1 AN INTRODUCTION TO IN ALL POLICIES HEALTH A Guide for State and Local Governments was created by the Public Health Institute, the Health in All Policies: A Guide for State and Local Governments California Department of Public Health, and the American Public Health Association in response to growing interest in using collaborative approaches to improve population health by embedding health considerations into decision-making processes across a broad array of sectors. The Guide draws heavily on the experiences of the California Health in All Policies Task Force and incorporates information from the published and gray literature and interviews with people across the country. WHY DO WE NEED HEALTH IN ALL POLICIES? Health in All Policies is based on the recognition that our greatest health challenges—for example, chronic illness, health inequities, climate change, and spiraling health care costs—are highly complex and often linked. Promoting healthy communities requires that we address the social determinants of health, such as transportation, education, access to healthy food, economic opportunities, and more. This requires innovative solutions, a new policy paradigm, and structures that break down the siloed nature of government to advance collaboration. A MESSAGE FROM THE AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION The environments in which people live, work, learn, and play have a tremendous impact on their health. Responsibility for the social determinants of health falls to many non- traditional health partners, such as housing, transportation, education, air quality, parks, criminal justice, energy, and employment agencies. Public health agencies and organizations will need to work with those who are best positioned to create policies and practices that promote healthy communities and environments and secure the many co-benefits that can be attained through healthy public policy. This guide follows in that tradition: We believe it will be of great value as the implementation of Health in All Policies expands and evolves to transform the practice of public health for the benefit of all. Georges C. Benjamin, MD Adewale Troutman, MD, MPH, MA, CPH Executive Director President
2 WHAT IS HEALTH IN ALL POLICIES? Health in All Policies is a collaborative approach to improving the health of all people by incorporating health considerations into decision-making across sectors and policy areas. The goal of Health in All Policies is to ensure that decision-makers are informed about the health, equity, and sustainability consequences of various policy options during the policy development process. A Health in All Policies approach identifies the ways in which decisions in multiple sectors affect health, and how better health can support the goals of these multiple sectors. It engages diverse governmental partners and stakeholders to work together to promote health, equity, and sustainability, and simultaneously advance other goals such as promoting job creation and economic stability, transportation access and mobility, a strong agricultural system, and educational attainment. There is no one “right” way to implement a Health in All Policies approach, and there is substantial flexibility in process, structure, scope, and membership. FIVE KEY ELEMENTS OF HEALTH IN ALL POLICIES Promote health, equity, and sustainability. Health in All Policies promotes health, equity, and sustainability through two avenues: (1) incorporating health, equity, and sustainability into specific policies, programs, and processes, and (2) embedding health, equity, and sustainability considerations into government decision-making processes so that healthy public policy becomes the normal way of doing business. Support intersectoral collaboration. Health in All Policies brings together partners from the many sectors that play a major role in shaping the economic, physical, and social environments in which people live, and therefore have an important role to play in promoting health, equity, and sustainability. A Health in All Policies approach focuses on deep and ongoing collaboration. Benefit multiple partners . Health in All Policies values co-benefits and win-wins. Health in All Polices initiatives endeavor to simultaneously address the policy and programmatic goals of both public health and other agencies by finding and implementing strategies that benefit multiple partners. Engage stakeholders. Health in All Policies engages many stakeholders, including community members, policy experts, advocates, the private sector, and funders, to ensure that work is responsive to community needs and to identify policy and systems changes necessary to create meaningful and impactful health improvements. Create structural or process change. Over time, Health in All Policies work leads to institutionalizing a Health in All Policies approach throughout the whole of government. This involves permanent changes in how agencies relate to each other and how government decisions are made, structures for intersectoral collaboration, and mechanisms to ensure a health lens in decision-making processes.
3 The Healthy Community Framework was developed by the California Health in All Policies Task Force, based upon discussion with community, government, and public health leaders in response to the question, “What is a healthy community?” A Healthy Community provides for the following through all stages of life: Meets basic needs of all Safe, sustainable, accessible, and affordable transportation options · · Affordable, accessible and nutritious foods, and safe drinkable water · Affordable, high quality, socially integrated, and location-efficient housing Affordable, accessible and high quality health care · · Complete and livable communities including quality schools, parks and recreational facilities, child care, libraries, financial services and other daily needs · Access to affordable and safe opportunities for physical activity Able to adapt to changing environments, resilient, and prepared for emergencies · · Opportunities for engagement with arts, music and culture Quality and sustainability of environment · Clean air, soil and water, and environments free of excessive noise Tobacco- and smoke-free · Green and open spaces, including healthy tree canopy and agricultural lands · · Minimized toxics, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste · Affordable and sustainable energy use · Aesthetically pleasing Adequate levels of economic and social development · Living wage, safe and healthy job opportunities for all, and a thriving economy · Support for healthy development of children and adolescents · Opportunities for high quality and accessible education Health and social equity Social relationships that are supportive and respectful · Robust social and civic engagement · Socially cohesive and supportive relationships, families, homes and neighborhoods HEALTHY COMMUNITY FRAMEWORK · Safe communities, free of crime and violence California Health in All Policies Task Force. (2010, December 3). Health in All Policies Task Force Report to the Strategic Growth Council. Retrieved from: http://sgc.ca.gov/hiap/docs/publications/HiAP_Task_Force_Report.pdf. Used with permission.
4 HEALTH IN ALL POLICIES: A GUIDE FOR STATE AND WHAT’S IN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ? A discussion of why Health in All Policies approaches are necessary to meet today’s health · and equity challenges · Five key elements of Health in All Policies, and how to apply them to your work Stories of cities, counties, and states that are implementing Health in All Policies · “Food for Thought”—Lists of questions that leaders of a Health in All Policies initiative · might want to consider Tips for identifying new partners, building meaningful collaborative relationships across · sectors, and maintaining those partnerships over time A discussion of different approaches to healthy public policy, including applying a health · lens to “non-health” policies Reflections on funding, evaluation, and the use of data to support Health in All Policies · Information about messaging and tips on how to talk about Health in All Policies · A case study of the California Health in All Policies Task Force · Over 50 annotated resources for additional information · A glossary of commonly used terms · Health in All Policies: A Guide for State and Local To download , visit one of these websites: Governments http://www.apha.org/hiap http://www.phi.org/resources/?resource=hiapguide For more information, write to . [email protected]