The Link Monograph 2014 3

Transcript

1 UNDERSTANDING The Link to Violence Animals between and People A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals By Allie Phillips, J.D.

2 National District Attorneys Association 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 330 Alexandria, VA 22314 www.ndaa.org Kay Chopard Cohen Executive Director Allie Phillips Director, National Center for Prosecution of Animal Abuse Deputy Director, National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse June 2014 © 2014 by the National District Attorneys Association. This project was supported by a grant from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and Grant No. 2012-CI-FX-K007 awarded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. This information is offered for educational purposes only and is not to be considered legal advice.

3 UNDERSTANDING The Link to Violence Animals between and People A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals By Allie Phillips, J.D.

4 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals bout the A uthor A Allie Phillips is a former prosecuting attorney, animal advocate, and published author - who is nationally recognized for her work on behalf of animals and vulnerable vic tims. She is the Director of the National Center for Prosecution of Animal Abuse and Deputy Director of the National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse at the Na - tional District Attorneys Association in Alexandria, Virginia. She started her career as an Assistant Prosecuting Attorney in Michigan gaining extensive trial experience handling numerous family violence cases. While a prosecutor, she volunteered at her county animal control shelter and identified a connection between violent defendants on her court docket and animals in the shelter seized for an abuse investigation. In 2003, she joined the American Prosecutors Research Institute (which merged into NDAA) as a Senior Attorney trainer on child abuse issues and created a program on how animal abuse links to crimes against people. Subsequently she became the Vice President of Public Policy and Vice President of Human-Animal Strategic Initiatives for the American Humane Association where she continued her work to protect animals and children. In 2011, she returned to NDAA to focus exclusively on the interconnection between animals and children. Allie has been training criminal justice professionals since 1997 and has dedicated her career to helping our most vulnerable victims. She specializes in the co-occurrence between violence to animals and people and animal protec - tion, and is the founder of Sheltering Animals & Families Together (SAF-T) Program , the first and only global initiative working with domestic violence shelters to welcome families with pets. She is also the co-creator of Therapy Animals Supporting Kids (TASK) Program where she helps criminal justice professionals incorporate therapy animals to help . maltreated children through the court system Defending the Defenseless: A Guide to Protecting and Advocating for Pets Allie has authored two award-winning books: How Shelter Pets are Brokered for Experimentation: Understanding Pound Seizure (2011) and (2010) and has written chapters in several animal protection books. She volunteers her time with numerous nonprofit organizations that benefit animals, including being an advisor to the Association of Professional Humane Educators, liaison to the ABA’s Commission on Domestic & Sexual Violence (where she contributes on Link issues), advisor to Denver Pet Partners, council member of the Michigan State Bar Animal Law Section, steering committee member of the National Link Coalition, vice president of No Paws Left Behind, co-founder of Michiganders for Shelter Pets, and volunteer for King Street Cats. She is a graduate of Michigan State University and University of Detroit School of Law. Learn more about her work and programs at and www.animalsandfamilies.org . www.alliephillips.com Acknowledgments The author thanks Jason Allen (Staff Attorney, NDAA/NCPCA), Phil Arkow (Coordinator, National Link Coalition), Lesley Ashworth (Ohio Domestic Violence Network), Kay Chopard Cohen (Executive Director, NDAA), Randall Cooper (Research Assistant, NDAA/NCPCA), Maya Gupta (Executive Director, Animals & Society Institute), Randall Lockwood (Senior Vice President of Forensic Sciences and Anti-Cruelty Projects, ASPCA), and Philip Tedeschi (Clin - ical Professor at University of Denver, Executive Director of the Institute for Human-Animal Connection) for their expertise and assistance in reviewing this publication. Note: Throughout this publication, “animal abuse” is generally used as the overall broad term to describe all - forms of crimes towards animals; “animal cruelty” is used to describe intentional criminal conduct towards ani mals; and “animal neglect” is used to describe negligent acts and/or failing to provide adequate care for animals. NDAA ii

5 t Able of C ontents About the Author ii Table of Contents iii v Foreword 1 The Link in the News 3 Introduction 5 What Is The Link? 5 The Importance of Pets in Homes Today The Importance of The Link 7 9 Domestic Violence and The Link 9 Facts and Figures 12 Pets of Domestic Violence 15 Child Abuse and The Link 15 Facts and Figures 19 Youth Crimes and The Link 20 When Youth are Bystanders to Animal Abuse 21 The Psychological Impact on Youth Animal Abusers 25 Elder Abuse and The Link Sexual Assault Against Animals (Bestiality) and the Link 27 29 Animal Hoarding and the Link Animal Fighting and the Link 31 33 Other Violent Crimes and The Link 34 Fatal Dog Attacks on Humans 37 Changing Agency Procedures 38 Ask About Pets: Intake, Assessments and Interviews 38 Therapy Animals for Maltreated Children 39 Cross-Training 39 Cross-Reporting 41 Link Coalitions 42 Families Seeking Shelter with Pets 45 Pet Safety Planning 45 Including Pets in Protective Orders 47 Investigating Link Crimes 47 Link Evidence 47 Interviews Prosecuting Link Crimes 49 49 Charging Decisions: The Criminal Complaint National District Attorneys Association iii

6 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals 50 Pre-Trial and Trial Strategies 52 Plea Negotiations 52 Pre-Sentence Report 53 Civil Dependency/Family Court Cases 53 Sentencing Options for Link Crimes 54 Sex Offender Registration 55 Treatment Options for Link Crimes 55 Female Offenders 55 Youthful Offenders 59 Link Case Law 61 Conclusion 63 Resources 63 National Organizations Addressing the Link 63 Safe Housing Resources for People and Pets 65 References 71 Endnotes NDAA iv

7 f oreword Mahatma Gandhi once said: “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.” I say: “The safety and wellbeing of children and adults can be judged by the way their — and how this information is shared among the professionals involved.” animals are treated I first became aware of the links among animal cruelty, child abuse, domestic violence and elder abuse as a psychologist evaluating a case of child sexual abuse. A young boy was mute with panic until he was asked whether there had been any animals in the house. Once he began talking about what happened to the dog, he was able to disclose what happened to him. The presence of the dog was verified and used as evidence and the case was successfully prosecuted. Twenty-five years later I can think of no other setting where one can put an animal in the middle of a group of highly diverse professionals and each professional can document a link between that animal’s welfare and his or her own work as well as recognize the links to the other professions. The progress in this field has been remarkable. • Peer-reviewed studies document the toxic impact of exposure to violence, including violence to animals, as an Adverse Childhood Experience with long-term effects on the developing brain and subsequent poor health outcomes. • Child abuse and elder abuse and neglect have been demonstrated to be correlates of animal cruelty. - • Domestic violence programs are beginning to query about pets and provide shelter for at-risk fami lies and their pets. • Child protective services workers, adult protective services worker and animal control officers link their observations when performing home visits because they know that where animals are at risk, people often are at risk and vice versa. • Veterinarians are being trained in forensic pathology to determine cause of death and preservation of evidence for prosecution purposes. • Law enforcement officers are educated about the often-extensive histories of crimes against society committed by persons who also abuse animals. • Medical and mental health personnel are beginning to address the traumatic impact of dog bites as well as the connection between dog bites and physical abuse. • Prosecutors are putting increased emphasis on animal abuse crimes because they understand that the behavior that harms the animal is the same behavior that harms humans. Yes — we have come a long way. Yes — there still is much to do. Consciousness raising and education are forever tasks. With leadership organizations like the National District Attorneys Association, the National Link Coalition, and many others, the work continues knowing that the health and wellbeing of children and adults is safeguarded by also addressing the health and wellbeing of animals. National District Attorneys Association v

8 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals All professionals who encounter abused people or abused animals must champion the Link and work col - laboratively to be truly effective in mitigating the devastating personal and societal costs of violence. This Guidebook on the Link is designed to help achieve that goal. Barbara W. Boat, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center Director, The Childhood Trust Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center NDAA vi

9 ews t he l ink n in the National District Attorneys Association 1

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11 ntroduCtion i The Link between violence to people and violence to animals is well documented by research, both nation - ally and internationally. In its simplest form: violence to animals is a predictor that the abuser may become violent to people, and vice versa. Abuse is abuse no matter what the form or whom the victim. Several decades of research documents the co-occurrence between crimes against people, such as child abuse co-occurring with domestic violence; but when we talk about the Link, these co-occurrence crimes are often inextricably tied to animal abuse. When someone harms an animal, the important question to ask is, “Who will be next?” Crimes against people are tied to a myriad of crimes against animals and three specific types of animal abuse that are linked to crimes against people are featured in this guidebook: sexu - al assaults against animals (bestiality), animal hoarding, and animal fighting. This specialized area of knowledge has taken root in the medical, mental health and criminal justice com - munities over the past two decades; yet it is still misunderstood and unrecognized across many disciplines. This guidebook outlines what criminal justice, advocacy, medical, and mental health professionals need - to know about the Link for purposes of investigating and prosecuting these cases, and helping to keep fam ilies and communities safe. National District Attorneys Association 3

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13 l w i s t he t ink ? hA The Link consists of the coexistence of two or more of these intra-familial crimes: child abuse (including physical and sexual abuse) or neglect, domestic violence (including stalking and rape), elder abuse or ne - glect (including financial exploitation), and animal abuse or neglect (including sexual assault, animal fight - ing and hoarding). The Link also includes the co-occurrence of animal abuse with other types of crime, such as homicide, weapons offenses, drug offenses, sexual assault, arson, assault or other violent crimes. Taking animal abuse as seriously as crimes against humans is important for the upholding of existing ani - mal protection laws and protecting animal victims, but also for the following reasons: • Animal abuse presents a risk of child abuse • Animal violence may predict future violence • Animal abuse is used to threaten human victims • Animal abuse is used to prevent families from leaving the abusive home • The co-occurrence of multiple forms of violence increases future violence. (Hackett & Uprichard, 2007) The Importance of Pets in Homes Today Companion animals are a highly prevalent and important part of today’s households. With approximately 68% of American households having a pet (82.5 million pets) (2013-14 American Pet Product’s Associa - tion National Pet Owners’ Survey), an increase from 62% in just one year, the potential for interconnection National District Attorneys Association 5

14 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals between animal abuse and human violence is now more prevalent. For those who have/had a companion animal, they know the benefits of the significant bond that formed during the relationship. • People look to their pets for support, comfort & security (McNicholas & Collis, 2006). • Pets positively impact physical health and reduce stress (Friedmann, Son & Tsai, 2010). • Pets provide greater life satisfaction (Raina, et al. 1999). • Pets help us cope better with loss and grief (Bolin, 1988). • A child is more likely to grow up with a pet than with an in-residence father (Melson, 2001). Cherished pets are more likely to be used as tools of manipulation by an abuser. They may get caught in the crossfire of violence towards people, or the batterer may target the pet in order to gain silence and compliance from human victims. Families and communities are at risk when animal abuse is ignored or unreported alongside family violence. (Phillips & Lockwood, 2013) NDAA 6

15 l t i mport An Ce of t he he ink When multiple forms of violence occur in a home, including animal abuse, the home is at increased risk of escalated and continued violence if all forms of violence are not addressed. • Animal abuse is more prevalent in homes that experience child abuse and domestic violence (Ascione & Shapiro, 2009; Ascione, 2007). • Animal cruelty is included as one of the symptoms of “conduct disorder” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). • Family pets may be targets of threats, harm, or killing to “emotionally blackmail” and coerce human victims to comply with and remain silent about abuse (Arkow, 2014). • Family members who suffer domestic violence may be more likely to remain in an abusive home, or return home, if they do not have a safe place to put their pet. • When children witness violence in the home, they are at increased risk of displaying violence toward animals (Currie, 2006). • Children often have an emotional bond with their pets, and may suffer psychological harm if that pet is threatened, harmed, or killed. • 43% of school shooters have animal abuse in their background (Arluke & Madfis, 2013). • Animal hoarding is a mental health issue that must be treated in order to avoid continuing abus - es. Hoarding impacts the social, emotional, and physical development of children in the home, and contributes to a public health issue (Patronek, 2006, 2008). • Bestiality is connected to crimes against people (Hensley, Tallichet & Singer, 2006; Simons, Wur - tele & Durham, 2008). • Animal control and humane investigators are often the first responders to violent homes, espe - cially in cases where animal abuse is reported by neighbors. This is an opportunity for animal protection and human protection professionals to work together to help families and prevent future violence. • Like other forms of violence against people, animal abuse and neglect is a crime in every state, and the animal victims are entitled to the protection of those laws. • When any form of violence is present in a home, others may be at risk. It is important to understand the Link for the following reasons, which will be explored in detailed throughout this Guidebook: National District Attorneys Association 7

16 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals • Abuse and neglect of animals, children, and adults is a crime. • Harm to animals is a predictor crime of harm towards people. • Harm to animals is an indicator crime of other violence going on in the home. 1 • Harm to animals destabilizes communities and contributes to overall lack of safety. - It is important for all agencies and professionals to work together to address family and community vio lence. Working in silos and not sharing information about families in jeopardy, when permissible, only prevents an effective and collaborative response. Addressing the Link with agencies and community stake - holders may promote the prevention and reduction of violence. Studies have established that, similar to people, animals feel pain and fear (Tannenbaum, 1999; de Waal, 2011). The excuse that “it’s only an animal” is no longer acceptable in our society. Animal abuse’s place on the continuum of violence gives criminal justice professionals the unique opportunity to effect holistic change in the family dynamic and play an integral role in protecting people and animals from violence. Those who understand this linkage of crimes towards animals and people are in a better position to prevent future violence and protect their communities. NDAA 8

17 And d iolen Ce V t he l ink omestiC When an intimate partner is being battered, the pet may be targeted to maintain silence and com - pliance from the human victim. The family pet that provides comfort and solace to adults and children after an abusive incident may also become an object of the same violence. The bond between people and their pets leaves some adult victims hesitant to leave an abusive home out of fear for leaving their beloved pet behind. While this dynamic is difficult for some people to understand, it is continually demonstrated to us in national news after a nat - ural disaster occurs. It first began in 1992 with Hurricane Andrew in the Gulf Coast region of the United States, and then more significantly during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The recent wildfires in the west, Super Storm Sandy on the northeast coast in 2012, the overwhelming flooding that occurred in Colorado in 2013, and the deadly mudslides in Washington state in 2014 all witnessed pet owners experience this dilemma. The federal government acknowledges the bond between pet and owner on a website that helps people prepare a disaster plan for pets, with clear instructions to never leave a pet behind ( http://www. ready.gov/caring-animals ). Emotional bonds with pets are intensified during a crisis, whether it is during a natural disaster or episode of domestic violence. Not unlike victims of natural disasters, people facing domestic violence may be unwilling to leave a pet behind, especially when they believe the pet will be harmed, abused or killed. Facts and Figures • 1.3 million women and 835,000 men in the U.S. are victims of physical assault by an intimate partner each year (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 2007). • Twelve independent studies report that between 18% and 48% of battered women have delayed their decision to leave their batterer, or have returned to their batterer, out of fear for the welfare of their pets or livestock (Ascione, 2007). • A 2012 study found that 59% of abused women delayed leaving the home out of fear of leaving their pets behind (Alberta SPCA, 2012). • In a study of domestic violence shelters across the country, 85% of shelter directors encountered cases in which women disclosed animal abuse (Ascione, Weber & Wood, 1997). • A 2007 study found that women seeking refuge at a family violence shelter were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt/killed their pet and that shelter women were 4 times more likely to report that their pet had been threatened (Ascione et al., 2007; Volant, Johnson, Gullone & Coleman, 2008). • In a study of battered women in several northeastern states, 48% of respondents reported that animal abuse had occurred “often” during the past 12 months, and another 30% reported that the abuse oc - curred “almost always.” Types of animal abuse reported included punching, hitting, choking, drown - National District Attorneys Association 9

18 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals ing, shooting, stabbing, and throwing the animal against a wall or down stairs. Respondents reported that animal cruelty incidents coincided with violent outbursts against human family members 51% of the time (Carlisle-Frank, Frank & Nielsen, 2006). • “Batterers who also abuse their pets are both more controlling and use more dangerous forms of violence [sexual violence, marital rape, emotional violence and stalking] than batterers who do not” (Simmons & Lehmann, 2007). • In a study of the barriers preventing rural women from leaving domestic violence abusers, Canadian researchers identified animal abuse, social and geographic isolation, poverty, a lack of social services, inadequate transportation, and firearms as factors that silence women from leaving or reporting. “Pets and/or farm animals are often threatened, harmed or neglected as a means of controlling an abused woman, and it is common for women to delay seeking help out of fear for their animals.” Forty-five percent of the women said that their pets and/or farm animals were deliberately threat - ened with harm, and in 41% of cases the pets actually were deliberately harmed or killed (Doherty & Hornosty, 2008). • One of the strongest studies covered a seven-year period in 11 different site locations to look at factors that initiate battering behavior. While the study did not set out to focus on animal abuse, the - results showed that animal abuse was a significant variable and was one of only four factors associat ed with becoming a batterer (Walton-Moss, et al., 2005). “As a domestic violence advocate working in many programs at different capacities since 1987, I strongly encourage advocates to take animal abuse seriously when assisting clients in assessing lethality in their relationships. There is a correlation between animal abuse and lethality in do - mestic violence cases, and abusers who hurt animals are more likely to seriously hurt or kill their victims. Questions addressing animal abuse should be part of a lethality checklist. Abusers also intimidate victims with threats to hurt or kill their pets if the victim leaves, and many victims will - not leave their pets behind when escaping an abusive relationship (for fear of the abuser retaliat ing with their pets). This is another important reason to explore this information with your client. Add questions like, ‘Has your partner ever threatened to hurt or kill a pet? Has your partner ever hurt or killed a pet?’ Becoming aware of this information will enhance the safety of victims, their children and pets.” — Maria Luisa O’Neill (Program Services Coordinator, National Coalition Against Domestic Violence) Studies have documented the generational cycles of abuse within families. The results from the National Youth Survey Family Study, which is a national, longitudinal study of 1,614 individuals, representing two generations from 1990 to 2004, was analyzed. The findings included: - • 3% of the parents’ generation reported having perpetrated animal abuse in their youth, with an aver age age of onset of 12 years of age. • 33% of the parents reported histories of violent interpersonal violence perpetration. NDAA 10

19 i n k d C V i o l e n C e A n d t h e l o m e s t i • 34% of the parents reported histories of violent interpersonal violence victimization. • 3% of their children, surveyed 14 years later, reported histories of perpetrating animal abuse, with an average age of onset of 11 years. (Knight, Ellis & Simmons, 2014). The parents’ history of animal abuse was predictive of later interpersonal violence perpetration and victim - ization: • Parents with early histories of animal abuse were 3.6 times more likely to be violent interpersonal violence perpetrators than were parents without animal abuse histories. This finding lends support to the “graduation hypothesis,” they noted, in which animal abuse serves as an introduction to increas - ingly escalating forms of interpersonal violence. • There was a stronger intergenerational pattern of victimization: parents with early histories of animal abuse were 19.5 times more likely to be victims of violent interpersonal violence than were those - without animal abuse histories. This finding lends support to the need to consider social environ ments and family contexts as contributing risk factors, they said. • Lastly, the parents’ earlier history of interpersonal violence was predictive of their children’s history of animal abuse, specifically the children being almost 3 times more likely to have a history of animal abuse compared to parents who did not report interpersonal violence perpetration. A 2012 study from New Zealand explored the reasons why companion animals are harmed in intra-famil - ial violence (Roguski, 2012). The study focused on animals abused during and after an abusive relationship and found these factors: Cruelty to animals during the abusive relationship Abusing animals creates a culture of normalized violence while harming people Abusers gain a perverse satisfaction from hurting pets, often pets not in the home, which was not anger related but often done to instill fear in the family Abusing the animals as punishment for unwanted behavior from people Abusing animals out of jealousy of the relationship between the animal and human victims Abusing animals as a threat to keep the humans in the home and to show intolerance for misbehaving by people Animals caught in the cross fire of violence towards people Abusing animals to avoid police intervention (which was more likely to occur with human violence) because they felt police did not care about animal abuse crimes 2 Animals used as sexual objects as a form of power and control over the human victims National District Attorneys Association 11

20 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Cruelty to animals after the abusive relationship ended Threats to harm the animal(s) left behind Actual harm to animals left behind as punishment for the person leaving Harm to the animals of friends and family out of retaliation for the person leaving The research validates what many people already know: having pets gives many people a reason to live. For women who are abused and may be socially isolated by their abuser, a pet could save their lives. A 2007 study looked at how pets can be a protective factor for abused women and found that it was the fear for the pet’s safety along with the pet providing social support that allowed women to cope with the abuse, not end their lives, and ultimately get to safety (Fitzgerald, 2007). “Pets are uniquely situated to provide social support to some abused women and can even serve a protective function against suicidality. In order to adequately address the needs of abused women, particularly related to suicidality, the important role of pets can play in their lives must be taken seriously and, ideally, fostered” (Fitzgerald, 2007). It is important for agencies to acknowledge that pets are part of the family and that families experiencing domestic violence will need safety plans for their pets. Changing agency protocols to acknowledge that pets will be addressed in Changing Agency Procedures . The section on Families Seeking Shelter with Pets outlines resources to help families to escape to safety with their pets. When family violence shelters open their doors to assisting family pets, they will remove one barrier to safety. Fortunately, close to one hun - dred family violence shelters are now doing this. Pets of Domestic Violence Just like people, pets can also be victims of domestic violence. Many pet owners, especially those who are battered, may not wish to be separated from their pet if they leave the abusive home. Therefore, they are likely to stay in the abusive environment and expose themselves, their children and their pets to continued violence. Training first responders to ask domestic violence victims about family pets should be incorpo - rated into protocols. Knowing if a pet is in an abusive home, and working with the victim to remove the pet, may avoid a situation where the survivor delays leaving or returns to the home to protect the pet. “A greater understanding of the dynamics of pet abuse and women’s decisions about their pets when seek - ing shelter would inform professionals’ efforts to facilitate women’s departures from violence relationships and their recovery process” (Hardesty, et al., 2013). Including pets in domestic violence protective orders has been on the legislative forefront since 2006. These laws enhance safety for victims by increasing the types of relief victims can request and judges can direct via a family violence protective order. The need for these laws is that the issue of victims’ safety concerns about their pets has been identified within the victim services field as an under-served need that directly affects victim safety and wellbeing. These laws encourage judges to include family pets (dogs, cats, rabbits and sometimes livestock) in domestic violence protection orders. Seven states (Arizona, Colorado, Indiana, Maine, Nebraska, Nevada, and Tennessee), have specifically added “cruelty to animals” to the definition of domestic violence when committed to intimidate or coerce a partner. While a judge should be NDAA 12

21 l i n k o m e s t i C V i o l e n C e A n d t h e d able to include a family pet in a protection order under the property category or “other relief ” (check your state law to make sure that the property definition is not narrowly written to exclude animals), this move - ment in adding pets to protective order laws is another recognition that pets are part of the family and can be victims of intra-familial violence. For a listing of states that have passed protective order laws to include pets, please visit the National Link to view the listing of states with Pet Protective Order laws. Coalition website Regardless of whether your state has included pets in your domestic violence protective order law, remember that pets may be included in the property or “other relief ” category of a protection order. National District Attorneys Association 13

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23 C hild buse And t he l ink A “Teaching a child empathy and compassion and returning him to a toxic environment is like cleaning an oiled bird and returning it to the muck.” — Dr. Randall Lockwood (ASPCA) Facts and Figures • In 2012, approximately 678,000 children were substantiated as abused or neglected stemming from 3.4 million reports/referrals, and an estimated 1,640 children died from abuse or neglect (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2013). • Neglect is the most common form of child abuse (78% of cases), followed by physical abuse (18% of cases) then sexual abuse (9% of cases) (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2013). • Over 80% of child abuse/neglect perpetrators are parents (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Ser - vices, 2013). • One of the first studies to address the Link between child abuse and animal abuse discovered that 88% of homes with physically abused children also included abuse or neglect of the family pet (DeViney, Dickert & Lockwood, 1983). • One study found that 62% to 76% of animal cruelty in the home occurs in front of children (Faver & Strand, 2003). And where studies have shown that children have been found to intervene to protect their mothers from being battered (Edelson, Mbilinyi, Beeman & Hagemeister, 2003), anecdotal evidence shows that some children may even allow themselves to be victimized to save their pets from being harmed or killed. • A 2009 study focusing on the interconnection of animal cruelty, child abuse, and domestic violence found that nearly half of the participants suffered at least one form of violence during childhood and that victims of family violence were more likely to experience animal cruelty. Wit - nessing animal cruelty was the largest predictor of future violence by the witness, who was more than eight times more likely to subsequently become a perpetrator of violence. The study deter - mined that when the witnessing of animal cruelty interacts with child maltreatment or exposure to domestic violence, the risk of animal cruelty increases; when domestic violence was limited to the most severe cases, exposed individuals were more likely to have witnessed animal abuse; and animal abuse perpetration was also associated with higher rates of child neglect (DeGue & DiLillo, 2009). • In one study of battered women with children who sought shelter in a safe house, 32% reported that their children had hurt or killed a family pet (Ascione, 1998). National District Attorneys Association 15

24 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals • Children who are exposed to domestic violence are nearly three times more likely to be cruel to animals than children who are not exposed to such violence (Currie, 2006). • A 2007 study found that 67% of children residing in family violence shelters reported witnessing abuse of their family pet, almost 60% of children were very upset about the harm to their pet(s), and 37% of the shelter children progressed to harming or killing pets (Ascione et al., 2007). • A 2011 study found a connection between a child witnessing animal abuse and subsequently engaging in animal abuse and bullying behavior (Gullone, 2011). • Frequent spanking of 3-year-olds was associated with higher levels of child aggression when the child was 5, including temper tantrums and lashing out physically against other people and animals (Taylor, et al., 2010). • Children who are physically punished more frequently before adolescence are more likely to abuse animals (Flynn, 1999). • Animal cruelty committed by children is often symptomatic of future abuse of other animals or people (Boat, 1999) and one study revealed that 37% of boys and 29% of girls who were victims of physical and sexual abuse and domestic violence were reported to abuse their family pet (As - cione, 2005). - • Significant research has documented a relationship between childhood histories of animal cruel ty and patterns of chronic interpersonal aggression (Kellert & Felthous, 1985; Hensley & Talli - chet, 2005; Merz-Perez, Heide & Silverman, 2001; Becker & French, 2004). Children are surrounded by animals from their very first moments of life. Animals appear on their cloth - ing and room decorations, in stories, TV shows, movies, and as toys. As part of healthy growth and devel - opment, a child’s bond with animals teaches empathy and compassion. When a child has been abused or traumatized, the nonjudgmental comfort from an animal can help the child heal (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2009). The same bond can be exploited to seek silence and compliance from children who have been battered or who have witnessed violence in the home. According to Dr. Barbara Boat of the University of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital and The Childhood - Trust, witnessing the abuse of animals in the home is being recognized as toxic stress and an adverse child hood experience (ACE). Dr. Boat has studied the “toxic triad” of animal abuse, child abuse, and domestic violence for over two decades. She has concluded that when a child experiences these abusive events in early childhood, it can harm developing brain architecture resulting in long-term hyper-responsiveness to perceived threats, and lead to lifelong negative physical and mental health issues. In a 14-year-long study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, the health and social effects of ACEs were examined over the lifespan of 17,337 adults. Unfortunately, the study missed an import - ant component: it failed to include exposure to animal abuse in the home. Dr. Boat believes that until we include animal abuse in ACEs, we will be missing key opportunities for early intervention. For any child who progresses to harming animals, Dr. Boat says that knowledge of animal cruelty histories might help NDAA 16

25 C h i l d b u s e A n d t h e l i n k A us discriminate between children with severe or destructive conduct disorders and those with milder, non-destructive conduct disorders, and might flag children who are at risk for abusive experiences. The more we know about these kids, the more it can inform treatment. In recognition of this harm, laws are beginning to address when children are exposed to animal abuse. Federal: In 2014, the federal Animal Fighting Venture Prohibition Act (7 U.S.C.A. § 2156 and 18 U.S.C.A § 49) added a provision enhancing the criminal penalties for anyone bringing a child under the age of 16 to an animal fighting event. • Florida: § 800.04 (2008) increases the penalty for a person who commits bestiality in Fla. Stat. Ann. front of a minor child. Idaho Code Ann. • Idaho: - § 18-1506A (2006) provides that animal torture (including part of a cere mony or rite) committed in front of a child is a felony and deemed ritualized child abuse. • Illinois: 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/12-33 (2011) addresses that ritualized child abuse occurs when a person tortures an animal in front of a minor child. • Oregon: Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 167.320 (2003) makes it a first-degree felony to commit animal abuse in front of a minor child. • Puerto Rico: P.R. tit. 5, §§ 1668, 1669 and 1670 (2013) enhance the felony penalty if a Laws Ann. person is convicted of animal abuse and has previously been convicted of abusing an animal in front of a minor child. - “A primary mission of professional social workers is the enhancement of individual and fami ly functioning. Animal abuse is correlated with family dysfunction in several forms including intimate partner, child and elder abuse. Thus it may be an indicator of the need to probe for other forms of violence in homes. Social workers provide the majority of mental health services in the U.S. and much of their work is home-based. They are in an important position to help in early identification of such dysfunction. Early identification can provide an opportunity for inter - vention, help limit damage already done, identify at-risk populations and prevent future abuse. Understanding the meaning of the link between animal and human violence means social work professionals can help both people and animals.” — Dr. Christina Risley-Curtiss, MSSW (Asso - ciate Professor, Arizona State University School of Social Work Fellow, Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics Founder/Director of Children and Animals Together Assessment and Intervention Co-Di - rector, Child Welfare Training Project Affiliate, Women and Gender Studies Program) It is important to talk to children about their experiences with animals, either to confirm a healthy and nurturing bond between the child and the pet, or to identify when has a child has harmed an animal or witnessed animal abuse. When talking to children about their experiences with abuse or witnessing abuse, it is important to allow the child to feel comfortable in disclosing so that accurate information can be gath - ered to assist with case planning. National District Attorneys Association 17

26 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Add questions about family pets to your forensic interview protocols. The forensic interview process is a safe setting to inquire about animals. Simply asking a few questions during the rapport-building process may allow the child to feel comfortable (by focusing on a topic other than him/herself ) and to share what is happening in the home regarding animals. These four questions will get the process started: • Do you have a pet? • Tell me about your pet(s)? • Is your pet happy? • Is your pet safe? It is also important to ask children whether anyone has asked or forced them to harm an animal. This re - lates back to studies that have identified that some offenders will force children to engage in acts of bestial - ity (animal sexual assault) or to participate in animal fighting events by training the dogs or collecting bets. Children of all ages can provide a wealth of information regarding the dynamics of the home, including how family pets or other animals are treated by the offender — but they must be asked in order to obtain the information. This data will benefit social workers, child protection investigators, law enforcement, prosecutors, probation agents, and judges. Children who grow up exposed to chronic violence may develop beliefs that harming an animal, bullying, misbehaving and other criminal activity is the norm. It is not. NDAA 18

27 Y C rimes And t he l ink outh “The prosecution of cases involving juvenile animal abuse offenders can be challenging and emo - tionally daunting for prosecutors. Many youth who commit acts of animal cruelty were exposed to violence early in their childhood. This early exposure to a high stress abusive environment can cause children to fail to develop empathy and to have a desire to harm other living beings. Studies have shown that 30% of children exposed to domestic violence and abuse have subsequently com - mitted acts of animal cruelty against their pets. In addition, without intervention, these children may be unable to achieve a bright future. Studies show that youth who engaged in acts of animal cruelty between the ages of six and twelve are twice as likely to be charged in a violent juvenile de - linquency offense against a human. Often court personnel are unfamiliar with how to best provide rehabilitative services for convicted youth. It is important that the prosecutor be prepared to guide the court to appropriate treatment programs that will successfully rehabilitate juvenile offenders.” — Jennifer Rallo (Assistant State’s Attorney, Baltimore City State’s Attorney’s Office) When a youth is accused of a Link-related crime, it becomes important to effectively address the underly - ing causes that resulted in the criminal conduct. The investigation should uncover whether the youth may have been abused or neglected and/or may have mental health issues that require immediate intervention to prevent future and escalating violence. It is also important to identify whether the youth witnessed animal abuse in early childhood, which can be particularly devastating for a child during formative years. “When examining possible pathways of acquisi - tion between animal abuse and bullying behaviors, it was found that each type of behavior was significant - ly predicted by the witnessing of animal abuse” (Gullone, 2011). Children and youth are abusive to animals for a variety of reasons: • Curiosity or exploration • Peer pressure • To threaten or intimidate others to gain power and control • Sexual gratification • To prevent someone else from harming their pet • Acting out the abuse they have suffered • Rehearsing their own suicide • Seeking to shock or offend others to draw attention to themselves or • As a way of producing injury to themselves, analogous to “cutting” National District Attorneys Association 19

28 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals When Youth are Bystanders to Animal Abuse One study interviewed twenty-five college students who were adolescent bystanders to animal abuse to de - termine when (or whether) a child will intervene when another child is harming an animal (Arluke, 2012). The average age at the time of the incident was 14; half were female, all but one was Caucasian. Two-thirds of the animals harmed were rodents; 20% were cats and dogs. Most of those surveyed were emotionally/ morally distressed about what they witnessed, yet only 20% intervened and none reported the abuse to an adult. The study discussed two features of adolescent peer culture that would seem to be likely contributors to bystander apathy in animal cruelty cases. (1) Adolescents have been found to define certain untoward behaviors, such as the use of sexual innuen - dos, racist epithets, or animal abuse, as acceptable play. These forms of “dirty play” are experienced as fun and thrilling in part because adolescents know that adult society does not condone them (Fine, 1992), but also because they can try on adult roles from which they have been excluded (Arluke, 2002). - Dirty play is similar to swearing, racist jokes, playing with fire, and looking at pornography. Those sur veyed felt that this conduct at that age was normal, so they did not do anything about it. Only when the “play” became life threatening did the students feel that it was wrong. (2) Bystanders may think it is cool to be apathetic and uncool to be a tattletale who pries into other’s busi - ness, rendering the norm of social responsibility inoperative. “Adolescent bystanders of animal abuse were hesitant to intervene in these cases because of constraints stemming from their close personal ties; namely, these affiliations (a) defined animal - abuse as a form of “dirty play” rather than as bad or criminal behavior, (b) treated everyone pres ent during the abuse as part of the play, and (c) threatened to negatively sanction ‘tattletales’ and ‘spoilsports’ ” (Arluke, 2012). The adolescent bystanders felt drawn in even though they were not participating. Most felt that the abuser was only being abusive because there was an audience and would not have harmed the animal if alone. The incidents generally occurred when an adult was not at home or outside of the home in a private location to avoid detection by an adult. A few incidents involved parents as the abusers. Gender was a big factor if the abuser was a boy and the bystander was a female (she did not feel she could object to the abuse). Being labeled a tattletale as an adolescent was a strong factor that caused the children surveyed to not report to an adult. Females did not want to be labeled as weak or emotional. When each was questioned about the abusive incident, now as an adult, most felt remorse for not disclosing, but in their adolescent brain they were not able to report. NDAA 20

29 l Y r i m e s A n d t h e C i n k o u t h Educate kids that it’s cool to report animal abuse to an adult and be the hero for a helpless animal. Studying youthful bystanders of animal cruelty provides an ideal opportunity to explore the kinds of barri - ers facing children and adolescents who witness violence rendered by friends and family members. The Psychological Impact on Youth Animal Abusers - “It is now understood that childhood cruelty to animals is an important predictor of later antiso cial and aggressive acts and that children showing these behaviors, without intervention, are at risk for enduring disorders in conduct and mental health” (Becker & French, 2004). Animal abuse (specifically aggression towards animals) was added in 1987 to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IIIR) as a symptom of Conduct Disorder. Conduct Disorder involves repetitive and persistent patterns of behavior that violate the basic rights of others and societal norms or rules. There are two subtypes of Conduct Order: Childhood-Onset and Adolescent-Onset. Subtypes of Conduct Disorder are now being examined and one subtype that may be of special interest to those studying animal abuse relates to youths who are described as displaying callous and unemotional traits. These traits may be implicated in psychopathy (Vaughn & Howard, 2005) and are potentially related to deficits in empathy (Kotler & McMahon, 2005; Raine et al., 2006). In one study of a normative sample of school-aged children, it was found that scores on a measure of callous-unemotional traits were positively correlated with scores on an animal abuse measure (Dadds, Whiting & Hawes, 2006). A recent case report suggests that both actual and symbolic (e.g., dismembering a toy animal, hanging a sibling’s toy teddy bear by a noose) animal abuse may have diagnostic value (Shapiro, Prince, Ireland & Stein, 2006). (Ascione & Shapiro, 2009). When youth are harmful to animals, this is an indicator that other harmful acts may be occurring. “Setting fires, bullying, and forced sex are three additional symptoms of antisocial behavior related to the diag - nostic criteria for Conduct Disorder. Recent research suggests that animal abuse may co-occur with these other forms of destructiveness and aggression” (Ascione & Shapiro, 2009). Fire setting and animal abuse among youth have been correlated (Kolko, 2002), and correlations between arson and animal abuse have been reported in children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence - (Dadds & Fraser, 2006; Becker, Stuewig, Herrera & McCloskey, 2004). One study of 9- to 12-year-old Ital ian children found that being a victim of bullying was the strongest predictor of committing animal abuse National District Attorneys Association 21

30 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals (Baldry, 2005). Similar results were found in an Australian sample of 12- to 16-year-old youth who were both victims and perpetrators of bullying (Gullone & Robertson, 2008). A recent increase in youth school shooters prompted a 2013 study (Arluke & Madfis, 2013), which looked into the backgrounds of youth shooters to assess whether animal abuse was present and, if so, determine the nature of the abuse. Past studies found an insufficient correlation between animal abuse and school shooters. A study by Verlinden, et al. in 2000 studied ten school shooters between 1996 and 1999 and found that half had previously engaged in animal abuse. However, Verlinden identified other stronger factors that were more significant: stressful event/loss of status, exhibiting signs of depression, having a preoccupation with violent media/music, feeling rejected by peers, and being picked on and persecuted. All of the sample’s school shooters demonstrated having a fascination with weapons and explosives, blam - ing others for problems, and threatening violence in advance of the attack. The Arluke and Madfis study of 23 school shooters reported that ten (or 43%) had a background of animal cruelty, 90% of those incidents were “up close and personal” attacks on animals, and 70% of the animals were unknown to the abuser (not a family pet) (Arluke & Madfis, 2013). The researchers found that some school shooters had empathy for animals and related to them as “underdogs”, including Adam Lanza (the Sandy Hook Elementary school shooter) who was a self-described “ethical vegan” and professed to care about animals. They suggested that “everyday” incidents of animal abuse do not necessarily predict antisocial behavior like school shootings, and that this sort of sadistic violence may stem from childhood trauma and shame. The most common denominator was the harm to animals in an “up close” and person - al manner. The authors concluded that if youth cannot find a socially acceptable method for handling their sense of powerless, then the “early experiences with animal cruelty may become a training ground for later - committing assaults, rape, and even murder” (Arluke & Madfis, 2013). While the debate continues regard ing links among school shooters, sadistic serial killers, and animal abuse, it is important for investigators and prosecutors to become increasingly aware of the type(s) of animal abuse in the background of the offender and recognize these incidents as a red flag for potential future individual and mass violence. A number of programs for engaging at-risk and offending youths in a safe setting with animals are detailed later in this Guidebook (See, Treatment Options for Link Crimes ). It is important to identify early child - hood and youthful harm towards animals and others and provide the appropriate intervention to stop the cycle of violence. NDAA 22

31 A n d Y C r i m e s o u t h t h e l i n k “The belief that one’s treatment of animals is closely associated with the treatment of fellow hu - mans has a long history, but despite the popular acceptance of this concept, until recently there were few attempts to systematically study the relationship between the treatment of animals and humans. The approach of mental health professionals to animal cruelty has shifted in alignment with society’s changing view of such abuse. Prior to 1987 the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders did not even consider such acts as indicative of mental illness. Later editions saw such behavior as a form of “destruction of property” diagnostic of Conduct Disorder and it now is part of the category of “violence against others.” Many advocates for animals and others hope that a better understanding of how cruelty to animals is related to other forms of violence may help in - developing tools for prevention and intervention.” — Randall Lockwood, Ph.D. (Senior Vice Pres ident, Forensic Sciences and Anti-Cruelty Projects, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) National District Attorneys Association 23

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33 t e buse And A he l ink lder A conservative estimate is that 1 in 3 elderly people have a pet (Mason, Peak, Krannich & Sanderson, 2002). Many elderly people live alone; their spouses may have passed on or their children have moved away, and some may be housebound due to physical restrictions, thus contributing to their isolation. A beloved pet can become an elderly person’s only family, friend, and source of comfort and companionship. This bond can be manipulated by someone abusing or exploiting the elderly person. Pets can be threatened with harm or actually hurt or killed as a means to coerce an elderly person to submit to the wishes of another. Abuse of the elderly is emerging as a significant factor in the increasing incidence of violence in the family. Many elderly people have less mobility, rely on pets for companionship, and often suffer depression if a pet dies or if they have to enter a care facility without their pet. They often struggle to give appropriate veterinary care due to financial restraints or inability to travel. Sadly, neglect of animals is often found. As discussed later, animal hoarding — a serious mental health issue with signifi - cant implications for individual and community health, welfare and safety — is most frequently committed by older persons. Yet the Link between violence to elders and animals continues to be under-studied. Like child abuse and domestic violence, elderly people need to be asked about their pets. A 2012 study surveyed 41 state Adult Protective Service (APS) agencies and found that 51% of those agencies do not ask any pet-related questions to their elderly clients, and only one agency asked about pet-related concerns. Some APS workers are known to make notes regarding pet issues detected in the home, although not required. APS workers may find that there are more issues involving animals with adult clients, such as animal hoarding, inability to manage pets, or spending money on pets and not on oneself (Peak, Ascione & Doney, 2012). This is another area where simply asking questions about pets can help with providing appropriate services and ensuring that all are safe in the home. A 2009 survey of APS agencies in all 50 states (of which agencies in 41 states responded) addressed wheth - er clients are asked questions about animals. The questions and results were: • In your screening process for elder abuse, do you ask if pets are present in the home? (Yes: 46%; No: 54%) • Do you ask any questions concerning pet abuse or animal welfare in general? (Yes: 12%; No: 88%) This study demonstrates the lack of questions being asked to vulnerable seniors who may have their pets threatened or harmed (Ascione & Peak, 2011). Another study also focused on whether APS workers are asking clients about their pets and are developing a plan for the care of pets (Boat & Knight, 2000). Six case managers were interviewed from a Midwestern state that assists approximately 1,500 elderly and disabled clients per year (ranging from age 30 to 85). The National District Attorneys Association 25

34 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals - study found that threats or harm to pets were infrequent, but dramatic when it occurred. Recommenda tions from the study included asking elderly adults about their pets (this can assist with caseworker safety issues as well as pet care), asking if they are worried about their pet, and asking if their pet is in danger. Please review your local adult protective services protocols and encourage caseworkers to inquire about family pets, to be on the lookout for neglected pets, and to coordinate with meal providers and animal shelters to also offer pet food to elder clients with pets. Financial exploitation of elders is another form of elder abuse and often perpetrated by caregivers (in - cluding adult children and grandchildren). The abuse may include aggression or violence toward the elder person and their pet, but can also include theft of property, money and financial information. If a pet is present in the elder person’s home, the pet can become a target to exert coercion over the elder. But due to generational beliefs or isolation, the elderly person may not report the abuse. If an offender claims that the elder suffers from dementia and is discussing a former pet that has since passed on, social service caseworkers should not accept that claim as true. Instead, look throughout the - elder person’s home for recent signs of a pet, such as food bowls, litter box, pet food, toys, leashes and bed ding with pet fur on it to refute that claim. By looking beyond the claims of the alleged offender, evidence that a pet has been harmed or killed may be uncovered. NDAA 26

35 ) s Al A ssAult A gAinst A nimAls (b estiAlit Y exu And the l ink Sexual assault against an animal (more commonly known as bestiality) is often characterized in statutes as a crime against nature. Currently, 38 states plus the District of Columbia have laws prohibiting besti - 3 a l it y. The crime of bestiality is receiving greater attention by law enforcement and the public, in part due to increased media interest and increased awareness of its connection with other criminal behavior of the offenders. - Bestiality has been documented in relation to crimes against people when retrospective reports of incar cerated men have been examined (Hensley, Tallichet & Singer, 2006; Simons, Wurtele & Durham, 2008). This includes the linkage to crimes against children (including child sexual assault), domestic violence, and the making of child and/or animal pornography. Studies have also informed us that some offenders force their child and adult victims to engage in bestiality (Ascione, 1993). Several years ago I was contacted regarding an incident where a woman and her three sons were being abused by the husband. During one particularly violence incident, the abuser took one of the family dogs into the backyard and sexually assaulted the dog in front of his wife and children and then shot and killed the dog. It was at that point that the wife realized that she and her three sons would likely be sexually assaulted and/or killed if they did not leave immediately. She was able to get herself, her three sons and the remaining dog to a shelter that was able to welcome pets on-site. The husband was subsequently arrested and prosecuted for animal abuse. — Allie Phillips (Direc - tor, National Center for Prosecution of Animal Abuse and Deputy Director, National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse, National District Attorneys Association) Legislators have started to recognize that those who sexually assault animals should be monitored similar to those who sexually assault children and adults. Nearly half of the states have passed laws that require a defendant to register as a sex offender if s/he is convicted of bestiality or for forcing another to engage in bestiality. And 44 states plus the federal government, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands have laws that fender registration include bestiality in the definition of child pornography/obscenity and requiring sex of 4 for the production, promotion, distribution, or possession of bestiality-related materials or live shows. National District Attorneys Association 27

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37 A h oArding And the l ink nimAl In the most recent edition of the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders — 5 (DSM-5) (re - leased in 2013), hoarding disorder was added as a new disorder with distinct treatments. Hoarding in - volves the excessive collection of possessions, the difficulty in parting with those possessions, and where the items have little if any value or utility other than contributing to excessive clutter. Symptoms of the disorder cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupation - al or other important areas of functioning including maintaining an environment for self and/or others. While some people who hoard may not be particularly distressed by their behavior, their 5 behavior can be distressing to other people, such as family members or landlords. Animal hoarding was specifically mentioned in the new DSM-V hoarding disorder under “Features supporting diagnosis.” Similarities of animal hoarding may also be a specialized form of hoarding disor - der, according to hoarding expert Dr. Gary Patronek. Recent research into hoarding focuses on histories of early childhood trauma and stressful life events as affecting neurobiology and leading to a disordered attachment style that may predispose some individuals to hoarding objects. These findings are aligned with experiences with animal hoarders. “Thus, it is possible that in adulthood, some people who have difficulty establishing supportive interpersonal relationships or who otherwise have difficulty coping with life stressors would find refuge in animals,” says Patronek. “Animals provide these individuals with reward, 6 acceptance, conflict-free relationships, and a sense of self-worth.” The stereotype of an animal hoarder is that of a single, older woman, living alone and socioeconomically 7 - Statistics compiled from 2000-2010 by Pet-abuse.com confirm this stereotype, with hoard disadvantaged. 8 ing cases skewing dramatically toward a female population over age 51. However, animal hoarding crosses all age cohorts and socioeconomic groups. Animal hoarding has been found to coincide with child neglect (dirty home, unclean clothing, inability to bathe/shower, asthma from inhaling animal urine ammonia, medical issues from insect bites and unclean living, and living among declining, dying and dead animals), elder neglect (taking in unwanted animals as extended family members when human family members may live at a distance and a spouse has passed on, inability to properly feed or provide veterinary care), and a host of animal abuse and neglect concerns. When such situations involve violations of state and local animal abuse laws as well as mental health issues, animal welfare investigators and prosecutors, as well as social services and mental health professionals, - face challenging decisions regarding the most appropriate and effective strategies to ameliorate the situa tion. National District Attorneys Association 29

38 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Children who live with hoarders are at risk for a myriad of health, emotional and social issues. Social concerns: • Isolation from family • Isolation from friends • Concern about appearance and cleanliness • Missed days of school • Lying to cover up hoarding Health and safety risks: • Chronic headaches • Respiratory problems • Allergies • Insect bites • Poor nutrition • Slip and fall • Barriers to emergency medical professionals “[L]aws which were written over a century ago to punish and thereby discourage individual bad acts to animals may not work so well when the problem is one of gradually deteriorating capacity of care in which the line between cruelty/not cruelty is harder to discern,” says Patronek. Difficulties arise for law enforcement, humane investigators and protective service workers as these laws may not support an early intervention and proactive approach. And when conditions deteriorate to the point of criminal prosecution, prosecution may not be the best solution. Since hoarders have a recidivism rate of almost 9 consistent social work, or probation oversight are the best way to 100%, psychological intervention, ensure that hoarding does not reoccur or result in other Link-related crimes. Patronek recommends having an increased awareness of the multidisciplinary aspects of animal hoarding cases and bringing together relevant agencies, including forensic mental health professionals, the legal system, veterinarians, animal protection authorities, and public health. For more information on how children are impacted by hoarding, please visit http://childrenofhoarders. - com/ . For more information on animal hoarding, please visit the Hoarding of Animals Research Consor tium at http://vet.tufts.edu/hoarding/index.html NDAA 30

39 nimAl A ighting And the l ink f Animal fighting is not simply a big city crime; it is pervading all communities. It is also not solely a crime against animals; it is a crime against society. What was once a cultural past time for some is now a felo - ny in all 50 states. Animal fighting is not only a barbaric and cruel event that results in animals tearing each other apart until a winner is declared (and the loser is often killed or is tossed away to die a slow and painful death), it is connected to a host of other crimes: gambling, physical assaults, sexual assaults, child 10 As a result, abuse, domestic violence, drug use, illegal weapons, extortion, arson, racketeering, and so on. - legislators are beginning to include animal fighting in their RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Or 11 Laws are also being passed ganizations) laws as a recognition of animal fighting linking to other crimes. to increase penalties for those who bring children to animal fighting events or commit animal abuse in 12 front of a child. As animal fighting ventures pervade our communities, children are not immune to witnessing and partic - ipating in animal fighting events. Children and youth are being used as bet runners, to raise dogs to fight, and even to throw animals into the ring. This results in: • Children and youth watching animals being violently killed; • Children and youth growing up with violence; • Children and youth being desensitized to harm and violence; • Children and youth having lower empathy; and • Children and youth being exposed to dog bites. To help determine how widespread animal fighting may be for children, Chicago’s Anti-Cruelty Society conducted written surveys with 37,702 students in grades K-12 between 2003 and 2006. The surveys were administered at over 1,500 schools, summer camps, and other venues. The chart below shows the findings from the study. Suburbs City of Chicago Total No. of students surveyed 35,815 1,887 37,702 Number who have attended dogfights 2,362 (6.6%) 323 (17.1%) 2,685 (7.1%) Number aware of dog fights 5,817 (14.4%) 623 (33%) 5,810 (15.4%) in the neighborhood Number who have attended cockfights 359 (1%) 93 (4.9%) 452 (1.2%) Number of families entering dogfights 163 13 176 636 (33.7%) 11,283 (29.9%) Number of serious dog bites 10,647 (29.7%) National District Attorneys Association 31

40 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals One highlight from this study is the awareness that animal fighting is occurring in suburbs and is not solely isolated in big cities. In some neighborhoods, the percentage of youths who had attended dogfights ranged as high as 31%. Being aware that children and youth in all communities may be exposed to animal fighting, and having a proper response by investigators and prosecutors, will help in early intervention to ensure that children and youth receive appropriate early-intervention and treatment and are protected from such violence. NDAA 32

41 t o C rimes And iolent he l ink V ther - Whenever the Link is discussed, a discussion of serial killers with histories of animal abuse is often includ ed in the conversation. Studies have validated the animal abuse past of dozens of the most nefarious serial killers. However, Link-related crimes happen every day that do not rise to the level of a serial killer. In fact, many serial killers do not have histories of animal abuse in their past. When professionals focus on the ex - treme cases of serial killers, we may fail to recognize the greater number of “everyday” Link-related crimes happening across the United States and worldwide. Those who harm, torture and kill animals for sadistic pleasure or control have few boundaries and should be considered very dangerous. Levin and Arluke (2009) studied sadistic serial killers and discovered that a certain type of animal cruelty likely foreshadows this kind of violence. “Torturing animals in an up-close and personal way, especially animals like dogs and cats that have been heavily anthropomorphized in our culture, is a more apt red flag of this form of extreme violence than is everyday animal abuse” (Arluke & Madfis, 2013). Although close to 90% of sadistic serial killers committed all forms of animal abuse (not just hands-on torture), this hands-on animal abuse is similar to the correlation of what was discovered with youth school shooters. So it is important for investigators and prosecutors to focus on the nature of the animal abuse to help deter - mine the propensity for violence in a risk and lethality assessment of the offender. - In a study conducted in 2002 of inmates with the Utah Department of Corrections, 42 men were ques tioned regarding their most recent and past histories of the treatment of animals and/or for admitting to violence in their interpersonal relationships. The men were ages 21 to 55, over two-thirds of the partic - ipants were Caucasian, and more than half were divorced. The survey found that over 55% had actually harmed or killed pets while living with an adult partner, and 50% had harmed or killed pets in general. And when harming an animal was involved, the rate of intimate-partner violence generally increased. For example, 9.5% of men who did not harm/kill animals used force oral or anal sex on a partner, where - as 33.3% of men who harmed/killed animals also used force oral or anal sex on a partner. Rates of other harmful conduct also increased. For example, setting fires increased from 28.6% (of men not harming/ killing animals) to 47.6% (of men harming/killing animals); property destruction increased from 28.6% to 42.9%; and punching, kicking or biting others increased from 42.9% to 71.4% (Ascione & Blakelock, 2003). A study published in 2009 (Alys, et al., 2009) aimed to determine if any association existed between child - - hood animal cruelty and delinquency, adult offending, violence and a dysfunctional background. Specifi cally, the study compared sexual homicide prisoners, sex offender outpatients, and a control group of men in an adult education program. Twenty men were in each of the three groups. None of the sex offender National District Attorneys Association 33

42 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals outpatients admitted to animal cruelty, but 19 of the sexual homicide prisoners and 14 of the control group admitted to animal cruelty in childhood. The researchers believed that the sex offender outpatients may have had concerns of admitting to cruelty while still on parole. The results demonstrated that participants with an animal cruelty history were 11 times more likely to be sexual homicide offenders and that those with a greater frequency of animal cruelty in childhood and adolescence were six times more likely to be sexual homicide offenders. This gives some support for the “violence graduation hypothesis” in which offenders become desensitized to violence and seek escalating manifestations to obtain thrills. Other re - search suggests animal abuse may more likely be part of a “general deviance” theory of criminal behavior. Moreover, the study participants who reported childhood animal cruelty were more likely to be antisocial in adolescence. That antisocial behavior is not limited to violent behavior, but includes general offending, such as property offenses. Of interest was that this study did not support the expectation that sexual abuse would be associated with animal cruelty. Instead, it was associated with physical and psychological abuse. “Participants who were physically abused were three times more likely to abuse animals in childhood and six times more likely to abuse animals in adolescence. Participants who were psychologically abused were two to three times more likely to abuse animals in adolescence.” Fatal Dog Attacks on Humans An interesting issue has been on the minds of researchers in recent years: that of fatal dog attacks on humans. Although a hot button issue, we know that dogs are not born vicious (regardless of the breed); improper socialization and/or someone makes them vicious. When investigators encounter a vicious dog in a home, it is important to examine the dynamics that made the dog vicious because studies are now identifying that fatal dog bites are linked to animal abuse. “Dog bite[s have] been associated with other social problems, including child abuse and other forms of family violence. DeViney et al. (1983) noted that the incidence of injuries from a family pet in homes with a documented history of child maltreatment and animal cruelty was six times the rate of injury seen in families without such history. Jonker & Jonker-Bakker (1991) report that 48 of 62 (77%) children interviewed as victims of sexual abuse had been attacked by their abuser’s dog. Vaisman-Tzachor (2001) expands on this with three additional case histories of this type.” (Lockwood, 2014) In a study from 2000-2009 (Patronek, et al., 2013), 256 fatal dog attacks were examined from the per - spective of situational and environmental factors that may be behaviorally relevant from a dog’s perspec - tive, rather than focusing on the breeds of the dogs involved. The study found that 21.1% of the fatalities involved dogs that were abused or neglected. The researchers identified a striking co-occurrence of multiple, controllable factors: no able-bod - ied person being present to intervene (87.1%); the victim having no familiar relationship with the dog(s) (85.2%); the dog(s) owner failing to neuter/spay the dog(s) (84.4%); a victim’s com - promised ability, whether based on age or physical condition, to manage their interactions with the dog(s) (77.4%); the owner keeping dog(s) as resident dog(s), rather than as family pet(s) (76.2%); the owner’s prior mismanagement of the dog(s) (37.5%); and the owner’s abuse or ne - glect of dog(s) (21.1%). Four or more of these factors were present in 80.5% of cases; breed was 13 not one of those factors. NDAA 34

43 o h e V i o l e n t C r i m e s A n d t t h e r l i n k The authors concluded that most dog bite-related fatalities were characterized by coincident, preventable, policy-relevant factors; the dog’s breed was not one of these. Moreover, the study found that “while it is extremely rare that dogs living as either resident dogs or as family pets ever inflict serious injuries on hu - mans, dogs not afforded the opportunity for regular, positive interaction with people may be more likely, in situations they perceive as stressful or threatening, to behave in ways primarily to protect themselves.” When dogs are abused, neglected or exposed to chronic violence in the home, it could trigger violence on the part of the dog. This is an important factor for all investigators (law enforcement, child and adult protection) to keep in mind. National District Attorneys Association 35

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45 C A gen CY p roCedures hAnging In addition to changing laws to acknowledge the Link (such as including pets in domestic violence protec - tive orders and increasing penalties when children are exposed to animal fighting), the best way to make successful systemic change is to address policies within agencies. The following are some suggested ap - proaches currently being implemented by social services and criminal justice agencies: Changing Agency Procedures • Ask children about pets (during intake, assessment, forensic interview, medical exam - ination) to learn more about family dynamics and who is important in the child’s life. • Ask families seeking shelter whether there are pets (domesticated and livestock) at home whose welfare is also threatened and who need protection. • Include registered therapy animals with children who have experienced or witnessed abuse to assist them through the court process. - • Offer frequent trainings among criminal justice agencies to cross-train on intra-famil ial violence. • Set up systems to cross-report violence to the appropriate agency. • Create a Link coalition (or add animal protection to your existing coalitions) and meet regularly. • Create a partnership with animal protection and veterinary professionals. • Support legislation that encourages cross-reporting (which provides for immunity from civil and criminal liability). • Educate probation departments and judges (and legislate) for psychological evalu - ations and treatment with programs specialized for child and adult animal abusers (such as the AniCare model). • Seek treatment for children who have witnessed and/or perpetrated animal abuse. • Have family violence shelters create off-site foster care programs for pets and on-site housing of pets through Sheltering Animals & Families Together (SAFT-T) Program ). ( www.animalsandfamilies.org • Include pets in safety planning procedures. • Support legislation to include pets in protection orders. National District Attorneys Association 37

46 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Child and adult protection agencies, law enforcement, domestic violence shelters, prosecutors, and victim advocacy offices should add questions that ask children and families about animals in the home and whether the animals have been harmed or threatened and need shelter as well. Ask About Pets: Intake, Assessments and Interviews There is a growing trend among law enforcement to incorporate animal-related questions into their child abuse and domestic violence risk assessment protocols. Colorado statutes now allow pets to be included in protective orders and recently included animal abuse intended to intimidate a partner as one of the statu - tory definitions of domestic violence. Staff and forensic interviewers with children’s advocacy centers are learning about asking children about pets and pet safety during the interview and in therapy sessions. Simply asking a few questions during the rapport-building phase will help the child relax and help the interviewer gather important information about the home. When children and domestic violence survivors are asked about pets during intake, assessments and forensic interviews, it provides information about the family dynamics, may uncover other violence that needs to be addressed, helps with identifying key supports in their life (that may be a pet) and may inform case planning. If you ask, be prepared for a child or adult to disclose a recent incident of animal abuse. It is - important for agencies to have protocols in place for reporting the abuse to the appropriate animal protec tion or law enforcement agency. Failure to report will allow for the violence to continue in the home and will continue to expose all members of the family to violence. Remember to seek immediate therapeutic intervention for a survivor who has witnessed animal abuse. Asking about pets will also assist with helping to keep families and pets together, particularly if a child is being placed in foster care. Consider creating a database of pet-friendly foster homes that can take in chil - dren and their pets, as well as safe transitional housing for families. Therapy Animals for Maltreated Children When children have been abused or have witnessed violence, having a therapy animal provides comfort and listening to their story is important for their healing and recovery. It is also beneficial to help the child disclose relevant facts to interviewers, investigators and prosecutors. Children’s advocacy centers, prose - cutors’ offices and courthouses are increasingly incorporating therapy animals into treatment for children. Therapy Animals Supporting Kids (TASK) was created in 2009 out of a growing need to provide comfort and safety to children going through the court system, as well as to outline safe protocols for children, staff, is available for download at and the animal/handler team (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2009). The TASK Manual 14 www.ndaa.org. NDAA 38

47 C A g e n C Y p r o C e d u r e s h A n g i n g Cross-Training When human and animal protection agencies, collaborating with prosecutors and law enforcement, can come together to co-train regarding the legal requirements and practicalities of their work, this helps all agencies to work together cohesively for early intervention in violent homes. When animal protection receives basic training on what signs to look for involving child abuse or neglect, they are in a more confi - dent position to report what they see. Likewise, when domestic violence and child/adult protection service workers are trained on basic information involving animal abuse and neglect, they are in a position to better help their clients and report what they see. Cross-training, in the end, allows for more efficient and factually stronger reports and cases, thus benefitting law enforcement, prosecutors, and the crime victims. Working in silos and failing to share important information can maintain violence in the home that is not being addressed by the proper agency. Cross-training should happen regularly as part of an overall coalition (see ). The training Link Coalitions does not have to be lengthy or extensive. Bringing relevant agencies and staff together for a monthly lunch- and-learn or a half day quarterly training will help to educate everyone coming into contact with families how to respond to those who may be experiencing Link-related crimes. Cross-Reporting In the past decade, state laws and individual agency protocols have started to recognize that both animal and human protection agencies should make a report when a situation of abuse becomes known. While there has been some resistance to mandated cross-reporting laws or protocols, usually due to the concerns of confidentiality constraints, an existing full caseload and staff being over-burdened, agencies who are cross-reporting are seeing the benefits. Visit NDAA’s Website for a listing of cross-reporting laws by state and by profession. In addition to statutes delineating specific professions as mandated reporters, eighteen states mandate that all persons (which would include animal protection and veterinarians) report child abuse. Those states are: Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming. However, some professionals in these states are unaware of this requirement. National District Attorneys Association 39

48 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals “The veterinary profession is focused upon the protection of animals and the prevention and relief of animal suffering. However both scientific evidence and practical experience show that the health for people, animals, and the environment are inextricably connected (a.k.a. ‘One Health’ and ‘One Welfare’). As such, the practice of veterinary medicine is influenced by considerations not only for the needs of the patient, but also the welfare of the client, and the safety of the public. - It is the responsibility of the veterinarian to report crimes of animal abuse and neglect to appropri ate authorities, whether or not reporting is mandated by law, because prompt disclosure of abuse is necessary to protect the health and welfare of animals and people.” — Emily Patterson-Kane, PhD (Animal Welfare Scientist, American Veterinary Medical Association) In the first known survey of its kind, a 2010 study (Risley-Curtiss, Zilney & Hornung, 2010) looked at whether child protection agencies are cross-reporting when they uncover other forms of abuse. The head state agency in 45 states and the District of Columbia were surveyed. The results were as follows: Did core training include asking families about animals? • 25% provided training on the topic • 17% were trained to assess animal abuse Do safety/risk assessments ask about animals? • 80% do not • 4 include in safety protocols • 1 includes in risk assessment Does your agency cross-report? • 26% had some cross-reporting • 6.5% had some policies in place • 11% train on cross-reporting Are these topics covered in advanced trainings? • 80% said no. The authors of the study opined that local agencies may be providing this training unbeknownst to the state, thus not being accounted for in the study. The study showed that even with the passage of cross-re - porting laws, it is up to the local and state agencies to set policies that cross-reporting is important. Prosecutors are in a prime position to encourage cross-training and cross-reporting. They should begin by speaking with local law enforcement and agency investigators about the goals of cross-training and - cross-reporting, and identify stakeholders from various agencies to attend a training session. Cross-re porting can be discussed, as well as procedures for how your jurisdiction wishes to handle cross-reports. NDAA 40

49 C A g e n C Y p r o C e d u r e s h A n g i n g Procedures may include providing responders with specific contacts at a cross-reporting agency so that a call can be made from the scene or home under investigation, as well as how to file a report. The goal of cross-training and cross-reporting is not for professionals in one field to conduct an inves - tigation in an area outside their field of expertise, but simply to understand what might be considered maltreatment and know whom to call to report it. When various agencies come together to learn about cross-reporting, their response to families in need will be more efficient. Prosecutors are in a unique leadership position to oversee the change in their community to start the recognition of the cross-correlation of the Link. The growing recognition of this dynamic and how it can be used both inside and outside the courtroom will benefit all victims. Link Coalitions In the past decade, there has been an increase in Link coalitions forming across the United States, and even abroad, to address a better response to crimes that involve the Link. Several of these coalitions (as well as animal cruelty task forces) have been initiated by law enforcement and prosecution officials. These coali - tions can either expand from existing child abuse multi-disciplinary teams, or start new. A Link coalition - typically involves the collaboration among human protection (child, adult, elder), animal protection, pros ecution, law enforcement, human and veterinary medical, mental health, and public health professionals. It is important to include animal protection and veterinarians in violence prevention coalitions, coordi - nated community response teams, multidisciplinary teams, and lethality review teams so that professional relationships are already in place for a collaborative and efficient response to a Link-related incident. When a Link coalition is formed, the foundation will be in place for cross-training, cross-reporting, and breaking down silos to allow for more efficient sharing of information about families in need. At the national level, the National Link Coalition ( www.nationallinkcoalition.org ), with more than 2000 participants and a steering committee of 18 Link professionals and agencies, is the leading resource on creating coalitions and working with Link-related issues, public policy, programs and research issues. Additionally, in January 2014, 40 national organizations, including federal agencies, came together in the first meeting of the National Coalition on Violence Against Animals ( www.ncovaa.org ). The coalition is bringing together human and animal protection national leaders, as well as those representing prosecutors, law enforcement and other related investigators, to tackle animal abuse head on. When agencies can begin to work together in a Link coalition and share information by breaking down silos on information, the response to safeguard families will be more effective. National District Attorneys Association 41

50 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals For more information about how to form a Link coalition, please visit www.nationallinkcoalition.org and download the “Toolkit for Starting a Link Coalition in your Community” and to view a listing of existing Link coalitions. Families Seeking Shelter with Pets “I stayed alive over a fish. When I had nothing else, I had a fish. It kept me going.” “If I had known about [this pet housing program] ahead of time, that would have saved my ani - mals through the years that I’ve lost because of my abuser” (Hardesty et al., 2013). Social service agencies are beginning to acknowledge the Link and the bond that people have with their pets, such as recognizing that family members may remain in harm’s way out of fear for their animals’ safety. With 68% of families having pets, domestic violence shelters are increasingly having families request help for their pets, but far too many shelters are not equipped to help families with pets. At a minimum, all shelters should have hotline staff ask callers whether they have pets, whether their pets are safe, and whether they have a safe place for their pets. Gathering this information will help a shelter to collect evidence supporting the need for building an off-site or on-site housing program for pets. The hotline staff should have local information available as to where family pets can be safely housed. Simply - referring a family to the local animal shelter is not a sufficient resource and may be an inadequate solu tion when they wish to keep their pet during the transition to safety. In 2014, the New York City domestic violence hotline is surveying callers by asking about pets in an effort to gather data on the need for safe pet housing. Although great progress has been made in the past five years, many family violence shelters are either un - - able or unwilling to house client pets. There are two options that are successfully being embraced: (1) im plement guidelines from the first and only global initiative Sheltering Animals & Families Together (SAF-T) , 15 assisting shelters in effectively and safely housing pets on-site with their human families , or (2) arrange for off-site housing of family pets at veterinary clinics, boarding facilities, animal shelters, or through fos - ter care (often called a Safe Havens program). Programs to house pets of domestic violence are a solution to Link-related crimes. NDAA 42

51 C e d u r e s C g e n C Y p r o A h A n g i n g Sheltering Animals & Families Together (SAF-T) was created by the author of this publication after expe - riencing too many domestic violence victims returning to the abusive home to care for pets left behind. SAF-T sets forth written guidelines for domestic violence shelters to house family pets on-site in a safe, simple and affordable manner. Having this resource available in your community can make the difference between keeping family’s safe or watching them return to an abusive home. There are far too many families who refuse to be separated from their pets, even during times of violence. We have seen this dynamic play out in numerous natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina and Super Storm Sandy, where pet owners stayed behind in the face of danger in order to protect and be with their pet. This human-animal bond can help the adult and child survivors to heal faster from past trauma. Please visit www.animalsandfamilies.org to locate a SAF-T shelter in your community, to download the SAF-T Startup Manual and other resources, and read more about how to implement SAF-T in your community. High Desert Domestic Violence Center in Victorville, California allows pets inside the residents’ rooms and built on pet doors and screened-in pet play areas. National District Attorneys Association 43

52 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals The Rose Brooks Center, Kansas City, Missouri, built their on-site SAF-T kennel after a woman and her dog were savagely beaten with a hammer. The Safe Havens concept is another valuable tool for family violence shelters. It involves placing a family pet in an off-site care system, such as in foster care, a veterinary clinic, a boarding facility or an animal shelter, until the owner and pet can be reunited. For more information on safe havens in your community, please visit RedRover’s A Safe Place for Pets or the Animal Welfare Institute’s Safe Haven’s Mapping Project for combined listings of current SAF-T and Safe Havens programs. Guidelines and sample forms for estab - Safe Havens for Pets: Guidelines for Programs Sheltering Pets lishing off-site pet safe housing are available in for Women Who Are Battered , by Dr. Frank Ascione (available at http://www.vachss.com/guest_dispatches/ safe_havens.html ) and from the Ohio Domestic Violence Network Guide to Pet Support for programs (available at www.odvn.org , under the Resource Center tab then “Domestic Violence and Animal Issues” ). In a 2013 study, a small sample of 19 women in shelters were surveyed about their pets. The results were consistent with past studies and informed us of the following: NDAA 44

53 C h A n g i n g g e n C Y p r o C e d u r e s A • Women with strong bonds to pets had their abusers use control tactics to threaten pets; • Pets helped women in recovery after abuse; • Women wanted to be asked about their pets during intake at a shelter; • Women felt a lack of control over the decision to leave their pet and wanted safe options for their pet when seeking shelter (such as, they wanted their veterinarian to offer safe affordable housing and they were critical of shelters not providing them options for their pet) (Hardesty, et al. 2013). When family violence shelters ask about pets (which may include livestock and farm animals) and create pet housing programs, they eliminate a barrier to safety for families needing help. Pet Safety Planning When families are preparing to leave an abusive home, family violence shelters typically have information readily available to help them plan for a safe departure. It is now important for shelters to add pet safety planning recommendations to their websites and printed materials. When families prepare to safely leave and bring their pet with them, it reduces the need to return to the abusive home to care for the pet(s). A Pet Safety Planning flyer can be located on the Sheltering Animals & Families Together ( www.animalsand - 16 Samples of pet safety plans from eight domestic website (on the Resources page). families.org )(SAF-T) 17 violence shelters are also available on the National Link Coalition website. Including Pets in Protective Orders Amending domestic violence protective order laws to include pets was introduced into the legislative scene in 2006. As of the publication of this Guidebook, 25 states plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have passed pet protective order laws. For a current listing of these laws and statutory language, visit the 18 National Link Coalition website. If your state does not have a protective order law that includes pets, it is important to educate those assist - ing survivors and judges that pets can be included as property or under “other relief ” on existing protec - tive orders. Ideally, however, pets should be specifically listed in the protective order forms as this will assist families and judges to recognize this issue. When agencies acknowledge and understand the implication that the Link can have on families, children, and animals, addressing the Link in agency protocols and policies will allow for a more efficient and effec - tive response and early intervention, saving lives as a result. National District Attorneys Association 45

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55 i nVestig ink C rimes l Ating Link Evidence Any professional who is involved in gathering evidence of criminal conduct or works with survivors should always be on the lookout for evidence of multiple crimes of abuse within a home. Identifying ev - idence of multiple forms of abuse will not only benefit the prosecutor in charging and preparing the case for trial, but will also assist mental health treatment providers and social workers in case planning and management. Documenting all forms of violence and reporting to the proper investigating agency is important. This may include photographing or videotaping the entire home (inside and outside) to assist investigators and prosecutors in determining what action needs to be taken. For example, if a child protection investigator enters a home to investigate a complaint of child abuse and notices a cat who is thin, ribs are showing, and there are no food or water bowls present, the investigator should inquire about the cat, take photos, and report the situation to the animal investigation authorities for further investigation. When there is multiple violence (poly-victimization) in a home, this Link evidence will invariably inter - twine with human and animal violence and neglect. Photographs, videotapes, and interviewing family members and neighbors will help piece together the violence that may be occurring. Interviews Investigators are the key to obtaining Link evidence. They should not only look for all forms of violence in the home, but also ask victims, offenders and witnesses questions to uncover various forms of violence. For children who are interviewed about violence in the home, particularly in a forensic interview or by a therapist, an effective tool for asking about animals is the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences , created by Dr. Barbara Boat. The inventory was created to assess a child’s relationship to animals. This assessment tool can provide prosecutors, forensic interviewers and law enforcement with valuable insights into the dynamics within the home. (Boat, Loar & Phillips, 2008) Dr. Boat has also developed child, ado - lescent and caregiver versions of a Childhood Trust Events Survey (CTES), a 26-item self- or parent-report screening tool to assess children’s exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences and other traumatic events including being attacked by animals or witnessing animal abuse. It can be found at http://www.ohiocan - . do4kids.org/Childhood_Trauma Asking children questions about the animals in their lives is both informational and helpful in developing rapport with the child. National District Attorneys Association 47

56 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals It is also important to interview neighbors and veterinarians about pets in the home. Neighbors often know about animal abuse as it is often not a hidden crime like child abuse, elder abuse or domestic vio - lence. Sometimes the abuse of an animal may happen in the front or back yard (a dog tied up in a neglect - ful manner, physically assaulting or yelling at an animal while outdoors) so interviewing neighbors may be helpful. And veterinarians often see family pets that come in with suspicious injuries. Laws requiring the reporting of suspected animal abuse and neglect are slowly being developed for veterinarians because too often they feel in an uncomfortable position between reporting the abuse and providing care to the ani - mals; they fear that the family will fail to seek treatment if they report. Investigators should determine if a veterinarian has seen the animal(s) and proactively interview them and seek the veterinary records. These records may uncover a pattern of abuse that will be helpful to the prosecution of the case. Moreover, the field of veterinary forensic sciences is growing to assist investigators and prosecutors by hav - ing veterinarians expertly trained in the forensic evaluation of animals that have been abused or neglected. This scientific evidence can assist a criminal case with the manner and cause of injuries and/or death of the animal(s) when witness testimony and/or history of abuse or neglect are not available. The Maples Center for Forensic Medicine at the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, in cooperation with the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, offers a Masters of Science degree to veterinarians in forensic veterinary sciences. The International Veterinary Forensic Sciences Association is a resource for veterinarians and was formed in 2008 during a conference being held at the Maples Center. And NDAA’s National Center for Prosecution of Animal Abuse has webinars available on how veterinary forensic science evidence gathering can assist prosecutors in their cases. “Regardless of one’s specialty or type of practice, virtually all veterinarians over the course of their careers will face the difficult situation of treating animals with conditions suspected to be the result of abuse. Veterinarians have ethical and moral responsibilities to address these situations as well as to practice in accordance with their professional oath. There is a well-documented link between animal abuse and interpersonal violence: when animals are at-risk humans are as well, and vice-versa. Thus, veterinary involvement in the identification and reporting of suspected abuse cases is necessary to protect not only the individual animal(s) involved but to also protect human health and public safety. It is critical that all veterinarians are knowledgeable on how to recognize and respond to suspected instances of abuse when they arise.” — Stephanie Janeczko, DVM, MS, DABVP, CAWA, President, Association of Shelter Veterinarians and Senior Director, Community Outreach Shelter Medicine Programs Shelter Research and Development, ASPCA NDAA 48

57 p l ink C rimes roseCuting Prosecutors are only as effective as the evidence and information they have before them. So when it comes to charging decisions and preparing the case for trial, having all of the information regarding the incident, home, parties, and witnesses will help prosecutors make better strategic decisions. Although Link evidence should be secured during the initial investigation, some evidence may also arise after criminal charges have been brought against an offender. This may occur through continued interviews and discussions with victims, family members, neighbors, or other witnesses. For a detailed booklet on prosecuting animal abuse cases, please check out NDAA’s Investigating and Pros - ecuting Animal Abuse: A Guidebook on Safer Communities, Safer Families & Being an Effective Voice for Animal Victims. “Prosecutors play a major and essential role in the prevention, investigation and prosecution of all crimes regardless of whether the victim is an animal or a human. Crimes involving animals are often interlinked with other crimes against humans and crimes against non-sentient property. Awareness of this connection allows prosecutors to conduct a more thorough investigation and results in a more accurate understanding of the context in which a crime is committed. This is particularly true in domestic violence cases. Additionally, harming an animal and being charged criminally may be one of the first times an offender actually appears in court. A prosecutor must recognize the significance of these crimes at the earliest possible onset. It is then more likely that an impact can be made to prevent further and perhaps more serious criminal conduct. A prosecu - tor’s realization that an offender may engage in similar acts and transactions against both human and non-human victims enhances the ability of criminal justice professionals to evaluate and treat the offender and to provide greater protection to the public. Awareness of “the Link” is truly a matter of crime prevention and public safety.” — Diane Balkin (retired Denver Deputy District Attorney, Attorney with Animal Legal Defense Fund Criminal Division) Charging Decisions: The Criminal Complaint If a police report contains allegations that suggest a Link, law enforcement should coordinate with related agencies (e.g., child welfare, animal welfare, adult protection) regarding the history of the accused or fam - ily, including prior complaints, animal control summonses issued, or even a log of phone call complaints against the accused. This information can be helpful to a prosecutor in forming a complete picture of an incident and in coordinating forensic interviews and timing responses with multiple agencies. This history National District Attorneys Association 49

58 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals is also relevant when determining the severity and frequency of the incident, and when reviewing potential charges or an alternative response which may be helpful to the victim and family. If the incident involves allegations of child abuse, obtain information from past or current child protection or family court cases to learn more about the family dynamics and prior services offered. Civil child protection attorneys and criminal prosecutors should also coordinate and share information, when allowed, as each has valuable information that would help in all cases. Prosecutors should make sure that this information is contained within their file when they are reviewing for charges: • An outline of the family and any past or current history • Review animal control records for past complaints • Interviews of neighbors (who may have seen one type of violence) and the family veterinarian (to determine any past concerns about abuse) • Photographs of the interior and exterior of home (particularly as it relates to the care, or lack thereof, of animals) • Observations by investigators of pet behaviors and conditions (do the animals relate well to some family members and shy away from the accused, how are they housed, what is the animals’ overall appearance, evidence of animal fighting equipment and paraphernalia, presence of excessive num - bers of living and/or dead animals on the premises, etc.) • Background on how the accused related to animals, current stressors (does the accused openly yell at or talk negatively to the animals, general attitude toward other family members, etc.) If evidence supports a variety of charges related to the Link, those charges should be brought together in one complaint to allow the full story to be told to the trier of fact. If additional information of crimi - nal wrongdoing comes forward after a complaint, consider amending the complaint to bring additional charges. If that is not possible, a pre-trial motion may allow for introduction of the information. Pre-Trial and Trial Strategies An effective motion for prosecutors in Link-related cases is the Federal Rule of Evidence 404b pre-trial motion. A 404b pre-trial motion is a powerful motion in most prosecutions, and is particularly beneficial in a Link case. A 404b motion relates to “other acts” that are often uncharged against the defendant. The motion is filed to show a pattern of conduct by the defendant that is uniquely relevant to the case: to show proof of motive, opportunity, intent, preparation, plan, knowledge, identity, or absence of mistake or accident. For example, prior uncharged conduct by the defendant harming animals in the home (particularly animal abuse that was done to frighten the child or partner into silence and compliance) may be admitted at trial to refute the defense that the incident was not an accident. NDAA 50

59 p r o s e l i n k C r i m e s C u t i n g It is important that any 404b Link evidence be specifically connected to the crime(s) charged. The 404b 19 evidence cannot be admitted simply to show that the defendant is a bad person. But prior incidents may be admitted to prove facts or elements of the crime charged. For example, threats or harm to animals may explain why there was a delayed disclosure of child abuse or domestic violence. Prior incidents may be ad - 20 Prior incidents may also be admitted to prove fear in disclos - mitted to prove state of mind of the victim. 21 The timeliness of prior offenses towards animals, to be introduced in a human violence case, is also ing. important. If the prior incident is too old (generally over 10 years and/or not in the time span of the harm 22 towards human victims), it will not be relevant or admissible. In some states you may argue that prior incidents of animal abuse and/or child abuse are by definition incidents of domestic violence for purposes of 404b or a sentencing enhancement specific to domestic violence cases. Seven states specifically identify animal abuse as a form of domestic violence or elder abuse 23 for other non-404b purposes, such as charging decisions. Although every state has varying evidentiary laws, if your state has a 404b or other similar provision for admitting “other acts”, consider using this strategy to introduce Link evidence. The following is an example of how to use a 404b motion to introduce uncharged acts of animal cruelty in a child sexual abuse case: While preparing an 8-year-old girl to testify, we sat on my office floor talking about what court would be like the next day. As we talked, she drew a picture of a black-and-white cat. She said she had a cat named Oreo, who was so happy now that stepdad was gone. Her stepfather was the defendant in the case. When I asked her why Oreo was happy, the child then detailed how every night, for years, as her stepfather would come to her bedroom to sexually assault her, Oreo would lie outside her closed bedroom door to protect her. As her stepfather approached her door, Oreo would hiss and spit at him, and he routinely kicked Oreo out of the way every night. After hearing this, I had the child’s mother take the cat to a veterinarian, where X-rays con - firmed numerous healing rib fractures. The jury had already been selected in the case, so adding animal abuse charges at this stage was not allowed. In a 404b motion, the judge allowed the child to testify regarding Oreo’s actions, to demonstrate the defendant had a pattern, scheme and system of doing an act before each inci - dent of sexual abuse. Moreover, the veterinarian was allowed to testify and introduce the X-rays to corroborate the child’s testimony. The jury returned a verdict of guilty and was influenced that the testimony regarding Oreo’s injuries was corroborated by the veterinarian, which, in turn, corroborated the child’s testimony regarding her abuse. One juror shared, “If she was telling the truth about Oreo, we had no reason to disbelieve her about the rest of the abuse.” If a prosecutor is handling a sexual abuse case in which force must be proven, some prosecutors have seen success in pre-trial arguments that the threat of violence, or actual violence, to a family pet exerts coercion on the victim to remain silent and compliant. The threats or harm to the ani - mal can be used to prove the element of force. National District Attorneys Association 51

60 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Plea Negotiations Plea negotiations are a necessary part of any prosecutor’s job, because there is not enough time for every case to proceed to trial. When prosecutors are handling a Link-related crime, there are two important considerations to keep in mind: (1) negotiate that the defendant must plead guilty, not nolo contendere (no contest) . A guilty plea requires the defendant to admit to the facts, which will benefit subsequent men - tal health treatment and probation requirements. A no contest plea allows the defendant to not admit to any facts and hide behind his/her conduct that in turn could thwart any effective therapeutic counseling and other rehabilitation efforts. (2) Think carefully about dismissing any charges. If certain charges are dismissed, it can limit the imposition of certain penalties specifically related to that charge. For example, animal abuse charges have historically been misdemeanor offenses, thus they are easy to negotiate away in lieu of a larger penalty. As a result, certain penalties specific to animal abuse crimes are lost at sentencing. If an animal abuse charge is dismissed, the court will not have the leverage to order the defendant into treatment specific for animal abusers, to not possess/own animals, or to pay any restitution for agencies that cared for the abused animal during the pendency of the case. Likewise, if a child abuse or domestic violence charge is dismissed, you will lose valuable sentencing options such as targeted therapeutic treat - ment and limiting/prohibiting access to the victim. Be sure to consider all relevant sentencing sanctions before dismissing charges related to human and animal abuse. In cases involving animal abuse, it is important to have an admission of guilt in order to receive the appropriate services, mental health treatment and probation terms at sentencing. As part of any plea agreement, the defendant should be required to undergo a psychological evaluation and, at sentencing, be ordered into the appropriate treatment program for animal abusers. Many states permit or mandate psychological assessment and/or treatment for adult and/or juvenile cruelty offenders. ). Specialized treatment programs are discussed subsequently (See Sentencing for Link Crimes Pre-Sentence Report One area that causes issues for prosecutors is the legal classification of animals as “property” for purposes of complying with state sentencing guidelines for felony offenses. Prosecutors are limited in this aspect, but if there is any room for argument at sentencing in regards to exceeding the guidelines, research is available that animals should be reclassified in a property subclass called “sentient property” (Favre, 2004). The ra - tionale is that animals are provided protections from abuse and harm, similar to people, whereas a toaster (property) is not. States that provide legal protection to animals in domestic violence protection orders do so because families want protection for their pets, but do not ask for the same protection for their stove. Thus, the general classification of animals as property is limited in scope. Prosecutors need to be aware of this fine distinction and should share this information with probation agents preparing the pre-sentence report. NDAA 52

61 p C u t i n g l i n k C r i m e s r o s e When appropriate, prosecutors should request that any defendant convicted of animal abuse be prohibited from owning, possessing, living with or working with any animal during the term of probation or parole. At least fourteen states have laws in place that mandate that a defendant convicted of animal abuse cannot 24 possess or own an animal . For the remaining states, and when appropriate, prosecutors should request this sanction in order to keep the defendant away from animals and reduce the likelihood of future inci - dents of harm. As part of any sentence for an animal abuser, the court should never order a defendant to work community service at an animal shelter or with animals. Civil Dependency/Family Court Cases Prosecutors and child protection attorneys assigned to family court to handle civil child dependency and juvenile delinquency cases also have opportunities to address the Link. Many of the suggestions listed above would be applicable in these cases. One suggestion unique to civil child protection attorneys would be to consider the importance of pets of children when removing children from the home. Working to cre - ate a system where pets can be placed with children (in pet-friendly foster homes) could reduce the trauma of removal for the child and would also keep the pet safe. Sentencing Options for Link Crimes “Domestic violence is present in a troubling number of family law cases and is often unreported. Family Court judges play a critical role in identifying spousal abuse and factoring it in decisions about divorce and custody. Incidents of animal abuse can frequently indicate that abuse is occur - ring against family members. In such cases, an abuser can use or threaten animal abuse as a way of controlling family members. This can be especially victimizing toward family members with strong attachments to that animal. Severe traumatic consequences can result when children are exposed to such violence toward animals. It is essential that Family Court judges recognize the link between animal abuse and domestic violence. In communicating with litigants and in issuing court orders, especially those that concern custody of children and protection from abuse, judges can address the threats of harm and underlying issues of power and control.” — Hon. Steven A. Aycock (Ret.), Judge-in-Residence, and Nancy E. Hart, Attorney with the Family Violence and Domestic Relations Program of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges National District Attorneys Association 53

62 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals In certain cases, prosecutors should argue for an upward departure from the property sentencing guide - lines. As discussed above, since animals should be considered “sentient property”, sentencing a defendant with guidelines built for addressing theft of cars and property is inadequate. For example, if a defendant is convicted of setting a dog on fire, resulting in death or debilitating injuries, this would be an appropriate case to ask the judge to exceed the sentencing guidelines. Through the testimony of a veterinarian, you could establish that the dog was tortured and suffered great pain while being burned. This is far different than setting a car on fire. There has been discussion among professionals to reclassify animal cruelty into “crimes against society” rather than “crimes against property.” A reclassification in this regard recognizes the Link by positioning human and animal in similar categories (Ascione & Shapiro, 2009). In another example, if you have a case involving both misdemeanor domestic violence and felony animal abuse, the animal abuse would likely be governed by sentencing guidelines and be in the lower-tier prop - erty guidelines. A prosecutor could effectively argue the Link and how the animal abuse was connected to the domestic violence incident, thus arguing for an upward departure from the guidelines for a lengthier sentence. It is important to convey the full picture to the judge at sentencing regarding the links between different instances of abuse that occurred, present some of the research contained in this Guidebook, and request an appropriate sentence that takes into account punishment, deterrence, rehabilitation, and protection of society. Understanding the information contained in this Guidebook will prepare you well for these argu - ments. Sex Offender Registration 25 All states have a system for registering sexual abuse offenders. Many of the sex offender registry laws require those convicted of sexually assaulting an animal (usually called bestiality in statutory language) to 26 also register. In a case in 2011, a parolee named Robert Edward DeShields was sentenced in Sacramento, California to ten years in prison and was required to register as a sex offender for the sexual abuse of a Chihuahua named Shadow. The prosecutor used Jessica’s law, the first time in an animal sexual abuse case, to have the defendant register as a sex offender. The law was named after 9-year-old Jessica Lunsford who was kidnapped, sexually assaulted and buried alive in Florida. The law increased penalties in several ways, including increased registration and reporting requirements for convicted sex offenders. Shadow survived the attack but has been reported to now have a fear of men. Requiring animal sexual abuse offenders to register is important for prosecutors and law enforcement so that subsequent offenses can be effectively handled, compliance with registering can be ensured, and fami - lies of victimized pets can be informed of this administrative penalty. NDAA 54

63 p l i n k C r i m e s C u t i n g r o s e s Treatment Options for Link Crime For any defendant convicted of a violent crime (whether against a person or an animal), the prosecutor should request a court-ordered psychological evaluation, including the appropriate follow-up therapeutic intervention. 27 Many states have laws that require or allow for court-ordered psychological evaluations and therapeu - 28 tic treatment for juvenile and/or adult animal abuse offenders. If your state does not have a law in this regard, make the request of the sentencing judge as an important measure to reduce recidivism. Animal abuse often involves dynamics that differ from other forms of violence, and a specialized intervention pro - gram must be ordered when appropriate. One such program, AniCare, was the first published treatment for animal abusers. AniCare has treatment models for both adults and children. Information on AniCare and to locate an AniCare provider in your area, contact Animals & Society Institute Other treatment modalities include The Strategic Humane Interventions Program (Loar & Colman, 2004) and residential treatment programs for at-risk youth (discussed in the Youthful Offenders section below). Female Offenders Not all animal abusers or Link offenders are male. A 2012 study looked at female-instigated intimate partner violence (IPV) offender programs and whether female IPV offenders have a higher rate of animal abuse. (Febres, et al., 2012) This is the first study addressing animal abuse by women batterers. The women were asked about the frequency of IPV, and 13 different behaviors constituting animal abuse, including: • “Did you threaten, scare, intimidate, or bully an animal on purpose?” • “Did you hit an animal with an object that could hurt?” and • “Did you kill an animal on purpose (other than for hunting or medical reasons)?” The results reported that 17% of the women had committed animal abuse as an adult, compared to .28% of females in the general public. There were 8.8 incidents of animal abuse on average for the female IPV offender and threats were mostly used, followed by physical aggression and neglect. The study conclud - ed that animal abuse may be a marker for the presence of more frequent and/or severe IPV perpetration (physical and psychological) and general aggression by women. (Febres, et al., 2012) Youthful Offenders When children are exposed to chronic violence, we may see an increase in violence from those children. In recent years there seems to have been increased violence in schools with children bringing weapons not only to hurt someone, but also to protect themselves from violence and bullying. A 2008 study focused on how to address the 8.8 million children (ages 12-18) who have witnessed a shooting, stabbing, assault or threat with a weapon (Sprinkle, 2008). The study focused on Healing Species (discussed below), a national school-based intervention program that started in South Carolina which pairs at-risk youth with rescued dogs who have been rehabilitated. The dogs teach the children that adversity can be overcome. Together, National District Attorneys Association 55

64 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals they are empowered to change the future. The founder, a criminal defense attorney, found too many of her youth offender clients lacked empathy and had a history of animal abuse. The program teaches youth to respect and treat all living creatures with dignity, which decreases violent and aggressive tendencies. The program incorporates rescued shelter dogs in a school-based program. In the study, 310 4th — 6th graders showed significant improvements in empathy and decreases in beliefs about aggression after completing the 11-week program. This tells us that programs to reintegrate at-risk youth with animals in a safe and supervised setting can benefit children and stop the cycle of violence. There are few supervised animal-assisted intervention programs for children and youth who harm ani - mals. There are a number of excellent humane education programs that place children (including at-risk children) with animals to learn compassion and proper animal care, but most will not accept children who have a known history of abusing animals. - The Children and Animals Together Assessment and Intervention Program (CAT) cre To resolve this void, 29 ated by Dr. Chris Risley-Curtiss at Arizona State University’s School of Social Work, is the first-known program to work solely with children who have harmed animals and to do so with their caregivers in safe settings with animals. The program is in collaboration with the Arizona Animal Welfare League & SPCA and is designed to offer age-specific interactive activities, and build respect and connections to all animals, as a means to end childhood animal cruelty and potential societal violence. Consultation on treatment needs is provided for all children who are assessed. To date, the results have been promising and evaluation methodology is being developed. in Michigan is one of many intervention programs that pairs at-risk youth with hard-to- Teacher’s Pet adopt shelter dogs for a multi-week workshop in positive-reinforcement, reward-based dog training and behavior modification in an effort to make the dogs more adoptable. The program opened in 2005 and the children are in residential facilities for committing a crime (often, but not exclusively, involving an ani - mal). Many children come from situations that involved dog fighting. The dogs come from animal rescue and sheltering organizations and have life similarities to the children. For two days a week for two hours, the children are taught and offer positive dog training and classroom lessons to address stress management and humane treatment of animals for a total of ten weeks. There is one animal shelter staff, and one or two facilitators when the children are working with the dogs. There is no violence towards the dogs at all during the program. The program works because the children are offered the opportunity to experience empathy. They learn to treat animals in a humane way and then do the same with their peers. About 99% of the children bond to their dog and many of the kids come back to volunteer at the shelter. It’s positive for the children and it helps the dogs find new homes. Additional programs that pair at-risk youth with animals include: • Safe Humane Chicago ’s Lifetime Bonds program helps at-risk youth and at-risk dogs help each other. The program accepts youth in disadvantaged communities, youth who have had violations of the law, and accepts youth who have abused animals. The goal is to teach the youth skills to help them train dogs using positive, reward-based techniques. The youth work with the organi - NDAA 56

65 p r o s e l i n k C r i m e s C u t i n g Court Case Dogs, zation’s dogs who have been seized from abuse and neglect situations and need socialization and training. It is a win-win situation for all. Green Chimneys in Brewster, New York provides educational and therapeutic outreach to at-risk • youth. It is a residential treatment center where the youth provide supervised care to farm and wild animals and work in nature. They do not accept juveniles convicted of animal abuse, but will look at case-by-case situations involving “non-intentional” harm and address the situation on an educational level. • Project POOCH (Positive Opportunities, Obvious Change with Hounds) in Oregon pairs incar - cerated youth with homeless shelter dogs. The youth are taught training techniques for the dogs that helps the youth with occupational skills, and helps the dogs to find new homes. • (HALT) in Tennessee was founded in 1987 by Dr. Eliz - Humans and Animals Learning Together abeth Strand, the Founding Director of Veterinary Social Work at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine. HALT pairs at-risk youth with shelter dogs in need of training. The youth and the dogs benefit from working together. • The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Los Angeles has the Teaching Love & Com - passion Program , a violence prevention program working with at-risk youth and is currently taught in California, Oregon, New York, Arizona, Missouri, Georgia, Indiana, Colorado, North Carolina, Florida, Canada, England and Australia. The TLC program helps the students identify and break the cycle of violence. Positive feedback it utilized to build self-esteem and increase respect for all living creatures. The children work through conflicts and challenges of performing as a group to train shelter animals, while developing compassion, responsibility and patience. • Patriot Dogs’ A New Leash on Life Program in Lake Charles, Louisiana pairs abandoned and homeless shelter dogs with youth at risk for becoming repeat criminal offenders. The over-reaching goals of the programs are to help at-risk youth re-engage empathy towards animals which in turn may eliminate future violence from the youth. When children can work with and handle animals in a safe and empathetic manner, they may be less likely to engage in violence towards animals or humans. National District Attorneys Association 57

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67 l C Ase l Aw ink Below is a sampling of some appellate case law that links various forms of human and animal violence. • California v. Kovacich, 201 Cal. App. 4th 863; 133 Cal. Rptr. 3d 924 (2011) — The defendant was found guilty of murdering his wife more than 26 years after she disappeared. On appeal, the de - fendant argued that it was error to admit his statement to police where he admitted to kicking his dog as part of discipline (which resulted in the dog’s death), and his wife expressed fear for her life; the incident occurred shortly before his wife “disappeared.” The court found that admitting the statement and the victim’s fear were relevant to her decision to leave the defendant as it was close in time to the assault of the dog. • Benavides v. Texas, 2007 WL 586725 (Tex. App. — Dallas) (unpublished) — The defendant was convicted of delivery of cocaine and stalking his ex-girlfriend. At trial, the prosecution admitted prior bad acts that included striking two dogs with a hammer. The court held against the defen - dant as he failed to preserve the issue on appeal. • New Mexico v. Stewart, 138 N.M. 500; 122 P.3d 1269 (2005) — Over a five-hour period, the de - fendant alternately slapped, punched and kicked his girlfriend, her 13-month-old child and the family’s puppy. The primary issue in this case was whether the defendant’s assaultive acts were distinct enough to result in multiple charges for each victim. The court agreed that they were. • In the Interest of AP and IP, 42 SW3d 248 (Tx. 2001) — This was a “dirty home” case that in - volved the mother refusing to comply with court-ordered services and the father being impris - oned for burglary. The father would kill animals in front of the children, and this was a factor in terminating his parental rights. • Wisconsin v. Bellows, 217 Wis. 2d 614; 582 N.W.2d 53 (1998) — The defendant was convicted of multiple counts of child neglect and animal neglect. The defendant’s home was searched due to a complaint about animals. The animals were removed due to unkempt and dirty conditions. The home was unhealthy and unsanitary for the children. The child neglect conviction was overturned due to the prosecutor improperly, and without notice, admitting the Child in Need of Protection or Services (CHIPS) petition in the criminal trial. • Idaho v. Pugsley, 128 Idaho 168; 911 P.2d 761 (1996) — This case involved child sexual abuse involving the defendant’s 12-year-old daughter, who was raped three times — one of which was observed by her 11-year-old sister. He was also charged with raping his 16-year-old half-sister four years earlier. The defendant was sentenced to three concurrent life sentences and evidence of The Link was used to convict. On appeal, the court found that the sentence was not excessive National District Attorneys Association 59

68 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals because he had committed one rape in front of the sister, had threatened to kill the girls if they disclosed, and “reinforced his threats against his youngest daughter and a half-sister by killing animals in front of them.” • In the Interest of PJM, 926 SW2d 223 (Mo. 1996) — The parents had seven children, three of whom were involved in this appeal involving termination of parental rights. Prior children had been removed and rights terminated. Animal sacrifices had been committed by the parents in front of the children. The petition also alleged neglect/abuse of the children. Parental rights were terminated, and animal cruelty was a factor in the decision. • Boarman v. Boarman, 194 W.Va. 118; 459 S.E. 2d 395 (1995) — This was a child custody case involving seven children. There were cross-complaints of child abuse against both parties, including against Mr. Boarman for his allegedly having “shot and killed the children’s cat at a pic - nic.” The court found that Mr. Boarman’s “violence and expressions of racial, ethnic and gender comments, and the shooting of the animals have had a deleterious effect on [the children].” • Schambon v. Kentucky, 821 SW2d 804 (1991) — Animal control was called regarding animal hoarding and neglect. Numerous animals were removed from the garage, including dead dogs. An animal control officer entered the home and found a dead dog on the kitchen floor and a room full of malnourished and dying cats in cages. Four children (ages 5 to 13) were removed because of unsanitary conditions in the home. All of the children subsequently disclosed sexual and physical abuse, including the 5-year-old, who said his parents took him to the local park, tied him to a tree and sold him for sex. The parents were convicted of multiple counts of sexual abuse. This case demonstrates how a cooperative relationship with animal control can help un - cover child maltreatment. • Maine v. Twist, 528 A.2d 1250 (1987) — This case involved multiple counts of sexual abuse involving five children, ages 5 to 17. Testimony included the defendant having a gun and threat - ening to shoot the children if they disclosed the abuse, and the children had nightmares of being thrown into a fire by the defendant and the defendant killing their mom. “Undisputed testimony established that the children saw the defendant kill their cat by burning it in an oven.” • In re SGT, 333 SE2d 445 (Ga. 1985) — This case involved a father’s appeal of the termination of parental rights on his adopted son. The child was mentally and physically abused. The father was also cruel to the family dog and said that the way to train a dog was to “tie him up and starve him to death and feed him gunpowder.” All factors, including cruelty to the family dog, were considered in terminating parental rights. NDAA 60

69 C Clusion on “One does not have to personally value companion animals to acknowledge that others may and that exploring those relationships can add much to our understanding and treatment of children and families. Recognition that animals play a significant role in the lives of many people needs further attention in social work” ( Risley-Curtiss, Zilney & Hornung, 2010) . The Link is gaining recognition throughout various criminal justice professions across the coun - try and internationally. But with high levels of turnover in many professions, the need for educa - tion and awareness continues. When all criminal justice professionals understand the dynamics underlying the Link, and have the tools available to properly address Link-related crimes, families and communities will be safer. Because it is undeniable that animal abuse is a human and com - munity safety issue. National District Attorneys Association 61

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71 r esour Ces National Organizations Addressing the Link National District Attorneys Association www.ndaa.org ) ( American Animal Hospital Association ( ) https://www.aahanet.org American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ( www.aspca.org ) American Veterinary Medical Association ( https://www.avma.org ) Animals & Society Institute ( ) www.animalsandsociety.org Association of Shelter Veterinarians ( www.sheltervet.org ) Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium ( http://vet.tufts.edu/hoarding/ ) International Veterinary Forensic Sciences Association ( http://www.ivfsa.org/ ) The Latham Foundation ( http://www.latham.org/ ) National Children’s Advocacy Center ( ) www.nationalcac.org National Children’s Alliance ( www.nationalchildrens ) alliance.org www.ncadv.org National Coalition Against Domestic Violence ( ) www.ncovaa.org ) National Coalition for Violence Against Animals ( National Link Coalition ( ) www.nationallinkcoalition.org National Network to End Domestic Violence ( www.nnedv.org ) National Resource Center on Domestic Violence ( www.nrcdv.org ) National Sheriff ’s Association ( ) www.sheriffs.org Pet-Abuse.com ( http://www.pet-abuse.com ) Safe Housing Resources for People and Pets Animal Welfare Institute Safe Haven Mapping Program ( www.awionline.org/safe-havens ) A Safe Place for Pets ( www.safeplaeforpets.org ) ) www.animalsandfamilies.org Sheltering Animals & Families Together (SAF-T) ( National District Attorneys Association 63

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73 r eferen Ces The Cruelty Connection: The Relationship Alberta Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (2012). Located at http://www.albertaspca.org/ne - between Animal Cruelty, Child Abuse and Domestic Violence. glect-abuse/cruelty-connection/resources.html. Alys, L., Wilson, J. C., Clarke, J., & Toman, P. (2009). Developmental animal cruelty and its correlates in sexual homicide offenders and sex offenders. In A. Linzey (Ed.), The link between animal abuse and human violence. Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Sussex Academic Press. American Pet Product’s Association National Pet Owners Survey, 2013-14. American Psychiatric Association (2013). (5th ed.). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Washington, DC. Arkow, P. (2014). Form of emotional blackmail: Animal abuse as a risk factor for domestic violence. Do - mestic Violence Report , 19(4), 49-60. Arluke, A. (2002). Animal abuse as dirty play. Symbolic Interaction, 25, 405-430. Arluke, A. (2012). Interpersonal barriers to stopping animal abuse : Exploring the role of adolescent friendship norms and breeches, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27(15), 2939-2958. Arluke, A., & Madfis, E. (2013). Animal abuse as a warning sign of school massacres: A critique and refine - Homicide Studies, 20 ment. (10), 1-16. Ascione, F.R. (1993). Children who are cruel to animals: A review of research and implications for devel - opmental psychopathology. , 6(4), 226-247. Anthrozoos Ascione, F. R. (1998). Battered women’s reports of their partners’ and their children’s cruelty to animals. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 1, 119-133. Ascione, F. R. (2005). Children & animals: Exploring the roots of kindness & cruelty (p. 137). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. Ascione, F. R. (2007). Emerging research on animal abuse as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. In K. Kendall-Tackett & S. Giacomoni (Eds.), Intimate partner violence (pp. 3.1-3.17). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute. Ascione, F. R., & Blakelock, H. H. (2003). Incarcerated men’s reports of animal abuse: A study of the perpe - trator’s perspective. Paper presented at the 8th International Family Violence Conference, Portsmouth, NH. Ascione, F. R., & Peak, T. (2011). Adult Protective Services and Animal Welfare: Should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective service screening? Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 24/1, 37-49. National District Attorneys Association 65

74 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Ascione, F. R., & Shapiro, K. (2009). People and animals, kindness and cruelty: Research directions and Journal of Social Issues, 65(3) policy implications. , 569-587. Ascione, F. R., Weber, C. V., Thompson, T. M., Heath, J., Maruyama, M., & Hayashi, K. (2007). Battered pets and domestic violence: Animal abuse reported by women experiencing intimate violence and by non - Violence Against Women, 13 (4), 354-373. abused women. Ascione, F. R., Weber, C. V., & Wood, D. S. (1997). The abuse of animals and domestic violence: A national survey of shelters for women who are battered. Society & Animals, 5 (3), 205-218. Baldry, A. C. (2005). Animal abuse among preadolescents directly and indirectly victimized at school and at home. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 15 , 97-110. Becker, F., & French, L. (2004). Making the links: Child abuse, animal cruelty, and domestic violence. Child Abuse Review, 13, 399-414. Becker, K. D., Stuewig, J., Herrera, V. M., & McCloskey, L. A. (2004). A study of fire-setting and animal cruelty in children: Family influences and adolescent outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43 , 905-912. Boat, B. W. (1999). Abuse of children and abuse of animals: Using the links to inform child assessment and protection. In F. R. Ascione & P. Arkow (Eds.), Child abuse, domestic violence, and animal abuse: Linking the circles of compassion for prevention and intervention, 83-100 . West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. Boat, B. W., & Knight, J. (2000). Experiences and needs of adult protective services case managers when assisting clients who have companion animals. (3/4), 145-155. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 12 Boat, B. W., Loar, L., & Phillips, A. (2008). Collaborating to assess, intervene, and prosecute animal abuse: A continuum of protection for children and animals. In F. R. Ascione (Ed.), handbook of ani - International (pp. 393-422). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Univer mal abuse and cruelty: Theory, research, and application - sity Press. Bolin, S.E. (1988). The value of companion animals during bereavement for a spouse. Chart, 85(7), 15. Carlisle-Frank, P., Frank, J. M., & Nielsen, L. (2006). Selective battering of the family pet. Anthrozoos, 17 (1), 26-42. Child Abuse & Neglect, Currie, C. L. (2006). Animal cruelty by children exposed to domestic violence. 30 (4), 425-435. Dadds, M. R., & Fraser, J. A. (2006). Fire interest, fire setting and psychopathology in Australian children: A normative study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40 (6), 581-586. Dadds, M. R., Whiting, C., & Hawes, D. J. (2006). Associations among cruelty to animals, family conflict, and psychopathic traits in childhood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 , 411-429. DeGue, S., & DiLillo, D. (2009). Is animal cruelty a “red flag” for family violence? Investigating co-occur - (6), 1036-1056. 24 ring violence toward children, partners and pets, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, NDAA 66

75 r e f e r e n C e s Internation DeViney, E., Dickert, J., & Lockwood, R. (1983). The care of pets within child abusing families. - al Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, 4 , 321-329. de Waal, F. (2011). What is an animal emotion? , 1224, 191-206. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Doherty, D. & Hornosty, J. (2008). Exploring the Links: Firearms, Family Violence and Animal Abuse in Rural Communities, The Latham Letter (Summer 2008) at http://www.albertaspca.org/resources/publica - tions/DohertyHornosty%20Report%20(Latham)%20ExecSummary2008.pdf . Edelson, J. L., Mbilinyi, L. F., Beeman, S. K., & Hagemeister, A.K. (2003). How children are involved in adult domestic violence: Results from a four-city telephone survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 18-32. Faver, C. A., & Strand, E. B. (2003). Domestic violence and animal cruelty: Untangling the web of abuse. Journal of Social Work Education, 39 (2), 237-253. Favre, D. (2004). Integrating animal interests into our legal system. Animal Law, 10 , 87-98. Febres, J., Shorey, R.C., Brasfield, H., Zucosky, H.C., Ninnemann, A., et al. (2012). Adulthood animal abuse among women court-referred to batterer intervention programs. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27 (15), 3115-3126. Fine, G. (1992). The depth of deep play: The rhetoric and resources of morally controversial leisure. Play and Culture , 5, 246-251. Fitzgerald, A. (2007). “They gave me a reason to live”: The protective effects of companion animals on the suicidality of abused women. 31, 355-378. Humanity & Society, Fitzgerald, A., Kalof, L. & Dietz, T. (2009). Slaughterhouses and increased crime rates: An empirical Organization & Environment , analysis of the spillover from “The Jungle” into the surrounding community. 22(2), 158-184. Flynn, C. P. (1999) Animal abuse in childhood and later support for interpersonal violence in families. Society and Animals, 7, 161—172. ) Friedmann, E., Son, H., & Tsai, C.C. (2010). The animal/human bond: Health and wellness. In A. H. Fine, ed., Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy: Theoretical Foundations and Guidelines for Practice (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press, pp.85-107. Gullone, E., & Robertson, N. (2008). The relationship between bullying and animal cruelty behaviours in Australian adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 371-379 . Gullone (2011). Conceptualizing Animal Abuse with Antisocial Behavior Framework. Animals , 1, 144-60. Hackett, S. & Uprichard, E. (2007). Animal Abuse and Child Maltreatment: A Review of the Literature and Findings from a UK Study. London: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Hardesty, J.L., Khaw, L., Ridgway, M.D., Weber, C., & Miles, T. (2013). Coercive control and abused wom - Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(13), 2617-2639. en’s decisions about their pets when seeking shelter. National District Attorneys Association 67

76 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Hensley, C., & Tallichet, S. E. (2005). Learning to be cruel? Exploring the onset and frequency of animal cruelty. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology , 49 (1), 37-47. Hensley, C., Tallichet, S. E., & Singer, S. D. (2006). Exploring the possible link between childhood and ado - lescent bestiality and interpersonal violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 , 910-923. Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium. (n.d.) Retrieved on April 29, 2014, from http://www.tufts.edu/ vet/hoarding/index.html. Jonker F. & Jonker-Bakker, P. (1991). Experiences with ritualistic child sexual abuse: A case study from the , 15: 191-196. Netherlands. Child Abuse and Neglect - Kellert, S. R., & Felthous, A. R. (1985). Childhood cruelty toward animals among criminals and noncrimi nals. Human Relations, 38, 1113-1129. Knight, K.E., Ellis, C., & Simmons, S.B. (2014). Parental predictors of children’s animal abuse: Findings Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 1-21. from a national and intergenerational sample. Kolko, D. (Ed.). (2002). Handbook on fire setting in children and youth . San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Kotler, J. S., & McMahon, R. J. (2005). Child psychopathy: Theories, measurement, and relations with de - , 291-325. velopment and persistence of conduct problems. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8 Levin, J., & Arluke, A. (2009). Refining the link between animal abuse and subsequent violence. In A. Linzey (Ed.), (pp. 163-171). Eastbourne, UK: Sussez Academic The link between animal abuse and violence Press. Loar, L., & Colman, L. (2004). Teaching empathy: Animal-assisted therapy programs for children and fami - . Alameda, CA: Latham Foundation. lies exposed to violence Lockwood, R. (2014). Ethology, Ecology and Epidemiology of Canine Aggression. In James Serpell (Ed.), The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People. Second Edition. New York: Cam - bridge University Press, (in press). Mason, D., Peak, T., Krannich, R., & Sanderson, M. (2002). Planning the needs of Utah’s senior citizens: Final project report . Dept. of Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology, Utah State University: Logan, UT. McNicholas, J., & Collis, G. (2006). Animals as supports: Insights for understanding animal assisted ther - apy. In, A.H. Fine (Ed.), Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy: Theoretical Foundations and Guidelines for Practice, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 49-71. Melson, G.F., (2001). Why the Wild Things Are: Animals in the Lives of Children. Cambridge, MA: Har - vard University Press. Merz-Perez, L., Heide, K. M., & Silverman, I. J. (2001). Childhood cruelty to animals and subsequent violence against humans. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45 (5), 556-572. Domestic violence facts National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) . (2007) Retrieved from http://www.ncadv.org/files/DomesticViolenceFactSheet(National).pdf NDAA 68

77 r e f e r e n C e s Veterinary Medicine, 101 Patronek, G. J. (2006). Animal hoarding: Its roots and recognition. , 520-530. Patronek, G. (2008). Animal hoarding: A third dimension of animal abuse. In F. R. Ascione (Ed.), The (pp. 221-246). West international handbook of animal abuse and cruelty: Theory, research, and application Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. - Patronek, G.J., Sacks, J.J., Delise, K., Cleary, D., & Marder, A. (2013). Co-occurrence of potentially pre ventable factors in 256 dog bite-related fatalities in the United States (2000-2009). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association , 243(12). 1726-1736. Peak, T., Ascione, F.R. & Doney, J. (2012). Adult protective services and animal welfare: Should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective services screening? - Journal of Elder Abuse and Ne glect, 24/1. Phillips, A. & Lockwood, R.. (2013). Investigating & Prosecuting Animal Abuse: A Guidebook on Safer Communities, Safer Families & Being an Effective Voice for Animal Victims. National District Attorneys Association. Phillips, A. and McQuarrie, D. (2009). Therapy Animals Supporting Kids (TASK) Program Manual. American Humane Association. Raina, P., Waltner-Toews, D., Bonnett, B., Woodward, C., & Abernathy, T. (1999). Influence of compan - ion animals on the physical and psychological health of older people: An analysis of a one-year longitudi - nal study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 47 (3), 323-329. Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D., Reynolds, C., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Liu, J. (2006). The reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive Aggressive Behavior, 32, 159-171. aggression in adolescent boys. Risley-Curtiss, C., Zilney, L.A. & Hornung, R. (2010). Animal-Human Relationships in Child Protective Services: Getting a Baseline , Child Welfare, 89/4, 67-82. Pets as Pawns: The Co‐existence of Animal Cruelty and Family Violence. ( Auckland: Roguski, M. (2012). available at https://womensrefuge. Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals), org.nz/users/Image/Downloads/PDFs/Pets%20as%20Pawns.pdf . Shapiro, H. L., Prince, J. B., Ireland, R., & Stein, M. T. (2006). A dominating imaginary friend, cruelty to animals, social withdrawal, and growth deficiency in a 7-year-old girl with parents with schizophrenia. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27 , 231-236. Simmons, C. A., & Lehmann, P. (2007). Exploring the link between pet abuse and controlling behaviors in violent relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22 (9), 1211-1222. Simons, D. A., Wurtele, S. K., & Durham, R. L. (2008). Developmental experiences of child sexual abusers and rapists. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 549-560. Sprinkle, J. (2008). Animals, Empathy & Violence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6/1, 47-58. , Tannenbaum, J. (1999). Ethics and Pain Research in Animals. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 40/3, 97-110. National District Attorneys Association 69

78 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals Taylor, C.A., Manganello, J.A., Lee, S.J., & Rice, J.C. (2010). Mothers’ spanking of 3-year-old children and subsequent risk of children’s aggressive behavior. Pediatrics, 125 (5), 1057-1065. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. (2013). Child maltreatment 2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Vaisman-Tzachor, R. (2001). Could family dog bites raise suspicion of child abuse? The Forensic Examiner, September/October, 18-25. Vaughn, M. G., & Howard, M. O. (2005). The construct of psychopathy and its potential contribution to , 235-252. the study of serious, violent, and chronic youth offending. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3 Verlinden, S., Hersen, M., & Thomas, J. (2000). Risk factors in school shootings. Clinical Psychology Re - view , 20(1), 3-56. Volant, A. M., Johnson, J. A., Gullone, E., & Coleman, G. J. (2008). The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: An Australian study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23, 1277-1295. Walton-Moss, B.J., Manganello, J., Frye, V. & Campbell, J. (2005) Risk factors for intimate partner violence 377-389. Journal of Community Health, 30, and associated injury among urban women. NDAA 70

79 e ndnotes Phillips, A. and Lockwood, R. (2013). Investigating & Prosecuting Animal Abuse: A Guidebook on Safer Com 1 - munities, Safer Families & Being an Effective Voice for Animal Victims. National District Attorneys Association. . Available at http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/NDAA%20Animal%20Abuse%20monograph%20150dpi%20complete.pdf 2 “[P]articipants described it as the worse type of abuse that they had experienced as the perpetrator had robbed them of their own value system. With other forms of abuse they knew that the perpetrator was in the wrong. With bestiality they felt they had been forced or manipulated into being complicit in hurting a cherished animal.” M. Roguski, existence of Animal Cruelty and Family Violence. ( Auckland: Royal New Pets as Pawns: The Co ‐ available at https://womensrefuge.org.nz/users/ Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 2012) Image/Downloads/PDFs/Pets%20as%20Pawns.pdf . The following states have felony bestiality laws: Arizona ( A riz . r ev . S tAt . A nn . § 13-1411), Delaware ( D el . 3 oDe C nn . tit. 11 § 775), District of Columbia (D.C. C oDe Ann. §§ 22-3101; 22-3103), Georgia ( G A . C oDe A . C nn § 16-6-6); Idaho (I DAho C A A nn . § 18-6605); Illinois (720 i ll . omp . S tAt . A nn . 5/12-35); Indiana ( i nD . oDe C oDe A nn . § 35-46-3-14); Kansas ( K An . S tAt . A nn . § 21-5504 for offenses involving minors); Louisiana ( l A . . C r tAt . A nn . § 14:89); Massachusetts (Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 272 § 34); Michigan ( m iCh . S omp . l AwS A nn . § ev 750.158); Mississippi (M iSS . C oDe A nn . § 92-29-59); Missouri (M o . A nn . S tAt . § 566.11); Montana ( m ont . C oDe . A A . § 45-5-505); North Carolina (N.C. G en . S tAt . A nn . § 14-177); Oklahoma ( o KlA . S tAt nn nn . tit. 21 § 886); oDe Rhode Island (R.I. G . l AwS § 11-10-1); South Carolina (S.C. C en A nn . § 16-15-120); South Dakota (S.D. oDe C oDifieD l AwS § 22-22-42); Tennessee ( t enn . C oDe A nn . § 39-14-214 (a)(1)); Virginia ( v A . C A § 18.2- nn . 361); and Washington (W ASh . C oDe A nn . § 16.52.205). The following states have misdemeanor bestiality . r ev . A lASKA tAt . § 11.61.140), Colorado ( A olo . r ev . S tAt S nn . § 18-9-201-202 [subsequent offenses laws: Alaska ( C . A nn . § 53a-73a [offenses involving minors under 16 years of age are elevated to are felonies]); Connecticut ( i ow A C oDe A nn . § 717C.1); Kansas ( K An . S tAt . A nn . § 21- felonies]); Florida (Fla. Stat. Ann. § 828.126), Iowa ( . C m . r ev . S tAt . A nn . tit. 17 § 1031(1)); Maryland ( m D e oDe A nn ., C rim . l Aw § 3-322); Minnesota 5504), Maine ( ev inn . S tAt . A nn . § 609.294); Nebraska ( n eb . r tAt . S (M . § 28-1010); New York (N.Y. P enAl l Aw § 130.20); tAt North Dakota (N.D. C oDe § 12.1-20-12); Oregon (O r . r ev . S . C . A nn . § 167.333); Pennsylvania (18 p A . ent C onS . S tAt . A nn . § 3129); Utah ( U tAh C oDe A nn . § 76-9-301.8); and Wisconsin ( w iS . S tAt . A nn . § 944.17). 4 A listing of state laws http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/Bestiality%20and%20Sex%20Offender%20 available at . Registration.pdf American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) available at 5 http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Obsessive%20Compulsive%20Disorders%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf . 6 National Link Coalition Newsletter, Sept. 2013 available at http://nationallinkcoalition.org/wp-content/ uploads/2013/09/LinkLetter-2013-September.pdf . 7 More information on hoarding available at http://vet.tufts.edu/hoarding/abthoard.htm#A6 . 8 More information on hoarding available at http://www.pet-abuse.com/pages/cruelty_database/statistics/age_ gender_by_type.php . (November 9 See “Hoarding” available at http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/abuse_neglect/facts/hoarding.html 2, 2009). National District Attorneys Association 71

80 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals 10 See “Dog Fighting FAQ” available at http://www.aspca.org/fight-cruelty/dog-fighting/dog-fighting-faq . 11 These states have included animal fighting in their state racketeering and criminal enterprise laws as of 2013: f lA . S tAt . A nn . § 895.02), Illinois (720 i ll . C Florida ( . S tAt . A nn . 5/33G-3), Michigan ( m iCh . C omp . l AwS omp A nn . § 750.159g), Oregon ( o r . r ev . S tAt A nn . §166.715), Utah ( U tAh C oDe A nn . § 76-10-1602) and Virginia (V . C oDe A nn . § 18.2-513). A 12 Federal (7 U.S.C.A 2156, signed into law in 2014); Oregon ( §§ 167.320, 167.325, 167. 330); r . r ev . S tAt A nn . o tit. 5 §§1668, 1669, 1670). A Puerto Rico (P.R. l AwS . nn 13 “Potentially Preventable Husbandry Factors Co-occur in Most Dog Bite-Related Fatalities”, available at http://www.nationalcanineresearchcouncil.com/blog/potentially-preventable-husbandry-factors-co-occur-in- . most-dog-bite-related-fatalities/ More information on the Therapy Animals Supporting Kids (TASK)™ Program is 14 http://www.ndaa. available at org/pdf/TASK%20Manual.pdf . 15 More information on the Sheltering Animals & Families Together (SAF-T) Program is available at http://www. animalsandfamilies.org . 16 Pet Safety Planning flyer available at http://alliephillips.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Safety-Planning- Brochure.pdf . 17 Forms are available at http://nationallinkcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/DV-SafetyPlanning Compilation.pdf . 18 Summery of Protection Order laws that include pets http://nationallinkcoalition.org/wp-content/ available at . uploads/2014/04/PPO-Summary-by-State-4-2014.pdf See, Ohio v. Morris, 2010 WL 3528992 (Ohio Ct. App., Sept. 13, 2010) (the defendant was convicted of child 19 sexual abuse; the court admitted 404b evidence that the defendant would kick the family dog if the wife refused sex in an effort to prove that the defendant was a sex addict; the Court of Appeals ruled an improper admission because the sexual frustration and kicking the dog was not related back to abusing the child and admitted only to show he was a bad person.) 20 See, NC v. Thompson, 533 S.E.2d 834 (N.C. Ct. App., 2000) (defendant was convicted of child sexual abuse; 404b evidence was admitted of strangling and drowning the family cat in the presence of the child victim; the victim’s state of mind was relevant in the case to show fear, late report). 21 WA v. Drake, 162 Wash. App. (Wash. Ct. App., 2011) (Defendant was convicted of burglary and aggravat - See, ed domestic violence, had a 5 year history of domestic violence; in one incident he took the dog and called the victim and she heard the dog crying; the dog was returned with welts and one toenail missing; victim did not call police out of fear; 404b evidence admitted regarding the dog; this was a proper admission to show the victim’s fear of defendant, delayed reporting, relevant to witness intimidation charge and aggravating factors for an ongo - ing pattern of violence). 22 See, US Air Force v. Jones, 25 M.J. 567 (A.F. Ct. Crim. App., 1987). 23 A compilation of state statutes is available at http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/State%20chart%20-%20animal%20 . abuse%20as%20prior%20dv%20acts%20-%20June%202014.pdf NDAA 72

81 e n d n o t e s Upon a conviction for animal cruelty, these states have laws that mandate the prohibition of owning, possess - 24 ing, living with or working with any animal during the term of probation or parole: Colorado, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia and Wyoming. available at 25 A compilation of state statutes on sex offender registry is http://www.ndaa.org/ncpca_state_statutes. html (scroll down to sex offender registration) A compilation of state statutes is available at 26 http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/Bestiality%20and%20Sex%20 Offender%20Registration.pdf . psychological evaluations for those charged with animal abuse: Arkansas ( A rK . C oDe A nn . 27 mandate These states C olo . r ev . S § 5-62-103); . A nn . § 18-9-202); Delaware ( D el . C oDe A nn . tit. 11 § 4362 [to pardon Colorado ( tAt ll omp . S tAt . A nn . § 70/3.02 [juveniles]); Iowa (I ow . C C oDe A nn . § 717B.3A [tor - a conviction]); Illinois (510 I A I owa C ode a nn . § 717C.1 [ bestiality ]); Kansas ( K An . S tAt . A nn . ture] and n ev . R ev . s tat . § 21-6412); Nevada ( a . § 62e.680 [ juveniles ]); n ew M exiCo (n.M. s tat . a nn . § 30-18-1 [ juveniles ]); and West Virginia (W. V a . C ode nn )). nn get pRobation to These states have discretionary laws on psychological evaluations: Arizona a . § 61-8-19 ( A riz . r ev . S tAt . A nn . § 13-1411 (bestiality only)); Colorado ( C olo . r ev . S tAt . A nn ( § 19-2-918.5 [juveniles]); . Connecticut ( onn . g en . s tat . a nn . § 46 b -140 [ juveniles ]); d C (d el . C ode a nn . tit . 11 § 1326); d istRiCt of elawaRe C oluMbia (d.C. C ode § 22-1001); Georgia ( g a . C ode a nn . § 16-12-4); Illinois ( 510 i ll . C oMp . s tat . a nn . §§ 70/3 thRu 3.03-1 20 i ll . C oMp . s tat . a nn . § 5/12-35 [ bestiality only ]); l ouisiana (l a . R ev . s tat . a nn . § 14:102.1); and aine ( . C e . r ev . S tAt . A nn . tit. 7 §§ 1031, 4016); Michigan ( m iCh M omp . l AwS A nn . §§ 750.50, 750.50b); Mis - m . S m . C oDe A nn . § 97-41-16); Missouri ( m o . r ev sissippi ( tAt . § 566.111 [ bestiality only ]); Nevada ( n ev . R ev . iSS s tat . a nn . § 176a.416); New Mexico ( N.M. s tat . a nn . § 30-18-1); Ohio ( o hio r ev . C oDe A nn . § 959.99); Oregon en ( . R ev . s tat . a nn . § 167.334 ); Rhode Island ( R.I. g R . l aws § 4-1-36); Tennessee ( t enn . C ode a nn . § 39-14- o 212); u tah ( u tah C ode a nn . § 76-9-301); and Washington (W ASh . R ev . C ode a nn . § 13.40.127 [ juveniles ]). oDe 28 counseling for those convicted of animal abuse: Arkansas ( A rK . C mandate A nn . § 5-62-103); These states California ( C al . p enal C ode § 597( h )); Florida ( f la . s tat . a nn . § 828.12 [ toRtuRe ]); Illinois (510 i ll . C omp . omp S tAt . A nn . 70/3.03 [torture] and 510 I ll . C . S § tAt . A nn , 70/3.01-2 [juveniles]); Iowa (I ow A C oDe A nn . 717B.3A [torture] and § 717C.1); K An . S tAt . A nn . § 21-6412); Maine ( m e . r ev . S tAt . A nn . tit. 19-A, § ansas ( K ev e . S tAt . A nn . tit. 7, § 1031 [juveniles] ); Nevada ( n ev . R ev . s tat . a nn . § m . r 4007[for restraining orders] and ]; n ew j eRsey (n.j. s tat . a nn . § 4:22-17 [ juveniles ]); n 62e.680 [ M exiCo (n.M. s tat . a nn . § 30-18-1 juveniles ew juveniles ennessee (t enn . C ode a nn . § 39-14-212); t exas ( ]); t ex . f Am . C oDe A nn . § 54.0407 [juveniles]); and [ T t . S tAt . A nn . tit. 13, § 353). These states have discretionary laws on counseling: Arizona ( A riz . r ev . Vermont (V . S tAt . § 13-1411 [bestiality]); Colorado ( C olo . r ev nn tAt . A nn . §§ 18-9-202, 19-2-918.5 [juveniles]); Con - . A S C onn . g en . s tat . a nn . § 53 a -30 and C onn . g en . s tat . a nn . § 46 b -140 [ juveniles ]); d elawaRe (d el . C ode necticut ( (d.C. C nn tit . 11, § 1326 [ aniMal fighting ]); d istRiCt of C oluMbia . ode a nn . § 22-1001); i llinois (510 i ll . C oMp . a i tat . a nn . 70/3.02 [ hoaRdeRs ]); Indiana ( nd . C ode a nn . § 35-46-3-12 [ adults and s juveniles ]); l ouisiana (l a . R ev . s tat nn . § 14:102.1); M aine (M e . R ev . s tat . a nn . tit . 7, § 1031 [ adults and juveniles ]); M aryland (M D . C oDe . a nn omp RiM . l aw § 10-604-608); Michigan ( m iCh . C A . l AwS A nn . §§ 750.50, 750.50b); Minnesota ( M inn . s tat . ., C o nn ississippi (M iss . C ode a nn . § 97-41-16); Missouri ( m . § 343.21); M . A nn . S tAt . § 566.111 [ bestiality ]); Ne - a vada ( n ev . R ev . s tat . a nn . § 176a.416); New Mexico (N .M. S tat . a nn . § 30-18-1); Ohio ( o hio r ev . C oDe A nn . § g 959.99); Oregon ( . R ev . s tat . a nn . § 167.350 ); Rhode Island ( R.I. R en . l aws § 4-1-36); t ennessee ( T enn . C ode O a nn . § 39-14-212 [ adults and juveniles ]); u tah ( u tah C ode a nn . § 76-9-301); Vermont ( v t . S tAt . A nn . tit. 1 3, § a 353 [adults and juveniles]); v a . C ode Virginia ( nn . §§ 3.2-6570, § 18.2-67.2 [bestiality]); Washington ( w ASh . 61-8-19 r e v . C ode a nn . §§ 16.52.200, 16.52.205, 13.40.127 [ juveniles ]); and West Virginia (W . v A . C oDe A nn . § [anger management]). National District Attorneys Association 73

82 Understanding the Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals http://ssw.asu.edu/research/animal-human-bond/children- 29 Information about the CAT Program is available at animals-together-assessment-and-diversion-program/assessment-and-diversion-program/?searchterm= Children%20and%20Animals%20Together%20Assessment%20and%20Intervention%20Program . NDAA 74

83 About the National District Attorneys Association The National District Attorneys Association is the oldest and largest professional organization rep - resenting criminal prosecutors in the world. Its members come from the offices of district attorneys, state’s attorneys, attorneys general, and county and city prosecutors with responsibility for prosecut - ing criminal violations in every state and territory of the United States. Its purposes are: • to foster and maintain the honor and integrity of the prosecuting attorneys of the United States in both large and small jurisdictions by whatever title such attorneys may be known; • to improve and to facilitate the administration of justice in the United States; • to promote the study of the law and legal research, the diffusion of knowledge and the continuing education of prosecut - ing attorneys, lawyers, law enforcement personnel, and other members of the interested public by various means includ - ing, but not limited to, arranging conferences and fostering periodic meetings for the discussion and solution of legal problems affecting the public interest in the administration of justice; • to cause to be published and to distribute articles, reports, monographs, and other literary works on legal subjects or other related subjects; • to provide to state and local prosecutors the knowledge, skills and support to ensure that justice is done and the public safety and rights of all are safeguarded. www.ndaa.org To enjoy the benefits of membership, please visit . About the National Center for Prosecution of Animal Abuse The National Center for Prosecution of Animal Abuse (NCPAA) is a program of the National District Attorneys Association (NDAA), created in partnership with the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) to educate and train prosecutors and allied professionals on the effective handling of animal cruelty and neglect cases, including cases involving the co-occurrence of animal abuse and violence to people. NDAA desires to bring greater awareness to the often-misunderstood nature of animal maltreatment and how it can interconnect with family violence and contribute to lethality issues for victims of interpersonal violence. With growing awareness by the public to recognize and report animal abuse, combined with increased attention by the media, prosecuting attorneys need the resources to properly address incidents of animal abuse in their community and properly hold offenders accountable. The mission of NCPAA is to always act in the best interests of animals; to create an environment in the criminal justice community where animal protection laws are fully enforced; to create understanding that when animals are safe from harm, communities are safer; to provide the resources, tools and support to prosecutors and allied professionals in the pur - suit of those who harm animals; to collaborate with others so that the most updated and innovative information is available and accessible; to deliver training and technical assistance in a professional and ethical manner; and to remember that our victims are voiceless and deserve an impassioned and knowledgeable prosecutor pursuing justice in their name. About the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Founded in 1866, the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) is the first animal welfare organization in North America and serves as the nation’s leading voice for animals. More than two million supporters strong, the ASPCA’s mission is to provide effective means for the prevention of cruelty to animals throughout the United States. As a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation, the ASPCA is a national leader in the areas of anti-cruelty, community outreach and animal health services. For more infor - mation visit www.ASPCA.org . About the National Link Coalition experts in the prevention of Led by a steering committee of nationally-renowned all forms of family violence, the National Link Coalition is an informal, multi - disciplinary collaborative network of individuals and organizations in human services and animal welfare who address the intersections between animal abuse, domestic violence, child maltreatment, and elder abuse through research, public policy, programming and community awareness. We serve as the National Resource Center on The Link between Animal Abuse and Human Violence. We believe that human and animal wellbeing are intertwined and that the prevention of family and community violence can best be achieved through partnerships representing multi-species perspectives. The National Link Coalition believes that through the recognition and integration of this understanding into policies and practices, humans and animals will be measurably safer. Learn more at www.nationallinkcoalition.org .

84 The past four decades have witnessed a renaissance of interest in an age-old no - This is the concept of what we call “The Link,” the idea that acts of interpersonal violence are tion. “red flag” markers that frequently precede, or co-occur with, acts of cruelty to animals. Animal abuse is becoming more widely recognized as a potential indicator and/or predictor of interpersonal vio - lence that escalates in range, severity and number of victims. This notion captivates popular thought with its intuitive appeal, is engaging a research community that is validating it empirically, and is be - ing applied constructively by law enforcement and prosecution agencies taking an enhanced interest in animal abuse as a crime worthy of serious attention. It is now widely regarded that animal abuse and human violence often go hand-in-hand — or, as we sometimes quip, hand-in-paw. By positioning animal abuse within the continuum of other antisocial behaviors rather than as isolated incidents or acceptable childhood rites of passage, we can gain not only more progress in reducing animal abuse but also in improving human safety, preventing crimes against humans, and lowering tolerance levels for all acts of aggression. The United States has the world’s oldest anti-cruelty laws, dating back to 1641. The first “Link” prose - cutions — in which perpetrators were charged simultaneously with abusing children and animals — date to 1649. State anti-cruelty statutes now include felony-level penalties in all 50 states. Meanwhile, child protection agencies owe their origins to the animal protection movement. Through organizations such as the National District Attorneys Association and the National Link Co - alition, professionals from prosecution, law enforcement, and many other disciplines are coming to - gether to address the nexus where animal abuse and other forms of family violence intersect. Animal cruelty is now recognized as being as complex as the multiple triggers for interpersonal aggression. It - is no longer seen as occurring in a vacuum but rather as part of individual and/or familial dysfunc tion, psychopathy, and emotional abuse. It is no longer considered socially acceptable because “boys will be boys” or “it was only a cat,” but rather as a serious crime within the larger context of antisocial, aggressive behaviors. - The Link model breaks down silos that have long separated humane and human services in a com mon cause of violence prevention. It recognizes that we are all working with the same perpetrators and the same victims. It offers more comprehensive, multi-disciplinary, timely, and effective preven - tion, assessment, intervention, and treatment proactivity and response. Link awareness has generated significant progress. This manual provides anyone who either uncovers or presents evidence of animal cruelty, abuse and neglect with the rationale behind this renaissance of interest and, more important, the informed tools for successful investigations and prosecutions. The result it is hoped will be safer families and communities. Phil Arkow , Coordinator National Link Coalition — The National Resource Center on The Link between Animal Abuse and Human Violence Stratford, N.J., May, 2014

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