NACTO Designing for All Ages Abilities

Transcript

1 Designing for All Ages & Abilities Contextual Guidance for High-Comfort Bicycle Facilities December 2017

2 Streets that are safe and comfortable for All Ages & Abilities bicycling are critical for urban mobility. NACTO cities are leading the way in designing streets that are truly safe and inviting for bicyclists of All Ages & Abilities and attract wide ridership. This guidance—developed by practitioners from cities across North America— criteria for selecting and builds on NACTO’s and sets an Urban Bikeway Design Guide All Ages & Abilities implementing bike facilities. Building bicycle infrastructure that meets this criteria is an essential strategy for cities 2 3 1 provide better and seeking to improve traffic safety, reduce congestion, improve air quality and public health, 4 5 and bolster local economies. more equitable access to jobs and opportunities, This All Ages & Abilities facility selection guidance is designed to be used in a wide variety of urban street types. It considers contextual factors such as vehicular speeds and volumes, operational uses, and observed sources of bicycling stress. In doing so, it allows planners and engineers to determine when, where, and how to best combine traffic calming tools, like speed reduction and volume management, with roadway design changes, like full lane separation, to reduce traffic fatalities and increase cycling rates and rider comfort. The All Ages & Abilities criteria is a national and international best practice that should be adopted for all bicycle facility design and network implementation; lesser accommodation should require additional justification. Along with a problem-solving approach to street design, the All Ages & Abilities benchmark should be applied across a city’s entire bicycle network to grow bicycling as a safe, equitable mode for the majority of people. All Ages & Abilities Bike Facilities are ... Bike Facilities are... Safe Equitable Comfortable Bikeways that provide More people will bicycle when High-quality bikeways expand comfortable, low-stress bicycling opportunities to ride and they have safe places to ride, and encourage safe riding. Poor or more riders mean safer streets. conditions can achieve widespread growth in mode share. Among inadequate infrastructure—which Among seven NACTO cities that grew the lane mileage of their has disproportionately impacted adults in the US, only 6–10% of bikeway networks 50% between people generally feel comfortable low-income communities and riding in mixed traffic or painted 2007–2014, ridership more than communities of color—forces 8 However, nearly doubled while risk of death and bike lanes. people bicycling to choose serious injury to people biking was between feeling safe and following two-thirds of the adult population 6 may be interested in riding more the rules of the road, and induces halved. Better bicycle facilities are often, given better places to ride, directly correlated with increased wrong-way and sidewalk riding. safety for people walking and and as many as 81% of those Where street design provides safe 9 would ride in protected bike lanes. driving as well. Data from New York places to ride and manages motor Bikeways that eliminate stress City showed that adding protected vehicle driver behavior, unsafe 11 will attract traditionally under- bicycling decisions disappear, bike lanes to streets reduced injury making ordinary riding safe and crashes for all road users by 40% represented bicyclists, including 7 women, children, and seniors. legal and reaching more riders. over four years. SE Mill Street, PORTLAND (photo credit: Portland Bureau of Transportation) 2

3 Who is the “All Ages & Abilities” User? To achieve growth in bicycling, bikeway design needs to meet the needs of a broader set of potential bicyclists. Many existing bicycle facility designs exclude most people who might otherwise ride, traditionally favoring very confident riders, who tend to be adult men. When selecting a bikeway design strategy, identify potential design users in keeping with both network goals and the potential to broaden the bicycling user base of a specific street. Children Women Seniors School-age children are an essential Women are consistently under- People aged 65 and over are the cycling demographic but face unique represented as a share of total fastest growing population group risks because they are smaller and bicyclists, but the share of women in the US, and the only group with thus less visible from the driver's riding increases in correlation to a growing number of car-free 13 12 seat than adults, and often have less better riding facilities. Concerns Seniors can make households. ability to detect risks or negotiate about personal safety including more trips and have increased conflicts. and beyond traffic stress are often mobility if safe riding networks are relevant. Safety in numbers has available. Bikeways need to serve additional significance for female people with lower visual acuity and bicyclists. slower riding speeds. People Riding Bike Share Low-Income Riders People of Color Bike share systems have greatly While Black and Latinx bicyclists Low-income bicyclists make up half expanded the number and diversity make up a rapidly growing segment of all Census-reported commuter of urban bicycle trips, with over 28 bicyclists, relying extensively on of the riding population, a recent 14 study found that fewer than 20% million US trips in 2016. Riders bicycles for basic transportation 17 In needs like getting to work. of adult Black and Latinx bicyclists often use bike share to link to other transit, or make spontaneous or addition, basic infrastructure is and non-bicyclists feel comfortable often deficient in low-income in conventional bicycle lanes; fear one-way trips, placing a premium neighborhoods, exacerbating safety on comfortable and easily of exposure to theft or assault or being a target for enforcement were understandable bike infrastructure. concerns. An All Ages & Abilities 15 cited as barriers to bicycling. Bike share users range widely in Long- bikeway is often needed to bring safe stress tolerance, but overwhelmingly standing dis-investment in street conditions to the major streets these bicyclists already use on a daily prefer to ride in high-quality infrastructure means that these riders are disproportionately likely bikeways. All Ages & Abilities basis. to be killed by a car than their white networks are essential to bike share 16 counterparts. system viability. People Moving Goods or Cargo People with Disabilities Confident Cyclists People with disabilities may use Bicycles and tricycles outfitted The small percentage of the bicycling population who are very experienced to carry multiple passengers or adaptive bicycles including tricycles and recumbent handcycles, which and comfortable riding in mixed cargo, or bicycles pulling trailers, increase the types of trips that can often operate at lower speeds, are motor vehicle traffic conditions are also accommodated by, and often lower to the ground, or have a wider be made by bike, and are not well envelope than other bicycles. High- prefer, All Ages & Abilities facilities, accommodated by bicycle facilities designed to minimal standards. comfort bicycling conditions provide though they may still choose to ride mobility, health, and independence, in mixed traffic. often with a higher standard for bike infrastructure needed. 3

4 Choosing an All Ages & Abilities Bicycle Facility This chart provides guidance in choosing a bikeway design that can create an All Ages & Abilities bicycling environment, based on a street's basic design and motor vehicle traffic conditions such as vehicle speed and volume. This chart should be applied as part of a flexible, results-oriented design process on each street, alongside robust analysis of local bicycling conditions as discussed in the remainder of this document. Users of this guidance should recognize that, in some cases, a bicycle facility may fall short of the All Ages & Abilities criteria but still substantively reduce traffic stress. Jurisdictions should not use an inability to meet the All Ages & Abilities criteria as reason to avoid implementing a bikeway, and should not prohibit the construction of facilities that do not meet the criteria. Contextual Guidance for Selecting All Ages & Abilities Bikeways Roadway Context All Ages & Abilities Target Max. Target Motor Motor Vehicle Key Operational Bicycle Facility Motor Vehicle * Lanes Considerations Vehicle Speed Volume (ADT) Any of the following: high curbside activity, frequent buses, Any Any Protected Bicycle Lane motor vehicle congestion, or ‡ turning conflicts Less relevant < 10 mph Pedestrians share the roadway Shared Street No centerline, or single lane ≤ 1,000 – 2,000 ≤ 20 mph < 50 motor vehicles per hour in one-way Bicycle Boulevard the peak direction at peak hour ≤ 500 – 1,500 ≤ 1,500 – Conventional or Buffered Bicycle 3,000 Lane, or Protected Bicycle Lane Single lane each direction, – ≤ 3,000 Buffered or Protected Bicycle Low curbside activity, or low ≤ 25 mph or single lane 6,000 Lane congestion pressure one-way Greater than 6,000 Protected Bicycle Lane Multiple lanes Any per direction Single lane Protected Bicycle Lane, or each direction Reduce Speed Low curbside activity, or low ≤ 6,000 Protected Bicycle Lane, or congestion pressure Greater than Multiple lanes Reduce to Single Lane & Reduce † per direction 26 mph Speed Greater than Protected Bicycle Lane, Any Any 6,000 or Bicycle Path Bike Path with Separate Walkway High-speed limited access High pedestrian volume or Protected Bicycle Lane roadways, natural corridors, Any or geographic edge conditions Shared-Use Path or Low pedestrian volume with limited conflicts Protected Bicycle Lane * While posted or 85th percentile motor vehicle speed are commonly used design speed targets, 95th percentile speed captures high-end speeding, which causes greater stress to bicyclists and more frequent passing events. Setting target speed based on this threshold results in a higher level of bicycling comfort for the full range of riders. † Setting 25 mph as a motor vehicle speed threshold for providing protected bikeways is consistent with many cities' traffic safety and Vision Zero policies. However, some cities use a 30 mph posted speed as a threshold for protected bikeways, consistent with providing Level of Traffic 18 Stress level 2 (LTS 2) that can effectively reduce stress and accommodate more types of riders. ‡ Operational factors that lead to bikeway conflicts are reasons to provide protected bike lanes regardless of motor vehicle speed and volume. 4

5 The All Ages & Abilities Design Toolbox Five major types of bikeway provide for most bike network needs, based on the contextual guidance on page 4. This list is organized from more to less shared operation with automobiles. Each facility type is appropriate as an All Ages & Abilities bikeway in relevant street contexts. The NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide provides detailed guidance on bikeway facilities. allow bicyclists to comfortably operate across Low-Speed Shared Streets the entire roadway. Shared streets target very low operating speeds for all users, typically no greater than 10 mph. The volume of people walking and bicycling should be much greater than vehicle volume to maintain comfort. Issues for bicycling in shared environments arise from conflicts with people walking, who may be expected at any point across the street’s width. Materials and street edges must be appropriate for bicycling; materials are often varied to delineate road space, but any seams or low mountable curbs Argyle Street, CHICAGO (photo credit: Chicago DOT) must be designed to avoid creating fall hazards for bicyclists. (or neighborhood greenways) provide continuous Bicycle Boulevards comfortable bicycle routes through the local street network. Bike Boulevards are characterized by slow motor vehicle speeds and low volumes. Sometimes these are present by the very nature of the street and its function (e.g. narrow streets with no major destinations), but sometimes design work is needed, such as adding traffic calming elements, filtering most motor vehicle traffic off, and/or prioritizing bicycles at major and minor street intersections. In this way, bicycling is made comfortable across the entire roadway. Directional PORTLAND SE Taylor Street, (photo credit: Greg Raisman) markings and wayfinding signage provide riders with intuitive, coherent routing. provide organized space for Buffered & Conventional Bicycle Lanes bicycling, and are often part of street reconfiguration projects that improve safety and comfort for all users. Bicycle lanes are an important tool to improve comfort and safety on streets where the number of passing events is too high for comfortable mixed-traffic bicycling, but where curbside activity, heavy vehicles, and lane invasion are not significant sources of conflict. Buffered bike lanes are almost always higher comfort than conventional bike lanes. In many cases, cross-sections with room for MONTRÉAL Laurier Avenue E, (photo credit: Dylan Passmore) buffered bicycle lanes also have room for protected bicycle lanes. Protected Bicycle Lanes (also known as Separated Bike Lanes or Cycle Tracks) use a combination of horizontal separation (buffer distance) and vertical separation (e.g. flex posts, parked cars, or curbs) to protect people bicycling from motor vehicle traffic. The combination of lateral buffer distance and vertical separation elements (such as flexible delineators, curbs or height differences, or vehicle parking) can ameliorate most of the stressors of on-street bicycling. The robustness of bikeway separation often scales relative to adjacent traffic stress. VANCOUVER Dunsmuir Street, (photo credit: Paul Kreuger via Flickr) have in many cities served as the early spines Shared-Use & Bicycle Paths of an All Ages & Abilities network. Paths can provide a continuous corridor, but usually do not take riders to their destinations. High pedestrian volumes, driveways, obtrusive bollards, sharp geometry, and crossings all degrade bicycling comfort, but often require long project timelines to eliminate. To become useful for transportation, paths work best when connected to an on-street network that meets the same high benchmark of rider comfort, and design provides bicycle-friendly geometry. Ideally, bicycles should be Cultural Trail, INDIANAPOLIS (photo credit: Green Lanes Project) separated from pedestrians where significant volume of either mode is present, but where space limitations exist, multi-use paths are still valuable. 5

6 Motor Vehicle Speed & Volume Increase Stress Whether or not people will bicycle is heavily influenced by the stresses they encounter on their trip. These stressors impact their actual physical safety and their perceived comfort level. For all roadways and bike facilities, two of the biggest causes of stress are vehicular traffic speed and volume. These factors are inversely related to comfort and safety; even small increases in either factor can quickly increase 19 The stresses created by speed are compounded by vehicular volume, stress and potentially increase injury risk. and vice versa. Slower or less confident bicyclists experience "near misses"—or non-injury incidents that cause stress—much more frequently per trip than faster riders, which can contribute to discouraging people from riding who would 20 otherwise do so. SPEED VOLUME High motor vehicle speeds and speeding introduce When vehicular volumes and speeds are low, most significant risk to all road users, narrowing driver people feel most comfortable bicycling in the sight cones, increasing stopping distance, and shared roadway as they are able to maintain steady increasing injury severity and likelihood of fatality paths and riding speeds with limited pressure to 21 Most people are not move over for passing motor vehicles. However, as when crashes occur. comfortable riding a bicycle immediately next motor vehicle volume increases past 1,000 – 2,000 to motor vehicles driving at speeds over 25 mph. vehicles per day (or roughly 50 vehicles in the peak direction per peak hour), most people biking will only Conventional bike lanes are almost always (with feel comfortable if vehicle speeds are kept below rare exceptions) inadequate to provide an All Ages & Abilities facility in such conditions. 20 mph. Conflicts Increase with Speed & Volume This chart illustrates the number of passing events (at increasing motor vehicle average speed and volume) experienced over a 10-minute period by a bicyclist riding 10 mph. As motor vehicle speed and volume increase, they magnify the frequency of stressful events for people bicycling. 0 MPH 2 3000 ADT 5000 ADT 1000 ADT 25 MPH 5000 ADT 3000 ADT 1000 ADT 0 MPH 3 5000 ADT 3000 ADT 1000 ADT 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 Passing Events per 10-minute Trip 6

7 Motor Vehicle Speed and Volume Amplify One Another as They Increase The frequency at which a person bicycling is passed by motor vehicles is one of the most useful indicators of the level of stress of a roadway or bike facility. Passing events increase with speed and volume, decreasing rider comfort and safety. Where car traffic is routinely above 20 mph, or where traffic volume is higher than 50 vehicles per direction per hour, pressure on bicyclists from motor vehicles attempting to pass degrades comfort for bicycling and increases risk. » At speeds of 20 mph, streets where daily motor vehicle volume exceeds 1,000 – 2,000 vehicles, frequent passing events make shared roadway riding more stressful and will deter many users. Between 20 and 25 mph, » comfort breaks down more quickly, especially when motor vehicle volume exceeds 1,000 – 1,500 ADT. When motor vehicle speeds routinely exceed 25 mph, shared lane markings and signage are not sufficient to create comfortable bicycling conditions. » Motor vehicle speeds 30 mph or greater reduce safety for all street users and are generally not appropriate in places with human activity. » Where motor vehicle speeds exceed 35 mph, it is usually impossible to provide safe or comfortable bicycle conditions without full bikeway separation. Sources of Stress Change Throughout the Day Large fluctuations in motor 40 mph 500 vph vehicle traffic volume between morning, mid-day, afternoon, and nighttime result in radically different bicycling conditions on the same street throughout the day. The example at right 250 vph 20 mph shows a street with roughly Percentile) th 500 vehicles per direction per (95 MILES PER HOUR hour during the peak. While queuing stress occurs at peak 0 MOTOR VEHICLES PER HOUR times, low off-peak volume results in dangerously high motor vehicle speeds. Peak vs. Off-Peak The variation in speed and volume conditions between peak and off-peak hours can manifest as two distinct issues that decrease comfort and safety. During high-volume peak periods, motor vehicle queuing prevents comfortable mixed-traffic » operation and increases the likelihood of bicycle lane incursions, unless physical separation is present. » During off-peak periods, speeds can rise quickly, especially on wide and multi-lane streets, unless the street's design and operations specifically discourage speeding. Streets with very low off-peak volumes that also see little speeding, including many small neighborhood streets, may indicate All Ages & Abilities conditions if peak volumes are managed effectively. » Special Peaks occur on streets that experience intensive peak activity periods. Schools have multiple short windows of time where pedestrian and motor vehicle activity are intense at exactly the time and place where the appeal of All Ages & Abilities bicycling is most sensitive. Downtown cores and retail streets experience intensive commercial freight activity throughout the day including at off-peak times, adding importance to the creation of protected bike lanes. 7

8 Changing the Street: Design, Operation, Networks Not every solution that helps to create safe and comfortable bicycling conditions will be a geometric design. Creating a network of high-comfort bicycle facilities that meet the All Ages & Abilities criteria requires leveraging the full suite of design, operational, and network strategies to transform streets. Strategies can be implemented incrementally to address sources of stress and conflict, change demand for access and movement, and ultimately transform streets for all users by continuously increasing comfort and creating more opportunities to make more trips by bicycle. Change Design Design strategies change the cross-section of a street in order to provide bike lanes, buffered bike lanes, protected bike lanes, or other dedicated bicycle infrastructure. Creating dedicated space for bicycling— either by reducing the number of motor vehicle lanes or their width—usually does not involve substantial changes to motor vehicle volume or the types of vehicles that can use a street, and has substantial benefits for the safety of all street users. 4-to-3 and 4-to-2-lane (with left turn pocket) conversions are widely used, and many other street redesigns apply the same basic principle of organizing movements and modes into dedicated space to improve the efficiency of each space. Examples: • Repurpose Motor Vehicle Lane • Convert from Buffered to Protected Bike Lane Change Operation Operational changes—such as speed reduction, signalization and other conflict management, and proactive curbside management—improve bicycling conditions by reducing the level of traffic stress on a street. Operational strategies make streets more predictable, efficient, and safe without necessarily changing the street’s cross-section or the types of vehicles allowed. On all facility types, reducing motor vehicle speeds to 20 – 25 mph is a core operational strategy for improving bicycle comfort and meeting the All Ages & Abilities criteria. In addition, reducing speeds can also make it easier to enact other safety changes, such as changes to intersection Examples: geometry, signalization, turn lanes, and turn restrictions. Since operational Signal Separation of Conflicting • changes do not impact what types of vehicles can use the street, they Movements usually do not require significant planning beyond the street itself, and are • Low-Speed Signal Progression often the easiest type of change to implement. 8

9 Change the Network Diverting motor vehicle traffic from a street, changing travel direction, (dis)allowing specific types of curbside access, and making other changes to the role of a street in the motor vehicle network are powerful ways to create All Ages & Abilities bicycling conditions. Such network changes allow the street to be transformed into a comfortable bicycling environment without requiring dedicated space. Bicycle boulevards and shared streets, in particular, often rely on network changes to create the low-speed, very low-volume conditions necessary for cyclists to feel safe and comfortable. Prohibiting through-traffic (requiring Examples: all motor vehicles to turn off the street at each intersection), either through Bicycle Boulevard • physical diverters or signage, is an effective strategy for reducing speed and volume. • Time-of-Day Regulations Changes to the motor vehicle network can open up opportunities for better bikeway designs. For example, converting a high volume or high speed street from two-way to one-way or removing all curbside parking can provide space for a protected bike lane. Ames Street, CAMBRIDGE (photo credit: People for Bikes) 9

10 Low-Speed, Low-Volume Roadways Can Be Shared for detailed guidance on Bicycle Boulevards, Conventional Bike Lanes, Buffered See the Urban Bikeway Design Guide Bike Lanes, and Left Side Bike Lanes. Bicycle Boulevards & Shared Streets Bicycle boulevards and shared streets place bicycle and motor vehicle traffic in the same space at the same time. These facilities meet the All Ages & Abilities criteria when motor vehicle volumes and speeds are so low that most people bicycling have few, if any, interactions with passing motor vehicles. What to do: Use both peak-hour volume and off-peak speed to determine whether a shared roadway can serve as » an All Ages & Abilities bike facility. High peak period volumes or high off-peak speeds create a high-stress bicycling environment. These sources of stress can be addressed through speed management or volume management, or may indicate the need for a separated bicycle facility. » Set a 20 – 25 mph target speed (10 mph on shared streets) for motor vehicles in the majority of urban street contexts. Use the 95th percentile motor vehicle speed, along with the overall speed profile of motor vehicle traffic, to determine whether high outlying speeds exist, since even small numbers of motor vehicles traveling at high speeds can degrade the comfort of people bicycling on shared roadways. » Manage motor vehicle speeds through operational and network tools such as speed humps, pinchpoints, and neighborhood traffic circles. » by constructing diverters, prohibiting through traffic, or removing parking. Reduce motor vehicle volume The All Ages & Abilities condition is likely to be reached below approximately 1,000 – 1,500 vehicles per day or approximately 50 vehicles per hour per direction. » Use time-of-day analyses to match regulations or access restrictions to demand. Commercial setting can also work with bike boulevards if stressors are managed. Prioritize delivery and freight access off-peak, or allow only transit and bikes at peak periods. SE Ankeny Street Bike Boulevard, PORTLAND (photo credit: NACTO) 10

11 CAMBRIDGE Brookline Street, (photo credit: City of Cambridge) Conventional & Buffered Bicycle Lanes Conventional and buffered bike lanes on urban streets delineate space for bicyclists but provide no physical separation between people bicycling and driving. With on-street parking, they also place the bicycle between parked vehicles and moving motor vehicles. Since bicyclists must enter the motor vehicle lane to avoid conflict with turning vehicles, parking maneuvers, double parking or curbside loading, or open doors, it is important for passing events to be minimized. What to do: » Set target speeds at or below 25 mph. Speeds of 20 – 25 mph improve comfort and allow drivers to more easily react when bicyclists need to move into the motor vehicle lane. Use strategies such as lower progression speed and shorter signal cycle lengths to reduce the incentive for drivers to speed, and reduce top-end speeding incidents. » Discourage motor vehicle through-movement to reduce volumes. Lower motor vehicle volumes reduce the number of passing events. Depending upon the presence and intensity of other operational stressors, an All Ages & Abilities condition may be reached below approximately 3,000 – 6,000 vehicles per day, or approximately 300 to 400 vehicles per hour. page 15 ). Carefully » Reduce curbside conflicts , especially freight, loading, and bus pull-outs (see manage loading activity and parking demand. On one-way streets with transit activity, move the bike lane or buffered bike lane to the left side of the street to alleviate intersection and curbside conflicts. On streets with heavy curbside use but low motor vehicle volume, consider moving truck traffic or curbside loading to other streets. Address intersection conflicts through motor vehicle turn prohibitions, access management, and signal » phasing strategies. Due to the likelihood of both left- and right-turning conflicts from bi-directional motor vehicle traffic, use the same motor vehicle volume threshold on two-way streets as on one-way streets. Increase buffer distance where traffic characteristics adjacent to the bike lane decrease comfort, » including large vehicles or curbside parking. Where adjacent sources of stress are present, a buffered bike lane can improve comfort by increasing shy distance between bikes and motor vehicles. Where multiple motor vehicle lanes, moderate truck and large vehicle volumes, or frequent transit indicate that most bicyclists will need more separation to be comfortable. 11

12 Separate Bicyclists When Speed & Volume are High Protected Bicycle Lanes Protected bike lanes (including raised bikeways) create All Ages & Abilities conditions by using physical separation to create a consistently exclusive, designated bicycling space. The physical protection offered by protected bike lanes means that they can often meet the All Ages & Abilities criteria even in higher speed, high volume, or unpredictable conditions. Protected bike lanes improve the overall organization of the street, and increase safety for people walking, bicycling, and in motor vehicles. What to do: » Build protected bike lanes where motor vehicle speed consistently exceeds 25 mph, where daily motor vehicle volume is higher than approximately 6,000 vehicles per day, where curbside conflicts are expected, or wherever there is more than one motor vehicle lane per direction. Manage intersection and curbside conflicts » with transit boarding islands, protected (bend-out or offset) intersection designs, signal phasing, and other turn management strategies. Reduce speeds through operational strategies, such as signal time, lower signal progression, and » shorter signal cycles. » On streets with parking, reverse the position of the parking and the bike lane to create physical between the bike lane and moving motor vehicle traffic. separation » On streets without parking, (e.g. delineators, barriers, raised curbs) in add vertical separation elements an existing buffer, or raise existing curbside bike lanes. » convert one travel lane to a On streets with multiple motor vehicle lanes in each travel direction, protected bike lane, better organizing the street and improving safety for people biking, walking and 22 driving. Convert conventional or buffered lanes to protected lanes if motor vehicle speeds and volumes » cannot be otherwise reduced and where there is high curbside activity or peaks of intensive demand such as retail-heavy streets, or around schools, large employers, institutions, and entertainment districts. Second Avenue, SEATTLE (photo credit: Adam Coppola for Green Lanes Project) 12

13 Strategies to Reduce Other Sources of Stress In addition to motor vehicle speed and volume, All Ages & Abilities bikeway facility selection should respond to street conditions that increase bicycling stress and often degrade comfort and safety for all people using the street. These sources of stress can be addressed through design, operations, and network solutions that either remove the source of stress or separate it from bicycle traffic. Multiple Motor Vehicle Lanes Design Strategy Source of Stress Motor vehicle traffic on multi-lane streets, whether Reduce the cross-section to one motor vehicle travel lane per direction, where possible. On streets where two-way or one-way, is less predictable than on streets multiple through lanes in one direction are used to with a single lane per direction of travel. Lane changes, allocate very high motor vehicle traffic capacity, acceleration and passing, and multiple-threat visibility issues degrade both comfort and safety. Corridors with a provide physical protection and manage turns across major through-traffic function and multiple motor vehicle the bikeway. 4-to-3 or 5-to-3 lane conversions paired with protected bikeways are transformative for both lanes are inherently unpredictable biking environments. 23 bicycling and walking safety and comfort. A common “multiple threat” conflict, where reduced visibility for motor vehicles turning across multiple travel lanes increase bicyclists’ risk at crossings. The 4-to-3 lane conversion is a common technique for managing motor vehicle traffic flow while reducing the multiple threat conflict, though two-way left turn lanes introduce turn conflicts at mid-block locations (e.g. driveways). Motor Vehicle Queuing Design Strategy Source of Stress Motor vehicle congestion presents safety and comfort Protected bike lanes should be implemented where issues for people bicycling. Queued traffic moves at motor vehicle invasion of the bike lane is likely to occur otherwise. Visual and physical barriers can prevent unpredictable speeds and will often invade conventional or buffered bike lanes. encroachment on the bikeway. Bicycle facilities should be designed with capacity for Queuing encourages both motorists and bicyclists to engage in unpredictable movements. Bicyclists may growing ridership, including passing of slow-moving cargo bicycles. weave through queued cars when bicycle facilities are obstructed, where motorists are also prone to move unexpectedly. Bicyclists are more likely to try to weave through congested traffic, especially when bikeways are impeded, but motor vehicles become unpredictable. Separation and protection prevent queued vehicles from permeating bicycle space and maintain bikeway integrity throughout the day. 13

14 Strategies to Reduce Other Sources of Stress Intersections Source of Stress Design Strategy Motor vehicles turning across the bikeway typically Provide separation in space and time between bicycles and vehicles to the extent possible, or require people bicycling to negotiate with motor vehicles, reduce speed and maximize visibility between drivers a significant stressor at all but the very lowest speed and bicyclists. Tighter effective corner radii, raised conditions. Bicycle design treatments that require people crossings, and protected intersection designs are biking to cross or mix with motor vehicle traffic are effective in slowing motor vehicle turning speed and stressful at all but low volumes. placing bicyclists in a priority position. Bicycle left turns, especially on busy streets, can be very Provide appropriate intersection treatments to accommodate desired turning movements, including stressful or even dangerous for bicyclists, especially if bike boxes, two-stage queue boxes, phase separation, bikes are expected to merge with fast-moving traffic or 25 or protected intersections (also known as “offset” or turn across multiple lanes. “bend-out” crossings) that organize and give priority to people bicycling. Reduce or mitigate situations that increase risk of Sharp grade or direction changes, such as sharp lateral transitions approaching the intersection, require people falling and instability. Design intersection approaches biking to slow down and may increase fall risks. Frequent and transitions with bicycle-friendly geometry; place starts and stops also create instability at intersections. bicycle movements first in the signal phase; time signal progressions to bike-friendly speeds; and rotate stop signs to face cross streets. Trucks & Large Vehicles Source of Stress Design Strategy Provide protected bicycle facilities—or, at minimum, High volumes of truck traffic degrade adjacent bicycling buffered bike lanes—on observed or designated safety and comfort. This is often the case on major streets, or in commercial or industrial places. trucking routes, regardless of general motor vehicle speed and volume. Large vehicles have large blind spots, increasing risk of Use buffers to increase the distance between side-swipe and right-hook crashes. truck and bicycle travel paths. Consider protected intersection geometry (also known as “offset” or “bend-out”). Large vehicle noise and exhaust increase bicycling stress Provide wide lateral separation—such as with wide and present public health issues. buffers, planters or planting strips, or parking- protected facilities—to dissipate pollutants entering 26 the bikeway. 14

15 Curbside Activity Source of Stress Design Strategy Provide designated truck loading zones and provide Frequent freight and passenger loading either happens in the bikeway or adjacent in the curbside lane. Loading space for other curbside uses to prevent blockages of activities increase conflicts crossing the bike lane, or the bicycle lane. Consider restricting freight loading to off-peak periods. If frequent freight or passenger even blockages by double-parked vehicles that imperil loading is observed, provide protected bicycle facilities bicyclists and rapidly decrease assurances of safety. regardless of speed and volume, or move passenger and freight loading uses to a cross-street. High parking turnover results in frequent weaving and door Where parking turnover is high, provide protected zone conflicts. bikeways regardless of speed to avoid sudden conflicts and reduce injury risk, or remove parking. Cities should establish local guidance on acceptable levels of parking maneuvers across bicycle lanes. Implement a robust bike boulevard or shared street Freight loading is present throughout the day, but motor vehicle speed and volume are consistently low. treatment with traffic calming strategies to provide comfort and safety across the entire roadway. Provide a wide marked buffer adjacent to the vehicle Car doors open into the bicycle travel path during vehicle door zone to guide bicyclists clear of dooring conflicts exit and entry, but parking turnover is low to moderate. for both buffered and protected bike lanes. Frequent Transit Source of Stress Design Strategy Buses merge across conventional bike lanes to access Provide spot protection using transit boarding islands, which are compatible with protected, buffered, and curbside stops. At all but the lowest bus frequencies, conventional “pull-out” transit stops degrade comfort and conventional bicycle lanes. Boarding islands create in-lane transit stops, which improve bus reliability and increase transit delay. travel time. Bikes and transit travel at similar average speeds but Provide dedicated bicycle facilities. On one-way different moving speeds, as buses stop and accelerate streets, left-side bicycle facilities can be used to separate bikes and transit vehicles. frequently. Overtaking buses and bicycle leapfrogging decrease riding comfort in mixed conditions. Core transit routes and trunklines often operate on streets On trunkline transit streets, it is even more important with dense destinations and demand for bicycle access. to accommodate users in dedicated lanes, since the In some cases, right-of-way width may constrain design major streets are where people need to get to their destinations. If the primary demand for the corridor decisions and facility types that can be implemented. is through travel, it may be possible to consider providing high-quality bike infrastructure on parallel, nearby, and continuous routes, while allowing local bicycle access on the transit street. To improve All Ages & Abilities bicycling conditions, use low-speed signal progressions and other calming measures consistent with transit effectiveness. As on all transit routes, pedestrian safety is the foremost design need. The NACTO Transit Street Design Guide provides detailed guidance for streets with frequent bus transit routes. 15

16 References 12 “B25045. Tenure By Vehicles Available By Age of Householders.” Anne C Lusk, Peter G Furth, Patrick Morency, Luis F Miranda- 1 American Community Survey 2010–14 5-year estimate, US Moren, Walter C Willett, & Jack T Dennerlein. Risk of injury for Injury Prevention Census Bureau (2016). bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street. (2011). 13 Peter Tuckel, William Milczarski, et al. "Bike Lanes + Bike Share Program = Bike Safety An Observational Study of Biking M. Anne Harris, Conor CO Reynolds, Meghan Winters, Mary Behavior in Lower and Central Manhattan." Hunter College, City Chipman, Peter A. Cripton, Michael D. Cusimano, and Kay University of New York (2014). Teschke. “The Bicyclists’ Injuries and the Cycling Environment study: a protocol to tackle methodological issues facing studies 14 Kate Fillin-Yeh & Ted Graves. Bike Share in the US: 2010-2016. of bicycling safety.” Injury prevention 17, no. 5 (2011): e6-e6. National Association of City Transportation Officials (2017). http://nacto.org/bike-share-statistics-2016 Accessed via: Study of 1st, 8th, and Columbus Avenues in New York found that 2 after installation of protected bike lanes on each, average motor 15 Charles T. Brown, and James Sinclair. Removing Barriers to vehicle travel times throughout the day were either unchanged . No. 17-03327. Bicycle Use in Black and Hispanic Communities or fell as much as 35% at parts of the day. 2017. Protected Bicycle Lanes in NYC . New York City Department of 16 League of American Bicyclists, “The New Majority: Pedaling Transportation, 2014. nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/2014- Towards Equity.” p.2. Accessed via http:// bikeleague.org/ 09-03-bicycle-path-data-analysis.pdf sites/default/files/equity_report.pdf & Smart Growth America, “Dangerous by Design 2014.” p.20. Accessed via: http:// 3 Economic analysis estimates that for every $1,300 New York City www.smartgrowthamerica.org/ documents/dangerous-by- invested in building bike infrastructure in 2015 "provided benefits design-2014/dangerous-bydesign-2014.pdf equivalent to one additional year of life at full health over the lifetime of all city residents." “Pedestrian Fatalities in New York City.” Epi Data Brief, New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene. March 2017, Jing Gu, Babak Mohit, and Peter Alexander Muennig. "The cost- , http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/epi/ effectiveness of bike lanes in New York City." Injury Prevention no. 86. September 2016. Accessed via: injuryprevention.bmj.com/ databrief86.pdf content/early/2016/09/09/injuryprev-2016-042057 17 “S0802: Means of Transporation to Work by Selected Lower-income workers spend proportionally more of their 4 Characteristics.” American Community Survey 2011–15 5-year estimate, US Census Bureau (2016). income on transportation, are significantly more likely to commute during evening and weekend hours where transit Mekuria, Maaza C., Peter G. Furth, and Hilary Nixon. "Low-stress 18 service is less frequent, and most likely to commute by bicycle. bicycling and network connectivity." Mineta Transportation The New Majority: Pedaling Toward Equity Institution (2012). . League of American Bicyclists & Sierra Club, 20. Accessed via: bikeleague.org/sites/ A study of crashes involving pedestrians in the US estimated 19 default/files/equity_report.pdf a 10% risk of severe injury for people walking hit by a vehicle traveling over 20 mph; severe injury risk increased to 50% if the 5 Clifton, Kelly J, Christopher Muhs, Sara Morrissey, Tomás vehicle was traveling over 30 mph, and 90% over 40 mph. Morrissey, Kristina Currans, & Chloe Ritter. “Consumer Behavior and Travel Mode Choices.” Oregon Transportation Impact Speed and a Pedestrian’s Risk of Brian C. Tefft. Research and Education Consortium, Transportation Research . AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Severe Injury or Death Board, Washington, DC (2012). www.aaafoundation.org/sites/default/ 2011. Accessed via: files/2011PedestrianRiskVsSpeed.pdf Equitable Bike Share Means Building Kate Fillin-Yeh & Ted Graves. 6 Better Places for People to Ride . National Association of City 20 Rachel Aldred. "Cycling near misses: Their frequency, impact, Transportation Officials (2016). Transportation Research Part A: Policy and and prevention." Wolfson, H., 2011—Memorandum on Bike Lanes, City of New (2016): 69-83. Practice 90 7 York, Office of the Mayor, 21 March 2011. http://www.nyc.gov/ Bruce Schaller, Ryan Russo, Joshua Benson, Sean Quinn, 21 html/om/pdf/bike_lanes_memo.pdf . New Matthew Roe, and Seth Hostetter. Making Safer Streets 8 York City Department of Transportation (2013). Dill, Jennifer, “Categorizing Cyclists: What do we know? Insights from Portland, OR.” Portland State University, presented at 22 Huang, Herman, J. Stewart, and Charles Zegeer. "Evaluation of Velo-City Global 2012, Vancouver BC. Accessed via: http://web. lane reduction" road diet" measures on crashes and injuries." pdx.edu/~jdill/Dill_VeloCity_ Types_of_Cyclists.pdf Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1784 (2002): 80-90. Jennifer Dill & Nathan McNeil. Revisiting the Four Types of . Submitted to the 95th Cyclists: Findings from a national survey An Evaluation of “Road Diet” Projects on Five Lane and 23 Jack Cebe. Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (2016). . Georgia Institute of Technology (2016). Larger Roadways 9 Kate Fillin-Yeh & Ted Graves. Equitable Bike Share Means Building Separated Bike Lane Planning and Design Guide . 24 . National Association of City Better Places for People to Ride Massachusetts Department of Transportation, 2015. Transportation Officials (2016). Accessed via: www.massdot.state.ma.us/highway/ DoingBusinessWithUs/ManualsPublicationsForms/ Alex Armlovich. 10 Poverty and Progress in New York City XI: Vision SeparatedBikeLanePlanningDesignGuide.aspx Zero and Traffic Safety . Manhattan Institute, May 25, 2017. Accessed via www.manhattan-institute.org/download/10306/ Left Turn Pedestrian & Bicyclist Crash Study 25 Don’t Cut Corners: . article.pdf New York City Department of Transportation (2016). Accessed via: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/about/leftturnstudy. After implementation of the Prospect Park West bikeway in 11 shtml Brooklyn, the percentage of bicyclists riding on the sidewalk fell from 46% of all riders to 3%. 26 Christine Kendrick, Adam Moore, Ashley Haire, Alexander Bigazzi, Miguel Figliozzi, Christopher Monsere, & Linda George. . New Measuring the Street: New Metrics for 21st Century Streets "The impact of bicycle lane characteristics on bicyclists’ www.nyc.gov/ York City Department of Transportation, 2012. exposure to traffic-related particulate matter." 90th Annual html/dot/downloads/pdf/2012-10-measuring-the-street.pdf Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (2010). 16

Related documents

435 441 458 467r e

435 441 458 467r e

WT/DS435/R, WT/DS441/R WT/DS458/R, WT/DS467/R 28 June 2018 Page: (18 - 1/884 4061 ) Original: English AUSTRALIA CERTAIN MEASURES CON CERNING TRADEMARKS, – PACKAGING IONS AND OTHER PLAIN GEOGRAPHICAL I...

More info »
MDS 3.0 RAI Manual v1.16 October 2018

MDS 3.0 RAI Manual v1.16 October 2018

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Long-Term Care Facility Resident Assessment Instrument 3.0 User’s Manual Version 1.16 October 2018

More info »
Job Specs Non Classified

Job Specs Non Classified

Class Specifications for Noncertified Public School Employees School Personnel Support Section Division of Financial and Business Services Public Schools of North Carolina State Board of Education • H...

More info »
Microsoft Word   147400

Microsoft Word 147400

Federal Communications Commission FCC 15 -24 the Before Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of ) ) GN Docket No. 14 -28 Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet ) ...

More info »
Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space

Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space

TIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS THE NA This PDF is available at http://nap.edu/24938 SHARE     Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space DET AILS 700 pages | 8.5 ...

More info »
Handbook: Revenue for software and SaaS

Handbook: Revenue for software and SaaS

Revenue for software and SaaS Handbook US GAAP December 201 8 _____ kpmg.com/us/ frv

More info »
G:\COMP\PHSA\PHSA.bel

G:\COMP\PHSA\PHSA.bel

G:\COMP\PHSA\PHSA-MERGED.XML PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 115–408, Enacted December 31, 2018] References in brackets ¿ ø¿ ø are to title 42, United States Code TITLE I—SHORT TITL...

More info »
CFOC4 pdf  FINAL

CFOC4 pdf FINAL

National Health and Safety Performance Standards • Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs, 4th Edition Caring for Our Children Caring for Our Children Caring for Our National Health and Safe...

More info »
CFOC3 updated final

CFOC3 updated final

Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs, Third Edition A Joint Collaborative Project of American Academy of Pediatri...

More info »
Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

MANAGING THE RISKS OF EXTREME EVENTS AND DISASTERS TO ADVANCE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION SPECIAL REPORT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE

More info »
Home Study Requirements for Prospective Foster Parents

Home Study Requirements for Prospective Foster Parents

STATE STATUTES Current Through February 2018 WHAT’S INSIDE Personal qualifications Home Study Requirements for Prospective Foster Training requirements Parents Minimum standards for foster homes The S...

More info »
Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges

Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON EDUCATION AND THE DISCIPLINES The goal of the National Council on Education and the Disciplines (NCED) is to advance a vision that will unify and guide efforts to strengthen K-16 e...

More info »
Ready By Design 2016

Ready By Design 2016

READY BY DESIGN THE SCIENCE (AND ART) OF YOUTH READINESS Stephanie Malia Krauss, Karen J. Pittman and Caitlin Johnson March 2016

More info »
3.06.2 Post Construction Stormwater BMP Standards and Specifications

3.06.2 Post Construction Stormwater BMP Standards and Specifications

3.06.2 Post Construction Stormwater BMP Standards and Specifications March 2013

More info »
1 leslie haley wasserman debby zambo

1 leslie haley wasserman debby zambo

Educating the Young Child 7 Advances in Theory and Research, Implications for Practice Leslie Haley Wasserman Debby Zambo Editors Early Childhood and Neuroscience - Links to Development and Learning

More info »
Best Practices For Legal Education

Best Practices For Legal Education

Best Practices for Legal Education A Vision and A Road Map Roy Stuckey and Others Foreword by Robert MacCrate, Esq.

More info »
Implementation Handbook For The Convention On The Rights Of The Child

Implementation Handbook For The Convention On The Rights Of The Child

IMPLEMENTATION HANDBOOK FOR THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD FULLY REVISED THIRD EDITION IMPLEMENTATION HANDBOOK IMPLEMENTATION HANDBOOK FOR THE CONVENTION ON THE FOR THE CONVENTION ON THE RI...

More info »
June2018CUR

June2018CUR

CHANCELLOR'S UNIVERSITY REPORT JUNE 25 2018

More info »