. Mitigation Jobs and Poverty income alleviation generation Technological Energy competitiveness access Urban and innovation Energy security planning Social Economic Sustainable Food economic security growth Mitigation co-benefits Health and Cost savings well-being GHG Environmental emission quality reductions Environmental Climate Clean air resilience Improved sanitation Source: International Energy Agency. 2014. Multiple Benefits of E nergy Efficiency. Available at https://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/MultipleBenefits2014SUM.pdf Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

14 10 Barriers to action pricing; the existence of inefficient subsidies; and While numerous potential mitigation actions have inadequate financial support for developing coun - been identified, obstacles to scaling up and deep - tries. Overcoming some of these barriers will require ening climate action remain for many countries, international cooperation, but many can be tackled including economic, institutional, informational by national, subnational or regional governmental and capacity barriers. Specifically, four barriers recur bodies acting in concert or alone, as highlighted in across many or all sectors: a lack of institutional, the figure below. regulatory and legal frameworks; a lack of carbon The existence of inefficient A lack of institutional, subsidies regulatory and legal Many activities that cause climate change benefit frameworks from government subsidies. For example, USD 548 To facilitate effective climate action, billion was paid in 2013 in direct fossil fuel subsidies governments must develop the globally, which encourages continued fossil fuel appropriate strategies, institutions, consumption in lieu of transitioning to other, low- regulations and laws with the 12 carbon fuel sources. engagement of civil society and private The Group of Twenty (G20), sector actors. Without such instruments, which consists of the world’s 20 largest economies, facilitating effective climate action have pledged to phase out inefficient fossil fuel will be difficult, if not impossible. The subsidies, as have the members of the Asia-Pacific 13 institutions charged with implementing Economic Cooperation forum. In addition, a number or overseeing climate actions need to be of developing economies, such as Angola, Egypt, equipped with appropriate resources Ethiopia, Indonesia, Iran and Morocco, are taking 14 and mandates. advantage of low oil prices to cut fossil fuel subsidies. Inadequate finance, A lack of carbon pricing The absence of a price on carbon technology and capacity- emissions means that emitters do not building support bear the full environmental and social In the absence of strong carbon pricing, many costs of climate change. Putting an low-carbon technologies available are more adequate price on carbon, whether expensive than their business-as-usual carbon- through carbon taxes or cap-and-trade intensive alternatives, or may require upfront programmes, will encourage changes funding to purchase technology and/or build such as investment in and use of low- institutional, regulatory or technical capacity. carbon technologies and fuels. Around 40 Therefore, substantial grants, loans or concessionary national and more than 20 subnational finance are needed to support many of these jurisdictions responsible for almost a actions, particularly in developing countries. In quarter of global emissions have already 2013, global climate finance flows from public and 15 introduced, or have plans to introduce, private sources together stood at USD 331 billion. 10 a price on carbon. However, the International Energy Agency (IEA) While this is triple estimates that additional investment averaging USD the coverage of a decade ago, it is still far 1 trillion per year will be needed in the energy sector short of what is likely to be necessary to 11 16 until 2050 in order to stay below the 2 °C threshold. help to limit warming to 2 °C. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

15 11 Realizing mitigation potential and harnessing multiple co-benefits from action The objective of these meetings is to promote coop- Recognizing the emissions gap and the urgent need - eration on concrete actions related to identified mit to address it, as well as potential barriers to imple - igation opportunities in accordance with nationally mentation, Parties to the UNFCCC have repeatedly defined development priorities. The technical expert called for “enhanced ambition” from Parties ahead of meetings have covered a wide range of thematic 2020. In response, the UNFCCC secretariat has been areas with high mitigation potential and co-benefits, coordinating technical expert meetings since 2014 to including renewable energy, energy efficiency, urban assist Parties in examining opportunities for actions environments (including transport), carbon capture, with high mitigation potential, including those with use and storage, non-CO adaptation, health and sustainable development GHGs and land use. 2 co-benefits. The ultimate focus is on the implemen - tation of policies, practices and technologies that are This SPM reflects the thematic areas of the technical substantial, scalable and replicable. expert meetings and highlights their mitigation potential, as summarized in the figure below. Mitigation Potential by 2020 Renewable Energy Energy Efficency Transport Land Use CCUS Non Co2 Gases (Agriculture & Forestry) 1.0-3.0 1.7-2.5 0.2-0.4 2.7 2.0 2.4-8.5 Gigatons Gigatons Gigatons Gigatons Gigatons Gigatons 10-19 Gigatons CO2 equivalents Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

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17 “An increase in global temperature is proportional to the build-up of long-lasting greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially CO . Taking more action 2 now reduces the need for more extreme action later to stay within safe emission limits.” Achim Steiner, United Nations Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UNEP CHAPTER II Priority thematic areas

18 Priority thematic areas RENEWABLE ENERGY

19 Priority thematic areas RENEWABLE ENERGY 15 Mitigation potential and co-benefits 17 Renewable energy, excluding hydropower, accounted for 9.1 per cent of global electricity generation in 2014, up from just 1.8 per cent in 2004. In addition, investment in renewable energy has grown 500 per cent since 2004, 18 reaching USD 270 billion in 2014. This momentum has led to approximately 58.5 per cent of net additions to 19 global power capacity in 2014 coming from renewables, which is more than from coal and gas combined. Within the energy sector, actions to scale up renewable energy offer significant promise for large-scale emission 20 reductions. UNEP estimates that renewable energy could deliver 1.0-3.0 Gt CO while eq of reductions by 2020, 2 doubling renewable energy penetration could lead to annual reductions of 8.6 Gt CO eq by 2030 according to the 2 21 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Annual renewables capacity addition by technology 2001-2013 New Investment in Clean Energy 318 Billions of Dollars, 2004-2013 294 140 Giga Watts 272 268 Billions of Dollars in clean energy investment 206 Ocean 120 205 Geothermal 175 128 100 Wind 88 60 Bioenergy 80 CSP Solar PV 60 40 20 Hydropower 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2001 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2002 2003 2008 Renewables Power Capacity Additions in Giga Watts Sources: IRENA REthinking Energy 2014 and Bloomberg New Energy Finance Virtually all countries have renewable energy resources they can tap, and the technical potential for their use 22 is enormous: studies suggest renewable energy could meet 95 per cent of global energy demand by 2050. In addition, renewable energy policies can produce multiple sustainable development co-benefits, including cost savings, poverty reduction, job creation, enhanced productivity a nd competitiveness, energy security, trade benefits associated with decreased energy imports or expanded energy exports, energy access, improved energy nd reductions in GHG emissions and other system stability and resilience, improved health and well-being a 23 pollutants, among others. However, barriers to meeting this potential include the relative ly high cost of some renewable energy technolo - gies, a lack of affordable upfront finance, technical issues such as grid access and stability, a lack of research and 24 development tailored to local circumstances and a lack of capacity to develop stable policy environments. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

20 Priority thematic areas RENEWABLE ENERGY 16 Moving forward through policy options Significant policy development experience has helped drive the recent growth in renewable energy technology deployment. Many of these policies have been shown to be scalable, replicable and transformative for developed and developing countries alike. Such polices include grid access and distributed generation, renewable energy targets, feed-in tariffs and tax incentives. GRID ACCESS AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION FOR RENEWABLES: For many countries, successful renewable energy deployment involves ensuring that systems have access to electricity grids and that those grids are sufficiently robust to ab sorb a growing proportion of often intermittent generation. Meanwhile, for the nearly-1.3 billion people worldwi de living without electricity access, the World Bank and the IEA estimate approximately 60 per cent would be more efficiently and cost-effectively served 25 through mini-grids or other small-scale off-grid systems than through grid extension. Smart technical and regulatory solutions for renewable energy Republic of Korea “Smart grids” that use digital technology to manage flows of power more efficiently are seen as vital for integrating a large volume of distributed, intermittent, low-carbon generation while improving energy efficiency. Countries such as the Republic of Korea, which has launched a smart grid initiative and road map, see the development and implementation of smart grid technology as a major economic 26 opportunity. Kenya In Kenya, the Rural Electrification Authority (REA) was establish ed under Energy Act No. 12 of 2006 to enhance rural electrification. To address energy access issues, the REA supports mini-grid deployment in a number of rural areas, where renewable energy and hybrid renewable energy-diesel 27 systems offer the most economically feasible solutions. The United States of America The United States Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative, which aims to make solar energy - tion programme. It seeks to find solu cost-competitive by the end of this decade, includes a solar integra 28 tions to issues related to grid performance and reliability caused by dispersed solar energy systems. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

21 Priority thematic areas RENEWABLE ENERGY 17 RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGETS: ts in place, typically requiring suppliers to As of early 2015, at least 164 countries had renewable energy targe 29 source a certain percentage of the power they sell from specific renewable energy technologies. Renewable energy targets as drivers towards higher ambition India 5 GW in 2015 to 175 GW by India aims to scale up its renewable energy capacity five-fold from 3 nt cumulative electric power installed 2022. In addition, India aims to achieve approximately 40 per ce capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030 with the help of technology transfer and 30 low-cost international finance, including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF). European Union The 2020 climate and energy package of the European Union (EU) includes a target to derive 20 per 31 cent of its energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. In addition, under its 2030 Framework for climate 32 and energy, the EU has committed to at least a 27 per cent share of renewable energy consumption by 2030. China In 2010 China noted its voluntary renewable energy target of incre asing the share of non-fossil consumption to around 15 per cent fuels (including, but not limited to, renewables) in primary energy 33 34 by 2020. Since then, it has increased that target to 20 per cent by 2035, as outlined in its INDC. Global Map of National Renewable Energy Targets of All Types, 2015 Countries without targets Countries with at least one type of Countries with targets at the sub-national level only national renewable energy target The designation employed and the presentation of material in this map do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of IRENA concerning the legal status of any region, country, territory, or area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers or boundaries. Source: IRENA Renewable Energy Target Setting, June 2015 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

22 Priority thematic areas RENEWABLE ENERGY 18 FISCAL AND FINANCIAL INCENTIVES: Many countries choose to support renewables by offering developers or operators tax breaks or other favourable taxation treatment, or by removing subsidies for competing fossil fuel-fired generation, which makes renewable energy more price-competitive. Fiscal and financial incentives with impact on renewable energy Sweden Sweden’s renewable certificate programme has been integral in supporting renewable electricity through an innovative bilateral partnership with Norway. Under t he market-based, technology-neutral scheme, electricity suppliers and certain end users purchase renewable energy certificates allocated to renewable energy producers on the basis of megawatts (MW) produced. The policy allows suppliers to meet their renewable energy quota while also providing additional revenue to renewable energy 35 producers. Ethiopia 600 million per year. In 2008, Ethiopia removed fossil fuel subsidies, which were costing USD This raised domestic fuel prices — for domestic kerosene by 50.4 pe r cent, petrol by 5.6 per cent, diesel 36 by 39.4 per cent, light fuel oil by 31.7 per cent and black fuel oil by 26.5 per cent — thereby indirectly making investments in renewable energy more attractive and cost-competitive. FEED-IN TARIFFS: - for accelerating renewable energy deploy Feed-in tariffs are one of the most widely used policies in the world ment. They are used to encourage new entrants into renewable energy markets by paying renewable energy producers a guaranteed fee for the power they produce. As of early 2015, 108 countries, states or provinces had 37 feed-in tariffs in place. Feed-in tariffs: from pioneering efforts to recent widespread adoption Germany In 1990, Germany introduced its Electricity Feed-in Law, which required utilities to connect renew - 38 able energy generators to the grid and to buy the electricity produced at a specified rate. Germany’s - renewable energy policies were updated under its 2000 Energy Act to include 20-year technology-spe 39 cific tariffs that are periodically adjusted as renewable energy costs fall. This tariff programme has seen 40 renewables grow from meeting 7 per cent of electricity consumption in 2000 to 25.8 per cent in 2014. Thailand Thailand has been gradually extending a feed-in tariff programme to various types of renewable 41 energy generation, including a goal of adding 2 GW of large solar installations by 2021. In 2013, it 42 launched a programme to underwrite 1 GW of small-scale solar systems with guaranteed 25-year tariffs. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

23 Priority thematic areas RENEWABLE ENERGY 19 Solutions through international cooperation IRENA and a wide range of other international organizations and initiatives are supporting countries to estab- lish renewable energy policy frameworks, strengthen human and institutional capacity and access the finance necessary to deploy renewables. These organizations and initiatives also facilitate policy coordination among Parties, collect and disseminate information on best practices and effective mechanisms, and streamline access to relevant information on renewable energy. Examples include: The African Group renewable energy partnership proposal , which was presented during the technical expert meeting on renewable energy supply in June 2014, aims to establish a global partnershi p to accelerate energy transformation in African countries towards wider use of renewable energy, which could be supported by feed-in tariffs and other incentives. By 2020 the partnership could enable the installa tion of at least 10 GW of renewable energy capacity in Africa. In the lo nger term, by 2030, the partnership could catalyse a major transforma tion by 43 achieving the goal of universal energy access across the continent. The Clean Energy Solutions Centre is an initiative of the Clean - encour Energy Ministerial, a global forum for sharing best practices that age and facilitate the transition to a global clean energy econom y. The Centre helps governments design and adopt policies and programmes that support the deployment of clean energy technologies by offering no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data and tools in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations. Additional initiatives include: the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative , which supports gap analyses, helps develop national action plans and catalyses investment and implementation; the IRENA SIDS Lighthouses initiative, which aims to mobilize funding and political will to a dvance renewable energy deployment in island IRENA Africa Clean Energy Corridor initiative , which promotes renewable settings around the world; the power to support Africa’s economic growth; and the Global Geothermal Alliance , which provides customized support in addressing key challenges to scaling up geothermal energy deployment in developing countries. and the Other international bodies such as the GEF , the IEA , Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) 44 World Bank have significant renewable energy programmes. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

24 Priority thematic areas ENERGY EFFICIENCY Photo: Philip Lange / Shutterstock.com

25 Priority thematic areas ENERGY EFFICIENCY 21 Mitigation potential and co-benefits Improving energy efficiency reduces energy demand and in turn the need to build new energy production systems, resulting in GHG emission reductions that can be achie ved at low or negative costs, with short payback periods. Scaling up investment in energy efficiency could therefore generate a net increase in economic output of 45 USD 18 trillion globally by 2035. Energy efficiency investments become even more compelling if their benefits - beyond reduced energy demand and GHG emissions are considered. For example, such investments offer quan tifiable impacts on macroeconomic development, public budgets, health and well-being, industrial productivity 46 and energy system reliability. Potential for energy efficiency under the International Energy Agency New Policies Scenario by 2035 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Power Transport Industry Buildings Unrealised energy efficiency Realised energy efficiency Source: International Energy Agency. 2013. World Energy Outlook 2013 47 However, economic and UNEP estimates the mitigation potential of energy efficiency at 2 .0 Gt CO eq in 2020. 2 opportunities, including access to large-scale institutional barriers remain to the realization of energy efficiency - financing to implement large energy efficiency projects, a lack of capacity in designing and implementing effec 48 49 tive policies, a lack of technical expertise and poor coordination among public-sector stakeholders. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

26 Priority thematic areas ENERGY EFFICIENCY 22 Moving forward through policy options Successfully scaling up energy efficiency will require institutional, legal and regulatory frameworks. In addition, successful implementation will require a portfolio of policies and measures, such as those identified in 25 policy - recommendations by the IEA, including electrical appliance standards and labelling programmes, energy certifi 50 cation programmes, energy performance standards and incentives and tax breaks. INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE STANDARDS AND LABELLING PROGRAMMES: More than 75 countries have introduced energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and labelling pro - grammes to ensure that manufacturers inform consumers about their products’ energy use. Standards and labels are key to promoting appliance efficiency The United States The United States Energy Star programme, which covers products, buildings and industrial plants, allows appliance makers to display an Energy Star logo if t heir product exceeds energy efficiency standards set by the Government. From 1992 to 2013, the programme delivered estimated 51 savings of more than USD 295 billion on utility bills and avoided more than 2.1 Gt CO . 2 Ghana Efficient lighting schemes, with aims such as replacing incandescent light bulbs with high-effi - 52 ciency ones, could reduce emissions by 490 Mt CO annually if adopted globally. Ghana launched such 2 a programme in 2007 and, within two years, had reduced the need for power capacity at peak times by 124 MW. This saved USD 33 million per year in crude oil for powe r generation, and reduced emissions 53 by more than 100,000 tonnes CO per year. 2 PROVIDING TAX INCENTIVES: ndividuals in exchange for specific desirable Tax incentives are ways of reducing taxes for businesses and/or i actions or investments. For example, tax incentives for energy or carbon-pricing programmes can help encourage energy efficiency investments. Incentives to channel investments into energy efficient solutions Netherlands The Netherlands’ Accelerated Depreciation of Environmental Investments allows companies making environmentally beneficial investments to reduce their tax bill in the early years of the investment. South Africa aks and is open to investments in South Africa’s Section 121 Tax Allowance offers attractive tax bre 54 cleaner production technologies or technologies that improve energy efficiency. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

27 Priority thematic areas ENERGY EFFICIENCY 23 ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR BUILDINGS AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMMES: Minimum energy performance standards for buildings, appliances or vehicles also have significant promise for 55 reducing GHG emissions. In addition, certification programmes require the energy efficiency of buildings to be assessed and disclosed when they are built, sold or rented. Harnessing the vast mitigation potential in the buildings sector Singapore Singapore developed a Green Building Master Plan, with the goal of certifying 80 per cent of uildings on the basis of energy and buildings with the “Green Mark” by 2030. The initiative certifies b water efficiency, indoor environmental quality, green space integration and the use of eco-friendly 56 materials, and emphasizes high standards for measurement and verification. Japan - Since its implementation in 1998, Japan’s Top Runner programme, which sets mandatory stand ards based on the most efficient products on the market, has reduced energy consumption by 8 per cent 57 in the residential sector and 5 per cent in road transport. In 2013, the Top Runner Programme began to at loss from houses and/or buildings. include building materials that contribute to the prevention of he ENCOURAGING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRY: Government programmes that assist industry to increase energy efficiency have significant promise. Such pro - grammes are usually able to focus on knowledge-sharing and technical support, providing financial incentives, streamlining market transformation, and promoting operational and behavioural changes. The promise of energy efficiency in industry Cambodia Cambodia has actively pursued the development of green growth and policies on climate change and energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Its National Policy , Strategy and Action Plan on Energy Efficiency sets out the following strategic objectives: to improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector by 28 per cent; strengthen capacity-building in industry ene rgy efficiency; and to raise awareness among factory owners and managers regarding energy efficiency issues. Denmark Denmark’s energy savings goals, set with energy distribution companies through its National Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme, have been consistently exceeded. The programme offers cost-neutrality for participants by allowing them to pass costs on to end users, and flexibility to trade 58 credits received. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

28 Priority thematic areas ENERGY EFFICIENCY 24 Solutions through international cooperation Parties in increasing their portfolios of energy There are a number of international initiatives in place to assist efficiency policies and measures, including: The United Nations (UN)–World Bank Sustainable Energy for All initiative 59 runs a which Global Energy Efficiency Accelerator Platform , aims to double the rate of energy efficiency improvement by 2030. It subna - seeks to do so by driving action and commitments by national and tional leaders at all levels, using integrated policy and investme nt road maps to guide project implementation. The International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Coop- (IPEEC) is a forum of countries that aims to help governments eration implement policies and programmes to yield energy efficiency gains. It helps its member countries to identify and share proven practices and data on energy efficiency to better inform decision-making. IPEEC, which or is hosted by the IEA in Paris, is the lead coordinating organization f the G20 Energy Efficiency Action Plan. The En.lighten Initiative was established by UNEP and the GEF in 2009 to accelerate a global market transformation to environmentally sustainable, energy-efficient lighting technologies, as well as to d evelop strategies to phase out inefficient incandescent lamps. The initia tive serves as a platform to build synergies among international stakeholders, works, identify global best practices, create policy and regulatory frame and encourage countries to develop national and/or regional efficient lighting strategies. Sustainable Energy Initiative , Other initiatives include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s which offers technical assistance and grants to support energy efficiency, and the Renewable Energy and Energy , which invests in clean energy markets in developing countries to reduce CO Efficiency Partnership emissions 2 and build prosperity. , the IEA and the World Business Council for Sustainable GEF , Other international bodies such as the ICLEI have robust energy efficiency programmes. Development Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

29 Priority thematic areas TRANSPORT

30 Priority thematic areas TRANSPORT 26 Mitigation potential and co-benefits eq of GHG emissions globally in 2010, making it responsible for approxi - The transport sector generated 7.0 Gt CO 2 mately 23 per cent of total energy-related CO emissions. 2 1% 1 2. 1% 1.9 9.26% 1% 4. 72.06% 2010 6.52% 16% 2. 2.38% 1.6% Indirect Emissions from Road Rail Electricity Generation International Aviation O HFC & Indirect N Pipeline etc. 2 Domestic Aviation Domestic Waterborne International & Coastal Shipping Source: IPCC Working Group III AR5, Figure 8.1 Given current rates of growth for passenger and freight transportation, the transport sector’s emissions could 60 increase globally by up to 50 per cent by 2035 and almost double by 2050. - However, UNEP estimates that reduc tions of emissions from land transport, aviation and shipping of 1.7–2.5 Gt CO eq, or from one quarter to more 2 61 than one third of current emissions from the sector, are possible by 2020. Addressing the climate impacts of transportation can bring about co-benefits such as improvements in local air pollution, energy security, decongestion of roads, improved safety and increased general mobility. It can also create jobs in mass transportation, energy-efficient vehicle manufacturing and biofuel production. In addition, the IEA estimates that a shift to sustainable, low-carbon transpo rt by 2050 could save governments, companies 62 and individuals up to USD 70 trillion. The main barriers to implementing mitigation actions in the transport sector include a lack of infrastructure for new technologies, such as electric car charging stations, a lack of capital to invest in public transport options and insufficient regulatory support and key performance indicators. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

31 Priority thematic areas TRANSPORT 27 Moving forward through policy options Emissions from the transport sector can be reduced through ‘shift’ policies, which encourage users to favour lower-emission forms of transport; ‘avoid’ policies, which reduce the need for travel; and ‘improve’ policies, which 63 aim at increasing the energy efficiency of vehicles. All three policies are critical to facilitate a paradigm shift to reconcile transportation and climate change objectives. SHIFT POLICIES: These policies aim to encourage a shift from higher-emitting modes of transport to lower- or zero-carbon modes helped cut private car use, reducing emissions of transport. Bus rapid transit (BRT) schemes, for example, have and congestion. Climate-friendly alternatives to private cars in urban environments Mexico In 2005, Mexico City opened Metrobus, a BRT corridor along one of the city’s busiest streets. d to reduce CO During the first six years of operation, the first BRT line manage eq emissions by 300,000 2 , and reduce commute times from 1.5 metric tons, corresponding to USD 800,000 of income for the city 64 hours to 1 hour for this route. Mexico City has since expanded the use of BRT corridors, leading to one 65 tenth of the users of the BRT system shifting from private cars. Indonesia The city of Bogor, Indonesia, developed an urban development and mobility enhancement strategy, backed up by a public awareness campaign, to improve mobility and reduce the city’s trans - developing mass transit options and port sector GHG emissions by 33.8 per cent. The strategy included 66 improved pedestrian access, as well as road network enhancements. France Bicycle-sharing schemes have been set up in a number of cities a round the world. Among the best known is the Parisian Vélib’ scheme, launched in 2007, which now boasts more than 20,000 bikes 67 around the city. One fifth of its long-term subscribers say they dri ve less since signing up. Serbia Belgrade, Serbia, along with the Urban Planning Institute, undertook an extensive evaluation of its transport-related challenges and developed its Master Plan to 2021. The plan takes into account multiple actions to optimize connectivity, improve the safety an d quality of public transport, reduce traffic volume, oversee land-use planning and provide funding for transport projects. Initial evaluations hing and increasing frequency of show a tripling of ridership within the first six months of refurbis 68 suburban rail lines. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

32 Priority thematic areas TRANSPORT 28 AVOID POLICIES: These policies seek to reduce or avoid the need for travel through strategic urban development and spatial planning strategies that address transportation needs. How urban development and planning can help with the transportation challenge Brazil d into the city’s master plan to In Curitiba, Brazil, high-density transit corridors were integrate 69 promote residential and industrial development in those areas. As a result of these corridors and other smart transit planning decisions, Curitiba has one of the most h eavily used yet low-cost transit systems in the world. Japan In 2010, Japan released its Low Carbon City Development Guidance to support local authorities in promoting and planning for low-carbon city development. This included a description of methods and measures to pursue compact urban areas where people can live closer to their workplaces, thereby 70 reducing travel distances and alleviating transportation demand. Turkey A number of cities in Turkey (Istanbul, Antalya, Sakarya, Eskişehi r, Konya and Kayseri) have worked to address the need for infrastructure that supports active or non-motorized transport by im - proving cycling conditions since 2010. Successful BikeLab projects aim to develop city-wide networks of bike lanes with the goal that bike lanes will allow non-motorized transport to be an integral component 71 of the cities’ transport systems by 2023. IMPROVE POLICIES: s of transport. Vehicle energy efficiency stand These policies aim to reduce the climate impact of existing mode - een introduced by a number of countries and ards, which represent the most effective of such policies, have b regions. In addition, there are also standards for the share of bio fuel use for vehicles. Solutions through efficiency standards that save money and reduce emissions Brazil, India, Japan, Mexico, the EU, China, Canada, the United States of America the Republic of Korea and Nine jurisdictions – Brazil, Canada, China, the EU, India, Japan, Me xico, the Republic of Korea and the United States of America, which account for over 80 per cent of ca r sales worldwide – have established or 72 proposed GHG emission standards for light-duty vehicles. These standards are expected to improve the 73 tween 2000 and 2025. average fuel efficiency of such vehicles by around 50 per cent be Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

33 Priority thematic areas TRANSPORT 29 Solutions through international cooperation te clean transport, including: There are a large number of international initiatives that promo is a partnership of the The Global Fuel Economy Initiative IEA, UNEP, the International Transport Forum of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Council at the on Clean Transportation, the Institute for Transportation Studies - University of California Davis, and the FIA Foundation for the Au tomo nomy bile and Society. It works to secure real improvements in fuel eco and the maximum deployment of existing fuel economy technologies in vehicles around the world. The initiative promotes these objectives through shared analysis and advocacy, and the “Cleaner, More Efficient Vehicles Tool” for in-country policy support. The UNEP’s Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) is the leading global public-private initiative promoting cleaner fuels and vehicles in developing and transition countries. It brings together 72 organizations representing national governments, the fuel and vehicle a range industries, civil society, and leading experts. The PCFV provides mis - of technical, financial and networking support to reduce vehicle e sions and improve fuel economy. The SLoCaT Partnership on Sustainable Transport (SLoCaT) is a multi-stakeholder partnership established in 2009 that brings together over 90 organizations working on freight and passenger land transport in developing countries. The Partnership’s overarching goal is to mobilize global support to promote sustainable low-carbon transport and thereby reduce the growth of GHG emissions from land transport in developing countries and maximize the contribution of transport to poverty eradication and sustainable development. Public Transport Declaration on Climate Leadership Other initiatives include the , from the International Urban Electric Association of Public Transport, which aims to double the share of public transport by 2025; the Mobility Initiative Low-Carbon Sustainable Rail Transport , which promotes electric car penetration; and the Challenge , which aims to reduce the emission intensity of the sector by 50 per cent by 2030. the International and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Other international bodies such as the Maritime Organization (IMO) lead work to reduce emissions from aviation and shipping, respectively. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

34 Priority thematic areas CARBON CAPTURE, USE AND STORAGE

35 Priority thematic areas CARBON CAPTURE 31 Mitigation potential and co-benefits Alongside energy efficiency, renewable energy and other non-fossil fuel sources, carbon dioxide capture, use and storage (CCUS) is another element of the transition to a low emissions future. CCUS involves the capture of CO 2 from power plants and other energy-intensive industrial processes, and its long-term sequestration, typically in geological formations. Utilization of the captured CO is an alternative to its geological storage. 2 Not only does CCUS offer the potential to capture emissions from t he power sector but it could play a wider role in reducing the GHG emissions from industries with significant process emissions, such as chemicals, cement and 74 steel production, and agricultural processing. In many cases, the CO captured could be utilised within the same 2 industries, such as a propellant in the food and beverage indust ry. In addition, CCUS can assist countries that cur - rently heavily rely on fossil fuels to make the transition to low-emi ssion fuel sources while limiting the disruption to the local economy and employment. Globally, there are 12 operational carbon dioxide capture and st orage (CCS) projects, with a further 10 under 75 construction. The IEA estimates that if sufficient support is provided and financing is secured, CCS projects could 76 capture 50 Mt CO Within the power sector, UNEP estimates that the emission reduction potential /year by 2020. 2 77 for CCS is 0.2–0.4 Gt CO eq in 2020. 2 Carbon capture use and storage applied in various sectors in the 2°C scenario between 2015 and 2050 Goal 2 2050 Pulp & paper 8000 Refining Gas Processing 7000 Chemicals Gas Power 6000 Cement 5000 Iron & Steel Goal 2 2030 4000 Bioenergy 3000 Goal 1 2020 2000 Coal Power 1000 0 2015 2050 2040 2035 2030 2045 2025 2020 Sectors in 2020 Refining Gas Processing Chemicals Gas Processing Gas Power Chemicals Non-OECD OECD Cement Gas Power Cement Iron & Steel Iron & Steel Bioenergy Coal Power Coal Power Source: International Energy Agency. 2013. Technology Roadmap Carbon Capture and Storage or absent price on carbon. Other barriers However, the chief barrier to broad deployment of CCUS is the low include the lack of regulatory frameworks, especially those addressing safety and liability issues, and potential public opposition. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

36 Priority thematic areas CARBON CAPTURE 32 Moving forward through policy options FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: As with other climate mitigation measures, the successful realization of the potential of CCUS will require a suite of policies and financing programmes to underpin the business case for the technology. Specifically, given the high costs involved in CCUS, substantial public funding is needed to implement large-scale demonstration projects and 78 begin deployment, particularly in developing countries. In addition, investments in research, development and demonstration programmes are needed to build CCS/CCUS expertise and stimulate the sharing of knowledge. Financial innovation and support for CCUS Canada The Boundary Dam project in Canada is the world’s first power station with large-scale post- combustion capture, which was inaugurated in October 2014. The main drivers of this project are federal and provincial government support (CAD 240 million in 2008) and revenues from enhanced oil recovery. The 110 MW retrofit of SaskPower’s Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant is designed to store 82 around 1 Mt CO /year. 2 China In China, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Environment and other Government departments have established various 79 funding schemes to promote the development of CCS technology. United Arab Emirates Some countries have begun to provide financing towards pilot projects. For example, in the vereign wealth fund are developing a United Arab Emirates, the national oil company and a national so 80 project to capture CO emitted by a steel plant. 2 United Kingdom The United Kingdom is implementing a GBP 1 billion CCS commercialization programme to support the design, construction and operation of the country’s first commercial-scale CCS projects in - order to generate learning-by-doing, help drive down the costs of CCS, test the CCS regulatory frame work, encourage industry to develop suitable CCS business models and contribute to the development 81 of infrastructure for CO transport and storage. 2 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

37 Priority thematic areas CARBON CAPTURE 33 REGULATORY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORKS: CCUS deployment depends on the development of targeted regulatory and legal frameworks, which ensure that storage of CO - is undertaken safely and in accordance with clear rules. Such frameworks should include trans 2 parent permitting procedures and well defined responsibilities and liabilities for long-term storage sites. The IEA 83 recommends regulations requiring new-build fossil fuel power generation to be “CCS-ready”. Framework and a road map to CCS European Union e environmentally safe transport The EU’s CCS Storage Directive provides a legal framework for th and storage of CO , and requires operators of power plants with capacity higher than 300 MW to under - 2 84 take an assessment of their CCS-readiness. South Africa South Africa has charged its Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage with developing and imple- menting a national road map for the commercial application of CCS. It is currently developing a pilot 85 project to explore issues around safety and local geological suitability. The Republic of Korea - The Republic of Korea has developed a national CCS master action plan to promote CCS deploy ment. The plan calls for establishing national networks for techno logy development and demonstration 86 and a legal and regulatory framework. CARBON PRICING: Imposing a sufficiently high price on carbon — whether through an emissions trading scheme or carbon taxes — is important for creating an economic incentive for emitters to purs ue CCUS. For example, coal-fired power plants using CCS technology require CO prices of between USD 48 and USD 109/t to be cost-competitive with traditional 2 87 coal-fired plants. Putting a price on carbon to encourage CCS Norway Norway’s carbon tax, established in 1991, has gradually increased over time, thereby creating an 88 incentive to store CO each year. and resulting in the sequestration of 0.9 Mt of CO 2 2 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

38 Priority thematic areas CARBON CAPTURE 34 Solutions through international cooperation lude: International organizations and initiatives relating to CCUS inc Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum The ministerial-level aims to facilitate the development and deployment of cost-effective CCS - technologies. It seeks to address key technical, economic and envi ronmental obstacles to the technology through collaborative efforts, promote awareness and champion legal, regulatory, financial and institutional environments conducive to CCS. Membership is open to ers of national governmental entities that are significant producers or us ment and fossil fuels and committed to investing in CCS research, develop demonstration activities. is an organization consisting of gov- The Global CCS Institute ernments, global corporations, small companies, research bodies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) committed to CCS as an integral part of a low-carbon future. It aims to promote the adoption of CCS as quickly and cost-effectively as possible by sharing expertise, build ing capacity and providing advice and support. The IEA Greenhouse Gas Research and Development studies and evaluates technologies that can reduce GHG Programme CS. The emissions from the use of fossil fuels, with a particular focus on C programme, which brings together governments, the private sector and research organizations, aims to support policy decisions by providing unbiased, evidence-based information on technical issues. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

39 Priority thematic areas NON-CO 2 GREENHOUSE GASES

40 Priority thematic areas NON-CO GREENHOUSE 2 GASES 36 Mitigation potential and co-benefits GHGs accounted for 25 per cent of anthropogenic GHG emissions in 2010, equivalent to 12 Gt CO . Of Non-CO 2 2 these, methane (CH ) is the most significant, accounting for 16 per cent of global emissions, followed by nitrous 4 oxide (N 0), at 6 per cent, and fluorinated gases, including hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) 2 89 and sulphur hexafluoride (SF These gases are emitted from a range of sectors: CH from fossil fuel ), at 3 per cent. 4 6 extraction and combustion, industrial processes, agricultural sources and waste management; N 0 from industri- 2 90 al processes, agriculture and the waste sector; and fluorinated gases from industrial processes. Total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions by gases 1970–2010 +2.2%/yr 2000–2010 49 Gt 50 2.0% +1.3%/yr 6.2% 1970–2000 40 Gt 16% 40 38 Gt -eq/yr) 1.3% 2 6.9% 0.81% 33 Gt 7.4% 11% 16% 0.63% 18% 7.9% 30 27 Gt 13% 0.44% 18% 7.9% 16% 15% 19% 20 17% 65% 62% 59% 10 58% 55% 0 GHG emissions (GtCO 1990 2000 1980 2010 1970 CO FOLU F-Gases O N Fossil fuel and CO CH 2 2 2 4 industrial processes Source: IPCC. 2014. Summary for Policymakers. WGIII to the AR5 eq of global non-CO GHG The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 2.7 Gt CO 2 2 emissions could be mitigated by 2020 at a cost below USD 50/t CO eq. Almost one-quarter of these reductions 2 can be made at or below a breakeven cost (USD 0/t CO eq) with a substantial portion generating an immediate 2 91 financial return. The co-benefits of reducing non-CO emissions include protection of the ozone layer and 2 increased health and sanitation benefits. Reducing emissions in t he agriculture sector contributes to improved water quality, erosion control and more efficient fertilizer use. In a ddition, processing coal seam gas in coal mines 92 improves health and safety conditions. However, barriers to realizing these reductions include the lack of regulatory or legislative requirements, the lack of sufficiently high and consistent carbon prices to fund mitigation, and, for some of the fluorinated gases, 93 technological barriers that make their substitution difficult or e xpensive. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

41 Priority thematic areas NON-CO GREENHOUSE 2 GASES 37 Moving forward through policy options GHGs. Their impact depends on the sector, the region A wide range of applicable policies can address non-CO 2 and national circumstances of the country. Countries have introduced regulations and policies that encourage improved agricultural practices and economic instruments to reduce non-CO emissions. A number of countries 2 have also developed voluntary initiatives and directed investments towards research and development related to the reduction of non-CO gases. 2 REGULATORY MEASURES: There are many opportunities to provide clear and comprehensive regulatory frameworks and policies across various sectors relating to non-CO gases. 2 Emission reductions through waste management and other regulations Netherlands Regulations that require the integrated management of waste can have significant effects on methane emissions. The Netherlands’ waste management strategy has been particularly effective by using a mix of regulation and financial incentives to reduce wast e streams and encourage recycling. Since 2008, more emissions have been prevented by reusing rather than recycling products and by reducing incineration and landfilling than have been generated by the Dutch municipal solid waste 94 management system. Mexico estors to form a cogeneration In Mexico, the national Electricity Law allows public or private inv artnership between the government company to provide electricity to its partners. An example of a p and a private company is a cogeneration project that provides electricity from the BENLESA plant in s an installed capacity of 17 MW and Salinas Victoria using the biogas from landfill as fuel. The plant ha has avoided the release of more than 81,000 tonnes of CH as of February 2010, which is equivalent to 4 95 the reduction in emissions of 1.7 million tonnes of CO . 2 Spain Spain introduced a progressive national tax on F-gases in 2014, with full implementation l warming potential (GWP) greater expected by 2016. The national tax applies to F-gases with a globa 96 ir mixtures. than 150 and is calculated based on the GWP of the F-gases or the Russia In line with the National Energy Efficiency and Energy Sector Dev elopment Programme by 2020, The Russian Federation’s national Gazprom Company adopted an Energy efficiency Concept for cation of the Russian Federation, 2011-2020 (the Concept). As outlined in the Sixth National Communi the Concept has already resulted in annual emission reductions of approximately 11.2 Mt CO2 eq in 2013. The implemented measures include technological upgrades in gas transmission through the replacement of old compressors, use of metering systems and leakage reduction in gas transmission and distribution networks. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

42 Priority thematic areas NON-CO GREENHOUSE 2 GASES 38 ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: Economic instruments have been used successfully in many countries and across a broad range of projects to encourage the reduction of non-CO emissions. 2 The effectiveness of cap-and-trade schemes and credits to reduce non-CO 2 emissions Brazil Brazil used revenues from the Clean Development Mechanism to reduce its industrial N O emis- 2 97 sions by 50.5 per cent. European Union O emissions from nitric acid plants. N O emis- The EU Emissions Trading System helped reduce N 2 2 98 sions in 2013 were 85 per cent lower than in 1990. SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Investment in research, development and demonstration projects can help to deliver new technologies for reducing non-CO emissions. 2 O and CH Targeted research seeking solutions for N from agriculture 4 2 New Zealand New Zealand’s Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre has become internationally renowned for its mitigation work in the agriculture sector, includ ing on low-methane producing 99 animals and reducing N O inputs. 2 Ireland Through its Sustainable Healthy Agri-Food Research Plan, Ireland is conducting research into 100 reducing methane emissions from livestock through feeding strategies and breeding. Uganda Uganda is seeking support, through its nationally appropriate mi tigation actions (NAMAs), for a research programme on reducing methane emissions from livestock, including through silvopastoral 101 techniques, which have shown to be effective in this regard. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

43 Priority thematic areas NON-CO GREENHOUSE 2 GASES 39 Solutions through international cooperation gases: Several international initiatives are assisting Parties in reducing their emissions of non-CO 2 The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone Ozone Layer layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances responsible of the for ozone depletion. As the result of this treaty, over 98 per cent consumption of all ozone-depleting substances has now been phased out since its entry into force in 1989. The Global Methane Initiative aims to promote cost-effective, near-term methane abatement and recovery and the use of methane as a clean energy source in four sectors – agriculture, coal mines, municipal - solid waste, and oil and gas. It works to reduce informational, in stitution ools al and other market barriers to project development by providing t - and resources, training and capacity-building, technology demonstra tion and direct project support. The Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to Reduce Short- focuses on methane, black carbon, N lived Climate Pollutants O 2 and HFCs. Several initiatives were announced at the UN Climate Summit relating to the CCAC, including the Phasing Down Climate Potent HFCs initiative, the Oil and Gas Methane Partnership and the Reducing Sho rt- Lived Climate Pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste network. Other international bodies such as the , the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have significant CH United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the World Bank and other 4 non-CO GHG programmes. 2 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

44 Priority thematic areas LAND USE CLIMATE ACTION

45 Priority thematic areas LAND USE 41 Mitigation potential and co-benefits Emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use accounted for around 25 per cent of total global GHG 102 emissions in 2010, or 10–12 Gt CO Agriculture accounts for 10–12 per cent of total emissions, and eq per year. 2 103 emissions from forestry and other land use account for around 12 per cent. Land use is often the dominant source of emissions in low-income countries with limited industrial bases, often generating more than 50 per cent 104 of national emissions. - Emissions from agriculture have been growing and are expected to become an increas ood production will need to increase by 70 per ingly significant source, given that, according to FAO estimates, f 105 cent between 2007 and 2050. Land use and forestry have the biggest emissions impact, followed by livestock Global AFOLU greenhouse gas emissions by sub-sector (2010) 12% Other % 4 5% Agricultural 24% 7% 1 production & LULUCF Livestock and 100% 9% manure are 49.1 GT 46% responsible for CO e 2 7.2% of global 64% 11% GHGs directly Energy Total global 3 (non-agriculture) GHG emissions 19% 2 Soil fertilization Ruminant Enteric LULUCF Energy Fermentation Manure Management Rice Ruminant Wastes on Pastures 1: LULUCF = Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry. 2: Includes emissions from on-farm energy consumption as well as from manufacturing of farm tractors, irrigation pumps, other machinery, and key inputs such as fertilizer. It excludes emissions from the transport of food. 3: Excludes emissions from agricultural energy sources described above. 4: Comprised of Ruminant enteric fermentation, Ruminant wastes on pastures, and Manure Management Source: WRI Analysis for percentages. Source: World Resources Institute analysis based on UNEP, 2012; FAO, 2012; EIA, 2012; IEA, 2012; and Houghton, 2008, with adjustments There are low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture, forestry and other land use that include additional co-benefits such as increased food security and agricultural productivity, abatement of air pollution, water 106 protection, reduced adverse health effects and lower heating costs. UNEP estimates that at marginal costs of less than USD 50–100 per tonne of CO eq, the direct emission reduction potential of agriculture lies in the range 2 of 1.1–4.3 Gt CO eq and of forestry in the range of 1.3–4.2 Gt CO eq in 2020, or as much as two thirds of current 2 2 107 emissions from these sectors. mplementation timeframes, a lack of building Barriers to mitigation action in the land use sector include: long i readiness capacity, and inadequate subnational integration and multilevel governance. In addition, many actions are site-specific or cannot easily be replicated and scaled up across different ecosystems or under different govern - 108 ance structures. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

46 Priority thematic areas LAND USE 42 Moving forward through policy options IMPROVED FOREST MANAGEMENT: The most cost-effective policy options to reduce emissions in the forestry sector are related to improved forest management. This includes activities aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, the conservation of forest carbon stocks, the sustainable management of forests and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD-plus). The restoration and reforestation of degraded land is another activity with large mitigation potential and co-benefits, for example in arid and semi-arid lands or peatlands. In rest carbon stocks are also being implemented in addition, afforestation and reforestation activities to enhance fo 109 many countries. Enhancing forest carbon actions and standards China nt of forest area by 40 million In order to achieve its ambitious goal of increasing the net increme hectares by the end of 2020 compared with 2005, China is combining a number of afforestation, forest - protection and sustainable forest management policies and practices, with the aim of further increas rbon emissions trading system pilot ing forested area and integrating forest carbon into its national ca 110 programme. Panama In Panama, a public-private alliance known as the Alliance for 1 Million has been created to lly, in support of Panama’s National reforest 1 million hectares of land over the next 20 years. Specifica Forestry Plan, the Alliance for 1 Million will reforest over 13 per ce nt of the country’s land area and help to meet cross-sectoral sustainable development goals, support the nation’s mitigation commitments 111 and protect the rich biodiversity and delivery of critical ecosystem services. United Kingdom The Woodland Carbon Code in the United Kingdom was developed between 2007 and 2011 to address the lack of confidence, lack of standards and disrepute prevailing in the United Kingdom forest carbon markets at that time. The standards developed under the Code address mitigation but also require an assessment of resilience to climate change. In total, 2 02 projects were registered, encompass - 112 ing 15,401 hectares and with a potential of 5.7 Mt CO eq lifetime sequestration. 2 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

47 Priority thematic areas LAND USE 43 IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES: Improved agricultural practices nested in geographic and social scales can unlock large mitigation potential while at the same time contributing to improved productivity and resilience and promoting rural development. Such practices include conservation agriculture, improved livestock and manure management, more carbon- efficient and profitable livestock production systems, lower fertilizer use and improved land use management and planning. Strategic agriculture production approaches and carbon offsetting Brazil Brazil has developed its Low-Carbon Agriculture Plan (ABC Plan) to promote sustainable practic- lan is to stimulate specific activities es for agricultural production systems. The objective of the ABC P such as no-tillage agriculture, the recuperation of degraded land, the integration of crops, livestock and forest, the planting of commercial forests, biological nitrog en fixation, and treatment of animal residues. Between 2005 and 2013, national crop production increased by 64 per cent, while the area 113 used for agriculture increased by only 9 per cent. Australia Australia launched in 2011 its Carbon Farming Initiative. The in itiative provides a voluntary - carbon offsets scheme, under which farmers and land managers are able to generate credits for activ ities undertaken on their land that lead to reductions in carbon emissions or increase the removal of carbon from the atmosphere. New Zealand New Zealand’s agriculture mitigation efforts focus on increasing the productivity of the agri - culture sector while simultaneously reducing the emissions per unit of produce (emissions intensity). - While absolute emissions from agriculture have increased by 15 per cent since 1990, emissions inten sity has decreased by 20 per cent. New Zealand actively engages in national and international research 114 and collaboration to share experiences and to scale up the reduction of emissions intensity. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

48 Priority thematic areas LAND USE 44 Solutions through international cooperation ostering technical readiness and political International cooperation and partnerships can play a key role in f will towards land use climate action. Public–private sector partnerships could also scale up the impact of land l resources, spurring the development of new use actions with climate benefits by providing access to additiona models for sustainable land use, and identifying innovative mecha nisms to ensure sustainability. For example, such existing initiatives include: The World Bank’s and the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility provide support to developing countries for UN-REDD Programme national readiness efforts and implementation of the five REDD-plus activities: reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. The Tropical Forest Alliance 2020 (TFA) is a public-private partner- ship that seeks to create zero deforestation supply chain models in South- East Asia, Central and West Africa and regions of South America. In support of these efforts to reduce deforestation in tropical forest countries, TFA is engaging with governments around the world, a range of civil society organizations active in both producer and consumer nations, smallholder farmers and indigenous representatives and multinational corporations. The Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture , hosted enges by FAO, is a voluntary alliance dedicated to addressing the chall nge. It related to food security and agriculture in the face of climate cha provides a forum for governments, NGOs, research bodies and private sector companies with an interest in climate-smart agriculture to share and exchange experiences, information and views. Forest and Climate Other initiatives include bilateral support for REDD-plus through i nitiatives such as Norway’s Early Movers Programme REDD aims at . The and Germany’s Initiative New York Declaration on Forests Bonn g food security. Related to restoration, the slowing, halting and reversing global forest loss, while enhancin aims to restore 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded lands by 2020. Further Challenge initiatives for international cooperation in the agricultural sector include the Addressing Short-Lived Climate . Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Pollutants from Agriculture initiative and the are engaged in a range of other initiatives aimed at FAO World Bank and the International organizations such as the land-use sector, which in many cases also address climate change. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

49 ADAPTATION CO-BENEFITS

50 ADAPTATION CO-BENEFITS 46 Co-benefit potential Adaptation and mitigation are complementary strategies for reducing and managing the risks of climate change. The impacts of climate change that have already occurred and are being addressed by adaptation are widespread and include impacts on food and water security, human health and well-being, biodiversity and ecosystem 115 services, economic activities and infrastructure, and the exacerbation of inequalities and poverty. As GHG emissions increase, the risks of climate change impacts on people, economies and ecosystems that are severe, pervasive and irreversible are growing. Mitigation action to reduce GHG emissions in many areas has the potential to reduce the scale of the adaptation required and to enable many adaptation co-benefits. Energy efficiency, for example, can improve the ability of communities to adapt to climate change by reducing the peak demand they put on power systems during high 116 temperatures or unexpected weather and improving the comfort level of buildings in uncertain weather. next few decades, can reduce future climate Science states that substantial emission reductions, even over the risks, increase the prospects for effective adaptation, reduce the costs and challenges of mitigation in the longer 117 term and contribute to climate-resilient pathways for sustainable development. Moving forward through policy options A significant number of policy approaches and low-cost mitigation opportunities with adaptation co-benefits exist in many areas, including water management, land use, human settlements, infrastructure and energy - systems, as well as human health. Such approaches address the issues of food security, environmental sustainabili ty, climate adaptation needs and socioeconomic development in a holistic, interconnected manner. Specific examples include: improved agricultural practices; effective cropland and grazing land management; research, development and deployment and application of efficient land-use management and planning; improved land-use productivity and resilience; improved livestock productivity; reduction of food loss and waste; 118 implementation of REDD-plus; improved forest management; and afforestation and reforestation. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

51 ADAPTATION CO-BENEFITS 47 Solutions through international cooperation Global Alliance for Climate-Smart A number of cooperative initiatives and national practices, such a s the mentioned under the land-use section, address the nexus between mitigation, adaptation and Agriculture related co-benefits and help to promote good practices. As another example, the Global Resilience Partnership aims to help millions of vulnerable people in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa and South and South-East Asia better adapt to shocks and chronic stresses and invest in a more resilient future. This new Partnership will help the global driving evidence-based investments that enable community pivot from simply reacting in the wake of disasters to cities, communities and households to better manage and adapt to inevitable shocks. National adaptation plans Through the Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans programme, FAO and UNDP will work with ministries of agriculture in Nepal, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, Uganda, Uruguay, Viet Nam and Zambia to incorporate agricultural sectors into national adaptation plans in order to safe- guard livelihoods, raise agricultural production and boost food security. In particular, the initiative aims to help countries make improvements in medium-to long-term planning and budgeting processes. Financing strategic approaches to agriculture and land-use The African Development Bank is piloting forest-based mitigation and adaptation strategies, recog - 119 nizing the synergies between REDD-plus and facilitating adaptation to climate change. channels climate finance to Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP) The smallholder farmers in more than 30 developing countries so they can access information, tools and technologies to help build their resilience to climate change. La unched by the International Fund for Agricultural Development, ASAP has become the largest global financing source dedicated to supporting the adaptation of poor smallholder farmers to climate change. Managing our water resources The African Development Bank’s Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach seeks inated development and man - to build adaptive capacity in African countries through the coord agement of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social well-being 120 without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. The African Development Bank has applied the IWRM approach in Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and the Mano River basin in Western Africa. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

52 ADAPTATION CO-BENEFITS 48 Assessing the health impacts of climate change is a Reconciling Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development for Cities (RAMSES) European Integrated Project with contributions from the World Health Organization in assessing and estimating past and future impacts of climate change on health. RAMSES aims to deliver evidence on the impacts of climate change and on the costs and benefits of a wide range of measures, such as land-use planning and infrastructure modification. Case studies will be conducted in cities in Europe and developing countries. Sharing knowledge and capacity-building experience The United Nations Institute for Training and Research brought together nine organizations from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Europe and the Pacific to form a kno wledge- and capacity-development network. Each organization contributes its specialized experience to develop and apply tools and methodologies in order to support decision-making related to climate change adaptation and mitiga- 121 tion for developing countries. Climate risk preparedness coalition is led by France in collaboration he Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) T with Norway, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery managed by the World ional community in supporting Bank. It aims to strengthen and broaden the work of the internat covering the global population early warning systems in vulnerable countries, with the goal of fully exposed to extreme climate events by 2020. The aims to increase the number of people benefiting from G7 Climate Risk Insurance Initiative direct or indirect insurance covering the negative impacts of climate change-induced hazards in low s include stimulating the creation and middle-income countries by up to 400 million by 2020. Effort of effective climate risk insurance solutions and markets, and the smart use of insurance-related schemes to enable climate change adaptation and contribute to enhancing economic growth, poverty reduction and climate resilience. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

53 49 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

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55 “If we can’t all swim together, we will sink. There is no Plan B, because there is no Planet B.” Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General, United Nations CHAPTER III The power of international cooperation

56 52 Facilitating climate action through international cooperation. each thematic area, can help Parties increase their Climate change is a global problem and extensive inter - pre-2020 ambition. However, international support national cooperation is critical for effective solutions. must be paired with national-level climate strategies, The UN has led the international response to climate regulations and plans to better enable such organiza- change through the institutions created under the tions and initiatives to provide Parties with targeted UNFCCC and with support from other UN bodies and financial support, technology transfer and capaci - multilateral agencies. Countries and non-State actors, 122 ty-building. such as cities, states, regions and the private sector, In addition, increased collaboration have also come together to cooperate on climate action among Parties, UNFCCC institutions, international and create alliances, initiatives and partnerships. and multilateral organizations and non-State actors is critical to ensuring the complementarity of efforts, International organizations and cooperative initi- preventing duplication and supporting the effective atives, such as those mentioned below and within implementation of policies and actions. a t n i o b n u a S l l / R a e n g o i i t o a n a N l Investor Governance a n t r i o e t n n a Initiatives I l Bilateral Arrangements Other UN IOs Non- UN IOs Other Multilateral Offset Clubs Certification Systems UNFCCC Subnational Regional Partnerships Initiatives Other Invironmental Treaties Transnational NAMAs City Regional NAPAs Networks Governance City Networks Source: The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

57 53 The catalytic role of the UNFCCC The UNFCCC has the potential to play a crucial catalytic role in h elping Parties to raise their ambition and deliver y doing so through a number of UNFCCC-consti higher levels of mitigation through 2020 and beyond. It is alread - itigation actions. These include: tuted bodies and tools established to support Parties and their m allows emission reduction The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in developing countries to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO . These CERs can be traded and sold, 2 and used by industrialized countries to a meet a part of their emi ssion reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The Mechanism stimulates sustainable devel - opment and emission reductions while giving industrialized countries some targets. flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction limitation The Climate Technology Centre and Network aims to promote technol- ogy cooperation, development and transfer. With a budget of USD 15 million for 2015, it has provided assistance to more than 60 developing count ries to date. The Technology Executive Committee provides technology analysis and advice to developing countries and promotes partnerships by bringing stakeholders together. The - acts as an operating entity of the Finan Global Environment Facility cial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Its priorities related to climate change include innovation, technology transfer and capacity-building, as well as managing 123 three climate-related trust funds. It has allocated USD 1.26 billion for climate 124 change for the 2015– 2018 period. The , another operating entity of the UNFCCC Fi - Green Climate Fund (GCF) nancial Mechanism, was created in 2010 as a central global investment vehicle for international climate finance and is charged with promoting a “paradigm shift 125 towards low-emission and climate-resilient pathways” . As of June 2015, it had received more than USD 10 billion in financing commitments, which will be chan - nelled through accredited public and private entities. The GCF is a new institution with the potential to become one of the largest multilateral financial institutions, with funding on the scale required to face the challenges of climate change. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

58 54 Intergovernmental organizations and development institutions that foster climate action pursuit of sustainable development, energy access, A number of other UN institutions, multilateral energy security and low-carbon economic growth. agencies and development financial institutions offer support to Parties and other stakeholders in one or more of the thematic areas with high mitigation The United Nations Development Programme • potential. They include: (UNDP) works in more than 170 countries and territories to help eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities and exclusion. It helps countries to The Food and Agriculture Organization of the • develop policies, leadership skills, partnering , which sees addressing climate United Nations abilities and institutional capabilities and build change as central to its goal of eliminating resilience in order to sustain development results. hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition, runs a UNDP focuses on helping countries build and number of programmes to promote ecologically share solutions in sustainable development, sustainable food production and climate-smart democratic governance and peacebuilding, and agriculture. It also offers support in monitoring climate and disaster resilience. the effects of climate change on food produc- tion and helps to implement the UN-REDD Programme , along with the United Nations The United Nations Environment Programme • Development Programme and the United Nations (UNEP) is “the voice of the environment within the Environment Programme. - United Nations system”. Its work includes assess ing global, regional and national environmental conditions and trends, developing international The International Civil Aviation Organization • and national environmental instruments, and (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organi- helping to strengthen institutions to better zation (IMO) address emissions from internation- manage environmental issues. Its Emissions Gap al aviation and shipping, respectively. In 2010, reports provide authoritative information on the governments agreed under the auspices of ICAO mitigation challenges facing Parties. to improve aviation sector average fuel efficiency by 2 per cent per year, and committed to cap the 126 sector’s net CO emissions from 2020 onwards. , such as the Regional Development Banks 2 • Since 2012, the IMO has required ships to draw African Development Bank , the Asian Develop- up energy efficiency management plans, and ment Bank , the European Bank for Reconstruc- ships built after 2013 must meet a mandatory CO tion and Development and the Inter-American 2 Development Bank , are multilateral financial emission standard. institutions that provide financial and technical assistance for development within their regions. The International Energy Agency aims to help • Finance is allocated through low-interest loans ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy by and grants for a range of development sectors providing authoritative statistics, analysis and such as environmental and natural resource policy advice. Its climate change work includes management. finding and sharing examples of best practice, and supporting cooperation between countries through expert events and technical analysis for sees climate change as The World Bank Group • climate change negotiations. posing a threat to its mission of poverty reduction - and works with recipient countries to identify mit igation opportunities and their links to climate The International Renewable Energy Agency • resilience, adaptation, sustainable development (IRENA) supports countries in their transition to and growth. Its climate-related programmes - a sustainable energy future and serves as the princi include the Climate Pricing Leadership Coalition , pal platform for international cooperation and , the Carbon the Creditworthiness Programme a repository of policy, technology, resource and Partnership Facility, the Forest Carbon Partner- financial knowledge on renewable energy. IRENA Pilot Auction Facility for ship Facility and the promotes the widespread adoption and sustain- 127 Methane and Climate Change Mitigation. able use of all forms of renewable energy in the Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

59 55 Inspiring action by non-State actors tions, cities, industries, governments and other key In addition to the efforts of the UN and other multilat- 128 players taking the lead on tackling climate change. eral institutions, numerous important commitments and actions are being taken by non-State actors such as cities, other subnational authorities and the A number of new commitments and actions were also an- private sector to address climate change. In order nounced in September 2014 at the UN Climate Summit to draw attention to the critically important role of in New York, including the Oil and Gas Climate Initiative, non-State actors in addressing climate change, the and the Compact of States and the Compact of Mayors UNFCCC secretariat established a special initiative . Many of these actions, along with thousands Regions , which recognizes called Momentum for Change of others, are collected on the Non-State Actor Zone for each year game-changing initiatives of organiza - Climate Action (NAZCA) Portal , which was launched by 129 the Peruvian presidency of COP 20 in Lima. Cities Many cities are achieving successful results through Urban areas are currently estimated to be responsible 130 international cooperation via such organizations and for 71–76 per cent of energy-related CO2 emissions. In initiatives as: 2014, 54 per cent of the world’s population was living in cities, and this figure is expected to rise to 66 per cent by 131 2050. ICLEI , launched in 1990, brings together more - As cities expand and the urban population con • tinues to grow, the demand for infrastructure stemming than 1,000 metropolises, cities and urban regions. from rapid urbanization provides a major opportunity Its climate-focused projects include the carbon n to enable transformation and build new urban systems Climate Registry of local government climate that avoid locking in carbon-intensive infrastructure. actions, the Urban Low Emission Development Strategies project and the Local Government 135 Climate Roadmap. is a network of 75 of the world’s largest The C40 Cities pave the way for climate • cities aimed at driving urban action to reduce action GHG emissions and climate risks while increasing - the health, well-being and economic opportu A recent review by C40 of 144 cities that nities of urban citizens. C40 supports cities to have announced short-term GHG emission collaborate effectively, share knowledge and reduction targets estimates that the drive meaningful, measurable and sustainable achievement of these targets will result in 136 action on climate change. emission reductions of 2.8 Gt CO eq below 2 business-as-usual levels by 2020. According to the same review, an additional 27 cities Compact is an agreement among The of Mayors • made emission reduction commitments a network of cities striving to take a transpar- for 2030, which, when combined with the ent approach to reducing city-level emissions, commitments of the previously mentioned reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience 144 cities, makes for a potential total to climate change. In total, 171 cities, represent - emission reduction of 6.1 Gt CO ing 3.5 per cent of the total global population eq below 2 132 have committed to the Compact of Mayors, with business-as-usual levels by 2030. - many more signatories expected before the twen ty-first Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris. Sydney, Australia is aiming to reduce its GHG emissions by 70 per cent in UNEP calculated that the three main city-level initi - 2030 from 2006 levels. In addition, by 2030, it atives it analysed — C40, the Compact of Mayors and is aiming to increase its share of renewables 133 the carbon in the final energy mix to 30 per cent. n Climate Registry — would deliver 1.08 Gt 137 CO eq of reductions by 2020. 2 Rio de Janeiro, which has an emission reduction target of 20 per cent below 2005 levels by 2020, became the first global city to reach full compliance with the Summary for Policymakers 134 Compact of Mayors. UNFCCC 2015

60 56 Other subnational authorities Similar to cities, subnational authorities are achiev - In addition to cities, other subnational authorities ing successful results through international coopera- pursuing climate action include States, regions and tion via organizations and initiatives. provinces. The climate policies enacted by subna - tional authorities could serve as examples to their national governments and be scaled up accordingly. announced The Compact of States and Regions • at the UN Climate Summit in New York in Sep- tember 2014 is the first global accounting of the GHG inventories and the accompanying GHG reduction targets of state and regional govern- Subnational authorities lead by ments. Twenty state and regional governments example on climate action from around the world contributed to the first reporting period, representing over 10 per cent of In September 2015, Chinese Pres - global GDP and 220 million people. The current ident Xi Jinping announced that plans reported by these 20 governments will China would work towards implementing reduce emissions by 2 Gt CO a national carbon emissions cap-and-trade eq by 2020 relative 2 programme by 2017. The design of the to business-as-usual and reduce emissions by 7.9 138 national cap-and-trade programme will be GtCO e by 2030. Since the first reporting period 2 based on the results of its pilot cap-and-trade concluded, the number of governments that programmes that have been active since reported to the Compact of States and Regions 2013 and 2014. These pilot programmes, has more than doubled to over 40, spanning 18 which include five cities and two provinces, different countries and six continents. have allowed China to accumulate experi - ence with developing and implementing The Under 2 MOU — as the Sub-national Global • cap-and-trade programmes at the subna- Climate Leadership Memorandum of Under- tional level, which will be scaled up to the standing is better known — originated from a national level. partnership between two members of the States & Regions Alliance, California and Baden-Württem - In April 2015, Governor Edmund G. berg, and the desire to bring together ambitious Brown set California’s 2030 state-wide states and regions willing to make a number of GHG emission reduction target at 40 per cent key commitments towards reducing emissions below 1990 levels. California’s path to 2030 and helping galvanize action at COP 21. Central will be based on achieving 50 per cent elec- to the agreement is that all signatories commit tricity from renewables, doubling the energy to either reducing GHG emissions by 80 to 95 per efficiency of existing buildings, aggressive cent below 1990 levels by 2050 or achieving a action on short-lived climate pollutants per capita annual emission target of less than 2 and active management of natural and metric tonnes by 2050. As of September 2015, a working lands to serve as significant carbon total of 41 jurisdictions representing 19 countries sinks. These goals will be achieved through on five continents had signed or endorsed the a range of policy mechanisms, including Under 2 MOU, accounting for more than USD 12.3 carbon pricing via a carbon market, direct trillion in GDP and more than 387 million people. regulation and voluntary measures, includ - Jurisdictions are invited to sign or endorse the 139 ing expansion of zero-emission vehicles, MOU until COP 21 in December 2015 . methane capture, and improved efficiency across all sectors. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

61 57 The private sector footprint. It is led by the UN Global Compact, the The 1,000 highest-emitting companies are responsible 140 UNFCCC secretariat and UNEP. for around 20 per cent of global emissions. As such, the private sector plays a pivotal role in addressing climate change worldwide. he 2014 Climate Summit The Oil and Gas Climate Initiative is indus- • in New York and the Lima-Paris Action Agenda illus- try-driven and aims to catalyse practical action trate that a growing number of cooperative initiatives on climate change in areas such as natural gas, involving private sector actors are emerging with the carbon reduction instruments and tools, and potential to have a significant impact in reducing long-term energy solutions. It fosters the sharing GHG emissions and bridging the emissions gap. of best practices and collaboration within the industry, and communicates what actions are being taken among its members. Low Carbon Technology Partnerships initia Companies make ambitious - • tive (LCTPi) , led by the World Business Council for climate pledges Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in partnership with the Sustainable Development Solutions In July 2015, the United States of America Network and the IEA, aims to present a series of launched the American Business Act on Climate action plans at COP21 for the large-scale develop- Pledge as part of the White House initiative to ment and deployment of low-carbon technologies recruit private sector commitments ahead of through dialogue between business and govern- - COP21 in Paris. As part of this pledge, execu ment. Focus areas include renewables, carbon tives from 13 major United States corporations capture and storage, cement and chemicals. announced at least USD 140 billion in new low-carbon investments and more than 1,600 MW of new renewable energy to decrease their The Portfolio Decarbonization Coalition (PDC) • 141 carbon footprints. is a multi-stakeholder initiative that will drive GHG As of October 2015, an emission reductions by mobilizing a critical mass of additional 68 companies have joined the 13 institutional investors committed to gradually de - original signatories. These 81 companies have carbonizing their portfolios through carbon-foot- operations in all 50 states, employ over 9 million printing and portfolio decarbonization targets. The people, represent more than USD 3 trillion in PDC also offers knowledge exchange and stake - annual revenue, and have a combined market 142 holder dialogue opportunities for its members. capitalization of over USD 5 trillion. RE100 is a partnership between the Climate • Group and the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) that aims to encourage the world’s most influen - Leading private sector initiatives include: tial businesses to commit to sourcing 100 per cent of the power they use from renewable sources. The 2014 Global Investor Statement on Climate • RE100 is supported by the We Mean Business coa - has been signed by over 370 investors Change lition. It also works closely with IRENA’s Coalition with more than USD 24 trillion in assets. The state- for Action and is among the cooperative initia- ment sets out steps that institutional investors, tives in which the UNFCCC secretariat is engaged. both asset owners and asset managers, can take - to address climate change, and calls on govern ments to support a new global agreement on We Mean Business (WMB) is a coalition of seven • climate change by 2015, in addition to national organizations, Business for Social Responsibility, and regional policy measures. CDP, Ceres, The B Team, The Climate Group, Corporate Leaders Group and WBCSD that forms a common platform to amplify the business voice, aims to advance the role of Caring for Climate • catalyze bold climate action and promote smart business in addressing climate change. Partici- policy frameworks. To date 326 businesses and pants commit to voluntary targets for improving 143 investors have signed up to WMB-led initiatives. energy efficiency and reducing their carbon Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

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63 “We will move to a low-carbon world because nature will force us, or because policy will guide us. If we wait until nature forces us, the cost will be astronomical.” Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC CHAPTER IV The path towards greater ambition and climate action through 2020 and beyond

64 60 Achieving the 2 °C goal also be critical for Parties to lay the foundation for Achieving the goal of limiting the increase in global post-2020 action in the new international climate - average temperatures to below 2 °C requires imme agreement to be reached at COP 21, namely setting diate action and the full engagement of Parties and the long-term direction of global emissions and other relevant stakeholders. To that end, the UNFCCC providing the necessary framework for the transition plays an important role in catalysing political will to a low-emissions, climate-resilient economy. among Parties, keeping track of global emission levels and reductions, providing a platform for Parties Below is a list of overarching and cross-cutting to raise their pre-2020 ambition and maintaining actions that could help facilitate the transition momentum for action after 2020. towards a low-emissions future, improve the likeli - - hood of achieving the 2 °C goal and lay the founda To achieve the 2 °C goal, however, it is ultimately tion for post-2020 climate action. up to Parties to decide to increase their pre-2020 ambition and to take climate action now. It will Implement policies that are aligned with countries’ national circumstances and sustainable development goals that have proven cost-effective, scalable, and replicable Utilize national policies to set the foundation for post-2020 action as enshrined in countries’ INDCs Implement effective carbon pricing Integrate climate policy objectives and climate resilience into national and sectoral policies and plans Increase investments in low-carbon technologies A l c a h o Utilize existing initiatives, i G e v C ° partnerships and UN institutions i n 2 g e t h Increase collaboration with other Parties to promote further climate action Encourage action at the subnational level Increase engagement with the private sector Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

65 61 National policies that stimulate investment in low-carbon development and sustainable growth Integrate climate policy objectives Implement policies that are and climate resilience into national aligned with countries’ national and sectoral policies and plans circumstances and sustainable Parties could better integrate climate policy development goals that have proven cost- objectives and climate risk assessments into their effective, scalable and replicable national and sectoral policies and plans to better There are many policy options and instruments that guide investment strategies and infrastructure Parties can implement to increase their pre-2020 decisions. This could provide strong incentives to ambition. While this SPM does not include an pursue low-emission, climate-resilient investments exhaustive list of such policies, it does provide a and could prevent the locking-in of carbon-intensive broad range of options that have been shown to be and polluting investments. In addition, this would cost-effective, scalable and replicable, and which allow countries to better plan for climate change- Parties can implement while taking into account related risks to national facilities, operations and their national circumstances and sustainable programmes, and provide information and tools to development goals. assist non-State actors in making strategic decisions to improve preparedness and resilience. Such actions Utilize national policies to set the would lead to stronger and safer communities and foundation for post-2020 action as infrastructure at the national and subnational levels. enshrined in countries’ INDCs - In addition to increasing pre-2020 ambition, im Increase investments in low-carbon plementing climate policies now would provide an technologies - opportunity for Parties to strengthen the institution Promoting and enhancing action on al, regulatory and legal frameworks and the relevant the development and transfer of low-carbon in-country human and institutional capacity required technologies is critical to reducing GHG emissions to successfully implement the policies identified and the adverse effects of climate change. in their INDCs for post-2020 action. By laying the Low-carbon technologies can achieve better foundation for such frameworks now, Parties will penetration of national and global markets through send a clear signal to all stakeholders that com- increased investments in research, development, prehensive climate action is under way and set the demonstration and deployment, and dedicated course towards long-term economic transformation public–private partnerships. and change. In particular, public finance can play a catalytic role Implement effective carbon pricing in fostering the transformational change needed to Carbon prices play an important role in scale up innovation in low-carbon technologies by guiding long-term public and private driving down costs and leading to a wider range of investments and consumption choices. Effective technological solutions. Efforts to scale up investment carbon pricing makes investment in low-carbon or in low-carbon technologies can be coupled with carbon-free technologies attractive and reduces the complementary efforts such as promoting the use demand for carbon-intensive fossil fuels. Almost 40 of innovative business models, providing financial countries and more than 20 cities, states and prov - incentives for the large-scale deployment of low- inces already use carbon-pricing mechanisms or carbon technologies, and putting in place measures are planning to implement them. To achieve global to reduce financial risks and market and social coverage by 2020, Parties could strive to introduce or barriers in order to stimulate investments. strengthen carbon pricing now. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

66 62 Encouraging further engagement Fostering international by subnational actors and the cooperation on climate change private sector Utilize existing initiatives, partner- Encourage action at the subnational ships and UN institutions and enhance level support for developing countries There are numerous commitments and A broad range of cooperative initiatives, partnerships actions being taken by cities and other subnational and UN institutions are identified in this SPM that authorities to address climate change. While some can assist Parties in developing and implementing of these actions are being pursued unilaterally, relevant policy options and achieving their enhanced national policies can assist cities and subnational authorities in implementing low-carbon urban pre-2020 climate action goals and objectives. Many involve a diverse range of stakeholders and are able development strategies. to provide information on best practices, assistance with the design and adoption of policies and pro- - In particular, national policies can assist cities in in grammes, training, and a wide range of other tools. creasing investments in public transportation, waste Together with developed country Parties and other management, building efficiency and renewable - Parties in a position to do so, these initiatives, part energy development by establishing relevant policy nerships and UN institutions could further enhance frameworks. In addition, Parties can engage cities the financial, technology and capacity-building through initiatives or dialogues to encourage greater support to developing country Parties. Such support climate action and ambition, exchange experiences, could help Parties in implementing climate policies information and views, and collaborate on technolo - more quickly, efficiently and effectively. gy and policy innovations. Increase collaboration with other Increase engagement with the private Parties to promote further climate sector action The private sector is playing an increasing - International collaboration between Parties plays a ly important role in reducing GHG emissions, helping fundamental role in supporting the effective design close the emissions gap and gearing investment and implementation of policies and fostering climate towards low-emission and climate-resilient infra- action. For example, international partnerships allow structure. Through various cooperative initiatives countries to share the costs of innovation, research and multilateral actions, the private sector has been and development, with the benefits being shared by able to mobilize and implement climate actions on a all stakeholders. This can be particularly beneficial local, regional, national and global scale. However, to developing countries, whose limited financial in many countries, actions by the private sector capabilities and human and infrastructure capacity have been hindered by the limited engagement of can hinder development and innovation. national governments and weak national climate policy frameworks. - Parties could increase pre-2020 ambition by launch ing new partnerships and initiatives, such as the To increase engagement, Parties could enhance the dialogue with the private sector, whether through African Group Renewable Energy Partnership that formal national policy frameworks or voluntary ar - was presented during the technical expert meeting rangements. For example, national policies can be im - on renewable energy supply in June 2014. This could plemented to recognize, encourage and assist major sustain the groundswell of climate action that has already been mobilized and further close the emis businesses in adopting emission reduction targets and - sions gap. - developing relevant action plans, as well as to facili tate the disclosure of GHG emission data and emission reduction efforts. To ensure maximum participation and cooperation, Parties could actively engage the private sector when developing such policies. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

67 63 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

68 64 ENDNOTES 1 While there is a broad range of initiatives and partnerships available that faci litate pre-2020 action, the initiatives identified were included ility. for their inclusiveness, ambition, capacity to deliver, transparency and accountab 2 IPCC. 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , pages 17 and 19. FCCC/TP/2014/3, paragraph 11. 3 4 FCCC/TP/2013/4, paragraph 31. 5 UNEP. 2014. The Emissions Gap Report 2014 , page xviii. 6 UNEP. 2015. The Emissions Gap Report 2015, under publication. 7 Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . 8 World Bank. 2012. , page xviii. Turn down the heat: Why a 4°C warmer world must be avoided 9 Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , table TS.2. 10 The World Bank Group. 2015. Carbon Pricing Watch 2015 . 11 New Climate Economy. 2015. , page 18. Seizing the Global Opportunity IEA. 2014. World Energy Outlook 2014. 12 13 New Climate Economy. 2015. , page 42 Seizing the Global Opportunity Nicola, 14 S. Fossil Fuel Subsidies Fall in Gain for Renewables . Available at 15 Climate Policy Initiative. 2014. The Global Landscape of Climate Finance , 2014 , page iv. 16 IEA. 2012. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Pathways to a Clean Energy System , page 1. 17 UNEP/BNEF. 2015. Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2015 . 18 UNEP/BNEF figures, 2004 figure from IEA (2007), Renewables in Global Energy Supply . st 19 Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21 Century, Renewable 2015 Global Status Report , page 6. UNEP. 2013. 20 The Emissions Gap Report 2013 , page xvi. FCCC/TP/2015/4, paragraph 13. 21 22 New Climate Economy. 2014. Better Growth, Better Climate , page 15. 23 FCCC/TP/2015/4/Add.1, paragraph 10. UNFCCC, TEM to unlock mitigation opportunities in RE, March 2014, page 1. 24 25 European Union Energy Initiative Partnership Dialogue Facility (EU EI), 2014. World Energy Council. 2015. 26 . World Energy Trilemma, Priority actions on climate change and how to balance the trilemma 27 Rural Electrification Authority . Available at . 28 FCCC/TP/2014/3/Add.1, spotlight box 1, and the SunShot Initiative website ava ilable at . Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, 29 , page 7. Renewable 2015 Global Status Report 30 India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution . Available at . 31 FCCC/TP/2014/3/Add.1, spotlight box 4. 32 European Union 2030 Energy Strategy . Available at . Letter from Su Wei, Director-General of the Department of Climate Change in the National Development and Reform Commission of China to 33 UNFCCC Executive Secretary Yvo de Boer, 20 January 2010. 34 China’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. Available at http://www 4.unfccc.int/submissions/indc/Submission%20Pages/ submissions.aspx Presentation made by Sweden at the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Pla 35 tform for Enhanced Action technical expert meeting on renewable energy in June 2015. 36 Green Fiscal Policy Network. Available at . 37 Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, Renewable 2015 Global Status Report , page 7. 38 . Available at . E-parliament website 39 FCCC/TP/2014/3/Add.1, box 5. 40 Agora Energiewende. 2015. Report on the German Power System , page 13. 41 Available at < http://www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/thailand/name- 43052-en.php>. 42 Available at < http://www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/thailand/name- 43052-en.php>. 43 FCCC/TP/2015/4, page 52. Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

69 65 44 UNFCCC, TEM to unlock mitigation opportunities in RE, March 2014, page 2. OECD/IEA. 2014. 45 , page 19. Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency 46 OECD/IEA. 2014. , page 22. Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency FCCC/TP/2014/3, paragraph 40. 47 48 FCCC/TP/2015/4/Add.2, paragraph 16 and Table 1. 49 FCCC/TP/2014/3, paragraph 46. 50 FCCC/TP/2014/3/Add.1, table 5. 51 . Available at . The United States Energy Star Program 52 FCCC/TP/2014/3, paragraph 55. 53 Energy Commission. 2009. Final Report - CFL Exchange Programme Impact Assessment . 54 The Department of Trade & Industry, Republic of South Africa . Available at . 55 FCCC/TP/2014/3/Add.1, paragraph 44. 56 FCCC/TP/2014/3, spotlight box 6. 57 OECD. 2010. , page 136. Available at . OECD Environmental Performance Reviews JAPAN 58 FCCC/TP/2014/3/Add.1, spotlight box 8. 59 FCCC/TP/2015/4, page 36, spotlight box 3 IPCC. 2014. 60 , page 603. Transport, in Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change 61 FCCC/TP/2013/8/Add.1, paragraph 67. 62 United Nations press release. Available at . 63 UNEP. 2012. The Emissions Gap Report 2012 , page 38 64 See . 65 FCCC/TP/2013/8/Add.1, paragraph 73(b). 66 FCCC/TP/2015/4/Add.2, spotlight box 5 . 67 Midgley P. 2009. The role of smart bike sharing scheme systems in urban mob ility. Journeys . May 2009: page 25. International Energy Agency. 2013. 68 A Tale of Renewed Cities: A policy guide on how to transform cities by improving energy efficiency in urban transport systems . 69 FCCC/TP/2013/8/Add.1, paragraph 73(a). See . 70 World Resources Institute. 71 Great expectations: EMBARQ Turkey grows BikeLab project . 72 . See 73 FCCC/TP/2013/8/Add.1, paragraph 73(c). 74 UNFCCC, TEM on CCS, October 2014, page 1. 75 UNFCCC, TEM on CCS, October 2014, page 1. 76 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.3, paragraph 12. 77 UNEP (2011). Bridging the Emissions Gap . Page 34. 78 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.3, paragraph 23. 79 Notable CCS Projects in China. Available at . 80 Masdar & ADNOC Take Carbon Capture, Usage & Storage Proj. Forward at Emirates Steel’s Musafah Facility . Available at . 81 CCS Commercialisation competition . Available at . 82 FCCC/TP/2014/3. Add. 3, page 8 83 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.3, paragraphs 36–39. 84 Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Implementation of Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological storage of carbon dioxide . Available at 85 South African Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage . Available at . 86 FCCC/TP/2014/3. Add. 3, page 14 87 Global CCS Institute (2015), The Costs of CCS and other Low-carbon Technologies – 2015 Update , page 1. 88 UNFCCC, TEM on CCS, October 2014, page 2. 89 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.4, paragraph 1. 90 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.4, paragraph 2. 91 United States Environmental Protection Agency. Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: 2010 to 2020 . Executive Summary. Available at . FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.4. 92 Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

70 66 93 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.4, table 3. European Environment Agency. 2013. 94 Municipal Waste Management in the Netherlands . UNEP. 2011. 95 Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-lived Climate Forcers . 96 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.4 paragraph 36. 97 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.4 paragraph 26 98 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.4, paragraph 26. 99 . Available at . 100 Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. . Available at < http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/ Sustainable Healthy Agri-Food Research Plan 0315.pdf>. media/migration/research/whatsnew/SustainableHealthyAgriFoodResearchPlan30 101 NAMA submission to the UNFCCC. FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, paragraph 4. 102 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, paragraph 4. 103 104 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, paragraph 9. 105 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, paragraphs 6 and 7. 106 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1. 107 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, paragraph 10. FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, paragraph15. 108 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, page 16. 109 110 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, page 16. 111 Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente, Panama. 2014. Press release. Available at . FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, page 10. 112 113 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, page 11. 114 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.1, page 12. 115 IPCC. 2014. Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability Alliance to Save Energy. 2012. Energy Efficiency: A Tool for Climate Change Adaptation . 116 117 IPCC. 2014. Synthesis report , Fifth Assessment Report. 118 UNFCCC. 2015. Updated compilation of information on the mitigation benefi ts of actions, initiatives and options to enhance mitigation ambition. Technical paper. 119 African Development Bank Group. 2014. . Piloting forest-based joint mitigation and adaptation strategies 120 African Development Bank Group. 2012. . Solutions for a Changing Climate 121 United Nations Institute for Training and Research . Available at 122 FCCC/TP/2014/13, page 111. FCCC/TP/2014/13, table 7, paragraphs 42 and 43. 123 FCCC/TP/2014/13, paragraph 118. 124 125 The Green Climate Fund . Available at 126 FCCC/TP/2013/8/Add.1, paragraph 86. 127 FCCC/TP/2014/13, box 11. 128 . Available at Momentum for Change 129 NAZCA Portal . Available at 130 IPCC statement by Renate Christ . 2014. Available at < https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/unfccc/sbsta40/140610_urban_environment_Christ.pdf>. 131 See the 2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects by UN DESA’s Pop ulation Division 132 FCCC/TP/2014/13/Add.2, paragraph 14 133 See < http://climateaction.unfccc.int/city-commitments.aspx?id=1044>. 134 See FCCC/TP/2014, table 8, and the ICLEI website, available at < http://www.iclei.o 135 rg/>. 136 FCCC/TP/2014 Table 8, and the C40 website, available at < http://www.c40.or g/>. UNEP. 2015. 137 , page 13. Climate commitments of subnational actors and business 138 The Climate Group . Available at . 139 Under 2 MOU . Available at . 140 UNEP. 2015. Climate commitments of subnational actors and business , page 7. 141 See . 142 See . 143 We Mean Business Coalition . Available at . Summary for Policymakers UNFCCC 2015

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