A World That Counts

Transcript

1 A World th Counts At R s ustainable Develop Mobilising the Data Revolution fo Ment i IOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIO- OIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIO- OOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIO- OOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIO- IOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIO- IOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIO- IOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOO- IOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIO- IOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIO- OIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIO- IOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIO- IOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIO- IOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIO- OOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIO- IOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOO- IOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIO- IOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIO- IOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOO- IOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIO- IOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIO- IOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIOOOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIIOIO- OOIIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOIIIOIOOOIOOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIO- IOIOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOIOOIOIOIOIOOOOOOIOIOIOIOIOIO

2 The United Nations Secretary-General’s ledgements W kno C A Independent Expert Advisory Group on a Data Revolution for Sustainable Development (IEAG) thanks the hundreds of individuals and organi- sations that contributed online and during the face-to-face meetings organised in New York and in Geneva, as well as other meetings attended by IEAG members. Contributions, including in-kind, are gratefully acknowledged, including those from UNDP, DfID, UN Global Pulse, ECE, UN Secretariat - including DESA, DGACM, DM, and EOSG - UN Millennium Campaign, UN NGLS, Microsoft and UN Foundation. We gratefully acknowledge help and advice from many others, especially Muhammad Abdullahi, Youlia Antonova, René Clausen Nielsen, Joe Colombano, Marie-Ange Diegue, Jaspreet Doung, Tala Dowlatshahi, Eleonore Fournier-Tombs, Caya Johnson, Eva Kaplan, Kate Krukiel, Paul Ladd, Yongyi Min, Keiko Osaki-Tomita, Anna Ortubia, Paul Pacheco, Matthias Reister, Stefan Schweinfest, Frances Simpson-Allen, Corinne Woods and Wailan Wu. Independent Expert Advisory Group Secretary: Claire Melamed Research team: Luis Gonzalez Morales, Yu-Chieh Hsu, Jennifer Poole, Benjamin Rae, Ian Rutherford. Publication management: Admir Jahic Green Design & layout: Communication Design Inc. Produced by: Independent Expert Advisory Group Secretariat Independent Expert Copyright Advisory Group Secretariat 2014 © For more information please visit: www.undatarevolution.org

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4 Ex E cutiv E Summary obilising the data revolution for sustainable development m Data are the lifeblood of decision-making and the raw material for accountability. Without high-quality data providing the right information on the right things at the right time; designing, monitoring and evaluating effective policies becomes almost impossible. New technologies are leading to an exponential monitor progress, hold governments accountable and foster sustainable development. More diverse, increase in the volume and types of data available, integrated, timely and trustworthy information can creating unprecedented possibilities for informing and transforming society and protecting the environ- lead to better decision-making and real-time citizen ment. Governments, companies, researchers and feedback. This in turn enables individuals, public and private institutions, and companies to make choices citizen groups are in a ferment of experimentation, that are good for them and for the world they live in. innovation and adaptation to the new world of data, a world in which data are bigger, faster and more This report sets out the main opportunities and detailed than ever before. This is the data revolution. risks presented by the data revolution for sustain- Some are already living in this new world. But able development. Seizing these opportunities and too many people, organisations and govern- mitigating these risks requires active choices, espe- ments are excluded because of lack of resources, cially by governments and international institutions. knowledge, capacity or opportunity. There are Without immediate action, gaps between developed huge and growing inequalities in access to data and developing countries, between information-rich and information and in the ability to use it. and information-poor people, and between the private and public sectors will widen, and risks of Data needs improving. Despite considerable harm and abuses of human rights will grow. progress in recent years, whole groups of people are not being counted and important aspects An urgent call for action: of people’s lives and environmental conditions key recommendations are still not measured. For people, this can lead to the denial of basic rights, and for the planet, The strong leadership of the United Nations to continued environmental degradation. Too (UN) is vital for the success of this process. often, existing data remain unused because The Independent Expert Advisory Group (IEAG), they are released too late or not at all, not well- established in August 2014, offers the UN Secretary- documented and harmonized, or not available at General several key recommendations for actions the level of detail needed for decision-making. to be taken in the near future, summarised below: As the world embarks on an ambitious project to 1. Develop a global consensus on principles meet new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), The disparate worlds of and standards: there is an urgent need to mobilise the data revolu- public, private and civil society data and sta- tion for all people and the whole planet in order to tistics providers need to be urgently brought that Counts A World 2 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

5 be needed to implement an education program together to build trust and confidence among data users. We propose that the UN establish aimed at improving people’s, infomediaries’ and a process whereby key stakeholders create a public servants’ capacity and data literacy to “Global Consensus on Data”, to adopt principles break down barriers between people and data. concerning legal, technical, privacy, geospatial 4. Leadership for coordination and and statistical standards which, among other A UN-led “Global Partnership mobilisation: things, will facilitate openness and information for Sustainable Development Data” is pro- exchange and promote and protect human rights. posed, to mobilise and coordinate the actions and institutions required to make the data 2. Share technology and innovations for the revolution serve sustainable development, To create mechanisms through common good: promoting several initiatives, such as: which technology and innovation can be shared and used for the common good, we propose A “World Forum on Sustainable Development • to create a global “Network of Data Innovation Data” to bring together the whole data Networks”, to bring together the organisations ecosystem to share ideas and experi- and experts in the field. This would: contribute ences for data improvements, innovation, to the adoption of best practices for improving advocacy and technology transfer. The the monitoring of SDGs, identify areas where first Forum should take place at the end common data-related infrastructures could of 2015, once the SDGs are agreed; address capacity problems and improve effi- A “Global Users Forum for Data for SDGs”, • ciency, encourage collaborations, identify critical to ensure feedback loops between data research gaps and create incentives to innovate. producers and users, help the international community to set priorities and assess results; 3. New resources for capacity development: Improving data is a development agenda in Brokering key global public-private • its own right, and can improve the targeting partnerships for data sharing. of existing resources and spur new economic 5. Exploit some quick wins on SDG data: - opportunities. Existing gaps can only be over Establishing a “SDGs data lab” to support the come through new investments and the development of a first wave of SDG indicators, strengthening of capacities. A new funding developing an SDG analysis and visualisation plat- stream to support the data revolution for sus- form using the most advanced tools and features tainable development should be endorsed at the for exploring data, and building a dashboard from “Third International Conference on Financing diverse data sources on ”the state of the world”. for Development”, in Addis Ababa in July 2015. An assessment will be needed of the scale of Never again should it be possible to say investments, capacity development and tech- “we didn’t know”. No one should be invisible. nology transfer that is required, especially for This is the world we want – a world that counts. low income countries; and proposals developed for more information on the composition, terms of reference for mechanisms to leverage the creativity and and work of the ieag, see www.undatarevolution.org resources of the private sector. Funding will also for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 3 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

6 E d A tA S th What i revolution for u E S tainabl E d E v E lopm S nt? 1 Data are the lifeblood of decision-making. Without data, we cannot know how many people are born and at what age they die; how many men, women and children still live in poverty; how many children need educating; how many doctors to train or schools to build; how public money is being spent and to what effect; whether greenhouse gas emissions are increasing or the fish stocks in the ocean are dangerously low; how many people are in what kinds of work, what companies are trading and whether economic activity is expanding. To know all this and more Sustainable Development Goals improve data for monitoring and (SDGs). Achieving these goals involves a systematic effort of accountability. As a result, more finding out. It means seeking will require integrated action is known now about the state of on social, environmental and the world and, particularly, the out high-quality data that can be used to compare outcomes and poorest people in it. But despite economic challenges, with a focus on inclusive, participatory changes over time and between this significant progress, huge development that leaves no one and within countries, and con- data and knowledge gaps remain about some of the biggest chal- behind. This in turn will require tinuing to do so, year after lenges we face, and many people another significant increase in year. It means careful planning, and groups still go uncounted. spending money on technical the data and information that is expertise, robust systems, and These gaps limit governments’ available to individuals, govern- ever-changing technologies. It ability to act and to communicate ments, civil society, companies and international organisations means making data available, honestly with the public. Months building public trust in the data, into the Ebola outbreak, for exam- to plan, monitor and be held ple, it is still hard to know how accountable for their actions. A and expanding people’s ability to use it, so that their needs are at many people have died, or where. huge increase in the capacity of many governments, institutions the heart of these processes. And now the stakes are rising. and individuals will be needed to Since 2000, the effort involved In 2015, the world will embark deliver and use this data. on an even more ambitious in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has initiative, a new development Fortunately, this challenge comes spurred increased investment to agenda underpinned by the together with a huge opportunity. A World that Counts 4 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

7 A he gro W th of d t t A : 400 100 t A t A rends in d 350 il A t v A A A A bility, d 300 75 ousehold openness nd A 250 mobile phone use 200 50 all Surveys 150 open access Surveys etwork, by year in which nternational h 100 25 mobile-cellular umber of surveys registered subscriptions 50 data collection was finished* n urvey n by the i (per 100 inhabitants) s 0 0 ubscriptions per 100 inhabitants** s 2005 1990 2000 1995 2010 2013 International Household Survey Network (http://catalog.ihsn.org/index.php/catalog). For a detailed analysis of global Source: * trends in survey data availability, see, e.g., Demombynes and Sandefur (2014), “Costing a Data Revolution”, Center for Global Development, Working Paper 383. ** World Bank (http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2), based on data from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database The volume of data in the world the Secretary-General of the societies are adjusting to a world United Nations. We hope it is increasing exponentially: one of faster, more networked and more comprehensive data – and estimate has it that 90% of will also be helpful to Member all the fears and dangers, as well States, the UN System as the data in the world has been i a whole, and to the large as opportunities, that brings. As created in the last two years. the graph above demonstrates, constituencies that support the This is the “data revolution”: the the volumes of both traditional three pillars of the UN: peace, opportunity to improve the data sources of data (represented by human rights and development. that is essential for decision- the number of household surveys making, accountability and Revolutions begin with people, registered) and new sources solving development challenges. not with reports, and the data (mobile subscriptions per 100 This report calls on governments revolution is no different. This people) have been rising, and and the UN to act to report is not about how to create enable openness is increasing (num- a data revolution – it is already data to play its full role in bers of surveys placed online). the realisation of sustainable happening – but how to mobilise Thanks to new technologies, the it for sustainable development. development by closing key volume, level of detail, and speed It is an urgent call for action to gaps in access and use of of data available on societies, the between developed and data: support the aspiration for sus- economy and the environment is tainable development and avert developing countries, between without precedent. Governments, risks, stop and reverse growing information-rich and information- companies, researchers and poor people, and between the inequalities in access to data and citizens groups are in a ferment private and public sectors. information, and ensure that the of experimentation, innovation promise of the data revolution is and adaptation to the new world This report has been prepared realised for all. of data. People, economies and in response to a request by for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 5 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

8 A A AAAAAA AW A A A A A A AW AAAAA A A AW A A A A AA AW A AA A A A AW AAAA AA A AAW d Defining the revolution A t A A AAA AA A The data revolution for sustainable development is: since the phrase was coined in May 2013 in the report of the high-level panel of eminent persons on the post-2015 the integration of these new data with traditional data Development agenda, the “data revolution” has come to produce high-quality information that is more detailed, to mean many things to many people. here, we take it to timely and relevant for many purposes and users, espe- mean the following: cially to foster and monitor sustainable development; The data revolution is: the increase in the usefulness of data through a much greater degree of openness and transparency, avoiding an explosion in the volume of data, the speed invasion of privacy and abuse of human rights from with which data are produced, the number of produc- misuse of data on individuals and groups, and minimis- ers of data, the dissemination of data, and the range ing inequality in production, access to and use of data; of things on which there is data, coming from new technologies such as mobile phones and the “internet ultimately, more empowered people, better policies, better of things”, and from other sources, such as qualitative decisions and greater participation and accountability, data, citizen-generated data and perceptions data; leading to better outcomes for people and the planet. a growing demand for data from all parts of society. footprints’ people leave behind, relationships is used with mali- inimising the risks m from sensor-enabled objects or is cious intent, such as hacking into and maximising the inferred via algorithms. bank accounts or discriminating opportunities of the in access to services. People data revolution The growing gap between the and societies can be harmed data people actively offer and As with any change, the data in less material, but nonethe- the amounts of “massive and revolution comes with a range less real ways if individuals are passive” data being generated , posing questions of new risks embarrassed or suffer social and mediated by third parties and challenges concerning the isolation as a result of information fuels anxiety among individuals access to and use of data, and becoming public. and communities. threatening a growing inequal- There is a longer-term cost if ity in access to and use of Some of this is well-founded. a breakdown in trust between information. These risks must As more is known about people people and the institutions that be addressed. and the environment, there is a have access to their data means correspondingly greater risk that Fundamental elements of human that people do not feel confident the data could be used to harm, rights have to be safeguarded: giving consent to uses of their rather than to help. People could privacy, respect for minorities or data for the social good, such as be harmed in material ways, if data sovereignty requires us to to track patterns of disease or the huge amount that can be balance the rights of individuals assess inequalities. known about people’s move- with the benefits of the collective. People and the planet could also ments, their likes and dislikes, Much of the new data is collected be harmed inadvertently, if data their social interactions and passively, from the ‘digital that Counts A World OIIOOIOIOIOOII 6

9 OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- This is T he revolu Tion OOOOIOOIOIOO- IOIOOOIOO as part of a project to engage young people in disaster risk reduction, that have not been checked for teenagers in Rio de Janeiro have used cameras attached to kites to gather quality are used for policy or aerial images, helping to identify the presence or absence of drainage systems, decision-making and turn out to the availability of sanitation facilities, and potential impediments to evacuation. be wrong. in Rio, this has already led to the removal of piled-up garbage and the repair of There is also a risk of growing a bridge. inequality. Major gaps are already Source: UNICEF (http://www.unicef.org/statistics/brazil_62043.html) opening up between the data haves and have-nots. Without resources for investment, training broadband subscription exceeds action, a whole new inequality and experimentation. According 10% of average monthly GDP per frontier will open up, splitting the to McKinsey, African countries capita, compared to France and world between those who know, spend about 1.1% of GDP on the Republic of Korea where it is and those who do not. Many ii The information investment in and use of inter - less than 0.1%. people are excluded from the net services, less than a third society should not force a choice new world of data and informa- between food and knowledge. of what, on average, is spent by tion by language, poverty, lack richer countries – meaning that of education, lack of technology In several countries, the public the gap in internet availability infrastructure, remoteness or sector is not keeping up with and use is growing every year, prejudice and discrimination. companies, which are increas- as some regions accelerate While the use of new technolo- ingly able to collect, analyse and iii The graph below shows ahead. gies has exploded everywhere respond to real-time data as how advanced economies are in the last ten years, the costs quickly as it is generated. Richer ahead of the rest of the world are still prohibitive for many. In countries are benefitting more on almost every indicator of Nicaragua, Bolivia and Honduras, from the new possibilities than access to, use of, and impact of for example, the price of a mobile poorer countries that lack the the use of digital technologies. 1. p olitical and lities in ACC ess to A inequ regulatory environment A es* nd use of iC t serviC 7 usiness and innovation 2. b 6 10. Social impacts advanced economies environment 5 Southern, central and 4 Eastern European countries 3 9. Economic impacts nfrastructure 3. i 2 commonwealth of independent and digital content 1 States and mongolia 0 developing asia 8. Government usage 4. a ffordability latin america and the caribbean middle East and north africa usiness usage 7. b 5. Skills Sub-Saharan africa 6. i ndividual usage * Regional score averages based on the Global Information Technology Report 2013, by the World Economic Forum for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 7 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

10 It is up to governments to put in place the rules and systems to realise this vision, working with domestic stakeholders and in the multilateral system, at regional and global levels. Governments, through the legal systems they enforce, are the aa2011-00484/noorani © uniCef/RW ultimate guarantors of the public good. If the new world of data is We believe that the data But if our vision is of a world to be based on public trust and where data and information revolution can be a revolution public consent, there has to be reduce rather than increase for equality. More, and more a confidence that governments open, data can help ensure that inequalities, we are still a long can and will play this role, at least knowledge is shared, creating a way from realising that ambition. in part through the creation and - Without deliberate actions, the world of informed and empow enforcement of new rules. opportunities will be slower in ered citizens, capable of holding decision-makers accountable for coming and more unequally dis- It is governments – ideally work- their actions. There are huge tributed when they arrive, and the ing in collaboration with forward risks will be greater. opportunities before us and looking and socially responsible change is already happening. private institutions, civil society and academia – that can set and enforce legal frameworks OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIO- to guarantee data privacy and IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- he revolu This is T Tion security of data for individuals, OOOOIOOIOIOO- IOIOOOIOO and ensure its quality and inde- indonesian authorities estimated that 50,000 people in sumatra suffered pendence. It is governments that from respiratory illness as a result of forest fires in March 2014. several can balance public and private major cities were effectively closed for weeks. the environmental impacts interests and create systems were equally severe, with valuable forest and peat land burned, contributing that foster incentives without significantly to indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions. the immediate avail- creating unacceptable inequali- ability of free forest fire data on the World Resources institute (WRi)’s global ties, adopt frameworks for safe forest Watch site (gfW) enabled companies – asia pulp and paper (app) and responsible use and manage and asia pacific Resources limited (apRil), indonesia’s two largest pulp and the international system that paper producers – to evaluate daily where their limited resources are best can transfer finance and techni- deployed to respond to fires on lands they are responsible for. the govern- cal expertise to bring the least ments of singapore and indonesia also used gfW-fires’ ultra–high resolution informed people and institutions imagery, available through a partnership with Digital globe, to crack down on up to the level of the most illegal burning by companies. and gfW-fires, combined with the indonesian informed. And it is governments government’s Karhutla (land and forest fires) Monitoring system, enabled that are elected to respond firefighters to reduce response time from 36 hours to 4 hours. to citizens on their choices Source: World Resources Institute (http://www.wri.org/our-work/project/global-forest-watch) and priorities. that Counts A World 8 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

11 providing data that is human and We believe machine-readable, compatible that thE data rEvolution can bE a with geospatial information systems and available quickly revolution for equAlity enough to ensure that the data cycle matches the decision sustainable development. To fill New institutions, new actors, cycle. In many cases, technical new ideas and new partner - this role, however, they will need and financial investments will be to change, and more quickly ships are needed, and all have needed to enable those changes something to offer the data than in the past, and continue to to happen, and strong collabora- revolution. National statistical adapt, abandoning expensive and tion between public institutions cumbersome production pro- offices, the traditional guard- and the private sector can help cesses, incorporating new data ians of public data for the public official agencies to jump straight sources, including administrative good, will remain central to the to new technologies and ways of whole of government efforts to data from other government doing things. departments, and focusing on harness the data revolution for A A AAAAAA AW A A A A A A AW AAAAA A A A AW A A A AA AA AAW A A A AAAAA AAW A AA A AAA AAW health services an , W d A D malaria t A e n AA AA AA AA AW A AA AA AA A AW AA AA A average more than 350 actionable reports per month, and approximately 70% of these reports are successfully fol- Malaria is one of the biggest killers in several lowed up at the district level within 2 weeks. the number developing countries and imposes a huge strain on health of facilities that are out of stock of artemisinin-based systems. using new data sources to inform planning and s) to treat malaria at any given Combination therapies (aCt policy can improve services and reduce deaths. time has fallen from 80% to 15%. iv , supported by uniCef the Mtrac programme in uganda, Research in Cote d’ivoire shows how, in the longer term, the Who and usaiD, uses sMs surveys completed by new sources of data might also have a role in tracking health workers to alert public health officials to outbreaks and predicting epidemics of malaria or other diseases. of malaria, and lets them know how much medicine is Combining strongly anonymised data on communication on hand at health facilities, so they can anticipate and patterns from the orange mobile telephone network with resolve any shortages. before Mtrac, the Ministry of information on the spread of malaria from the Who, the health had very little health facility-level data, either paper university of Minnesota school of public health produced or electronic. by March 2014, thanks to this programme, epidemiological models that are more detailed than any about 1,200 district health officials, 18,700 health facility currently in use. this knowledge could be used to create ser - workers, and 7,400 village health team workers were using vices to notify doctors, field hospitals and the general public the system. now the ugandan government is collecting ahead of epidemics, using mobile networks or local radio. data from thousands of health facilities, capturing and similar work has been done on the spread of aiDs, cholera analysing results within 48 hours at a total cost of less and meningitis, and could, if the data is made available, be than us$150 per poll. the anonymous hotline receives on v used for rapid response and planning for new epidemics. o A rldthCoutn for sustainable development A A W 9 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

12 n C W d A t A , he A lth servi e es A nd m A l A ri A ( cont’d) A popul tion density A nd C tion by sub - prefe C ture ommuniCA Number of calls between sub-prefectures 5.001 - 98,489 98,490 - 382,559 382,560 - 1,507,291 Population density per sq Km 4 - 25 26 - 45 46 - 64 65 - 95 96 - 176 177 - 585 586 - 4388 n 0 50 100 200 300 400 KilomEtrES A e A l A ri A prev A len C m nd C C prefe - ture by sub ommuniCA tion Number of calls between sub-prefectures 5.001 - 98,489 98,490 - 382,559 382,560 - 1,507,291 Estimated malaria prevalence 21.2% - 38.3% 38.4% - 48.7% 48.8% - 61.3% 61.4% - 81.69% Communication patterns of mobile phone users in Côte d’Ivoire between sub-prefectures are shown, weighted by the number of calls n that were made between December 2010 and April 2011, superimposed 0 50 100 200 300 400 on (a) the 1998 population density and (b) the prevalence of malaria, as estimated by Raso et al. [25]. For clarity, only edges representing more KilomEtrES than 5,000 calls over the 5-month observational period are shown. that Counts A World 10 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

13 t t hE d A A revolution for nt E lopm E v S u S tainabl E d E 2 in s eptember 2015, the un Member s tates are expected to commit to an ambitious new set of global goals for a new era of sustainable development. a chieving them will require an unprecedented joint effort on the part of governments at every level, civil society and Dgs the private sector, and millions of individual choices and actions. t o be realised, the s will require a monitoring and accountability framework and a plan for implementation. a commitment to realise the opportunities of the data revolution should be firmly embedded into the action plan for the s Dgs, to support those countries most in need of resources, and to set the world on track for an unprecedented push towards a new world of data for change. There is Much T T. o do i o be done, and T his is T he M oMen T T There are two main problems countries still have poor Why a data revolution data, data arrives too late to address: for sustainable and too many issues are still development? Not enough high-quality • barely covered by existing In a world increasingly data. Although there have been steady data. For example, in several awash with data, it is shock- and dramatic improvements in countries data on employment ing how little is known about recent decades, there is still are notoriously unreliable, some people and some parts work to do to create a clearer data on age and disability are of our environment. and more up-to-date picture of routinely not collected and a the world, to use in planning, The world has made huge great deal of data is difficult monitoring and evaluation of strides in recent years in track- to access to citizens or is not the policies and programmes ing specific aspects of human available until several years that will together achieve the development such as poverty, have passed since the time SDGs, and in holding to account nutrition, child and maternal of collection. those in positions of power over health and access to water and resources and other decisions too many sanitation. However, that affect people’s lives. o A A W for sustainable development A rldthCoutn 11 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

14 80 A ent p er C A ge of mdg d A t 70 A urrently A C il A ble for v developing C ountries by 60 n A ture of sour C e* 50 40 Nature of data source: ercentage 30 p Global monitoring 20 modelled 10 Estimated 0 2000–04 1995–99 1990–94 2010-13 2005–09 country, adjusted r eference period country Availability is defined as the proportion of country-indicator combinations that have at least one data observation * within the reference period. Figures are based on 55 MDG core indicators, as of October 2014. Source: MDG database, maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division The figure above presents a observation over the reference no five-year period when the availability of data is more than period, and availability is summary snapshot of current 70% of what is required. The data availability in the MDG broken down by whether the drop in data availability after database (as of October 2014), data comes from country or 2010 demonstrates the extent international data sources, covering 55 core indicators and whether it is estimated, of the time lags that persist for 157 developing countries vi or areas. There, a country is adjusted or modelled. Overall, between collection and release the picture is improving counted as having data for an of data. indicator if it has at least one though still poor, so there is There is considerable variation OIOIOOOOOOIO- in data availability between IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- indicators, where, for exam- OIOOIOIOIOIO- he revolu This is T Tion OOOOIOOIOIOO- ple, data on malaria indicators IOIOOOIOO is very scarce, while for the as part of the development of their national strategy for the Development of ratio of girls to boys enrolled in statistics (nsDs) completed in partnership with the partnership in statistics primary, secondary and tertiary for Development in the 21st Century (paRis21), Rwanda identified some simple, education there is relatively yet systematic, improvements that could dramatically help make better use of good country level data avail- evidence for policy making. one innovation included moving up the publishing able for most countries and date of the Consumer price index by five days each month in response to needs years (though much remains to from both policy makers and businesses. the release date of the Demographic be done in tracking other indi- and health survey and living Conditions survey was changed so that the infor - cators essential to monitoring mation could be used in measuring Rwanda’s first poverty reduction strategy educational outcomes). and so the information could inform planning for the next one. these changes in data scheduling increased the usefulness of the data and allowed for better evidence-based decisions to be made. Source: PARIS21 (http://www.cgdev.org/blog/better-data-rwanda) that Counts A World 12 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

15 OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- This is T Tion he revolu OOOOIOOIOIOO- IOIOOOIOO If data availability is still low for indonesia is one of the most social-media dense countries in the world today. some individual indicators and/ indonesians tweet about a range of topics, including the cost of living. a project or countries, the graph below by un global pulse, the indonesian Ministry of national Development planning highlights how, when looked at and the World food programme found public tweets mentioning food prices from a country level, there has closely approximate official figures, leading to the development of a technology been a tremendous improve- that extracts daily food prices from public tweets to generate a near real-time ment in the ability of national food price index. this data mining approach could be adapted to other food statistical systems to provide witter but other crowd-sourced and items and locations, not just leveraging t data directly over the past ten social data sources. years. This has been one of Source: UN Global Pulse (http://www.unglobalpulse.org/nowcasting-food-prices) the greatest achievements of MDG monitoring, and is level, making it hard for policy Globally, the fact of birth has testament to the tremendous makers or communities to not been recorded for nearly efforts of many national and compare their progress with 230 million children under age international organisations. that of other communities five. In 2012 alone, 57 million Beyond the MDG indicators, or the country as a whole. In infants – four out of every ten other disturbing gaps exist. water supply, for example, the babies delivered worldwide Entire groups of people and analysis of many household that year – were not registered key issues remain invisible. vii Violence surveys produces a single with civil authorities. Indigenous populations and against children is often under - national estimate of access to slum dwellers for instance, are reported, leading to failures to clean and safe water in rural consistently left out of most protect vulnerable children. areas, but does not show how data sets. It is still impossible to it varies between districts. Data is often insufficiently know with certainty how many disaggregated at sub-national disabled children are in school. 80 A re C se over time in number of i n 70 tor series for W h hiC mdg indiCA 60 trend A s possible lysis WA A n ountries* for developing C 50 40 No. of indicator series with 30 at least two data points: 20 ercent of countries 0–5 p 10 6–10 0 11–15 md G database as G database md G database md ctober 2014 as at July 2003 at o as at July 2006 16–22 * Figures are based on a subset of 22 MDG indicators. Source: Updated figures based on United Nations, “Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals”, Report of the Secretary-General, 45th. Session of the United Nations Statistical Commission, 4-7 Mar, 2014. (E/CN.3/2014/29). A W for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A 13 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

16 and sex-age composition was available for just 35 percent. A lack of demographic and location information frequently hinders needs assessment and monitoring of the global ix response to emergencies. The new goals will cover a wider range of environmen- tal issues than the existing © uniCef/nYhQ2014-1094/nesbitt Data on many environ- MDGs. mental issues is particularly available on the distribution of Gender inequality and the sparse. There is almost no money or the division of labour undervaluing of women’s useful data on chemical pol- within households. Much activities and priorities lutants, despite toxic waste more data are needed on the in every sphere has been dumping being a serious envi- economic roles of women replicated in the statistical ronmental and health issue in of all ages as caregivers to record. Many of the issues some countries. Likewise, we children, older persons and of most concern to women lack sound and agreed-upon the disabled in the house- are poorly served by exist- metrics for tracking excessive hold and in the labour force. ing data; just over half of flows of reactive nitrogen. Of the 42.9 million persons all countries report data on the It is quite clear that of concern to the United intimate partner violence, and monitoring of the SDGs will Nations High Commissioner where it is reported quality is require substantial addi- for Refugees (UNHCR) globally not consistent, data is rarely in order to tional investment at the end of 2013, sex com- collected from women over consolidate gains made during position was known for only 49, and data are not com- the MDG era and to develop viii 56 percent of the population, Very little data is parable. reliable, high-quality data on a range of new subjects, OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIO- such as climate risk mitiga- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- Tion he revolu This is T OOOOIOOIOIOO- tion or inequality, ensuring IOIOOOIOO that no groups are excluded, in Mexico, a budget research and advocacy group called fundar developed an and with an unprecedented online database of government farm subsidies. one of the problems brought level of detail. to light was the way in which billions of dollars of the funds were distributed. though many farm subsidy programs claim to target the neediest farmers, Data that are not used or • the database revealed that a small group of wealthy farmers had captured To be useful, not usable. the vast majority of subsidy funds over time (the top 10 percent of recipients data must be of high quality, had received over 50 percent of the funds). the studies contributed to the at a level of disaggregation government decision to review and change the distribution of the subsidies. that is appropriate to the issue Source: Fundar (http://fundar.org.mx) at hand, and must be made that Counts A World 14 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

17 OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- Tion he revolu This is T OOOOIOOIOIOO- IOIOOOIOO example, are much harder for household survey data can be of enormous value in identifying patterns of potential users to work with; progress among different groups and using this to inform policy. for example, administrative data that are otal sanitation Campaign, launched in 1999, has a the indian government’s t not transferred to statistical budget of $3.9 billion to improve access to sanitation in the country. however, offices; data generated by the data from household surveys showed that between 1995 and 2008, the out - private sector or by academic comes were far from satisfactory. in this period, the percentage of households researchers that are never from the poorest 20% of indian society practicing open defecation fell from released or data released too 99% to 95%, while among the second-richest quintile it fell from 56% to 20%. late to be useful; data that analysis of household data by uniCef and others has helped to inform the gov - cannot be translated into ernment’s efforts to improve the targeting of subsidies, in the hope of helping a action because of lack of oper - larger number of the poorest people. Source: UNICEF (http://www.unicef.org/wash/) ational tools to leverage them. This is a huge loss in terms of the benefits that could be data is still produced using accessible to those who want gained from more open data or need to use them. Too different standards – house- and from being able to link many countries still have data hold surveys that ask slightly data across different sectors. different questions or geo- that are of insufficient quality spatial data that uses different to be useful in making deci- Data needs to be generated geographical definitions. There sions, holding governments to with users in mind. Too often account or fostering innova- is, for example, no standard data providers underinvest tion. Good data are relevant, definition of an “urban” in identifying and engaging area. And too little data are accurate, timely, accessible, those in a position to use data comparable and produced free available at a level of disaggre- to drive action. Agencies with of political interferences. gation that is appropriate to a mandate to collect public policy makers trying to make information are not always Comparability and standardisa- decisions about local-level allo- well-suited to ensuring their tion are crucial, as they allow cation or monitoring equitable information is used by stake- data from different sources or outcomes across regions. This holders, while civil society time periods to be combined, prevents researchers, policy and the private sector could and the more data can be makers, companies or NGOs play a critical role in translating combined, the more useful from realising the full value of data into a form that is more they are. Combining data the data produced. readily useable. allows for changes of scale – Access, too, is often restricted e.g., aggregating data from t he data we want different countries to produce behind technical and/or legal for sustainable - barriers, or restricted by gov regional or global figures. It development ernments or companies that allows for comparison over time, if data on the same thing fear too much transparency, Too much that needs to be collected at different moments all of which prevent or limit known remains unknown. Data effective use of data. Data can be brought together to could be used better to improve reveal trends. But too much buried in pdf documents, for lives and increase the power for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W OIIOOIOIOIOOII 15

18 and groups to be reflected in means for redress if they feel and control that citizens have over their destinies. Data is a analysis and policy. that they are being harmed or their rights infringed by the resource, an endless source of Rules and standards should be fuel for innovation that will power use of their data. aimed at reducing information sustainable development, of inequalities and providing the Data for now. If data is to • which we must learn to become be useful and support good highest-quality information for effective and responsible stew - - decision-making, it has to all, in the most easily under ards. Like any resource, it must be ready at the time when stood format. The priority be managed for the public good, decisions are being made or should always be to use data and to ensure that the benefits where the opportunity for influ- and information to improve flow to all people and not just the outcomes, experiences and encing the outcomes is there. few. Data must be available, and possibilities for people in the Trade-offs between timeliness must be turned into the informa- x short and long term. and other quality dimensions tion that can be confidently used depend on the purpose to When the data is not by people to understand and which data is being put. New confidential, it should be avail- improve their lives and the world technologies and innovations able and useable as open data. around them. provide the opportunity for the There must be respect for pri- public sector, citizens groups, The world we need, if the data vacy and personal ownership individuals and companies to of personal data, and mecha- we have is to be used to the have access to data that, with fullest to achieve sustainable nisms in place so that people due regard for privacy, security themselves have access to development, is a world of and human rights, is aligned the information and are able data that is transformed in the with their own decision- to make choices accordingly. following ways: making cycles and information Crucially, people must have The Data for everyone. needs – available when and • rules, systems and invest- OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- ments that underpin how OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- he revolu Tion This is T official data is collected and OOOOIOOIOIOO- IOIOOOIOO and managed should be integration of different data sources can reduce costs, increase coverage and focused on the needs of drive faster data collection. the MY World survey, run jointly by the unDp , un people, while protecting their Millennium Campaign and the overseas Development institute, has gathered rights as the producers of that over 5 million responses worldwide to a question about people’s priorities for information. These data, and themselves and their families. Data has been collected through face to face the information produced from interviews, via mobile phones and online. standardisation of the question has them, should reflect what is meant that all the data has been aggregated into a single database, open to important to people and the all, and the data can be disaggregated by country, gender, age and level of constraints and opportunities education. people have used it to identify country priorities, to identify patterns that affect their lives. This pro- of concern about specific issues, and to illustrate differences and similari - cess should include all people ties in concerns by age and gender. MY World has shown how international – leaving no one out, and dis- organisations, together with civil society groups, can use data to feed people’s aggregating in ways that allow perceptions and priorities into the heart of political processes. the relevant differences and Source: UN Millennium Campaign ( http://vote.myworld2015.org/ ) similarities between people that Counts A World 16 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

19 vibrant “global data ecosystem” problems if they are part of a how they want it – and flexible and connected system, strengthen policy planning, to support the monitoring and crisis early warning, pro- not tied to one project or implementation of the SDGs and in which: research question. Data that gramme operations, service delivery, impact evaluation, can be re-used at different Governments empower • xi scales, and combined with and disaster response. public institutions, including other data, can better reflect Data Data for the future. statistical offices, protecting • the complex and dynamic are a key resource not just their independence, to take interactions between people for decision-making now on the needed changes to and the planet. We need but for future modelling and respond to the data revolution to begin investing in data and put in place regulatory problem solving. It is almost today as a shared resource frameworks that ensure robust impossible to precisely predict that will enable the innova- future needs, or know how data privacy and data protec- tions required to meet the current data could be re-used tion, and promote the release challenges of tomorrow. of data as open data by all data in the service of complex and producers, and build capacity interconnected problems as o ur vision for the future yet unknown or unsolved. Data for continuous data innovation. at different timescales will be By 2020, we hope to be most useful for solving future witnessing the emergence of a A A AAAAAA AW A A A A A A AW AAAAA A A AW A A A A AA AW A AA A A A AW AAAA AA A AAW t he v ata D more open D of better an lue A A AAA AA a report from McKinsey global institute puts the global Collecting data, processing data and turning them into • value of better and more open data at $3 trillion per information, using data and making them open for others to use and re-use all have costs. Deciding how much money year (with most of this benefit accruing to the usa xiii to spend on data, as opposed to other priorities, is an eco- and europe). nomic and a political decision, and spending more money on the u-report social monitoring platform established by • data will not always be the right choice. although research in uniCef in uganda has more than 240,000 young people this area is still limited, there is some evidence that more open reporting on issues that affect their communities. early data and new methods of data collection and use, can save reporting of an infectious disease in banana production money and create economic, social and environmental value: contributed to halting the spread of the disease, which could have cost the country $360 million per year if a report produced by accountancy firm Deloitte for the • xiv left unchecked. uK’s Department for business, innovation and skills esti- mates the economic value of the data held by the public using mobile phone records to track the link between • sector in the uK and released for use and re-use to be employee interactions and productivity, a small around £5 billion per year. this includes £400 million per change in the schedule of coffee breaks at a bank year as the value of lives saved from reduced death of america call centre, so that employees took their rates among cardiac patients, and time savings worth breaks together to encourage more interactions was between £15-58 million from the use of real-time trans- xv found to increase productivity by $15 million a year. xii port data and consequent adjustments in behaviour. for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 17 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

20 norms. They publish data, of quality control and audit Governments, international • for all systems and all data geospatial information and and regional institutions and statistics in open formats producers and users. They invest in data, pro- donors and with open terms of use, also support countries in their viding resources to countries following global common prin- capacity-building efforts. and regions where statistical ciples and technical standards, or technical capacity is weak; Statistical systems are • to maintain quality and open- develop infrastructures and empowered, resourced and ness and protect privacy. implement standards to con- independent, to quickly adapt tinuously improve and maintain Governments, civil society, to the new world of data to • data quality and usability; keep collect, process, disseminate academia and the philan- data open and usable by all. work together thropic sector and use high-quality, open, They also finance analytical to raise awareness of publicly disaggregated and geo-coded research in forward-looking and available data, to strengthen data, both quantitative and experimental subjects. qualitative. They may be less the data and statistical literacy (“numeracy”) of citizens, the about producing data and more International and regional • about managing and curating media, and other “infomedi- organisations work with aries”, ensuring that all people data and information created other stakeholders to set and have capacity to input into outside of their organisations. enforce common standards and evaluate the quality of for data collection, production, All public, private and civil • data and use them for their anonymisation, sharing and society data producers share own decisions, as well as to use to ensure that new data data and the methods used fully participate in initiatives flows are safely and ethically to process them, according to to foster citizenship in the transformed into global public globally, regionally, or nation- information age. goods, and maintain a system ally brokered agreements and The private sector reports on • OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- its activities using common OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- Tion he revolu This is T global standards for integrating OOOOIOOIOIOO- IOIOOOIOO data on its economic, envi- RapidftR (Rapid family t racing and Reunification, http://www.rapidftr.com/) ronmental and human-rights is an open source mobile application used to collect crucial information about activities and impacts, build- children who have been separated from their families in disaster situations. ing on and strengthening the information is shared securely on a central database for family members collaboration already estab- looking for a missing child. RapidftR uses the same type of security as lished among institutions that mobile banking to ensure that family-tracing information, especially photos, set standards for business is accessible only by authorised users, to protect these vulnerable children. reporting. Some companies in nyakabande transit centre in uganda, and Rwamwanja refugee settlement also cooperate with the camp in south sudan, RapidftR reduced the time required for information to public sector, according become available from more than six weeks to a matter of hours, speeding up to agreed and sustainable the process of family reunification. business models, in the Source: UNICEF (http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/uganda_70090.html) production of statistical data that Counts A World 18 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

21 and data resources to guide for SDGs monitoring and other The media fairly report on • sustainable development public purposes. the statistical and scientific at global, regional, national, evidence available on relevant Civil society organisations • and local scales. They make dimensions of sustainable - hold gov and individuals demographic and scientific development and foster an evi- ernments and companies data as open as possible for dence-based public discourse accountable using evidence public and private use in sus- using advanced visualisation on the impact of their actions, tainable development; provide technologies to better commu- provide feedback to data pro- feedback and independent nicate key data to people. ducers, develop data literacy advice and expertise to sup- and help communities and Academics and scientists • port accountability and more individuals to generate and use carry out analyses based on effective decision-making, and data, to ensure accountability data coming from multiple provide leadership in educa- and make better decisions sources providing long-term tion, outreach, and capacity for themselves. perspectives, knowledge building efforts. OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- p ivil rogress D Universal c towar OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- OOOOIOOIOIOO- ital s crvs tatistics ( ) r egistration an D v IOIOOOIOOOI one of the most fundamental inequalities is between those electronically, boosting efficiency and driving innovation and serving people, often in isolated areas. who are counted and those who are not. Millions of people of all ages in low- and middle-income countries are denied Despite progress in recent years, many countries still lack basic services and protection of their rights because the capacity, infrastructure, and resources to implement they are absent from official records. lacking records of well-functioning CRvs systems. their birth and civil status, they are excluded from health coverage, schooling, social protection programs, and humanitarian response in emergencies and conflicts. The good news is that international partners and countries have recently agreed on a CRvs a well-functioning CRvs system is essential to overcome xv the plan covers activities scaling up investment plan. this injustice. it is also vital for policy making and for over a 10-year period from 2015 to 2024, with the goal of monitoring, generating statistics for policy formulation, universal civil registration of births, deaths, marriages, and planning and implementation, and monitoring of population other vital events, including cause of death, and access to dynamics and health indicators on a continuous basis legal proof of registration for all individuals by 2030. africa at the national and local level. these data help to iden- and asia have already established regional programs to tify inequalities in access to services and differences in motivate political support, systematic national planning, outcomes. they also improve the quality of other statistics, xvi and provision of technical assistance. and key donors such as household surveys, that depend on accurate announced recently the establishment of a trust fund to demographic benchmarks. one proven solution is through support developing countries’ plans to establish CRvs issuance of a digital identity, which gives government systems with the aim of accelerating progress toward the and business the ability to deliver citizen services health-related sustainable Development goals. for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 19 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

22 E obili S in G th m d A tA for revolution tainabl nt: S u S E E d E v E lopm a call to action 3 a revolution is an idea – an inspiring vision of a world of fast-flowing data deployed for the public ut good, and of citizens and governments excited and empowered by the possibilities this creates. b it is also a practical proposition. Getting from here to there involves deliberate actions and choices. Decisive action now, taking advantage of the current political opportunities, can set the scene and have a positive impact for years to come. Achieving the SDGs demands embracing the data revolution. We urge the UN Member States and system organisations to dramatically speed up their work in this field to support the global aspiration for sustainable development. Data will be one of the fun- damental elements of the accountability framework for the SDGs. Having high-quality data, and using it to create informa- tion that can track progress, CifoR monitor the use of resources, and evaluate the impacts of information will be used in any goals. However, we recognise policy and programmes on specific accountability framework that data is not the whole story. different groups, is a key ingre- for the SDGs belongs to the This report is about how data, dient in creating more mutually and information, can be improved UN Member States and, as such, accountable and participatory and made more accessible. The remains beyond the scope of structures to monitor the new decisions on how those data and this report. A World that Counts 20 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

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oioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooio - ioioiooooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioio - iooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioiioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioio - ioiooiooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioioiooooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiioo building upon existing efforts - ioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioio Openness and exchange of - - ioiooooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioio principles - oooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioioiooooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooio oioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioioiooooooioioioioioio - in other domains, setting prin- ioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooio - data and metadata, includ- - ioioioioioioiooioioioiooooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioioo and standards iooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioioiooooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiiooioio - - ioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioioio ciples and agreeing standards - oooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioioioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioiooooio ing interoperability of data - ioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioioiooooooioioioioioioioioooiiiioioooiiooioioioioioooiiioioooiooioioio ioiooooioioioiooiooooioioioioioiooooioioioioioioiooooioioioioioioioiooioioioiooooooioioioioioioioioooi One of the key roles of the UN to build trust and enable and information systems; and other international or regional cooperation, including: demographic and geospa- organisations is setting principles tial information, including Agree on and promote • and standards to guide collective “geographic semantic” adoption of specific prin- actions within a global commu- management and exchange; ciples related to the data nity and according to common global exchange of informa- revolution , drawing from norms. We believe that mobilising tion on illicit financial flows; and building upon those the data revolution for achieving open data and digital rights described in the next two sustainable development urgently management and licensing; pages, to be further devel- requires such a standard setting, Protection of human rights, oped by the appropriate UN - building on existing initiatives in including: standards for bodies and agreed by their various domains. anonymising data that is Member States; personally identifiable, and We recoMMend ... Accelerate the development • standards and enforce- and adoption of legal, ... that the UN develop a com- ment mechanisms for data technical, geospatial and sta- prehensive strategy and a security, integrity, docu- , in a range tistical standards roadmap towards a new ‘Global mentation, preservation, of areas including, but not Consensus on Data’ , and access. limited to: for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 21 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

24 OIOIOOOOOOIO- IOIOIOIOIOIOIO- rinciples fo r the dA t A b r evolution asic p OOOOOIOIOIO- IOIOIOIOIOOIO- OIOOIOIOIOIO- OOOOIOOIOIOO- for sU stainable Development IOIOOOIOO the data revolution will need to be harnessed for sustainable and inclusive development through proactive measures and guided by the following C k ey prin iples: nd integrity dA t A qu A lity A of data. the value of data produced can be enhanced by ensuring there is a steady flow of high-quality and poor quality data can mislead. the entire process of data timely data from national, international, private big data design, collection, analysis and dissemination needs to be sources, and digital data generated by people. the data demonstrably of high quality and integrity. Clear standards 1 cycle must match the decision cycle. need to be developed to safeguard quality, drawing on the un fundamental principles of official statistics and the t dA ren A nsp A A tr Cy A nd openness work of independent third parties. a robust framework for Many publicly-funded datasets, as well as data on public quality assurance is required, particularly for official data. spending and budgets, are not available to other ministries this includes internal systems as well as periodic audits or to the general public. all data on public matters and/ by professional and independent third parties. existing 4 or funded by public funds, including those data produced tools for improving the quality of statistical data should by the private sector, should be made public and “open be used and strengthened, and data should be classified by default”, with narrow exemptions for genuine security using commonly agreed criteria and quality benchmarks. or privacy concerns. it needs to be both technically open dAtA (i.e., available in a machine-readable standard format Ation ggreg A dis so that it can be retrieved and meaningfully processed o the extent possible and with no one should be invisible. t by a computer application) and legally open (i.e., explic- due safeguards for individual privacy and data quality, itly licensed in a way that permits commercial and data should be disaggregated across many dimensions, 2 non-commercial use and re-use without restrictions). the such as geography, wealth, disability, sex and age. underlying data design and sampling, methods, tools and Disaggregated data should be collected on other dimen- datasets should be explained and published alongside sions based on their relevance to the program, policy or findings to enable greater scrutiny, understanding and other matter under consideration, for example, ethnicity, independent analysis. migrant status, marital status, hiv status, sexual orienta- tion and gender identity, with due protections for privacy dA bility A ur nd C A tion A us t A and human rights. Disaggregated data can provide a too often data is presented in ways that cannot be better comparative picture of what works, and help inform understood by most people. the data architecture should and promote evidence based policy making at every level. therefore place great emphasis on user-centred design 5 and user friendly interfaces. Communities of “information A timeliness t dA intermediaries” should be fostered to develop new tools Data delayed is data denied. standards should be tight- that can translate raw data into information for a broader ened and technology leveraged to reduce the time constituency of non-technical potential users and enable between the design of data collection and the publication 3 citizens and other data users to provide feedback. that Counts A World 22 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

25 of producing high-quality statistics in line with global C dA t A prote ACy tion A nd priv standards and expectations. this requires investments in as more data becomes available in disaggregated forms human capital, new technology, infrastructure, geospatial and data-silos become more integrated, privacy issues data and management systems in both governmental and are increasingly a concern about what data is collected 6 - independent systems, as well as information intermediar and how it is used. further risk arises where collectors of ies. at the same time, national capacity for data science big data do not have sufficient protection from demands must be developed to leverage opportunities in big data, from state bodies or interference from hackers. Clear to complement high-quality official statistics. increased international norms and robust national policy and legal domestic resources and international support for devel- frameworks need to be developed that regulate opt-in oping countries are needed to have the data revolution and opt-out, data mining, use, re-use for other purpose, contribute to sustainable development. applications of big transfer and dissemination. they should enable citizens data for the public good must be developed and scaled to better understand and control their own data, and up transparently, demonstrating full compliance with protect data producers from demands of governments and applicable laws. attacks by hackers, while still allowing for rich innovation in re-use of data for the public good. Within the agreed privacy constraints, people’s rights to freedom of expres- A All publiC d t A sion using data should be protected. people who correctly Should bE provide, collect, curate and analyse data need freedom to operate and protection from recrimination. Ault’ ‘open by def dA A govern A n C e A t nd independen C e Many national statistical offices lack sufficient capac- dA t A rights ity and funding, and remain vulnerable to political and human rights cut across many issues related to the data interest group influence (including by donors). Data quality 7 revolution. these rights include but are not limited to the should be protected and improved by strengthening nsos, right to be counted, the right to an identity, the right to 9 and ensuring they are functionally autonomous, inde- privacy and to ownership of personal data, the right to due pendent of sector ministries and political influence. their process (for example when data is used as evidence in transparency and accountability should be improved, proceedings, or in administrative decisions), freedom of including their direct communication with the public they expression, the right to participation, the right to non-dis- serve. this can include independent monitoring of the crimination and equality, and principles of consent. any same public services, for example, or monitoring of related legal or regulatory mechanisms, or networks or partner - indicators such as public satisfaction with services. ships, set up to mobilise the data revolution for sustainable development should have the protection of human rights es A nd CA p AC ity dA t A resour C as a core part of their activities, specify who is respon- there is a global responsibility to ensure that all countries sible for upholding those rights, and should support the have an effective national statistical system, capable protection, respect and fulfilment of human rights. 8 for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W OIIOOIOIOIOOII 23

26 metadata produced by differ - tionAl CAp ACities strengthening nA ent institutions but according Will bE thE ESSEntial tESt of to common standards, rules Any d A revolution t A and specifications. Identify Fill research gaps: • critical research gaps, such Urgently leverage emerging t echnology, innovation • as the relationships between data sources for SDG moni- and analysis data, incentives and behaviour. toring, through an ‘SDG data Technology has been and will Engage research centres, The lab should mobilise lab’: continue to be a fundamental innovators and governments key public, private and civil driver of the data revolution. in the development of pub- society data providers, aca- To harness the benefits of new licly available data analytics demics and stakeholders to technology, large and continuing tools and alogrithms to better identify available and missing investments in innovation are capture and evaluate long-term data and indicators, as well as required at all levels, but espe- trends affecting sustainable opportunities for benefitting cially in those institutions which development. from new methods, analyt- are currently lagging behind. In ical tools and technologies Engage Create incentives: • addition, but beyond the scope to improve the coverage, social entrepreneurs, private of this report, an urgent effort timeliness and availability sector, academia, media, civil needs to be made to increase of indicators in each of the society and other individuals access to information technol- SDG areas. Drawing on the and institutions in this global ogies by, among other things, existing MDG monitoring effort through initiatives such increasing access to broadband, architecture, and working as prizes and data challenges. increasing literacy, including adult with other networks such as literacy, and increasing the use the Sustainable Development of ICT in schools worldwide, to Capacity and resources Solutions Network, it would ensure that all people, including develop new methodologies Strengthening national capacities the poorest, have access to the for monitoring new goals from in all areas from data production technologies that can improve January 2016 to use will be the essential test their lives. - of any data revolution, in par Develop systems for global • ticular in developing countries Identify areas data sharing: We recoMMend ... where the basic infrastructure is where the development of ... that the UN foster the often lacking. Monitoring a new common infrastructures to establishment of a “Network of and expanded set of Sustainable exploit the data revolution for Data Innovation Networks” Development Goals will not for sustainable development sustainable development bringing be possible in many countries could solve capacity prob- together a range of partners and without new and sustained lems, produce efficiencies existing networks to generate investment, so urgent mobilisa- and encourage collabora- knowledge and solve common tion of new funds is needed. tions. One such suggestion problems. Some specific areas would be a “world statistics of activity could be: cloud”, to store data and that Counts A World 24 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

27 analyse the challenges facing companies’ expectations of We recoMMend ... the very poorest people and time horizon and returns. ... that a proposal be developed communities, and to involve A Capacity development: • for a new funding stream and them as users of data. proposal to improve existing innovative financing mechanisms arrangements for fostering the Managing funds: A proposal • to support the data revolution for necessary capacity develop- on how to manage and sustainable development, for dis- monitor new funding for the ment and technology transfer. cussion at the “Third International This should include upgrading data revolution for sustainable Conference on Financing for development, taking stock of the “National Strategies for Development”, which will take existing sources and forms of the Development of Statistics” place in Addis Ababa in July 2015. funding. This should look at (NSDS) to do better at coordi- The proposal should be built on nated and long-term planning, how funding from a range of the following five pillars: and in identifying sound sources could be used most investments and engaging effectively, and managed and An Investment needs: • non-official data producers in a disbursed in line with national analysis of the scale of priorities to incentivise innova- cooperative effort to speed up investments needed for the the production, dissemination tion, collaboration and whole establishment of a modern systems approaches, while and use of data, strengthening system to monitor progress also encouraging creativity civil society’s capacity and towards SDGs, especially in and experimentation and resources to produce, use and developing countries. This accepting that not all initiatives disseminate data. analysis, building on various will succeed. attempts currently ongoing, A Global data literacy: • should highlight the costs Private sector participation: proposal for a special invest- • as well as opportunities for A proposal on how to leverage ment to increase global data efficiency gains associated literacy. To close the gap the resources and creativity with different production sys- between people able to ben- of the private sector, including tems. Particular attention efit from data and those who an examination of suggestions should be paid to the need for creating incentives for the cannot, in 2015 the UN should for investment in data to work with other organisations private sector to invest given for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 25 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

28 experimentation with user to mobilise and coordinate as to develop an education many initiatives and institutions forums at country and agency program and promote new level, increasing demand for as possible to achieve the vision learning approaches to improve people’s, infomediaries’ and sketched above. The GPSDD and use of data. Particular - public servants’ data liter could promote several initiatives, attention should be paid such as: to how to involve poor and acy. Special efforts should marginalised people and be made to reach people The World Forum: • communities in the forum. living in poverty through establishment of a biennial dedicated programmes. “World Forum on Sustainable Partnerships and • Development Data”, and asso- coordination: Work in part- nership with international and ciated regional and country g overnance regional organisations, and level events and ongoing and leadership with other initiatives looking engagements. These would Strong leadership by the UN is maintain momentum on data at best practices related to vital to make the data revolution public data such as the Open improvements, foster regular serve sustainable development. Government Partnership engagement between private, Such leadership should be made public and community level (OGP) and the G8 Open Data very concrete through various Charter. The aim would be to data collectors and users, actions and activities, and the enhance coordination of work showcase ongoing activities continuous engagement of all rel- in various areas, share knowl- and initiatives, create a net- evant partners, maintaining a very edge on SDG monitoring, and work of ‘data champions’ open and transparent approach around the world, and provide encourage good practice such with governments, the private practical spaces for innovation, as open data and harmonisa- sector, NGOs, the media, and knowledge sharing, advocacy tion. Also, to work together academic researchers. The pri- on developing common legal and technology transfer. The mary aim would be to add value first Forum should be organ- frameworks around rights to existing institutional setups, ised by the end of 2015, once to data and information and accelerating the delivery of their the SDGs are agreed. redress from abuses of data, - outputs and building new partner to work together to implement Establish a Users forum: • ships. Short- and medium-term new standards once agreed, “Global Forum of SDG-Data results should be clearly spelled and to streamline capacity Users”, to ensure feedback out, and periodic reviews should building initiatives and reduce loops between data produc- be undertaken to ensure that duplicated effort, mobilising ers, processors and users to global cooperation in this area is new resources. improve the usefulness of on the right track. Data sharing: data and information pro- Broker some • duced. It would also help key global public-private We recoMMend ... the international community partnerships with private to set priorities and assess companies and civil society a “Global ...the establishment of organisations for data sharing. results achieved, and could Partnership for Sustainable encourage replication and Drawing on existing efforts (GPSDD) Development Data” that Counts A World 26 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

29 new ideas and innovations already underway, these would SDGs analysis and • provide models for best prac- and a source of high quality visualisation platform: To be tice, useful for national and and up to date information launched in September 2015, regional bodies trying to nego- on progress. using the most advanced tools tiate similar arrangements, and features for exploring A dashboard on ”the state • would identify incentives and and analysing and re-using This would : of the world” constraints specific to various data, and demonstrating best harness the richness of tradi- industries, would allow for practices in the engagement tional and new data, maintain economies of scale, and would with data users through the the excitement and openness demonstrate the value and the provision of guidance and of the whole SDG process, possibility of sharing data and educational resources for data engage think-tanks, academ- collaborating between public re-use, building on and coor - ics and NGOs as well as the and private sectors. dinating with other platforms whole UN family in analysing, in other sectors. The develop- producing, verifying and audit- We recoMMend ... ment of the website would ing data, provide a place for also represent a laboratory for ... some “quick wins” on SDG experimentation with methods fostering private-public part- data to demonstrate the fea- for integrating different data nerships and community-led sibility of different approaches, sources, including qualitative peer-production efforts for experiment and innovate with data, perceptions data and data collection, dissemination partnerships and methods as citizen-generated data, and and visualisation. It would be a first step to setting up longer eventually produce a ‘people’s continuously updated during term initiatives. In addition to the baseline’ for new goals. the lifetime of the SDGs, proposed “SDG Data Lab”, these remaining a showcase for could include: taken together, we believe that these recommendations could move the world onto a path of information equality, where all citizens, organisations and governments have the right information, at the right time, to build accountability, make good decisions, and ultimately This is the world we want ... improve people’s lives. ... A World th At Counts for sustainable development A rldthCoutn o A A W 27 OIIOOIOIOIOOII

30 endnotes vii UNICEF (2013). Every Child’s Birth Right: Inequities i See, e.g., http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/ and trends in birth registration. (http://www.unicef.org/ bigdata/what-is-big-data.html mena/MENA-Birth_Registration_report_low_res-01.pdf) ECLAC (2014). “Latin American Economic Outlook ii viii A UN Women’s compilation of country surveys on 2013: SME Policies for Structural Change”, p. 124 violence against Woman is available from (http://www.cepal.org/publicaciones/xml/5/48385/ http://www.endvawnow.org/uploads/browser/files/ leo2013_ing.pdf) vawprevalence_matrix_june2013.pdf iii McKinsey Global Institute (November 2013). “Lions ix UNHCR (June 2014). “UNHCR Global Trends 2013: go digital: The Internet’s transformative poten- War’s Human Cost”. (http://unhcr.org/trends2013/) tial in Africa.” (http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/ high_tech_telecoms_internet/lions_go_digital_the_ This is also the aim of the initiatives launched around x internets_transformative_potential_in_africa) the world to go ‘Beyond GDP’. For a review of these initiatives see www.wikiprogress.org See Ugandan Ministry of Health (www.mtrac.ug) iv xi Big Data for UN Global Pulse (June 2013). v Enns, E.A and Amuasi, J.H. (2013). “Human mobility Development: A Primer, p.4 and communication patterns in Côte d’Ivoire: A (http://www.unglobalpulse.org/bigdataprimer) network perspective for malaria control”, published in Mobile Phone Data for Development: Analysis of xii UK Department for Business, Innovation & mobile phone datasets for the development of Ivory Skills and Cabinet Office (May 2013). “Market Coast. Selected Contributions to the D4D challenge assessment of public sector information.” sponsored by Orange . (http://perso.uclouvain.be/ (https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/ vincent.blondel/netmob/2013/D4D-book.pdf) public-sector-information-market-assessment) vi The coding of the nature of the data in the MDG xiii Chui, M. Farrell, D. and Jackson, K. (April 2014). database (http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx) is “How government can promote open data”. as follows: McKinsey&Company. Country data: • Produced and disseminated by the (http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/public_sector/ country (including data adjusted by the country to how_government_can_promote_open_data) meet international standards). • Country data adjusted: Produced and provided Kumar, R. (2014) “How Youth Saved Bananas in xiv by the country, but adjusted by the international Uganda” (http://blogs.worldbank.org/youthink/ agency for international comparability to comply how-youth-saved-bananas-uganda) with internationally agreed standards, definitions and classifications. xv Pentland, A. (October 2013). “The Data Driven Society”, Estimated: Estimated are based on national data, • Scientific American , pp. 78-83 such as surveys or administrative records, or other sources but on the same variable being estimated, xvi World Bank and WHO (May 2014). Global Civil produced by the international agency when country Registration and Vital Statistics Scaling Up Investment data for some year(s) is not available, when multiple Plan 2015-2024. Working Paper 88351. sources exist, or when there are data quality issues. (http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/health/publication/ Modelled: Modelled by the agency on the basis of • global-civil-registration-vital-statistics-scaling-up- other covariates when there is a complete lack of investment) data on the variable being estimated. Produced on a regular basis Global monitoring data: • The World Bank Group and the governments xvii by the designated agency for global monitoring, of Canada, Norway, and the United States based on country data. There is no corresponding figure at the country level. A World that Counts OIIOOIOIOIOOII 28

31 This report is the work of the UN Secretary-General’s Independent Expert Advisory Group on the Data Revolution for Sustainable Development: Enrico Giovannini (Co-Chair, Italy) Robin Li (Co-Chair, China), TCA Anant (India), Shaida Badiee (Iran), Carmen Barroso (Brazil), Robert Chen (United States), Choi Soon-hong (Republic of Korea), Nicolas de Cordes (Belgium), Fu Haishan (China), Johannes Jütting (Germany), Pali Lehohla (South Africa), Tim O’Reilly (United States), Sandy Pentland (United States), Rakesh Rajani (Tanzania), Juliana Rotich (Kenya), Wayne Smith (Canada), Eduardo Sojo Garza- Aldape (Mexico), Gabriella Vukovich (Hungary), Alicia Barcena (ECLAC), Robert Kirkpatrick (Global Pulse), Eva Jespersen (UNDP), Edilberto Loaiza (UNFPA), Katell Le Goulven (UNICEF), Thomas Gass (ex officio) and Amina J. Mohammed (ex officio)

32 www.undatarevolution.org

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