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1 Are Are You Ready? You Ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness An In-depth Guide FEM A to Citizen Preparedness IS-22 A ugust 2004

2 Preface This guide has been prepared for direct dissemination to the ge neral public and is based on the most reliable hazard awareness and emergency educa tion information available at the time of publication, including advances in sci c knowledge, entifi more accurate technical language, and the latest physical resea rch on what happens in disasters. situation, or difference This publication is, however, too brief to cover every factor, in buildings, infrastructure, or other environmental features t hat might be of inter- rces of information est. To help you explore your interest further, additional sou have been included. The guide has been designed to help the citizens of this nation learn how to protect themselves and their families against all types of haza rds. It can be used f the content is on as a reference source or as a step-by-step manual. The focus o ect what must be how to develop, practice, and maintain emergency plans that refl done before, during, and after a disaster to protect people and their property. Also included is information on how to assemble a disaster supplies kit that contains the food, water, and other supplies in suffi cient quantity for individuals and their families to survive following a disaster in the event they must rely on their own resources. Are You Ready? is just one of many resources the Department of Homeland Security provides the citizens of this nation to help them be prepared a gainst all types of hazards. The Department of Homeland Security ’ s Ready Campaign seeks to help America be better prepared for even unlikely emergency scenario s. Information on how the public can be ready in case of a national emergency – including a possible terrorism attack involving biological, chemical, or ra diological weapons – can be found by logging on to the Department of Homeland Secur ity ’ s web site, tion., or by calling 1-800-BE-READY for printed informa 1

3 CERT Following a disaster, community members may be on their own for a period of ons, and impassable time because of the size of the area affected, lost communicati roads. The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program supports l ocal re- sponse capability by training volunteers to organize themselves and spontaneous e to victims, and to volunteers at the disaster site, to provide immediate assistanc ’ efforts when they arrive. collect disaster intelligence to support responders In the classroom, participants learn about the hazards they fac e and ways to prepare for them. CERT members are taught basic organizational skills that they can use to help themselves, their loved ones, and their neighbors until he lp arrives. Local government, or one of its representatives, sponsor CERT t raining in the com- munity. Training consists of 20 hours of instruction on topics that include disaster preparedness, fi re safety, disaster medical operations, light search and rescu e, team organization, and disaster psychology. Upon completion of the training, partici- pants are encouraged to continue their involvement by participa ting in training activities and volunteering for projects that support their com munity ’ s disaster preparedness efforts. For additional information on CERT, visit Web/CERT or contact your local Citizen Corps Council. 2

4 Citizen Corps Citizen Corps provides opportunities for people across the coun try to participate their communities in a range of measures to make their families, their homes, and s, and disasters of all safer from the threats of crime, terrorism, public health issue kinds. Through public education, training opportunities, and v olunteer programs, every American can do their part to be better prepared and bett er protected and to help their communities do the same. uncils, which bring Citizen Corps is managed at the local level by Citizen Corps Co fi re, emergency medical and other emer- together leaders from law enforcement, gency management, volunteer organizations, local elected of fi cials, the private sector, and other community stakeholders. These Citizen Corps Council s will organize public education on disaster mitigation and preparedness, citiz en training, and volunteer programs to give people of all ages and backgrounds t he opportunity to support their community s emergency services and to safeguard themselves and ’ their property. By participating in Citizen Corps programs, you can make your h ome, your neigh- borhood and your community a safer place to live. To fi nd out more, please visit the Citizen Corps Web site, or visit . Activities under Citizen Corps include existing and new federal ly sponsored pro- grams administered by the Department of Justice (Neighborhood W atch and Vol- unteers in Police Service), FEMA (Community Emergency Response Teams - CERT), and Department of Health and Human Services (Medical Reserve Co rps), as well as other activities through Citizen Corps af fi liate programs that share the common goal of community and family safety. 3

5 Certifi cate of Completion complete the entire As an option, credit can be provided to those who successfully nal examination. To take the fi nal exami- guide and score at least 75 percent on a fi nation, log on to and follo w the links for Are You Ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness IS-22. Those who pass the examina- fi cate of completion within two weeks from the tion can expect to receive a certi option should be date the examination is received at FEMA. Questions about this -238-2258 and directed to the FEMA Independent Study Program by calling 1-800 fi ce or writing to: asking for the Independent Study Of FEMA Independent Study Program Emergency Management Institute 16825 South Seton Avenue Emmitsburg, MD 21727 Facilitator Guide Teaching others about disaster preparedness is a rewarding expe rience that results from knowing you have helped your fellow citizens be ready in t he event a disas- ter should strike. As a tool to aid those who want to deliver such training, FEMA se with this developed a Facilitator Guide with an accompanying CD-ROM for u Are You Ready? guide. The materials are appropriate for use in training grou ps such as school children, community organizations, scouts, social groups , and many others. The Facilitator Guide includes guidelines on how to deliver tra ining to various audiences, generic lesson plans for teaching disaster preparedn ess, and information on how to obtain other resources that can be used to augment th e material in the Are You Ready? isu- guide. The CD-ROM contains teaching aids such as electronic v als that re fl ect key information and handouts that can be printed and distr ibuted to reinforce what is being presented. To obtain a copy of the Facilitator Guide and CD-ROM, call the FEMA Distribution Center at (800) 480-2520 or request it by writing to: Federal Emergency Management Agency P.O. Box 2012 Jessup, MD 20794-2012 4

6 Table of Contents Preface ...1 Why Prepare ...7 Part 1 Basic Preparedness ...13 Section 1.1 Getting Informed...15 Section 1.2 Emergency Planning and Checklists...23 Section 1.3 Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit ...31 Section 1.4 Shelter ...37 Section 1.5 Hazard-Specific Preparedness ...43 Section 1.6 Practicing and Maintaining Your Plan ...45 ...47 Part 2 Natural Hazards Section 2.1 Floods ...49 Section 2.2 Tornadoes ...57 Section 2.3 Hurricanes ...65 Section 2.4 Thunderstorms and Lightning ...73 Section 2.5 Winter Storms and Extreme Cold ...79 Section 2.6 Extreme Heat ...85 Section 2.7 Earthquakes ...93 Section 2.8 Volcanoes ...101 Section 2.9 Landslides and Debris Flow (Mudslide) ...105 Section 2.10 Tsunamis ...111 Section 2.11 Fires ...115 Section 2.12 Wildfires ...123 Part 3 Technological Hazards ...127 Section 3.1 Hazardous Materials Incidents ...129 Section 3.2 Household Chemical Emergencies ...133 Section 3.3 Nuclear Power Plants ...139 Part 4 Terrorism ...145 Section 4.1 General Information about Terrorism ...147 Section 4.2 Explosions ...151 Section 4.3 Biological Threats ...155 Section 4.4 Chemical Threats ...159 Section 4.5 Nuclear Blast ...163 Section 4.6 Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)...169 Section 4.7 Homeland Security Advisory System ...173 Part 5 Recovering from Disaster ...179 Appendix A: Water Conservation Tips ...191 Appendix B: Disaster Supplies Checklist ...195 Appendix C: Family Communications Plan ...201 5

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8 Are You Ready? Why Prepare Why Prepare There are real benefi ts to being prepared. • Being prepared can r educe fear, anxiety, and losses that accompany disasters. n the event Communities, families, and individuals should know what to do i fi re and where to seek shelter during a tornado. They should be ready to of a evacuate their homes and take refuge in public shelters and kno w how to care for their basic medical needs. • People also can reduce the impact of disasters ( fl ood proo fi ng, elevating a home or moving a home out of harm s way, and securing items that could ’ shake loose in an earthquake) and sometimes avoid the danger co mpletely. The need to prepare is real. • Disasters disrupt hundreds of thousands of lives every year. Each disaster has lasting effects, both to people and property. • If a disaster occurs in your community, local government and d isaster-relief help you, but you need to be ready as well. Local organizations will try to responders may not be able to reach you immediately, or they ma y need to focus their efforts elsewhere. • er that could You should know how to respond to severe weather or any disast — hurricanes, earthquakes, extreme cold, fl ooding, or occur in your area terrorism. • You should also be ready to be self-suf fi cient for at least three days. This may mean providing for your own shelter, fi rst aid, food, water, and sanitation. Using this guide makes preparation practical. • gency This guide was developed by the Federal Emergency Management A (FEMA), which is the agency responsible for responding to natio nal disas- ters and for helping state and local governments and individual s prepare for emergencies. It contains step-by-step advice on how to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. • Used in conjunction with information and instructions from loc al emergency management of fi ces and the American Red Cross, Are You Ready? will give you what you need to be prepared. 7

9 Why Prepare Are You Ready? Using Are You Ready? to Prepare The main reason to use this guide is to help protect yourself a nd your family in the event of an emergency. Through applying what you have learned in this guide, you are taking the necessary steps to be ready when an event occurs . Every citizen in this country is part of a national emergency m anagement system that is all about protection – protecting people and property from all types of haz- ards. Think of the national emergency management system as a p yramid with you, the citizen, forming the base of the structure. At this level, you have a responsibil- ity to protect yourself and your family by knowing what to do b efore, during, and after an event. Some examples of what you can do follow: Before • Know the risks and danger signs. • Purchase insurance, including ood insurance, which is not fl ’ s policy. part of your homeowner • Develop plans for what to do. • Assemble a disaster supplies kit. • Volunteer to help others. During • Put your plan into action. • Help others. cials in charge of the • Follow the advice and guidance of of fi event. After Repair damaged property. • • Take steps to prevent or reduce future loss. You will learn more about these and other actions you should ta ke as you progress through this guide. mmunity for help. It is sometimes necessary to turn to others within the local co The local level is the second tier of the pyramid, and is made up of paid employees and volunteers from the private and public sectors. These indi viduals are engaged in preventing emergencies from happening and in being prepared to respond if something does occur. Most emergencies are handled at the loc al level, which puts a tremendous responsibility on the community for taking ca re of its citizens. Among the responsibilities faced by local of cials are: fi • Identifying hazards and assessing potential risk to the commun ity. • Enforcing building codes, zoning ordinances, and land-use mana gement pro- grams. • Coordinating emergency plans to ensure a quick and effective r esponse. • Fighting fi res and responding to hazardous materials incidents. • Establishing warning systems. • Stocking emergency supplies and equipment. Assessing damage and identifying needs. • 8

10 Are You Ready? Why Prepare Evacuating the community to safer locations. • • Taking care of the injured. Sheltering those who cannot remain in their homes. • • Aiding recovery efforts. If support and resources are needed beyond what the local level can provide, the community can request assistance from the state. The state may be able to provide supplemental resources such as money, equipment, and personnel to close the gap between what is needed and what is available at the local l evel. The state also coordinates the plans of the various jurisdictions so that acti vities do not interfere fl ict with each other. To ensure personnel know what to do and efforts are or con dictions the oppor- in agreement, the state may offer a program that provides juris tunity to train and exercise together. At the top of the pyramid is the federal government, which can provide resources to augment state and local efforts. These resources can be in the form of: • Public educational materials, such as this guide, that can be u sed to prepare the public for protecting itself from hazards. Financial grants for equipment, training, exercises, personnel , and programs. • • Grants and loans to help communities respond to and recover fr om disasters so severe that the President of the United States has deemed th em beyond state and local capabilities. Research • ndings that can help reduce losses from disaster. fi • Technical assistance to help build stronger programs. ponsibilities and The national emergency management system is built on shared res ystem begins with you, active participation at all levels of the pyramid. The whole s the citizen, and your ability to follow good emergency manageme nt practices — whether at home, work, or other locations. is organized to help you through Are You Ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness the process. Begin by reading Part 1 which is the core of the guide. This part provides basic information that is common to all hazards on how to create and maintain an emergency plan and disaster supplies kit. Part 1: Basic Preparedness • A series of worksheets to help you obtain information from the community that will form the foundation of your plan. You will need to nd out about fi hazards that threaten the community, how the population will be warned, evacuation routes to be used in times of disaster, and the emer gency plans of the community and others that will impact your plan. • Guidance on speci fi c content that you and your family will need to develop and include in your plan on how to escape from your residence, communi- cate with one another during times of disaster, shut-off househ old utilities, insure against fi nancial loss, acquire basic safety skills, address special nee ds such as disabilities, take care of animals, and seek shelter. 9

11 Why Prepare Are You Ready? Checklists of items to consider including in your disaster supp • lies kit that will s needs following a disaster whether you are at home or at ’ meet your family other locations. c hazards and recovery information con- Part 1 is also the gateway to the speci fi tained in Parts 2, 3, 4, and 5. Information from these section s should be read care- fully and integrated in your emergency plan and disaster suppli es kit based on the hazards that pose a threat to you and your family. Part 2: Natural Hazards Floods • Hurricanes • Thunderstorms and lightning • • Tornadoes Winter storms and extreme cold • Extreme heat • • Earthquakes • Volcanoes fl • Landslides and debris ow • Tsunamis Fires • • Wild fi res Part 3: Technological Hazards Hazardous materials incidents • Household chemical emergencies • • Nuclear power plant emergencies Part 4: Terrorism • Explosions • Biological threats • Chemical threats • Nuclear blasts • Radiological dispersion device events Part 5: Recovering from Disaster • Health and safety guidelines • Returning home • Seeking disaster assistance • Coping with disaster Helping others • 10

12 Are You Ready? Why Prepare References As you work through individual sections, you will see reference points. These are reminders to refer to previous sections for related information on the topic being discussed. FEMA Publications EMA that can help Throughout the guide are lists of publications available from F cations, call the you learn more about the topics covered. To obtain these publi FEMA Distribution Center at 1-800-480-2520 or request them by m ail from: Federal Emergency Management Agency P.O. Box 2012 Jessup, MD 20794-2012 Other Publications Other publications cited throughout this guide can be obtained by contacting the organizations below: American Red Cross National Headquarters 2025 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 Phone: (202) 303-4498 National Weather Service 1325 East West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A Public Inquiries: (404) 639-3534 / (800) 311-3435 U.S. Geological Survey Information Services P.O. Box 25286 Denver, CO 80225 1 (888) 275-8747 11

13 Why Prepare Are You Ready? Disaster Public Education Web sites presented in this You can broaden your knowledge of disaster preparedness topics guide by reviewing information provided at various government a nd non-govern- ment Web sites. Provided below is a list of recommended sites. The Web address fl for each site re ’ s ects its home address. Searches conducted from each home site page result in the most current and extensive list of available material for the site. Government Sites Be Ready Campaign Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry www.atsdr.cdc.g ov Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Citizen Corps Department of Commerce Department of Education Department of Energy Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Interior Department of Justice Environmental Protection Agency Federal Emergency Management Agency Food and Drug Administration National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Nuclear Regulatory Commission The Critical Infrastructure Assurance Of fi ce The White House U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Fire Administration U.S. Fire Administration Kids Page U.S. Geological Survey ce of Personnel Management fi U.S. Of U.S. Postal Service USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station www.wild fi Non-government Sites American Red Cross Institute for Business and Home Safety National Fire Protection Association National Mass Fatalities Institute www.nm fi .org National Safety Compliance The Middle East Seismological Forum The Pan American Health Organization 12

14 1 Basic Preparedness In this part of the guide, you will learn preparedness strategies that are common to all disasters. You plan only once, and are able to apply your plan to all types of hazards. When you complete Part 1, you will be able to: • Get informed about hazards and emergencies that may affect you and your family. • Develop an emergency plan. • Collect and assemble disaster supplies kit. • Learn where to seek shelter from all types of hazards. • Identify the community warning systems and evacuation routes. • Include in your plan required information from community and school plans. • Learn what to do for specifi c hazards. • Practice and maintain your plan. 13

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16 1.1 Getting Informed 15

17 Are You Ready? Getting Informed 1.1 Learn about the hazards that may strike your community, the risks you face from these hazards, and your community’s plans for warning and evacuation. You can obtain this information from your local emergency management offi ce or your local chapter of the American Red Cross. Space has been provided here to record your answers. Hazards Ask local authorities about each possible hazard or emergency and use the work- sheet that follows to record your fi ndings and suggestions for reducing your family’s risk. How can I reduce my risk? Possible Hazards and Risk Level Emergencies (None, Low, Moderate, or High) Natural Hazards 1. Floods 2. Hurricanes 3. Thunderstorms and Lightning 4. Tornadoes 5. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold 6. Extreme Heat 7. Earthquakes 8. Volcanoes 9. Landslides and Debris Flow 10. Tsunamis 11. Fires 12. Wildfi res 16

18 Are You Ready? Getting Informed 1.1 Technological Hazards 1. Hazardous Materials Incidents 2. Nuclear Power Plants Basic Preparedness Terrorism 1. Explosions 2. Biological Threats 3. Chemical Threats 4. Nuclear Blasts 5. Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) You also can consult FEMA for hazard maps for your area. Go to, select maps, and follow the directions. National haz- ard maps have been included with each natural hazard in Part 2 of this guide. 17

19 Are You Ready? Getting Informed 1.1 Warning Systems and Signals The Emergency Alert System (EAS) can address the entire nation on very short no- tice in case of a grave threat or national emergency. Ask if your local radio and TV stations participate in the EAS. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio (NWR) is a nationwide network of radio stations broadcasting continuous weather informa- tion directly from a nearby National Weather Service offi gured ce to specially confi NOAA weather radio receivers. Determine if NOAA Weather Radio is available where you live. If so, consider purchasing a NOAA weather radio receiver. Ask local authorities about methods used to warn your community. Warning System What should we do? EAS NOAA Weather Radio 18

20 Are You Ready? Getting Informed 1.1 Evacuating Yourself and Your Family When community evacuations become necessary, local offi cials provide informa- Basic tion to the public through the media. In some circumstances, other warning Preparedness methods, such as sirens or telephone calls, also are used. Additionally, there may be circumstances under which you and your family feel threatened or endangered and you need to leave your home, school, or workplace to avoid these situations. The amount of time you have to leave will depend on the hazard. If the event is a weather condition, such as a hurricane that can be monitored, you might have a day or two to get ready. However, many disasters allow no time for people to gather even the most basic necessities, which is why planning ahead is essential. Evacuation: More Common than You Realize Evacuations are more common than many people realize. Hundreds of times each year, transportation and industrial accidents release harmful substances, forcing thousands of people to leave their homes. Fires and oods cause evacuations even more frequently. Almost every year, people fl along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts evacuate in the face of approaching hurricanes. Ask local authorities about emergency evacuation routes. c evacuation route directions in the space provided. Record your specifi Yes No Is there a map available with evacuation routes marked? 19

21 Are You Ready? Getting Informed 1.1 Evacuation Guidelines Evacuation Guidelines If time permits: Always: Always: If time permits: Gather your disaster supplies kit. Gather your disaster supplies kit. Keep a full tank of gas in your car if an Keep a full tank of gas in your car if an evacuation seems likely. Gas stations may evacuation seems likely. Gas stations may be closed during emergencies and unable be closed during emergencies and unable to pump gas during power outages. Plan to to pump gas during power outages. Plan to take one car per family to reduce congestion take one car per family to reduce congestion and delay. and delay. Make transportation arrangements with Make transportation arrangements with Wear sturdy shoes and clothing Wear sturdy shoes and clothing friends or your local government if you do friends or your local government if you do that provides some protection, that provides some protection, not own a car. not own a car. such as long pants, long-sleeved such as long pants, long-sleeved shirts, and a cap. shirts, and a cap. Listen to a battery-powered radio and follow Secure your home: Secure your home: Listen to a battery-powered radio and follow • Close and lock doors and • Close and lock doors and local evacuation instructions. local evacuation instructions. windows. windows. • Unplug electrical equipment, • Unplug electrical equipment, such as radios and televi- such as radios and televi- sions, and small appliances, sions, and small appliances, such as toasters and micro- such as toasters and micro- waves. Leave freezers and re- waves. Leave freezers and re- frigerators plugged in unless frigerators plugged in unless there is a risk of fl ooding. there is a risk of fl ooding. Gather your family and go if you are in- Let others know where you are Gather your family and go if you are in- Let others know where you are structed to evacuate immediately. structed to evacuate immediately. going. going. Leave early enough to avoid being trapped by Leave early enough to avoid being trapped by severe weather. severe weather. Follow recommended evacuation routes. Do Follow recommended evacuation routes. Do not take shortcuts; they may be blocked. not take shortcuts; they may be blocked. Be alert for washed-out roads and bridges. Be alert for washed-out roads and bridges. Do not drive into fl ooded areas. Do not drive into fl ooded areas. Stay away from downed power lines. Stay away from downed power lines. 20

22 Are You Ready? Getting Informed 1.1 Community and Other Plans Community and Other Plans Ask local offi cials the following questions about your community’s disaster/ Ask local offi cials the following questions about your community’s disaster/ emergency plans. emerge Basic No No Yes Does my community have a plan? Does my community have a plan? Yes Preparedness No No Yes Can I obtain a copy? Can I obtain a copy? Yes What does the plan contain? What does the plan contain? How often is it updated? How often is it updated? What should I know about the plan? What should I know about the plan? What hazards does it cover? What hazards does it cover? nding out about your community’s plan, it is important that you In addition to fi nding out about your community’s plan, it is important that you In addition to fi know what plans are in place for your workplace and your children’s school or day know what plans are in place for your workplace and your children’s school or day care center. care center. 1. Ask your employer about workplace policies regarding disasters and emer- 1. Ask your employer about workplace policies regarding disasters and emer- gencies, including understanding how you will be provided emergency and gencies, including understanding how you will be provided emergency and warning information. warning information. 2. Contact your children’s school or day care center to discuss their disaster pro- 2. Contact your children’s school or day care center to discuss their disaster pro- cedures. cedures. School Emergency Plans School Emergency Plans Know your children’s school emergency plan: Know your children’s school emergency plan: • Ask how the school will communicate with families during a crisis. • Ask how the school will communicate with families during a crisis. • Ask if the school stores adequate food, water, and other basic supplies. • Ask if the school stores adequate food, water, and other basic supplies. Find out if the school is prepared to shelter-in-place if need be, and where Find out if the school is prepared to shelter-in-place if need be, and where • • they plan to go if they must get away. they plan to go if they must get away. In cases where schools institute procedures to shelter-in-place, you may not be In cases where schools institute procedures to shelter-in-place, you may not be permitted to drive to the school to pick up your children. Even if you go to the permitted to drive to the school to pick up your children. Even if you go to the school, the doors will likely be locked to keep your children safe. Monitor local school, the doors will likely be locked to keep your children safe. Monitor local media outlets for announcements about changes in school openings and closings, media outlets for announcements about changes in school openings and closings, cials. and follow the directions of local emergency offi and follow the directions of local emergency offi cials. For more information on developing emergency preparedness plans for schools, For more information on developing emergency preparedness plans for schools, please log on to the U.S. Department of Education at please log on to the U.S. Department of Education at 21

23 Are You Ready? Getting Informed 1.1 Workplace Plans If you are an employer, make sure your workplace has a building evacuation plan that is regularly practiced. Take a critical look at your heating, ventilation and air conditioning system • to determine if it is secure or if it could feasibly be upgraded to better fi lter potential contaminants, and be sure you know how to turn it off if you need to. • Think about what to do if your employees can’t go home. • Make sure you have appropriate supplies on hand. 22

24 1.2 Emergency Planning and Checklists

25 Are You Ready? Emergency Planning and Checklists 1.2 Now that you’ve learned about what can happen and how your community is pre- pared to respond to emergencies, prepare your family by creating a family disaster plan. You can begin this process by gathering family members and reviewing the information you obtained in Section 1.1 (hazards, warning systems, evacuation routes and community and other plans). Discuss with them what you would do if family members are not home when a warning is issued. Additionally, your family plan should address the following: • Escape routes. • Family communications. • Utility shut-off and safety. • Insurance and vital records. • Special needs. • Caring for animals. • Saftey Skills Information on these family planning considerations are covered in the following sections. Escape Routes oor plan of your home. Use a blank sheet of paper for each fl oor. Mark Draw a fl two escape routes from each room. Make sure children understand the drawings. Post a copy of the drawings at eye level in each child’s room. Where to Meet Establish a place to meet in the event of an emergency, such as a fi re. Record the locations below: Where to meet... For example, the next door neighbor’s telephone pole Near the home For example, the neighborhood grocery store parking lot Outside the immediate area 24

26 Are You Ready? Emergency Planning and Checklists 1.2 Family Communications Your family may not be together when disaster strikes, so plan how you will con- tact one another. Think about how you will communicate in different situations. Basic Preparedness Complete a contact card for each family member. Have family members keep these cards handy in a wallet, purse, backpack, etc. You may want to send one to school le. Pick a friend or relative who lives out-of-state for with each child to keep on fi household members to notify they are safe. ll out can be found in Appendix C. Below is a sample contact card. Copies to fi Also in Appendix C is a more detailed Family Communications Plan which should be completed and posted so the contact information is readily accessible to all fam- ily members. A copy should also be included in your family disaster supplies kit. Utility Shut-off and Safety In the event of a disaster, you may be instructed to shut off the utility service at your home. Below is some general guidance for shutting off utility service: Modify the information provided to refl ect your shut off requirements as di- rected by your utility company(ies). 25

27 Are You Ready? Emergency Planning and Checklists 1.2 Natural Gas Natural gas leaks and explosions are responsible for a signifi cant number of fi res following disasters. It is vital that all household members know how to shut off natural gas. Because there are different gas shut-off procedures for different gas meter confi gu- rations, it is important to contact your local gas company for guidance on prepara- tion and response regarding gas appliances and gas service to your home. When you learn the proper shut-off procedure for your meter, share the informa- tion with everyone in your household. Be sure not to actually turn off the gas when practicing the proper gas shut-off procedure. If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise, open a window and get every- one out quickly. Turn off the gas, using the outside main valve if you can, and call the gas company from a neighbor’s home. ed – If you turn off the gas for any reason, a qualifi CAUTION professional must turn it back on. NEVER attempt to turn the gas back on yourself. Water Water quickly becomes a precious resource following many disasters. It is vital that all household members learn how to shut off the water at the main house valve. • Cracked lines may pollute the water supply to your house. It is wise to shut off your water until you hear from authorities that it is safe for drinking. • The effects of gravity may drain the water in your hot water heater and toilet tanks unless you trap it in your house by shutting off the main house valve (not the street valve in the cement box at the curb—this valve is extremely cult to turn and requires a special tool). diffi Preparing to Shut Off Water • Locate the shut-off valve for the water line that enters your house. It may look like this: • Make sure this valve can be completely shut off. Your valve may be rusted open, or it may only partially close. Replace it if necessary. 26

28 Are You Ready? Emergency Planning and Checklists 1.2 • Label this valve with a tag for easy identifi cation, and make sure all household members know where it is located. Electricity Electrical sparks have the potential of igniting natural gas if it is leaking. It is wise to teach all responsible household members where and how to shut off the elec- Basic tricity. Preparedness Preparing to Shut Off Electricity • Locate your electricity circuit box. • Teach all responsible household members how to shut off the electricity to the entire house. FOR YOUR SAFETY: Always shut off all the individual circuits before shutting off the main circuit breaker. Insurance and Vital Records Obtain property, health, and life insurance if you do not have them. Review exist- ing policies for the amount and extent of coverage to ensure that what you have in place is what is required for you and your family for all possible hazards. Flood Insurance If you live in a fl ood-prone area, consider purchasing fl ood insur- ood loss. Buying fl ance to reduce your risk of fl ood insurance to cover the value of a building and its contents will not only provide greater peace of mind, but will speed the recovery if a fl ood occurs. You can call 1(888)FLOOD29 to learn more about fl ood insurance. 27

29 Are You Ready? Emergency Planning and Checklists 1.2 Inventory Home Possessions Make a record of your personal property, for insurance purposes. Take photos or a video of the interior and exterior of your home. Include personal belongings in your inventory. Household and Personal Property Inven- You may also want to download the free tory Book from the University of Illinois at ahouseinv.html to help you record your possessions. Important Documents Store important documents such as insurance policies, deeds, property records, and other important papers in a safe place, such as a safety deposit box away from your home. Make copies of important documents for your disaster supplies kit. (Information about the disaster supplies kit is covered later.) Money Consider saving money in an emergency savings account that could be used in any crisis. It is advisable to keep a small amount of cash or traveler’s checks at home in a safe place where you can quickly access them in case of evacuation. Special Needs If you or someone close to you has a disability or a special need, you may have to take additional steps to protect yourself and your family in an emergency. Additional Steps Disability/Special Need May need to make special arrangements to receive Hearing impaired warnings. Mobility impaired May need special assistance to get to a shelter. Single working May need help to plan for disasters and emergencies. parent Non-English May need assistance planning for and responding to speaking persons emergencies. Community and cultural groups may be able to help keep people informed. People without May need to make arrangements for transportation. vehicles People with special Should take special precautions to have an adequate emergency food supply. dietary needs Planning for Special Needs If you have special needs: • Find out about special assistance that may be available in your community. Register with the offi ce of emergency services or the local fi re department for assistance so needed help can be provided. 28

30 Are You Ready? Emergency Planning and Checklists 1.2 • Create a network of neighbors, relatives, friends, and coworkers to aid you in an emergency. Discuss your needs and make sure everyone knows how to operate necessary equipment. • Discuss your needs with your employer. Basic • If you are mobility impaired and live or work in a high-rise building, have an escape chair. Preparedness • If you live in an apartment building, ask the management to mark accessible exits clearly and to make arrangements to help you leave the building. • Keep specialized items ready, including extra wheelchair batteries, oxygen, catheters, medication, food for service animals, and any other items you might need. • Be sure to make provisions for medications that require refrigeration. • Keep a list of the type and model numbers of the medical devices you require. Caring for Animals Animals also are affected by disasters. Use the guidelines below to prepare a plan for caring for pets and large animals. Guidelines for Pets Plan for pet disaster needs by: • Identifying shelter. • Gathering pet supplies. • Ensuring your pet has proper ID and up-to-date veterinarian records. • Providing a pet carrier and leash. Take the following steps to prepare to shelter your pet: • Call your local emergency management offi ce, animal shelter, or animal con- trol offi ce to get advice and information. • Keep veterinary records to prove vaccinations are current. • Find out which local hotels and motels allow pets and where pet boarding facilities are located. Be sure to research some outside your local area in case local facilities close. • Know that, with the exception of service animals, pets are not typically per- mitted in emergency shelters as they may affect the health and safety of other occupants. 29

31 Are You Ready? Emergency Planning and Checklists 1.2 Guidelines for Large Animals If you have large animals such as horses, cattle, sheep, goats, or pigs on your prop- erty, be sure to prepare before a disaster. Use the following guidelines: 1. Ensure all animals have some form of identifi cation. 2. Evacuate animals whenever possible. Map out primary and secondary routes in advance. 3. Make available vehicles and trailers needed for transporting and supporting each type of animal. Also make available experienced handlers and drivers. Note: It is best to allow animals a chance to become accustomed to vehicular travel so they are less frightened and easier to move. 4. Ensure destinations have food, water, veterinary care, and handling equip- ment. 5. If evacuation is not possible, animal owners must decide whether to move large animals to shelter or turn them outside. Safety Skills It is important that family members know how to administer fi rst aid and CPR and how to use a fi re extinguisher. Learn First Aid and CPR Take a fi rst aid and CPR class. Local American Red Cross chapters can provide information about this type of training. Offi cial certifi cation by the American Red Cross provides, under the “good Samaritan” law, protection for those giving fi rst aid. Learn How to Use a Fire Extinguisher Be sure everyone knows how to use your fi re extinguisher(s) and where it is kept. You should have, at a minimum, an ABC type. 30

32 1.3 Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit

33 Are You Ready? Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit 1.3 You may need to survive on your own after a disaster. This means having your cient quantity to last for at least three own food, water, and other supplies in suffi days. Local offi cials and relief workers will be on the scene after a disaster, but they cannot reach everyone immediately. You could get help in hours, or it might take days. Basic services such as electricity, gas, water, sewage treatment, and telephones may be cut off for days, or even a week or longer. Or, you may have to evacuate at a moment’s notice and take essentials with you. You probably will not have the op- portunity to shop or search for the supplies you need. A disaster supplies kit is a collection of basic items that members of a household may need in the event of a disaster. Kit Locations Since you do not know where you will be when an emergency occurs, prepare supplies for home, work, and vehicles. Home Work Car In case you are strand- This kit should be in Your disaster supplies ed, keep a kit of emer- one container, and kit should contain gency supplies in your ready to “grab and go” essential food, water, car. in case you are evacu- and supplies for at least ated from your work- three days. This kit should contain place. rst aid food, water, fi Keep this kit in a desig- supplies, fl ares, jumper Make sure you have nated place and have it cables, and seasonal food and water in the ready in case you have supplies. kit. Also, be sure to to leave your home have comfortable walk- quickly. Make sure all ing shoes at your work- family members know place in case an evacu- where the kit is kept. ation requires walking long distances. Additionally, you may want to consider having supplies for sheltering for up to two weeks. 32

34 Are You Ready? Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit 1.3 Water How Much Water do I Need? You should store at least one gallon of water per person per day. A normally active person needs at least one-half gallon of water daily just for drinking. Basic Additionally, in determining adequate quantities, take the following into account: Preparedness • Individual needs vary, depending on age, physical condition, activity, diet, and climate. • Children, nursing mothers, and ill people need more water. • Very hot temperatures can double the amount of water needed. • A medical emergency might require additional water. How Should I Store Water? To prepare safest and most reliable emergency supply of water, it is recommended you purchase commercially bottled water. Keep bottled water in its original con- tainer and do not open it until you need to use it. Observe the expiration or “use by” date. If you are preparing your own containers of water It is recommended you purchase food-grade water storage containers from sur- plus or camping supplies stores to use for water storage. Before fi lling with water, thoroughly clean the containers with dishwashing soap and water, and rinse com- pletely so there is no residual soap. Follow directions below on fi lling the container with water. If you choose to use your own storage containers, choose two-liter plastic soft drink bottles – not plastic jugs or cardboard containers that have had milk or fruit juice in them. Milk protein and fruit sugars cannot be adequately removed from these containers and provide an environment for bacterial growth when water is stored in them. Cardboard containers also leak easily and are not designed for long-term storage of liquids. Also, do not use glass containers, because they can break and are heavy. If storing water in plastic soda bottles, follow these steps Thoroughly clean the bottles with dishwashing soap and water, and rinse com- pletely so there is no residual soap. Sanitize the bottles by adding a solution of 1 teaspoon of non-scented liquid household chlorine bleach to a quart of water. Swish the sanitizing solution in the bottle so that it touches all surfaces. After sanitizing the bottle, thoroughly rinse out the sanitizing solution with clean water. Filling water containers 33

35 Are You Ready? Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit 1.3 Fill the bottle to the top with regular tap water. If the tap water has been commer- cially treated from a water utility with chlorine, you do not need to add anything else to the water to keep it clean. If the water you are using comes from a well or water source that is not treated with chlorine, add two drops of non-scented liquid household chlorine bleach to the water. Tightly close the container using the original cap. Be careful not to contaminate the cap by touching the inside of it with your fi nger. Place a date on the outside of the container so that you know when you fi lled it. Store in a cool, dark place. Replace the water every six months if not using commercially bottled water. Food The following are things to consider when putting together your food supplies: • Avoid foods that will make you thirsty. Choose salt-free crackers, whole grain cereals, and canned foods with high liquid content. • Stock canned foods, dry mixes, and other staples that do not require refrigera- tion, cooking, water, or special preparation. You may already have many of these on hand. Note: Be sure to include a manual can opener. • Include special dietary needs. 34

36 Are You Ready? Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit 1.3 Basic Disaster Supplies Kit The following items are recommended for inclusion in your basic disaster supplies kit: • Three-day supply of non-perishable food. Basic • Three-day supply of water – one gallon of water per person, per day. Preparedness • Portable, battery-powered radio or television and extra batteries. • Flashlight and extra batteries. • First aid kit and manual. • Sanitation and hygiene items (moist towelettes and toilet paper). • Matches and waterproof container. • Whistle. • Extra clothing. • Kitchen accessories and cooking utensils, including a can opener. cation cards. • Photocopies of credit and identifi • Cash and coins. • Special needs items, such as prescription medications, eye glasses, contact lens solutions, and hearing aid batteries. • Items for infants, such as formula, diapers, bottles, and pacifi ers. • Other items to meet your unique family needs. If you live in a cold climate, you must think about warmth. It is possible that you will not have heat. Think about your clothing and bedding supplies. Be sure to include one complete change of clothing and shoes per person, including: • Jacket or coat. • Long pants. • Long sleeve shirt. • Sturdy shoes. • Hat, mittens, and scarf. • Sleeping bag or warm blanket (per person). Be sure to account for growing children and other family changes. See Appendix B for a detailed checklist of disaster supplies. You may want to add some of the items listed to your basic disaster supplies kit depending on the specifi c needs of your family. 35

37 Are You Ready? Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit 1.3 Maintaining Your Disaster Supplies Kit Just as important as putting your supplies together is maintaining them so they are safe to use when needed. Here are some tips to keep your supplies ready and in good condition: • Keep canned foods in a dry place where the temperature is cool. • Store boxed food in tightly closed plastic or metal containers to protect from pests and to extend its shelf life. • Throw out any canned good that becomes swollen, dented, or corroded. • Use foods before they go bad, and replace them with fresh supplies. • Place new items at the back of the storage area and older ones in the front. • Change stored food and water supplies every six months. Be sure to write the date you store it on all containers. • Re-think your needs every year and update your kit as your family needs change. • Keep items in airtight plastic bags and put your entire disaster supplies kit in one or two easy-to-carry containers, such as an unused trashcan, camping backpack, or duffel bag. 36

38 1.4 Shelter

39 Are You Ready? Shelter 1.4 Taking shelter is critical in times of disaster. Sheltering is appropriate when condi- tions require that you seek protection in your home, place of employment, or other location where you are when disaster strikes. Sheltering outside the hazard area would include staying with friends and relatives, seeking commercial lodging, or staying in a mass care facility operated by disaster relief groups in conjunction with local authorities. To effectively shelter, you must fi rst consider the hazard and then choose a place in your home or other building that is safe for that hazard. For example, for a tornado, a room should be selected that is in a basement or an interior room on the lowest level away from corners, windows, doors and outside walls. Because the safest locations to seek shelter vary by hazard, sheltering is discussed in the various hazard sections. These discussions include recommendations for sealing the shelter if the hazards warrants this type of protection. Even though mass care shelters often provide water, food, medicine, and basic sani- tary facilities, you should plan to take your disaster supplies kit with you so you will have the supplies you require. Mass care sheltering can involve living with many people in a confi cult and unpleasant. To avoid ned space, which can be diffi confl icts in this stressful situation, it is important to cooperate with shelter manag- ers and others assisting them. Keep in mind that alcoholic beverages and weapons are forbidden in emergency shelters and smoking is restricted. The length of time you are required to shelter may be short, such as during a tornado warning, or long, such as during a winter storm. It is important that you stay in shelter until local authorities say it is safe to leave. Additionally, you should take turns listening to radio broadcasts and maintain a 24-hour safety watch. During extended periods of sheltering, you will need to manage water and food supplies to ensure you and your family have the required supplies and quantities. Guidance on how to accomplish this follows. Managing Water Essentials 1. Allow people to drink according to their needs . Many people need even more than the average of one-half gallon, per day. The individual amount needed depends on age, physical activity, physical condition, and time of year. 38

40 Are You Ready? Shelter 1.4 2. Never ration water unless ordered to do so by authorities . Drink the amount you need today and try to fi nd more for tomorrow. Under no circum- stances should a person drink less than one quart (four cups) of water each day. You can minimize the amount of water your body needs by reducing activity and staying cool. Basic rst 3. Drink water that you know is not contaminated fi . If necessary, suspi- Preparedness cious water, such as cloudy water from regular faucets or water from streams or ponds, can be used after it has been treated. If water treatment is not possible, put off drinking suspicious water as long as possible, but do not become dehydrated. Review Carbonated 4. Do not drink carbonated beverages instead of drinking water. Section 1.2: beverages do not meet drinking-water requirements. Caffeinated drinks and Emergency alcohol dehydrate the body, which increases the need for drinking water. Planning and Checklists 5. Turn off the main water valves. You will need to protect the water sources already in your home from contamination if you hear reports of broken cials advise you of a problem. To close the water or sewage lines, or if local offi incoming water source, locate the incoming valve and turn it to the closed position. Be sure you and other family members know how to perform this important procedure. • To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by turning on the faucet in your home at the highest level. A small amount of water will trickle out. Then obtain water from the lowest faucet in the home. • To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the electricity or gas is owing off, and open the drain at the bottom of the tank. Start the water fl by turning off the water intake valve at the tank and turning on the hot- water faucet. Refi ll the tank before turning the gas or electricity back on. If the gas is turned off, a professional will be needed to turn it back on. Water Sources Unsafe Sources Safe Sources Radiators Melted ice cubes Hot water boilers (home heating system) Water drained from the water heater (if the water heater has not been damaged) Water beds (fungicides added to the water or Liquids from canned goods chemicals in the vinyl may make water unsafe to such as fruit or vegetable use) juices ush tank Water from the toilet bowl or fl Water drained from pipes Swimming pools and spas (chemicals used to kill germs are too concentrated for safe drinking but can be used for personal hygiene, cleaning, and related uses) 39

41 Are You Ready? Shelter 1.4 Water Treatment Treat all water of uncertain quality before using it for drinking, food washing or preparation, washing dishes, brushing teeth, or making ice. In addition to having a bad odor and taste, contaminated water can contain microorganisms (germs) that cause diseases such as dysentery, cholera, typhoid, and hepatitis. There are many ways to treat water. None is perfect. Often the best solution is a combination of methods. Before treating, let any suspended particles settle to the Review bottom or strain them through coffee fi lters or layers of clean cloth. How I Should Store Water, Section 1.3 Make sure you have the necessary materials in your disaster supplies kit for the cho- sen water treatment method. There are three water treatment methods. They are as follows: • Boiling • Chlorination • Distillation These instructions are for treating water of uncertain quality in an emergency situ- ation, when no other reliable clean water source is available, or you have used all of your stored water. Boiling Boiling is the safest method of treating water. In a large pot or kettle, bring water to a rolling boil for 1 full minute, keeping in mind that some water will evapo- rate. Let the water cool before drinking. Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it by pouring the water back and forth between two clean containers. This also will improve the taste of stored water. Chlorination You can use household liquid bleach to kill microorganisms. Use only regular household liquid bleach that contains 5.25 to 6.0 percent sodium hypochlorite. Do not use scented bleaches, color safe bleaches, or bleaches with added cleaners. Because the potency of bleach diminishes with time, use bleach from a newly opened or unopened bottle. Add 16 drops (1/8 teaspoon) of bleach per gallon of water, stir, and let stand for 30 minutes. The water should have a slight bleach odor. If it doesn’t, then repeat the dosage and let stand another 15 minutes. If it still does not smell of chlorine, discard it and fi nd another source of water. Other chemicals, such as iodine or water treatment products sold in camping or surplus stores that do not contain 5.25 to 6.0 percent sodium hypochlorite as the only active ingredient, are not recommended and should not be used. Distillation While the two methods described above will kill most microbes in water, distil- lation will remove microbes (germs) that resist these methods, as well as heavy metals, salts, and most other chemicals. 40

42 Are You Ready? Shelter 1.4 Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting only the vapor that con- denses. The condensed vapor will not include salt or most other impurities. To ll a pot halfway with water. Tie a distill, fi Basic cup to the handle on the pot’s lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up when the Preparedness lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled. Effectiveness of Water Treatment Methods Kills Removes other contaminants (heavy met- Methods Microbes als, salts, and most other chemicals) Boiling √ Chlorination √ Distillation √ √ Managing Food Supplies Safety and Sanitation Do: Don’t: • Eat foods from cans that are swol- • Keep food in covered containers len, dented, or corroded, even • Keep cooking and eating utensils though the product may look safe clean to eat • Keep garbage in closed contain- • Eat any food that looks or smells ers and dispose outside, burying abnormal, even if the can looks garbage if necessary normal • Keep your hands clean by wash- • Use powdered formulas with ing them frequently with soap treated water and water that has been boiled or • Let garbage accumulate inside, disinfected both for fi re and sanitation rea- • Use only pre-prepared canned sons baby formula for infants • Discard any food that has come into contact with contaminated oodwater fl • Discard any food that has been at room temperature for two hours or more • Discard any food that has an un- usual odor, color, or texture Note: Thawed food usually can be eaten if it is still “refrigerator cold.” It can be re-frozen if it still contains ice crystals. To be safe, remember, “When in doubt, throw it out.” 41

43 Are You Ready? Shelter 1.4 Cooking • Alternative cooking sources in times of emergency include candle warmers, chafi ng dishes, fondue pots, or a fi replace. • Charcoal grills and camp stoves are for outdoor use only. • Commercially canned food may be eaten out of the can without warming. • To heat food in a can: 1. Remove the label. 2. Thoroughly wash and disinfect the can. (Use a diluted solution of one part bleach to ten parts water.) 3. Open the can before heating. Managing without Power Here are two options for keeping food safe if you are without power for a long period: • Look for alternate storage space for your perishable food. • Use dry ice. Twenty-fi ve pounds of dry ice will keep a 10-cubic-foot freezer below freezing for 3-4 days. Use care when handling dry ice, and wear dry, heavy gloves to avoid injury. 42

44 1.5 Hazard-Specifi c Preparedness

45 Are You Ready? Hazard-Specifi c Preparedness 1.5 There are actions that should be taken before, during, and after an event that are unique to each hazard. For example: • Seeking a safe shelter during a tornado. • Reducing property loss from a hurricane. Information about the specifi c hazards and what to do for each is provided in Parts 2, 3, and 4. Study the material for those hazards that you identifi ed in Section 1.1 as the ones that have happened or could happen. Share the hazard-specifi c infor- mation with family members and include pertinent material from these parts in your family disaster plan. 44

46 1.6 Practicing and Maintaining Your Plan

47 Are You Ready? Practicing and Maintaining Your Plan 1.6 Once you have developed your plan, you need to practice and maintain it. For ex- ample, ask questions to make sure your family remembers meeting places, phone numbers, and safety rules. Conduct drills such as drop, cover, and hold on for earthquakes. Test fi re alarms. Replace and update disaster supplies. For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book . FEMA-243. Coloring book for ages 3-10. Also avail- able in Spanish. . FEMA A-291. Contains information about how to make sure you Before Disaster Strikes are fi nancially prepared to deal with a natural disaster. Also available in Spanish. The Adventures of Julia and Robbie: Disaster Twins . FEMA-344. A collection of disaster related stories. Includes information on preparedness and how to mitigate against disasters. FEMA for Kids . L-229. Provides information about what FEMA (specifi cally has to offer children. Community Shelter . FEMA 361. Contains guidelines for constructing mass shelters for public refuge in schools, hospitals, and other places. Food and Water in an Emergency . L-210 If an earthquake, hurricane, winter storm, or other disaster strikes your community, you might not have access to food, water, and electricity for days, or even weeks. By taking some time now to store emer- gency food and water supplies, you can provide for your entire family. Also avail- able online at . Helping Children Cope with Disaster . FEMA L-196. Helps families understand how to help children cope with disaster and its aftermath. Assisting People with Disabilities in a Disaster . Information about helping people with disabilities in a disaster and resources for individuals with disabilities. Available online at . American Red Cross Publications Facing Fear: Helping Young People Deal with Terrorism and Tragic Events . A school curriculum designed to help alleviate worries and clear up confusion about perceived and actual threats to safety. Available online at facingfear, or contact your local Red Cross chapter. 46

48 2 Natural Hazards Part 2 includes information about many types of natural hazards. Natural hazards are natural events that threaten lives, property, and other assets. Often, natural hazards can be predicted. They tend to occur repeatedly in the same geographical locations because they are related to weather patterns or physical characteristics of an area. Natural hazards such as fl ood, fi re, earthquake, tornado, and windstorms affect thousands of people every year. We need to know what our risks are from natrual hazards and take sensible precautions to protect ourselves, our fami- lies, and our communities. Use Part 2 to learn about the hazards that pose a risk to you. Include the pertinent information in your family di- saster plan. Specifi c content on each hazard consists of the characteristics of that hazard, terms associated with the hazard, measures that can be taken beforehand to avoid or lessen the impact of these events, and what individuals need to do during and after the event to protect themselves. When you complete Part 2, you will be able to: • Know important terms. • Take protective measures for natural hazards. • Identify resources for more information about natural hazards. 47

49 48

50 2.1 Floods

51 Are You Ready? Floods 2.1 Floods are one of the most common hazards in the United States. Flood effects can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins and multiple states. However, all fl oods are not alike. Some fl oods develop slowly, sometimes over a period of days. But fl ash fl oods can develop quickly, sometimes in just a few oods often have a danger- minutes and without any visible signs of rain. Flash fl ous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, mud, and other debris and can sweep ooding occurs outside a defi ned river or away most things in its path. Overland fl stream, such as when a levee is breached, but still can be destructive. Flooding can also occur when a dam breaks, producing effects similar to fl ash fl oods. Be aware of fl ood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Even very small streams, gullies, creeks, culverts, dry streambeds, or low-lying ground that appear harmless ood. Every state is at risk from this hazard. in dry weather can fl 50

52 Are You Ready? Floods 2.1 What Would You Do? You and your family moved from a city neighborhood in San Francisco, CA, to a suburb of Phoenix, AZ. Since earthquakes were a threat in your area, you al- ways kept some extra food, water, and other supplies on hand and maintained an earthquake insurance policy, just in case something happened. You think this kind of preparation is no longer necessary based on what your neighbors have told you. According to them, the biggest threat they face is lack of water caused by the very dry weather. You continue to see public service announcements from the federal ood insurance and the need to protect yourself from fl ood government about fl damage. Surely, there would be no need for fl ood insurance where you live with its bare hills, deep canyons, and dry land. Natural Hazards • Are you at risk for fl ooding, or is this more of a risk to people who live else- where? Yes No • Is there a need to have a disaster plan and a disaster supplies kit? Yes No • Should you consider purchasing fl ood insurance? Yes No 1. Yes 2.Yes 3.Yes Answer key Know the Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a fl ood hazard: Flood Watch Flooding is possible. Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for information. Flash Flood Watch ooding is possible. Be prepared to move to higher ground; listen to Flash fl NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for information. Flood Warning Flooding is occurring or will occur soon; if advised to evacuate, do so immediately. Flash Flood Warning Afl ash fl ood is occurring; seek higher ground on foot immediately. 51

53 Are You Ready? Floods 2.1 Take Protective Measures Before a Flood To prepare for a fl ood, you should: • Avoid building in a fl oodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home. • Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to fl ooding. • Install “check valves” in sewer traps to prevent fl ood water from backing up into the drains of your home. • Construct barriers (levees, beams, fl oodwalls) to stop fl oodwater from enter- ing the building. • Seal walls in basements with waterproofi ng compounds to avoid seepage. During a Flood ood is likely in your area, you should: If a fl • Listen to the radio or television for information. ash fl ooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a fl ash • Be aware that fl fl ood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move. • Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons, and other areas known to ood suddenly. Flash fl oods can occur in these areas with or without such fl typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain. If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following: • Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture. Move es- sential items to an upper fl oor. Review • Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so. Discon- See Section 1.1: nect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or Getting Informed standing in water. 52

54 Are You Ready? Floods 2.1 If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips: • Do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water can make you fall. If you have to walk in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check the fi rmness of the ground in front of you. If fl ooded areas. • Do not drive into fl oodwaters rise around your car, aban- don the car and move to higher ground if you can do so safely. You and the vehicle can be quickly swept away. Driving: Flood Facts Natural Hazards ood The following are important points to remember when driving in fl conditions: • Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling. • A foot of water will fl oat many vehicles. • Two feet of rushing water can carry away most vehicles including sport utility vehicles (SUV’s) and pick-ups. After a Flood The following are guidelines for the period following a fl ood: • Listen for news reports to learn whether the community’s water supply is safe to drink. • Avoid fl oodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline, or raw sew- age. Water may also be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines. • Avoid moving water. • Be aware of areas where fl oodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a car. • Stay away from downed power lines, and report them to the power company. • Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe. oodwaters. • Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by fl • Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in foundations. • Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged sewage systems are serious health hazards. oodwater can • Clean and disinfect everything that got wet. Mud left from fl contain sewage and chemicals. 53

55 Are You Ready? Floods 2.1 Additional Information Flood Insurance Consider the following facts: not covered under homeowners’ insurance policies. • Flood losses are • FEMA manages the National Flood Insurance Program, which makes feder- ally-backed fl ood insurance available in communities that agree to adopt and enforce fl oodplain management ordinances to reduce future fl ood damage. • Flood insurance is available in most communities through insurance agents. • There is a 30-day waiting period before fl ood insurance goes into effect, so don’t delay. • Flood insurance is available whether the building is in or out of the identifi ed fl ood-prone area. Knowledge Check Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Check the appropriate column. When you have fi nished, check your answers using the answer key below. T F Statement 1. Flood emergencies occur in only 12 states. ❏❏ ❏❏ ooding is possible. ood watch” announcement on the radio indicates that fl 2. A “fl ❏❏ 3. Flash fl oods may occur with little warning. 4. Flood risk varies from one region to another. ❏❏ 5. National fl ood insurance is available only for buildings within an identifi ed fl ood-prone area. ❏❏ ❏❏ 6. It is safe to walk through fl oodwater if you can see the ground under it. ❏❏ 7. It takes at least 3 feet of fl oodwater to make a motorized vehicle fl oat. ❏❏ 8. After fl ood waters recede from a roadway, the road could still be dangerous. ❏❏ 9. To prepare for a fl ood emergency, you should have a NOAA Weather Radio as well as a commercial radio. 1. False 2. True 3. True 4. True 5. False 6. False 7. False 8. True 9. True Answer key 54

56 Are You Ready? Floods 2.1 For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications After a Flood: The First Steps . L-198. Information for homeowners on prepared- • ness, safety, and recovery from a fl ood. . L-235. A Homeowner’s Guide to Retrofi tting: Six Ways to Protect Your House from Flooding • brochure about obtaining information about how to protect your home from fl ooding. Natural Hazards • Homeowner’s Guide to Retrofi tting: Six Ways to Protect Your House from Flooding . FEMA-312. A detailed manual on how to protect your home from fl ooding. • About the Flood: Elevating Your Floodprone House . FEMA-347. This publication is in- cials and homeowners. tended for builders, code offi • Protecting Building Utilities From Flood Damage. FEMA-348. This publication is cials and intended for developers, architects, engineers, builders, code offi homeowners. Other Publications American Red Cross • . sixty-page booklet about how to perform simple Repairing Your Flooded Home home repairs after fl ooding, including cleaning, sanitation, and determining which professionals to involve for various needed services. Local Red Cross chapters can order in packages of 10 as stock number A4477 for a nominal fee. Also available online at,1082,0_ 570_,00.html National Weather Service • Hurricane Flooding: A Deadly Inland Danger. 20052. Brochure describing the impact of hurricane fl ooding and precautions to take. Available online at • The Hidden Danger: Low Water Crossing . 96074E. Brochure describing the hazards of driving your vehicle in fl ood conditions. Available online at 55

57 56

58 2.2 Tornadoes

59 Are You Ready? Tornadoes 2.2 Tornadoes are nature’s most violent storms. Spawned from powerful thunder- storms, tornadoes can cause fatalities and devastate a neighborhood in seconds. A tornado appears as a rotating, funnel-shaped cloud that extends from a thun- derstorm to the ground with whirling winds that can reach 300 miles per hour. Damage paths can be in excess of one mile wide and 50 miles long. Every state is at some risk from this hazard. Some tornadoes are clearly visible, while rain or nearby low-hanging clouds ob- scure others. Occasionally, tornadoes develop so rapidly that little, if any, advance warning is possible. Before a tornado hits, the wind may die down and the air may become very still. A cloud of debris can mark the location of a tornado even if a funnel is not vis- ible. Tornadoes generally occur near the trailing edge of a thunderstorm. It is not uncommon to see clear, sunlit skies behind a tornado. 58

60 Are You Ready? Tornadoes 2.2 The following are facts about tornadoes: • They may strike quickly, with little or no warning. • They may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or a cloud forms in the funnel. • The average tornado moves Southwest to Northeast, but tornadoes have been known to move in any direction. • The average forward speed of a tornado is 30 MPH, but may vary from sta- tionary to 70 MPH. • Tornadoes can accompany tropical storms and hurricanes as they move onto Natural land. Hazards • Waterspouts are tornadoes that form over water. • Tornadoes are most frequently reported east of the Rocky Mountains during spring and summer months. • Peak tornado season in the southern states is March through May; in the northern states, it is late spring through early summer. • Tornadoes are most likely to occur between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m., but can occur at any time. Know the Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a tornado hazard: Tornado Watch Tornadoes are possible. Remain alert for approaching storms. Watch the sky and stay tuned to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or televi- sion for information. Tornado Warning A tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar. Take shelter immediately. Take Protective Measures Before a Tornado Be alert to changing weather conditions. • Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or to commercial radio or television newscasts for the latest information. • Look for approaching storms. 59

61 Are You Ready? Tornadoes 2.2 • Look for the following danger signs: - Dark, often greenish sky - Large hail - A large, dark, low-lying cloud (particularly if rotating) - Loud roar, similar to a freight train. If you see approaching storms or any of the danger signs, be prepared to take shel- ter immediately. During a Tornado If you are under a tornado WARNING, seek shelter immediately! If you are in: Then: Go to a pre-designated shelter area such as A structure (e.g. residence, small a safe room, basement, storm cellar, or the building, school, nursing home, lowest building level. hospital, factory, shopping center, high-rise building) If there is no basement, go to the center of an interior room on the lowest level (closet, interior hallway) away from corners, windows, doors, and outside walls. Put as many walls as possible between you and the outside. Get under a sturdy table and use your arms to protect your head and neck. Do not open windows. Get out immediately and go to the lowest A vehicle, trailer, or mobile home oor of a sturdy, nearby building or a fl storm shelter. Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes. The outside with no shelter • Lie fl at in a nearby ditch or depression and cover your head with your hands. Be aware of the potential for fl ooding. • Do not get under an overpass or at bridge. You are safer in a low, fl location. • Never try to outrun a tornado in urban or congested areas in a car or truck. Instead, leave the vehicle immediately for safe shelter. • Watch out for fl ying debris. Flying debris from tornadoes causes most fatalities and injuries. 60

62 Are You Ready? Tornadoes 2.2 Preparing a Safe Room Extreme windstorms in many parts of the country pose a serious threat to build- ings and their occupants. Your residence may be built “to code,” but that does not mean it can withstand winds from extreme events such as tornadoes and major hurricanes. The purpose of a safe room or a wind shelter is to provide a space where you and your family can seek refuge that provides a high level of protection. You can build a safe room in one of several places in your home: • Your basement. • Atop a concrete slab-on-grade foundation or garage fl oor. Natural rst fl • An interior room on the fi oor. Hazards Safe rooms built below ground level provide the greatest protection, but a safe room built in a fi rst-fl oor interior room also can provide the necessary protection. Below-ground safe rooms must be designed to avoid accumulating water during the heavy rains that often accompany severe windstorms. To protect its occupants, a safe room must be built to withstand high winds and fl ying debris, even if the rest of the residence is severely damaged or destroyed. Consider the following when building a safe room: • The safe room must be adequately anchored to resist overturning and uplift. • The walls, ceiling, and door of the shelter must withstand wind pressure and resist penetration by windborne objects and falling debris. • The connections between all parts of the safe room must be strong enough to resist the wind. • Sections of either interior or exterior residence walls that are used as walls of the safe room, must be separated from the structure of the residence so that damage to the residence will not cause damage to the safe room. Additional information about Safe Rooms avaliable from FEMA Taking Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Room Inside Your House . L-233. Brochure provid- ing details about obtaining information about how to build a wind-safe room to withstand tornado, hurricane, and other high winds Taking Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Room Inside Your House . FEMA-320. Manual with detailed information about how to build a wind-safe room to withstand tornado, hurricane, and other high winds 61

63 Are You Ready? Tornadoes 2.2 Locate the Safest Place On the following home layout diagrams, locate the safest place to seek shelter should you not be able to evacuate. Kitchen Apartment Bedroom Dining Bath Room Living Room Bedroom DW Dining Kitchen Room One-Story Home Master Bedroom W.I.C. Bath WD Living Room Bath Bedroom Veranda 62

64 Are You Ready? Tornadoes 2.2 Two-Story Home First Floor DW Kitchen Dining Room Garage Natural Hazards Bath Living Room Veranda Second Floor Bedroom Bedroom Bath Master Bedroom Bath Apartment: Bathroom, One-Story Home:WIC (walk in Closet), Two-Story Home: First fl oor bathroom Answer key 63

65 Are You Ready? Tornadoes 2.2 After a Tornado Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications Tornado Fact Sheet . L-148. Provides safety tips for before, during, and after a tornado Tornado Protection—Selecting Refuge Areas in Buildings . FEMA 431. Intended primarily to help building administrators, architects, and engineers select the best available refuge areas in existing schools 64

66 2.3 Hurricanes

67 Are You Ready? Hurricanes 2.3 A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone, the generic term for a low pressure system that generally forms in the tropics. A typical cyclone is accompanied by thunderstorms, and in the Northern Hemisphere, a counterclockwise circulation of winds near the earth’s surface. All Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas are subject to hurricanes or tropical storms. Parts of the Southwest United States and the Pacifi c Coast experience heavy rains and fl oods each year from hurricanes spawned off Mexico. The Atlantic hur- ricane season lasts from June to November, with the peak season from mid-August to late October. Hurricanes can cause catastrophic damage to coastlines and several hundred miles inland. Winds can exceed 155 miles per hour. Hurricanes and tropical storms can also spawn tornadoes and microbursts, create storm surges along the coast, and cause extensive damage from heavy rainfall. Hurricanes are classifi ed into fi ve categories based on their wind speed, central pressure, and damage potential (see chart). Category Three and higher hurricanes are considered major hurricanes, though Categories One and Two are still extreme- ly dangerous and warrant your full attention. r-Simpson Hurricane Scale Saffi Damage Scale Number Sustained Winds Storm Surge (Category) (MPH) 1 Unanchored mobile homes, Minimal: 74-95 4-5 feet vegetation, and signs 96-110 Moderate: All mobile homes, roofs, 2 ooding small craft; fl 6-8 feet 3 111-130 Extensive: Small buildings; low-lying 9-12 feet roads cut off 4 Roofs destroyed, trees Extreme: 131-155 down, roads cut off, mobile homes 13-18 feet ooded destroyed, beach homes fl 5 More than 155 Catastrophic: Most buildings destroyed, vegetation destroyed, major roads cut off, homes fl ooded Greater than 18 feet Hurricanes can produce widespread torrential rains. Floods are the deadly and de- structive result. Slow moving storms and tropical storms moving into mountainous regions tend to produce especially heavy rain. Excessive rain can trigger landslides or mud slides, especially in mountainous regions. Flash fl ooding can occur due to intense rainfall. Flooding on rivers and streams may persist for several days or more after the storm. 66

68 Are You Ready? Hurricanes 2.3 Between 1970 and 1999, more people lost their lives from freshwater inland fl ooding associated with land falling tropical cyclones than from any other weather hazard related to tropical cyclones. Natural Hazards Naming the Hurricane Since 1953, Atlantic tropical storms have been named from lists originated by the National Hurricane Center and now maintained and updated by an international committee of the World Meteorological Organization. The lists featured only women’s names until 1979. After that, men’s and women’s names were alternated. Six lists are used in rotation. Thus, the 2001 lists will be used again in 2007. The only time there is a change in the list is if a storm is so deadly or costly that the continued use of the name would be inappropriate for reasons of sensitivity. When this occurs, the name is stricken from the list and another name is selected to replace it. Sometimes names are changed. Lorenzo replaced Luis and Michelle replaced Marilyn. The complete lists can be found at under “Storm Names.” 67

69 Are You Ready? Hurricanes 2.3 Know the Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a hurricane hazard: Tropical Depression An organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defi ned surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 38 MPH (33 knots) or less. Sustained winds are defi ned as one-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface. Tropical Storm An organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defi ned surface cir- culation and maximum sustained winds of 39-73 MPH (34-63 knots). Hurricane An intense tropical weather system of strong thunderstorms with a well- defi ned surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 74 MPH (64 knots) or higher. Storm Surge A dome of water pushed onshore by hurricane and tropical storm winds. Storm surges can reach 25 feet high and be 50-100 miles wide. Storm Tide A combination of storm surge and the normal tide (i.e., a 15-foot storm surge combined with a 2-foot normal high tide over the mean sea level creates a 17-foot storm tide). Hurricane/Tropical Storm Watch Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are possible in the specifi ed area, usually within 36 hours. Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for information. Hurricane/Tropical Storm Warning Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are expected in the specifi ed area, usually within 24 hours. Short Term Watches and Warnings These warnings provide detailed information about specifi c hurricane oods and tornadoes. threats, such as fl ash fl 68

70 Are You Ready? Hurricanes 2.3 Take Protective Measures Before a Hurricane To prepare for a hurricane, you should take the following measures: • Make plans to secure your property. Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows. A second option is to board up windows with 5/8” marine plywood, cut to fi t and ready to install. Tape does not prevent win- Review dows from breaking. For more informa- • Install straps or additional clips to securely fasten your roof to the frame struc- tion on safe rooms ture. This will reduce roof damage. See Section 2.2: • Be sure trees and shrubs around your home are well trimmed. Natural Hazards Tornadoes • Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts. • Determine how and where to secure your boat. • Consider building a safe room. During a Hurricane If a hurricane is likely in your area, you should: • Listen to the radio or TV for information. • Secure your home, close storm shutters, and secure outdoor objects or bring them indoors. • Turn off utilities if instructed to do so. Otherwise, turn the refrigerator ther- mostat to its coldest setting and keep its doors closed. • Turn off propane tanks. • Avoid using the phone, except for serious emergencies. • Moor your boat if time permits. ushing • Ensure a supply of water for sanitary purposes such as cleaning and fl toilets. Fill the bathtub and other large containers with water. 69

71 Are You Ready? Hurricanes 2.3 You should evacuate under the following conditions: • If you are directed by local authorities to do so. Be sure to follow their in- structions. • If you live in a mobile home or temporary structure—such shelters are particularly hazardous during hurricanes no matter how well fastened to the ground. • If you live in a high-rise building—hurricane winds are stronger at higher elevations. • If you live on the coast, on a fl oodplain, near a river, or on an inland water- way. • If you feel you are in danger. If you are unable to evacuate, go to your wind-safe room. If you do not have one, follow these guidelines: Review • Stay indoors during the hurricane and away from windows and glass doors. Guidelines for • Close all interior doors—secure and brace external doors. sheltering See Section 1.4: • Keep curtains and blinds closed. Do not be fooled if there is a lull; it could be Shelter the eye of the storm—winds will pick up again. • Take refuge in a small interior room, closet, or hallway on the lowest level. • Lie on the fl oor under a table or another sturdy object. After a Hurricane Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. 70

72 Are You Ready? Hurricanes 2.3 Knowledge Check You Make the Call Read the following and respond to the question below. See the answer key below to check your answer. Your neighbor said that in the event a hurricane threatens, the household would get ready by closing the win- dows and doors on the storm side of the house and opening the ones on the side away from the wind. They also will tape the windows to prevent damage to the glass. Is this a good idea? Natural Hazards fl ying debris. As for the tape, it is a waste of effort, time, and tape. It offers no strength to the glass and no protection against debris. The winds in a hurricane are highly turbulent and any open window or door can be an open target for fl ying No! All of the doors and windows should be closed (and shuttered) throughout the duration of the hurricane. Answer Key 71

73 Are You Ready? Hurricanes 2.3 For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications Against the Wind: Protecting Your Home from Hurricane and Wind Damage . FEMA-247. A guide to hurricane preparedness. Available online at hurricanes/survivingthestormhurricane.txt . IS-324. CD-ROM or Web-based training course for Community Hurricane Preparedness federal, state, and local emergency managers. Web-based version available online at . L 105. Publication for teachers and parents for presentation to Safety Tips for Hurricanes children. To order, call 1(800)480-2520. Other Publications Protect Your Home against Hurricane Damage, Institute for Business and Home Safety . 110 William Street, New York, NY 20038 72

74 2.4 Thunderstorms and Lightning

75 Are You Ready? Thunderstorms and Lightning 2.4 All thunderstorms are dangerous. Every thunderstorm produces lightning. In the United States, an average of 300 people are injured and 80 people are killed each year by lightning. Although most lightning victims survive, people struck by light- ning often report a variety of long-term, debilitating symptoms. Other associated dangers of thunderstorms include tornadoes, strong winds, hail, and fl ooding is responsible for more fatalities—more than ash fl ooding. Flash fl 140 annually—than any other thunderstorm-associated hazard. Dry thunderstorms that do not produce rain that reaches the ground are most prevalent in the western United States. Falling raindrops evaporate, but lightning can still reach the ground and can start wildfi res. 74

76 Are You Ready? Thunderstorms and Lightning 2.4 The following are facts about thunderstorms: • They may occur singly, in clusters, or in lines. • Some of the most severe occur when a single thunderstorm affects one loca- tion for an extended time. • Thunderstorms typically produce heavy rain for a brief period, anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour. • Warm, humid conditions are highly favorable for thunderstorm development. ed as severe—one that pro- • About 10 percent of thunderstorms are classifi duces hail at least three-quarters of an inch in diameter, has winds of 58 miles Natural per hour or higher, or produces a tornado. Hazards The following are facts about lightning: • Lightning’s unpredictability increases the risk to individuals and property. • Lightning often strikes outside of heavy rain and may occur as far as 10 miles away from any rainfall. • “Heat lightning” is actually lightning from a thunderstorm too far away for thunder to be heard. However, the storm may be moving in your direction! • Most lightning deaths and injuries occur when people are caught outdoors in the summer months during the afternoon and evening. • Your chances of being struck by lightning are estimated to be 1 in 600,000, but could be reduced even further by following safety precautions. • Lightning strike victims carry no electrical charge and should be attended to immediately. Know the Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a thunderstorm hazard: Severe Thunderstorm Watch Tells you when and where severe thunderstorms are likely to occur. Watch the sky and stay tuned to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for information. Severe Thunderstorm Warning Issued when severe weather has been reported by spotters or indicated by radar. Warnings indicate imminent danger to life and property to those in the path of the storm. 75

77 Are You Ready? Thunderstorms and Lightning 2.4 Take Protective Measures Before Thunderstorms and Lightning To prepare for a thunderstorm, you should do the following: • Remove dead or rotting trees and branches that could fall and cause injury or damage during a severe thunderstorm. • Remember the 30/30 lightning safety rule: Go indoors if, after seeing light- ning, you cannot count to 30 before hearing thunder. Stay indoors for 30 minutes after hearing the last clap of thunder. Thunderstorms The following are guidelines for what you should do if a thunderstorm is likely in your area: • Postpone outdoor activities. • Get inside a home, building, or hard top automobile (not a convertible). Although you may be injured if lightning strikes your car, you are much safer inside a vehicle than o utside. • Remember, rubber-soled shoes and rubber tires provide NO protection from the steel frame of a hard-topped vehicle provides in- lightning. However, creased protection if you are not touching me tal. • Secure outdoor objects that could blow away or cause damage. • Shutter windows and secure outside doors. If shutters are not available, close window blinds, shades, or curtains. • Avoid showering or bathing. Plumbing and bathroom fi xtures can conduct electricity. • Use a corded telephone only for emergencies. Cordless and cellular telephones are safe to use. • Unplug appliances and other electrical items such as computers and turn off air conditioners. Power surges from lightning can cause serious damage. • Use your battery-operated NOAA Weather Radio for updates from local of- fi cials. Avoid the following: • Natural lightning rods such as a tall, isolated tree in an open area • Hilltops, open fi elds, the beach, or a boat on the water • Isolated sheds or other small structures in open areas • Anything metal—tractors, farm equipment, motorcy- cles, golf carts, golf clubs, and bicycles 76

78 Are You Ready? Thunderstorms and Lightning 2.4 During a Thunderstorm If you are: Then: Seek shelter in a low area under a thick growth In a forest of small trees. In an open area Go to a low place such as a ravine or valley. Be alert for fl oods. ash fl On open water Get to land and fi nd shelter immediately. Squat low to the ground on the balls of your Anywhere you feel your hair feet. Place your hands over your ears and your stand on end (which indi- head between your knees. Make yourself the cates that lightning is about Natural Hazards smallest target possible and minimize your to strike) contact with the ground. DO NOT lie fl at on the ground. After a Thunderstorm Call 9-1-1 for medical assistance as soon as possible. The following are things you should check when you attempt to give aid to a vic- tim of lightning: • Breathing - if breathing has stopped, begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. • Heartbeat - if the heart has stopped, administer CPR. • Pulse - if the victim has a pulse and is breathing, look for other possible injuries. Check for burns where the lightning entered and left the body. Also be alert for nervous system damage, broken bones, and loss of hearing and eyesight. 77

79 Are You Ready? Thunderstorms and Lightning 2.4 Knowledge Check Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Check the appropriate column. When you have fi nished, verify your answers using the answer key below. T F Statement ❏❏ 1. Every thunderstorm produces lightning. ❏❏ 2. Never touch a person struck by lightning. ❏❏ 3. Dry, cold conditions favor development of a thunderstorm. 4. If you can count to 25 after seeing lightning and before hearing thunder, it is safe to stay ❏❏ outdoors. 5. It is safe to use a cordless telephone during a thunderstorm. ❏❏ ❏❏ 6. Rubber-soled shoes and rubber tires provide protection from lightning. For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following resource may be helpful. Publications National Weather Service Facts about Lightning. 200252. Two-page factsheet for boaters. Available online at 1. True 2. False 3. False 4. False 5. True 6. False Answer key: 78

80 2.5 Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

81 Are You Ready? Winter Storms and Extreme Cold 2.5 Heavy snowfall and extreme cold can immobilize an entire region. Even areas that normally experience mild winters can be hit with a major snowstorm or extreme cold. Winter storms can result in fl ooding, storm surge, closed highways, blocked roads, downed power lines and hypothermia. Know the Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a winter storm hazard: Freezing Rain Rain that freezes when it hits the ground, creating a coating of ice on roads, walkways, trees, and power lines. Sleet Rain that turns to ice pellets before reaching the ground. Sleet also causes moisture on roads to freeze and become slippery. Winter Storm Watch A winter storm is possible in your area. Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for more information. Winter Storm Warning A winter storm is occurring or will soon occur in your area. Blizzard Warning Sustained winds or frequent gusts to 35 miles per hour or greater and considerable amounts of falling or blowing snow (reducing visibility to less than a quarter mile) are expected to prevail for a period of three hours or longer. Frost/Freeze Warning Below freezing temperatures are expected. Take Protective Measures Before Winter Storms and Extreme Cold Include the following in your disaster supplies kit: • Rock salt to melt ice on walkways • Sand to improve traction Review • Snow shovels and other snow removal equipment. See Section 1.3: cient heating fuel; regu- Prepare for possible isolation in your home by having suffi Assemble a Disaster lar fuel sources may be cut off. For example, store a good supply of dry, seasoned Supplies Kit wood for your fi replace or wood-burning stove. 80

82 Are You Ready? Winter Storms and Extreme Cold 2.5 Natural Hazards Winterize your home to extend the life of your fuel supply by insulating walls and attics, caulking and weather-stripping doors and windows, and installing storm windows or covering windows with plastic. To winterize your car, attend to the following: • Battery and ignition system should be in top condition and battery terminals clean. cient to avoid freezing. • Ensure antifreeze levels are suffi • Ensure the heater and defroster work properly. • Check and repair windshield wiper equipment; ensure proper washer fl uid level. • Ensure the thermostat works properly. • Check lights and fl ashing hazard lights for serviceability. • Check for leaks and crimped pipes in the exhaust system; repair or replace as necessary. Carbon monoxide is deadly and usually gives no warning. 81

83 Are You Ready? Winter Storms and Extreme Cold 2.5 • Check breaks for wear and fl uid levels. • Check oil for level and weight. Heavier oils congeal more at low temperatures and do not lubricate as well. • Consider snow tires, snow tires with studs, or chains. • Replace fuel and air fi lters. Keep water out of the system by using additives and maintaining a full tank of gas. Dress for the Weather tting, lightweight, warm clothing rather • Wear several layers of loose fi than one layer of heavy clothing. The outer garments should be tightly woven and water repellent. • Wear mittens, which are warmer than gloves. • Wear a hat. • Cover your mouth with a scarf to protect your lungs. During a Winter Storm The following are guidelines for what you should do during a winter storm or under conditions of extreme cold: • Listen to your radio, television, or NOAA Weather Radio for weather reports and emergency information. • Eat regularly and drink ample fl uids, but avoid caffeine and alcohol. • Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow. Overexertion can bring on a heart —a major cause of death in the winter. If you must shovel snow, stretch attack before going outside. • Watch for signs of frostbite. These include loss of feeling and white or pale appearance in extremities such as fi ngers, toes, ear lobes, and the tip of the nose. If symptoms are detected, get medical help immediately. • Watch for signs of hypothermia. These include uncontrollable shivering, memory loss, disorientation, incoherence, slurred speech, drowsiness, and ap- parent exhaustion. If symptoms of hypothermia are detected, get the victim rst, to a warm location, remove wet clothing, warm the center of the body fi and give warm, non-alcoholic beverages if the victim is conscious. Get medi- cal help as soon as possible. • Conserve fuel, if necessary, by keeping your residence cooler than normal. Temporarily close off heat to some rooms. • Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of toxic fumes. Refuel kerosene heaters outside and keep them at least three feet from fl ammable objects. 82

84 Are You Ready? Winter Storms and Extreme Cold 2.5 • Drive only if it is absolutely necessary. If you must drive, consider the following: - Travel in the day, don’t travel alone, and keep others informed of your schedule - Stay on main roads; avoid back road shortcuts Natural Hazards If a blizzard traps you in the car, keep these guidelines in mind: • Pull off the highway. Turn on hazard lights and hang a distress fl ag from the radio antenna or window. • Remain in your vehicle where rescuers are most likely to fi nd you. Do not set out on foot unless you can see a building close by where you know you can take shelter. Be careful; distances are distorted by blowing snow. A building may seem close, but be too far to walk to in deep snow. • Run the engine and heater about 10 minutes each hour to keep warm. When the engine is running, open an upwind window slightly for ventilation. This will protect you from possible carbon monoxide poisoning. Periodically clear snow from the exhaust pipe. • Exercise to maintain body heat, but avoid overexertion. In extreme cold, use road maps, seat covers, and fl oor mats for insulation. Huddle with passengers and use your coat for a blanket. • Take turns sleeping. One person should be awake at all times to look for res- cue crews. • Drink fl uids to avoid dehydration. • Be careful not to waste battery power. Balance electrical energy needs—the use of lights, heat, and radio—with supply. • Turn on the inside light at night so work crews or rescuers can see you. • If stranded in a remote area, stomp large block letters in an open area spelling out HELP or SOS and line with rocks or tree limbs to attract the attention of rescue personnel who may be surveying the area by airplane. • Leave the car and proceed on foot—if necessary—once the blizzard passes. 83

85 Are You Ready? Winter Storms and Extreme Cold 2.5 After a Winter Storm Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. Publications National Weather Service Winter Storms...The Deceptive Killers. Brochure packed with useful information includ- ing winter storm facts, how to detect frostbite and hypothermia, what to do in a winter storm, and how to be prepared. Available online at: om/brochures/wntrstm.htm Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Extreme Cold: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety. An extensive docu- ment providing information about planning ahead for cold weather, safety both indoors and outdoors in cold weather, and cold weather health conditions. Avail- able online at: 84

86 2.6 Extreme Heat

87 Are You Ready? Extreme Heat 2.6 reme heat and high Heat kills by pushing the human body beyond its limits. In ext humidity, evaporation is slowed and the body must work extra ha rd to maintain a normal temperature. Most heat disorders occur because the victim has been overexpos ed to heat or has over-exercised for his or her age and physical condition. Olde r adults, young chil- dren, and those who are sick or overweight are more likely to s uccumb to extreme heat. ant atmospheric Conditions that can induce heat-related illnesses include stagn conditions and poor air quality. Consequently, people living i n urban areas may be at greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat wave th an those living in rural areas. Also, asphalt and concrete store heat longer and gradually release heat at night, which can produce higher nighttime temperatures known as the “urban heat island effect.” 86

88 Are You Ready? Extreme Heat 2.6 Know the Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify an extre me heat hazard: Heat Wave Prolonged period of excessive heat, often combined with excessi ve hu- midity. Heat Index when rela- A number in degrees Fahrenheit (F) that tells how hot it feels Natural Hazards tive humidity is added to the air temperature. Exposure to ful l sunshine can increase the heat index by 15 degrees. Heat Cramps cramps Muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion. Although heat rst signal that the body is having are the least severe, they are often the fi trouble with the heat. Heat Exhaustion humid Typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, ow to uids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood fl place where body fl ow to decrease to the vital organs. This the skin increases, causing blood fl results in a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim’s condition will worsen. Body temperature will keep rising and the victim may s uffer heat stroke. Heat Stroke system, A life-threatening condition. The victim’s temperature control ody tem- which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The b t if the perature can rise so high that brain damage and death may resul body is not cooled quickly. Sun Stroke Another term for heat stroke. Take Protective Measures Before Extreme Heat To prepare for extreme heat, you should: • Install window air conditioners snugly; insulate if necessary. • Check air-conditioning ducts for proper insulation. • Install temporary window refl ectors (for use between windows and drapes), ect heat back outside. such as aluminum foil-covered cardboard, to refl • Weather-strip doors and sills to keep cool air in. 87

89 Are You Ready? Extreme Heat 2.6 • s, shades, Cover windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with drape heat that awnings, or louvers. (Outdoor awnings or louvers can reduce the enters a home by up to 80 percent.) Keep storm windows up all year. • During a Heat Emergency The following are guidelines for what you should do if the weat her is extremely hot: • . Stay indoors as much as possible and limit exposure to the sun • Stay on the lowest fl oor out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not available. • Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildi ngs such as libraries, schools, movie theaters, shopping malls, and other c ommunity facilities. Circulating air can cool the body by increasing t he perspiration rate of evaporation. • Eat well-balanced, light, and regular meals. Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician. • dney, or liver Drink plenty of water. Persons who have epilepsy or heart, ki fl uid-restricted diets; or have a problem with disease; are on uid retention fl should consult a doctor before increasing liquid intake. • Limit intake of alcoholic beverages. • Dress in loose- fi tting, lightweight, and light-colored clothes that cover as much skin as possible. Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat. • • Check on family, friends, and neighbors who do not have air co nditioning and who spend much of their time alone. • Never leave children or pets alone in closed vehicles. • Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day. Use a buddy sys- tem when working in extreme heat, and take frequent breaks. 88

90 Are You Ready? Extreme Heat 2.6 First Aid for Heat-Induced Illnesses nesses. The follow- Extreme heat brings with it the possibility of heat-induced ill ing table lists these illnesses, their symptoms, and the fi rst aid treatment. First Aid Condition Symptoms Take a shower using soap to remove • Skin redness and pain, Sunburn oils that may block pores, preventing possible swelling, blis- the body from cooling naturally. ters, fever, headaches Apply dry, sterile dressings to any • blisters, and get medical attention. Natural Hazards • Get the victim to a cooler location. Painful spasms, usu- Heat Cramps • Lightly stretch and gently massage af- ally in leg and abdom- fected muscles to relieve spasms. inal muscles; heavy • Give sips of up to a half glass of cool sweating water every 15 minutes. (Do not give liquids with caffeine or alcohol.) • Discontinue liquids, if victim is nau- seated. • Get victim to lie down in a cool place. Heavy sweating but Heat • Loosen or remove clothing. Exhaustion skin may be cool, • Apply cool, wet cloths. fl pale, or ushed. Weak Fan or move victim to air-conditioned • pulse. Normal body place. temperature is pos- • Give sips of water if victim is con- sible, but temperature scious. will likely rise. Faint- • Be sure water is consumed slowly. ing or dizziness, nau- Give half glass of cool water every 15 • sea, vomiting, exhaus- minutes. tion, and headaches Discontinue water if victim is nause- • are possible. ated. • Seek immediate medical attention if vomiting occurs. Call 9-1-1 or emergency medical ser- • High body tempera- Heat Stroke (a vices, or get the victim to a hospital ture (105+); hot, red, severe medical Delay can be fatal. immediately. dry skin; rapid, weak emergency) • Move victim to a cooler environment. pulse; and rapid, shal- • Remove clothing. low breathing. Victim Try a cool bath, sponging, or wet • will probably not sheet to reduce body temperature. sweat unless victim Watch for breathing problems. • was sweating from re- Use extreme caution. • cent strenuous activity. • Use fans and air conditioners. Possible unconscious- ness. 89

91 Are You Ready? Extreme Heat 2.6 Additional Information An emergency water shortage can be caused by prolonged drought, poor water supply management, or cont aquifer. amination of a surface water supply source or Drought can affect vast territorial regions and large populatio n numbers. Drought also creates environmental conditions that incr ease the risk of other hazards such as ow. fi re, fl ash fl ood, and possible landslides and debris fl Conserving water means more water available for critical needs for everyone. Ap- pendix A contains detailed suggestions for conserving water bot h indoors and out- doors. Make these practices a part of your daily life and help preserve this essential resource. After Extreme Heat Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. Knowledge Check You and a friend have been outdoors in the sun for some time. Shortly after coming inside, your friend complains of nausea and headache but tells you not to worry as it is probably a foo d allergy. What would you advise him or her to do? e of water. Answer: Seek immediate medical attention and discontinue intak 90

92 Are You Ready? Extreme Heat 2.6 For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following resource may be helpful. Publications National Weather Service Heat Wave: A Major Summer Killer . An online brochure describing the heat index, heat disorders, and heat wave safety tips. Available online at: www /brochures/heat_wave.htm Natural Hazards 91

93 92

94 2.7 Earthquakes

95 Are You Ready? Earthquakes 2.7 One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a s udden movement of the earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumula ted over a long time. s have shaped the For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonic earth, as the huge plates that form the earth s surface slowly move over, under, and ’ past each other. Sometimes, the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumu- lated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If th e earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage. 94

96 Are You Ready? Earthquakes 2.7 Know the Terms quake Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify an earth hazard: Earthquake ’ s crust, accom- A sudden slipping or movement of a portion of the earth panied and followed by a series of vibrations. Aftershock An earthquake of similar or lesser intensity that follows the m ain earth- Natural Hazards quake. Fault arth- The fracture across which displacement has occurred during an e quake. The slippage may range from less than an inch to more t han 10 yards in a severe earthquake. Epicenter ’ The place on the earth s surface directly above the point on the fault where the earthquake rupture began. Once fault slippage begins , it ex- reds of pands along the fault during the earthquake and can extend hund miles before stopping. Seismic Waves eds of Vibrations that travel outward from the earthquake fault at spe er a struc- several miles per second. Although fault slippage directly und aves cause ture can cause considerable damage, the vibrations of seismic w most of the destruction during earthquakes. Magnitude m- The amount of energy released during an earthquake, which is co 7.0 on puted from the amplitude of the seismic waves. A magnitude of ch whole the Richter Scale indicates an extremely strong earthquake. Ea number on the scale represents an increase of about 30 times mo re energy released than the previous whole number s. Therefore, represent an earthquake measuring 6.0 is about 30 times more powerful tha n one measuring 5.0. Take Protective Measures Before an Earthquake The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your f amily, and your property in the event of an earthquake: • Repair defective electrical wiring, leaky gas lines, and in fl exible utility con- gas or electri- nections. Get appropriate professional help. Do not work with cal lines yourself. 95

97 Are You Ready? Earthquakes 2.7 Bolt down and secure to the wall studs your water heater, refr igerator, fur- • nace, and gas appliances. If recommended by your gas company, have an automatic gas shut-off valve installed that is triggered by str ong vibrations. • Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves. Fasten shelves , mirrors, and large picture frames to walls. Brace high and top-heavy object s. shelves or in • Store bottled foods, glass, china, and other breakables on low cabinets that fasten shut. • Anchor overhead lighting fi xtures. Be sure the residence is fi • rmly anchored to its foundation. • fl exible pipe fi ttings to avoid gas or water leaks. Flexible fi ttings are Install more resistant to breakage. • an inside wall. Locate safe spots in each room under a sturdy table or against h drill. Reinforce this information by moving to these places during eac • and hold on! Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover, During an Earthquake Minimize your movements during an earthquake to a few steps to a nearby safe ure exiting is safe. place. Stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are s If you are: Then: • Indoors Take cover under a sturdy desk, table, or bench or against an inside wall, and hold on. If there isn ’ t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building. • Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting xtures or fi furniture. • Stay in bed — if you are there when the earthquake strikes — hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fi xture that could fall. In that case, move to the nearest safe place. Use a doorway for shelter only if it is in close proximity • to you and if you know it is a strongly supported, load- bearing doorway. • Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Most injuries during earthquakes occur when people are hit by falling objects when entering into or exiting from buildings. • Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fi re alarms may turn on. • DO NOT use the elevators. Outdoors • Stay there. Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires. • 96

98 Are You Ready? Earthquakes 2.7 If you are: Then: In a moving • Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires. Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped, • watching for road and bridge damage. Trapped under • Do not light a match. • debris Do not move about or kick up dust. • Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a • Natural Hazards whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort — shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. After an Earthquake Be prepared for aftershocks. These secondary shockwaves are u sually less vio- • lent than the main quake but can be strong enough to do additio nal damage to weakened structures. • Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves. • Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been s peci fi cally requested by police, re, or relief organizations. fi • Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas. Th ese are also known as seismic sea waves (mistakenly called “ tidal waves ” ). When local authorities issue a tsunami warning, assume that a series of dangerous wave s is on the way. Stay away from the beach. 97

99 Are You Ready? Earthquakes 2.7 Knowledge Check Check your knowledge about what to do during an earthquake. Fo A or B and circle the correct r each question, choose answer nished, check your responses using the answer key below. response. When you have fi aries by where you are when an earthquake What action should you take during an earthquake? The answer v strikes. For each situation, pick the best course of action fr om the choices given. 1. At home A. Stay inside B. Go out to the street A. Stand by a window to see what is happening 2. In bed B. Stay in bed and protect your head with a pillow A. Stand in a doorway 3. In any building B. Crouch in an inside corner away from the exterior wall 4. On the upper fl oor of an oor as quickly as possible A. Take the elevator to the ground fl apartment building B. Stay in an interior room under a desk or table 5. Outdoors A. Run into the nearest building B. Stay outside away from buildings 6. Driving a car A. Stop the car in an open area B. Stop the car under an overpass 1. A 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. A Answer key 98

100 Are You Ready? Earthquakes 2.7 For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications Avoiding Earthquake Damage: A Checklist for Homeowners . Safety tips for before, during, and after an earthquake . FEMA-76. Earthquake safety tips for high-rise dwell- Preparedness in High-Rise Buildings ers Natural Hazards Learning to Live in Earthquake Country: Preparedness in Apartme nts and Mobile Homes . L-143. Safe- ty tips on earthquake preparation for residents of apartments a nd mobile homes . FEMA-113. How to identify home Family Earthquake Safety Home Hazard Hunt and Drill hazards; how to conduct earthquake drills Earthquake Preparedness: What Every Childcare Provider Should Know . FEMA 240. Publication for teachers and for presentation to children. Available onlin e at kids/tch_eq.htm 99

101 100

102 2.8 Volcanoes

103 Are You Ready? Volcanoes 2.8 A volcano is a vent through which molten rock escapes to the ea rth ’ s surface. When pressure from gases within the molten rock becomes too gre at, an eruption occurs. Eruptions can be quiet or explosive. There may be lav a fl ows, fl attened landscapes, poisonous gases, and fl ying rock and ash. Because of their intense heat, lava fl ows are great fi re hazards. Lava fl ows destroy le can move out everything in their path, but most move slowly enough that peop of the way. cidic, gritty, gassy, Fresh volcanic ash, made of pulverized rock, can be abrasive, a and odorous. While not immediately dangerous to most adults, t he acidic gas and ash can cause lung damage to small infants, to older adults, an d to those suffer- amage machinery, ing from severe respiratory illnesses. Volcanic ash also can d mixed with water including engines and electrical equipment. Ash accumulations become heavy and can collapse roofs. Volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by other natural hazards, including earth- fl quakes, mud ows and fl ash fl oods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fi re, and (under special conditions) tsunamis. Active volcanoes in the U .S. are found mainly c Northwest. in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Paci fi 102

104 Are You Ready? Volcanoes 2.8 Take Protective Measures Before a Volcanic Eruption • Add a pair of goggles and a disposable breathing mask for each member of the family to your disaster supplies kit. • Stay away from active volcano sites. During a Volcanic Eruption The following are guidelines for what to do if a volcano erupts in your area: fl • Evacuate immediately from the volcano area to avoid ying debris, hot gases, fl ow. lateral blast, and lava Natural Hazards Be aware of mud fl ows. The danger from a mud • ow increases near stream fl fl ows can move faster than you channels and with prolonged heavy rains. Mud can walk or run. Look upstream before crossing a bridge, and d o not cross ow is approaching. the bridge if mud fl • Avoid river valleys and low-lying areas. Protection from Falling Ash • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants. • Use goggles and wear eyeglasses instead of contact lenses. Use a dust mask or hold a damp cloth over your face to help wi th • breathing. • Stay away from areas downwind from the volcano to avoid volcan ic ash. • Stay indoors until the ash has settled unless there is danger of the roof collapsing. • y vents, Close doors, windows, and all ventilation in the house (chimne furnaces, air conditioners, fans, and other vents). • Clear heavy ash from fl at or low-pitched roofs and rain gutters. • Avoid running car or truck engines. Driving can stir up volcan ic ash that can clog engines, damage moving parts, and stall vehicles. • Avoid driving in heavy ash fall unless absolutely required. I f you have to drive, keep speed down to 35 MPH or slower. 103

105 Are You Ready? Volcanoes 2.8 After a Volcanic Erruption Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. Knowledge Check Read the scenario and answer the question. Check your response s with the answer key below. Scenario About an hour after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash began to fall in Yakima, a city in eastern Washington. The ash fall was so extensive and it became so dark that lights were turned on all day. It took 10 weeks to haul away the ash from Yakima ’ s streets, sidewalks, and roofs. Assume you were a resident of Yakima during this time. What w ould you need to protect yourself when going outside? For More Information following are If you require more information about any of these topics, the resources that may be helpful. Publications National Weather Service Heat Wave: A Major Summer Killer . An online brochure describing the heat index, heat disorders, and heat wave safety tips. Available online at: www /brochures/heat_wave.htm U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program . Website with volcano activity updates, feature stories, information about volcano hazards, and resources. Available on line at: http: // possible 1. Face masks 2. Goggles 3. Eyeglasses instead of contact len ses 4. Clothing to cover as much of the body as Answer key 104

106 2.9 Landslides and Debris Flow (Mudslide)

107 Are You Ready? Landslides and Debris Flow (Mudslide) 2.9 slide, masses of rock, Landslides occur in all U.S. states and territories. In a land large, slow or earth, or debris move down a slope. Landslides may be small or ptions, fi res, and hu- rapid. They are activated by storms, earthquakes, volcanic eru man modi cation of land. fi Debris and mud fl ows are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris saturated with water. They develop when water rapidly accumulates in the grou nd, during heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt, changing the earth into a owing river of mud or fl ” They fl ow can rapidly, striking with little or no warning at avalanch e slurry. “ speeds. They also can travel several miles from their source, growing in size as they pick up trees, boulders, cars, and other materials. Landslide problems can be caused by land mismanagement, particu larly in moun- tain, canyon, and coastal regions. Land-use zoning, profession al inspections, and ow problems. proper design can minimize many landslide, mud fl ow, and debris fl 106

108 Are You Ready? Landslides and Debris Flow (Mudslide) 2.9 Take Protective Measures Before a Landslide or Debris Flow The following are steps you can take to protect yourself from t he effects of a land- fl ow: slide or debris Do not build near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage ways, • or natural erosion valleys. • Get a ground assessment of your property. • ctive measures. Consult an appropriate professional expert for advice on corre Natural Hazards • Minimize home hazards by having fl exible pipe fi ttings installed to avoid gas or water leaks, as fl exible fi ttings are more resistant to breakage (only the gas company or professionals should install gas fi ttings). Recognize Landslide Warning Signs • Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-wate r drainage on d movement, slopes (especially the places where runoff water converges) lan small slides, fl ows, or progressively leaning trees. Doors or windows stick or jam for the rst time. • fi • New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations. Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the bu ilding. • Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas • such as streets or driveways. • Underground utility lines break. • Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope. • Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations. • Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move. • A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide nears. • The ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shif ting in that direction under your feet. • Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking to gether, might indicate moving debris. • Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications o f possible debris fl ow can be seen w hen driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides). 107

109 Are You Ready? Landslides and Debris Flow (Mudslide) 2.9 During a Landslide or Debris Flow ide or debris fl ow The following are guidelines for what you should do if a landsl occurs: Move away from the path of a landslide or debris fl • ow as quickly as possible. • Curl into a tight ball and protect your head if escape is not possible. After a Landslide or Debris Flow The following are guidelines for the period following a landsli de: nal slides. • Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additio • entering the Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without direct slide area. Direct rescuers to their locations. Watch for associated dangers such as broken electrical, water, gas, and sewage • lines and damaged roadways and railways. • Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion cause d by loss of ground cover can lead to fl ash fl ooding and additional landslides in the near future. • Seek advice from a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslid e hazards or designing corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. Follow the instructions for returning home in Part 5. • 108

110 Are You Ready? Landslides and Debris Flow (Mudslide) 2.9 Knowledge Check Review the following information and answer the questions. Che ck your responses with the answer key below. it is estimated that they cause between 25 and 50 deaths each y ear in the U.S. Landslides occur in all 50 states — and thousands more in vulnerable areas around the globe. The n umber of landslides in the United States is ex- pected to increase. 1. What might account for the projected increase in landslides? Natural Hazards 2. What can you do to help reverse the upward trend? g signs. ment of their property and educating residents about the warnin work to promote protective measures such as encouraging homeown ers to get a professional ground assess- ject to landslides and mudslides. In areas where the hazard ex ists and development has already occurred, ations that prohibit building near areas sub- 2. Work with others in the community to enact and enforce regul creased development in these unsafe areas. ject to landslides and earth failures has in- 1. Mounting pressure for approving the development of lands sub Answer Key 109

111 110

112 2.10 Tsunamis

113 Are You Ready? Tsunamis 2.10 Tsunamis (pronounced soo-n -mees), also known as seismic sea waves (mistak- á “ tidal waves ” enly called ), are a series of enormous waves created by an underwa- ter disturbance such as an earthquake, landslide, volcanic erup tion, or meteorite. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in the open ocean a nd smash into land with waves as high as 100 feet or more. From the area where the tsunami originates, waves travel outwar d in all direc- tions. Once the wave approaches the shore, it builds in height. The topography of the coastline and the ocean fl oor will in fl uence the size of the wave. There may be more than one wave and the succeeding one may be larger than th e one before. That is why a small tsunami at one beach can be a giant wave a few miles away. All tsunamis are potentially dangerous, even though they may no t damage every coastline they strike. A tsunami can strike anywhere along mos t of the U.S. coast- line. The most destructive tsunamis have occurred along the co asts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. Earthquake-induced movement of the ocean fl oor most often generates tsunamis. fi If a major earthquake or landslide occurs close to shore, the rst wave in a series could reach the beach in a few minutes, even before a warning i s issued. Areas are nd within a mile of the at greater risk if they are less than 25 feet above sea level a shoreline. Drowning is the most common cause of death associate d with a tsu- nami. Tsunami waves and the receding water are very destructiv e to structures in the run-up zone. Other hazards include fl ooding, contamination of drinking water, and fi res from gas lines or ruptured tanks. Know the Terms i hazard: Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a tsunam Advisory An earthquake has occurred in the Paci fi c basin, which might generate a tsunami. Watch A tsunami was or may have been generated, but is at least two h ours travel time to the area in Watch status. Warning A tsunami was, or may have been generated, which could cause damage; therefore, people in the warned area are strongly advis ed to evacuate. 112

114 Are You Ready? Tsunamis 2.10 Natural Hazards Take Protective Measures During a Tsunami i is likely in your The following are guidelines for what you should do if a tsunam area: • Turn on your radio to learn if there is a tsunami warning if a n earthquake oc- curs and you are in a coastal area. • Move inland to higher ground immediately and stay there. If there is noticeable recession in water away from the shoreline this is nature’s tsunami warning and it should be heeded. You should move away immediately. 113

115 Are You Ready? Tsunamis 2.10 After a Tsunami The following are guidelines for the period following a tsunami : • Stay away from fl ooded and damaged areas until of fi cials say it is safe to re- turn. • Stay away from debris in the water; it may pose a safety hazar d to boats and people. Save Yourself—Not Your Possesions Like everyone else in Maullin, Chile, Ramon Atala survived the 1960 Chile from the earthquake. However, he lost his life trying to save something tsunami that followed. Mr. Atala was Maullin ’ s most prosperous merchant. Outside of town, he owned a barn and a plantation of Monterey pine. In town, he ow ned a pier and at least one large building and also had private quart ers in a wa- terfront warehouse. Mr. Atala entered this warehouse between the fi rst and second wave of the tsunami that struck Maullin. The warehouse was washed away and his body was never found. It is unclear what he was trying to save. What is clear is tha t no possession is worth your life and that it is important to get to higher gr ound away from the coast and stay there until it is safe to return. 114

116 2.11 Fires

117 Are You Ready? Fires 2.11 Each year, more than 4,000 Americans die and more than 25,000 a re injured in res, many of which could be prevented. Direct property loss du e to fi fi res is esti- mated at $8.6 billion annually. To protect yourself, it is important to understand the basic ch aracteristics of fi re. Fire spreads quickly; there is no time to gather valuables or m ake a phone call. In just two minutes, a re can become life-threatening. In fi ve minutes, a residence fi can be engulfed in fl ames. Heat and smoke from fi re can be more dangerous than the fl ames. Inhaling the super-hot air can sear your lungs. Fire produces poisonous gas es that make you re, you may fall into a disoriented and drowsy. Instead of being awakened by a fi deeper sleep. Asphyxiation is the leading cause of fi re deaths, exceeding burns by a three-to-one ratio. Take Protective Measures Before a Fire Smoke Alarms Install smoke alarms. Properly working smoke alarms decrease your chances • fi re by half. of dying in a • Place smoke alarms on every level of your residence. Place the m outside bed- rooms on the ceiling or high on the wall (4 to 12 inches from c eiling), at the top of open stairways, or at the bottom of enclosed stairs and near (but not in) the kitchen. • Test and clean smoke alarms once a month and replace batteries at least once a year. Replace smoke alarms once every 10 years. Escaping the Fire • Review escape routes with your family. Practice escaping from each room. • Make sure windows are not nailed or painted shut. Make sure s ecurity grat- ings on windows have a fi re safety opening feature so they can be easily opened from the inside. 116

118 Are You Ready? Fires 2.11 • Consider escape ladders if your residence has more than one le vel, and ensure that burglar bars and other antitheft mechanisms that block out side window entry are easily opened from the inside. re) Teach family members to stay low to the fl oor (where the air is safer in a fi • when escaping from a fi re. ers and maga- • Clean out storage areas. Do not let trash, such as old newspap zines, accumulate. Flammable Items Natural • Never use gasoline, benzine, naptha, or similar fl ammable liquids indoors. Hazards Store fl ammable liquids in approved containers in well-ventilated stor age • areas. • Never smoke near fl ammable liquids. • Discard all rags or materials that have been soaked in fl ammable liquids after you have used them. Safely discard them outdoors in a metal con tainer. • Insulate chimneys and place spark arresters on top. The chimn ey should be ng above and at least three feet higher than the roof. Remove branches hangi around the chimney. Heating Sources Be careful when using alternative heating sources. • Check with your local fi re department on the legality of using kerosene heat- • ers in your community. Be sure to fi ll kerosene heaters outside, and be sure they have cooled. Place heaters at least three feet away from • ammable materials. Make sure the fl fl oor and nearby walls are properly insulated. • Use only the type of fuel designated for your unit and follow manufacturer ’ s instructions. • Store ashes in a metal container outside and away from your re sidence. • fl ames away from walls, furniture, drapery, and fl ammable items. Keep open • Keep a screen in front of the fi replace. • Have heating units inspected and cleaned annually by a certi fi ed specialist. Matches and Smoking • Keep matches and lighters up high, away from children, and, if possible, in a locked cabinet. • Never smoke in bed or when drowsy or medicated. Provide smoke rs with deep, sturdy ashtrays. Douse cigarette and cigar butts with wa ter before dis- posal. 117

119 Are You Ready? Fires 2.11 Electrical Wiring • Have the electrical wiring in your residence checked by an ele ctrician. lugs. Inspect extension cords for frayed or exposed wires or loose p • Make sure outlets have cover plates and no exposed wiring. • s high-traf fi c • Make sure wiring does not run under rugs, over nails, or acros areas. Do not overload extension cords or outlets. If you need to pl ug in two or • three appliances, get a UL-approved unit with built-in circuit breakers to pre- vent sparks and short circuits. Make sure insulation does not touch bare electrical wiring. • Other • Sleep with your door closed. Install A-B-C-type re extinguishers in your residence and teach family mem- • fi bers how to use them. • Consider installing an automatic fi re sprinkler system in your residence. Ask your local • re department to inspect your residence for fi re safety and fi prevention. During a Fire If your clothes catch on fi re, you should: re is extinguished. Running only makes the • Stop, drop, and roll — until the fi fi re burn faster . re, you should: fi To escape a Check closed doors for heat before you open them. If you are escaping • p of the door, through a closed door, use the back of your hand to feel the to ore you the doorknob, and the crack between the door and door frame bef open it. Never use the palm of your hand or fi ngers to test for heat — burning those areas could impair your ability to escape a fi re (i.e., ladders and crawl- ing). Hot Door Cool Door re and/or fi Open slowly and ensure Do not open. Escape through a win- smoke is not blocking your escape route. dow. If you cannot escape, hang a If your escape route is blocked, shut the white or light-colored sheet outside door immediately and use an alternate re fi ghters to the window, alerting fi escape route, such as a window. If clear, your presence. leave immediately through the door and close it behind you. Be prepared to crawl. Smoke and heat rise. The air is oor. clearer and cooler near the fl 118

120 Are You Ready? Fires 2.11 • Crawl low under any smoke to your exit — heavy smoke and poisonous gases col- lect fi rst along the ceiling. e • Close doors behind you as you escape to delay the spread of th re. fi • Stay out once you are safely out. Do not reenter. Call 9-1-1. Natural Hazards After a Fire The following are guidelines for different circumstances in the period following a fi re: • all 9-1-1; cool If you are with burn victims, or are a burn victim yourself, c and cover burns to reduce chance of further injury or infection . If you detect heat or smoke when entering a damaged building, evacuate im- • mediately. If you are a tenant, contact the landlord. • If you have a safe or strong box, do not try to open it. It c • an hold intense heat for several hours. If the door is opened before the box h as cooled, the contents could burst into fl ames. • If you must leave your home because a building inspector says the building is unsafe, ask someone you trust to watch the property during your absence. 5. • Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 119

121 Are You Ready? Fires 2.11 Knowledge Check Answer each question and check your responses using the answer key below. fi re through a closed door. What, if anything, should you do be 1. You need to escape a fore opening the door? 2. What should you do if your clothes are on fi re? 3. What actions should be taken for burn victims? fi 4. To reduce heating costs, you installed a wood-burning stove. What can you do to reduce the risk of re from this heating source? 5. To escape in thick smoke, what should you do? oor fl Crawl close to the 5. ed specialist fi 4. Have the stove cleaned and inspected by a certi 3. Call 9-1-1 and cool and cover burns Stop, drop, and roll 2. Check the door for heat with the back of your hand 1. Answer key 120

122 Are You Ready? Fires 2.11 For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications After the Fire: Returning to Normal . FA 046. This 16-page booklet provides informa- tion about recovering from a fi fi re , including what to do during the rst 24 hours, insurance considerations, valuing your property, replacement of valuable docu- ments, salvage hints, re department operations, and more. Available online at fi Natural Hazards FA 130. This pamphlet was written to provide the Protecting Your Family From Fire. family from fi re. information you need to decide what you must do to protect your rs, escape plans, and Topics include children, sleepwear, older adults, smoke detecto residential sprinklers. Available online at public/hfs/pubs/ hfs_pubs2.shtm FA 202; Fire Risks for the Hard of Hearing. Fire Risks for Fire Risks for the Older Adult . FA 203; . FA 204; Fire Risks for the Blind or Visually Impaired . FA 205 the Mobility Impaired fi These reports address preparation for re risks for populations with special chal- lenges. All are available online at fi re-service/education/ education-pubs.shtm 121

123 122

124 2.12 Wild fi res

125 Are You Ready? Wild fi res 2.12 If you live on a remote hillside or in a valley, prairie, or fo rest where fl ammable vegetation is abundant, your residence could be vulnerable to w ild fi res. These fi res are usually triggered by lightning or accidents. Wild fi res spread quickly, igniting brush, trees, and homes. Take Protective Measures fi re Before a Wild To prepare for wild fi res, you should: • Mark the entrance to your property with address signs that are clearly visible from the road. • Keep lawns trimmed, leaves raked, and the roof and rain gutter s free from debris such as dead limbs and leaves. rewood at least 30 feet away from your residence. • Stack fi 124

126 Are You Ready? Wild fi res 2.12 • Store fl ammable materials, liquids, and solvents in metal containers o utside your residence at least 30 feet away from structures and wooden fences. • Create defensible space by thinning trees and brush within 30 feet around low tree your residence. Beyond 30 feet, remove dead wood, debris, and branches. • Landscape your property with fi re resistant plants and vegetation to prevent re fi re from spreading quickly. For example, hardwood trees are mo fi re-resis- tant than pine, evergreen, eucalyptus, or fi r trees. • Make sure water sources, such as hydrants, ponds, swimming poo ls, and fi re department. wells, are accessible to the Natural Hazards ng and materials like stone, brick, and metal • Use fi re resistant, protective roo fi to protect your residence. Avoid using wood materials. They o ffer the least re protection. fi • Cover all exterior vents, attics, and eaves with metal mesh sc reens no larger than 6 millimeters or 1/4 inch to prevent debris from collectin g and to help keep sparks out. Install multi-pane windows, tempered safety glass, or fi reproof shutters to • protect large windows from radiant heat. • Use fi re-resistant draperies for added window protection. • Have chimneys, wood stoves, and all home heating systems inspe cted and cleaned annually by a certi fi ed specialist. • ey should be at Insulate chimneys and place spark arresters on top. The chimn least 3 feet above the roof. • Remove branches hanging above and around the chimney. Follow Local Burning Laws Before burning debris in a wooded area, make sure you notify lo cal authorities, obtain a burning permit, and follow these guidelines: • Use an approved incinerator with a safety lid or covering with holes no larger than 3/4 inch. • Create at least a 10-foot clearing around the incinerator befo re burning debris. re extinguisher or garden hose on hand when burning debris. • Have a fi 125

127 Are You Ready? Wild res fi 2.12 During a Wild re fi fi re threatens your home and time permits, take the following pr ecautions: If a wild • quali fi ed professional can safely turn the gas Shut off gas at the meter. Only a back on. • Seal attic and ground vents with pre-cut plywood or commercial seals. • Turn off propane tanks. • Place combustible patio furniture inside. • Connect garden hose to outside taps. Place lawn sprinklers on the roof and near above-ground fuel tanks. Wet the roof. • Wet or remove shrubs within 15 feet of your residence. • Gather fi re tools such as a rake, axe, handsaw or chainsaw, bucket, and shovel. • Back your car into the garage or park it in an open space faci ng the direction of escape. Shut doors and roll up windows. Leave the key in t he ignition and the car doors unlocked. Close garage windows and doors, but le ave them unlocked. Disconnect automatic garage door openers. • Open replace damper. Close fi replace screens. fi Close windows, vents, doors, blinds or noncombustible window c • overings, fl ammable drapes and curtains. and heavy drapes. Remove Move • ammable furniture into the center of the residence away from w in- fl dows and sliding-glass doors. • Close all interior doors and windows to prevent drafts. • Place valuables that will not be damaged by water in a pool or pond. If advised to evacuate, do so immediately. Choose a route away fi re haz- from the ard. Watch for changes in the speed and direction of the fi re and smoke. After a Wild fi re Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following resource may be helpful. FEMA Publications Wildfi re: Are You Prepared? L-203. Wild fi re safety tips, preparedness, and mitigation techniques. 126

128 3 Technological Hazards Technological hazards include hazardous materials incidents and nuclear power plant failures. Usually, little or no warning precedes incidents involving technological hazards. In many cases, victims may not know they have been affected until many years later. For example, health problems caused by hidden toxic waste sites—like that at Love Canal, near Niagara Falls, New York—surfaced years after initial exposure. The number of technological incidents is escalating, mainly as a result of the increased number of new substances and the opportunities for human error inherent in the use of these materials. Use Part 3 to learn what actions to include in your family disaster plan to prepare for and respond to events in- volving technological hazards. Learn how to use, store, and dispose of household chemicals in a manner that will reduce the potential for injury to people and the environment. When you complete Part 3, you will be able to: • Recognize important terms. • Take protective measures for technological disasters. • Know what actions to take if an event occurs. • Identify resources for more information about technological hazards. 127

129 128

130 3.1 Hazardous Materials Incidents

131 Are You Ready? Hazardous Materials Incidents 3.1 Chemicals are found everywhere. They purify drinking water, increase crop pro- duction, and simplify household chores. But chemicals also can be hazardous to humans or the environment if used or released improperly. Hazards can occur during production, storage, transportation, use, or disposal. You and your commu- nity are at risk if a chemical is used unsafely or released in harmful amounts into the environment where you live, work, or play. Chemical manufacturers are one source of hazardous materials, but there are many others, including service stations, hospitals, and hazardous materials waste sites. Take Protective Measures Before a Hazardous Materials Incident Many communities have Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) whose responsibilities include collecting information about hazardous materials in the community and making this information available to the public upon request. The LEPCs also are tasked with developing an emergency plan to prepare for and re- ed spond to chemical emergencies in the community. Ways the public will be notifi and actions the public must take in the event of a release are part of the plan. Con- nd out more about chemical hazards and what needs to be done tact the LEPCs to fi to minimize the risk to individuals and the community from these materials. The local emergency management offi ce can provide contact information on the LEPCs. You should add the following supplies to your disaster supplies kit: Review • Plastic sheeting. See Section 1.3: • Duct tape. Assemble a Disaster • Scissors. Supplies Kit During a Hazardous Materials Incident Listen to local radio or television stations for detailed information and instructions. Follow the instructions carefully. You should stay away from the area to minimize the risk of contamination. Remember that some toxic chemicals are odorless. 130

132 Are You Ready? Hazardous Materials Incidents 3.1 If you are: Then: Asked to evacuate Do so immediately. Stay upstream, uphill, and upwind! In general, try to go Caught Outside at least one-half mile (usually 8-10 city blocks) from the danger area. Do not walk into or touch any spilled liquids, airborne mists, or condensed solid chemical deposits. In a motor vehicle Stop and seek shelter in a permanent building. If you must remain in your car, keep car windows and vents closed and shut off the air conditioner and heater. Requested to stay • Close and lock all exterior doors and windows. Close vents, fi indoors replace dampers, and as many interior doors as possible. • Turn off air conditioners and ventilation systems. In large buildings, set ventilation systems to 100 percent recirculation so that no outside air is drawn into the building. If this is not possible, ventilation systems Hazards should be turned off. • Go into the pre-selected shelter room. This room Technological should be above ground and have the fewest openings to the outside. • Seal the room by covering each window, door, and vent using plastic sheeting and duct tape. • Use material to fi ll cracks and holes in the room, such as those around pipes. Shelter Safety for Sealed Rooms Ten square feet of fl cient air to oor space per person will provide suffi prevent carbon dioxide build-up for up to fi ve hours, assuming a normal breathing rate while resting. However, local offi cials are unlikely to recommend the public shelter in a sealed room for more than 2-3 hours because the effectiveness of such sheltering diminishes with time as the contaminated outside air gradually seeps into the shelter. At this point, evacuation from the area is the better protective action to take. Also you should ventilate the shelter when the emergency has passed to avoid breathing contaminated air still inside the shelter. 131

133 Are You Ready? Hazardous Materials Incidents 3.1 After a Hazardous Materials Incident The following are guidelines for the period following a hazardous materials inci- dent: • Return home only when authorities say it is safe. Open windows and vents and turn on fans to provide ventilation. • Act quickly if you have come in to contact with or have been exposed to haz- ardous chemicals. Do the following: - Follow decontamination instructions from local authorities. You may be advised to take a thorough shower, or you may be advised to stay away from water and follow another procedure. - Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms as soon as possible. - Place exposed clothing and shoes in tightly sealed containers. Do not allow them to contact other materials. Call local authorities to fi nd out about proper disposal. - Advise everyone who comes in to contact with you that you may have been exposed to a toxic substance. • Find out from local authorities how to clean up your land and property. • Report any lingering vapors or other h azards to your local emergency services offi ce. • Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. 132

134 3.2 Household Chemical Emergencies

135 Are You Ready? Household Chemical Emergencies 3.2 Nearly every household uses products containing hazardous materials or chemi- cals. Cleaning Products Indoor Pesticides • Oven cleaners • Ant sprays and baits • Drain cleaners • Cockroach sprays and baits • Wood and metal • Flea repellents and shampoos cleaners and polishes • Bug sprays • Toilet cleaners • Houseplant insecticides • Tub, tile, shower cleaners • Moth repellents • Bleach (laundry) • Mouse and rat poisons • Pool chemicals and baits Workshop/Painting Supplies Automotive Products • Adhesives and glues • Motor oil • Furniture strippers • Fuel additives • Oil- or enamel-based paint • Carburetor and fuel injection cleaners nishes • Stains and fi • Air conditioning refrigerants • Paint thinners and turpentine uids • Starter fl • Paint strippers and removers • Automotive batteries • Photographic chemicals • Transmission and brake fl uid • Fixatives and other solvents • Antifreeze Lawn and Garden Products Miscellaneous • Herbicides • Batteries • Insecticides • Mercury thermostats or thermometers • Fungicides/wood preservatives • Fluorescent light bulbs • Driveway sealer 134

136 Are You Ready? Household Chemical Emergencies 3.2 Other Flammable Products • Propane tanks and other compressed gas cylinders • Kerosene • Home heating oil • Diesel fuel • Gas/oil mix • Lighter fl uid Although the risk of a chemical accident is slight, knowing how to handle these products and how to react during an emergency can reduce the risk of injury. Hazards Technological Take Protective Measures Before a Household Chemical Emergency The following are guidelines for buying and storing hazardous household chemi- cals safely: • Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use. Leftover material can be shared with neighbors or donated to a business, charity, or govern- ment agency. For example, excess pesticide could be offered to a greenhouse or garden center, and theater groups often need surplus paint. Some commu- nities have organized waste exchanges where household hazardous chemicals and waste can be swapped or given away. • Keep products containing hazardous materials in their original containers and never remove the labels unless the container is corroding. Corroding contain- ers should be repackaged and clearly labeled. • Never store hazardous products in food containers. • Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with other products. Incompatibles, such as chlorine bleach and ammonia, may react, ignite, or explode. Take the following precautions to prevent and respond to accidents: • Follow the manufacturer’s instructors for the proper use of the household chemical. • Never smoke while using household chemicals. • Never use hair spray, cleaning solutions, paint products, or pesticides near an open fl ame (e.g., pilot light, lighted candle, fi replace, wood burning stove, etc.) Although you may not be able to see or smell them, vapor particles in re or explode. the air could catch fi 135

137 Are You Ready? Household Chemical Emergencies 3.2 • Clean up any chemical spill immediately. Use rags to clean up the spill. Wear gloves and eye protection. Allow the fumes in the rags to evaporate outdoors, then dispose of the rags by wrapping them in a newspaper and placing them in a sealed plastic bag in your trash can. • Dispose of hazardous materials correctly. Take household hazardous waste to a local collection program. Check with your county or state environmental or solid waste agency to learn if there is a household hazardous waste collection program in your area. Learn to recognize the symptoms of toxic poisoning, which are as follows: • Diffi culty breathing. • Irritation of the eyes, skin, throat, or respiratory tract. • Changes in skin color. • Headache or blurred vision. • Dizziness. • Clumsiness or lack of coordination. • Cramps or diarrhea. Be prepared to seek medical assistance: • Post the number of the emergency medical services and the poison control center by all telephones. In an emergency situation, you may not have time to look up critical phone numbers. The national poison control number is (800)222-1222. During a Household Chemical Emergency If there is a danger of fi re or explosion: • Get out of the residence immediately. Do not waste time collecting items or re department when you are in danger. Call the fi re department calling the fi from outside (a cellular phone or a neighbor’s phone) once you are safely away from danger. • Stay upwind and away from the residence to avoid breathing toxic fumes. If someone has been exposed to a household chemical: • Find any containers of the substance that are readily available in order to pro- vide requested information. Call emergency medical services. • Follow the emergency operator or dispatcher’s fi rst aid instructions carefully. The fi rst aid advice found on containers may be out of date or inappropriate. Do not give anything by mouth unless advised to do so by a medical profes- sional. Discard clothing that may have been contaminated. Some chemicals may not wash out completely. 136

138 Are You Ready? Household Chemical Emergencies 3.2 Checking Your Home There are probably many hazardous materials throughout your home. Take a tour of your home to see where these materials are located. Use the list of common hazardous household items presented earlier to guide you in your hunt. Once you have located a product, check the label and take the necessary steps to ensure that you are using, storing, and disposing of the material according to the manufactur- er’s directions. It is critical to store household chemicals in places where children cannot access them. Remember that products such as aerosol cans of hair spray and deodorant, nail polish and nail polish remover, toilet bowl cleaners, and furniture polishes all fall into the category of hazardous materials. Hazards Technological 137

139 Are You Ready? Household Chemical Emergencies 3.2 For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications Household Hazardous Materials: A Guide for Citizens . IS 55. An independent study resource for parents and teachers. Web-based safety program focused on reducing the num- ber of deaths and injuries in the home. Available online at emiweb/is/is55.asp . A pamphlet promoting awareness of chemical hazards in Chemical Emergencies the home, how to prevent them, and what to do if exposed. Available online at Backgrounder: Hazardous Materials . 0.511. Information sheet available online at USFA: Factsheet: Baby-sitters Make the Right Call to EMS . 0510. Available online at Other Publications American Red Cross Chemical Emergencies . Extensive document describing the hazards of house- hold chemicals and what to do in an emergency. Available online at,1082,0_581_,00.html 138

140 3.3 Nuclear Power Plants

141 Are You Ready? Nulear Power Plants 3.3 Nuclear power plants use the heat generated from nuclear fi ssion in a contained environment to convert water to steam, which powers generators to produce electricity. Nuclear power plants operate in most states in the country and produce about 20 percent of the nation’s power. Nearly 3 million Americans live within 10 miles of an operating nuclear power plant. Although the construction and operation of these facilities are closely monitored and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), accidents are pos- sible. An accident could result in dangerous levels of radiation that could affect the health and safety of the public living near the nuclear power plant. Local and state governments, federal agencies, and the electric utilities have emer- gency response plans in the event of a nuclear power plant incident. The plans defi ne two “emergency planning zones.” One zone covers an area within a 10- mile radius of the plant, where it is possible that people could be harmed by direct radiation exposure. The second zone covers a broader area, usually up to a 50-mile radius from the plant, where radioactive materials could contaminate water sup- plies, food crops, and livestock. The potential danger from an accident at a nuclear power plant is exposure to radiation. This exposure could come from the release of radioactive material from the plant into the environment, usually characterized by a plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive gases and particles. The major hazards to people in the vicinity of the plume are radiation exposure to the body from the cloud and par- ticles deposited on the ground, inhalation of radioactive materials, and ingestion of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials are composed of atoms that are unstable. An unstable atom gives off its excess energy until it becomes stable. The energy emitted is radiation. Each of us is exposed to radiation daily from natural sources, including the Sun and the Earth. Small traces of radiation are present in food and water. Radiation also is released from man-made sources such as X-ray machines, television sets, and microwave ovens. Radiation has a cumulative effect. The longer a person is exposed to radiation, the greater the effect. A high exposure to radiation can cause serious illness or death. Minimizing Exposure to Radiation • Distance - The more distance between you and the source of the ra- diation, the better. This could be evacuation or remaining indoors to minimize exposure. • Shielding - The more heavy, dense material between you and the source of the radiation, the better. - Most radioactivity loses its strength fairly quickly. • Time 140

142 Are You Ready? Nuclear Power Plants 3.3 If an accident at a nuclear power plant were to release radiation in your area, local authorities would activate warning sirens or another approved alert method. They also would instruct you through the Emergency Alert System (EAS) on local televi- sion and radio stations on how to protect yourself. Know the Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a nuclear power plant emergency: Notifi cation of Unusual Event A small problem has occurred at the plant. No radiation leak is expected. No action on your part will be necessary. Alert A small problem has occurred, and small amounts of radiation could leak inside the plant. This will not affect you and no action is required. Hazards Technological Site Area Emergency Area sirens may be sounded. Listen to your radio or television for safety information. General Emergency Radiation could leak outside the plant and off the plant site. The sirens will sound. Tune to your local radio or television station for reports. Be prepared to follow instructions promptly. Take Protective Measures Before a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Obtain public emergency information materials from the power company that ce. operates your local nuclear power plant or your local emergency services offi If you live within 10 miles of the power plant, you should receive these materials yearly from the power company or your state or local government. 141

143 Are You Ready? Nulear Power Plants 3.3 During a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency The following are guidelines for what you should do if a nuclear power plant emergency occurs. Keep a battery-powered radio with you at all times and listen to the radio for specifi c instructions. Close and lock doors and windows. If you are told to evacuate... If you are advised to remain indoors... • Keep car windows and • Turn off the air conditioner, ventilation vents closed; use fans, furnace, and other air intakes. re-circulating air. • Go to a basement or other underground area, if possible. • Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary. If you expect you have been exposed to nuclear radiation: • Change clothes and shoes. • Put exposed clothing in a plastic bag. • Seal the bag and place it out of the way. • Take a thorough shower. Keep food in covered containers or in the refrigerator. Food not previously covered should be washed before being put in to containers. After a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Seek medical treatment for any unusual symptoms, such as nausea, that may be related to radiation exposure. Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. 142

144 Are You Ready? Nuclear Power Plants 3.3 Technological Hazards Knowledge Check Answer the following questions. Check your responses with the answer key below. 1. What are some things you can do to reduce the threat from hazardous materials in your home? 2. What should you do if you are caught at the scene of a hazardous materials incident? What is the telephone number for the National Poison Control Center? 3. What are three ways to minimize radiation exposure? 4. 5. Are there special warning requirements for nuclear power plants? If so, what are they? Hazards Technological 6. What does it mean when a nuclear power plant has issued a general emergency? What actions should you take? 7. If you are at home and instructed to shelter-in-place because of a chemical release, where will you go? 8. If you are in a car and unable to seek shelter in a building and a chemical release occurs, you should? 9. Who can you contact to fi nd out about hazardous materials stored in your community? 10. What are some common placess hazardous materials may be present in the community? 143

145 Are you Ready? waste sites, and transportation routes. facilities, construction sites, dry cleaners, electronics manufactures, paint shops, hospitals, hazardous materials 10. Agricultural operations and farms, auto service stations and junkyards, chemical manufacturing and storage information for the LEPCs. ce can provide contact 9. Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC). The local emergency management offi 8. Keep car windows and vents closed and shut off the air conditioner or heater. 7. An above ground room with the fewest exterior doors and windows. vision station for reports. Be prepared to follow instructions promptly. 6. Radiation could leak outside the plant and off the plant site. The sirens will sound. Tune to local radio or tele- 5. Yes. Nuclear power plants are required to install sirens or other approved warning systems. 4. Distance, shielding, and time. 3. (800)222-1222 from the danger area. b. Stay upstream, uphill, and upwind! In general, try to go at least one-half mile (usually 8-10 city blocks) 2. a. Do not walk into or touch any spilled liquids, airborne mists, or condensed solid chemical deposits. i. Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use. h. Clean up spills immediately with rags. g. Never smoke while using household chemicals. f. Take household hazardous waste to a local collection program. e. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with other products. d. Keep products in original containers unless the container is corroding. c. Never store hazardous products in food containers. b. Follow manufacture’s instructions for storage, use, and disposal. 1. a. Learn to identify hazardous materials. Answers: 144

146 4 Terrorism Throughout human history, there have been many threats to the security of nations. These threats have brought about large-scale losses of life, the destruction of property, widespread illness and injury, the displacement of large numbers of people, and devastating economic loss. Recent technological advances and ongoing international political unrest are components of the increased risk to national security. Use Part 4 to learn what actions to include in your family disaster plan to prepare for and respond to terrorist threats. When you complete Part 4, you will be able to: • Recognize important terms. • Take protective measures for terror ist threats. • Know what actions to take if an event occurs. ist threats. • Identify resources for more information about terror 145

147 146

148 4.1 General Information about Terrorism

149 Are You Ready? General Info about Terrorism 4.1 Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom. Terrorists often use threats to: • Create fear among the public. • Try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism. • Get immediate publicity for their causes. Acts of terrorism include threats of terrorism; assassinations; kidnappings; hijack- ings; bomb scares and bombings; cyber attacks (computer-based); and the use of chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological weapons. High-risk targets for acts of terrorism include military and civilian government facilities, international airports, large cities, and high-profi le landmarks. Terror- ists might also target large public gatherings, water and food supplies, utilities, and corporate centers. Further, terrorists are capable of spreading fear by sending explosives or chemical and biological agents through the mail. Within the immediate area of a terrorist event, you would need to rely on police, fi re, and other offi cials for instructions. However, you can prepare in much the same way you would prepare for other crisis events. The following are general guidelines: • Be aware of your surroundings. • Move or leave if you feel uncomfortable or if something does not seem right. • Take precautions when traveling. Be aware of conspicuous or unusual behav- ior. Do not accept packages from strangers. Do not leave luggage unattended. You should promptly report unusual behavior, suspicious or unattended pack- ages, and strange devices to the police or security personnel. • Learn where emergency exits are located in buildings you frequent. Plan how to get out in the event of an emergency. • Be prepared to do without services you normally depend on—electricity, telephone, natural gas, gasoline pumps, cash registers, ATMs, and Internet transactions. 148

150 Are You Ready? General Info about Terrorism 4.1 • Work with building owners to ensure the following items are located on each fl oor of the building: - Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries. - Several fl ashlights and extra batteries. - First aid kit and manual. - Hard hats and dust masks. - Fluorescent tape to rope off dangerous areas. Terrorism 149

151 150

152 4.2 Explosions

153 Are You Ready? Explosions 4.2 Terrorists have frequently used explosive devices as one of their most common weapons. Terrorists do not have to look far to fi nd out how to make explosive de- vices; the information is readily available in books and other information sources. The materials needed for an explosive device can be found in many places includ- ing variety, hardware, and auto supply stores. Explosive devices are highly portable using vehicles and humans as a means of transport. They are easily detonated from remote locations or by suicide bombers. Conventional bombs have been used to damage and destroy fi nancial, political, social, and religious institutions. Attacks have occurred in public places and on city streets with thousands of people around the world injured and killed. Parcels that should make you suspicious: • Are unexpected or from someone unfamiliar to you. • Have no return address, or have one that can’t be verifi ed as legiti- mate. • Are marked with restrictive endorsements such as “Personal,” “Confi - dential,” or “Do not X-ray.” • Have protruding wires or aluminum foil, strange odors, or stains. • Show a city or state in the postmark that doesn’t match the return ad- dress. • Are of unusual weight given their size, or are lopsided or oddly shaped. • Are marked with threatening language. • Have inappropriate or unusual labeling. • Have excessive postage or packaging material, such as masking tape and string. • Have misspellings of common words. • Are addressed to someone no longer with your organization or are otherwise outdated. • Have incorrect titles or titles without a name. • Are not addressed to a specifi c person. • Have hand-written or poorly typed addressess. 152

154 Are You Ready? Explosions 4.2 Take Protective Measures If you receive a telephoned bomb threat, you should do the following: • Get as much information from the caller as possible. • Keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said. • Notify the police and the building management. During an Explosion If there is an explosion, you should: • Get under a sturdy table or desk if things are falling around you. When they stop falling, leave quickly, watching for obviously weakened fl oors and stair- Review ways. As you exit from the building, be especially watchful of falling debris. Safety guidelines • Leave the building as quickly as possible. Do not stop to retrieve personal pos- res for escaping fi sessions or make phone calls. in Section 2.11 • Do not use elevators. Once you are out: • Do not stand in front of windows, glass doors, or other potentially hazardous areas. • Move away from sidewalks or streets to be used by emergency offi cials or oth- ers still exiting the building. Terrorism If you are trapped in debris: ashlight to signal your location to rescuers. • If possible, use a fl • Avoid unnecessary movement so you don’t kick up dust. • Cover your nose and mouth with anything you have on hand. (Dense-weave cotton material can act as a good fi lter. Try to breathe through the material.) • Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can hear where you are. • If possible, use a whistle to signal rescuers. • Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause a person to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. 153

155 Are You Ready? Explosions 4.2 After an Explosion Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following resource may be helpful. Publications American Red Cross: Terrorism, Preparing for the Unexpected . Document providing preparation guidelines for a terrorist attack or similar emergency. Available online at services/disaster/0,1082,0_589_,00.html 154

156 4.3 Biological Threats

157 Are You Ready? Biological Threats 4.3 Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can kill or incapacitate people, live- stock, and crops. The three basic groups of biological agents that would likely be used as weapons are bacteria, viruses, and toxins. Most biological agents are dif- fi cult to grow and maintain. Many break down quickly when exposed to sunlight and other environmental factors, while others, such as anthrax spores, are very long lived. Biological agents can be dispersed by spraying them into the air, by infecting animals that carry the disease to humans, and by contaminating food and water. Delivery methods include: Aerosols • ne mist —biological agents are dispersed into the air, forming a fi that may drift for miles. Inhaling the agent may cause disease in people or animals. • Animals —some diseases are spread by insects and animals, such as fl eas, mice, fl ies, mosquitoes, and livestock. • —some pathogenic organisms and toxins Food and water contamination may persist in food and water supplies. Most microbes can be killed, and tox- ins deactivated, by cooking food and boiling water. Most microbes are killed by boiling water for one minute, but some require longer. Follow offi cial instructions. • Person-to-person —spread of a few infectious agents is also possible. Hu- mans have been the source of infection for smallpox, plague, and the Lassa viruses. Specifi c information on biological agents is available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web site, . Take Protective Measures Before a Biological Attack The following are guidelines for what you should do to prepare for a biological threat: • Check with y our doctor to ensure all required or suggested immunizations are up to date. Children and older adults are particularly vulnerable to biological agents. 156

158 Are You Ready? Biological Threats 4.3 • Consider installing a High Effi ciency Particulate Air (HEPA) fi lter in your fur- Review nace return duct. These fi lters remove particles in the 0.3 to 10 micron range and will fi lter out most biological agents that may enter your house. If you Shelter do not have a central heating or cooling system, a stand-alone portable HEPA in Section 1.4 fi lter can be used. Filtration in Buildings Building owners and managers should determine the type and level of fi ltration in their structures and the level of protection it provides against biological agents. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) provides technical guidance on this topic in their publi- cation Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks . To obtain a copy, call 1(800)35NIOSH or visit and request or download NIOSH Publication 2003-136. During a Biological Attack cials may not immediately be In the event of a biological attack, public health offi able to provide information on what you should do. It will take time to deter- mine what the illness is, how it should be treated, and who is in danger. Watch television, listen to radio, or check the Internet for offi cial news and information including signs and symptoms of the disease, areas in danger, if medications or Terrorism vaccinations are being distributed, and where you should seek medical attention if you become ill. The fi rst evidence of an attack may be when you notice symptoms of the disease caused by exposure to an agent. Be suspicious of any symptoms you notice, but do not assume that any illness is a result of the attack. Use common sense and practice good hygiene. If you become aware of an unusual and suspicious substance nearby: • Move away quickly. • Wash with soap and water. • Contact authorities. cial instructions. • Listen to the media for offi • Seek medical attention if you become sick. If you are exposed to a biological agent: • Remove and bag your clothes and personal items. Follow offi cial instructions for disposal of contaminated items. • Wash yourself with soap and water and put on clean clothes. • Seek medical assistance. You may be advised to stay away from others or even quarantined. 157

159 Are You Ready? Biological Threats 4.3 Using HEPA Filters lters are useful in biological attacks. If you have a central heat- HEPA fi ing and cooling system in your home with a HEPA fi lter, leave it on if it is running or turn the fan on if it is not running. Moving the air in the lter will help remove the agents from the air. If you house through the fi have a portable HEPA fi lter, take it with you to the internal room where you are seeking shelter and turn it on. ce building that has a modern, central If you are in an apartment or offi heating and cooling system, the system’s fi ltration should provide a rela- tively safe level of protection from outside biological contaminants. lter chemical agents. HEPA fi lters will not fi After a Biological Attack In some situations, such as the case of the anthrax letters sent in 2001, people may be alerted to potential exposure. If this is the case, pay close attention to all offi cial warnings and instructions on how to proceed. The delivery of medical services Review for a biological event may be handled differently to respond to increased demand. The basic public health procedures and medical protocols for handling exposure to Getting biological agents are the same as for any infectious disease. It is important for you Informed to pay attention to offi cial instructions via radio, television, and emergency alert in Section 1.1 systems. 158

160 4.4 Chemical Threats

161 Are You Ready? Chemical Threats 4.4 Chemical agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids, and solids that have toxic effects on people, animals, or plants. They can be released by bombs or sprayed from aircraft, boats, and vehicles. They can be used as a liquid to create a hazard to people and the environment. Some chemical agents may be odorless and tasteless. They can have an immediate effect (a few seconds to a few minutes) or a delayed effect (2 to 48 hours). While potentially lethal, chemical agents are diffi cult to de- liver in lethal concentrations. Outdoors, the agents often dissipate rapidly. Chemi- cal agents also are diffi cult to produce. A chemical attack could come without warning. Signs of a chemical release include people having diffi culty breathing; experiencing eye irritation; losing coordination; becoming nauseated; or having a burning sensation in the nose, throat, and lungs. Also, the presence of many dead insects or birds may indicate a chemical agent release. Take Protective Measures Before a Chemical Attack The following are guidelines for what you should do to prepare for a chemical threat: • Check your disaster supplies kit to make sure it includes: - A roll of duct tape and scissors. - Plastic for doors, windows, and vents for the room in which you will shelter in place. To save critical time during an emergency, pre-measure and cut the plastic sheeting for each opening. • Choose an internal room to shelter, preferably one without windows and on the highest level. During a Chemical Attack The following are guidelines for what you should do in a chemical attack. If you are instructed to remain in your home or offi ce building, you should: • Close doors and windows and turn off all ventilation, including furnaces, air conditioners, vents, and fans. Review • Seek shelter in an internal room and take your disaster supplies kit. Shelter safety for sealed rooms in • Seal the room with duct tape and plastic sheeting. Section 3.1 • Listen to your radio for instructions from authorities. 160

162 Are You Ready? Chemical Threats 4.4 If you are caught in or near a contaminated area, you should: • Move away immediately in a direction upwind of the source. • Find shelter as quickly as possible. After a Chemical Attack Decontamination is needed within minutes of exposure to minimize health con- sequences. Do not leave the safety of a shelter to go outdoors to help others until authorities announce it is safe to do so. A person affected by a chemical agent requires immediate medical attention from a professional. If medical help is not immediately available, decontaminate yourself Terrorism and assist in decontaminating others. Decontamination guidelines are as follows: • Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to chemi- cal agents. • Remove all clothing and other items in contact with the body. Contaminated clothing normally removed over the head should be cut off to avoid contact with the eyes, nose, and mouth. Put contaminated clothing and items into a plastic bag and seal it. Decontaminate hands using soap and water. Remove eyeglasses or contact lenses. Put glasses in a pan of household bleach to de- contaminate them, and then rinse and dry. • Flush eyes with water. • Gently wash face and hair with soap and water before thoroughly rinsing with water. • Decontaminate other body areas likely to have been contaminated. Blot (do not swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in soapy water and rinse with clear water. • Change into uncontaminated clothes. Clothing stored in drawers or closets is likely to be uncontaminated. • Proceed to a medical facility for screening and professional treatment. 161

163 162

164 4.5 Nuclear Blast

165 Are You Ready? Nuclear Blast 4.5 A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave, and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around. A nuclear device can range from a weapon car- ried by an intercontinental missile launched by a hostile nation or terrorist organi- zation, to a small portable nuclear devise transported by an individual. All nuclear devices cause deadly effects when exploded, including blinding light, intense heat (thermal radiation), initial nuclear radiation, blast, fi res started by the heat pulse, and secondary fi res caused by the destruction. Hazards of Nuclear Devices cult to predict. The The extent, nature, and arrival time of these hazards are diffi geographical dispersion of hazard effects will be defi ned by the following: • Size of the device. A more powerful bomb will produce more distant effects. • Height above the ground the device was detonated. This will determine the extent of blast effects. • Nature of the surface beneath the explosion. Some materials are more likely to become radioactive and airborne than others. Flat areas are more suscep- tible to blast effects. • Existing meteorological conditions. Wind speed and direction will affect ar- rival time of fallout; precipitation may wash fallout from the atmosphere. Radioactive Fallout Even if individuals are not close enough to the nuclear blast to be affected by the direct impacts, they may be affected by radioactive fallout. Any nuclear blast results in some fallout. Blasts that occur near the earth’s surface create much greater amounts of fallout than blasts that occur at higher altitudes. This is be- cause the tremendous heat produced from a nuclear blast causes an up-draft of air that forms the familiar mushroom cloud. When a blast occurs near the earth’s surface, millions of vaporized dirt particles also are drawn into the cloud. As the heat diminishes, radioactive materials that have vaporized condense on the particles and fall back to Earth. The phenomenon is called radioactive fallout. This fallout material decays over a long period of time, and is the main source of residual nuclear radiation. Fallout from a nuclear explosion may be carried by wind currents for hundreds of miles if the right conditions exist. Effects from even a small portable device exploded at ground level can be potentially deadly. Nuclear radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by normal senses. Radiation can only be detected by radiation monitoring devices. This makes radiological emergencies different from other types of emergencies, such as fl oods or hurricanes. Monitoring can project the fallout arrival times, which will be announced through offi cial warning channels. However, any increase in surface build-up of gritty dust and dirt should be a warning for taking protective measures. 164

166 Are You Ready? Nuclear Blast 4.5 Electromagnetic Pulse In addition to other effects, a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the earth’s atmosphere can create an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high-density electrical fi eld. An EMP acts like a stroke of lightning but is stronger, faster, and shorter. An EMP can seriously damage electronic devices connected to power sources or antennas. This includes communication systems, computers, electrical appli- ances, and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. The damage could range from a minor interruption to actual burnout of components. Most electronic equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation could be affected. Battery-powered radios with short antennas generally would not be affected. Although an EMP is unlikely to harm most people, it could harm those with pacemakers or other implanted electronic devices. Terrorism Protection from a Nuclear Blast The danger of a massive strategic nuclear attack on the United States is predicted by experts to be less likely today. However, terrorism, by nature, is unpredictable. If there were threat of an attack, people living near potential targets could be advised to evacuate or they could decide on their own to evacuate to an area not considered a likely target. Protection from radioactive fallout would require tak- ing shelter in an underground area or in the middle of a large building. In general, potential targets include: • Strategic missile sites and military bases. • Centers of government such as Washington, DC, and state capitals. • Important transportation and communication centers. • Manufacturing, industrial, technology, and fi nancial centers. • Petroleum refi neries, electrical power plants, and chemical plants. • Major ports and airfi elds. 165

167 Are You Ready? Nuclear Blast 4.5 The three factors for protecting oneself from radiation and fallout are distance, shielding, and time. — the more distance between you and the fallout particles, the bet- • Distance ce building basement offers ter. An underground area such as a home or offi rst fl oor of a building. A fl oor near the middle of more protection than the fi a high-rise may be better, depending on what is nearby at that level on which cant fallout particles would collect. Flat roofs collect fallout particles so signifi oor is not a good choice, nor is a fl oor adjacent to a neighboring fl at the top fl roof. • Shielding — the heavier and denser the materials—thick walls, concrete, bricks, books and earth—between you and the fallout particles, the better. • — fallout radiation loses its intensity fairly rapidly. In time, you will be Time able to leave the fallout shelter. Radioactive fallout poses the greatest threat to rst two weeks, by which time it has declined to about 1 people during the fi percent of its initial radiation level. Remember that any protection, however temporary, is better than none at all, and the more shielding, distance, and time you can take advantage of, the better. Take Protective Measures Before a Nuclear Blast To prepare for a nuclear blast, you should do the following: cials if any public buildings in your community have been • Find out from offi designated as fallout shelters. If none have been designated, make your own Review list of potential shelters near your home, workplace, and school. These places Update your would include basements or the windowless center area of middle fl oors in supplies; high-rise buildings, as well as subways and tunnels. see Section 1.2 • If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing for building occupants until it is safe to go out. • During periods of increased threat increase your disaster supplies to be ad- equate for up to two weeks. 166

168 Are You Ready? Nuclear Blast 4.5 Taking shelter during a nuclear blast is absolutely necessary. There are two kinds of shelters—blast and fallout. The following describes Review the two kinds of shelters: • Blast shelters are specifi cally constructed to offer some protec- Shelter tion against blast pressure, initial radiation, heat, and fi re. But requirements in even a blast shelter cannot withstand a direct hit from a nuclear Section 1.4 explosion. • Fallout shelters do not need to be specially constructed for protecting against fallout. They can be any protected space, provided that the walls and roof are thick and dense enough to absorb the radiation given off by fallout particles. During a Nuclear Blast The following are guidelines for what to do in the event of a nuclear explosion. If an attack warning is issued: • Take cover as quickly as you can, below ground if possible, and stay there until instructed to do otherwise. cial information and follow instructions. • Listen for offi If you are caught outside and unable to get inside immediately: Terrorism ash or fi reball—it can blind you. • Do not look at the fl • Take cover behind anything that might offer protection. • Lie fl at on the ground and cover your head. If the explosion is some distance away, it could take 30 seconds or more for the blast wave to hit. • Take shelter as soon as you can, even if you are many miles from ground zero where the attack occurred—radioactive fallout can be carried by the winds for hundreds of miles. Remember the three protective factors: Distance, shield- ing, and time. After a Nuclear Blast Decay rates of the radioactive fallout are the same for any size nuclear device. However, the amount of fallout will vary based on the size of the device and its proximity to the ground. Therefore, it might be necessary for those in the areas with highest radiation levels to shelter for up to a month. Review Shelter The heaviest fallout would be limited to the area at or downwind from the explo- requirements in rst 24 hours. sion, and 80 percent of the fallout would occur during the fi Section 1.4 People in most of the areas that would be affected could be allowed to come out of shelter within a few days and, if necessary, evacuate to unaffected areas. 167

169 Are You Ready? Nuclear Blast 4.5 Returning to Your Home Remember the following: • Keep listening to the radio and television for news about what to do, where to go, and places to avoid. • Stay away from damaged areas. Stay away from areas marked “radiation hazard” or “HAZMAT.” Remember that radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by human senses. Follow the instructions for returning home in Part 5. 168

170 4.6 Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)

171 Are You Ready? Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD) 4.6 Terrorist use of an RDD—often called “dirty nuke” or “dirty bomb”—is consid- ered far more likely than use of a nuclear explosive device. An RDD combines a conventional explosive device—such as a bomb—with radioactive material. It is designed to scatter dangerous and sub-lethal amounts of radioactive material over a general area. Such RDDs appeal to terrorists because they require limited technical knowledge to build and deploy compared to a nuclear device. Also, the radioactive materials in RDDs are widely used in medicine, agriculture, industry, and research, and are easier to obtain than weapons grade uranium or plutonium. The primary purpose of terrorist use of an RDD is to cause psychological fear and economic disruption. Some devices could cause fatalities from exposure to radio- active materials. Depending on the speed at which the area of the RDD detonation was evacuated or how successful people were at sheltering-in-place, the number of deaths and injuries from an RDD might not be substantially greater than from a conventional bomb explosion. The size of the affected area and the level of destruction caused by an RDD would depend on the sophistication and size of the conventional bomb, the type of ra- dioactive material used, the quality and quantity of the radioactive material, and the local meteorological conditions—primarily wind and precipitation. The area affected could be placed off-limits to the public for several months during clean- up efforts. Take Protective Measures Before an RDD Event There is no way of knowing how much warning time there will be before an at- tack by terrorists using an RDD, so being prepared in advance and knowing what to do and when is important. Take the same protective measures you would for fallout resulting from a nuclear blast. Review Nuclear Blast Section 4.5 During an RDD Event While the explosive blast will be immediately obvious, the presence of radiation will not be known until trained personnel with specialized equipment are on the scene. Whether you are indoors or outdoors, home or at work, be extra cautious. It would be safer to assume radiological contamination has occurred—particularly in an urban setting or near other likely terrorist targets—and take the proper pre- cautions. As with any radiation, you want to avoid or . This is particu- limit exposure larly true of inhaling radioactive dust that results from the explosion. As you seek shelter from any location (indoors or outdoors) and there is visual dust or other contaminants in the air, breathe though the cloth of your shirt or coat to limit your exposure. If you manage to avoid breathing radioactive dust, your proximity to the radioactive particles may still result in some radiation exposure. 170

172 Are You Ready? Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD) 4.6 If the explosion or radiological release occurs inside, get out immediately and seek safe shelter. Otherwise, if you are: Outdoors Indoors • If you have time, turn off ventilation • Seek shelter indoors and heating systems, close windows, immediately in the nearest vents, fi replace dampers, exhaust fans, undamaged building. and clothes dryer vents. Retrieve your • If appropriate shelter is not disaster supplies kit and a battery- available, move as rapidly as powered radio and take them to your is safe upwind and away from shelter room. the location of the explosive • Seek shelter immediately, preferably blast. Then, seek appropriate underground or in an interior room of shelter as soon as possible. a building, placing as much distance cial instructions • Listen for offi and dense shielding as possible and follow directions. between you and the outdoors where the radioactive material may be. • Seal windows and external doors that do not fi t snugly with duct tape ltration of radioactive to reduce infi particles. Plastic sheeting will not provide shielding from radioactivity nor from blast effects of a nearby explosion. • Listen for offi cial instructions and Terrorism follow directions. After an RDD Event After fi nding safe shelter, those who may have been exposed to radioactive material should decontaminate themselves. To do this, remove and bag your clothing (and isolate the bag away from you and others), and shower thoroughly with soap and water. Seek medical attention after offi cials indicate it is safe to leave shelter. Contamination from an RDD event could affect a wide area, depending on the amount of conventional explosives used, the quantity and type of radioactive mate- rial released, and meteorological conditions. Thus, radiation dissipation rates vary, but radiation from an RDD will likely take longer to dissipate due to a potentially larger localized concentration of radioactive material. Follow these additional guidelines after an RDD event: • Continue listening to your radio or watch the television for instructions from local offi cials, whether you have evacuated or sheltered-in-place. • Do not return to or visit an RDD incident location for any reason. • Follow the instructions for recovering from a disaster in Part 5. 171

173 Are You Ready? Terrorism Knowledge Check Answer the following questions. Check your responses with the answer key below. 1 What would you do, if you were at work and... a. there was an explosion in the building? b. you received a package in the mail that you considered suspicious? c. you received a telephone call that was a bomb threat? 2 If caught outside during a nuclear blast, what should you do? 3 What are the three key factors for protection from nuclear blast and fallout? 4 If you take shelter in your own home, what kind of room would be safest during a chemical or biological attack? 5 In case of a chemical attack, what extra items should you have in your disaster supplies kit? 5. Plastic sheeting, duct tape, and scissors. An interior room on the uppermost level, preferably without windows 4. Distance, shielding, time 3. Cover your head • • Lay fl at on the ground Take cover behind anything that offers protection • ash Don’t look at the fl • 2. c. Keep the caller on the line and record everything that was said b. Clear the area and notify the police immediately 1. a. Shelter from falling debris under a desk and then follow evacuation procedures Answer Key 172

174 4.7 Homeland Security Advisory System

175 Are You Ready? Homeland Security Advisory System 4.7 The Homeland Security Advisory System was designed to provide a national frame- work and comprehensive means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to the following: • Federal, state, and local authorities • The private sector • The American people This system provides warnings in the form of a set of graduated “threat condi- tions” that increase as the risk of the threat increases. Risk includes both the prob- ability of an attack occurring and its potential gravity. Threat conditions may be assigned for the entire nation, or they may be set for a particular geographic area or industrial sector. At each threat condition, government entities and the private sector, including businesses and schools, would implement a corresponding set of “protective measures” to further reduce vulnerability or increase response capabil- ity during a period of heightened alert. There are fi ve threat conditions, each identifi ed by a description and corresponding color. Assigned threat conditions will be reviewed at regular intervals to determine whether adjustments are warranted. Threat Conditions and Associated Protective Measures There is always a risk of a terrorist threat. Each threat condition assigns a level of alert appropriate to the increasing risk of terrorist attacks. Beneath each threat condition are some suggested protective measures that the government, the private sector, and the public can take. In each case, as threat conditions escalate, protective measures are added to those already taken in lower threat conditions. The measures are cumulative. 174

176 Are You Ready? Homeland Security Advisory System 4.7 Citizen Guidance on the Homeland Security Advisory System Low Risk • Develop a family emergency plan. Share it with family and friends, and practice the plan. Visit for help creating a plan. • Create an “Emergency Supply Kit” for your household. • Be informed. Visit or obtain a copy of “Preparing Makes Sense, Get Ready Now” by calling 1-800-BE-READY. • Know where to shelter and how to turn off utilities (power, gas, and water) to your home. • Examine volunteer opportunities in your community, such as Citizen Corps, Volunteers in Police Service, Neighborhood Watch or others, and donate your time. Consider complet- ing an American Red Cross fi rst aid or CPR course , or Community Emergency Response BLUE Team (CERT) course . Guarded Risk Y • Complete recommended steps at level green. • Review stored disaster supplies and replace items that are outdated. • Be alert to suspicious activity and report it to proper authorities. YELLOW Elevated Risk • Complete recommended steps at levels green and blue. • Ensure disaster supplies are stocked and ready. Terrorism • Check telephone numbers in family emergency plan and update as necessary. • Develop alternate routes to/from work or school and practice them. • Continue to be alert for suspicious activity and report it to authorities. ORANGE High Risk • Complete recommended steps at lower levels. • Exercise caution when traveling, pay attention to travel advisories. • Review your family emergency plan and make sure all family members know what to do. • Be Patient. Expect some delays, baggage searches and restrictions at public buildings. • Check on neighbors or others that might need assistance in an emergency. Severe Risk • Complete all recommended actions at lower levels. • Listen to local emergency management offi cials. • Stay tuned to TV or radio for current information/instructions. • Be prepared to shelter or evacuate, as instructed. • Expect traffi c delays and restrictions. • Provide volunteer services only as requested. • Contact your school/business to determine status of work day. *Developed with input from the American Red Cross. 175

177 Are You Ready? Homeland Security Advisory System 4.7 Knowledge Check 1. By following the instructions in this guide, you should now have the following: • A family disaster plan that sets forth what you and your family need to do to prepare for and respond to all types of hazards. • A disaster supplies kit fi lled with items you would need to sustain you and your family for at least three days, maybe more. • Knowledge of your community warning systems and what you should do when these are activated. • An understanding of why evacuations are necessary and what you would need to do in the case of an evacuation. cation of where the safest shelters are for the various hazards. • Identifi Compare the above actions with the personal action guidelines for each of the threat levels. Determine how well you are pre- pared for each of the fi ve levels. 2. What is the current threat level? ___________________________ . Keep Hint: To determine the current threat level, check your cable news networks or visit your family informed when changes in the threat level occur, and go over the personal actions you need to take. 176

178 Are You Ready? Homeland Security Advisory System 4.7 For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following resource may be helpful. Publications American Red Cross American Red Cross: Homeland Security Advisory System Recommendations for Individuals, Families, Neighborhoods, Schools, and Businesses . Explanation of preparedness activities for each population. Available online at hsas.html Terrorism 177

179 178

180 5 Recovering from Disaster 179

181 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Health and Safety Guidelines Recovering from a disaster is usually a gradual process. Safet y is a primary issue, as , knowing how to ac- are mental and physical well-being. If assistance is available cess it makes the process faster and less stressful. This sect ion offers some general advice on steps to take after disaster strikes in order to begi n getting your home, your community, and your life back to normal. rst concern after a disaster is your family’s health and safet Your fi y. You need to consider possible safety issues and monitor family health and w ell-being. Aiding the Injured Check for injuries. Do not attempt to move seriously injured p ersons unless they t move an uncon- are in immediate danger of death or further injury. If you mus scious person, fi rst stabilize the neck and back, then call for help immediatel y. cial respi- • If the victim is not breathing, carefully position the victim for artifi ration, clear the airway, and commence mouth-to-mouth resuscita tion. does not be- • Maintain body temperature with blankets. Be sure the victim come overheated. • Never try to feed liquids to an unconscious person. Health • Be aware of exhaustion. Don’t try to do too much at once. S et priorities and pace yourself. Get enough rest. • Drink plenty of clean water. • Eat well. • Wear sturdy work boots and gloves. • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean water often wh en working in debris. Safety Issues • Be aware of new safety issues created by the disaster. Watch for washed out roads, contaminated buildings, contaminated water, gas leaks, b roken glass, damaged electrical wiring, and slippery fl oors. • Inform local authorities about health and safety issues, incl uding chemical spills, downed power lines, washed out roads, smoldering insula tion, and dead animals. 180

182 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Returning Home Returning home can be both physically and mentally challenging. Above all, use caution. General tips: • Keep a battery-powered radio with you so you can listen for em ergency up- dates and news reports. • ash light to inspect a damaged home. Use a battery-powered fl the bat- The fl ashlight should be turned on outside before entering — Note: tery may produce a spark that could ignite leaking gas, if pres ent. ck to poke • Watch out for animals, especially poisonous snakes. Use a sti through debris. • Use the phone only to report life-threatening emergencies. Stay off the streets. If you must go out, watch for fallen ob jects; downed elec- • trical wires; and weakened walls, bridges, roads, and sidewalks . Recovering from Disaster Before You Enter Your Yome Walk carefully around the outside and check for loose power lin es, gas leaks, and structural damage. If you have any doubts about safety, have y our residence in- spected by a quali fi ed building inspector or structural engineer before entering. Do not enter if: You smell gas. • • Floodwaters remain around the building. • Your home was damaged by fi re and the authorities have not declared it safe. Going Inside Your Home When you go inside your home, there are certain things you shou ld and should not do. Enter the home carefully and check for damage. Be awar e of loose boards and slippery fl oors. The following items are other things to check inside yo ur home: 181

183 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 • Natural gas. If you smell gas or hear a hissing or blowing sound, open a window and leave immediately. Turn off the main gas valve from the outside, ’ s residence. If you shut off if you can. Call the gas company from a neighbor to turn it back the gas supply at the main valve, you will need a professional on. Do not smoke or use oil, gas lanterns, candles, or torches for lighting inside a damaged home until you are sure there is no leaking ga s or other fl ammable materials present. • Sparks, broken or frayed wires. Check the electrical system unless you are wet, standing in water, or unsure of your safety. If possible, turn off the elec- tricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If the situat ion is unsafe, leave the building and call for help. Do not turn on the lights unti l you are sure they ’ re safe to use. You may want to have an electrician inspect yo ur wiring. • Roof, foundation, and chimney cracks. If it looks like the building may col- lapse, leave immediately. • Appliances. If appliances are wet, turn off the electricity at the main fu se box or circuit breaker. Then, unplug appliances and let them d ry out. Have Also, have the appliances checked by a professional before using them again. electrical system checked by an electrician before turning the power back on. If pipes are damaged, turn off the main water • Water and sewage systems. valve. Check with local authorities before using any water; th e water could be contaminated. Pump out wells and have the water tested by auth orities before fl drinking. Do not ush toilets until you know that sewage lines are intact. • Food and other supplies. Throw out all food and other supplies that you sus- pect may have become contaminated or come in to contact with fl oodwater. • Your basement. If your basement has fl ooded, pump it out gradually (about one third of the water per day) to avoid damage. The walls may collapse and the fl oor may buckle if the basement is pumped out while the surroun ding ground is still waterlogged. • Open cabinets. Be alert for objects that may fall. • Clean up household chemical spills. Disinfect items that may have been con- taminated by raw sewage, bacteria, or chemicals. Also clean sa lvageable items. • Call your insurance agent. Take pictures of damages. Keep good records of repair and cleaning costs. 182

184 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Being Wary of Wildlife and Other Animals Disaster and life threatening situations will exacerbate the un predictable nature of wild animals. To protect yourself and your family, learn how t o deal with wildlife. Guidelines • Do not approach or attempt to help an injured or stranded anim al. Call your ce. local animal control of fi ce or wildlife resource of fi Do not corner wild animals or try to rescue them. Wild animal s will likely • fl feel threatened and may endanger themselves by dashing off into oodwaters, fi re, and so forth. me. Wild • Do not approach wild animals that have taken refuge in your ho animals such as snakes, opossums, and raccoons often seek refug e from oodwaters on upper levels of homes and have been known to rema in after fl water recedes. If you encounter animals in this situation, ope n a window or n its own. Do provide another escape route and the animal will likely leave o not attempt to capture or handle the animal. Should the animal stay, call your fi local animal control of ce or wildlife resource of fi ce. Do not attempt to move a dead animal. Animal carcasses can pre sent serious • health risks. Contact your local emergency management of fi ce or health de- partment for help and instructions. If bitten by an animal, seek immediate medical attention. • Recovering from Disaster Seeking Disaster Assistance Throughout the recovery period, it is important to monitor loca l radio or televi- sion reports and other media sources for information about wher e to get emergen- cy housing, food, fi rst aid, clothing, and fi nancial assistance. The following section may be available. provides general information about the kinds of assistance that 183

185 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Direct Assistance Direct assistance to individuals and families may come from any number of organi- zations, including: American Red Cross. • Salvation Army. • • Other volunteer organization. These organizations provide food, shelter, supplies and assist in clean-up efforts. The Federal Role In the most severe disasters, the federal government is also ca lled in to help indi- st-disaster trau- viduals and families with temporary housing, counseling (for po federal government ma), low-interest loans and grants, and other assistance. The also has programs that help small businesses and farmers. Most federal assistance becomes available when the President of the United States “ Major Disaster ” for the affected area at the request of a state governor. declares a utreach about FEMA will provide information through the media and community o federal assistance and how to apply. Coping with Disaster The emotional toll that disaster brings can sometimes be even m ore devastating fi than the nal prop- nancial strains of damage and loss of home, business, or perso erty. Understand Disaster Events Everyone who sees or experiences a disaster is affected by it • in some way. • It is normal to feel anxious about your own safety and that o f your family and close friends. • abnormal event. Profound sadness, grief, and anger are normal reactions to an • Acknowledging your feelings helps you recover. • Focusing on your strengths and abilities helps you heal. • Accepting help from community programs and resources is healt hy. • Everyone has different needs and different ways of coping. • It is common to want to strike back at people who have caused great pain. Children and older adults are of special concern in the afterma th of disasters. Even individuals who experience a disaster “ second hand ” through exposure to extensive media coverage can be affected. Contact local faith-based organizations, voluntary agencies, or professional coun- selors for counseling. Additionally, FEMA and state and local governments of the affected area may provide crisis counseling assistance. 184

186 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Recognize Signs of Disaster Related Stress When adults have the following signs, they might need crisis co unseling or stress management assistance: Dif fi culty communicating thoughts. • • culty sleeping. Dif fi Dif fi culty maintaining balance in their lives. • Low threshold of frustration. • Increased use of drugs/alcohol. • Limited attention span. • Poor work performance. • • Headaches/stomach problems. Tunnel vision/muf fl • ed hearing. • Colds or fl u-like symptoms. • Disorientation or confusion. fi Dif • culty concentrating. Reluctance to leave home. • • Depression, sadness. Feelings of hopelessness. • • Mood-swings and easy bouts of crying. • Overwhelming guilt and self-doubt. • Fear of crowds, strangers, or being alone. Recovering from Disaster Easing Disaster-Related Stress The following are ways to ease disaster-related stress: — • Talk with someone about your feelings — anger, sorrow, and other emotions even though it may be dif cult. fi • Seek help from professional counselors who deal with post-disa ster stress. • Do not hold yourself responsible for the disastrous event or b e frustrated be- cause you feel you cannot help directly in the rescue work. • Take steps to promote your own physical and emotional healing by healthy eating, rest, exercise, relaxation, and meditation. • Maintain a normal family and daily routine, limiting demanding responsibili- ties on yourself and your family. • Spend time with family and friends. Participate in memorials. • 185

187 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Use existing support groups of family, friends, and religious institutions. • ster supplies kits • Ensure you are ready for future events by restocking your disa ctions can be and updating your family disaster plan. Doing these positive a comforting. Helping Children Cope with Disaster insecure. Whether a Disasters can leave children feeling frightened, confused, and child has personally experienced trauma, has merely seen the ev ent on television, s and teachers to be or has heard it discussed by adults, it is important for parent r. informed and ready to help if reactions to stress begin to occu s, or behavioral Children may respond to disaster by demonstrating fears, sadnes erns, such as bed- problems. Younger children may return to earlier behavior patt wetting, sleep problems, and separation anxiety. Older childre n may also display anger, aggression, school problems, or withdrawal. Some childr en who have only indirect contact with the disaster but witness it on television may develop distress. Who is at Risk? For many children, reactions to disasters are brief and represe nt normal reac- A smaller number of children can be at risk for more tions to “ abnormal events. ” enduring psychological distress as a function of three major ri sk factors: Direct exposure to the disaster, such as being evacuated, obse • rving injuries or death of others, or experiencing injury along with fearing o ne ’ s life is in danger Loss/grief: This relates to the death or serious injury of fam ily or friends • • On-going stress from the secondary effects of disaster, such a s temporarily living elsewhere, loss of friends and social networks, loss of personal property, parental unemployment, and costs incurred during recovery to re turn the family to pre-disaster life and living conditions. What Creates Vulnerabilities in Children? In most cases, depending on the risk factors above, distressing responses are temporary. In the absence of severe threat to life, injury, lo ss of loved ones, or secondary problems such as loss of home, moves, etc., symptoms usually dimin- ish over time. For those that were directly exposed to the dis aster, reminders of the disaster such as high winds, smoke, cloudy skies, sirens, o r other reminders of the disaster may cause upsetting feelings to return. Having a prior history of these feelings. some type of traumatic event or severe stress may contribute to 186

188 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Children ’ s coping with disaster or emergencies is often tied to the way parents ’ fears and sadness. Parents and adults can make cope. They can detect adults disasters less traumatic for children by taking steps to manage their own feelings and plans for coping. Parents are almost always the best sourc e of support for and to build con children in disasters. One way to establish a sense of control fi - em in preparing a dence in children before a disaster is to engage and involve th Review family disaster plan. After a disaster, children can contribut e to a family recovery plan. See Section 1: Basic preparedness A Child ’ s Reaction to Disaster by Age matic event. Below are common reactions in children after a disaster or trau When children are pre-verbal and experience a trauma, Birth through 2 years. they do not have the words to describe the event or their feeli ngs. However, they can retain memories of particular sights, sounds, or smells. I nfants may react to trauma by being irritable, crying more than usual, or wantin g to be held and fl cuddled. The biggest in uence on children of this age is how their parents cope. As children get older, their play may involve acting out elemen ts of the traumatic forgotten. event that occurred several years in the past and was seemingly Preschool 3 through 6 years. Preschool children often feel helpless and pow- — erless in the face of an overwhelming event. Because of their age and small size, they lack the ability to protect themselves or others. As a re sult, they feel intense fear and insecurity about being separated from caregivers. Pre schoolers cannot grasp the concept of permanent loss. They can see consequences as being revers- ible or permanent. In the weeks following a traumatic event, p reschoolers ’ play activities may reenact the incident or the disaster over and ov er again. School age — 7 through 10 years. The school-age child has the ability to un- derstand the permanence of loss. Some children become intensel y preoccupied Recovering continually. This with the details of a traumatic event and want to talk about it from Disaster ’ s concentration at school and academ- preoccupation can interfere with the child urate informa- ic performance may decline. At school, children may hear inacc sadness, general- — tion from peers. They may display a wide range of reactions c fears of the disaster happening again, guilt over action or ized fear, or speci fi ented, or fantasies inaction during the disaster, anger that the event was not prev of playing rescuer. 11 through 18 years . As children grow — Pre-adolescence to adolescence isaster event. older, they develop a more sophisticated understanding of the d Their responses are more similar to adults. Teenagers may beco me involved in dangerous, risk-taking behaviors, such as reckless driving, or alcohol or drug use. Others can become fearful of leaving home and avoid previ ous levels of the world. After a activities. Much of adolescence is focused on moving out into e. A teenager trauma, the view of the world can seem more dangerous and unsaf may feel overwhelmed by intense emotions and yet feel unable to discuss them with others. 187

189 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 ’ s Emotional Needs Meeting the Child s reactions are in uenced by the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of Children fl ’ adults. Adults should encourage children and adolescents to sha re their thoughts and feelings about the incident. Clarify misunderstandings abo ut risk and s concerns and answering questions. Maintain a ’ danger by listening to children sense of calm by validating children ’ s concerns and perceptions and with discus- sion of concrete plans for safety. Listen to what the child is saying. If a young child is asking questions about the older child or event, answer them simply without the elaboration needed for an ormation than adult. Some children are comforted by knowing more or less inf others; decide what level of information your particular child needs. If a child fi culty expressing feelings, allow the child to draw a picture o r tell a story has dif of what happened. Try to understand what is causing anxieties and fears. Be awar e that following a disaster, children are most afraid that: • The event will happen again. • Someone close to them will be killed or injured. • They will be left alone or separated from the family. Reassuring Children After a Disaster Suggestions to help reassure children include the following: Personal contact is reassuring. Hug and touch your children. • • Calmly provide factual information about the recent disaster a nd current plans for insuring their safety along with recovery plans. • Encourage your children to talk about their feelings. Spend extra time with your children such as at bedtime. • Re-establish your daily routine for work, school, play, meals, and rest. • • Involve your children by giving them speci fi c chores to help them feel they are helping to restore family and community life. • Praise and recognize responsible behavior. • o disasters. Understand that your children will have a range of reactions t • Encourage your children to help update your a family disaster plan. If you have tried to create a reassuring environment by followi ng the steps above, but your child continues to exhibit stress, if the reactions wo rsen over time, or if they cause interference with daily behavior at school, at ho me, or with other relationships, it may be appropriate to talk to a professional. You can get profes- sional help from the child ’ s primary care physician, a mental health provider s needs, or a member of the clergy. specializing in children ’ 188

190 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 Monitor and Limit Your Family ’ s Exposure to the Media News coverage related to a disaster may elicit fear and confusi on and arouse anxiety in children. This is particularly true for large-scale disasters or a terror- ist event where signi fi cant property damage and loss of life has occurred. Par- ticularly for younger children, repeated images of an event may cause them to believe the event is recurring over and over. et where images If parents allow children to watch television or use the Intern or news about the disaster are shown, parents should be with th em to encour- age communication and provide explanations. This may also inclu de parent ’ s monitoring and appropriately limiting their own exposure to anx iety-provoking information. Use Support Networks Parents help their children when they take steps to understand and manage their own feelings and ways of coping. They can do this by bui lding and using social support systems of family, friends, community organizati ons and agencies, faith-based institutions, or other resources that work for that family. Parents can rgency situation build their own unique social support systems so that in an eme or when a disaster strikes, they can be supported and helped to manage their r children and better reactions. As a result, parents will be more available to thei able to support them. Parents are almost always the best sourc e of support for end children in dif fi cult times. But to support their children, parents need to att to their own needs and have a plan for their own support. Preparing for disaster helps everyone in the family accept the fact that disasters do happen, and provides an opportunity to identify and collect the resources needed to meet basic needs after disaster. Preparation helps; when people feel prepared, they cope better and so do children. Recovering from Disaster Helping Others The compassion and generosity of the American people is never m ore evident than guidelines on helping after a disaster. People want to help. Here are some general others after a disaster: Volunteer! Check with local organizations or listen to local n ews reports for • information about where volunteers are needed. Note: Until volunteers are speci fi cally requested, stay away from disaster areas. • Bring your own food, water, and emergency supplies to a disast er area if you are needed there. This is especially important in cases where a large area has been affected and emergency items are in short supply. • Give a check or money order to a recognized disaster relief or ganization. These groups are organized to process checks, purchase what is needed, and get it to the people who need it most. 189

191 Are You Ready? Recovering from Disaster 5.0 • Do not drop off food, clothing, or any other item to a governm ent agency en requested. or disaster relief organization unless a particular item has be Normally, these organizations do not have the resources to sort through the donated items. • Donate a quantity of a given item or class of items (such as n onperishable food) rather than a mix of different items. Determine where yo ur donation is going, how it ’ s going to get there, who is going to unload it, and how it is going to be distributed. Without suf fi cient planning, much needed supplies will be left unused. For More Information If you require more information about any of these topics, the following are resources that may be helpful. FEMA Publications Helping Children Cope with Disasters . L-196. Provides information about how to prepare f disaster. children for disaster and how to lessen the emotional effects o When Disaster Strikes . L-217. Provides information about donations and volunteer organizations. . FEMA 234. This 362-page publication provides a step- Repairing Your Flooded Home a fl by-step guide to repairing your home and how to get help after ood disaster. Available online at oods/lib234.shtm fl After a Flood: The First Steps . L 198. Tips for staying healthy, cleaning up and repairing, and getting help after a fl ood. Available online at fl oods/ d.shtm aftr fl 190

192 Are You Ready? Appendix A Appendix A: Water Conservation Tips Indoor Water Conservation Tips General • Never pour water down the drain when there may be another use for it. Use it to water your indoor plants or garden. • Repair dripping faucets by replacing washers. One drop per s econd wastes 2,700 gallons of water per year! er. • Check all plumbing for leaks. Have leaks repaired by a plumb • Retrofi t all household faucets by installing aerators with fl ow restrictors. • Install an instant hot water heater on your sink. • Insulate your water pipes to reduce heat loss and prevent the m from breaking. e water would • Install a water-softening system only when the minerals in th damage your pipes. Turn the softener off while on vacation. • Choose appliances that are more energy and water effi cient. Bathroom • Consider purchasing a low-volume toilet that uses less than h alf the water of older models. In many areas, low-volume units are required by law. Note: • Install a toilet displacement device to cut down on the amoun t of water need- ed to fl ush. Place a one-gallon plastic jug of water into the tank to displace toilet fl ause ow (do not use a brick, it may dissolve and loose pieces may c damage to the internal parts). Be sure installation does not i nterfere with the operating parts. • Replace your showerhead with an ultra-low-fl ow version. • Place a bucket in the shower to catch excess water for wateri ng plants. • Avoid fl ushing the toilet unnecessarily. Dispose of tissues, insects, and other similar waste in the trash rather than the toilet. et wet and • Avoid taking baths—take short showers—turn on water only to g lather and then again to rinse off. • Avoid letting the water run while br ushing your teeth, washing your face, or shaving. Kitchen • Operate automatic dishwashers only when they are fully loaded . Use the “light wash” feature, if available, to use less water. • Hand wash dishes by fi lling two containers—one with soapy water and the other with rinse water containing a small amount of chlorine bl each. • Clean vegetables in a pan fi lled with water rather than running water from the tap. • Start a compost pile as an alternate method of disposing of f ood waste or simply dispose of food in the garbage. (Kitchen sink disposals require a lot of water to operate properly). • Store drinking water in the refrigerator. Do not let the tap run while you are waiting for water to cool. 191

193 Are You Ready? Appendix A Avoid wasting water waiting for it to get hot. Capture it for other uses such as • plant watering or heat it on the stove or in a microwave. Avoid rinsing dishes before placing them in the dishwasher; ju st remove large • particles of food. (Most dishwashers can clean soiled dishes ve ry well, so dishes do not have to be rinsed before washing) • Avoid using running water to thaw meat or other frozen foods. Defrost food r microwave overnight in the refrigerator or use the defrost setting on you oven. Laundry Operate automatic clothes washers only when they are fully loa • ded or set the water level for the size of your load. Outdoor Water Conservation Tips General • Check your well pump periodically. If the automatic pump turn s on and off while water is not being used, you have a leak. Plant native and/or drought-tolerant grasses, ground covers, s • hrubs, and trees. Once established, they do not need water as frequently and usua lly will sur- vive a dry period without watering. Small plants require less water to become established. Group plants together based on similar water need s. Install irrigation devices that are the most water ef • cient for each use. Micro fi and drip irrigation and soaker hoses are examples of ef fi cient devices. Use mulch to retain moisture in the soil. Mulch also helps co • ntrol weeds that compete with landscape plants for water. Avoid purchasing recreational water toys that require a consta nt stream of • water. • Avoid installing ornamental water features (such as fountains) unless they use recycled water. Car Washing • Use a shut-off nozzle that can be adjusted down to a fi ne spray on your hose. • ur own car, Use a commercial car wash that recycles water. If you wash yo park on the grass so that you will be watering it at the same t ime. Lawn Care • Avoid over watering your lawn. A heavy rain eliminates the ne ed for watering for up to two weeks. Most of the year, lawns only need one inc h of water per week. • Water in several short sessions rather than one long one, in o rder for your lawn to better absorb moisture. • Position sprinklers so water lands on the lawn and shrubs and not on paved areas. 192

194 Are You Ready? Appendix A Avoid sprinklers that spray a ne mist. Mist can evaporate before it reaches • fi the lawn. Check sprinkler systems and timing devices regularly to be sure they operate properly. Raise the lawn mower blade to at least three inches or to its highest level. A • ot system, and higher cut encourages grass roots to grow deeper, shades the ro holds soil moisture. • Plant drought-resistant lawn seed. • Avoid over-fertilizing your lawn. Applying fertilizer increas es the need for luble forms of water. Apply fertilizers that contain slow-release, water-inso nitrogen. Use a broom or blower instead of a hose to clean leaves and ot her debris from • your driveway or sidewalk. • Avoid leaving sprinklers or hoses unattended. A garden hose c an pour out 600 gallons or more in only a few hours. Pool • Install a new water-saving pool fi lter. A single back fl ushing with a traditional fi lter uses 180 to 250 gallons of water. Cover pools and spas to reduce evaporation of water. • 193

195 Are You Ready? Appendix A 194

196 Are You Ready? Appendix B Appendix B: Disaster Supplies Checklists The following list is to help you determine what to include in your disaster sup- plies kit that will meet your family’s needs. First Aid Supplies Supplies Home (√) Vehicle (√) Work (√) Adhesive bandages, various sizes 5” x 9” sterile dressing Conforming roller gauze bandage Triangular bandages 3” x 3” sterile gauze pads 4” x 4” sterile gauze pads Roll 3” cohesive bandage Germicidal hand wipes or waterless, alco- hol-based hand sanitizer Antiseptic wipes Pairs large, medical grade, non-latex gloves Tongue depressor blades Adhesive tape, 2” width Antibacterial ointment Cold pack Scissors (small, personal) Tweezers Assorted sizes of safety pins Cotton balls Thermometer Tube of petroleum jelly or other lubricant Sunscreen CPR breathing barrier, such as a face shield First aid manual 195 195

197 Are You Ready? Appendix B Non-Prescription and Prescription Medicine Kit Supplies Supplies Home (√) Vehicle (√) Work (√) Aspirin and non-aspirin pain reliever Anti-diarrhea medication Antacid (for stomach upset) Laxative Vitamins Prescriptions Extra eyeglasses/contact lenses Sanitation and Hygiene Supplies Item Item (√) (√) Washcloth and towel Heavy-duty plastic garbage bags and ties for personal sanitation uses and toilet paper Towelettes, soap, hand sanitizer Medium-sized plastic bucket wit h tight lid Tooth paste, toothbrushes Disinfectant and household chlorine bleach Shampoo, comb, and brush A small shovel for digging a latrine Deodorants, sunscreen Toilet paper Razor, shaving cream Lip balm, insect repellent Contact lens solutions Mirror Feminine supplies 196 196

198 Are You Ready? Appendix B Equipment and Tools (√) Kitchen Items (√) Tools Portable, battery-powered radio or Manual can opener television and extra batteries NOAA Weather Radio, if Mess kits or paper cups, plates, and appropriate for your area plastic utensils Flashlight and extra All-purpose knife batteries are Household liquid bleach to treat Signal fl drinking water Sugar, salt, pepper Matches in a waterproof container (or waterproof matches) Shut-off wrench, pliers, shovel, Aluminum foil and plastic wrap and other tools Duct tape and scissors Resealable plastic bags Plastic sheeting Small cooking stove and a can of cooking fuel (if food must be cooked) Whistle Small canister, ABC-type fi re extin- Comfort Items guisher Tube tent Games Compass Cards Work gloves Books Paper, pens, and pencils Toys for kids Foods Needles and thread Battery-operated travel alarm clock 197 197

199 Are You Ready? Appendix B Food and Water Supplies Home (√) Vehicle (√) Work (√) Wa t e r Ready-to-eat meats, fruits, and vegetables Canned or boxed juices, milk, and soup High-energy foods such as peanut butter, jelly, low-sodium crackers, granola bars, and trail mix. Vitamins Special foods for infants or persons on special diets Cookies, hard candy Instant coffee Cereals Powdered milk Clothes and Bedding Supplies Item (√) (√) (√) (√) Complete change of clothes Sturdy shoes or boots Rain gear Hat and gloves Extra socks Extra underwear Thermal underwear Sunglasses Blankets/sleeping bags and pillows 198 198

200 Are You Ready? Appendix B Documents and Keys Make sure you keep these items in a watertight container Item Stored (√) Personal identi fi cation Cash and coins Credit cards Extra set of house keys and car keys Copies of the following: • Birth certi fi cate cate • Marriage certi fi • ’ s license Driver • Social Security cards • Passports • Wills • Deeds • Inventory of household goods • Insurance papers • Immunization records • Bank and credit card account numbers Stocks and bonds • Emergency contact list and phone numbers Map of the area and phone numbers of places you could go 199 199

201 Are You Ready? Appendix C Appendix C: 201

202 202

203 Are You Ready? Appendix C 203

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