i am a physicist challenge

Transcript

1 I am a Physicist INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS I AM A PHYSICIST CHALLENGE 1

2 I am a Physicist Welcome to challenge ! Girlguiding Nottinghamshire has the Institute of Physics I am a Physicist been selected as the pilot county and we hope you enjoy taking part. The challenge has been eated by The East Midlands branch of the ) and is designed to introduce Institute of Physics ( cr IOP a way that is accessible, fun and educational. girls to the fascinating world of physics in The re challenge is in four sections: Section 1: Experience 2: Create Section Investigate Section 3: Community 4: , Visit , Meet Section We suggest that you do fun and short experiments from sect ion one as you can fit as many of the unit meeting . into a T o complete the badge Rainbows, need to do at least four, while Browni es, Guides and Rangers need to do six. All sections need to do one activity from each of the at least two will give your girls ideas and skills for sections ction one remaining sections. The activities in se three . and This resource is a menu to pick your activities from. We have included activities for all age groups ’s lo and there of choices, so do n’t think you have to do everything! The recommended age ads group for each activity are for guidance . F eel free to s whichever activities you think your girls will do be comfortable with. If you w ould like more to choose from, a n expansion pack of additional acti vities is available : www.iop.org/activity/branches/midlands/east - midlands/ e need some W recognise that while some of you will be comfortable doing experiments, others may - As well as the . - by step guide s included in this resource , you can also: support simple step Take part in workshops at a Girlguiding Nottinghamshire training day • • Watch helpful videos of the Experience experiments at : - www.iop.org/activity/branches/midlands/east midlands/ C ontact the IOP East Midlands branch • about the experiments or to help you find a for advice physicist to come along to a unit meeting. Email: [email protected] Once you ’ve finished the challenge , complete the badge order form , along with the feedback form (bo th of which are included at the end of the resource) and email it to . , however Please note that as this is pilot project, badges are free [email protected] ou must compete the feedback form . in order to receive your badges y Feel free to share pictures, videos an d stories on social media using #Iamaphysicist. This hashtag is part used by women all over the world to talk about what they do in physics , so make sure you are of the conversation! Thank you for taking part in this exciting new challenge and inspiring g irls for the future. 2

3 Challenge summary SECTION – EXPERIENCE 1 is a collection of simple and fun activities that will introduce some basic ideas and get you used This The a ctivities have been designed to only require things you can find in a to doing experiments. h as a step - by - step guide and explanation . The activities are supermarket . Each very simple and , and w a whole meeting to doing as many of these experiments as y ou short e suggest you devote to do , Brownies, Guides and Rangers need but at least six, while Rainbows need to do at least want to complete the badge. T h ese experiments should inspire your girls , as well as giving them the four sections two and three . confidence and ideas to tackle – SECTION 2 CREATE There are . ’s lava lamps and tornados for time to put them to use Now you have some ideas, it and Egg Mars Landers for Guides and Rangers. and musical instruments Rainbows and Brownies, section includes objects or devices for your g irls to build. Some activities may require a trip to a This ( unless you have lots of crafting materials already ) . If you know which ‘C reate ’ crafting shop r girls would like to do, you activities you might suggest that they pick the activities in section one t will support this. This is all explained in the badge contents page. T hese activiti es will get the tha girls making, as well as increas ing their understanding and inspiring their engineering skills. SECTION – INVESTIGATE 3 section of the badge “I am a Physicist” really comes true. These are This is the where the name r g ould will find out what happens if...? Rainbows c where you find out what objects irls experiments rownies could find out how much fuel to put into their fizzy B around them are magnetic, while roc kets for the highest launch. Again, no specialist equipment is needed and there are p lenty of suggestions to help it run smoothly. We also would encourage helpful to design Guides and Rangers their own experiments. It important to remember that there is no right or wrong result. You r girls ’s ... t ! will change something and see what happens hat’s what it is to be a physicist – VISIT MEET, SECTION 4 , COMMUNITY that as well as enjoying themselves and learning something, your girls will be inspired to We hope want to be physicists or engineers in th e future . We want this resource to help them to see that they could be having this kind of fun as a job. like them to either meet a physicist or In this section, we’d hysics in action. Included in the re source is a visit a museum or science centre where they can see p , including Greens Mill in Nottingham and The National Space Centre in Leicester list of local venues (both of which are great visits even if you’re not doing this resource!). There’s also Science in the Park , which is an event held at Wollaton Hall in Nottingham . The IOP and Girlguiding Nottinghamshire will be hosting a joint stand in 2019 . It’s definitely worth a visit! Alternatively, contact the IOP East Midlands branch committee at [email protected] , who will help eastmid you find a speaker to visit your unit . Your girls could also get out in the community , demonstrat ing their new skills at a local event. 3

4 Contents and requirements TO COMPLETE THE BADGE Crea te Investigate Meet, Visit, Community Experience or Either Meet V 1 All sections: Rainbows: 1 All sections: isit 4 No. of activities Brownies, Guides, Community is optional 6 Rangers: feel free to do as many as you have t ime for. More activities - These are the minimum requirements www.iop.org/activity/branches/midlands/east are available in the expansion pack: midlands/ - There’s also some fun cartoons that you might want to show your girls: www.physics.org/marvinandmilo.asp And you could encourage your girls and leaders to keep experimenting at home. them. Below is a list of the experiments within this resource and where you can find EXPERIENCE can choose to do any combination activities. However, Experience activities and Create of the You will help prepare Experience activities some below. Experience shown . T for Create activities his is activities a re suitable for all age grou ps. xperience activity E y Create activit Associated Page 6 Hovercrafty Balloon Powered Cars Make a functioning hovercraft out of a CD and a balloon. Available i n the expansion pack) ( 7 String Balloon Rockets Rangers , Guides, ( ) Brownies Us a balloon as a guided rocket along a string. e 8 Eggstrordinary I Spin eggs to find out which is cooked then use salt to make them float. Mars Lander (Brownies, Guides, Rangers ) 9 Eggstrordinary II Squeeze eggs to discover their surprising strength then drop them inta ct. Musical Coat Hangers 10 Turn a metal coat hanger into a gong. Build an Orchestra (All ) sections Screaming Balloons 11 Make a balloon scream by spinning different coins in it. 12 Balloon Kebabs a skewer through an inflated balloon without it Pus h bursting. 13 Flaming Balloons a naked flame to a balloon y Appl ... and it doesn’t burst. 14 Not a C reate activity but it is Fizzy Rockets useful for Fizzy Rocket Us e launch film canisters. water and effervescent tablets to I nvestigate activity. (Browni Rangers ) es, Guides, 4

5 Contents and requirements CREATE ) are activities, where your girls will build devices ( that actually work ! to construction Below demonstrate principles. Particle Collisions and Vehicles Additional activities including Sun Catcher, Planets are availab le in , www.iop.org/activity/branches/midlands/east midlands/ . These are build - the expansion pack: - activities, where your girls will learn about physics principles by crafting models of objects. based Section Page Activity es Fun with Bottl Rainbows /Brownies 15 construct Us plastic bottles to e a lava lamp, Cartesian diver and a tornado. Build an Orchestra Rainbows /Brownies/ , Guides Construct Rangers strange musical instruments. 1 8 Egg Mars Lander , Brownies/ Guides Rangers a lander that will keep an construct Use random materials to 20 egg safe when dropped from a height. INVESTIGATE girls should carry out an experiment to something. We provide some Your investigate example y, along with instructions, but we encourage experiments they migh 2 1 t like to tr to c o me up with their own experiment. all sections ( especially Guides and Rangers) MEET , VISIT, COMMUNITY your girls have found out how fun and interesting phy sics experiments can be , 22 Now that we would like them to meet a physicist or visit a museum or science centre to be inspired into thinking of this as a career option. 2 As an additional, optional task, they might like to consider presenting the activities 5 event in their local community. you’ve done as , an part of Record Card 6 2 27 and feedback order form Badge About The Institute of Physics 28 5

6 Hovercrafty YOU WILL NEED: • An old CD Blu Tac • Make a functioning hovercraft out of Sports cap from a drinks bottle – the • a balloon a CD and to open kind that you pull • A balloon WHAT’S HAPPENING? The air rushes out of the Rainbows: INSTRUCTIONS the cap, and spreads out balloon, through under the CD. The CD then floats around Place the sports cap over the 1) on this air. hole in the middle of the CD. 2) Use Blu Tac to hold it in place Brownies: Because the CD is sitting on this and form an air - tight seal round it. cushion of air, it is no longer touching the 3) Makes sure the cap is closed and ground. This means that it has no friction then blow up a balloon and twist with the ground and only a very small side. the end to keep the air in amount w ith the air it is sitting on. That is Stretch the neck of the balloon 4) why it will go so far without slowing down. over the cap. Once it is on, untwist the neck. s and Rangers: Guide You probably noticed Place your hovercraft on a flat 5) the biggest problem is the balloon surface and open the cap. dragging along the ground. Why not think 6) ush and watch it go! Give it a p about ways you could alter the CD to keep the balloon out of the way? 6

7 Experience String Balloon Suitable for all sections Rockets Using a balloon as a guided rocket along a string YOU WILL NEED: • Several metres of string • ideally the long type A balloon – • A peg Sellotape and scissors • A straw • WHAT’S HAPPENING? INSTRUCTIONS The balloon squeezes all of the Rainbows: Blow up the balloon and then 1) peg the neck to keep the air in. air out of the hole, pushing the balloon 2 ) Cut the drinking straw in half and forwards. Th e string makes it go in a use a part where there is no straight line. What would happen if you “bendy” bit. just let it go without a string? ) Take 3 3 to 4 metres of string and thread it through the straw. Blowing into the balloon stores Brownies: 4 ) Now tape the straw length ways ubber. When - energy in the stretched out r so that the neck – oon on to the ball the rocket “launches” that energy is with the peg on it is facing released and transfers into the movin g backwards along the string. air. Hold one end of the string with 5) – the balloon on it right next to you Newton’s third law Guides and Rangers: the neck end facing back towards says that for every action, there is an you. Get a friend to take the other equal and opposite reaction. The motion end away and make the string of the air going backwards out of the tight . n will be equalled by the forward balloo 6) Release the peg and watch it go! motion of the balloon. 7

8 Experience Eggstrordinary Suitable for all sections Part 1 ggs to find out which is Spin e cooked then use salt to make them YOU WILL NEED: Raw eggs • float. • Hard boiled eggs that have cooled • glass (large enough to fit A pint - sized an egg) • Salt • Fresh water INSTRUCTIONS WHAT’S HAPPENING? Keep track of which eggs are boiled 1) and which are raw – maybe label When spinning the eggs, in Rainbows: them. the hardboiled egg it all spins together. 2) Spin the hardboiled egg. Then stop But in the raw egg the stuf f inside is it with your finger on top and loose and liquid. When you stop the immediately let it go again. Watch egg, the insides keep moving. what happens. 3) Now spin the raw egg and do the The weight of the egg is Brownies: same. It should start spinni ng again! heavier compared to pure water than it 4) Now half fill the glass with water alt water. When you add the pure, is to s mix – and add 4 table spoons of salt dilutes the salt water. it until it is all dissolved. 5) Put a raw egg into the glass. It : The liquid insid es Guides and Rangers should float. and of the egg keep their momentum Now gent 6) ly pour in more fresh transfer it back to the shell. In the water. The egg should begin to sink. floating experiment. The salt in the oats in the Add just enough so it fl floating experiment increases the Keep this water for Part 2! middle. he water and increases the of t density of the egg. buoyancy 8

9 Experience Eggstrordinary ons Suitable for all secti Part 2 YOU WILL NEED: heir Squeeze eggs to discover t • Raw eggs surprising strength then drop them • A bucket (or wrap the egg in a plastic intact. bag) Wipes/washing facilities for breakages • Large plastic bottle • The salt water you made in Eggs Part 1 • • Scissors and sticky tape INSTRUCTIONS Check an egg for cracks and 1) WHAT’S HAPPENING? remove any rings from your fingers Put the egg in the palm of your 2) Rainbows: The shape of the egg makes it hand and hold it inside the bucket. very strong and the squeeze of your hand Squeeze evenly as hard as you can is spread round the whole egg. the bucket catches a ny mess – from the occasional one that wnies: Bro d shape of the egg The curve breaks! force means that the applied by your Cut the top off t he bottle and 4) hand is distributed across the whole shell put the egg inside. evenly. The salt water in the drop 5) Fill with enough of the salt water from part 1 to cover the egg so it experiment does the same with the force floats. If you don’t have enough, . impact of the use tap water and add salt until the The amount of Guides and Rangers: egg floats. T he egg must float! face area plays a part pressure over sur Tape the top of the bottle back 6) on and drop from waist height to here and this is why you have to remove the floor. The egg should survive. rings. That would create a point where more pressure is on a single point. 9

10 Musical Coat Experience Hangers Turn a metal coat hanger into a gong Suitable for all sections YOU WILL NEED: A metal coat hanger • 2 pieces of string • • A fork or spoon INSTRUCTIONS WHAT’S HAPPENING? 1) Tie a piece of string to the two rs of the coat hanger. Put a small corne Rainbows: Noises are made by things loop in the end of each string. . That vibrating goes wobb ling or vibrating 2) Put an index finger through each up the string, through your fingers and loop and hold it up so it dangles. Have a friend hit the hanger with the 3) ears. into your fork/spoon. You can see and feel it vibrating In step 3, the coat Brownies: vibrating. Can you hear it? hanger makes the air around it vibrates Now stick your fingers in your ears 4) but air, being a , is very bad at passing gas and bend over so the hanger hangs freely. Have it hit again. What can you on these vibrations. are much Solids hear this time? better and the string and your finger are 5) Swap with your friend. a solid all the way to your ear. molecules Guides and Ra ngers: The in the air are too spread out to easily pass on the vibrating sound waves . The molecules in solids are close together and m one to the the sound waves pass fro next more easily. 10

11 Experience Screaming Suitable for all sections balloons Make a spinning balloon scream by YOU WILL NEED: Balloons (of the round variety) • different coins in it 20p, 50p or £1 – Bevelled edge coins • A good pair of lungs (or balloon inflator) • WHAT’S HAPPENING? The coin is running round the Rainbows: INSTRUCTIONS outside of the balloon and the edges are 1) Squeeze the coin through the “tapping” the rubber. The faster it goes, the – make sure it mouth of the balloon faster the taps and the higher it sounds. goes all the way in. Sound is a vibration. The shape of Brownies: balloon but do not be Blow up the 2) the coin means that it is vibrating inside and off. inflate it. Tie it - tempted to over Grip the balloon at the stem end, 3) e vibrations then make the air around thos like you’re holding a bowling ball, and vibrate so you can hear it. palm down swirl it in a circular motion and Rangers : The coin is moving Guides 4) The coin may bounce around at first but will then roll, making a noise. centripetal force around the balloon thanks to Vary the speed and change coins ) 5 – – that makes objects the inward pointing force listen to the sounds made. move in a circular path. The screaming sound is made when the side of the coin vibrate so as to . standing wave make a 11

12 Balloon Experience Kebabs Suitable for all sections Push a skewer through an inflated t it bursting balloon withou YOU WILL NEED: • A bamboo or wooden skewer Balloons (round and of reasonable quality) • • The ability to blow it up INSTRUCTIONS WHAT’S HAPPENING? Inflate the balloon to a 1) When you blow up a balloon, the Rainbows: reasonable size but do not go too rubber gets all stretched. The dark patch on the far. There should still be a darker end and around the knot are least stretched area of rubber at the end. eak when you skewer it. and won’t br Tie a knot so the balloon stays 2) inflated. The energy you are using to blow up Brownies: the darker patch of rubber Find 3) the ball oon is being stored in the stretched at the end opposite the knot. just like an elastic band. When you – rubber d end of the Firmly press the pointe burst a balloon that energy is all released. skewer into this patch. 4) If it bursts, try again. Guides and Rangers: The stretched rubber is 5) Hopefully it hasn’t burst. Now . The points where under high surface tension push the skewer all the way surface we push in the skewer have low through, taking care to come out of tension and thus won’t break. A lot of the round the knot. the thick bit stored energy is released as sound – that’s why Remember: balloons can be burst there’s a BANG. from the inside as well as the outside! 12

13 Flaming Experience Balloons Suitable for all sections Apply a naked flame to a balloon and it doesn’t burst YOU WILL NEED: 2 Balloons • ideally a tap • – Water • Cooker/cigarette lighter, candle or matches. INSTRUCTIONS Close adult supervision is definitely WHAT’S HAPPENING? required. Rainbow s: When you burn the balloon by 1) Blow up one of the balloons and tie a knot in it. itself it melts through the rubber straight Hold a flame from the lighter or 2) away. When there is water the heat of the match against it and watch it go flame goes into the water instead. bang. Brownie s: The heat energy from the water 3) Put some water into the second balloon easiest – to do this from a passes straight through the rubber into the tap. es a lot longer to heat water. The water t ak Inflate the rest of the balloon 4) up than rubber. So, it stays relatively cool with air and tie a k not. and stops the rubber right next to it heating 5) Hold it up and let the water up as well. settle. 6) Apply the flame right under the Guides and Rangers: The amount of energy water. It should not pop. You’ll still needed to increase 1kg of a substance by 1 see soot on the balloon though! degree Celsius (or Kelvin) is known as the of that substance. For pecific Heat Capacity S water it is 4186 joules per kg. 13

14 Launching Fizzy Experience Rockets Use water and effervescent tablets table for all sections Sui launch film canisters you can YOU WILL NEED: – • Effervescent tablet one that fizzes in water. Vitamin C for example. • An old film canister. Can be got from a photography shop or contact the IOP. Some drinking yoghurts have plastic clip lids. INSTRUCTIONS • A jug of water 1) Go outside to somewhere it doesn’t matter if the floor gets wet WHAT’S HAPPENING? and a few metres away from buildings and cars. Rainbows: The fizzing tablet gives off a gas half a tablet int o 2) Break up that is trapped inside the canister. When smaller pieces and drop them in there is too much gas it forces the lid off and the canister. the canister explodes away. 2cm of water into Put about 1 - 3) the canister with the tablet. Brownies: The trapped gas has nowhere to 4) Put the lid on tightly and give it a go and so the increases. Once the pressure quick shake. pressure is strong enough to overcome the 5) down - Turn it over and place it lid of the lid, it pushes down. friction on the floor. Step away and make sur e everyone stays away from it. Newton’s laws Guides and R say that angers: 6) See if you can guess when it will for the rocket to move up, it must throw launch and how high it will go! – something away downwards that is the lid. 14

15 Create Fun with Suitable for Rainbows and Brownies Bottles We’d suggest each girl makes a lava lamp to take Explore the idea of density and create a home. The diver and tornado are more suited to cular vortex! specta Use plastic bottles to small groups. construct a lava lamp, Cartesian diver Ensure you d ispose of any plastic you’re using in and a tornado an environmentally friendly way. YOU WILL NEED: Lava lamp Tornado Cartesian div er Effervescent (fizzy) • litre bottle x 2 - 2 • • vitamin C tablets (like Buckets • Plastic bottle of any size Alka - Seltzer) • Water and a jug Food colouring Water • • Funnels • • Straw • Blu - Tac Vegetable oil • Small, clear water bottles • • • Blu Gaffer tape (Duct - Tac • Sequins (optional) tape) WHAT’S HAPPENING? LAVA LAMP Pour out about ¾ of the water from the bottle 1) The oil separates out and floats on top of the water as it To the remaining quarter add a few drops of 2) less dense . This is because the particles in is lighter – food colouring the oil are less tightly packed together. The fizzing of the 3) Split the girls into pairs and give each pair a tablet releases small bubbles of carbon dioxide gas that funnel rise to the top of t he liquid and carry some of the water Get one of them to hold the bottle while the 4) with it. The gas escapes when it reaches the top and the other pours in cooking oil until it is ¾ full. coloured water sinks back below the oil. Make sure a quarter of the bottle is just air at the top o Wait for the liquids to fully separate – il floats 5) on water ow (if using) Add a small hand full of sequins n 6) 7) Break up one of the effervescent tablets and drop it into the bottle. Watch what happens Top tip: f the I Don’t put the lid on during the fizzy bit. girls are taking the lava lamp home you’ll need for then. the lids 15

16 CARTESIAN DIVER Cut a length of straw about 5cm 1) long. 2) Seal up each end with a bit of Blu - Tac Use the jug of 3) water to see if it floats. Keep changing the - only tac until it amount of Blu just floats 4) Now put it into the bottle full of water WHAT’S HAPPENING? Now, when you squeez e the bottle The water does not compress much when you squeeze it so the diver sinks and when you let go the air inside the diver gets squashed. The overall mass does it floats back to the top. not change but the volume gets smaller. We talked about here it increases and it sinks. – in the last activity density It also possible to ’s Tac: - this experiment using sauce sachets and Blu 16

17 TORNADO! litre bottles until it is almost full - Fill one of the 2 1) - 2) Create a “worm” of Blu Tac long enough and thick enough so that you can put it round the rim of the ugh so that it will form bottle. It needs to be thick eno a seal when you... Turn the second (empty) bottle upside down and 3) push the rim into the Blu - Tac seal Use gaffer tape around the join to make sure that the 4) bottles will stay together ow at the top Turn it all over so that the water is n 5) WHAT’S HAPPENING? e join and spin it in a Hold the top bottle and th 6) that you vortex This is the same kind of circular motion see in cyclones, tornadoes and whirlpools. vortex 7) (whirlpool) forms in the upper bottle, Once a you should see the vortex form – stop spinning A less dense material (in this case the air) and continue as long as there is liquid throughout the is rising, being sucked up by the dropping upper bottle. liquid in the pressure in the top bottle as the water e bottom. The small rotation you falls to th Top tip: give it is increased in speed as the water You could add food colouring to the water. • drops through the opening. – temperature water Try to use room - if you use • In the case of a real tornado it is less cold it makes the air inside the bottle cold. dense hot air rising up the middle as Because cold things get smaller, the bottles will denser, cold air spirals down the outside. crumple up! • ught online. Bottle tornado adapters can be bo 17

18 Build an Create Orchestra Suitable for all sections construction activity to This is a Ensure you dispose of any plastic you’re using in create strange musical instruments an environmentally friendly way. YOU WILL NEED: icken Sounds Glovaphone Straw Oboe Ch Growler • Cardboard box Thin latex glove • Plastic cup or yoghurt A straw • • pot A straw • Scissors Pencil • • String • • String • Tape Damp cloth • Wet cloth Cardboard tube with open ends • • PURPOSE OF THE ACTIVITY by making things vibrate. In woodwind it is the The sound of musical instruments is always created reed, in string instruments the strings, in brass the player’s lips and in percussion it is by hitting things. The sound is often amplified by creating chambers for the sound wav es and the pitch of the note i s often related to the size of the instrument or chamber. Here we will show you how to make four “instruments” that explore these ideas. Then you could get older girls to try creating their own. KEN AND THE GROWLER STRING VIBRATIONS: THE CHIC In these firs t two, the string is made to vibrate by holding a damp cloth tightly round it and pulling it along the string. Try doing it to some string by itself. You can feel the vibrations and hear a quiet sound. Now: Chicken Sounds Growler the bottom of the cup 1) Make a small hole in the cardboard box 1) Make a hole in 2) Tie some string round a 2) Cut a length of string pencil 3) Thread it through the hole and tie a knot to 3) Fe ed the string through the hole so that the stop it slipping out pencil is inside 4) Now take the cloth and pull it along the string 4) Pull the wet cloth along the string again again In each case, the box and the cup has amplified the sounds of the string. The size and shape has affected – speed of movement are also factors. Try changing them the pitch. The tightness of the cloth and see what happens. 18

19 STRAW OBOE 1) Cut away the bendy part of the straw Flatten one end about 2cm from the tip 2) 3) Make two cuts along the folds to make a triangular tip r mouth so that that triangles do not Insert the tip into you 4) touch anything. Blow hard! in the air. What happens if you shorten the The triangles vibrate straw? GLOVAPHONE 1) Cut a small hole in one of the fingers of the glove 2) Feed the straw a small way in and seal with t ape the tube t – make sure there are no the end of the glove over the cardboard tube and tape down to 3) Pu holes 4) Insert the tip into your mouth so that that triangles do not touch anything. Blow hard! 5) Pull the rest of the fingers down against the side of the tube and blow until the top of the glove vibrates. ! TIME TO GET CREATIVE You’ve now seen some of the ways to make sound vibrations – and we haven’t even plucked a string or hit anything yet! You have seen how we can the sounds (make them louder). use boxes or “horn - shaped ” cups to amplify The size of the instrument will change the note, as will how hard you blow things or rub things. standing wave – a vibration that keeps Instruments rely on what we call a repeating on the same frequency. Wh en you change the length of the straw oboe, the shorter ones have a smaller wavelength a nd so the note rises. On a flute or recorder you change the “length” by covering holes. On a string instrument, you change the length of the string by putting your fing ers on it. In percussion instruments, smaller things generally give higher notes – think of the blocks on a xylophone. Or maybe fill glasses with different amounts of water. So, now you should encourage your girls to invent their own instruments. ! urselves an orchestra Build yo 19

20 Create Egg Mars Lander Use random materials to construct Brownies, Guides and Rangers Suitable for a lander that will keep an egg safe when dropped from a height YOU WILL NEED: Eggs • • Lots of random materials craft stocks, junk, – recycling. People could bring in rubbish from home • Suggested (and not limited to): tape, scissors, glue, cardboard, rubber bands, pencils, paper, tissue PURPOSE OF THE pape r, cotton wool, cartons, boxes, pl astic bags, scrap polystyrene, string ACTIVITY s Just like in the last Balloon Powered Car Stuck for ideas? activity, this is another opportunity to flex your creative muscles. If you did If your budding engineers are both the Eggstrordinary activities in struggling, here are some of the then you have already Experience, methods real planetary landers started exploring the strength of eggs use and other things they could protect them. In this activity, and how to consider. w them off the roof you’re going to thro • Parachutes (or top of a ladder or any other high • Propellants place). Using lots of random junk and Airbags • crafting materials, try to keep it in one • Crumple zones piece. • Padding • Suspension Also consider things like the water drop activity in Eggstrordinary 2 n sponge. or encasing it i E YOUR RANGER S! CHALLENG Eggstra challenges ave a go at building a lander that you put on top of a H Succeeding isn’t actually too tri cky so you could rocket! Here is an example of one you could build: choose some extra elements to the challenge: www.wikihow.com/Make - Rocket - Pressure - Powerful - a - Air • You must be able to get the egg out after the drop in less than 10 seconds. An eggsit hatch? 20 half a dozen? Increase the number of eggs – • • Impose a maximum weight limit.

21 Investigate It is tim e to do actual experiments to investigate physics phenomena Suitable for all sections HOW TO USE THIS SECTION You will find several suggested experiments here, along with the age group we think might be appropriate. You can read through them and find PURPOSE OF THE want to do or create your own. We one you ACTIVITY suggest: This is where Physicist y comes reall I am a to carry out a small investigation and • Rainbows true. The girls should carry out an produce a simple table of results something. We’ve experiment to investigate to do an experiment, probably one Brownies • provided some example experiments they suggested here, with a single variable. might like to try and how to do them, but it to carry out an experiment where they • Guides would be great if, especially the older girls, entify the variables. id To experiment. came up with their own help • Rangers to address a question, designing the them along the way we will mention some experiment themselves. basic principles of designing an experiment. In each case the girls can then choose to either talk about their results or create a poster . THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD CHOOSE AN INVESTIGATION All sections should all follow the same simple steps: Rainbows, Brownies and Guides should choose an experiment from the next page or find another i n a ow do 1. The question E.g. is it magnetic? H bubbles form differently in book or online. different ty pes of milk? the suggestions ion from should pick a quest Rangers 2. The guess What do you think will or choose one of their own. doesn't hy? ( happen? W It matter if you don't get it Here’s a quick one to get you started... . right) same magnet/ same E.g. 3. Fair Hungry? Which biscuits dunk best? investigation amount of milk/size of glass . he 4. Compare t Did it do what you expected? Get different varieties of biscuit I f n ot why not? results to the and ask which will dunk best? guess r test – same Why? Make it a fai 5. Present T ell someone else about nt of time in tea/hot choc. amou what you did and found out. Same temperature. Time how You might need to draw a long it takes before the bottom O picture or a chart. r show falls off! them. 21

22 y Rainbows / ounger Brownies y Rainbows / ounger Brownies MAGNETS SINK OR FLOAT INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS 1) Write a list of things you’re going to test to see if 1) you. around ite a list of stuff r W write 2) Guess if it’ll stick to a magnet or not – ater. they float or sink in w Think back to other floating experiments you down your guess next to each. 2) have done for this badge ry it. Wer e you right? Don’t worry if you T 3) – they will and g uess if . Not all metals are magnetic . weren’t write down your guess next to each. T 3) . by putting each into a bucket of water ry it Top tip: to help get a good range of materials , including weren’t e you right? Don’t worry if you Wer - . Not some sticky and some non st icky me tals. will floa t . all materials 4) Get a piece of modelling clay or playdough if you EXTENSION haven’t already. Drop it in as a ball. Does it float? ? through paper 4) Does the magnet work Is there a different shape you could mould it into 5) material? c ard? ? to make it float y layers of card do you think? T ry it 5) How man are you right? – 6) M ake a maze magnet one side of the card, – Rangers O lder Brownies / Guides and paper clip the other, can you lead your paper clip through the maze you ? drew ROCKET FUEL This is an extension to the activity Launching Fizzy on page 14 , so read this through first. Rockets Brownies You will also need: a device for measuring small quantities of water (Calpol syringe?) and a stopwatch. MILK BUBBLES You will need: Full fat milk, - semi skimmed milk, STRUCTIONS IN skimmed milk, three identical glasses/beakers, 3 Pour 10ml of water into the canister and add a 1) straws, stopwatch. tablet. Put on the lid, turn upside down and place on the floor. INSTRUCTIONS 2) When the rocket launches, start the stop watch – 1) Pour 5cm of each milk into a glass and stop when it lands. This is the same as remember which is which. measuring how high the rocket goes . 2) On the word “go” have three of you blow anging the amount of water you put in. Keep ch 3) through straws. Bubbles should build up. Note down the time and amount of water each 3) Use the stopwatch to time how long it takes time. for the first bubbles to reach the top in one Guides/rangers could now plot a graph with water 4) glass and shout stop. amount at the bottom and time up the side. 4) Now time how long it takes for the bubbles to disappear. SOME QUESTIONS FOR RANGERS their own investigat We suggest that Rangers come up with ions, and design and investigation accordingly. However, if they are stuck for ideas, here are some suggestions: • What makes pendulums swing at different speeds? How do you build the perfect paper plane? • • H ow could you measure the rotatio n of the Earth with a weight and a piece of string? If ice is the solid form of water, why does it float in your glass on a hot day? What makes water and ice so special? • 22

23 Meet or Visit This is an activity or visit to show how physics is relevant to the real world and is a car eer they should consider. You can of course do both if you wish! Meet ions Suitable for all sect PHYSICISTS IN THE SOME EAST MIDLANDS PURPOSE OF THE Deborah Phelps Deborah studied physics and maths, ACTIVITY and has worked in industry since Physicists do a wide range of jobs, from graduating. She works at Rolls Royce, medical to astronomy, research to l at Civil Aerospace and is Brown Ow manufacturing and even forensics. It may 14th West Bridgford Brownies. well be that one of your leaders, helpers Kelly Morrison or one your girls’ parents is a physicist. Kelly uses magnets everything from for Most are happy to talk about their work. harvesting waste heat, to building new types of refrigerators magnetic fields – The East Midlands Branch of the IO P will up to 100,000 stronger than the Earth’s be very happy to help you find a speaker - ° 271 & temperatures as low as . C too. Rebec ca Dewey Becky did a PhD looking at the brain using magnetic resonance imaging. MRI helps answer all sorts of questions about how the brain works, how it goes TOP TIP wrong, and how we can fix it. Why not invite the physicist along on a night Susie Cumberland when you are doing one of the other Susie is a Senior Research Analyst in an , as well as Energy company Technology activities? Then they could help out and a science/space themed craft owning answer the really tricky questions! business. You can contact the IOP East Midlan ds branch vid Wilkinson Da David studied medical physics at for help [email protected] at university before specialising in finding a speaker. – forensics weapons and drugs detection. He now works for the IOP This could be a member of the branch and is a science fiction author. themselves, a local physicist, an IOP member Edward Breeds or a student. is a lecturer of physics a t Ed Nottingham Trent University. He thinks what is going on underneath the seeing surface of our everyday experiences makes the world even more beautiful. 23

24 PURPOSE OF THE Visit ACTIVITY Suitable for all sections We all love a trip out and the world of science, engineering and physics can be a VISITOR ATTRACTIONS IN THE fascinating place. Many will have discounts for groups and often will lay on something MIDLANDS a little extra. Alternatively, have you ever Nottingham wanted to visit a real physics laboratory at Greens Mill and Science Centre www.greensmill.org .uk iversity or factory? a un Nottingham Industrial Museum www.nottinghamindustrialmuseum.org.uk Leicester National Space Centre TOP TIP https://spacecentre.co.uk/ The IOP East Midlands branch organise Abbey Pumping Station outreach events, activities and evening http://www.abbeypumpingstation. org/ lectures throughout the year. Events can be Birmingham www.events.iop.org/org found online at for Think Tank http://www.birminghammuseums.org.uk/ details you can a lso contact thinktank [email protected] PLACES FURTHER AFIELD INDUSTRY AND Cheshire FACILITIES Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre Some industrial facilities will happily arrange http://w ww.jodrellbank.net/ tours. We will be trying to get some contacts Manchester for you to use but there is nothing to stop you Museum of Science and Industry rganisations yourself. Examples in contacting o https://www.msimanchester.org.uk/ the East Midlands include: London Rolls Royce • National Science Museum • Staythorpe Power Station, Newark https://www.sciencemu seum.org.uk/ • Wymeswold solar farm • Big Hospitals have medical physics PHYSICS DEPARTMENTS LOCAL SCIENCE EVENTS Some universities might be able to have you visit. Physics departments in the East Midlands are: Here are some you could search for online Nottingham Leicester • Science in the Park (Wollaton, Nottingham Trent Lincoln usually around March) Loughborough Some have observatories! ght Night (Nottingham centre, • Li around February) • Nottingham Pint of Science in May Blue Dot Festival (Jodrell Bank in • 24 July)

25 Community Now that you have become experts in fun physics experiments, share it with other people Suitable for all sections . PURPOSE OF THE ACTIVITY The IOP created this challenge in an effort to show girls and young women in Girlguiding that physics is inte resting, fun and worth considering as a career. Now you can help us spread that message by using the activities in this badge to take part in outr each in your local community. Perhaps have a stand at a local fair, science festival, guide camp or CIENCE IN S even take it to a local, younger unit (like THE PARK another Rainbow or Brownie unit ). In March 2018, the Institute of Physics teamed up with Girlguiding Nottinghamshire to deliver LET’S CELEBRATE! a physics outreach stand at the Wollaton Hall Science You could choose to celebrate completing your in the Park event. Several b adge by having a party where everyone hundre d people enjoyed comes dressed as their favourite physicist. For being shown activities you ein’s Birthday inspiration, check out this Einst have covered in this badge Party pack: by Brownies, Guides and .org/UploadDocs/Feature/docum www.physics Girlguiding Volunteers. We ents/EinsteinsBirthdayPartyPack.pdf plan to do the same at the You could invite family and friends and show next event in March 2019! r favourite physics tricks, present them you your experiments and display posters. HOST AN EVENT! If you’re confident in finding a venue and putting on an event, then there’s nothing stopping you. Make sure you do a Risk Assessment and observe Girlguiding guida nce and policies. If you’d like some guidance, branch help or support, contact the IOP East Midlands 25 committee at [email protected]

26 Record Card Create Exp M / V / C Experience strordinary II Girl’s n ame Flaming Balloons Mars Lander Eggstrordinary I Hovercrafty Fun with bottles Build an Orchestra Musical Coat Hangers Experiment Fizzy Rockets Meet Screaming Balloons Visit Egg Community String Balloon Rocket Balloon Kebabs 26

27 Badge order form and feedback I require ... ... ... I am a Physicist badges adges are free during the pilot project!) B ( ... ... Unit Leader name: ... ... Address: ... ... Unit name: ... ... This is a pilot project for the challenge. Any feedback you can give us will be greatly appreciated and could lead to improvements before the badge is promoted more widely. In order to receive your badges, you must comp lete the feedback form. Please email your badge request and feedback form to [email protected] . A postal address is available on request. Thank you for your feedback. Section Number Number of volunteers leaders/ of girls Yes Some No Don’t know Do the girls now know more about physics? leaders confident to deliver this again? Are the Did you have any difficulties accessing materials, training or people? groups? Would you recommend this badge to other Would you be interested in training other leaders? was What s? What was particularly enjoyed? Any other comment enjoyed? n’t 27

28 About The Institute of Physics Institute of Physics (IOP) About The The Institute of Physics is the professional and learned society for physics in the UK and Ireland, inspiring s. people to develop their knowledge, understanding and enjoyment of physic We work with a range of partners to support and develop the teaching of physics in schools; we encourage innovation, growth and productivity in business, including addressing significant skills shortages; and we rt to governments in the UK a nd Ireland. provide evidence - based advice and suppo Our members come from across the physics community, whether in industry, academia, the classroom, technician roles or in training programmes as an apprentice or a student. in physics and the contribution it Our reach goes well beyond our membershi p to all who have an interest - leading science publisher and we are makes to our culture, our society and the economy. We are a world proud to be a trusted and valued voice for the physics community. www.iop.org t: To find out more visi 28

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