Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower Income Families


1 Victoria Rideout Vikki S. Katz Opportunity Winter 2016 for all? Technology and learning in lower-income families The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop

2 About the authors Victoria Rideout, MA, is president of VJR Consulting, where she conducts research on children and media for academic and non-profit organizations. Recent research includes studies about teens’ use of the Internet for health information, digital media use among infants and toddlers, and media use among 8- to 18-year-olds. From 1997-2010 she was director of the Kaiser Family Foundation’s Program for the Study of Media and Health , and prior to that she directed the Children & Media program at the children’s advocacy group Children Now. She is the editor for Reviews and Commentaries at the . Ms. Rideout graduated with honors from Journal of Children and Media Harvard University and received her Masters from the Maxwell School of Public Affairs at Syracuse University. Vikki Katz, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the School of Communication and Information at Rutgers University and a Senior Research Scientist at the Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop. She is author of Kids in the Middle: How Children of Immigrants Negotiate Community Interactions for their Families (Rutgers U. Press, 2014) and co-author of Understanding Ethnic Media: Producers, Consumers, and Societies (Sage, 2011). Her research focuses on the challenges that lower-income and immigrant families face in addressing a broad range of social disparities, with particular interest in how media and technology are implicated in these experiences. Her work has been funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Russell Sage Foundation. Vikki received her M.A. and Ph.D. from the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern California, and her B.A. from UCLA. For more information about her work, please visit www.vikkikatz.com . A full-text PDF of this report is available as a free download from: www.joanganzcooneycenter.org . Suggested citation Rideout, V. J. & Katz, V.S. (2016). Opportunity for all? Technology and learning in lower-income families . A report of the Families and Media Project. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop. Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower-Income Families is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 2

3 contents introduction 3 families as digital 27 learning teams key findings 5 Children helping parents 28 Parents helping children 30 7 access to computers and Children helping each other 31 the Internet at home and in the community 33 technology and learning 8 at home and at school Device ownership and Internet access Quality of access and interruptions 10 34 Children’s use of computers and the in service Internet for learning at home Motivations for technology purchases 12 Parents’ views about technology in 36 the classroom Why some families are not connected 13 at home Use of community access points 14 conclusion 39 and resources methodology 41 use of computers and 17 the Internet by parents references 44 and children 18 Parents’ use of computers, mobile devices, and the Internet Overall computer and Internet use 18 Frequency of computer and 19 Internet use Parents who do not go online at all 19 Internet tenure 19 Parental confidence 19 20 What parents use the Internet to do Mobile-only versus home access 22 Children’s use of computers, mobile 23 devices, and the Internet Parents’ views about children’s 24 Internet use 2

4 introduction The and resources available on the Internet are now information features of life for most Americans. Searching integral daily and job out employment applications; researching for filling availability government services; looking up health the of providers, and insurance options; learning how information, fix mapping home appliance; to public transportation routes: a day-to-day tasks and parcel of part life. Being these are to the Internet has connected all the more essential become as resources for accomplishing helpful tasks have these migrated online. This is especially true for families with school-aged children. Computers and connectivity are becoming increasingly online to that educational opportunity is open to important ensuring children, regardless of their economic status. Whether it all keeping is with school assignments and tracking grades; up an appropriate new school; watching tutorials on selecting how to complete a math problem; researching papers and typing essays; colleges and financial aid investigating opportunities; for local after-school activities and looking community resources; or taking advantage of educational key software, and videos—digital tools have become games components of children’s education. 3

5 Because digital devices and the Internet have become so essential, digital inequality can exacerbate educational and economic inequality as well. Therefore, it is critical that we understand how low- and moderate-income families in the U.S. are engaging digital technologies and how they perceive the opportunities—and potential risks— that these innovations present for their children. This report presents the results of the first nationally-representative telephone survey of lower-income parents on issues related to digital connectivity. The survey included 1,191 parents with school-aged children (ages 6 to 13). All parents in the survey have 1 These household incomes below the national median for families with children. families are referred to throughout the report as either “lower-income” or as “low- and moderate-income” families. Development of the survey instrument was directly informed by prior in-person interviews with 170 lower-income, Hispanic families in three communities, located in Arizona, California, and Colorado. Quotes from those qualitative interviews are interspersed throughout the report, where they illustrate a finding from the nationally- representative survey. Several profiles of interviewed families from those three communities are included in the report as well. Because lower-income parents are not usually the focus of studies on technology and learning, this report offers a unique perspective into the varying degrees of connectivity that exist among these families. The purpose of the survey is to document, at a national level: • the types of devices and Internet connections that lower-income parents and children have, including their use of discounted Internet service plans; • the frequency of, and goals for, their Internet use; • what constrains some families from being as connected as they would like to be; • parents’ comfort and confidence using computers, mobile devices, and the Internet; • which families are not connected, and why; • the degree to which families without home access are using libraries, community centers, and other local places to connect; • the ways in which children and parents collaborate to learn about and use technology together; • how lower-income children and parents use technology for educational purposes and to connect with schools; and • how families with mobile-only Internet access differ from those with home access in their use of technology for educational and other purposes. Our goal is to shine a spotlight on an important segment of the U.S. population that too often goes unnoticed as we celebrate the progress and promise afforded by new technologies. Understanding families’ experiences and perspectives is critical, particularly as stakeholders from the national to local levels work to address inequalities in Internet connectivity and device ownership. We hope these data will help inform public policies, industry practices, and non-profit efforts toward digital inclusion for lower-income children and their families. 1 According to the U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey’s Annual Social and Economic Supple - ment, median household income for families with one or more children under age 18 in 2014 was $63,767. In this survey, all respondents have a household income of $65,000 or below. 4

6 key findings 1. Most low- and moderate-income families have some form of Internet connection, but many are under-connected, with mobile-only access and inconsistent connectivity. Nine in ten (94%) families have some kind of Internet access, whether through a computer and Internet connection at home, or through a smart mobile device with 2 nine in ten (91%) are a data plan. Even among families below the poverty level, connected in some way. However, many lower-income families are under-connected. For example, one quarter (23%) of families below the median income level and one third (33%) of those below the poverty level rely on mobile-only Internet access. And many experience interruptions to their Internet service or constrained access to digital devices. Among families who have home Internet access, half (52%) say their access is too slow, one quarter (26%) say too many people share the same computer, and one fifth (20%) say their Internet has been cut off in the last year due to lack of payment. Among families with mobile-only access, three in ten (29%) say they have hit the data limits on their plan in the past year, one-quarter (24%) say they have had their phone service cut off in the past year due to lack of payment, and one fifth (21%) say too many people share the same phone for them to be able to get the time on it that they need. 2. Families headed by Hispanic immigrants are less connected than other low- and moderate-income families. One in ten (10%) immigrant Hispanic families have no Internet access at all, compared with 7% of U.S.-born Hispanics, 5% of Whites, and 1% of Blacks. Four in ten (41%) Hispanic immigrant parents report mobile-only Internet access, compared with 25% of Blacks, 16% of Whites, and 17% of U.S.-born Hispanics below the median income. One in five (20%) immigrant Hispanic parents say that they do not go online at all, even occasionally (compared with just 4% of Whites and U.S.-born Hispanics, and 2% of Blacks). And just under half (44%) of immigrant Hispanic parents say they do not use computers, whether at work, school, or home, even occasionally. 3. The main reason some families do not have home computers or Internet access is because they cannot afford it, but discounted Internet programs are reaching very few. Four in 10 parents without a home computer (40%) or home Internet access (42%) say the main reason they do n0t have Home versus mobile-only Internet access: these items is because they are too In this report, “home access” is defined as expensive. This is three times as many having a laptop or desktop computer and a as those who said they decided they way to connect those devices to the Internet did not need Internet access (13%) and while at home. “Mobile-only access” is nearly twice as many as the proportion defined as being able to connect to the who said they do not need a computer Internet through a smart device such as (22%). Yet only 6% of those with incomes a tablet or smartphone, without having a below 185% of poverty (a common computer at home. “No access” is defined eligibility level for discounted service) as not being able to connect to the Internet say they have ever signed up for low- through a device owned by the respondent cost Internet access through programs or in the respondent’s household. specifically for lower-income families. 2 The federal poverty level for a family of four in 2015 was $24,250. https://aspe.hhs.gov/2015-poverty-guidelines 5

7 4. Low- and moderate-income parents use the Internet for a broad range of purposes, but mobile-only families are less likely to do certain online activities. Parents with Internet access say they often or sometimes go online to look for information (95%), stay in touch with family and friends (83%), get news (78%), bank or pay bills online (67%), shop online (58%), and apply for jobs or services (52%). But parents with mobile-only access are much less likely to engage in many of these online activities. For example, they are 30 percentage points less likely to shop online (36% vs. 66% of those with home access), 25 percentage points less likely to use online banking or bill-paying (49% vs. 74%), 14 percentage points less likely to apply for jobs or services online (42% vs. 56%), and 12 percentage points less likely to get news or follow local events online (70% vs. 82%). 5. Children from low- and moderate-income families use computers and the Internet for a variety of educational activities, but those without home access are less likely to go online to pursue their interests. Among 10- to 13-year-olds who use computers or the Internet, 81% often or sometimes use computers or the Internet to do homework, and about four in ten use computers or the Internet to write stories or blogs (44%), connect with teachers (40%), and talk with other students about school projects. Among all 6- to 13-year-olds who use computers or the Internet, eight in ten use them to play educational games (81%) and to look up things that they are interested in (81%), while seven in ten (70%) use them to do something creative, such as make their own art or music. But children without home Internet access are less likely to go online to look up information about things that they are interested in: 35% of those with mobile- only access say they “often” do this, compared to 52% of those with home access. 6. Parents feel largely positive about the Internet and digital technology, but many also have concerns. The vast majority of parents agree that computers and mobile devices help children learn important skills (89%); that the Internet exposes children to important new ideas and information (88%); using computers and tablets in class helps prepare children for important tests (84%); that the use of technology in the classroom improves the quality of children’s education (80%); and that computers and mobile devices offer children new and interesting means of self-expression (78%). At the same time, three out of four parents (74%) worry about their child being exposed to inappropriate content online; 63% believe that time with technology detracts from time spent in other important activities; 51% worry about online bullying; 34% worry that teachers know less about their child’s individual needs due to time spent using technology at school; and 18% say technology in the classroom is a distraction that hurts children’s education. Immigrant Hispanic parents are more likely than White, Black, or U.S.-born Hispanic parents to worry that teachers know less about their child’s individual needs due to technology use in the classroom. 7. Children and parents frequently learn with, and about, technology together, especially in families with the lowest incomes and where parents have less education. Among families in which the parent and child both use the Internet, 77% of parents say they have helped their children with using digital technology, and more than half (53%) say their children have helped them. Among parents who did not graduate from high school, 62% say their child has helped them with technology, compared with 45% of parents who graduated from college. Among families with more than one 6- to 13-year-old and a computer in the home, 81% of children often or sometimes help each other learn about computers or mobile devices (including 44% who “often” do so). More than half (53%) of children from the lowest income group (less than $25,000 a year) “often” help each other learn about computers and technology, compared to 33% of those in the higher-income group ($45,000–65,000 a year). 6

8 access to computers and the Internet at home and in the community low- The families whether of and question moderate-income and the remains a to access have digital Internet devices connectivity are with Families issue. national critical no wide tremendously of disadvantaged in accessing a range and resources and opportunities, especially as more more online. move services longer just a But question. The quality of access is no yes/no and the kinds and capabilities families’ Internet connections, access, considerable consequences can have of devices they alike. In this section, we outline for parents and children what to digital technologies looks access families’ lower-income like today. connect to the Internet in different Lower-income families may access broadband via a data plan on through ways: at home, by device, devices in local mobile a using or Wi-Fi-enabled When Internet access is them offer that places access. families intermittent—either have trouble paying because or using the Internet are in charges service monthly only constraints on what they can community locations—they face with compared have consistent access. online, access those who own and feel comfortable using that devices The families tasks, like submitting a job application also matter; complex assignment, much more difficult to are homework a or smartphone than on a computer. accomplish on a 7

9 Figure 1: Rates of digital ownership and Access points in the community, including connectivity among families below the public libraries, have been highlighted by other median income researchers as important pathways to connectivity for adults and children who do not have Internet or Internet-capable devices at home (Dailey, Bryne, Mobile-only access High-speed home access Powell, Karaganis, & Chung, 2010; Zickuhr, Rainie, & No personal access Dial-up home access Purcell, 2013). We explored these questions as well. Our findings indicate that cost remains the primary All low- and 5% moderate-income explanation for why families are less connected 5% families than they would like to be—or why they are not 23% connected at all. But it is also important to explore why families with limited discretionary income 66% prioritize purchasing digital devices. We find that many lower-income families are making the most of whatever forms of connectivity they can afford. Furthermore, parents’ motivations for their purchases indicate that they see connectivity as Families below the crucial to their children’s educational success, 8% as well as to their families’ well-being. poverty level 9% 48% Device ownership and Internet access 33% The vast majority of low- and moderate-income families with children between 6 and 13 years old report having computers, mobile devices, and some type of Internet access. Ninety-one percent Immigrant Hispanic own a mobile device (smartphone or tablet), 81% families own a computer (laptop or desktop), and 94% 10% have either home or mobile access to the Internet. 12% 41% Even in families living below the poverty level ($24,250 for a family of four in 2015), access to devices and the Internet is widespread: 85% have 35% some type of mobile device, 69% have some type of computer, and 91% have some type of Internet. Totals may not add to 100% due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ While these rates of digital ownership and responses, and refusals. connectivity are high, many families do not have home Internet access, which is defined as having in poverty, 33% have mobile-only access and 9% a laptop or desktop computer and an Internet have no access. Among immigrant Hispanics, 41% connection at home. Among all families below the have mobile-only access and 10% have no access. median income, 23% have mobile-only access (meaning that they can connect to the Internet through devices like smartphones or tablets), When explored through the lens of race and while 5% have no access (meaning that the ethnicity, immigrant Hispanic parents report household does not own any device that is markedly less digital technology in their homes than White, Black, and U.S.-born Hispanic parents. connected to the Internet). Among families living 8

10 Nearly four in ten (37%) immigrant Hispanic to residents. Overall, however, we found that parents report that their families have neither low- and moderate-income families have an desktop nor laptop computers—among Whites, equal likelihood of having home Internet access regardless of whether they live in an urban, Blacks, and U.S.-born Hispanics, that proportion is under 20%. Differences in mobile device ownership suburban, or rural community. In fact, rural are smaller: 16% of immigrant Hispanic parents families were no more likely than other families indicate that their families do not own a mobile to have dial-up access. This may be because some families in urban areas cannot afford broadband device, compared with 10% of U.S.-born Hispanics, even though it is available to them, and because 8% of Whites, and 2% of Black families. Black families below the median income level are the some living in rural areas choose to forego Internet access if dial-up is their only option. However, most likely to have a smartphone: 91% have one, we did find differences in rates of smartphone compared with 85% of U.S.-born Hispanics, 78% of ownership in rural areas, where 75% of families White families, and 72% of immigrant Hispanics. own a smartphone, compared with 85% of families Where families live can also impact their online in urban areas. This difference could be due to poorer quality cellular service in more remote access, as some rural areas lag behind in terms communities. of having higher-speed Internet service available Table 1: Computers, mobile devices, and Internet access at home, by income, race/ethnicity, and Hispanic immigrant generation By income Among Hispanics Among all By race/ethnicity White Black Hispanic Immigrant Percent with: Below Above U.S.-born poverty poverty Computer in the home b b a a a a b 69 63 88 81 87 Any computer 81 69 84 b a b a a a b 42 Desktop 54 58 55 55 51 41 34 a b b a b a a 68 53 55 49 75 Laptop 66 76 70 a a b a b a b 13 37 16 19 12 31 No computer 18 31 Mobile ownership b a a b c 92 86 93 84 90 Any mobile device 91 85 98 b a b a b a a 91 84 76 Smartphone 72 78 85 80 73 a b a b b a b Tablet 58 74 53 72 70 61 67 58 a b a b c 8 6 No mobile device 9 14 2 14 16 10 Internet access Any Internet access 94 91 97 95 99 91 90 93 a b a a b a b 72 57 56 79 48 Home access 76 78 73 b a a b c a b 64 35 72 64 High-speed 66 48 44 77 b b a a a 12 12 6 3 9 8 12 5 Dial-up b a a b b a b 25 19 34 Mobile-only access 41 16 17 23 33 b a a a 5 No Internet access 5 1 3b 9 9 10 7 Items with different superscripts (a, b, c) differ at p < .05. Significance should be read horizontally within column groups. The table is among families with 6- to 13-year-olds and with incomes below the national median. Totals may not add to 100%, due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ responses, and refusals. 9

11 Table 2: Computers, mobile devices, and Internet access at home, by metro status Among all By metro status Rural Urban Suburban Percent with: Computer in the home Any computer 81 81 85 81 50 51 Desktop 54 51 Laptop 68 69 68 68 No computer 18 19 19 15 Mobile ownership b a,b a 91 88 93 91 Any mobile device a b a,b 80 80 75 Smartphone 85 a b a,b 72 67 63 67 Tablet 9 8 12 No mobile device 7 Internet access 94 94 95 Any Internet access 96 72 71 72 74 Home access High-speed 66 61 66 67 9 6 6 5 Dial-up 20 23 25 23 Mobile-only access 4 6 No Internet access 5 5 Items with different superscripts (a, b) differ at p < .05. Significance should be read horizontally within column groups. The table is among families with 6- to 13-year-olds and with incomes below the national median. Totals may not add to 100% due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ responses, and refusals. Quality of access and interruptions in service to pay for “premium” Internet connections. A quarter of respondents (26%) have difficulty While most low- and moderate-income families getting enough time on their home computer have some type of digital device and Internet because too many people are sharing a device. And one in five (20%) say their Internet service at access, those data do not tell the full story. Not all connectivity is created equal, and not all devices home has been cut off at least once during the provide the same kinds of online experiences. past year because they could not pay the bill. Many families face limitations in the form of Among those with Internet access through their service cutoffs, slow service, older technology, mobile devices, about three in ten (29%) say that or difficulty using equipment because too many they have hit the data limits on their cell plans. people are sharing devices. Nearly one-quarter (24%) say that they have Nearly six in ten surveyed parents who have a had their cell service (and thus their Internet home computer say it runs too slowly (59%), which connection) interrupted in the past year due to lack of payment, and one in five (21%) say they likely indicates that they are using technology that is outdated. Half (52%) say their Internet have a hard time getting enough access to their service is too slow, a challenge that is likely to be family’s smartphone because too many people are sharing the same device. especially prevalent among households unable 10

12 Table 3: Computer and Internet service challenges families have faced in the last year Among those who have a computer/smartphone/ Among all By income Internet access, percent who have experienced each issue in the past year: Below poverty Above poverty 59 58 59 Computer runs too slowly 52 50 53 Internet runs too slowly b a 29 39 Hit data limit on smartphone 25 a b 31 26 23 Too many people sharing computer; cannot get time a b Cell service cut off due to lack of payment 21 24 31 a b 21 18 26 Too many people sharing phone; cannot get time a b 16 Home Internet service cut off due to lack of payment 20 29 < .05. Significance should be read horizontally within column groups. Items with different superscripts (a, b) differ at p The table is among families with 6- to 13-year-olds and with incomes below the national median. 3 ) because Not surprisingly, many of these access issues are I had (Internet Essentials especially prevalent among families living below (my children) had assignments the poverty line. For example, nearly three in ten that they needed the computer (29%) families living in poverty who have a computer and home Internet access say that for... I hated it. It wasn’t working. their Internet has been cut off at least once in It was too slow, it would freeze the past year due to non-payment. Similarly, nearly four in ten (39%) families who have and they couldn’t get anything Internet access through a smartphone say that done. We had it for almost a year. they have reached the limits on their data plan, nearly one-third (31%) have had their service cut I just got rid of it. I was paying off in the past year due to non-payment, and $10 (a month) to not use it. one-quarter (26%) have trouble getting access to the phone because too many people share —Parent of a seventh grader in Colorado the same device. Despite the challenges that families experience The latter is the income level at which children qualify for free or reduced-cost school meals, when it comes to affording Internet connectivity, which is also an eligibility requirement for many few have benefited from discounted Internet discounted Internet offerings. Among those who services available to low-income families through programs such as Comcast’s Internet Essentials. had used discounted Internet services, nearly three-quarters (74%) were “very” or “somewhat” Among all surveyed parents, only 5% had ever satisfied with the service and about one-quarter signed up for discounted Internet service. Among those living in poverty, the rate was 7%, and it (23%) were either “not very” or “not at all” was 6% among those at 185% of the poverty level. satisfied (note the small sample size, n = 78). 3 Internet Essentials is Comcast’s initiative to offer low-cost Internet access to parents whose children qualify for free- or reduced-cost school meals. 11

13 Case study: Melissa and Linda Interview location: Linda feels that it is important to have Internet at Chula Vista, California home because it is a basic necessity, enabling $35,000–$45,000 Annual household income: everything from “keeping in touch with other Mother’s education: high school graduate people, to making payments, to finding information related to the children’s schooling,” she says. Melissa is an 8-year-old fourth grader who lives with her parents and two brothers. Melissa’s While she does not have much experience with mother, Linda, is currently unemployed and is computers, she feels confident navigating the originally from Tijuana, Mexico. Melissa’s family Internet to locate resources she needs, especially on her smartphone. In fact, as her 11-year-old signed up for an offer from her school that allowed son’s math homework becomes more challenging, them to purchase a discounted refurbished desktop computer. The family had previously Linda goes online to research ways that she can shared one computer that was kept in her brothers’ better assist him. bedroom, so they purchased the second one for Melissa to keep in hers. Melissa likes to play computer games with her brothers. They go on the Cool Math website and play games like Fire Boy and Water Girl. While she Melissa was very happy with the decision to purchase another computer, and while Linda knows how to access online games, Melissa often asks her parents or older brother for help when had to wait in line for a long time to buy it, she was happy the school had made this opportunity she needs to search for something. She is confi - available to them. The family had also tried to dent using the family iPad on her own, and has also helped her dad learn how to use it to sign up for discounted broadband Internet through the Connect2Compete program, but learned that map directions and access Facebook. they did not qualify because they had outstanding debt with the cable company. Motivations for technology purchases When [my daughter] first got her laptop I didn’t have Internet because In the survey, we also explored parent motivation for making their most recent digital device it was too expensive...Then once purchases, as a way to gather insight into the they gave me the brochure [for priorities that drive lower-income families’ decisions to adopt these technologies. Connect2Compete], and I called them and they approved me, it was We asked parents whether they were primarily motivated by wanting a tool to get things done, something that I could afford. to support their child’s education, to stay in touch with friends and family, or to provide family —Parent of a fourth grader in Arizona entertainment. Parents’ responses make it clear that children’s academic development, and their family’s connections to loved ones, are primary motivators for adopting new technology. For desktop, laptop, and tablet purchases, parents most frequently said that the purchase was intended to support their children’s education (53%, 44%, and 41%, respectively), with the family’s 12

14 entertainment a strong second when it comes to Why some families are not connected at home tablet purchases (28%). Not surprisingly, the most Among all low-and moderate-income families, common reason for a smartphone purchase was for communication (47%). The variations 18% do not own a computer, 23% have mobile-only we noted in motivations for device purchases Internet access, and 5% have no access. There are suggest that parents associate different primary many possible reasons why families do not have functions with each of these technologies. computers or Internet access at home: the cost may be prohibitive; family members may have access at other locations (school, work, libraries); Having (Internet at home) is they may not perceive a need for Internet access; they may have poor Internet service in their necessary for homework, so that communities; or they may feel they lack the skills (my kids) don’t have to go online to use computers and the Internet effectively. in other people’s homes to do their However, the dominant reason for not being homework; instead they can be connected at home is financial. Forty percent of surveyed parents who do not have a computer say here at home doing it. We often money is the main reason (by contrast, only 4% don’t purchase things in order to say it is because they use computers elsewhere). Similarly, 42% of those without home Internet pay the bills. My son’s birthday is access indicated that cost is the main reason on Sunday, and since we have to that they do not have it. This is particularly true pay the bills, we won’t be able to among families below the poverty level, where half of those without a home computer (53%) do anything for him. or home Internet access (50%) cite money as the main reason. —Parent of a fourth grader in Arizona Table 4: Reasons for most recent purchase of digital device Among those whose most recent purchase was a: Percent who say the main reason for the purchase was: Tablet Desktop Laptop Smartphone b b a b 44 41 53 10 For their child’s education a b a,c c 28 10 4 11 For their family’s entertainment b b b a 5 5 2 To stay in touch with friends and family 47 b a,b a,b a As a tool to get things done 5 13 17 7 a a a a 11 6 11 10 For work a a a a To stay informed 3 7 3 5 a a,b b,c c 8 5 1 * For the parent’s education/school b a a,b a,b 1 As a replacement/upgrade 5 1 0 a a a a 8 4 Other 5 6 * Less than one-half of one percent, but more than zero. The table is among families with 6- to 13-year-olds and with incomes below the national median. Totals may not add to 100% due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ responses, and refusals. 13

15 Well, we have to keep paying those that they do not have a home computer because they access the Internet through other devices, 40 dollars per month (for Internet and 12% say they do not have home Internet service)... And it’s an expense because they go online via their mobile devices. Using a mobile device in locations with free Wi-Fi that we can’t avoid because our can be a cost-effective form of connectivity, even daughter needs it. It makes us if it is intermittent. very proud that she is good at Use of community access points and math... and the teacher told me resources it was very important that she use the computer programs. For families who do not have computers or Internet access at home, libraries or community —Parent of an eighth grader in Colorado centers have often been highlighted as places that parents and children go to get online and receive help using the Internet. We found, At the same time, some of these families say however, that the majority of families do not that they just do not need a home computer or Internet access. One in five (22%) without access these community resources. Only 8% of computers say that they do not think they need parents without home access use computers at a one, and 13% of those who do not have home library “often,” and 21% do so “sometimes.” Their Internet access say they had it but decided that children use libraries more frequently: 43% say they do not need it. We cannot be sure if parents that their children use computers at the library at least “sometimes.” Some parents and children truly feel that they do not need a home computer or Internet access, or if they offered this response without home access use community centers, because it was easier than admitting that these but much less frequently than at public libraries (10% of parents use community centers at least technologies were too costly. We can, however, “sometimes,” as do 24% of children). Community assess how many families have forgone a home access points are more of a resource for families computer and Internet access because they have mobile connectivity instead. Eight percent say who are living below the poverty line and do not Table 5: Why those without a computer at home Table 6: Why those without home Internet access do not have it do not have one 42 Too expensive Too expensive 40 13 Just don’t need it Just don’t need one 22 Access Internet through other devices 9 12 Had one, but it broke/doesn’t work 8 9 Internet too slow in my community Access Internet through other devices 5 Internet too slow in my community 6 Use computers/Internet elsewhere 4 Use computers/Internet elsewhere Computer isn’t working 4 3 Am planning to get one Am planning to get it 3 2 Don’t know how to use a computer 1 Parental concerns Totals do not sum to 100% because of the exclusion of Totals do not sum to 100% because of the exclusion of ‘don’t know’ responses, refusals, and ‘other’ responses. ‘don’t know’ responses, refusals, and ‘other’ responses. 14

16 have home computers or Internet access; more than to use a public library or a community center, with half (50%) saying that they do so at least than one-third (36%) of these parents say they use computers at a public library at least “sometimes,” “sometimes” (compared with 29% who say the same about libraries and 10% about community and nearly half (48%) say their children do. centers). This finding suggests that some lower- income families are developing strategies to At the same time, a substantial number of parents who do not have home Internet access, but do make connectivity as affordable and convenient as possible, purchasing mobile devices but have a mobile device, make regular use of Wi-Fi at places like coffee shops and restaurants. Indeed, avoiding the cost of a data plan by using Wi-Fi in the places they frequent in the community. they are much more likely to connect in this way Table 7: Use of libraries, community centers, and publicly available wi-fi Percent of all those Percent by income (among without a home computer those without a home or Internet access computer or Internet access) Below poverty Above poverty Often Sometimes Often or Often or Often or + sometimes sometimes sometimes Parent uses at b a 36 8 21 Library 23 29 Community center 4 7 10 11 10 Coffee shop/restaurant (Wi-Fi) 22 29 50 51 50 Child uses at Library 14 29 43 48 39 Community center 10 14 24 26 22 The table is among families with 6- to 13-year-olds and with incomes below the national median. + Totals may not sum properly due to rounding. 15

17 16

18 use of computers and the Internet by parents and children established Once media environments had what we families’ low- moderate-income parents a asked and were like, we how they and their children use series of questions about and the devices, Internet. mobile computers, in how, and how frequently, parents use were We interested and devices. We also wanted to know the Internet digital they online. been years Prior studies have how many had between how long adults have a established relationship and how broadly—and productively—they use been online to Internet variety of needs (Hargittai, 2002; the address a Kim, Litt, 2013). Predictably, Internet & 2001; Jung, Qiu, are also correlated with tenure confidence and use parents’ using Internet-capable technologies. These factors and online abilities to address immediate family needs by affect parents’ opportunities and well as the as for services, accessing goods that result from identifying new job, training, social mobility opportunities that will ultimately online educational and entire family. benefit the 17

19 We were also interested in parents’ technology Parents’ use of computers, mobile devices, use and confidence, because their capabilities and the internet impact possibilities for intergenerational In this section of the report, we document the transmission of tech-related knowledge and proportion of low- and moderate-income parents skills. The devices that parents are most confident who use computers, mobile devices, and the using matter too; our qualitative interviews with Internet; how frequently they go online; their lower-income parents had already revealed that level of confidence about using digital devices it is easier for parents and children to gather around a computer or laptop together than to and the Internet; and whether those who do not go online feel that they are missing out by not do so on a mobile phone. Parents who are not being connected. comfortable using a computer may feel less confident engaging with their children on that Overall computer and Internet use device, thereby constraining what parents and children can do together online. Nearly all (94%) of the low- and moderate-income parents in our sample use the Internet or email at Parents who report more frequent tech use least occasionally (whether through a computer themselves also have children who go online more or mobile device). Among those in poverty, 89% do so, while among Hispanic immigrants, about frequently and for a wider range of activities. Furthermore, parents’ perceptions of technologies’ 8 in 10 (79%) ever use the Internet. risks and opportunities are a good indicator of how restrictive or encouraging parents are, Low- and moderate-income parents are more with regard to children using these tools to likely to use mobile devices than computers. In fact, about one-quarter (24%) do not use computers explore their interests, express themselves in new ways, and develop new skills (Clark, 2012; at all, even occasionally (whether to go online or for other functions). Among those living in poverty, Livingstone, 2009). Table 8: Computer and Internet use among parents By income By race/ethnicity Among Hispanics Among all Percent who: Below Above White Black Hispanic Immigrant U.S.-born poverty poverty b a a b b a a 98 84 96 79 94 96 93 89 Use the Internet or email at least occasionally+ b a b a a a a 86 83 94 82 88 Access the Internet 80 86 86 through a mobile device, at least occasionally+ b a a b b a a 83 64 81 56 76 65 81 Use a computer at work, 83 school, or home, at least occasionally +A total of 94% of respondents answered at least one of the first two items in this table positively. Therefore, we consider that 94% of all respondents use the Internet. Note: These questions were originated by the Pew Internet and American Life Project. The table is among families with 6- to 13-year-olds and with incomes below the national median. 18

20 that proportion rises to more than a third (35%) other family members connect on their behalf. It is also possible that they do not go online because and to almost half (44%) among immigrant they do not see benefits to doing so. However, our Hispanic parents. We also explored computer use findings indicate that most of these parents do by parent education, in order to see whether perceive advantages to being online. Ninety-five education might have more of a relationship with computer use than income alone. The percent of them agree that the Internet makes it results were very similar to those by income. much easier to find information today than was the case in the past (70% strongly agree). And Frequency of computer and Internet use two-thirds (65%) of them agree that “people without Nearly three-quarters (72%) of low- and moderate- Internet access are at a real disadvantage because income parents use the Internet on a daily basis, of all of the information they might be missing.” and 41% use computers every day. Parents living (It should be noted, however, that the sample size below the poverty level use the Internet and of parents who never go online is small, n = 70.) computers less often than those whose household incomes are above it. Sixty percent of parents Internet tenure Most low- and moderate-income parents who below the poverty line use the Internet every day, compared with 76% of those above. Only are online have been using the Internet for quite one-quarter (25%) of parents below the poverty line some time. Two-thirds (67%) of parents who are now online have been using the Internet for use computers every day, compared with nearly more than 10 years. twice as many (48%) above the poverty line. Once again, immigrant Hispanic parents are least likely This broader finding contrasts sharply with the to be daily users: 44% go online every day, and 12% use computers every day. These percentages reality for families living in poverty. Nearly one- contrast sharply with non-immigrant Hispanic third (31%) of parents below the poverty level who use the Internet have been online for less than five parents: 76% access the Internet daily, and 41% use a computer daily. years (compared with 11% of parents reporting incomes above the poverty line, but still below the Parents who do not go online at all median U.S. income). Immigrant Hispanics are Six percent of surveyed parents do not use the most likely to be Internet newcomers, with 45% Internet at all, even occasionally. Among immigrant of those who are online reporting that they have Hispanics that proportion rises to one in five been using the Internet for less than five years. (20%). It is possible that these parents do not go Parental confidence online themselves, but do have their children or Among parents who go online, most (57%) feel “very” confident using the Internet, and a total of 91% say they feel “very” or “somewhat” confident Table 9: Frequency of computer and Internet doing so. Those parents who have both a computer use, among parents and a mobile device tend to be more confident Computer Internet Percent who use: going online through the computer than the mobile device (56% vs. 42%). White and higher- Daily 41 72 income respondents are the most likely to feel more confident going online via computers, as 19 14 Several times a week compared with mobile devices. For example, 3 3 Once a week among all low- and moderate-income White parents with both types of devices available to 4 3 Several times a month them, 64% are more confident with computers Once a month or less 7 3 and 24% with smartphones. Among Blacks, 53% are more confident with computers and 42% Never 24 6 with phones; for Hispanics, the split is more even, 19

21 Table 10: Years on Internet among parents (among those who use the Internet at least occasionally) Among Hispanics By race/ethnicity By income Among all Percent who have been online for: Hispanic White Above Below Black Immigrant U.S.-born poverty poverty a b b a a b a 11 17 31 35 10 45 11 15 1–4 years b a a,b b a 5–9 years 13 22 17 26 16 18 15 11 a a b 25 33 16 10–14 years 19 27 27 27 27 b a b b a a b 29 15 20 7 24 15 15–19 years 29 33 b a a a b a b 8 8 18 20+ years 3 19 17 16 19 The table is among families with 6- to 13-year-olds and with incomes below the national median. Totals may not sum to 100% due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ responses, and refusals. with 47% being more confident on smartphones (My children help me) because as compared with 44% on computers. Parental I don’t know how to use (the education is also strongly related to which device computer) alone. If my daughter parents feel most confident using to go online: 76% of college-educated parents with both types is around and I want to see of device available to them are more confident something, I go to her. But I with computers, compared with 39% of those with less than a high school education. never do it alone. —Parent of a fourth grader in Arizona Learning more about how to use computers (would make me feel Table 11: Parental confidence using the Internet more confident). Maybe I should How confident parents feel using the Internet take a computer class... so that (among the 94% who use the Internet) way I can also teach my kids. 57 Very —Parent of a fourth grader in California Somewhat 33 8 Not too What parents use the Internet to do Not at all 2 Which device parents feel most confident going How frequently parents use the Internet and online with (among the 77% with both a mobile Internet-capable devices is important, but the device and a computer) actual activities they engage in online is a more vivid indicator of how broad and productive their Computer 56 connectivity is for addressing their families’ Smartphone 34 everyday needs. As more and more information resources migrate online, the range of activities 8 Tablet that parents conduct online becomes increasingly Totals may not add to 100% due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ important to family well-being. responses, and refusals. 20

22 The 94% of low- and moderate-income parents Table 12: Among those with both a computer and who use the Internet do so for a broad range of a mobile device, percent who are more confident reasons, but the primary use, by far, is to look up going online with each device information (77% say they “often” do this). About half (49%) “often” go online to get news and find Mobile device Computer out about community events, and one in five (21%) All 56 42 “often” use it to apply for jobs or services (52% do this at least “sometimes”). Internet connectivity By race/ethnicity a a also facilitates staying in touch with friends and 24 64 White b b family; more than half (59%) say they “often” use 53 42 Black b c the Internet for this purpose. And many families 47 Hispanic 44 are taking advantage of online financial services: By income just under half (46%) of parents say they often a a Lower (<$25,000) 52 38 use online banking or bill-paying services (67% a,b a Middle ($25–45,000) 54 38 do this at least sometimes), and one in five (22%) b b 27 Higher ($45–65,000) 62 often shop online (58% do so at least “sometimes”). By education a a No high school 39 49 When something breaks, like the diploma a a washer, I go there [online] and type 41 High school diploma 47 b b Some college 60 31 ‘How to fix this,’ and it explains it c c College or advanced 76 19 to me... That’s how I finish tasks. degree Statistical significance should be read vertically I learn through it. within columns. —Parent of a fifth grader in Arizona Table 13: What parents use the internet to do (among the 94% who use it) + Often Sometimes Total Percent who use it for: Looking up information 18 95 77 59 Staying in touch with family/friends 83 24 Finding places to go/mapping directions 49 37 86 Keeping up with news/ local events 49 29 78 Online banking/ bill paying 46 20 67 Shopping 22 36 58 Signing up/applying for jobs or services 21 32 52 + Totals may not sum properly due to rounding. 21

23 For lower-income families, Internet access is speaking parents are much less likely than English-speaking parents to explore available particularly important for locating and applying for opportunities that support family well-being services or job opportunities online, with 39% and mobility, including jobs, services, health care doing so often or sometimes, compared with access, and poverty alleviation programs. We find 56% of English-speaking Hispanics. no difference in the proportion of parents who Some online activities are more universal use the Internet for these purposes, either often among surveyed families, regardless of income, or sometimes, on the basis of income (either between families who live below or above the education, or race/ethnicity. For example, nine poverty level, or when examined by total family out of ten online families use the Internet to income). Parents’ education level, however, does look for information at least sometimes, and make a difference; those who have not completed eight in ten use it to stay in touch with friends high school are least likely to use the Internet and family. On the other hand, online shopping and banking are more often in the purview of for these purposes, with 40% doing so at least sometimes, compared with 52% of parents with a higher-income families: 75% of online families high school diploma and 61% of college graduates. earning $45–65,000 a year shop online at least There are also large differences by race/ethnicity, - sometimes, compared with 42% of those earn ing less than $25,000 a year. Higher-income with 74% of online Black parents using the Internet for these purposes either often or sometimes, as families are also more likely to pay bills online (81% of online parents), compared with 52% of compared with 47% of White or Hispanic online the lowest-income group. parents. And among online Hispanics, Spanish- Table 14: Use of the Internet to apply for jobs Mobile-only versus home access or services Some families connect to the Internet through laptop or desktop computers at home; others Among those who use the Internet, percent use mobile devices such as smartphones or often/sometimes go online to sign up or apply or jobs or services f tablets. In this report, those with computers and Internet access at home are considered to have By income “home access,” while those who only connect Below poverty level 53 through a smartphone or tablet are considered 53 Above poverty level to have “mobile-only” access. By race/ethnicity a White A primary digital equity concern is whether 47 b having mobile-only Internet access limits 74 Black a Hispanic 47 families’ abilities to engage in certain types of online activities. Our findings indicate that By education those concerns may be well-founded; parents a No high school diploma 40 with mobile-only Internet access are less likely b High school diploma 52 than those with home access to go online for b Some college 55 some purposes. b 61 College or advanced degree Among Hispanics The largest differences are in online shopping a and banking. There is a 30 percentage-point 39 Spanish-dominant b difference in shopping online (36% of those with English-dominant 56 mobile-only access do so at least sometimes, Immigrant 43 56 vs. 66% of those with home access) and a 25 U.S.-born percentage-point difference when it comes to Statistical significance should be read vertically within sections. 22

24 more frequent users than younger ones (56% of online banking or bill-paying (49% of mobile-only 10- to 13-year-olds are daily users, compared parents vs. 74% with home access). There are with 35% of 6- to 9-year-olds). There are also smaller, but still substantial, differences in the substantial differences by income, with 39% of proportion who apply for jobs or services online the lowest-income children (less than $25,000 a (a 14 percentage point difference) and who keep year) using computers or the Internet every day, up with news and local events online (a 12 compared with 53% of the higher-income percentage point difference). children ($45–65,000 a year). We cannot be sure from this survey whether these differences are due to having mobile-only Children of Hispanic parents are less likely than as opposed to home access, or whether some children of White or Black parents to be daily other causal variables may be at work. But, we do users (35%, compared with 50% of White or Black children). Among Hispanic youth, language is a know that these differences exist, and that they could have serious implications for the kinds of opportunities that are practically accessible to lower-income families. Case study: Erica and Denise Interview location: Denver, Colorado Children’s use of computers, mobile Annual household income: less than $15,000 devices, and the internet Mother’s education: some college According to parents’ reports, close to half of Erica is an 8-year-old third grader who lives children use computers or the Internet every day, with her mother Denise, an older sister, and and another 38% do so weekly. Older children are her grandparents. Denise remembers getting a computer and Internet service for the first time about nine years ago when completing her GED Table 15: What parents use the Internet for, required being online. Denise made the decision by type of access (among the 94% who use it) to forgo cable service, as she feels that Internet service is more important. She also purchases Percent who often/ Mobile-only Home used items rather than new ones, including access sometimes go access electronics, as a way to save money. online for: Erica and her family members generally engage b a 93 97 Looking up information with technology independently. Erica only asks her Staying in touch with 83 85 sister for help when she has trouble accessing an family/ friends app or a website. Denise is very comfortable with technology, and rarely has to ask her daughters a b 80 89 Finding places to go/ for tech-related help. She sees Google as a very mapping directions important resource for her family; when her a b 82 70 Keeping up with news/ daughters ask questions, she feels confident that local events she can find an answer online. She finds this particularly useful when helping Erica with her b a 74 49 Online banking/ homework: “there are things that she is learning bill paying that I completely space out on, so I’ll look at her a b 66 36 Shopping and she’ll be like, ‘help me,’ and I’ll say, ‘I don’t even remember how we did that.’ So I’ll get online a b 56 Signing up/ applying 42 and look it up, and oh yeah, I remember,” she says. for jobs or services Statistical significance should be read horizontally, across rows. 23

25 key factor: only 27% of Hispanic children in Parents’ views about children’s internet use Spanish-dominant homes use computers or the Most low- and moderate-income parents have Internet on a daily basis, compared with 44% of generally positive views about the impact of the those in English-dominant homes. Internet and technology on their 6- to 13-year-old Parents who use the Internet frequently are children. Nearly nine in ten agree that computers more likely to report that their children do so as and mobile devices help their children to learn important skills (89%) and that the Internet well. Among children whose parents are frequent users, half (52%) use computers or the Internet exposes their child to important new ideas and information. Nearly eight in ten (78%) agree that daily, compared with 27% of those whose parents are moderate users and 35% whose parents computers and mobile devices offer their child are infrequent users. (“Frequent” users are parents who use computers or the Internet Table 16: Daily computer/Internet use among daily, “moderate” are those who do so weekly or children, by type of access monthly, and “infrequent” are those who do so less than monthly or never.) Percent of 6- to 13-year-olds who are daily computer/Internet users, among those with: Not surprisingly, children with better access use computers and the Internet more often. For By home computer access example, parents report that half (51%) of children a Computer and Internet access at home 51 with a home computer are daily users, compared b Computer but no Internet 36 with 30% of those without one; nearly half (48%) b 30 No computer at home of children whose parent has a mobile device are By mobile device ownership daily users, compared with 22% of those without a A mobile device at home 48 a device; and half (51%) of children with home b No mobile device at home 22 Internet access are daily users, compared with 31% of those whose access is mobile-only. This By type of Internet access may be because there is more competition for a Home Internet access 51 mobile devices within the household. b Mobile-only access 31 Table 17: Frequency of computer or Internet use among children ages 6–13 By age By income Among all Percent who use computers 10–13 Lower Middle Higher 6–9 or the Internet: ($45–65,000) (<$25,000) ($25–45,000) a a c b b 45 35 43 39 53 56 Daily a b 37 33 37 40 38 43 Weekly a b b a,b a 8 A few times a month or less 12 16 8 13 16 b a b a a,b 2 2 4 6 Never 5 4 24

26 of Hispanics) and helps their children learn new and interesting means of self-expression. However, parents also have concerns about their important new skills (55%, vs. 41% of Whites, children’s technology use: 74% say they worry with no statistically significant difference with about their child being exposed to inappropriate Hispanics). And Black parents are less likely to content online, 63% worry that tech use takes “strongly or somewhat” agree that time with technology takes away from other important away from the time their child would spend on other important activities, and half (51%) worry things that their children could be doing (51%, about online bullying. vs. 63% of Whites and 68% of Hispanics). They are also less likely to worry about their children being exposed to inappropriate content (68%, Surveyed parents’ views about the benefits and dangers of technology and the Internet do not vs. 78% of Whites, with Hispanics in between), vary consistently by education or income, but they or about online bullying online (36%, vs. 48% of do vary by race and ethnicity. Black parents are the Whites and 63% of Hispanics). Hispanic parents are far more likely to express concern about most likely to see the benefits of technology, and online bullying than either White or Black least likely to worry about the dangers. More parents. As noted above, 63% agree that they Black parents “strongly” agree that the Internet worry about bullying, compared with 48% of exposes their children to important new ideas and information (55%, vs. 42% of Whites and 43% White parents and just 36% of Black parents. Table 18: Parents’ views on children’s use of technology and the Internet Among all Percent who agree that: (percent who By race/ethnicity strongly/somewhat agree) Strongly Strongly/somewhat White Black Hispanic b a a Time with technology 68 51 63 32 63 takes away from other important things a b c 36 21 51 63 48 They worry about online bullying a b a,b 68 They worry about inappropriate 49 74 71 78 content online 45 88 88 90 88 The Internet exposes children to important new ideas and information a a,b b 90 Computers/devices help 47 89 92 86 children learn important skills Computers/mobile devices 33 78 77 76 79 offer children new/interesting means of self-expression 25

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28 families as digital learning teams How members help each other learn with technology— family within and generations—matters a great deal. both across families limited access to other digital for with Particularly supports, learning and children enabling each parents learning can be a critical compensating mechanism. other’s family These effectively mean that new skills interactions by member benefit the family collective. acquired one asked parents a series of questions We how they use about technology with their children. The forms of connectivity that parents and children have to the Internet and their access to digital devices how they use these technologies influence but together. We asked how parents help independently, also children learn with technology, and their how children about help parents learn as well. their families with more than In one child between ages 6 to 13, we also asked how siblings help other. The specific activities that we asked parents each about were informed by the qualitative interviews we had 170 previously conducted with lower-income families. 27

29 We find that family members are resources for Children helping parents learn each other when it comes to learning with, and about, technology. Parents, children, and Children frequently help their parents use devices siblings supplement each other’s capabilities that connect to the Internet, such as computers, (and sometimes compensate for each other’s tablets, and smartphones. Half (53%) of all low- and limitations). For example, parents with less moderate-income parents who use the Internet say that their child helps them, including 63% of education and lower incomes tend to help their those whose child is between 10 and 13 years old. children less, but to depend on their children Parents with lower educational attainment are more. While children may facilitate their parents’ more likely to turn to their children for help: 62% of interactions with digital technologies, it is those who did not graduate from high school do so, important to stress that these activities are compared with 45% of those with a college degree. often dynamic interactions between parents and children. Children are often more adept at using new devices than their parents, but parents Hispanic parents are the most likely to say contribute to these collaborative experiences that their child has helped them use Internet- by helping their children evaluate and interpret connected devices (63%, compared with 45% of content that children have located for them Whites), but there were no statistically signifi - cant differences within the Hispanic community online (Katz, 2014). by income, language, or immigrant generation. We’re a team, and we achieve Table 19: Children helping parents with things together. When I don’t know computers, tablets, and smartphones (among something, my wife helps, or we parents and children who both use computers or the internet) ask our other son. We solve the problem together. In that aspect, Percent of parents whose child has ever helped them with digital technology: technology has helped us, because 53 Among all it has made us closer. Frequency (among those who ever help) —Parent of a fifth grader in Arizona Often 21 58 Sometimes Children helping parents, and parents helping Hardly ever children, should be understood as powerful 20 learning opportunities, because family members By child’s age can fluidly exchange expert and learner roles to a 44 6–9 years old facilitate mutual skill- and confidence-building. b 63 10–13 years old Among siblings, these exchanges are most common in families where parents have less By parent education a No high school diploma 62 education, lower incomes, and report helping a,b their children less frequently. This pattern High school diploma 55 b suggests a compensating mechanism, in that Some college 51 b College or advanced degree 45 children depend on each other more often when parents have less ability to guide their By race/ethnicity technology engagement. a White 45 b Hispanic 63 b Black 60 Statistical significance should be read vertically within sections. 28

30 Among the 53% of parents who say that their child Case study: Veronica and Teresa helps them with computers or mobile devices, 21% say this “often” happens. Parents who have less Interview location: Sunnyside, Arizona confidence in their own Internet skills are more Annual household income: less than $15,000 likely to report getting help from their children some high school Mother’s education: (38% often do so, compared with 16% of parents who consider themselves very confident). Here Veronica is a 12-year-old sixth grader who lives again, we find that children with lower-income with her mother and three sisters. Veronica’s or less highly-educated parents are more likely mother, Teresa, works part-time as a childcare to “often” help their parents with technology. provider. The family has had broadband Internet Among parents whose child helps, 32% in the at home for five years now, although their provider lowest income group say their child does so “often,” options were very limited because of where they compared with 15% of those in the higher income live. They have five Internet-enabled devices in group. Twenty-seven percent of those with less the household: two school-provided laptops, two than a high school diploma say that their child tablets, and one smartphone. “often” helps, compared with 11% of parents who are college graduates. And 27% of Hispanic parents When they first got Internet service at home, the whose child helps them with technology say they family only had one desktop computer, and the “often” do so, compared with 17% of White parents girls had to take turns using it. “Each one had a (Black parents are in between). Among Hispanics, half hour,” Teresa said. While she was not very however, there are no statistically significant familiar with computers at first, Teresa also differences by language or immigrant generation. began exploring the Internet to look up recipes, or information about her daughters’ schools. Table 20: Children helping parents with When Teresa asks her daughters for help using technology—frequency the computer, “they take the computer from me and do it themselves...I have to ask them to teach Among those parents whose child helps them me, and that’s when they help me.” Veronica with Internet-connected devices such as describes how her mom often sits next to her on computers or smartphones, percent who say the couch when she is using her laptop. While she their child “often” does so: generally goes online independently, Veronica sometimes asks her mom for help with schoolwork, By income which also provides an opportunity for Teresa to a Lower (<$25,000) 32 become more comfortable online: “Sometimes b Middle ($25–45,000) 17 when I have homework on the computer, I ask b Higher ($45–65,000) 15 my mom and she helps me—and she learns a By race/ethnicity little bit more.” a White 17 a,b Black 22 Teresa is very grateful for the one-to-one laptop b 27 Hispanic program in her daughters’ school district. “For me, it is a big help. There are no libraries nearby, and By parent education didn’t have a car or a ride to take them to the I a 27 No high school diploma so sometimes they would get frustrated... library, a High school diploma 29 but now, they come home and do their homework b Some college 16 here.” Veronica likes having the school laptop b College or advanced degree 11 because she likes being able to go online for By parent Internet confidence “cool projects,” like researching ancient history a 38 Least confident or the Civil War. b 16 Most confident Statistical significance should be read vertically within sections. 29

31 help their children. Among those with a college Parents helping children learn degree, nine out of ten (90%) say that they have Most low- and moderate-income parents help helped their child with technology, compared their children to use Internet-enabled devices. with 68% of those without a high school diploma. More than three-quarters (77%) do so, and Some of the most common tasks parents help among those, 28% say that they do so “often.” children with include finding information online (84% do so); learning how computers or mobile The trend is the opposite of that observed with children helping parents: that is, the parents devices work (78%); fixing things that go wrong (70%); and downloading things (68%). with the highest education are the most likely to Table 21: Parents helping children with Table 22: How children and parents help each computers, tablets, and smartphones (among other with technology parents and children who both use computers or the Internet) Percent helping with: Parent Child has helped helped Percent of parents who have helped their child with parent with children with digital technology: 78 Learning how the 68 77 Among all computer or mobile device works + Frequency (among those who ever help) Often 28 Fixing things that 59 70 54 Sometimes go wrong Hardly ever 17 84 70 Finding information By child’s age online a 6–9 years old 82 68 69 Downloading things b 72 10–13 years old like apps, software, By parent education music, or movies a No high school diploma 68 55 Translating content 58 a,b 74 High school diploma (among foreign- b Some college 79 language speakers) c 90 College or advanced degree By race/ethnicity a White 83 b Hispanic 73 b Black 71 By income a 74 Lower income a 75 Middle income b 84 Higher income + Does not sum too 100% due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ responses, and refusals. 30

32 Table 23: How children help each other learn Children helping each other learn (Among the 48% of families with more than one 6- to 13-year-old in the home) Parents report that their children often learn with each other, including teaching one another Often/ about technology. Just over half (56%) of 6- to Percent of Often 13-year-olds with siblings in the same age group children who: sometimes often watch TV or videos together to learn things, Watch TV or videos 56 89 and half (50%) often help each other with their together to learn things homework. Slightly fewer than half (47%) read Help each other with together, or to each other, “often,” or help each 50 81 homework other learn about computers or mobile devices. About three in ten (29%) often do art or science 47 80 Read to each other projects together. or together Help each other learn 44 81 These activities are more intensive among siblings in the lowest income group and those whose about computers or parents have less education. Just over half (56%) mobile devices of siblings in families with a household income 29 70 Do art or science below $25,000 a year often help each other with projects together their homework, compared with 43% whose family income is between $45–65,000 a year. Similarly, 60% of siblings whose parents did not graduate from high school often help each other with their homework, compared with 41% of those whose parent has a college degree. Lower-income youth are also more likely to help each other learn about computers or mobile devices: 53% do so often, compared with 33% of those in the higher-income group. 31

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34 technology for learning at home and at school section In report, we address how low- final of the our digital for use and moderate-income children technology and how parents assess the educational purposes at home, for their formal education. In value of technology children’s educational innovation have technological years, recent and these linkages are evident effectively become integrated; in as as in programs developed at state national policies well (e.g., National Education Technology levels and local the Likewise, equitable access to broadband Plan or ConnectED). devices digital become fundamental to Internet and has at education itself more equitable. aimed initiatives making interested in assessing how lower-income parents We were impact the on how their children perceive of technology learn school. at changes to Two are most these where areas education standardized testing and personalized visible are in learning. are high-stakes testing online; we Increasingly, states taking whether lower-income parents felt these interested were in or disadvantage their children. Likewise, moves advantage technology classroom teachers with increased use provides students help at their own pace. We to opportunities learn assess whether parents thought the consequent wanted to the relationship were improving student-teacher to changes children’s learning. their 33

35 Case study: Cynthia and Angelica Our findings reveal important distinctions among parents with regard to technology’s place in Interview location: Denver, Colorado public education and whether it enables more Annual household income: less than $15,000 equitable access to learning opportunities. They completed 8th grade Mother’s education: also show that children’s classroom activities are intertwined with their home connectivity and Cynthia is a 9-year-old fourth grader who lives their families’ tech use. with her parents. About eighteen months ago, the family got its first computer and Internet access. Children’s use of computers and the Internet Her mother, Angelica, signed up for the Internet for learning at home Essentials program offered through Cynthia’s school, which provides them broadband Internet The survey findings indicate that many children 4 In order to afford the service for $9.95 per month. in low- and moderate-income families use Internet, the family had to cancel its cable service. computers and Internet access for a variety of educational activities. Angelica is not very familiar with computers, so she often asks Cynthia to help her look for things Among 10- to 13-year-olds who use computers or online. She is more comfortable going online on a the Internet, eight in ten (81%) do so to do tablet, “because they are smaller and you can homework, and four in ten (44%) to write stories take them with you.” Because she is diabetic, or blogs. Many also use the Internet to connect Angelica frequently looks for healthy recipes online. with teachers (40%) and other students (46%) about school projects. Among 6- to 13-year-olds, The family has one laptop, an iPad, a tablet, and 81% play educational games and use the Internet two smartphones. Cynthia talks with her parents to look up things that they are interested in. about her online activity, especially when she is Seven in ten (70%) use computers or the Internet unsure of something: “They said they have to help to do something creative, such as make their me so that I don’t get into problems that could own art or music. hurt my family, like applications that ask for your identity.” Since Cynthia’s schoolwork now requires (My son) likes to draw, so he’ll say more computer use, Angelica wants to further develop her own tech skills so that she can ‘Mom, can you pull up pictures continue helping her daughter with her homework. or drawings of Spiderman or Transformers?’ So then I’ll Google the cartoons and he’ll try to draw Children with home Internet access are more likely to go online to look up information about whatever is on the screen. things they are interested in than those with —Parent of a first grader in Colorado mobile-only access (52% do so “often,” compared to 35% of those with mobile-only access). But in all other cases, we did not find significant When we have problems with differences between those with home access and math...I go straight to Google. those with mobile-only access with regard to —Parent of a third grader in California whether or how often they used digital devices to do homework, play educational games, make art or music, connect with teachers, work with other students, or write stories or blogs. 4 Internet Essentials is Comcast’s initiative to offer low-cost broadband access to parents whose children qualify for free- or reduced-cost school meals. 34

36 Table 25: Children’s educational activities on computers and the Internet (Among the 96% who use computers or the Internet) Among all Percent who use computers/ Age 10–13 Age 6–9 Internet to: Sometimes Often Often Often Often/ ++ sometimes 81 — 45 45 36 Do homework+ a b 50 Play educational games 39 81 45 37 a b 36 Look up things they are 58 81 47 34 interested in Make art or music or do 34 36 70 32 36 something creative Work with other students 17 29 46 — 17 on school projects+ Connect with teachers+ 40 — 17 17 23 16 28 — 16 Write stories or blogs+ 44 + Among 10- to 13-year-olds only. ++ Totals may not sum properly due to rounding. Table 26: Children’s educational activities on computers and the Internet, by home versus mobile-only access Among those with Among those with Among those who use computers or the Internet, percent who “often” use them to: home Internet access mobile-only access Do homework+ 46 40 Play educational games 43 46 a b Look up things they are interested in 52 35 Make art or music or do something creative 30 36 Work with other students on a school project+ 15 17 Connect with teachers+ 16 19 Write stories or blogs+ 11 18 + Among 10- to 13-year-olds only. 35

37 We note no consistent differences by either compared with just 11% of parents who graduated from college. We also found that English-speaking income or education with regard to the likelihood Hispanics are much more likely to say that using of youth engaging in these educational activities technology improves the quality of children’s with technology. There were, however, differences by race/ethnicity. Black parents are more likely education than are Spanish-speaking parents (90% vs. 72%). The qualitative interviews conducted to indicate that their children engage in several of these educational activities than are parents prior to the survey offer a possible explanation: of White or Hispanic youth; namely, playing English-speaking parents were more likely than educational games, looking up information about Spanish-speaking parents to have attended U.S. public schools, in which many had used things they are interested in, working with other technology themselves. Their experiences may students, and connecting with their teachers. Hispanic youth are more likely to write stories have predisposed them to positive attitudes or blogs than either Black or White youth. toward classroom technology use. Figure 2: Parents’ views on technology Parents’ views about technology in the classroom in the classroom The vast majority of low- and moderate-income Technology in the parents (80%) believe using technology improves classroom improves the quality of 2% the quality of education, while 18% think it is a 18% children’s education distraction that hurts education. Parents’ views on this issue (as a general matter, rather than how Technology is a they feel about their own child’s education) do not distraction that hurts 80% vary by income, or by race/ethnicity. But parents’ children’s education views on classroom technology use do relate to Don’t know/refused their own level of education; nearly a quarter (23%) of parents who did not complete high school think that using technology hurts children’s education, Table 27: Children’s educational activities, by race/ethnicity Percent who “often” do each educational activity on a computer or the Internet: Black White Hispanic 47 54 42 Do homework+ b a a Play educational games 41 56 43 a a,b b 56 47 43 Look up things they are interested in a a b 44 33 32 Make art or music or do something creative a b b 21 30 Work with other students+ 10 b a b 12 Connect with teachers+ 23 25 b a a 13 Write stories or blogs+ 15 21 + Among 10- to 13-year-olds only. 36

38 Table 29: Parents’ views about technology in the Table 28: Frequency of computer use at school, classroom (among those whose child ever uses and parents’ opinions on that amount of use computers or tablets in the classroom) Percent who say their child uses Percent who Strongly or Strongly computers at school: agree Daily somewhat 30 agree A few times a week 37 A few times a month 9 41 84 computers/ Believe that Less than a few times a month/never 6 tablets in class help 16 Do not know prepare children for important tests Percent who say the amount of computer use at their child’s school is: Worry that the 10 34 teacher 7 Too much knows less about 15 Too little children’s individual 76 Just the right amount needs because of time spent using technology Totals may not sum to 100% due to rounding, ‘don’t know’ responses, and refusals. Most low- and moderate-income parents report vary by the child’s age or the family’s income, but that their child uses computers at school at least it does vary by race/ethnicity and parental a few times a week. Three in ten (30%) say they education. Black and Hispanic parents are more likely to say that they “don’t know” how often do so daily, and another 37% say they do so their child uses computers at school (19% and weekly. And three-quarters of parents (76%) feel 23% respectively, compared with 11% of Whites). that the amount of computer use their child gets And parents who did not graduate from high at school is “just the right” amount. However, 15% of parents think that their child does not get school are more likely to say they do not know enough computer time at school, and 7% think how often their child uses computers at school (26%, compared with 12% of college graduates). they spend too much time with computers in class. Among Hispanic parents, the proportion who do not know how often their child uses computers My son has made really big at school does not vary by income, language, or immigrant generation. changes in his math and his reading because he likes computers. He Most parents whose children do use computers or tablets at school said that they consider loves getting into that laptop, that technology use helpful in preparing for important computer, and doing what he has tests (84%). On the other hand, one-third of to do. Ever since he started (with) parents (34%) worry that classroom technology use may result in teachers knowing less about his laptop, his grades went up. their children’s individual needs. —Parent of an eighth grader in Arizona Lower-income parents, non-White parents, Sixteen percent of parents say they do not know and those with a lower level of educational how often their child uses a computer at school. attainment are all more likely to “strongly” agree that technology helps prepare children for The proportion of parents who are not familiar with their child’s school computer use does not important tests. Forty-eight percent of parents 37

39 I think (time with technology from the lowest-income group strongly agree that technology serves this purpose, versus 38% at school) has helped her... of those from the middle-income group and 36% Her reading level has gone up of those in the highest-income group. Fifty-two percent of Hispanic and 44% of Black parents dramatically and she had lots of hold this opinion as well, compared with 32% of trouble in math. It’s helped her, Whites. The parents who are least likely to be connected to technology themselves—that is, the website that the (teacher) those with lower incomes or lower levels of educational attainment—have the most positive gave her, so she could practice - views about the benefits of technology in prepar at home. ing students for important tests. This may reflect parents’ hopes that technology will even an —Parent of a fourth grader in Colorado unequal playing field for their children. Con - Hispanic parents are much more likely to worry versely, that better-connected parents were less that classroom technology use results in teachers sanguine about digital testing may be cause for concern, as these parents are in a relatively knowing less about their child’s individual needs: 59% agree with that statement, including 17% better position to evaluate whether online testing actually advantages or disadvantages who do so “strongly.” This proportion compared children growing up below the median U.S. with just 24% of Black parents and 23% of Whites household income. who agree (5% of Blacks and 7% of Whites “strongly” agree). This fear is especially strong among immigrant Hispanics: 75% of foreign-born I feel like that’s the way we’re Hispanics worry that teachers know less about their child’s individual needs due to the time going: the more they can learn to spent using technology in class, as compared use (technology) and to conquer with 26% of U.S.-born Hispanics. This finding each thing that they can on it—as underscores the importance of engaging parents as meaningful partners in efforts to address far as homework or research—I digital equity concerns related to formal education. think the better and easier they’re The parents with the most serious misgivings about technology’s consequences in the classroom going to be able to understand the are among those whose children should benefit most from self-paced or personalized instruction: big picture when they’re in college that is, children who begin formal schooling or if they are in the workforce. speaking a language other than English. —Parent of a fifth grader in Colorado 38

40 conclusion The in this survey offer a unique perspective from data school-age moderate-income families with low- and in United children They reveal many of the the States. nuances and complexities of digital life among lower- income families today. These are the main findings that should national debate and purposeful stimulate action: • The vast majority of low- and moderate-income families have some form of online connection, and use digital technology for a range of purposes from doing homework and connecting with schools to looking for jobs and applying for services. • Most parents feel comfortable and confident with technology, and they have an overwhelmingly positive view about the advantages it can offer their children. Parents and siblings are serving as resources for one another to learn how to engage meaningfully with digital tools. • Substantial digital inequalities still exist. Many parents and their children are under-connected, and are not fully included in the digital revolution. Among families living below the median income level, one in five connect to the Internet only through a mobile device—a clear hindrance for students trying to research and write papers or complete online work, or for parents searching for employment or community services. • Among some segments of our population—especially Hispanic immigrants and those living in poverty—an even more substantial number of families are not yet experiencing the benefits and educational opportunities that technology and the Internet can offer. As many as half have either no access or mobile-only access. And as our study reveals, even among those who are connected in some way, many often encounter serious limitations in their access to devices and to the Internet, such as slow or aging devices that are shared by multiple family members, and Internet service plans that are too often unaffordable. 39

41 These constraints on connectivity are likely to digital equity programs are not reaching their potential. Programs that provide discounted have lifelong individual and societal consequences. Internet access to low-income families are broadly Among youth, being under-connected means that critical opportunities to develop creative under-utilized by those who would qualify for them. One-quarter of those who have signed up projects, take advantage of educational media, for these programs were dissatisfied with them. explore extracurricular programs, and complete We can do better. homework, are limited. These limitations can compound over a child’s school years. Educational In addition, policymakers can develop approaches pathways become restricted, and with them, that build on families’ existing assets. Lower- career opportunities as well. Parents are less able income families are too often only discussed in to find or deploy resources to aid the whole terms of constraints like limited formal education, family. Today, those most in need of finding income, language proficiency, and tech-related services, obtaining jobs, and increasing educational opportunities are the least likely to have full skills. Our findings uncover the kinds of family access to the digital technologies that can help strengths that can be more strongly supported by well-crafted digital equity programs and policies. provide a level playing field. In sum, digital In particular, we find that family members are inequality can contribute to educational inequality, resources for each other when it comes to which in turn perpetuates economic inequality. learning about and through technology. Parents Our study makes clear that the primary obstacle help kids use tech, but kids help their parents too, particularly if their parents have less education preventing greater equity in access and digital and/or lower incomes. And siblings help each participation—at least among families with other, especially in families where parents school-aged children—is financial. Most surveyed families who do not have computers or home cannot help as much. Internet access are not holding back because of a lack of confidence or interest in what the Internet The Internet, and the digital devices we use to or new tech tools can offer. For most, cost is the connect to it, are enhancing the lives of children and their families in countless ways. But not all primary reason. Interrupted service is also cost-related, as is having to share devices families are fully participating. Digital technology can expand opportunities for lower-income parents between too many people to have enough time with them. And currently, only a small proportion and their children. But unless we make concerted, proactive efforts to reduce digital inequality, of families are benefiting from discounted Internet services designed to get low-income families these remarkable technological advances will with school-age children online. have the unintended consequence of exacerbating differences, rather than diminishing them. The Most importantly, we believe that the challenges solution to this challenge will require innovative partnerships and new commitments aligning to connectivity that our study has showcased are government, industry, education, and community solvable. Policymakers can address these issues with well-crafted policies that promote the right leaders—including families themselves. incentives and supports for families. Existing 40

42 methodology This report is based on a nationally-representative telephone survey of 1,191 low- and moderate-income parents of children ages 6 to 13. For eligible respondents with more than one child in this age range, one child was randomly selected to be the reference child for specific questions in the survey. A copy of the full questionnaire and all topline results can be found in the Appendix to this report, available online at www.joanganzcooneycenter.org/publication/opportunity-for-all/ . The survey was fielded by the research firm SSRS from April 16 through June 29, 2015, via landline and cell phones. Those who preferred being interviewed in Spanish were interviewed by bilingual interviewers. A total of 196 interviews were completed in Spanish. The survey sample includes families with household incomes no higher than $65,000, which we selected as the threshold because the median household income in the U.S. 4 was approximately $64,000 in 2014. Thirty-one percent of our sample is families with incomes below the federal poverty level, 42% are between 100–185% of poverty, and 24% have incomes above 185% of poverty but below $65,000 a year. Poverty level was calculated based on families’ annual income and number of household members, using federal poverty guidelines. Because the survey recorded family income in $5,000 increments, there were 32 respondents for whom we were unable to determine poverty level status; these families were therefore excluded from analyses that differentiated by poverty level. Throughout the report, when we refer to “families” or “parents” Definitions of terms. we mean low- or moderate-income parents with children between ages 6 and 13. When we refer to families “above” the poverty level, we mean those whose incomes are above the federal poverty level, but below $65,000 annually. For some analyses, we have divided respondents into three economic categories of “lower income” (less than $25,000 a year), “middle income” (between $25,000 and $44,999 a year), and “higher income” (from $45,000 to $65,000 a year). We define a “computer” as either a desktop or laptop computer. “Mobile devices” include smartphones and tablets. When we refer to “home access” to the Internet, we mean families that have a computer and some type of Internet access for that computer. “Mobile-only access” includes those who do not own a computer but do own a smartphone or tablet through which they can connect to the Internet through a cellular data plan or Wi-Fi. Statistical significance. Where relevant, differences among demographic groups have been tested for statistical significance. Findings are referred to in the text in a comparative manner (e.g., “more than,” “less than”) only if the differences are statistically significant at the level of p < .05 (i.e., differences as great as those noted would occur by chance no more than five times in 100). In tables where statistical significance has been tested, superscripts indicate whether results differ at p < .05. Items that share a common superscript, or that have no superscript, do not differ significantly. 4 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, Table FINC-03. Presence of Related Children Under 18 Years Old—All Families by Total Money Income 2014. The median income for families with one or more child under 18 was $63,767. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032015/faminc/toc.htm 41

43 For example, in Row 1 below, none of the items differ in a statistically reliable way. In Row 2, each item differs from the others significantly. In Row 3, the items in the first and third columns differ from the item in the second column, but not from each other. And in Row 4, items in Columns 1 and 3 differ from each other, but not from Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 93% 97% Row 1 95% Row 2 22%a 36%b 55%c 15%a 50%b 20%a Row 3 Row 4 13%a 17%a,b 23%b Sampling. The sampling procedures were designed to efficiently reach the low-incidence target population, while still maintaining population representativeness. According to the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS), about 6% of the adult population in the U.S. earns less than $65,000 and has a child aged 6 to 13. With the challenges of low incidence in mind, the sample capitalized on the ability to reach respondents using the SSRS Omnibus survey, which is conducted weekly and draws a random sample of U.S. households. Respondents for this study were selected through the SSRS omnibus surveys being fielded during the study period (n = 320), and by calling back past Omnibus survey respondents who met eligibility criteria (n = 871). SSRS Omnibus uses an overlapping dual-frame design, with respondents being reached by both landline and cell phones. In total, 500 interviews were completed with respondents whose households can be reached by cell phone only. Efforts were made to maximize response rates, including multiple call attempts for non-responsive numbers (e.g., no answer, busy, answering machine), at varied times of day and days of the week. Respondents from the prescreened sample of past omnibus participants were offered a $5 incentive for participation. Weighting. The survey data were weighted to adjust for the fact that not all survey respondents were selected with the same probabilities (given that some participants were recruited from a prescreened sample) and to account for systematic nonresponse along known population parameters that are generally present in surveys. The table below reports the sample size (n) and percentages for the weighted and unweighted data set. 42

44 Unweighted Weighted % % N N White 47% 559 47% 555 192 16% 178 15% Black 358 356 30% 30% Hispanic 86 7% 98 8% Other Among Hispanics U.S. born 135 38% 110 31% Foreign born 223 62% 70% 248 46% 45% English language 166 159 53% Spanish language 189 55% 195 Margin of sampling error. Weighting procedures increase the variance in the data, with larger weights causing greater variance. Complex survey designs and post data-collection statistical adjustments increase variance estimates and, as a result, the error terms applied in statistical testing. The design effect for the survey was 1.35 overall and 1.48 for Hispanics. Accounting for sample size and design effect, the margin of sampling error for this study was +/-3.3 percentage points for the overall sample and +/- 6.3 percentage points for Hispanics, at a 95% confidence level. Qualitative research. The national survey research presented in this report was informed by qualitative interviews conducted with 336 low-income, Mexican-heritage parents and their school-age children (grades K–8) in Chula Vista, California; Denver, Colorado; and Sunnyside, Arizona in 2013 and 2014 by Vikki Katz and her research team. Findings from those interviews helped shape development of the questionnaire for the national survey. Quotes from those interviews, and profiles of some of the participants, have been included as pull quotes throughout this report. Beyond those quotes and profiles, however, all findings and data in this report are from the full national survey, with the demographic characteristics described earlier in the methodology. Reports from the site visits, and profiles of some of the families who participated, are available . online at www.joanganzcooneycenter.org/publication/opportunity-for-all/ 43

45 references Clark, L. S. (2012). Oxford: Oxford The parent app: Understanding families in the digital age. University Press. Broadband adoption in low-income Dailey, D., Bryne, A., Powell, A., Karaganis, J., & Chung, J. (2010). communities. Brooklyn, NY: Social Science Research Council. Retrieved from http://www.ssrc. org/publications/view/1EB76F62-C720-DF11-9D32-001CC477EC70/ First Monday. Hargittai, E. (2002). Second-level digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills. Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/article/view/942/864 Jung, J.-Y., Qiu, J.L., & Kim, Y.-C. (2001). Internet connectedness and inequality: Beyond the “divide.” Communication Research, 28 (4), 507–535. Katz, V. S. (2014). Kids in the middle: How children of immigrants negotiate community interactions for their families. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Litt, E. (2013). Measuring users’ Internet skills: A review of past assessments and a look toward the future. New Media & Society, 15 (4), 612–630. Livingstone, S. (2009). Children and the Internet. London: Polity Press. Zickuhr, K., Rainie, L., & Purcell, K. (2013). Library services in the digital ag e. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://libraries.pewinternet.org/2013/01/22/library-services 44

46 Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Carmen Gonzalez, June Lee, and Michael Levine for their feedback on earlier drafts of this report, and Meghan Moran for her assistance with data analyses. We are also grateful for generous funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for the research reported in this publication. Managing Editor: Catherine Jhee Copy Editor: Sabrina Detlef Design: Jeff Jarvis


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