JP 3 17, Air Mobility Operations, 5 February 2019


1 Joint Publication 3-17 O F T T N H E E M W E S ' I L L H D T E A T F E N D R R A M P Y E • D • U A N C I I T R E E D M A S T F A O T E S Air Mobility Operations 5 February 2019


3 PREFACE 1. Scope or planning, This publication provides fundamental principles and guidance f employing, and assessing air mobility operations across the ran ge of military operations. 2. Purpose hairman of the Joint This publication has been prepared under the direction of the C the activities and performance Chiefs of Staff (CJCS). It sets forth joint doctrine to govern of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, a nd it provides considerations for military interaction with governmental and nongovernmental agencies, multinational forces, and other interorganiza tional partners. It provides mi litary guidance for the exercise anders (JFCs), and of authority by combatant commanders and other joint force comm operations and training. It prov prescribes joint doctrine for ides military guidance for use orders. It is not the intent by the Armed Forces in preparing and executing their plans and rganizing the force and of this publication to restrict the authority of the JFC from o executing the mission in a manner the JFC deems most appropriat e to ensure unity of effort in the accomplishment of objectives. 3. Application a. Joint doctrine established in this publication applies to t he Joint Staff, commanders of combatant commands, subordinate unified commands, joint task forces, subordinate components of these commands, the Services, and combat support agencies. b. This doctrine constitutes o closed subject matter; fficial advice concerning the en ations. however, the judgment of the commander is paramount in all situ he contents of this publication and the contents of Service c. If conflicts arise between t publications, this publication wi CJCS, normally in ll take precedence unless the coordination with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staf f, has provided more current and specific guidance. Commanders of forces operating as part of a multinational (alliance or coalition) military command should follow multinational doct rine and procedures ratified by the United States. F ratified by the United States, or doctrine and procedures not commanders should evaluate and follow the multinational command ’s doctrine and procedures, where applicable and consistent with US law, regula tions, and doctrine. For the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: DANIEL J. O’DONOHUE Lieutenant General, USMC Director, Joint Force Development i

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5 SUMMARY OF CHANGES REVISION OF JOINT PUBLICATION 3-17 DATED 20 SEPTEMBER 2013 • Updates relationships and roles. • Updates for consistency with other joint publications (JPs). • Adds description of air mo bility liaison officers. • Updates information on joint deployment and distribution operat ions center, joint task forces, host-nation su pport, mobility air forces cos t avoidance tankering, public affairs, and Army aviation. • Adds descriptions of United States Navy and United States Marin e Corps reserve airlift. Clarifies and reorganizes m • ission funding categories. • Clarifies role of the director of mobility forces. • Removes tactical details of airdrop and arrivals. Reorganizes order of chapters and updates chapter on Air Mobili • ty Support. • Updates aeromedical evacuation section and removes redundancy w ith JP 4- 02, Joint Health Services . • Updates description of channel ai rlift missions to distinguish between distribution and contingency channels, as well as role of Unite d States Transportation Command. • Updates mobility support to special operations. iii

6 Summary of Changes Intentionally Blank iv JP 3-17

7 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ... ... vii CHAPTER I GENERAL OVERVIEW  ... I-1 Introduction ...  Deployment ... I -1  Air Mobility Forces Employment Missions ... I-2 ... I-2  Movement and Maneuver ... Sustainment ... ... I-3   Air Mobility Fundamentals ... I-3 Global Mobility Enterprise ... ... I-8  CHAPTER II COMMAND AND CONTROL OF AI R MOBILITY OPERATIONS  General ...II-1  Command Relationships ...II-1 Command and Control ... ...II-2  Command and Control Structures ... ...II-4   Command and Control of Airfields During Contingency Operations ...II-12 CHAPTER III PLANNING AIR MOBILITY OPERATIONS  Air Mobility Planning Considerations ... III-1 Marshalling ... -2  ... III  Intelligence ... ... I II-8  Vulnerabilities and Threats ... III-8  Communications Systems ... ... III-11  Sustainment ... ... III-1 3  Assessment ... III-1 4  ... III-15 Multinational Planning Considerations ...  Other Planning Factors ... III-16 CHAPTER IV AIR MOBILITY SUPPORT  General ... IV-1  Air Mobility Support... IV-1  Capabilities of Air Mobility Support ... ... IV-5  Global Air Mobility Support System Elements ... ... IV-7 r Mobility Support System ... IV-11  Airfield Opening and Global Ai v

8 Table of Contents CHAPTER V AIRLIFT  General ... ... V-1 Airlift Operations ... ... V-1  Airlift Missions ... ... V-2   Airland Delivery ... ... V-11  Airdrop ... ... V -17  Planning Considerations f or Airborne Assaults and Follow-on Airland Operations ... ... V-23 CHAPTER VI AIR REFUELING  General ... ... VI-1  Air Refueling Operations ... ... VI-2  Air Refueling Missions ... ... VI-4  ... VI-8 Planning Air Refueling Operations ... APPENDIX A Points of Contact ... ... A-1 ...B-1 B References ... ...C-1 C Administrative Instructions ... GLOSSARY Part I Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms ... ... GL-1 ... GL-6 Part II Terms and Definitions ... FIGURE ...II-5 II-1 Mobility Air Forces Command and Control ... II-2 The Joint Air Operations Center and Command Relationships for Air Mobility Forces ... ...II-7 III-1 Factors Affecting Sel ection of Marshalling Areas and Departure Airfields ... ... III-3 III-2 Departure Air ... III-5 field Operations ... III-3 Arrival Airfie ld Operations ... ... III-7 V-1 Illustration of Hub and Spoke and Direct Delivery ... ... V-14 V-2 Illustration of L ily Pad Operations ... ... V-15 V-3 Illustration of Air Bridge Operations ... ... V-15 V-4 Area Drop Zone ... ... V-22 V-5 Circular Drop Zone ... ... V-23 JP 3-17 vi

9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY COMMANDER’S OVERVIEW • Describes how the air mobility network combines airlift, air re fueling, ses, and aeromedical evacuation, and air mobility support assets, proces rt of personnel and materiel procedures to support the transpo • Explains command and control of air mobility operations • Discusses planning air mobility operations • Describes air mobility support, ai rlift, and air refueling miss ions • Outlines the Global Air Mobility Support System General Overview Air mobility is the rapid movement of personnel, The Secretary of Defense directs materiel, and forces to and from, or within, a theater the assignment of air mobility by air. This includes both airlift and air refueling forces to the Commander, United (AR). The air mobility network combines airlift, States Transportation Command, AR, aeromedical evacuation (AE), and air mobility and other combatant support assets, processes, and procedures to support commanders. the transport of personnel and materiel. Air mobility enables comma nders to simultaneously execute the joint functions of movement and maneuver and sustainment at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of warfare. ll activities from origin Deployment encompasses a Deployment or home station through d estination, specifically including intracontinental US, intertheater, and intratheater movement legs, staging, and holding areas. Air mobility forces conduct employment missions Air Mobility Forces Employment when they airlift units, cargo, or personnel; offload Missions fuel in ground operations; o r refuel aircraft during operations. Given the assumption of immediate combat, user requirements should dictate scheduling and load planning. vii

10 Executive Summary Rapid global mobility uniquely contributes to Movement and Maneuver . Air mobility forces movement and maneuver enhance other forces’ combat power and flexibility, either by extending their range, bolstering their staying power, or providing them with greater maneuverability. Airlift allows deployment of critical early entry force packages over strategic distances without delays caused by terrain or obstacles. Routine sustainment air mobility missions Sustainment involve movement of mat eriel and personnel to reinforce or resupply forc es already deployed or employed in operations and include missions flown in support of mili tary and nonmilitary organizations involved in humanitarian relief operations. Combat sustainment air mobility operations involve movement of supplies, materiel, and personnel to reinforce or resupply units already engaged in combat. Combat sustainment planning s and threat situations usually assumes requirement limit flexibility of delivery times, locations, and configurations of specific loads. There are two basic methods of delivery: airland Air Mobility Fundamentals and airdrop. The delivery method is based on user requirements, type of e nvironment, availability, adequacy, security of ai rfields, la nding zones, drop zones near the objective area, threats to the objective area, and aircra ft/aircrew capability. Air mobility missions are conducted on either a recurrent or surge basis. Recurrent operations establish a scheduled flow of individual aircraft to make the most of available aircraft and Global Air Mobility Support System ( GAMSS) assets. Surge operations allow for ra pid and substantial movement of cargo and personnel because a large number of assets are committed toward the operation but can only be sustained for a short time. The global mobility ente rprise (GME) is an Global Mobility Enterprise that support air mobility integrated series of nodes operations. The four components of the enterprise viii JP 3-17

11 Executive Summary t, infrastructure, and consist of Airmen, equipmen command and control (C2) . The GME optimizes the capacity and veloc ity of the air mobility system to support the combatant commanders (CCDRs). The enterprise requires global situational awareness through collaboration, coordinated operations, and adherence to air mobility processes. Command and Control of Air Mobility Operations Centralized control and decentralized execution of The value of air mobility forces air mobility missions are the keys to effective and lies in their ability to exploit and efficient air mobility operatio ns. Centralized control enhance the speed, range, on those priorities that allows commanders to focus flexibility, and versatility inherent lead to victory, while decentralized execution fosters in air operations. initiative, situational res ponsiveness, and tactical flexibility. Although it is not necessary for a single global organization to centrally control all air mobility forces, all command ers should e nvision air mobility as a global system capable of simultaneously performing intertheater and intratheater missions. Effective and efficient employment of air Command and Control mobility forces requires a clear understanding of Structures lationships and control the associated command re processes affecting the a pplication of these forces. Intertheater air mobility serves the continental United States (CONUS)-to- theater and theater-to- theater air mobility needs of the geographic combatant commanders (GCCs). Air mobility assets assigned to United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) execute the majority of intertheater airlift missions. Intratheater air mobility operations are defined by geographic boundaries. Air mobility forces assigned or attached to the GCC normally conduct these operations. Intratheater common-user air mobility assets are normally scheduled and controlled by the theater air operations center or joint air operations center (JAOC) if established. Joint Task Force (JTF) Air Mobility Operations. During joint operations, it may be necessary to ix

12 Executive Summary establish a JTF within a GCC’s area of responsibility (AOR). This allows the GCC to maintain a theater-wide focu s and, at the same time, respond to a regional requirement within the theater. When this occurs, a JTF will be designated and for this operation. forces made available em relies on consistent The air mobility C2 syst processes and the ability to rapidly expand to meet the specific needs of the task at hand. When a JTF is formed, command relati onships for air mobility forces will be established by the JTF establishing authority, normally exercised through the joint force air component commander/commander, Air Force forces. USTRANSCOM, through the Air Mobility Command and Control of Command (AMC), performs single port manager Airfields During Contingency (SPM) functions ne cessary to support the strategic Operations forces’ equipment and flow of the deploying sustainment from the aerial port of embarkation (APOE) and hand-off to the supported CCDR in the aerial port of debarkation (APOD). The SPM provides strategic deployment status information to the supported CCDR and to manage workload of the APOE and APOD based on the CCDR’s priorities and guidance. To facilitate C2 at joint-u se airfields, the joint force commander designates a senior airfield authority (SAA) responsible for safe airfield operations. The SAA contro ls airfield access and coordinates for airfield security with the base commander or base cluster commander or the joint security coordinator for the area if a base been designated. commander has not Planning Air Mobility Operations Air mobility planners Joint Airspace Control. Air Mobility Planning should be involved in the creation of the airspace Considerations control plan. Air mobility aircraft typically require preferred altitudes and routing to avoid or mitigate threats. Airlift and Air Corridors or Operating Areas. AR operations often require secure air corridors or JP 3-17 x

13 Executive Summary operating areas. These may be shared with other air missions. Regardless, the use of a corridor requires close coordination between the appropriate airspace control authority, the area air defense commander, the JAOC, and all other joint force component ground and aviation elements. Marshalling includes the pr eparations required to Marshalling plan, document, and load equipment and personnel aboard the aircraft. The marshalling plan provides the administrative and logistic procedures to accomplish these tasks. The marshalling area is usually located near depar ture camps and airfields to conserve resources and reduce the opportunity for observation. The intelligence planning effort must be focused Intelligence to ensure it is responsive to the commander’s requirements and the requirements of the subordinate units. To en sure the intelligence effort addresses the com mander’s needs and is fully synchronized with operations, it is imperative the appropriate intelligence staff elements be fully involved in the operations planning process from the outset. Pertinent information must be analyzed concerning the operational environment pertaining to potential threats. Information shortfalls and the commander’s critical inf ormation requirements must be identified early, converted into intelligence requiremen ts, and submitted for collection or production as requests for information. vulnerable during all Air mobility forces are Vulnerabilities and Threats ternational flight phases of theater and in operations, at home station, APOEs, en route locations, APODs, and forward airfields. Mission planning must include a thorough analysis of vulnerabilities requiremen ts throughout all phases of flight and gr ound operations. Air mobility planning must begin with threat analysis and threat avoidance. Normally, mobility assets operate in a permissive to low-threat environment. However, antiaccess and area denial xi

14 Executive Summary ould be considered when capabilities of threats sh planning and conducting air mobility operations. integrates the Communication planning Communications Systems communications capabilities of joint force components. These plans should include en route communications procedures and automated information systems to support movement reporting; call words or call signs, frequencies, communications equipment, and supplies to be delivered; the sequence of their delivery; and code words for significant events. Operations and logistics are most effectively Sustainment integrated as part of a collaborative planning process that includes subordinate component commands, supporting co mmands, and global providers. Equally importa nt with planning is the active integration of sustainment movements to ensure from point of origin to point of need seamless delivery and retrograde of sustainment cargo. USTRANSCOM develops integrated distribution route structures based on the needs of the CCDRs to ensure timely performance through all segments of the joint distribution pipeline. Assessments must be conducted prior to and Assessment during air mobility operations. Airfields, to include capabilities and limitations, and airland facilities availabl e in the departure and arrival areas must be assessed, particularly those in underdeveloped co untries where their status may be questionable. Assessors must ensure the user’s requirement is being met in accordance with air mobility forces are established priorities and being used efficiently and adapting to changes in the operations tempo or f ocus. Evaluation tools must include metrics to determine on-time delivery amount of cargo/fuel on- or off-loaded and airdrop delivery precision. Continuous operational assessment that links operational objectives to air lift tasks is the key to oyment of air mobility ensuring effective empl assets. xii JP 3-17

15 Executive Summary In planning for multinational operations, the joint Multinational Planning planner should be aware of the legal Considerations considerations in providing or receiving logistics support from multinational partners. The planning process should include the legal advisor in all stages of multinational operations planning and execution for l egal compliance. Air Mobility Support Air mobility support force is divided between Airlift and air refueling force USTRANSCOM, which controls the majority of assets in its global/func tional combatant command (CCMD) role, and the geographic CCMDs that control other assets to meet their specific regional needs. These forces, combined with the interrelated processes that move information, cargo, and passengers, make up GAMSS. This structure consists of a number of CONUS and en route locations, as well as deployable forces capable of augmenting the fixed en route locations or establishing operating locations where none exist. The capabilities provided by the GAMSS are C2, Capabilities of Air Mobility aerial port operations, and aircraft maintenance. Support While GAMSS functions at fixed locations are robust, the deployable assets are designed to be temporary in nature with a planned redeployment or replacement. AMC GAMSS forces are aligned under the US Air Global Air Mobility Support Force Expeditionary Center’s administrative System Elements control, with assets at fixed overseas locations, as well as CONUS-based deployable assets. GAMSS fixed assets are sized, manned, and equipped to support peacetime common-user air mobility operation. GAMSS deployable assets are tailored to meet mission requirements, designed for a decreased transportation and logistics footprint, and are not designed as long-term assets. GAMSS forces may be the first US Air Force Airfield Opening and Global Air presence on an expeditionary airfield regardless of Mobility Support System how the airfield is gained (e.g., seizure or xiii

16 Executive Summary acceptance from a host nation) or which follow-on US or multinational entity will operate the airfield. When opening an airfield, GAMSS forces normally coordinate actions with theater command elements to ensure theater-specific responsibilities, such as force protection, meet mission requirements. Airlift Airlift offers its customers a high degree of speed, Airlift operations transport and range, and flexibility. Airlift enables commanders deliver forces and materiel to respond and operate in a wide variety of through the air in support of circumstances and time frames that would be strategic, operational, and/or impractical through other modes of transportation. tactical objectives The primary mission of airlif t is passenger and cargo Airlift Missions movement. This includes combat employment and sustainment, AE, special operations support, and operational support airlift. The airlift system has the et requirements that flexibility to surge and me exceed routine, peacetim e demands for passenger and cargo movement. Combat employment miss ions allow a commander to insert surface forces directly and quickly into battle and to sustain combat operations. Airlift affords commanders a high degree of combat maneuverability permitting them to bypass adversary troop strongholds. Planners should view airland delivery as the Airland Delivery primary means for most air movements. In the airland delivery method, airlifted personnel and materiel are disembarked, unloaded, or unslung from an aircraft after it has landed or, in the case of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft, after it has entered a hover. Airdrop of forces, equipment, and/or supplies Airdrop support the joint functions movement and maneuver and sustainment. In relation to airland delivery, airdrop delivery has several disadvantages. It carries an increased risk of injury to personnel or damage to cargo. It requires special training for the riggers, transported personnel, and the aircrews. It can limit allowable xiv JP 3-17

17 Executive Summary cabin load utilization substantially because of the special rigging required for airdropped materiel. This responsibility includes performing and Planning airlift operations is a arranging to: bring units and materiel to departure complicated process. terminals; prepare those resources for air movement; provide support services (meals, medical, billeting, and other appropriate services) to transient and arriving units; receive and transport units and materiel from arrival terminals; and prepare all manifests, movement documents, and reports related to the actual movement. Air Refueling AR allows air assets to rapidly reach any trouble spot around the world with less dependence on forward staging bases. Furtherm ore, AR significantly expands the force options available to a commander by increasing the range, payload, loiter time, and flexibility of other aircraft. Intertheater AR supports the long-range Air refueling Operations ombat support aircraft movement of combat and c between theaters. Interth eater AR operations also support global strike missions and airlift assets in an air bridge. AR enables deploying aircraft to fly nonstop to their destinat ion, reducing closure time. Intratheater AR supports operations within a GCC’s AOR by extending the range, payload, and endurance of combat and combat support assets. Both theater-assigned and USTRANSCOM- assigned AR aircraft can perform these operations. AR is a critical force multiplier across the full range Air Refueling Missions of global and theater employment scenarios. Tankers directly enhance the operational flexibility of US and allied/coalition strike, support, and surveillance aircraft. AR missions represent the broad, fundamental , and continuing activities of the AR system. AR significantly increases the range and endurance of bomber aircraft, directly enhancing xv

18 Executive Summary at distant targets and their flexibility to strike maximizing their operationa l utility for warfighter mission requirements. An air bridge creates air lines of com munications linking CONUS and a theate r, or any two theaters. AR makes possible acce lerated air bridge operations since en route refueling stops for receivers are reduced or eliminated. CONCLUSION This publication provides fundamental principles and guidance for planning, employing, and assessing air mob ility operations across the range of military operations. JP 3-17 xvi

19 CHAPTER I GENERAL OVERVIEW “...our forces are in distant countries fighting organized terrorists who seek to destroy our nation and destabilize the world. Military operations in these austere places are challenged by the need to deploy and supply troops over great distances. Airlift is a precious lifeline that keeps them fed and equipped, brings the wounded home, and eventually, brings our forces home.” Former Congressman Jim Saxton, 4 April 2005 1. Introduction forces to and from, or Air mobility is the rapid movement of personnel, materiel, and ift and air r efueling (AR). The air mobility ncludes both airl within, a theater by air. This i air mobility support network combines airlift, AR, aeromedical evacuation (AE), and ersonnel and materiel. Air assets, processes, and procedures to support the transport of p wer across the globe in mobility operations are a rapid means to project and sustain po support of US national interests and a critical enabler of US n ational military strategy. The ility forces to the rects the assignment of air mob Secretary of Defense (SecDef) di , and other portation Command (CDRUSTRANSCOM) Commander, United States Trans assist in the defense or combatant commanders (CCDRs). To deter threats against, or to pursuit of, US national interests, the Department of Defense (D OD) maintains forces, organizations, and processes necessary to conduct air mobility operations. The United ed to United States the air mobility forces assign States Air Force (USAF) programs M), while USTRANSCOM manages t he Transportation Command (USTRANSCO Defense Transportation System (DTS) and serves as the Joint Dep loyment and Distribution inating Coordinator (JDDC). As the JDDC, CDRUSTRANSCOM exercises coord authority for joint deployment a nd distribution en terprise (JDD E) operations and planning vices, and, as directed, and collaborates with other combatant commands (CCMDs), the Ser NSCOM maintains United States Government (USG) departments and agencies. USTRA er projection and to the global capability for rapid and decisive military force pow DOD distribution processes. T his includes coordinating coordinate, sustain, and improve the capability to transport units, equipment, and initial susta inment from the point of origin support operational to the point of need and provides JDDE resources to augment or d global mobility is the movement requirements of the joint force commander (JFC). Rapi timely movement, positioning, and sustainment of military force s and capabilities across the range of military operations. Air mobility enables command ers to simultaneously nment at the strategic, execute the joint functions of movement and maneuver and sustai operational, and tactical levels of warfare. 2. Deployment Deployment is the movement of fo rces into operational areas (OA s) or the relocation of forces and materiel within OAs. Deployment encompasses all activities from origin or ontinental US, intertheater, on, specifically including intrac home station through destinati staging, and holding areas. If and intratheater movement legs, these operations must occur I-1

20 Chapter I in a higher threat environment, tactics, escort requirements, a nd objective area support ility system and limit airlift requirements could reduce the throughput of the overall air mob also consider the capacity or AR offload amounts. Commanders and planners should backhaul capacity of the air mobility forces. Using this capac ity for rearward movement positioning or redeployment of personnel, patients, materiel, and reparable items or the re of units can save additional missi iverted. ons from being scheduled or d Deployment and redeployment are covered in detail in Joint Publication (JP) 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations. 3. Air Mobility Forces Employment Missions Air mobility forces conduct employment missions when they airli ft units, cargo, or personnel; offload fuel in ground op t during operations. Airlift erations; or refuel aircraf forces can move combat-loaded units to maximize their readiness for immediate combat operations. Given the assumption of immediate combat, user req uirements should dictate scheduling and load planning. H owever, the threat or peculiari ties of large-scale operations may dictate adjustments to the u ser’s plans or operations to ac commodate the allowable cabin load (ACL) limitations, tactical procedures, and defensiv e support requirements of the airlift force. AR missions also primarily serve combat air assets directly engaging in combat operations. Fuel loads, f light profiles, and orbits sho uld be determined by combat may dictate modifications to th e optimum plan to protect aircraft requirements. Threats these limited resources. All air mobility forces can support s urge employment operations during the initial stages of a conflict or when required. Comm anders should consider the impact that surge operations would have on sustainment and forc e extraction missions. Backhaul is difficult during this type of mission, as the situa tion typically limits ground and loiter times and should be limited except for the rearward movement of essential personnel, wounded personnel, or o ther friendly evacuees. 4. Movement and Maneuver a. Rapid global mobility uniquely contributes to movement and maneuver. Air mobility forces enhance other forces’ combat power and flexibil ity, either by extending their range, bolstering their staying power, or providing them with greater maneuverability. Airlift allows deployment of critical early entry force package s over strategic distances without delays caused by terrain or obstacles. AR extends the range and expedites the arrival of self-deploying aircra ft, precluding the need for int ermediate staging bases. Airlift and airdrop capabilities allow shifting, regroup ing, or movemen t of joint forces in a theater to gain operational reach a nd positional advantage. b. Redeployment air mobility operations involve air movement o f personnel, units, and materiel from deployed positions within or between an area of responsibility (AOR) and joint operations area (JOA). c. Withdrawal operations involve combat air movement of person nel, units, and materiel from positions in the immediate vicinity of the threat . The purpose of these ent of forces to new movements may range from withdrawal operations to lateral movem JP 3-17 I-2

21 General Overview tions generally are planned to accomplish a movement operating locations. These opera r, in higher threat with the minimum expenditure of air mobility resources. Howeve abilities of departing units situations, it may also be necessary to preserve the combat cap for as long as possible at the departure terminal, while buildi ng them up as rapidly as possible at the arrival terminal. In such cases, operational r equirements may be more important than the efficient use of ACLs. In the latter stages of a complete extraction of uitable operational assets friendly forces from a combat area, commanders should provide s to protect both the forces being extracted and the air mobility forces conducting their movement. 5. Sustainment a. Routine sustainment air mobility missions involve movement of materiel and personnel to reinforce or resuppl mployed in operations. y forces already deployed or e Routine sustainment missions also include missions flown in sup port of military and tions. These operations nonmilitary organizations involved in humanitarian relief opera ir mobility resources. normally deliver requirements with the minimum expenditure of a Routine sustainment planning usua lly assumes user requirements and the general air and me flexibility in the actual ground security situation allow so delivery times of specific loads. Flight schedules and load plans are made to maximize th roughput from available ACLs and support resources. However, when sustainment channels are operated as part of an integrated, end-to-end distri bution process, time-definite d elivery (TDD) and plans. When practical, interoperable load configurations may drive schedules and load routine sustainment should be p lanned to utilize ng on theater backhaul capac ity. Dependi friendly evacuees, enemy and user priorities, typical backhaul loads might include other prisoners of war, excess or repairable weapons, and materiel of moderate to high value. In some cases, retrograde movement s of repairable items must be pl anned and executed with ly return of items to the same TDD discipline as sustainment movements to ensure time repair facilities. b. Combat sustainment air mobility operations involve movement of supplies, materiel, and personnel to reinforce or resupply units already engaged in combat. Combat sustainment planning usually assumes requirements and threat si tuations limit flexibility of delivery times, locations, and configurations of specific lo ads. Flight schedules and load plans are usually driven by combat maximize utilization of requirements rather than to ACLs. 6. Air Mobility Fundamentals a. Airlift Delivery Methods. There are two basic methods of delivery: airland and airdrop. The delivery method is b ased on user requirements, ty pe of environment, availability, adequacy, security of airfields, landing zones (L Zs), and drop zones (DZs) near the objective area, threat s to the objective area, and air craft/aircrew capability. (1) Airland is the most frequently used airlift delivery metho d. It permits delivery of larger loads with less risk of cargo loss or damage than the airdrop method. Airland ded while the aircraft is on encompasses all situations where personnel and cargo are offloa I-3

22 Chapter I the ground or, in the case of vertical takeoff and landing airc raft, after it has entered a ationary aircraft with hover. Although crews normally accomplish offloading from a st xist to onload or offload with e ngines running. In engines shut down, procedures e situations where the aircrew ele cts to not shut down engines (e .g., minimum ground time upport), combat offload pro cedures can be utilized. due to high threat, limited ground s hods of delivering personnel, equi pment, and (2) Airdrop includes all met supplies from an airborne aircraf t. This enables commanders to project combat power into areas lacking suitable or secure airfields. Airdrops are an al ternative when using an uncontaminated aircraft to deliver mission critical cargo into a chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) environment; however, the leve l of airborne aminated upon mission contaminants may dictate the aircraft be quarantined and decont completion. Airdrop enables commanders to capitalize on the el ement of surprise because of the speed of delivery and the vast number of potential objec tive areas for the employment of forces. However, the additional weight and space required for parachute rigging and cushioning material reduces the amount of cargo or personnel each aircraft can deliver. The most common means of rigging equipment and suppli es for airdrop are the heavy equipment method, containe r delivery system (CDS), and do or bundles. Precision- guided rigging equipment should be considered for combat troops operating in austere locations. The various tactics, techniques, and procedur es (TTP) associated with each delivery method are discussed in Chapter V, “Airlift.” b. y expands AR is an integral part of US air operations. It significantl AR. deployment, employment, and redeployment options available by i ncreasing the range, payload, and flexibility of air forces. AR is an essential cap ability in conducting air operations worldwide and is especially important when overseas basing is limited or not available. Receiver requirements and tanker availability dicta te how much fuel can be offloaded, where the refueling will take place, and when the re ndezvous (RV) will occur. The receiver aircraft’s performance characteristics will dictat e AR speed, altitude, and allowable maneuvering during the refueling. (1) AR Anchors and Tracks. AR is normally conducted i n one of two types of airspace: an anchor area or along an AR track. A detailed disc ussion of tracks and anchors is contained in Chapter VI, “Air Refueling.” (2) AR is conducted using one of two systems: boom or drogue. AR Systems. Most USAF and some allied aircraft use boom refueling. United States Navy (USN), United States Marine Corps (USMC), USAF, and US Army special op erations refuelable rotary-wing aircraft; USAF speci al operations tiltrotor aircraf t; and most allied aircraft use drogue refueling. All KC-10s and a small number of KC-135s can also be refueled in- flight. The USN has a limited, organic aerial refueling capabi lity using tactical aircraft (e.g., F/A-18 equipped with aerial refueling system) and also u tilize contracted AR support (Omega Air). While the USMC has organic KC-130 AR aircraft, th ese platforms are dedicated and direct support to Marine air-ground task force (M AGTF) operations. Marine ategic or national assets. KC-130s are not considered str JP 3-17 I-4

23 General Overview r aircraft inserts its AR boom into the (a) In boom refueling, the tanke receiver aircraft’s AR receptacle. Boom refueling allows for t he rapid transfer of fuel under high pressure to the receiver. T his is especially important wh en passing large quantities of aircraft. fuel to either large receiver aircraft or multiple fighter-type (b) In drogue refueling, a hose and basket system is reeled in to the air by the tanker aircraft. Receiver aircra an external probe. Due to ft then “plug” the basket with hose limitations, fuel transfer during drogue refueling is slow er than boom refueling. KC- 135 tanker aircraft must have the drogue assembly mounted on th e boom prior to flight, and are thus limited to drogue-only refueling while airborne. Therefore, once airborne, most KC-135s can only perform one type of refueling at a time. KC-10 refueling aircraft are equipped with a centerline drogue and an AR boom. They can also be equipped with wingtip AR pods to expand their drogue refueling capability. T hey can refuel via both aneously. Additionally, methods on the same mission although they cannot do this simult there are a limited number of KC that can be equipped with -135 aircraft in the inventory external wing-mounted pods to co nduct drogue AR while still mai ntaining boom AR capability on the same mission. As noted above, this cannot be accomplished simultaneously. In certain scen bility makes KC-10s and KC- arios, this dual refueling capa 135s with multipoint refueling systems ideal for use as ground alert aircraft. The USAF special operations MC-130 is cap able of providing dedicated dro gue refueling to rotary- wing and tiltrotor special opera tions aircraft or conventional aircraft in support of special ssions, and planning are operations missions. Detailed di scussions of AR operations, mi discussed in Chapter VI, “Air Refueling.” c. The AE system provides time-sensitive (TS) en route care of casualties to and r contracted aircraft with between medical treatment facili ties (MTFs) using organic and/o medical aircrew trained explicitly for this mission. AE forces can operate as far forward environments. Specialty as aircraft are able to conduct air operations in all operating medical teams may be assigned to work with the AE aircrew to su pport patients requiring more intensive en route care. Scheduling Categories. For scheduling purposes, air mobility missions are d. surge basis. Recurrent oper h a scheduled ations establis conducted on either a recurrent or ke the most of available aircr aft and Global Air Mobility flow of individual aircraft to ma ge operations allow for rapi d and substantial Support System (GAMSS) assets. Sur movement of cargo and personnel be cause a large number of asset s are committed toward the operation but can only be susta e operations may disrupt the ined for a short time. Surg efficiency of the National Air Mobility System (NAMS), require significant regeneration time, and complicate interactions of intertheater and intrathea ter forces. Geographic combatant commanders (GCCs) request intertheater airlift in sup port of deployment, sustainment, and redeployment operations through the Adaptive P lanning and Execution (APEX) enterprise and Joint Operation Planning and Execution Sy stem (JOPES) process. GCCs, in coordination with supporting commanders and Services, establish movement requirements and develop time-pha sed force and deployment data (TPFDD) in APEX/JOPES. USTRANSCOM, in turn, reviews the movement requirem ents in the TPFDD and validates those requirements (which includes mode of transportation) and r movement. Intertheater forwards the tasking to its appropriate Service component(s) fo I-5

24 Chapter I airlift sustainment involves m equipment, and personnel. ovement of replacement supplies, r Refueling Management Users requiring AR support submit their requests through the Ai System for validation and support through the theater’s air ope rations center (AOC)/air mobility division (AMD) or USTRANSCOM. Detailed procedures are outlined in JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations. e. Air Mobility Mission Categories. There are various categories of missions flown. (1) AE missions support the movement of patients with qualifie d aeromedical air crew members (including civilian specialists with approval), ma y require special air traffic control (ATC) considerations to comply with patient-driven alti tude and pressurization restrictions, and uti lize medical equipment approved for use on aircraft systems. (2) Channel airlift missions pr ovide common-user airlift servi ce on a scheduled basis between two or more predes t missions support ignated points. Channel airlif passenger and cargo movement over established worldwide routes (CCMD- or Service- validated) that are served by sc heduled DOD aircraft under the Air Mobility Command (AMC) or under the control of a G CC's AOC/AMD. USTRANSCOM also conducts channel missions via contracted and scheduled commercial aircra ft. The vast majority of airlift sustainment will move on either distribution or conting ency channel missions. Distribution channel missions are volume–driven, in which airli ft is regularly scheduled against the volume of cargo moving through an aerial port of em barkation (APOE). Contingency channel missions sup port specific operations and fl y on an as-needed schedule based on cargo and passenger movement requirements fro m/to the predesignated points of the channel. Distribu tion and contingency channels a re structured such that there aircraft using drogue air refueling system United States Marine Corps F-18 receiver JP 3-17 I-6

25 General Overview olume of cargo. Both types can be flexibility in adding airlift to accommodate surges in v und (TWCF) based on of channel users reimburse the Transportation Working Capital F weight/cube of cargo or a designa ted cost per passenger. In ma ny cases, channel missions m point of origin to point of operate as part of an integrated or linked set of movements fro equested logistics support when a nd where the customer need to consistently deliver r requires. USTRANSCOM, in collaboration with supported CCDRs, e stablishes TDD goals and parameters that are ke y to successful warfighter supp ort. These TDD goals and parameters can act as indicators of channel performance. JP 4- 01, The Defense Transportation System s on channel airlift. , provides further detail (3) Special assignment airlift missions (SAAMs) are airlift mi ssions that are bought by a user to satisfy one or more validated requirements. SAAMs support DOD users, as well as other government agencies such as the US Secr et Service, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Drug Enf orcement Administration. (4) A Coronet mission is a movement of air assets, usually fig hter aircraft, in support of contingencies, rotations, and exercises or aircraft movements for logistics purposes. The tanker aircraft in a Coronet mission provides fu el to avoid intermediate stops and provides weather avoidance, oceanic navigation, commu nication, and command and control (C2) of the mission. (5) Contingency missions operate in direct support of an opera tion order propriate TPFDD in (OPORD) in which movement requirements are identified in the ap APEX/JOPES. (6) Chairman of the Joint Chief s of Staff (CJCS) exercise miss ions operate in support of CJCS-directed or sponsored exercises. These movemen t requirements are also identified in a TPFDD. (7) AR missions provide in-flight refueling to users; for exam ple, foreign military sales, aircraft tran sfers, and unit moves. (8) Training missions are flown for crew currency and proficie ncy for airlift, AR and AE. A specific type of trai ning mission is the joint airbo rne and air transportability training (JA/ATT) mission. JA/ATT missions are a joint effort between air mobility units and other DOD agencies to provi ssions are part of a Joint de training for both. JA/ATT mi Chiefs of Staff (JCS)-directed, AMC-managed, or theater USAF co mponent command- managed program that provides basic airborne and combat airlift continuation and proficiency training conducted in support of DOD agencies. The se missions include airdrop, air assault , aircraft load train ing, AR, and Service s chool support. (9) Intratheater common-user airlift missions provide routine, and TS mission- critical (MC), support to the GCC and are missions flown by the ater airlift aircraft to support common-user theater movement requirements. I-7

26 Chapter I 7. Global Mobility Enterprise nodes that support air The global mobility enterprise (GME) is an integrated series of sist of Airmen, equipment, mobility operations. The four components of the enterprise con infrastructure, and C2. The GME optimizes the capacity and vel ocity of the air mobility system to support the CCDRs. The enterprise requires global si tuational awareness through collaboration, coordinated opera ility processes. tions, and adherence to air mob a. NAMS Functions. The mobility air forces (MAF) are those forces assigned to CCMDs that provide rapid globa l mobility and conduct air mobili ty operations. The MAF’s four core capabilities are airlift, AR, air mobility support/GA MSS, and AE. (1) Airlift is the movement of personnel and materiel via air mobility forces to support strategic, operational, and tactical objectives. These forces provide common-user airlift between or within theat ers. Delivery to destination ca n be done via airland or airdrop methods. (2) AR is the in-flight transfer of fuel from an air mobility aircraft to a receiver(s) in support of strategic, opera tional, and tactical objectives. (3) Air mobility support is the capability of providing respon sive C2 and ground support to air mobility forces worldwide. This capability is p rovided by a limited number of permanent en route support locations and deployable forces capa ble of augmenting the fixed en route locations or establishing new en route locations which is known as the GAMSS. ted patients between medical f acilities by air (4) AE is the movement of regula mobility assets or contracted com are airlifted using organic mercial aircraft. AE patients and/or contracted aircraft with medical aircrew trained explici tly for this mission. AE is further discussed in JP 4-02, Joint Health Services. b. NAMS Forces. NAMS consists of forces that perform intertheater, intratheat er, and organic mobility operations. UST RANSCOM and the GCCs possess a ir mobility assets that are capable of performing both intertheater and intratheater op erations. Each Service also possesses some organic a ir mobility capability. orces under combatant command ( (1) Conventional air mobility f command authority) (COCOM) of either CDRU common-user STRANSCOM or the GCCs provide assets to conduct operations between or within theaters. (2) The bulk of intertheater ai r mobility operations are condu cted in response to requests from the CCMDs and Services in accordance with (IAW) g uidelines set by the President and SecDef. AMC, as t he USAF component of USTRANSCOM , is capable of conducting and controlling intertheater air mobility operations across the globe. (a) The GAMSS is comprised of a limited number of permanent en route support locations plus expeditionary forces that deploy under t he global reach laydown plan. Permanent en route support locations are manned to handle day-t o-day peacetime operations. cations during large- tailored to augment permanent lo Deployable GAMSS forces can be JP 3-17 I-8

27 General Overview lish en route support at new loc ations where this support does scale contingencies or to estab not exist. GAMSS forces enable USTRANSCOM to establish a netwo rk of support locations (terminals) linked together by air lines of communications (ALO Cs) to create an air bridge. GAMSS forces, by augmenting perman ent terminals or establishing new ones, enable airlift aircraft to move personnel, equipment, and supplies to the desi red location. Airlift, AR, and GAMSS forces are limited assets; therefore, their use requires detailed and coordinated planning to meet validated requirements. rol Center) (b) The AMC’s 618th Air Operations Center (Tanker Airlift Cont (618 AOC [TACC]) is the C2 node for all USTRANSCOM air mobility missions. Specifically, the 618 AOC (TACC) receives validated common-user requests; tasks the appropriate unit; plans the mission; and provides continuous co mmunications connectivity between intertheater forces, the MSS forces. common-user, and supporting GA ose of the (c) Air Mobility Liaison Officers (AMLOs). The principal purp een air and ground AMLO program is to facilitate joint operations integration betw component commanders (CCs) and their agencies during all phases of joint air movement and maneuver, and sustainment operations. ated GCCs, or the (3) Intratheater air mobility forces under the COCOM of design gnated subordinate operational control (OPCON) or tactical control (TACON) of desi commanders, provide two types of support. General support is p rovided through a common- user airlift service to conduct operations within the theater o r JOA in response to JFCs’ movement priorities. Direct support may be provided with Servi ce-organic transportation Service component may be assets in a combat zone IAW the Service CC’s prio rities or one tasked to provide direct support to another Service CC or subor dinate commander. esignated subordinate Intratheater air mobility operations are directed by CCDRs or d commanders to meet theater opera tional and tactical requirement s. GCC’s can execute obility forces to meet the JFCs intertheater operations using their assigned and attached air m time, place, and mission-sensitive needs and requirements. Eac h GCC has also established which is patterned after the a joint deployment and distribution operations center (JDDOC), bution Operations Center (DDOC) . The JDDOC USTRANSCOM Deployment and Distri mission is to support the GCC’s operational objectives by synch ronizing and optimizing strategic and multi-modal resource s to maximize force deploymen t, distribution, and o maximize GCC combat effective ness through improved end- sustainment. Its objective is t to-end distribution and asset vi , a theater direct delivery, sibility. During contingencies intertheater mission under USTRANSCOM’s control could be redire cted to another location instead of its scheduled aerial port of debarkation (APOD) due to the dynamics (e.g., threats) in a JOA. In these scenarios, t he GCC, through the AOC/AMD, is normally responsible for the GAMSS’s transload of resourc es from an intertheater asset t o an intratheater asset and the forward movement of the resources to the final APOD. Inter action between MAF C2 agencies is critical during all intertheater and intratheater o perations and can only be supported by specific C2 arrangements and MAF apportionment bot h prior to and after a joint task force (JTF) has been established. See JP 3-30, Command and Control of Joint Air Operations. I-9

28 Chapter I (a) Common-user intratheater movements are usually controlled through a quirements are met using theate theater-specific C2 node, and re r-assigned/attached forces. In United States European Command (USEUCOM), United States Cent ral Command (USCENTCOM), United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM), Unite d States Indo- Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM), U nited States Northern Command frica Command (USAFRICOM), thi (USNORTHCOM), and United States A s node is an AMD within the joint air operations center (JAOC). The AMD fun ctions are similar to those of the 618 AOC (TACC). The AMD’s theater focus is critical in teaming with the JDDOC or joint movement center (JMC) to coordinate and prioritize the phasing of intertheater and intratheater airlift requirements. The AMD has vast theater ex pertise and familiarity and is best able to assess theater requirements, allocate forces to me et those requirements, initiate requests for additional forces through the request for forces p rocess, or seek additional USTRANSCOM support by other mean s. Intertheater missions are t ypically flown to major airfields (terminals) often referred to as “hubs.” From these hubs, transported personnel or cargo is distributed by intratheater forces to other terminals, referred to as “spokes” within the JFC’s OA. Chapter V, “Airli ft,” provides more details on h ub and spoke operations. (b) Alternatively, when a JTF is established, intratheater mov ements may be controlled through a JTF-specific C2 node that interfaces with the JDDOC/JMC, JAOC’s AMD, and 618 AOC (TACC). The JTF-specific C2 node could be a j oint, combined, or component AOC as specified by the commander, joint task force ( CJTF). ached forces, e capability of assigned or att (c) When requirements exceed th JTF air mobility capabilities may CCDR may attach additional be augmented. The supported theater-assigned forces to the CJTF. SecDef may attach USTRANS COM forces to the supported CCDR, or JFC; USTRANSC OM may support the CCDR by maki ng air mobility capabilities available as a supporting CCDR. Regardless of the source, intratheater, common-user air mobility forces as signed, attached, or made ava ilable to a subordinate joint force should be organized under a commander, Air Force forces ( COMAFFOR), as appropriate and directed by the JAOC for optimum efficiency and effectiveness. The COMAFFOR, joint force air comp onent commander (JFACC) (if desig nated), and the director of mobility forces (DIRM OBFOR) must ensure conventiona l intratheater air mobility forces are organized to properly interact with other i ntratheater and intertheater forces. airlift and AR to (4) Organic air mobility forces primarily provide specialized Service users. Normally, these forces exist as elements of Ser vice or functional component aviation arms and are assigned directly to their primary user o rganizations. These forces, if assigned to a CCMD, operate under the COCOM of that CCDR. Whil e these forces are not under the control of the USAF CC, their capabilities and resour ces should be identified and operations visible to the 618 AOC (TACC); AMD; and, for a GCC, the JDDOC or a JMC, which may be established at a subordinate unified or JTF level to support the concept of operations (CONOPS) and COMAFFOR. In special circumstances und er the latter case, these forces may be utilized to augment intratheater forces and accomplish tasks on behalf ble for common-user tasking. of their Service or made availa JP 3-17 I-10

29 General Overview NAMS Components. The NAMS draws its forces and capabilities from both the c. ities apportioned to civil and military air mobility components. Forces and capabil the Services are determined b USTRANSCOM, geographic CCMDs, and y each f each NAMS component. the specialized contributions o organization’s requirements for capabilities, such as airlift ing outsized or oversized Each component contributes unique cargo or AR other aircraft, or c ontributes greater efficiencies , such as passenger or small rall ability to meet the cargo express delivery, that collectively give the NAMS its ove Nation’s needs. (1) The civil component of the NAMS is increasingly called upo n to accomplish various air mobility operations. It is therefore prudent for a ll DOD components of NAMS ccommodate civil components withi to maximize their ability to a n the system. The civil component is comprised of civilia gned up as members of the n airlift carriers who have si ctual program where Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF). The CRAF is a voluntary contra s in exchange for peacetime civil carriers agree to augment military airlift during a crisi defense business. During peacetime, regional contingencies, an d major exercises, CRAF carriers voluntarily contract t o fulfill personnel and cargo mo vement requirements. CRAF ift, to include channel airlift, carriers are contracted daily to fly various categories of airl ngency support, and charter airli ft. This augmentation is SAAMs, exercise support, conti crucial to all common-users sin ce it allows USTRANSCOM to conti nue to meet routine scheduled and surge commitments simultaneously. When needed, c arriers participating in the CRAF program can be activated in one of three stages with e ach stage providing greater sion (Regional Crisis or airlift capacity. These stages include Stage I—Committed Expan Small-Scale Contingency), Stage II—Defense Airlift Emergency (M ajor Theater War), ional Mobilization). and Stage III—National Emergency (Multiple Theater Wars and Nat CDRUSTRANSCOM, with SecDef approva l, is the activation authorit y for each stage of CRAF. DOD tasks the minimum per necessary to augment centage of assets in each stage military airlift to meet crisis requirements. During activatio n, USTRANSCOM, in iers, exercises mission control over the civil aircraft. CRAF coordination with the civil carr diplomatic clearance carriers are generally not subject to the same host nation (HN) ft. When necessary and author ized, foreign flag carriers procedures as DOD military aircra may augment US air carriers. should be aware that the CRAF may not conduct (2) Commanders and their staffs operations into an airbase that is under attack or contaminated at the time of arrival. Further information regarding joint operations under CBRN threat condit ions is available in JP 3- 11, diological, and Nuclear Environments, and Operations in Chemical, Biological, Ra AMC Pamphlet 10-260, Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Aircrew Chemical-Biological (CB) Warfare Defense Procedures. (3) Additional Contracted Capabilities (a) Tenders. AMC and Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command have standardized freight tenders for most modes of tra nsportation. The tender structure allows for companies p articipating in CRAF the freedo m to carry cargo internally or via subcontractors, a practi ce known as CRAF Prime. Tenders offer many advantages. wer overall airlift costs, These include less than full-planeload movement flexibility, lo I-11

30 Chapter I enhanced economic development (in line with national airlift po licy), and swift s also cover beddown and aircrew redeployment. Tender companie issues and they enjoy faster overflight clearance processing since they are not usual ly required to undergo extensive diplomatic clearance procedures. Furthermore, the us e of civilian aircraft for overall theater presence of t military means usually lowers the he military airlift effort. (b) Air Mobility Express (AMX). At the request of the supported CCDR, CDRUSTRANSCOM can establish a special channel mission called AM X to move critically needed items rapidly to an AOR. The supported CCDR may apporti on part of the CJCS- allocated lift on AMX by pallet positions to each component. F or AMX missions to be effective, the supported CCDR should establish a theater distri bution system to deliver express cargo from APODs to final destination. (c) Theater Express (THX). Under this construct, GCCs contract commercial air cargo companies to move intratheater cargo in si ngle-pallet increments. The THX program is advantageous because it uses civilian aircraft, personnel, and infrastructure to facilitate expeditious movement and use local businesses. I t is cost effective, because each offering is bid competitively between all authorized carriers, and payment is based solely on weight versus contracting an entire aircraft. Therefore, the b enefits of THX are multi-fold: the burden on organic airlift and facilities is reduced, costs are contained and easily and discretely tracked, local businesses are used in pursuing US go als, and fewer airmen have to be deployed to build up capacity quickly. Furthermore, contrac ting by the pallet gives d military freight, resulting commercial carriers the capability to blend their commercial an in economies of scale and lower costs. (4) The military component of NAMS is comprised of active and reserve c lift assets in the Army, USN components of the USAF and organi , and USMC. (a) Active USAF component forces co nduct routine and contingency ai r all common-user requirements wo mobility missions in support of rldwide. Commanders have full access to these forces, and they are conti nuously available for immediate worldwide tasking. Most continental United States (C ONUS)-based active duty air mobility forces are under COCOM of CDRUSTRANSCOM and, in tu rn, OPCON of CDRUSTRANSCOM’s USAF component, AMC. Similarly, most conventio nal theater- based active duty air mobility forces are under COCOM of their GCC (e.g., Commander, USEUCOM) and, in turn, under OPCON of their respective USAF com ponent (e.g., Commander, US Air Forces, Europe). (b) Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) and the Air National Guard (ANG) provide vital airlift, A R, AE, and air mobility support c apabilities to NAMS. Their forces possess the same capabilities as active duty force s and, in some cases, unique capabilities not found in the active force (e.g., LC-130). The y complement active duty forces during peacetime through a volunteer system. During contingenc ies or other national emergencies, where requirement s exceed the capability gained by volunteerism, these forces may be brought to active duty status either by federalizing gua rd forces or activating reserve ent of the air mobility capabilit ies are resident in AFRC and forces. Approximately 50 perc I-12 JP 3-17

31 General Overview n to the same standards ANG. AFRC and ANG personnel are experienced operators and trai as their active duty counterparts. (c) The Navy Reserve conducts vital routine and contingency ai r mobility and limited AE and provides support th perations to NAMS. This is a at is unique to naval fleet o unique capability within the Navy Reserve that does not exist i n the active force, though they vy-unique fleet essential airlift support the active force fleet. This capability is known as Na APOD to the final fleet logistics and is designed for intratheater airlift support by linking the support point for carrier onboard delivery, vertical onboard de livery, or shipping supply. Composed of support in peacetime through a volunteer system, du ring contingencies or other irements exceed the capability g ained by volunteerism, national emergencies where requ the Navy Reserve forces. All these forces may be brought to active duty status by activating y Reserve. Navy Reserve of the Navy’s air mobility capabilities are resident in the Nav ards as counterparts in other personnel are experienced operators and train to the same stand Services. (d) Active and Reserve USMC forces conduct vital airlift, AR, AE, and air mobility support that is unique to MAGTF requirements. USMC fo rces require common- user airlift when deploying into a theater as part of either a maritime pre-positioning force MAGTF or as an air contingency MAGTF. During maritime pre-posi tioning force operations, USMC forces are airlifted to join maritime pre-posi tioned equipment and supplies at the arrival and assembly area. Additional fly-in e chelons of personnel, equipment, and supplies are airlifted into the theater to compl ete and sustain the force. The sonnel and equipment. air contingency MAGTF requires intertheater airlift of both per Depending on the mission, amphibi y require intertheater ous MAGTF operations ashore ma and intratheater common-user air lift support to sustain and/or support the force. Reserve component mobilization is addressed in JP 4-05, Joint Mobilization Planning. Air Mobility Operations Considerations d. rs and providers (1) To maximize air mobility effectiveness and efficiency, use should carefully plan and coordinate its employment. Its flexi bility and vulnerability make it a responsive, but potentially costly, asset to use. The fle xibility of the NAMS may, however, be constrained by its logistic support requirements an d its dependence on ground equipment for some operations (which may not be available in de sired locations or configurations). Properly organized, trained, and equipped air mobility forces can usually be shifted rapidly between missi ons and terminals. For example , planes and crews dispersed on sustainment missions throughout an AOR can be concentrated f or a large formation employment mission. Modern aircraft offer increased mission fl exibility because they can be quickly reconfigured for a variety of loads (palletized and unpalletized cargo, rolling stock, passengers, AE, and airdrop loads) or different types of in-flight refueling missions. (a) Operating the air mobility force at its optimal capacity each d ay should not undermine its timely r eaction to unforeseen emergenc ies or the shifting ility forces for later priorities of an operation or campaign. Attempts to bank air mob I-13

32 Chapter I missions are usually ill advised, ve entails the certain loss of because holding them in reser irrecoverable daily transportation productivity. (b) ble to air and surface attacks . Air mobility aircraft are vulnera Similarly, GAMSS units and command elements are organized to pr ovide only for their These vulnerabilities usually mean that optimal air mobility local security. operations are most effective in a low-threat e nvironment. Ideally, friendly air defense forces should protect large-scale or high-frequency operations. Air mobility forces can operate in higher threat environments by using aircraft equipped with defensive systems; by using other assets to protect them; or by accepting a pos sible combination of operati onal risk, higher loss rates, and reduced efficiency. Further information regarding local se Joint Security curity is available in JP 3-10, Operations in Theater. portant (c) When CBRN contamination affects airfield operations, an im contamination control measure available to air mobility planner s is use of the exchange zone (EZ) concept. An EZ is a transload base, located beyond the CB RN-threat area, for the transfer of cargo and passengers between uncontaminated (clean) aircraft and previously contaminated (dirty) aircraft. From the EZ, the dirty aircraft shuttle to and from the contaminated APOD to continue TPF DD deliveries. EZ minimizes t he number of air mobility aircraft exposed to cont aminants and enables continued use of CRAF aircraft when is found in the Air APODs have been contaminated. Further information regarding EZ Mobility Command Counter-Chem l, and Nuclear Concept of ical, Biological, Radiologica Operations. (d) Split mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) is a prot ection measure that can be used under certain conditions (e.g., split MOPP ope rations must take into consideration wind shifts). A ir mobility planners use split MO PP to divide an APOD into clean and dirty sectors, allowin g a MOPP reduction in the uncon taminated sectors. If airlift operations must continue into a contaminated airfield, look for clean sections of the runway and/or ramp (upwind of the contaminated sectors) for the conduc t of on/offload activities. The contingency response element (CRE) officer in charge at the contaminated airfield lean sectors during ground operat should direct the aircrew to c ions. (e) CBRN decontamination activ operations in ities may help sustain military CBRN-contaminated environments by preventing or minimizing miss ion performance degradation, casualties, or loss of resources. Prior to implem enting decontamination activities, the value of these efforts should be assessed based on the objective (e.g., if the installation started in MOPP 4 and will be in MOPP 4 at the end of the decontamination operation, were decontamination activities the best use of reso urces). In addition, there are levels of decontamination up to, and including, verification th at the asset is deemed uncontaminated and safe for unlimited use. Further information regardi ng split MOPP and decontamina tion is available in the Air d Nuclear Concept of , Biological, Radiological, an Mobility Command Counter-Chemical JP 3-17 I-14

33 General Overview JP 3-11, Operations in Chemical, Biologi Operations; cal, Radiological, and Nuclear Chemical, Biological, Radiol and JP 3-41, ogical, and Nuclear Response. Environments; (2) The Phoenix Raven program is designed to ensure adequate protec tion for air mobility aircraft transiting airfields where security is un known or deemed AMC Phoenix Raven teams will deter, detect, and inadequate to counter local threats. counter threats to personnel and aircraft by performing close-i n aircraft security, advising aircrews on force protection m easures, accomplishing airfield a ssessments to document vulnerabilities, and assisting a ircrew members in the existing security measures and uties. Phoenix Raven performance of their duties when not performing Phoenix Raven d isk areas. It should be noted teams should be considered for all missions that transit high-r way security team may be an that these are limited resources. Therefore, assigning a fly-a alternative option if Phoenix Raven teams are unavailable. (3) Limited air mobility forces may not be able to fill all demands placed on y assets is a consequence of both their high cost them. The scarcity of air mobilit limitations on the dimensions and weight of cargo that (particularly of aircraft) and of individual aircraft or ground support units can handle. Effective and well-coordinated allocation of these assets requires careful prioritization, esp ecially in the face of changing mission requirements. This becomes crucial when distances are long or in the absence of a airlift may be the only choice well-developed surface infrastructure. When time is critical, to ensure the success of high-priority missions. The central p roblem of theater planning is for immediate requirements, while also maximizing their maximizing air mobility operations contribution to the long-term requirements of the overall opera tion or campaign. Planners and operators should weigh the immediate needs of the user agai nst the overall requirements As a general guideline, air mob ility forces should not be taske d and priorities of the JFC. ts meet shipment requirements. for movements when surface asse (4) The operational and logistic characteristics of air mobility fo rces require commanders to: e air mobility effort that refl ect national priorities (a) Establish priorities for th and the CONOPS and intent of the commanders they support. d in tons or (b) Monitor and assess air mobility capacity, usually expresse sorties, on a continual basis. (c) Specifically task, properly support, and control air mobil ity forces to achieve desired objectives. (d) Require air mobility forces to plan their specific mission s and transmit required statistical data through the logistics and operational systems. e. Force Visibility. Force visibility shows the current and accurate status of for ces at the strategic and operational level, their current mission, fut ure missions, location, mission priority, and readiness status. Force visibility provides info rmation on the location, operational tempo, assets, and sustainment requirements of a fo rce as part of an overall and logistics information, capability for a CCDR. Force visi bility integrates operations I-15

34 Chapter I facilitates global force manageme y of the entire joint planning nt, and enhances the capabilit vents to respond and ensure and execution community (JPEC) to adapt rapidly to unforeseen e reness and is required to support capability delivery. Force visibility enhances situational awa force sourcing, allocation, and a ssignment of forces; force pos ition; sustainment forecasting and delivery; and forecasting for future force requirements. Asset Visibility (AV). (1) AV is a subcomponent of force visibility. AV provides the capability to determ ine the identity, location, an d status of equipment and supplies by class of supply, nomenclature, and unit. It includ es the ability to determine the status of personnel. It provides visibility over equipment mai ntenance and retrograde actions. It also includes the capability to act upon that info rmation to improve the overall performance of the DOD logist . DOD-wide AV requires ic practices supporting operations horizontal integration of supply and transportation activities and one-time data capture. AV includes in-process, in-storage, and in-transit visibility. The function of performing AV is a shared responsibility among deploying forces, supportin g commands and agencies, USTRANSCOM, and the supported CCDR. The Defense Logistics Agen cy (as Executive Agent for Integrated Data Environment AV) and USTRANSCOM (with Integrated Data Environment/Global Transportati on Network Convergence [IGC]) wo rk collaboratively to ensure supply and in-transit data is shared and fused resulting in a complete seamless picture for end-users. In-Transit Visibility (ITV). ITV refers to the capability to track the identity, (2) status, and location of DOD un its and non-unit cargo (excluding bulk petroleum, oils, and nd personal property from origi n to consignee or destination lubricants [POL]), passengers, a across the range of military operations as part of AV. For more information on force visibility, AV, and ITV, see JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations, and JP 4-09, Distribution Operations. f. Planning Considerations. Common users directly benefit from understanding the air mobility infrastructure by b ecoming familiar with the airli ft mission funding categories. The NAMS is impacted by several variables. For example, choosi ng the correct method of delivery, correctly determining whether requirements can best b e served through routine or sociated with each choice. surge operations, and understanding the funding implications as These variables influence the type of support received by the r equesting user. Therefore, users, when submitting their requests, must not only make their choices on an objective analysis of their exact needs but must also remain flexible as their desires must be balanced against the CJCS priority system and other common-user needs. Mission Funding Categories. Use of air mobility aircraft is funded either (1) through the TWCF or operation and maintenance (O&M) funds. Use rs reimburse the TWCF upon completion of their movement of requirements by common-use r air mobility forces. USTRANSCOM/AMC-assessed fees are based on the mission type supp orting the user’s movement. O&M funding occurs out of the Service component budg et and, generally, there es of NAMS missions are is no charge levied directly aga inst the user. The various typ designed and scheduled according to their funding category. I-16 JP 3-17

35 General Overview TWCF (a) 1. Channel airlift missions use O&M funds to reimburse the TWC F passenger from APOE to AP OD. based on weight/cube of cargo and per 2. SAAM users reimburse TWCF at a SAAM rate based on mission flying time, to include positioning (originating station to req uired APOE) and repositioning (APOD to originating station) legs. 3. Contingency mission users reimburse the TWCF based on missi on flying time, to include positioning and repositioning when dire ctly supporting an OPORD, disaster, or emergency . 4. JCS Exercise mission users reimburse TWCF based on mission flying time, to include positioning and repositioning. 5. Intratheater common-user airlift missions flown on USAF air lift aircraft are paid for using c ontingency funding or the TWCF. (b) O&M Funded 1. AR missions are executed with O&M funds; the cost of fuel transferred is charged to the serviced unit, including on dual- role missions. flown for currency and proficiency are paid from 2. Training missions O&M funds. 3. JA/ATT missions are paid by O&M funds that are specifically of both the aviation unit and allocated for joint training that enhances the mutual readiness the users. 4. Service-organic missions flown by Service-assigned assets ( including uirements are paid other Air Force major commands [MAJCOMs]) to meet their own req from Service/MAJCOM O&M funding. 5. Operational support airlift (OSA) missions are paid with O& M. (2) Air Mobility Infrastructure. Each type of infrastructure has unique advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when plann ing air mobility operations. ALOCs and Air Terminals. Establishing ALOCs between air terminals (a) is key to rapid global mobilit y. ALOCs are air routings connec ting a military force with a base of operations that maximize load and fuel efficiencies for airlift, AR, and receiver aircraft, while providing a stru cture to the airflow. An effec tive ALOC structure rests on the proper mix of stage and air bridge operations. Stage opera tions (known to the air mobility community as “lily pad” operations) are typified as mi ssions that originate from r refueling, crew stage, a CONUS terminal; delay en route at an intermediate location fo I-17

36 Chapter I and/or crew rest; and terminate at an outside the continental U nited States (OCONUS) theaters and AORs where terminal. Air bridge operations are defined as flights between s augmented by in-flight refueli ng on designated AR tracks. the receiver aircraft’s range i These established routings, air terminals, and AR tracks allow commanders to effectively and efficiently move and positi on aircraft, cargo, or personnel . Terminals serving ALOCs include ground-based locations w d or offloaded. AR tracks here resources are either loade are a series of specified points (usually along a receiver’s ro ute of flight) where refueling and receiver aircraft conduct in -flight refueling operations. This applies to tankers refueling cargo aircraft, refueling bombers, or assisting in th e movement of fighters as part of a deployment. (b) Aerial Port. An aerial port is an airfield t hat has been designated for th e sustained air movement of personnel and materiel, as well as an authorized port for he country where located. An airfield is an area prepared entrance into or departure from t to accommodate transiting aircraft (to include any buildings, i nstallations, and equipment). Some air mobility aircraft are capable of operating on unimprov ed surfaces, but, for large operations, it is more effective to establish APODs and APOEs o n prepared airfields. Prepared airfields are usually preexisting facilities, with har d-surface runways, extensive ground operations areas (for ta xiing, parking, cargo handling, and other appr opriate uses), and support infrastructure require d for sustained operations. These attributes usually make prepared airfields the best available locations for air mobilit y main bases and the best e employment operations. t, redeployment, and large-scal available terminal for deploymen These attributes limit the numbe r and location of these types o f terminals. As a result, rsary forces. commanders should expect these t erminals to be targeted by adve An LZ is any specified zone used for the landing of aircraft. LZs (c) LZ. meeting only the minimum are usually less sophisticated than airfields, with facilities requirements of anticipated operations by specific aircraft. T hey may vary from isolated ff-runway aircraft-ha ndling areas to hard surface airfields with limited dirt strips with no o many cases, it is possible to support infrastructure. The main advantage of LZs is that, in find or construct them near the operating area of supported for ces. A close-by, but less sophisticated, LZ may offer fewe r delays in providing airland r esupply to forward- deployed troops or assistance to h umanitarian operations. Due to their isolation and possible proximity to threats, operating at these terminals req uires significant planning. (d) DZ. A DZ is a specific area upon which airborne troops, equipment , or supplies are airdropped. Although DZs are normally on relative ly open, flat terrain, they may be situated on almost any site (including water) suited in size and shape for intact delivery and recovery of airdropp ed personnel and materiel. Th e main advantage of a DZ is the ability to deliver forces or materiel when an LZ or airf ield cannot be constructed or used because of expense, time constraints, security risks, poli tical sensitivities, or terrain. Similar to LZs, their isolation and possible proximity to threa ts makes security more difficult. Operations at DZs re quire significant planning beca use of limited on-ground l. support and likely threats to t he aircraft and support personne Detailed information on planning air mobility operations can be found in Chapter III, “Planning Air Mobility Operations.” I-18 JP 3-17

37 CHAPTER II COMMAND AND CONTROL OF AIR MOBILITY OPERATIONS “The real excitement from running a successful airlift comes from seeing a dozen lines climbing on a dozen charts.” nt General) William H. Tunner, Major General (later Lieutena 948 Combined Airlift Task Force Commander for the Berlin Airlift, 1 1. General it and enhance the The value of air mobility forces lies in their ability to explo Centralized control speed, range, flexibility, and versatility inherent in air oper ations. and decentralized execution of air mobility missions are the ke ys to effective and efficient to focus on those priorities air mobility operations. Centralized control allows commanders tiative, situational that lead to victory, while decentralized execution fosters ini lexibility. Although it is not n responsiveness, and tactical f ecessary for a single global commanders should envision organization to centrally control all air mobility forces, all rming intertheater and air mobility as a global system capable of simultaneously perfo but integrated command structu intratheater missions. Separate res exercise centralized control over USTRANSCOM-assigned and theater-assigned and attac hed air mobility forces. This arrangement ensures a smooth interaction of the i ntertheater and intratheater forces. a. Effective support of the supported CCDR’s mobility requirem ents demands theater ship must operate as an utual partnership. This partner and CONUS-based forces form a m ng, and C2 systems. A ble planning, tasking, scheduli integrated force with interopera trol agencies such as the critical element of this partnership is linking centralized con CONUS-based forces’ USTRANSCOM DDOC and the 618 AOC (TACC) to t he theaters’ rol to ensure the JFC JDDOCs and JAOCs. These MAF partners exercise centralized cont y. is supported with responsive, capable, and seamless air mobilit TACS is the USAF mechanism for Theater Air Control System (TACS). b. ons for the COMAF ng theater air operati commanding and controlli FOR. The AOC is the senior C2 element of TACS and includes personnel and equipment of the necessary , communications, operations, control of air operations (e.g. disciplines to ensure effective intelligence). unctions, processes, and personnel within the Further details concerning the structure, f echniques, and Procedures (AFTTP) 3-3.AOC, AOC can be found in Air Force Tactics, T and Air Force Instruction 13- Operational Employment-Air and Space Operations Center, 1AOC series publications. 2. Command Relationships res a clear Effective and efficient employment of air mobility forces requi ol processes affecting the ommand relationships and contr understanding of the associated c II-1

38 Chapter II application of these forces. Because they may operate simultan eously across three heater, and within a JTF’s JOA environments—intertheater, intrat —C2 of air mobility forces can be a particularly complex task. Normally, USTRANSCO M forces remain under OPCON of CDRUSTRANSCOM when s upporting missions in theater. 3. Command and Control There are three independent C2 structures that, when integrated , constitute the global air mobility C2 system. They are the intertheater, intratheater, and JTF systems. a. Intertheater Air Mobility Operations. Intertheater air mobility serves the CONUS-to-theater and theater-to- theater air mobility needs of t he GCCs. Air mobility ter airlift missions. C2 assets assigned to USTRANSCOM execute the majority of interthea Air Force (18 AF) of these assets is normally exercised by AMC through Eighteenth Air Forces Transportation (AFTRANS) and through the 618 AOC (TA CC). 18 AF is the primary worldwide planning and execution agency for activit ies involving USTRANSCOM-assigned air mobility forces operating to fulfill CD RUSTRANSCOM- directed requirements. Theater -assigned forces may also conduc t theater-to-theater air mobility operations. For intertheater air mobility operations, OPCON is normally retained by the CCDR who owns the forces. Specific command relationship s for air mobility forces should be established in a manner that best supports the joint tasking and circumstances of the operation. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, for further discussion on See JP 1, command relationships. See the current Global Force Management Implementation Guidance for additional information on force as signment, allocation, and apportionment. b. Intratheater Air Mobility Operations. Intratheater air mobility operations are defined by geographic boundaries. Air mobility forces assigned or attached to the GCC normally conduct these operations. Intratheater common-user ai r mobility assets are normally scheduled and controlled by the theater AOC or JAOC if established. The ability to identify and coordinate movement requirements (visible in JD DE-common systems) is critical to providing theater r eachback support from the 618 AO C (TACC). When intratheater air mobility requirements exceed the capability of assigned or attached forces, other mobility forces can support intratheater airlift using a support relationship. The supported commander may also request augmentation from SecDef t hrough the request for forces process. For more information on request for forces/c apabilities, see Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual (CJCSM) 3122.01, Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) Volume I: (Planning P olicies and Procedures). c. JTF Air Mobility Operations. During joint operations, it may be necessary to establish a JTF within a GCC’s AOR. This allows the GCC to mai ntain a theater-wide focus and, at the same time, respond to a regional requirement within the theater. When this occurs, a JTF will be designated and forces made available for this operation. The JP 3-17 II-2

39 Mobility Operations Command and Control of Air A typical joint air operations center of USAF assets and, if designat ed the JFACC, COMAFFOR may be delegated OPCON will typically exercise TACON of air mobility forces made avail able to the JFACC. If the JTF requires additional air mobility forces beyond those alread y made available for tasking, additional augmentation may be requested. (1) The COMAFFOR may appoint a DIRMOBFOR to function as coordi nating authority for air mobility with all commands and agencies, both internal and external to the or the JMC. AOC (TACC), and the JDDOC and/ JTF, including the JAOC, the 618 (2) The DIRMOBFOR: (a) Functions as coordinating authority for air mobility with all commands BFOR exercises and agencies, both internal and external to the JTF. The DIRMO coordinating authority among the JAOC, AMCs 618 AOC (TACC), and the JMC/JDDOC s serving as the principal for air mobility issues. An essential role for the DIRMOBFOR i of a joint staff (J-4), and the interface between the JAOC, the theater’s logistics directorate JMC/JDDOC to ensure appropriate prioritization of air mobility tasks as directed by the ef fulfills the DIRMOBFOR duti es during daily JFACC. The theater’s AOC/AMD chi operations. (b) Collaborates with the theat er JAOC/AMD chief on integratio n of intertheater forces with intratheater forces during air mobilit y operations, on behalf of the COMAFFOR/JFACC. II-3

40 Chapter II (c) Also has distinct responsibilities in relation to JFC staf fs. Air mobility he component level and are requirements do not originate in the JAOC. They originate at t by the CCDR’s validated by either the theater JMC/DDOC (when established) or operations directorate of a joint staff in coordination with th e J-4. This may vary slightly DIRMOBFOR is to serve as in different theaters. Consequently, an essential role for the the principal interface between the JAOC, the theater’s J-4, an d the JMC/JDDOC to obtain appropriate prioritization of int ertheater air mobility tasks w hile balancing requirements and air mobility capability. The DIRMOBFOR coordinates/deconfl icts intertheater movements with the intratheater movements controlled by the the ater JAOC/AMD, and ensures intertheater movement a order (ATO). Clear and re annotated to the air tasking timely communication between the D IRMOBFOR and the JAOC directo r is essential, as the JAOC director is responsible t o the JFACC for operations (i ntertheater and intratheater). (3) Specific duties of the DIR MOBFOR include the following: (a) Coordinate integration of i ntertheater air mobility capabi lity provided by USTRANSCOM. (b) Coordinate with the JAOC director/commander and AMD chief to integrate intertheater air mobility operations supporting the J FC into the air assessment, planning, and execution process and deconflicts intertheater mo vements with intratheater air operations. The AMD chief is directly responsible to the J AOC director for the planning and execution of allocated mobility forces IAW JFACC guidance. (c) Coordinate with the 18 AF A FTRANS and 618 AOC (TACC) to en sure the joint force air mobility support requirements are met. (d) Assist in the integration and coordination of the multinat ional air mobility plan. 4. Command and Control Structures The air mobility C2 system relies on consistent processes and t he ability to rapidly expand to meet the specific needs of the task at hand. This fa cilitates rapid transition from peacetime to contingency or wartime operations. a. Routine Operations. To assist in the employment of mobility forces, each of the GCCs has a USTRANSCOM transporta tion liaison officer (LNO). GC Cs with assigned air mobility forces have COCOM over those forces and normally d elegate OPCON over those forces through Service CCs. The COMAFFOR executes the C2 of USAF air operations in the theater or AOR through the AOC. One of the A OC divisions, the AMD, usually oversees intratheater ai r mobility operations. Figure II-1 illustrates these routine, day-to-day command relationshi ps for controlling air mobility f orces. b. Establishing a JTF. JTFs can be established by SecDef, a CCDR, subordinate unified commander, or an existing JTF commander. The establish ing authority designates the commander, assigns the mission, designates forces, and dele gates command authorities JP 3-17 II-4

41 Command and Control of Air Mobility Operations ommand and Control Mobility Air Forces C President/ Secretary of Defense CDRUSTRANSCOM Combatant Commander JOC GPMIC USTRANSCOM LNO JDDOC COMAFFOR AMC/CC JTF-PO JFLCC 18 AF EC (AFTRANS)/ JFACC CC 618 AOC DIRMOBFOR AOC (TACC) BCD GLO Attached Wings Attached Airlift Ground Forces CRW AMOWs Wings EOC DZST TOC EOC A/DACG LRST AMLO CRGs “Expedite!” TACT MCT Legend joint force air component JFACC A/DACG arrival/departure airfield control group commander AFTRANS Air Forces Transportation joint force land component JFLCC Air Mobility Command AMC commander AMLO air mobility liaison officer joint operations center JOC air mobility operations wing AMOW joint task force-port opening JTF-PO AOC air operations center LNO liaison officer BCD battlefield coordination detachment LRST long-range surveillance team CC component commander MCT movement control team CDRUSTRANSCOM Commander, United States 618 AOC (TACC) 618 Air Operations Center Transportation Command (Tanker Airlift Control Center) COMAFFOR commander, Air Force forces tactical aviation control team TACT CRG contingency response group TOC tactical operations center contingency response wing CRW USTRANSCOM United States Transportation DIRMOBFOR director of mobility forces Command DZST drop zone support team Eighteenth Air Force 18 AF expeditionary center EC command EOC emergency operations center combatant command ground liaison officer GLO (command authority) GPMIC Global Patient Movement Integration operational control Center administrative control JDDOC joint deployment and distribution coordinating authority operations center support Figure II-1. Mobility Air Forces Command and Control rities for the JTF. The JTF military objectives and set prio and will determine appropriate hips, including those commander establishes appropriate subordinate command relations II-5

42 Chapter II with functional and Service components. The JTF commander will normally assign r assets and the capability JFACC responsibilities to the CC having the preponderance of ai f a GCC requires additional air to effectively plan, task, and control joint air operations. I mobility capabilities, the request must be processed through th e Joint Staff for SecDef approval. Establishment of a JAOC and Associated AMC Relationships. The JFACC c. opriately sized and tailored to support JTF or subordinate requires a C2 organization appr command-related air operations. The JAOC is the air planning a nd execution focal point for the JTF (or other subordinate command). Centralized planni ng, direction, and coordination of air mobility operations occur in the AMD. (1) When a JTF is formed, comma nd relationships for air mobili ty forces will be established by the JTF establis hing authority, normally exercis ed through the eness of joint air JFACC/COMAFFOR. The JAOC director is charged with the effectiv operations and focuses on planning, coordinating, allocating, t asking, executing, and assessing air operations in the OA based on JFACC guidance. Th e DIRMOBFOR and JAOC/AMD chief will coordinate with the JAOC director to ensure the intertheater and intratheater air mobility scheme of maneuver meets the JFACC’s guidance. (2) The AMD is made up of an lift control team, air mobility control team, an air an AR control team, an AE control team, and an aerial port cont rol team. Additionally, an AMD may also include a theater d irect delivery cell, an air mob ility support team, and other specialty teams. The AMD i ntegrates and directs the exec ution of theater assigned or attached Service organic mobility forces operating in the AO R or JOA in support of JFC upporting, but not objectives. OPCON of USTRANSCOM-assigned air mobility forces s nate command will remain with AM attached to, the JTF or subordi C. This expansion of C2 systems requires the AMD to interface with the 618 AOC (TACC ), other AMDs if required, and the JAOC combat operations and combat plans divis ions to ensure air mobility missions are included in the ATO. Figure II-2 illustr ates the arrangement of the JAOC and associated command relati obility operations. onships with respect to air m d. Additional C2 Structures. These consist of fixed and mobile units and facilities that provide the JAOC with the i nformation and communications r equired to monitor the ongoing air operation and control US AF aircraft in theater air operations. The broad organization and functions of these units and facilities are di scussed here in their relationship to intratheater air mobility. JDDOC. The integration of intertheater and intratheater movement con trol (1) is the responsibility of the suppo rted CCMD and USTRANSCOM. Th e JDDOC is a GCC’s movement control organiza tion designed to synchronize and optimize national and theater multimodal resources for deployment, distribution, and sustainment. The JDDOC is normally placed under the control and direction of the CCMD J-4 but may also be placed under other command or staff organizations. (2) Joint Task Force–Port Opening (JTF-PO). USTRANSCOM also provides nitial distribu tion networks a JTF-PO to rapidly open and opera te ports of debarkation and i JP 3-17 II-6

43 Command and Control of Air Mobility Operations Relationships for The Joint Air Operati ons Center and Command Air Mobility Forces President/ Secretary of Defense Combatant CDRUSTRANSCOM Commander JFC Theater COMAFFOR COMAFFOR AMC/CC 18 AF Numbered (AFTRANS)/ JFACC AF/CC CC AOC 618 AOC (TACC) JAOC DIRMOBFOR Director Theater Assigned Air Mobility Forces JAOC Division Combat Plans Air Mobility Combat Ops Attached Division Strategy Air Mobility Forces ISR Theater Assigned and USTRANSCOM USTRANSCOM Attached Service Assigned Air Mobility Forces Organic Mobility Forces Air Mobility Forces Supporting JTF Attached to JTF Legend AF Air Force JFACC joint force air component Air Forces Transportation AFTRANS commander Air Mobility Command AMC JFC joint force commander air operations center AOC JTF joint task force component commander CC 618 AOC (TACC) 618 Air Operations Center (Tanker CDRUSTRANSCOM Commander, United States Airlift Control Center) Transportation Command USTRANSCOM United States Transportation commander, Air Force forces COMAFFOR Command director of mobility forces DIRMOBFOR command 18 AF Eighteenth Air Force combatant command urveillance, and intelligence, s ISR (command authority) reconnaissance operational control joint air operations center JAOC as designated coordinating authority Figure II-2. The Joint Air Opera ionships tions Center and Command Relat for Air Mobilit y Forces for joint distribution operations supporting humanitarian, disa ster relief, and contingency irfield operations and a operations. The JTF-PO (APOD) consists of an air element for a urface element operates a surface element for cargo transfer and movement control. The s earance of cargo from the APOD. forward distribution node for cl The JTF-PO (APOD) is II-7

44 Chapter II designed to arrive early at an airfield to establish single por t management and provide ITV he authority of the from the beginning of an operation. The JTF-PO deploys under t of the CCDR; it is designed to operate for 45-60 CDRUSTRANSCOM, in direct support days and be relieved by follow-on forces. (3) Contingency Response Forces (CRFs). CRFs conduct expeditionary port opening operations for USTRANSCOM al mobility. CRFs and GCCs to enable rapid glob conduct an array of missions, including assessing airbase capab ilities, opening expeditionary airbases, and conducting airfield operations. Ac tive duty CRFs maintain readiness to deploy within 12 hours of notification. CRFs are designed for a decreased transportation and logistics foot print to enable rapid deployme nt and are not designed as long-term sustainment assets. They usually deploy with organic supplies and must be ith theater command resupplied after five days. CRFs normally coordinate actions w elements to ensure theater-speci fic responsibilities such as fo rce protection meet their mission requirements. CRFs are normally planned to operate for 45-60 days before handling off responsibilities to follow-on sustainment forces s o they can redeploy and reconstitute for subsequent cont ingency operations. Planners s hould consider follow-on requirements early on to facilitate timely CRF replacement and coordinate with the deployed CRF to ensure a smooth mission transition. When CRFs deploy to a GCC’s AOR, command and support relations hips should be specified and coordinated before operations begin. 18 AF normally retains OPCON of USTRANSCOM-a ssigned CRFs, but TACON may be transferred to the theater COMAFFOR or JFACC w ith SecDef approval for unique missions. CRF force elements known as s are organized into tailored contingency response groups (CRG s), CREs, and contingency respo nse teams (CRTs) that are comprised of broad cross-section of USAF skill sets to acco mplish a range of airbase opening and mobility support operations. Patient Movement Requirements Centers (PMRCs) (4) Joint Patient Movement Requirements Center (JPMRC). A JPMRC (a) is a joint activity established to coordinate the joint patient movement requirements (PMRs) function for a JTF operating within a GCC’s AOR. JPMRCs coordinate intratheater patient movement (PM) and coordinate with the appr opriate United States Transportation Command patient m ovement requirements center (TP MRC) (East, West, Americas) to provide management for intertheater regulating and PM. Synchronization of plans and additional guidance related to the world wide PM syst em is coordinated through the USTRANSCOMs Office of the Command Surgeon. (b) TPMRCs . TPMRC-Americas supports PMRs in the Americas (USNORTHCOM and USSOUTHCOM AORs) ; TPMRC-East supports PMRs in t he USCENTCOM, USAFRICOM, and USEUCOM AORs; and TPMRC-West supports PMRs in the USINDOPACOM AOR. TPMRCs are responsible for theate r-wide PM and coordinate with MTFs to identify the proper treatment/transport ation assets required. The TPMRC communicates this transport to bed plans to the theater S ervice transportation component or other agencies responsible for executing the missi on. TPMRCs coordinate es global he Command Surgeon, which provid with the USTRANSCOM Office of t JP 3-17 II-8

45 Mobility Operations Command and Control of Air nical standards, and safe oversight; implements policy; and standardizes regulations, cli other authorized or designat ed patients. movement of uniformed Services and (c) USTRANSCOM Office of the Command Surgeon. USTRANSCOM Office of the Command Surgeon is a joint activity, reporting di rectly to CDRUSTRANSCOM, that serves as the DOD single manager for the de velopment of policy and standardization of procedures and information suppor t systems for global PM. The Command Surgeon’s office implements policy and standardizes procedures for the regulation, clinical standards, and safe movement of patients. The Command Surgeon’s office orchestrates and maintains “global oversight” of the PMR Cs in coordination with the GCCs and external international organizations as required. The Command Surgeon’s office synchronizes current and future operational PM plans to identify available assets and ns through the supporting USTRANSC OM PMRCs. validate transport to bed pla See JP 4-02, for more information on PMRCs. Joint Health Services, (5) Emergency operations center (EOC). As the C2 facility of wings, EOCs link wing commanders to the JAOC and enable them to command the ir forces. To facilitate joint operations, Army ground liai son officers (GLOs) or other component representatives may be assigned to an EOC. (6) Control and Reporting Center (CRC). The CRC is direc tly subordinate to the JAOC and is charged with broad air defense, surveillance, a nd control functions. The the support and defense of CRC provides the means to flight-f ollow, direct, and coordinate air mobility aircraft operating in the OA. (7) TACPs consist of personnel equipped Tactical Air Control Party (TACP). ommanders to plan and request and trained to assist US ground c tactical air support. (8) Special Tactics Team (STT). An STT is comprised of USAF combat control team, pararescue, special operations weather, and selected TACP team personnel capable reconnaissance, and recovery. S pecial tactics core of providing terminal control, field control; environmental re connaissance/objective area competencies include austere air weather forecasting; terminal attack control/fire support opera tions; personnel rescue and recovery; battlefield trauma car e; and landing/a ssault zone ass essment, establishment, and control. In addition, the STT in clude aircrew flight equipment , logistics, weapons, supply, medical logistics, vehicle maintenance, and radio maintenance. These are highly skilled xperts and are worldwide deploya ble to support any type of individuals who are technical e contingency. They are uniquely organized, trained, and equippe d to facilitate the air- ground interface during joint special operations and sensitive recovery missions. These teams can prepare the operational environment for air mobility operations by conducting survey assessments, weather observations, and reconnaissance an d surveillance of objective airfields, DZs, and assault zones. STTs establish te rminal area airspace control (attack, C2, and air traffic se rvices) at remote assault (e.g., drop or landing) zones and austere or expeditionary airfiel ds. As special operations forc es (SOF), they cannot sustain these operations for long periods of time. When deployed, STTs become part of the theater l operations component SOF and normally fall under the OPCON of the joint force specia II-9

46 Chapter II commander (JFSOCC) or the joint ons task force. When supporting theater special operati in the SOF chain of mobility operations, command authority over STTs should remain stated and understood command. Command relationships and authority should be clearly by special operations and air CCs . STTs are requested from the JFSOCC for tasking. ort team that (9) The global reach laydown team is an Air Force medical supp provides the personnel and equipm ical care for injuries and ent required to administer med illness, and to administer preventive medical care reducing the risk of a catastrophic or detrimental event that could impact on mission effectiveness. The team also makes recommendations to CRF commanders and team chiefs for counterme asures against environmental and physiological stressors to enhance mission ef fectiveness. While they support deployed CRF operations, the medical support team will be under the same he JTF, the medical command relationship as the CRF (i.e., if the CRF is OPCON to t support team should be also). (10) AMLOs. AMLOs are highly qualified, rated mobility Air Force officers selected, trained, and equipped to integrate with and provide a ir mobility planning and expertise to supported Army, USMC, and special operations Servi ce and joint force component staffs. They facilita te joint operations integration between air and ground CCs and their agencies during all phases of joint air movement and maneuver, and sustainment operations. AMLOs are capable of providing tactical combat sup port and training, to include DZ control and survey, LZ safety officer duties, and ba sic airfield assessments. The Commander, 18 AF, normally ret ned to AMC and ains OPCON of the AMLOs assig gains OPCON of AMLOs assigned to other major commands through t he Secretary of CON of AMLOs will Defense Orders Book process when appropriate. Delegation of TA be articulated in specific 18 AF execution and/or fragmentary o rders. AMLOs are granted fied) to provide essential direct liaison authority (and coordinating authority when speci coordination with and between age ncies supporting joint air mov ement and maneuver and sustainment operations including, but not limited to, the JDDOC ; 618 AOC (TACC); theater DIRMOBFOR; theater AMD; and operations and sustainment components of Army, USMC, and special operatio ns units supporting aircrews, C RFs, other AMLOs. (11) Airborne Elements. As airborne C2 nodes, the E-2 Hawkeye and the E-3 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) may perform limited C2 functions in support of theater air mobility operations. (12) TOCs are found in Army Army Tactical Operations Centers (TOCs). units down to maneuver battalions. AMLOs provide input to TOCs at the appropriate echelon depending on the type or phase of an operation but will normally locate at the division level and above where ai r movement and sustainment pla nning, validation, or prioritization decisions are made. Intratheater airlift reques ts will be validated and prioritized by the Army Service CC. (13) Battlefield Coordination Detachment (BCD). The airlift section of the BCDs will be located within the JAOC and will consist of suppor t personnel organized into airlift, air defense, fire su pport, and airspace control elemen ts. Overall, the BCD monitors sary interface for the exchange and interprets the land battle situation and provides the neces JP 3-17 II-10

47 Mobility Operations Command and Control of Air ion is collocated with the AMD of current intelligence and operational data. The airlift sect ng movements on joint airlift op erations supporting Army and is responsible for monitori forces (ARFOR) and providing feedback to ARFOR operations and l ogistics staff officers. AOC for coordinating and The airlift section is the single point of contact within the J monitoring Army airlift requests, changes, and cancellations. The other sections coordinate fire and close air s upport for intratheater airlift missions, as appropriate. (14) Arrival/Departure Airfiel d Control Group (A/DACG). The A/DACG is a provisional organization designe d to assist AMC and the deplo ying unit in receiving, processing, and loading or unloading personnel and equipment. A/DACGs are designed l through air terminals. to coordinate and control the movement of personnel and materie The capabilities of the A/DACGs are tailored based on the missi on and military units el and resources from performing aerial port operations. Comprised mainly of personn theater sustainment units along with elements of the moving uni t, the A/DACG is task- organized to reflect the type of move and degree of support ava ilable at the air terminal. Service transportation support at air terminals assist with the deployment, redeployment, and sustainment of forces. Normally, an Army, USN, or USMC A/D ACG assists the mobility forces in processing, loading, and off-loading deployi ng and arriving Service component personnel and equipment. A/DACGs are deploying Servi ce component’s component will transit counterpart to an USAF CRG/CRE. When units from more than one a terminal simultaneously, the JFC should direct one component to provide the A/DACG. equirement and This will normally be the component with the largest movement r augmented, as necessary, by the other components. (15) Army Movement Control Teams (MCTs). MCTs are responsible for coordinating the movement of personnel and materiel from air te rminals to their designated pendently of the A/DACG and are responsible for destinations. MCTs operate inde on an area basis. controlling movement (16) Army Long-Range Surveillance Teams (LRSTs). LRSTs can support airlift by conducting reconnaissa nce and surveillance operation s of named areas of interest around terminal areas. LRSTs, which are organized from long-ra nge surveillance detachments and companies, are organic to each Army division. Typically, one to six LRSTs support an airborne or air assault operation. If require d, LRSTs can also mark DZs and LZs and direct fire support for airlift operations. (17) Army Drop Zone Support Teams (DZSTs). Assigned, attached, or supporting DZSTs provide the supported ground CC with organic c apability to support airdrop operations. When the supported ground force commander has insufficient organic capability or capacity to support airdrop operations, USAF STTs and/or AMLOs may be requested to provide needed capabilities or additional capacity . DZSTs direct airdrop operations on DZs and consist of at least two personnel, includ ing an airborne jumpmaster- or pathfinder-qualified leader. They can support airdrops (up to three aircraft) of personnel, equipment, and CDS bundles. Their responsibilitie s are to: (a) Evaluate DZs. II-11

48 Chapter II (b) Evaluate ground hazards. r airdropped (c) Ensure the suitability of the DZ and the ability to recove personnel and materiel. (18) Army Tactical Aviation Control Teams (TACTs). Composed of ATC or pathfinder-qualified personnel, T ACTs locate, identify, and est ablish DZs and LZs. They install and operate navigationa the terminal, control air l aids and communications around traffic in that vicinity, an d, to a limited degree, gather and transmit weather information. (19) GLOs. Army units may assign GLOs to the JAOC/AOC and theater airlif t EOCs. In those positions, they monitor and report on the curre nt airlift situation to their parent units. They also advise USAF mission commanders and sta ffs on Army component air movement requirements, priorities, and other matters affect ing the airlift situation. GLOs assigned to the JAOC/AOC report through the BCD. They are also the principal points of contact between the U SAF CRGs and A/DACGs for control ling Army theater airlift movements. 5. Command and Control of Airfiel ds During Contingency Operati ons a. During contingency operations , efficient and effective use of limited airfield capacity and resources is often critical to a successful milita ry response. The task is complicated when airfields in the theater of operations are hos t to a variety of allied military, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and commercial air activities. USTRANSCOM, through AMC, performs single port manager (SPM) fun ctions necessary to support the strategic flow of t and sustainment from the the deploying forces’ equipmen APOE and hand-off to the supported CCDR in the APOD. The SPM p rovides strategic deployment status information to the supported CCDR and to mana ge workload of the APOE and APOD based on the CCDR’ s priorities and guidance. b. To facilitate C2 at joint-use airfields, the JFC designates a senior airf ield authority (SAA) responsible for safe airfield operations. The SAA is tra ined and certified in SAA duties and responsibilities, including ATC and airfield/airspac e management, and ensures unity of effort among the various commands and other activities operating on the airfield terests on the and serves as the arbitrator bet ween competing in airfield. Dep ending on the types of air operations being c onducted at a specific airfield, the SAA will normally be talion/brigade; USAF selected from one of the following commands: Army aviation bat expeditionary wings, groups, or s roup/squadron; quadrons; USMC aircraft wing/g USTRANSCOM’s CRF; or Air Force Special Operations Command speci al tactics squadrons. The SAA is responsible for overall effectiveness of the airfield and coordination of all requirements for use of the airfield and it s facilities. The SAA controls airfield access and coordinates for airfield security with the base commander or base cluster commander or the joint security coordinator for the area if a b ase commander has not been designated. (1) In situations where US forces are not the overarching auth ority for airfield operations (e.g., the HN maintains airfield control, operationa l civil airfield), the SAA II-12 JP 3-17

49 Command and Control of Air Mobility Operations s and is the primary maintains oversight for all US/multinational airfield operation airfield officials for any suppo rt required. negotiator with the respective (2) If dual-hatted as the base commander, the SAA has control and responsibility for security operations and will exercise TACON over all forces performing base defense within the base boundary through the C2 mechanism of the base d efense operations center Joint Security Operations in Theater (BDOC) (see JP 3-10, ). The base commander, through the BDOC, addresses thre the designated base ats with attached forces within boundary, coordinates with the designated area commander(s) for additional support or forces, and, if required, request s joint fires within the base boundary. Within this context, clear lines of authority are required to ensure resources and p ersonnel are protected from ground-based attacks and standoff attacks commensurate with the commander’s integrated base defense plan. II-13

50 Chapter II Intentionally Blank II-14 JP 3-17

51 CHAPTER III PLANNING AIR MOBILITY OPERATIONS “In preparing for battle I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable.” General, Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, (1890-1969) 1. Air Mobility Planning Considerations a variety of missions. The jo Mobility aircraft can accomplish int planning process nning. Joint planning determines the mobility requirements, which drives mobility pla ation, deployment, occurs within APEX used by the JPEC to plan and execute mobiliz ities associated with employment, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization activ requirements from the joint operations. Successful move ments start with well-defined t upfront coordination with lif t providers. In short, airlift users and may involve significan planning is based on the require ments, and the lift planning pr ocess is a joint effort between herefore, mission planning the user and provider that requires lead time and diligence. T must include an intelligent a pplication of sound tactical conce pts learned from previous ons, training exercises, tactics conflicts, operational evaluati development programs, and threat analysis. Prior to specific tasking and detailed missio n planning, a preliminary study ntial for mission success. must be done to develop mission profiles and determine the pote Feasibility studies are usually done at the joint command level but may be delegated as low as wing level planners. Planne rs are responsible for providing commanders with accurate assessments during all phases of planning. Most contingency op erations will involve joint ddition, planners should forces and should integrate the user in mission planning. In a include intelligence, C2, escort, security/defense, engineering , combat air patrol (CAP), , maintenance, AE suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), Service LNOs, weather planner and AE PM item medical logistics specialist, cargo hand lers and inspectors, and airspace controllers. The degree of integration will influence the outcome of the mission. cially operational intelligen Sharing critical information, espe ce, between all players When aircrew, operator, and clarifies objectives, develops a lternatives, and assesses risk. planner are geographi communication is i mperative. cally separated, secure a. Joint Airspace Control. Air mobility planne rs should be involved in the creation require preferred altitudes and of the airspace control plan. Air mobility aircraft typically routing to avoid or mitigate threats. Congested airspace and p otential friendly fire are also major concerns. In addition, air mobility planning considers i nternational, HN, and military airspace control plans and procedures. pace control at the operational For further information on airs level of warfare, see JP 3- For further information on term Joint Airspace Control. 52, inal airfield ATC, see Army Techniques Publication 3-52.3 (Field Manual [FM] 3-52.3)/Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 3-25A/Navy Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (NTTP) 3- 56.3/AFTTP 3-2.23, Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Joint Air Traffic Control. III-1

52 Chapter III b. Airlift and AR operations often require Air Corridors or Operating Areas. ng areas (e.g., DZ and landing/a secure air corridors or operati ssault zone run-in and AR tracks). These may be shared with other air missions. Regardl ess, the use of a corridor requires close coordination between the appropriate airspace co ntrol authority, the area air ound and aviation defense commander, JAOC, and all other joint force component gr elements. Changing of the corridor system may be required depe nding on the threat lay down and enemy actions. 2. Marshalling Marshalling includes the prepar ations required to plan, documen t, and load equipment and personnel aboard the aircraf t. The marshalling plan provid es the administrative and logistic procedures to accomplish these tasks. The marshalling area is usually located near departure camps and airfields to conserve resources and reduce the opportunity for observation. When the number of departure airfields is limited or when requirements dictate dispersion, loading may be accomplished on a phased sch edule. The USAF component’s portion of the marshalling operation is developed d uring air movement planning and consists of instruct ions regulating aircraft movem ent and the parking plan. These procedures are stipulated in appendix 5 (Mobility and Tra nsportation) to annex D (Logistics) of the OPORD. a. Preparations (1) Planning. The joint force staff coordinates with administrative and log istic agencies for maximum support during marshalling. This support includes transportation, ruction, operation, and communications, and personnel support functions (campsite const ther morale services) and maintenance; messing; and religious, fitness, recreation, and o n preparation for the movement . Support may also include permits the unit to concentrate o local security personnel to suppl ement normal USAF security at the departure airfield. The sponsible for the approval Air Transportability Test Loading Activity is the DOD agency re f Defense Instruction [DODI] 4540.07, Operation of the of airlift cargo (see Department o DOD Engineering for Transportab ility and Deployability Program ) on fixed-wing USAF cargo aircraft. Items that exceed certain parameters will crea te air transportability problems and delays unless a certificate already exists on the Air Transportability Test Loading Activity Website. For details on air base defense, see JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater. (2) Logistics. The unit logistics officer normally prepares the marshalling pl an. The plan is an appendix to the service support annex of the OPO RD or an annex to the administrative and logistics order of the airlifted force. It should contain procedures for cover and deception. The marshalling plan includes procedures for moving units from marshalling areas through the alert holding and call forward ar eas to the ready line. Finally, it includes methods for loading troops and equipment into indiv idual aircraft. (3) Selection of Marshalling Areas and Departure Airfields. The selection of rfields is based on the air m ovement plan and influenced marshalling areas and departure ai III-2 JP 3-17

53 Planning Air Mobility Operations these factors, but any one by several common factors. There is no order of priority among of them could become the basis for final selection. To avoid c oncentration of forces, lected. Excessive multiple marshalling areas and departure airfields should be se dispersion, however, makes C2 more difficult and may diminish t he effectiveness of supporting activities. The factors affecting selection of mars halling areas and departure airfields are illustrated in Figure III-1. Unit Preparation. For security reasons, marshalling should be accomplished (4) quickly. To prepare for marshalling, deploying units: (a) Establish liaison with the de p (DACG). parture airfield control grou (b) Obtain equipment and supp lies as early as possible. orces to (c) Issue prepackaged supplies and equipment to the airborne f expedite loading operations. (d) Perform final preparati on of vehicles and equipment. (e) Ensure adequate shoring and dun nage materials are readily available. (f) Receive parachutes and other airdrop items and prepare air drop loads in coordination with the res ponsible airdrop support unit. Factors Affecting Selection of Marshalling Areas and Departure Airfields  Mission to be accomplished  Airfields (number, location, type)  Air support available  Communications  Initial location of participating units  Vulnerability to adversary action  Distance to the objective area  Logistic support required and available  Unit integrity  Adequacy of air defense  Capacity of each airfield to handle sustained operations  Security requirements, to include camouflage, concealment, and deception measures  Health hazards and expected weather  Surface lines of communications  Types of airlift aircraft used and Departure Airfields Selection of Marshalling Areas Figure III-1. Factors Affecting III-3

54 Chapter III (g) Prepare and certify aircraf officials verify and t load plans (appropriate USAF and equipment manifests (and an approve load plans), personnel, notate any hazardous materials by class) and submit them through the DACG (or design ated CCDR agent if no airlift elements. As a mini mum, manifest information DACG is present) to the supporting should be submitted electronicall ystem interface, to facilitate y, either via disk or direct s movement processing an d ITV reporting. En route messing is a d eploying unit responsibility. b. Responsibilities. Arrival and departure airfield operations are conducted by US AF units and the deployin g component units. (1) CRFs marshall the deploying unit and associated equipment for airlift. The organization employed depends on the size of the unit being dep loyed and the number of aircraft involved. (2) The A/DACG is the deployi ng Service component’s counterpar t to the CRG, CRE, or CRT. This organization i s sized to support the unit be ing deployed. c. Execution (1) The deploying unit assemble s, prepares, and documents its cargo and personnel for air movement. Discrepancies are identified and corrected p rior to air movement. Departure Each activity takes place in a our separate areas of activity. airfield operations consist of f designated area and involves sp s the four separate areas of ecific tasks. Figure III-2 show activity and outlines the ma jor functions of each area. (2) Movement to Aircraft Loading Sites. The deploying commander assigns priorities for deploying unit cargo, vehicles, and equipment to loading sites based on required loading and scheduled station ti mes published in the air moveme nt plan. The deploying unit’s installation MAJCOM provides t nd chalk loads (by chalk ransportation to move personnel a number) to aircraft. Personnel in charge of aircraft chalk loa ds should receive mission briefings concerning the route to their respective aircraft. Personnel a nd equipment should arrive at on- load airfields IAW prescribed ti mes published in the air moveme nt plan. The GAMSS units control airlift movement at the departure airfie ld. Routes to and from loading areas should be clearly marked. Strict control intained on and across runways of air and ground traffic is ma and strips. (3) Preparation of Platform Loads. If airdrop is part of the operation, platform loads are prepared during marshalling. When planning the prepa ration and marshalling of platform loads, the following factors should be anticipated: (a) Additional lead-ti me may be required; (b) Skilled rigging supe rvision is needed; (c) Materials han dling equipm ent (MHE) required; and (d) Adequate facilities, to incl ude a relatively clean and ill uminated rigging area, actically feasible. should be provided if t III-4 JP 3-17

55 Planning Air Mobility Operations Departure Airfield Operations Alert Holding Marshalling Ready Line/ Call Forward Area Area Loading Ramp Area Area Dual DACG and CRF CRF area of Deploying unit DACG area of area of responsibility. responsibility. responsibility. responsibility. Joint inspection and Receives control of Prepare vehicles, The DACG ensures the discrepancy corrections chalks from the equipment, cargo, movement of vehicles, are conducted in this DACG and and personnel into equipment, and cargo area. conducts additional chalk loads for from the alert holding briefings and delivery to the area to the call forward Chalk loads are moved inspections as DACG alert holding area in orderly fashion. from the call forward required. area for air area and released into The reception of aircraft movement. the CRF at the ready Responsibility for loads and conducting line. all air movement preinspections are operations. accomplished here. Unit Area Joint In-check, Inspections Assembly Unit and Area Inspection Final Unit Briefing Area Frustrated Final Manifest Cargo Area Corrections Major Functions Major Functions Major Functions Major Functions     In-checks cargo Accepts chalk from Establishes aircraft Conducts joint deploying unit inspection parking plan  Prepares personnel    and cargo manifests Receives load at Conducts final briefing Conducts inspection ready line, directs and performs final   Prepares other Establishes traffic flow to aircraft and, in manifest corrections documentation pattern conjunction with  agreed upon during Compiles statistical data  Establishes aircraft load master the joint planning  Provides area for communications with or load team chief, conference deploying units and correction of supervises the  Conducts initial discrepancies identified other functional areas supported inspection of each during the joint  Provides backup component while chalk inspection communications with loading and  Releases each CRF restraining cargo chalk to the DACG aboard aircraft at the alert holding area Legend up DACG departure airfield control gro CRF contingency response force Figure III-2. Departure Airfield Operations Cross-Loading. Whether administrative or combat-loaded, aircraft may also (4) aft s and/or personnel among aircr Cross-loading distributes supplie be cross-loaded. item or unit is not lost by an abort or loss of one or to ensure the entire supply of one III-5

56 Chapter III Airmen from the 730th Air Mobility Squadron push cargo into a C-17 Globemaster III. Cross-loading does not alter the desirability of keeping grou nd force crews a few aircraft. r crew-served equipment. in the same aircraft as their vehicles, weapon systems, or othe Arrival Airfield Operations. Although arrival operations are not part of the (5) marshalling process, they are important in air movement. If no t orderly, arrival operations ace in three main areas—the could adversely affect the mi ssion. Arrival operations take pl offloading ramp, the holding area, and unit area—and begins the “reception” segment of the joint reception, staging, onwar d movement, and integration (JRSOI) phase of deployment operations. JRSOI is the essential process that tra nsitions deploying forces, consisting of personnel, equipmen t, and materiel arriving in th eater, into forces capable of operations include all those meeting the CCDR’s operational requirements. Reception functions required to receive a nd clear personnel, equipment, a nd materiel through the port r combat offload of debarkation. This process may be modified or streamlined fo operations. Figure III-3 shows a typical layout of arrival air field operations. There are major considerations for Debarkation Airfield Operations. (6) equipment or personnel debarkation that can dramatically affect the overall amount of received in a given amount of time. These include maximum (air craft) on ground (MOG), operating hours and restricti ons, special handling airfield operating hours, customs , HN restrictions, fueling op (hazardous cargo handling/parking) erations, fleet enance support, and aircraft gr ound equipment. requirements, MHE, on-site maint For more information on the JRSOI phase of the deployment process, see JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations. III-6 JP 3-17

57 Planning Air Mobility Operations rrival Airfield Operations A Unit Area Off-Load Ramp Area Holding Area Deployed unit area of CRF area of AACG area of responsibility. responsibility. responsibility. Unit receives Responsible for air traffic Receives and planeloads from the processes planeloads control, aircraft parking, AACG which terminates supervision of offloading (chalks) for release to the air movement. the deployed unit. operation, and releasing planeload to AACG. Provide Minor Services A ssembly and Unit (Gas, Oil, Inspection A rea Minor Maintenance) Unit rea A Intransit Holding Area Unit rea A Major Functions Major Functions Major Functions    Accepts aircraft loads Performs base operations and other Assembles chalk and inspects for related operational functions  Reception segment of joint reception, completeness  Coordinates flight clearances staging, onward movement, and  integration Provides minor services  Maintains aircraft traffic logs and (gas, oil, minor operations records maintenance)  Accomplishes aircraft parking and  Develops statistical data provides parking plan to AACG  Establishes radio and/or  Monitors intelligence functions land lines to the unit  Establishes communication with the area, functional areas, AACG and backup  Provides MHE, MHE operators, and communication with MHE mechanics beyond the unloading area (CRF) capability of the user and provides  Establishes temporary and operates any MHE that is unique storage area to Commander, USTRANSCOM Legend materials handling equipment AACG arrival airfield control group MHE USTRANSCOM United States Transportation Command CRF contingency response force irfield Operations Figure III-3. Arrival A for use of (7) Unit commanders or team chi efs coordinate with the A/DACG departure airfields for a com mand post, communications available facilities and areas at ts. pment and supply handling poin centers, briefing areas, and equi III-7

58 Chapter III 3. Intelligence ffective planning, security, an Intelligence is fundamental to e d deception. The intelligence planning effort must be focused to ensure it is re sponsive to the commander’s requirements and the requirements of the subordinate units. To ensure the intelligence effort addresses the commander’s needs and is fully synchronize d with operations, it is involved in the operations imperative the appropriate intelligence staff elements be fully e analyzed concerning the planning process from the outset. Pertinent information must b operational environment pertaining to potential threats. Infor mation shortfalls and the commander’s critical information requirements must be identifie d early, converted into intelligence requirements, and submitted for collection or prod uction as requests for information. A joint intelligence preparation of the operation al environment (JIPOE) effort should be initiated early to id entify and assess possible adver sary course of action (COA) that could threaten friendly ai e intelligence planning r mobility operations. Effectiv provides commanders at all levels with the intelligence they ne ed to apply their available forces wisely, efficiently, and effectively. The 618 AOC (TACC ) intelligence along with AMC A2 [Directorate of Intelligence] support operational level planning of all USTRANSCOM air mobility missions and coordinates with USTRANSCO M’s Intelligence Directorate to fulfill collection and production r equirements. In the JAOC, intelligence professionals are int egrated into the AMD to suppo rt mobility planning and execution with support from the JAOC intelligence, surveillance , and reconnaissance division to ensure AMD intelligence analysis and information is current and consistent. For more information regardi Joint intelligence support, see JP 2-0, ng the criticality of Intelligence. 4. Vulnerabilities and Threats a. Vulnerabilities. Air mobility forces are vulnerable during all phases of theat er and international flight operations, at home station, APOEs, en rou te locations, APODs, and forward airfields. Mission pla nning must include a thorough an alysis of vulnerabilities requirements throughout all phases of flight and ground operati ons. Military and CRAF flights into civilian airfields and off-base billeting of aircr ews create uniqu e vulnerabilities that must be addressed with local policy authorities. Force pr otection specialists will work e considered. to ensure that all air mobilit y vulnerabilities ar For additional information on force protection in a theater of operations, see JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater . b. Threats. Air mobility planning must begin with threat analysis and thr eat avoidance. Normally, mobility assets operate in a permissive t o low-threat environment. However, antiaccess and area den ial capabilities of threats sho uld be considered when planning and conducting air mobility operations. These capabil ities consist not only of advanced counter-maritime and counterair systems designed to de stroy critical mobile assets, such as surface ships and aircraft, but also long-range land attack capabilities that threaten APODs and extend into space and cyberspace. Threat mi tigation in the OA begins with planning and before entry of air mobility assets into the region and may require JP 3-17 III-8

59 Planning Air Mobility Operations combat forces for force significant integration with joint/multinational air and ground protection during execution. Planners must address the unique aspects of airborne, ground, o air mobility operations. space, cyberspace, electromagnetic, medical, and CBRN threats t (1) Air mobility aircraft are vul nerable to surface-to-surface, Airborne Threats. surface-to-air, and air-to-air threats. Large fixed-wing air m obility assets have significant radar signatures and lack maneuverability, fly slower speeds, a nd in many instances are equipped with limited or no onboard defensive systems. The sma ller fixed-wing airlift aircraft and helicopters have low er radar cross sections; howev er, they suffer equally with limited onboard defensive systems. (2) Ground Threats. Air mobility aircraft, aircrews, and support personnel are ground activities. On/offload o particularly vulnerable during perations offer large, stationary targets for adversary ns. Commanders and their direct fire and standoff weapo tions (e.g., engine- staffs should consider the employment of expedited ground opera d/onload) to reduce vulnerabil ity to ground threats. running offload and combat offloa Perimeter and other security measures should be planned and coo rdinated with those the base/airfield compound (e. g., joint security area responsible for the area outside coordinator). (3) Cyberspace Threats. The GME is dependent on cyberspace (computers, phones, radios) to plan, execute, and debrief current and futur e operations. MAF aircraft and C2 capabilities are reliant upon cyberspace to function. T hose dependencies must be late critical elements of secured and defended against adve rsary action to deny or manipu the GME. (4) Electronic Warfare (EW) Threats. Air mobility operations are increasingly use alternative procedures threatened by emerging EW capabilities. Aircrews must plan to to overcome communications and Global Positioning System (GPS) jamming capabilities. Adversaries may attempt to empl oy EW to disrupt airfield operat ions at APODs. CBRN Threat. CBRN threats include the capability to employ and the (5) intent to employ, weapons or impr ovised devices to produce intentional employment of, or CBRN hazards. Use of CBRN weapons against air mobility forces represents a significant threat. Although aircrews are tra ined and equipped to operate in a contaminated environment, the contamination of airlift aircraft may limit op tions for the deployment, sustainment, and redeployment of forces. The JFC must take eve ry precaution available to prevent the contamination of air plans to decontaminate mobility aircraft and develop aircraft which may become compromised. (6) Emergence of Pandemic Disease. Regional endemic diseases are characterized by high human-to- human transmissibility and rapid onset of severe morbidity. When an endemic disease becomes pandemic, it threatens military readiness and imposes significant constraints on globa l air mobility operations. Alt hough the Department of State (DOS) has a shelter-in-place po licy for infected overseas areas , civil disturbance or political instability may necessitate a non combatant evacuation operation (NEO) of noninfected support the NEO with individuals from areas abroad ex periencing outbreaks. DOD will III-9

60 Chapter III United States Air Force C-17 aircraft dispensing flares. n directed by SecDef to do so. DOD movement of USTRANSCOM and/or GCC assets whe contagious patients requires approval of the GCCs, CDRUSTRANSCO M, and SecDef in consultation with medical authorities. To prevent the spread o f disease, the JFC will institute passenger screening measures. Patients with known or suspected highly contagious diseases should receive treatment in place. c. Threat Avoidance and Mitigation (1) Ideally, threat avoidance is the preferred defensive tacti c for mobility aircraft. over-flight, alternate routing , operating at night or in Threat avoidance tactics include adverse weather, and using EZ operations. Since not all mobili ty aircraft, especially tankers, possess warning and defensive systems, they must depen d upon CAP and SEAD warnings, as well as basing ou tside the range of antiaccess assets for protection and threat and area denial capabilities such as long-range aircraft and cr uise missiles. While mobility threat-avoidance tactics, comm anders should consider the aircraft can reduce risk through l risk management prior lack of defensive countermeasur es and perform proper operationa to operating air mobility aircraft in uncertain or hostile envi ronments. This limitation can icy across the range of military reduce air mobility assets’ flexibility to support national pol operations and should be considered by planners of both combat and combat support missions. Therefore, using the most up-to-date intelligence fr om the JFC to identify potential threat locations is key to mission planning. ext preferred option. (2) When avoidance is not possible, threat mitigation is the n Planners can mitigate the threat to mobility aircraft by using a variety of active and passive measures. Active protective measures include fighter escort, g round support forces III-10 JP 3-17

61 Planning Air Mobility Operations tial threats from interdictin g air routes, antiaircraft employing measures that deny poten defenses, ballistic missile defenses and tactical lasers for ai rfield defense, and SEAD. Passive measures include such things as air base defense; route and altitude selection; reduced ground times; dispersed aircraft basing operating at ni ght or in adverse weather; and self-defense systems, including the use of onboard warning receivers, flare/chaff dispensers, and CBRN detection devices. For CBRN hazards, it m ay not be possible to ical. Some measures to avoid aircraft contamination, especially if the mission is crit mitigate the effects of CBRN hazards include limiting the retro grade of contaminated cargo to “MC” cargo and identification of a theater decontamination p lan for air mobility aircraft. The Services do not have the capability to conduct clearance de contamination; therefore, once an aircraft is contaminated, its utility will be restricte d. Operations Security (OPSEC). (3) Conduct mission planning to heighten uncertainty by threat elements concerning the location, timing, and avenues of approach. This includes employing OPSEC procedures to deny knowledge of s chedules, routes, cation and times. Planners sho departure points, and arrival lo uld also consider employing deception when conducting operation s in hostile or uncertain en vironments to confuse the threat about the route, timing, and location of air mobility op erations. 5. Communications Systems ons capabilities of joint a. Communication planning integrates the communicati force components. These plans should include en route communications procedures and automated information systems to support movement reporting; ca ll words or call signs, frequencies, communications equ ipment, and supplies to be deliv ered; the sequence of their delivery; and code words f or significant events. the following b. The most appropriate component will have responsibility for functions: (1) Provide communications-ele ctronics during air movement/aer ial refueling. (2) Develop and maintain a comm unications net for early operat ions in the objective area. (3) Develop and maintain a communications net between the depa rture airfield and LZ (or arrival airfield) for airland operations. (4) Secure rapid and reliable communications from the objectiv e area through the communications and computer systems of geographic CCMDs and oth er headquarters immediately upon the arrival of a irlift personnel, communicatio ns from the joint force headquarters to and between com ponent commands, and from DOS or other agencies in the objective area. (5) Formulate, publish, and distribute the communications-elec tronics operating tructions. instructions and joint communica tions-electroni cs operating ins III-11

62 Chapter III (6) Provide relay-type communi igence or mission cations for disseminating intell e to the objective area. changes to the airborne force commanders while they are en rout and coordination to preve nt interference with (7) Provide jamming operations friendly C2. cations systems along with thei c. Various computer and communi r associated databases and peripheral equipment are included as elements of the GAMSS and are used when planning and executing air mobility operations. Use of th ese systems for air mobility operations is highly encouraged to facilitate the flow of criti cal information between operational components. These i nclude, but are not limited to: (1) A DOD enterprise of joint policies, procedures, and APEX Enterprise. reporting structures, supported by communications and computer systems, which is used by the JPEC to monitor, plan, and execute mobilization, deploym ent, employment, sustainment, redeployment, and de mobilization ac tivities associ ated with joint operations. (2) Global Air Transportation Execution System (GATES). GATES is AMC’s aerial port operations and management information system designed to support automated cargo and passenger processing, reporting of ITV data to IGC, and billing to AMC’s financial management directorate. Highly mobile, deployable C2 system supporting forces (3) Global C2 System. for joint and multinational operations across the range of mili tary operations, anytime and anywhere in the world with compatible, interoperable, and integ rated command, control, communications, computers, a nd intelligence systems. (4) Consolidated Air Mobility Planning System. Provides air mobility mission planners with an integrated view for airlift and AR requirement s management, planning, and scheduling of air mobility forces to support peacetime, con tingency, humanitarian, and wartime operations. It also provides advanced user capabilitie s for operational planning and allocation management for A R missions, SAAMs, and GCC airli ft requirements. (5) Global Decision Support System (GDSS). As the primary C2 system for airlift and AR missions, GDSS pr ovides aircraft schedules, arri val and/or departure, and aircraft status data to support ITV of aircraft and aircrews. (6) High-Frequency Global Communications System. A global, high-power, communications system providing beyond line-of-sight connectivi ty to GAMSS forces world-wide. This includes weather information, threat warnings , emergency action messages, message relay, phone patches, automatic link establis hment, Mayday transmissions, and high-frequency e-mail. (7) Joint Enterprise Network Manager (JENM). JENM is an enterprise network planner and management tool used to support end-to-end services and connections to the DOD information networks. This tool supports the networ k architecture from a joint vice and geographical twork connectivity across Ser communication plan allowing for ne III-12 JP 3-17

63 Planning Air Mobility Operations ased tactical waveforms (e.g., W lines using Internet protocol-b ideband Networking Waveform, Soldier Radio Wavefo rm, and Mobile User Objective Sys tem). Additional information concer ning communication system pl anning can be found in JP 6- 0, Joint Communications System. 6. Sustainment Operations and logistics are most effectively integrated as par t of a collaborative planning process that includes subordinate component commands, supporting commands, and global providers. Equally important with planning is the a ctive integration of sustainment movements from point of origin to point of need to ensure seamless delivery and retrograde of sustainment car go. USTRANSCOM develops integ rated distribution route structures based on the needs of the CCDRs to ensure time ly performance through all segments of the joint d istribution pipeline. a. Historically, demand for items increases faster than the su pply system can provide, and special management actions might become necessary. Anticip ating the demand for sustainment movements requires a shared situational awareness a nd close collaboration between staffs during development of future plans and future op erations concepts. Sustainment movements are us ually a combination of push and pul l resupply that requires arying demand patterns and a flexible means of modulating airlift capacity to respond to v TDD parameters. b. A key consideration during sustainment planning is the moda l balance between airlift and surface movements. USTRANSCOM supports routine sus tainment operations through scheduled airlift operations such as channel service an d scheduled sealift via commercial liner service. Levels of transportation service for sustainment movements are often predicated on rules and tr ansportation priorities applied during requisition or processes established by acquisition of supplies, which includes air clearance authority o substitute for active plann ing to ensure sustainment each service. However, there is n movements are supported with the appropriate transportation mod e to efficiently meet the needs of the CCDRs, Service co mponents, and other supported org anizations. c. Routine sustainment planning usually assumes that user requ irements and general air and ground security situations allow some flexibility in th e actual delivery times of specific loads. d. Combat sustainment operations reinforce or resupply units e ngaged in combat and permit timely return of reparable parts, often in critically sh ort supply, to designated repair points. Once delivered to the combat zone, an inserted force m ay be totally dependent upon subsequent airlift operations for sustainment, movement, w ithdrawal, redeployment, or AE of casualties. Combat s ustainment planning usually assum es that operational requirements and assessed threats allow little or no flexibilit y in the delivery times, locations, and load configurations. Combat requirements and ca rgo handling limitations mine whether palletized at forward operating locations drive flight schedules and deter III-13

64 Chapter III cargo can be handled effectively. Operational effectiveness is the primary objective, and and support resources is secondar the efficient use of aircraft y. e. Sustainment should be planned to utilize backhaul capacity. Depending on theater and user priorities, typical bac khaul loads might include redep loying forces, friendly r, reset and reconstitution evacuees, detainees, and excess or repairable material. Howeve h the same operational of military forces may drive scheduled retrograde movements wit urgency and TDD objectives as ot her sustainment movements. Additional information concerning su stainment can be found in JP 4-0, Joint Logistics, and JP 4-09, Distribution Operations. 7. Assessment operations. Assessments must be conducted prior to and during air mobility a. Prior to executing air mobility operations, consideration m ust be given to the following planning factors: (1) Airfields, to include capabilities and limitations, and ai rland facilities available in the departure and arrival areas must be assessed, particularly those in underdeveloped countries where their status may be questionable . Mobility planners should consider runway characteris tics as well as taxiway, park ing, ramp, and cargo handling areas for operational suitability, and determination o f MOG. Additionally, planners should consider estab lishing a regional air movement c ontrol center (RAMCC) to coordinate movements of civilian of coalition military, fixed-wing airlift in support humanitarian, and commercial a gnated AOR by assigning ir operations throughout the desi arrival and departure times at selected airfields in the AOR an d coordinating over flights. Arrival slot time coordination between the RAMCC and airlift co ntrol team ensures the MOG is not exceeded. Preplanned aircraft arrival slot times av oid ramp congestion and foster the synergistic effect of the entire rapid global air mo bility force. Additional information concerning RAMCC pr ocedures can be found in Air Force Doctrine Annex 3-52, Airspace Control. (2) An airfield’s infrastructure also impacts the support GAMS S/JTF-PO forces climatology, weather services, can provide to the air mobility flow. The hours of operation, flight planning support, airfiel vigational aids, d lighting systems, airfield na communications, marshalling/storage areas, and road networks ar e all requirements that need consideration dur ing planning phases. (3) Host-nation support (HNS) capability and willingness is a critical consideration in the planning pha se. HNS can include diplomati c clearances, airspace access, lodging, food services, water, communications, labor, l ocal transportation, or other types of support. (4) Availability of fuel at s upport locations may limit air mo bility support. POL raft and ground clude the amount needed for airc planning/requirements should in JP 3-17 III-14

65 Planning Air Mobility Operations ing system condition equipment. Planners should consider POL storage capacity, fuel r from the HN or by and type, and dispense rates, as well as POL acquisition, eithe should therefore be the y a major limiting factor and resupply. Aircraft fuel is usuall en the effects of shortages primary focus. At austere locations, aerial refueling can less in ground refueli ng capabilities. b. Assessments must be ly during air mobil ity operations. conducted continuous Assessors must ensure the user’s requirement is being met IAW e stablished priorities and air mobility forces are being us ed efficiently and adapting to changes in the operations tempo or focus. Evaluation tools must include metrics to deter mine on-time delivery amount of cargo/fuel o n- or off-loaded and airdrop delivery pre cision. c. Continuous operational assessment that links operational ob jectives to airlift tasks e employment of air mobility ass ets. At the same time, is the key to ensuring effectiv economy of force in air mobility o . USTRANSCOM and perations has a global impact the MAF in general support all S ervices and government agency o perational requirements simultaneously with a finite force to effectively meet the highest priority air mobility needs. Effectiven force in planning and ess is paramount, but economy of execution is an essent ial consideration. Additional information concer ning assessment fa ctors associated with air mobility operation planning can be found in JP 3-0, Joint Operations. ning Considerations 8. Multinational Plan a. The joint planner should consider complementary multination al capabilities , this capability should be bal anced against the during COA development. However er those multina tional units potential for competition for US transportation assets to deliv into the theater. b. In planning for multinational operations, the joint planner should be aware of the legal considerations in providi t from multinational ng or receiving logistics suppor partners. The Foreign Assistan ce Act, the Arms Export Control Act, acquisition and cross-servicing agreement authority, the Federal Property and A dministrative Services Act of 1949 (as amended), the Fly America Act, and the Cargo Pr eference Acts all address the degree of support that the US can provide to or rec eive from other nations. In addition, specific legislativ e language contained in DOD aut horization or appropriation acts may limit US a de logistic support from bility to receive and/or provi and/or to allies. The joint planner should include the legal a dvisor in all stages of multinational operations plannin g and execution f or legal compl iance. c. The legal consider ations of multinationa l support notwithst anding, air operations are an integral part of most multinational planning efforts. T he multinational force air CC is responsible for air operatio ns planning and develops a co ncept for integrating air operations capabi lities. US CCs and multinational force comman ders should provide highly trained liaison staffs to facilitate integration, coordi nation, and synchronization of gistic air assets and airfields. air operations. Air planning should also include the use of lo III-15

66 Chapter III It is important to ensure all pla ies and limitations that each nners understand the capabilit national guidance is country brings to the fight. In the event no established multi ions should resemble those available, planning considerations for multinational air operat for joint operations. n, refer to JP 3-16, Multinational O perations. For additional informatio ng Factors 9. Other Planni a. Materiel Collection and Classification Planning. Because much abandoned or captured materiel or contaminated equipment may be usable by fr iendly forces, ground and air commanders should devel op plans for their retrograde, c onsistent with the urgency and length of the primary mission. Planning for Mobility Air Forc es Cost Avoidance Tankering. The process of b. ferrying “lower-cost” fuel for use in follow-on mission legs in lieu of buying “higher- cost” en route fuel. AMC’s visib ility of Defense Logistics Age ncy cost of delivering fuel allows MAF planners to leverage economic benefit by aircraft fe rrying lower-cost fuel without reducing paylo gative mission impact . ad or producing a ne c. Planning for Detainees. Detainee collection points s hould be located near air terminal facilities to aid in air evacuation but not so close t hat they are endangered by possible enemy targeting. Detainee Operations. ion, see JP 3-63, For additional informat d. A complete medical estimate is usually conducted Medical Support Planning. for each phase of an operation. The respective Service compone nt medical planners should conduct detailed medical supply planning a nd medical sup port operations. Plans should allow for probable losses of medical equipment and suppl ies during delivery into the objective area. Estimates should be made for replacement i tems to cover losses due to battle actions, evacuation of patients, and other causes. T he evacuating medical activity usually provides litters, blankets, splints, and other medical items accompanying patients during evacua tion. Planners also n eed to identify the need for patient movement gisticians for support. Planne items and appropriate medical lo rs responsible for AE should ensure plans address decontaminating CBRN contaminated p atients before they enter the intratheater or intertheater patient movement system unless the applicable GCC, CDRUSTRANSCOM, and SecDef approve otherwise. For additional information regarding medical support pl anning and eva cuation of contaminated patien ts, see JP 4-02, Joint Health Services. e. AE (1) Responsibilities. AE refers to TS en route care of patients to and between MTFs, using organic and/or contr acted aircraft with medical air crew trained explicitly for this mission. AE forces can operate as far forward as airc raft are able to conduct air of military operations, and i n all operating environments. operations, across the full range III-16 JP 3-17

67 Planning Air Mobility Operations crew to support patients Specialty medical teams may be assigned to work with the AE air oute care. requiring more intensive en r e component and comm Information on the AE mission, Servic on-user systems, organizations, and C2 procedures is contained in JP 4-02, Joint Health Services. (2) USTRANSCOM and GCCs perform common- Common-User System. user AE with available air mobilit y assets. PMs are managed th rough the USTRANSCOM Regulating and C2 Ev acuation System. Normally, pati ents are evacuated from theater hospitali zation to OCONUS definitive car e facilities and then on to CONUS definitive care facilitie s. Medical evacuation is the system within the “forward/or tactical” area and i s performed by dedicated, stand ardized medical ces), with medic al professiona evacuation platforms (air ambulan ls who provide timely, efficient, and en route care of regulated or unregulated wounde d, injured, or ill persons. The Army provides intratheater aeromedical evacuation to all la nd maneuver forces (once ashore) and also provides support to ship-to-shore and shore-to -ship PMRs. The USAF AE system provides intertheate kage between roles of care r PM support and is the vital lin for regulated patients of exte nded distances and to CONUS for f inal patient disposition to meet patients’ definitive care needs. The JFC may use AE as sets for far forward PM operations. Those efforts will be coordinated with JAOC/AOC an d the joint force surgeon. hrough f. Weather. The anticipation of weather effects on operations mitigated t planning provides invaluable dividends in efficiencies on strat egic mobility. o mission planning i r considerations int s essential to mitigate Incorporation of weathe ental conditio ns, and to opt risk, identify opportunity, sel ect ideal environm imize routing r weather considerations is ac complished in the JAOC and DZ/LZ selection. Planning fo nal level. at the operatio ons into planning is contained in JP 3- Information on integrating weather considerati 59, Meteorological and Oceanographic Operations. Withdrawal or Restaging Plan. The withdrawal or restag ing of forces by air g. should be done IAW the general guidelines for redeployment and extraction airlift operations. (1) Other specific consideratio success of these ns that may be important to the operations are local air superior ity and the possible need for friendly military deception (MILDEC). Such operations shoul d mask these withdrawal movemen ts for as long as possible. Clearly, the likelihood of success will be increased by conducting these operations early enough to allow organized for comprehensive planning and execution. Once the appropriate ground force commander orders an operati on and establishes movement priorities, load plans, and departure poin ts, the COMAFFOR or JFACC (if designated) should control the air movement. GAMSS units should be ssible. placed at the departure points, if po III-17

68 Chapter III (2) at The ground force commander should provide trained loading teams in loading and securing equipment, the departure points to assist airfield support units upervision from USAF personnel. Specific withdrawal and with technical assistance and s equipment destruction procedur es are contained in appropriate S ervice manuals. Space Support Planning. Friendly space-based capab h. ilities can greatly enhance any air mobility operation. In ge neral, space-based capabiliti es such as GPS signals and satellite communications (SATCOM) are readily available for use by friendly forces without needing to be requested. However, planners should be a ware of possible constraints on space-based capabilities and should also assess their need for tailored space capabilities which must be reque sted prior to mission execution . (1) Availability of space-based ca pabilities can be constrained b y Constraints. many factors including the space environment and enemy activity . Planners should consult their weather office for environm ental factors which could caus e signal interference or anomalies. Additionally, planne rs should request intelligence assessments of enemy capability to disrupt friendly space capabilities and plan acco rdingly. This includes enemy jamming of GPS and SATCOM signals. (2) Tailored Capabilities. Tailored space capabilities can provide additional resources toward mission success. Often times, these capabilit ies require intensive planning prior to mission executio n and should be requested as early in the mission planning process as possible. i. Information Activity Planning. Information is integral to the successful planning on planning in support of and execution of air mobility operations. The use of informati global air mobility operations is conducted by the AMC-matrixed staff in support of the level in the JAOC/COMAFFOR st affs. Information 618 AOC (TACC) and at the theater operations can support both offensive and defensive operations simultaneously, but mobility operations focus is primarily on defensive operations while deconflicting theater offensive operations planning. Integrating information into pl anning requires early and detailed JIPOE and must be an integral part of, not an addition to, the overall planning effort. (1) EW. EW threat planning is critical to airlift operations. The th reat of directed energy (e.g., lasers and high-pow er microwave) weapons, as well as the adversary’s infrared and traditional electronic attack radio frequency ener gy capabilities to MAF operations, is increasing in sophi stication and effectiveness a t an accelerating rate. rce protection, reduced Mobility forces also require enhanced situational awareness, fo radar cross section, and defensiv ectromagnetic environment. e systems to survive in the el Effective countermeasures such as flare-based defensive systems and large aircraft infrared countermeasures reduce the leth ality of threats encountered whe n avoidance is not possible or unknown. The MAF generally accepts aircraft arrivals and de partures to be in the “public domain” and are concerne d with probable/likely threat i n the vicinity of airfields. (2) Cybersecurity. Based on mission classificati on, the MAF conducts mission unclassified C2 systems using t he SECRET Internet planning on both classified and III-18 JP 3-17

69 Planning Air Mobility Operations classified Internet Protocol Ro uter Network. Because Protocol Router Network and Non- threats attack our information sources and information systems at multiple locations simultaneously, cyberspace security actions are essential. The MAF must ensure Service policy and guidance components comply with established US Cyber Command cyberspace to provide well-defined boundaries with protection mechanisms ( e.g., firewalls, system management zones, and intrusio interoperability solutions, data n detection and protection systems) that monitor and detect rnal activity. unauthorized internal and exte MILDEC. (3) s used to deliberately mislead MILDEC planning and execution i adversary decision makers as to air mobility capabilities, inte ntions, and operations, causing the adversary to take spec ific actions (or inactions) t hat will contribute to the accomplishment of the mission. (4) OPSEC denies the threat informa tion required to correctly ass ess OPSEC. tions. OPSEC planning identifie s critical information to friendly capabilities and inten determine if air mobility plans can be observed by a threat int elligence systems. Once critical information has been ide ntified (such as for protectio n reasons, force composition, movement and refueling schedules, troop and equipment), then se curity measures and procedures are executed to eliminate or reduce adversary exploi tation. Unlike other security programs that seek to protect classified information, OPSEC measures identify, control, and protect generally unclassified mobility operations mission profiles and signatures associated with sen sitive operations and activities. (5) MILDEC and OPSEC. Working in tandem, MILDEC and OPSEC nying or permitting access complement each other. Controlling access to information by de ugh the vulnerabilities to specific information can shape a threats’ perceptions. Thro is, causing the identified by OPSEC, MILDEC seeks to encourage incorrect analys eeks to deny real adversary to arrive at specific false deductions, while OPSEC s information to a threat and prevent correct deduction of friend ly plans. OPSEC planning of the real plan, since in support of the deception plan is just as important as OPSEC expose the real plan. MILDEC c compromise of the deception may an directly support the alse signatures and indicators . The intent is to OPSEC plan by creating numerous f insight into operations. Sign atures should be managed manipulate indicators which give and adjusted to produce the planned effect. Air mobility opera tions must protect MC information identified by the supported commander for both airl ift and AR operations. Appropriate deception or misinformation plans, developed early in the planning stages, may help conceal or divert attention from aircraft and troop mo vements. However, these plans should not jeopardize alte rnate plans or other operations within the area. For more information on integrating information into planning, see JP 3-0, Joint Operation; JP 3-13, Information Operations, and JP 5-0, Joint Planning. j. Public Affairs (PA). For air mobility operations, PA planners use information and knowledge gained through research to enhance the commander’s un derstanding of the operational environment to shape the commander’s initial planni ng guidance and intent, which must include communication considerations. Communication plans are not separate munication from operation planning and operations plans should include com III-19

70 Chapter III considerations and activities fro n plans highlight higher m the beginning. Communicatio messaging, identify the communicat headquarters PA guidance and ion challenges or opportunities, identify and segment key publications, define co mmunication objectives that support command/mission goals, develop measurable objectives to achieve these goals, and employ communication activiti es appropriate to the situatio n and desired outcome that do not compromise OPSEC or information security. Throughout th e planning process, PA professionals lead communication synchronization with other inf ormation-related capabilities to minimize the adve rse effects of inaccurate info rmation and analysis, on and misinformation of OPSEC, and the spread of disinformati propaganda, violations S and multinational efforts. that could otherwise threaten U k. Special Technical Operations (STO) Planning. The AMC or JAOC STO cell integrates STO capabilities in direct support of mobility opera tions during deployment and ordinates with appropriate JA OC STO cells and redeployment. The AMC STO cell co capability providers to ensure planning and execution of STO ca pabilities. The JAOC STO cell is integrated into the JAOC divisions to develop the requi red classified annexes for STO capabilities. Effective support for the JFC’s mobility req uirements demands air mobility experts are integrated into the STO and that STO cell representatives understand nhance mobility operations. and develop support plans to e JP 3-17 III-20

71 CHAPTER IV AIR MOBILITY SUPPORT “Air power is not made up of airplanes alone. Air power is a composite of airplanes, air crews, maintenance crews, air bases, air supply, and sufficient replacements in both planes and crews to maintain a constant fighting strength...” General Henry “Hap” Arnold General of the Air Force (1949) 1. General nt upon establishing irlift and AR force is continge Successful employment of the a and maintaining a GAMSS force that enables aerial deployment, e mployment, of military operations. of US forces throughout the range sustainment, and redeployment worldwide foundation for Specifically, air mobility support forces provide a responsive, airlift and AR operations. This force is divided between USTRA NSCOM, which controls the majority of assets in its global/functional CCMD role, and the geographic CCMDs that ese forces, combined with the ir specific regional needs. Th control other assets to meet the gers, make up the GAMSS. interrelated processes that m ove information, cargo, and passen ions, as well as deployable This structure consists of a number of CONUS and en route locat forces capable of augmenting the fixed en route locations or es tablishing operating ned both in CONUS and at locations where none exist. These deployable forces are statio ontrolled by either AMC or one o f the geographic CCMDs. select overseas bases and are c Pre-positioning GAMSS forces at locations supporting sustained airlift or aerial refueling operations should be accomplished ahead of any combat force dep loyment. a. The reduction in forward-deployed forces following the end of the Cold War US military presence resulted in an increased dependence on air mobility to project nce on the GAMSS to throughout the world. In turn, th ere grew an increased depende MSS enable the en route provide rapid global air mobility. The mobile forces of the GA system to expand or contract as necessary, providing worldwide coverage and lending direct support to the rapid global air mobility concept. ANG components. b. GAMSS forces are drawn from active duty, USAF Reserve, and the fixed CONUS and Collectively, these components provide the forces that make up stationed primarily in overseas GAMSS organizations, as well as the deployable forces CONUS. These components suppor e of military t operations throughout the rang operations. 2. Air Mobility Support ns by providing the a. Various Service organizations support air mobility operatio F, through AMC’s air operational capabilities essential for APOD reception. The USA mobility squadrons (AMSs), aerial port flights, and CRFs, provi de much of the operational air cargo companies unload and logistic support needed to receive arriving aircraft. USN aircraft and operate air cargo and passenger terminals. Throug h its cargo transfer IV-1

72 Chapter IV capability, the Army provides the required support to interface with the CRF and begin the staging and onward movement phases for deploying personnel, equ ipment, and materiel. Specific Service orga nizations include: CONTINGENCY RESPONSE SUPPORT: OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (1 JUNE–10 JULY 2010) In February 2010, the 571st Contingency Response Group (CRG) deployed Airmen to Mazar-e-Sharif (MeS), Afghanistan, tasked by Commander, United States Transportation Command (CDRUSTRANSCOM), to establish a forward logistics base in suppo rt of the 30,000-troop surge for Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. The 571 CRG was also tasked to provide command and control, aerial port, aircraft maintenance, security, air traffic control, and logistical support (weather, intelligence, etc.). Working in conjunction with the 41st Transportation Company (TC) and Soldiers from the 82nd Sustainment Battalion (SB), the mission of this 250-member US Transportation Command Joint Task Force-Port Opening (JTF-PO) team was to build a high-speed logistics lane to facilitate the flow of US Army personnel, equipment, and supplies into Northern Afghanistan and the onward movement to other provinces. To accomplish its mission, the JTF-PO would need to dramatically increase the throughput and movement velocity of the existing airfield at MeS so it could handle a significant increase in ai rflow, to include commercial and military aircraft. CRGs and rapid port r’s opening elements (RPOEs) are intimately familiar with each othe F-PO capabilities because they train and exercise together during JT validation exercises. For this mission, however, the assigned RPOE was retasked to align with another CRG to support the humanitar ian relief mission in Haiti after a devastating earthquake. With n o other RPOE available, agreements were generated with the 82nd Airborn e Sustainment Brigade that provided tactical control of the 41st TC and direct support of a team from the 82nd Support Brigade Headquar ters Staff allowing the generating of an ad hoc JTF-PO. The 41 TC provided ground movement capability to transport cargo/personne l to a forward distribution node, while 82 SB provided passenger processing and in-transit visibility and an Army perspective du ring negotiations with Regional Command–North (RC-N) and host nation entities. The JTF-PO worked with their German International Se curity Assistance Force (ISAF) hosts, RC-N leadership, and Afghan mili tary and civilian officials to ensure smooth airfield/ramp operation s, security, and communications. The JTF-PO also built a strong relationship with the Navy Seabe e element that was invaluable in the structural building of the n ew cargo yard and fuel farms that were essential to mission success. Fi nally, the JTF-PO established a close working relationship with the joint special elligence operations task force element that provided information and int the cargo for JTF-PO operations and in return were provided a section of JP 3-17 IV-2

73 Air Mobility Support yard to be used as a forward area rearming and refueling point for their rotary-wing assets. For this mission, the JTF-PO remained under the operational con trol of CDRUSTRANSCOM but worked in a direct supporting relationship wi th United States Central Command (USCENTCOM). The JTF-PO worked closely with, and provided support to, multiple agencies, inclu ding US Forces Afghanistan, RC-N of the IS AF, the USCENTCOM Joint Deployment and Distribution Operations Center, the Air Mobility rope, Divisions at Air Forces Central Command and US Air Forces in Eu and 618th Air Operations Center (Tanker Airlift Control Center) . The JTF-PO at MeS ensured the expeditious movement of over 18,1 00 short tons and 8,700 passengers, handling 824 Air Mobility Comm and, coalition, and commercial aircraft across two ground operations areas, while coordinating operations with multiple agencies. The JTF- PO delivered 530 mine–resistant, ambush-protected all-terrain vehi cles to US counterterrorism and counterinsurgency forces at nine forwar d operating bases in Northern Afghanistan, providing vital, life- saving equipment for the warfighter and ensuring the security of the n orthern distribution network. Various Sources USMC Component. (1) During a major theater deployment, the USMC will employ a Marine air-ground task f orce deployment and distributi on operations center (MDDOC) to coordinate all strategi lift requirements for land c, operational, and tactical and air forces. The MDDOC is a standing organization located w ithin the MAGTF command element. The MDDOC will conduct integrated planning, p rovide guidance, and coordinate and monitor transportation and inventory resources a s they relate to ally conducted by the management of the MAGTF’s distribution process. Functions norm MDDOC must be performed simultaneously both in garrison and for ward to facilitate force generation, embarkation/deployment, debarkation, employment, su stainment, and retrograde/redeployment. The size and scope of the MDDOC scale s to meet mission requirements for the size of the MAGTF it supports. In theater , the MDDOC coordinates activities per the respective CCDR theater policy and guidance. (2) Army Theater Sustainment Command (TSC). The TSC is the logistics C2 element assigned to the Army Service component command (ASCC) a nd is the single Army sustainment (less medical) headquarters within a theater o f operations. It is responsible for executing logist ics and distri bution capabiliti es for port opening, theater opening, theater distribution, and sustainment functions in sup port of ARFOR. gnated common-user Additionally, the TSC may provide lead Service support for desi logistics to other USG departments or agencies, multinational f orces, and NGOs as directed. The TSC manages theater distribution and executes di stribution operations IAW ASCC component logistics staff o fficer priorities. It develops the ASCC’s distribution plan and synchronizes materiel and movement management and is a lso responsible for coordinating the protection of theater distribution nodes. The TSC can employ one or more IV-3

74 Chapter IV expeditionary sustainment commands as an extension of its C2 ca pability. Each provides rapidly deployable, expeditionary sustainment command regionally focused capability for executing logistic operations that are limited i n scope and scale when compared to those the TSC can support. (3) Army Sustainment Brigades (SUST BDEs). SUST BDEs are subordinate commands of the TSC. All SUST BDE headquarters plan, synchroni ze, monitor, and control sustainment operations within their assigned area of op erations. SUST BDEs are task-organized to conduct theater opening tasks, sustainment, a nd theater distribution tasks during the early phases of an ope ration or across all phases of an operation if it is the only SUST BDE in the JOA. With a different task organization, the s ame SUST BDE can transition to a theater distri sion. Theater opening bution mission or sustainment mis functions set the conditions for effective support and lay the groundwork for subsequent expansion of the theater distri bution system. The critical tas ks for a SUST BDE in a theater opening role include: theater re ception support, staging onward movement/distribution management, life support, and initial theater sustainment. (4) Army Aviation. The theater airfield operation s group and airfield operations battalions are organized and equi pped to facilitate early entry contingencies and the joint aviation operations. establishment of expeditionary airfields in support of Army and These organizations provide expe ditionary airfield management a nd C2 at theater-level designated by the JFC. airfields, forward operating ba ses (FOBs), LZs, and other areas (5) Normally, an Army, USN, or USMC A/DACG assists the mobilit y forces in processing, loading, and off-load ing of deploying and arriving Service component Army, elements of an MCT and a n inland cargo transfer personnel and equipment; for the A/DACGs are tailored company typically operate the A/DACG. The capabilities of the based on the mission and military units performing aerial port operations. An A/DACG will: (a) Coordinate and control the reception and/or loading of uni ts for deployment and redeployment. tion commander and the command er of each (b) Coordinate with the installa Service deploying unit. (c) Provide a liaison to the mobility force (normally the air terminal operations center). (d) Perform the processing, loading, and off-loading of deploy ing and arriving Service component pers onnel and equipm ent when no mobi lity force is available. b. In addition, HNS may be used to free up reception assets an d minimize the logistic footprint at the APOD and/or APO E. Close coordination with HNS activities is necessary rements of all organizations co to balance the operational requi mpeting for limited resources. JP 3-17 IV-4

75 Air Mobility Support 3. Capabilities of Air Mobility Support The capabilities provided by the GAMSS are C2, aerial port oper ations, and aircraft maintenance. While GAMSS functions at fixed locations are robu st, the deployable assets are designed to be temporary in ent or replacement. En nature with a planned redeploym route locations are normally tasked to provide C2, aerial port operations, and aircraft maintenance services. However, basic and other support functio ns (e.g., combat support, erations, creating a more aircrew flight equipment, intelligence) can augment in-place op robust throughput and support capability. The level of support can be tailored to match the workload requirements. Consequently, deployable GAMSS forces c an provide a method existing location or establish for expanding capabilities at an ing capabilities where none exist. To ensure continuity of operations and to allow GAMSS f orces to appropriately rations, planners should coordina reconstitute for follow-on ope te the replacement and redeployment of GAMSS forces early in the planning process. C2 of GAMSS Forces. Air mobility support operations encompass both a. sed regional support. When G AMSS forces deploy to a global/functional support and focu GCC’s AOR, command relationships should be specified before ope rations begin. The command relationships should specify the type and degree of con trol exercised by ociated C2 organizations. commanders in the theater, the providing commander, and the ass (1) Whether OPCON is maintained by Commander, 18 AF, or a GCC’ s dquarters for COMAFFOR, GAMSS forces usually provide initial C2 to higher hea dition, they set up stand- deploying forces through organic, deployable C2 systems. In ad alone C2 operations for airlift operations. GAMSS forces perfo rm C2 functions on behalf n, flow, and track air of the higher headquarters at the local level to accurately pla irements may include movements and provide ITV of equipment and passengers. C2 requ various radio and SATCOM systems, as well as mobility mission p lanning and execution systems supporting their airfie ld operations, as well as those of supported air mobility aircrews that may transit or operate from their location. AMC assigned mobility support forces normally use this capability to report to the 618 AOC (T ACC), while theater assigned support forces normally r eport to their theater AOC. (2) Timely exchange of information within, between, and among GAMSS components is critical to mobility operations. This includes t he following: (a) Geospatial imagery intelligence and geospatial information requirements. (b) Airspace coordination and management requirements. (c) Restrictions imposed at airfields. (d) CRF, STT, AMLO, and ground for ce assault team requirements . (e) Unique requirements such as security and command, control, and communications for nuclear weapons. (f) Asset ITV. IV-5

76 Chapter IV (g) Cargo, hazardous materials, passengers, and patient inform ation. (h) Weather information. (i) JIPOE products and exchange ntelligence. of current and early warning i (3) One of the most important features of the GAMSS is its sup port of ITV and mission tracking/planning. Commanders depend on accurate, time ly ITV of assets to more efficiently manage those assets and associated supporting opera tions. Consequently, the effectiveness of the GAMSS relie s significantly on integration of ITV data into a comprehensive picture. Without such integration, the ability t o achieve rapid global mobility is compromised. In selected cases, SOF STTs can provi de a limited initial C2 capability, both traffic cont rol and aircraft reporting. (4) Various computer and communications systems along with the ir associated databases and peripheral equipmen t are included as elements of the GAMSS. b. Aerial Port Characteristics. An aerial port is an opera ting location, usually an established airfield, which has been designated for the sustain ed air movement of personnel and materiel. Deployed aerial port operations are sized based on forecast workload requirements. GAMSS units possess a robust aerial port capabil ity. GAMSS units are designed to establish and operate air mobility terminals and ha ve the ability to onload and based on forecast workload req uirements. In addition, offload a set number of aircraft GAMSS aerial port specialists provide expertise to establish ma rshalling yards and traffic routing for cargo, aircraft servi cing, passenger manifesting, a nd air terminal operations center services. GAMSS aerial port personnel are also responsi ble for the transmission of departure and arrival information to IGC, to include movement m anifests and ITV data provided electronically by the moving unit. Deployable GAMSS a erial port services are not designed for long-term sustained aerial port operations. C ommanders and planners should plan to backfill these deployed units quickly to allow t hem to redeploy and reconstitute for further use. c. Maintenance (1) GAMSS aircraft maintenance support is based on forces and materiel sourced from CONUS and OCONUS units. Planners and units receiving main tenance augmentation from GAMSS forces should consider supplementing ma intenance capability as soon as practical to ensure sustained operations. Designed primarily to support mobility aircraft operations, deployable GAMSS maintenance units are not intended to provide sustained maintenance. (2) Deployable units providing aircraft maintenance capability are contingency support elements (CSEs) and maintenance recovery teams (MRTs). Maintenance CSE packages are tasked to established locations for a specified am ount of time to provide limited support for specific mission(s) flow. CSEs are normall y deployed as part of a CRF to set up or work from an austere location. Their capability i s essentially limited to basic ll teams consisting of ground handling and routine servicing operations. MRTs are sma IV-6 JP 3-17

77 Air Mobility Support tasked to provide aircraft tro specific maintenance specialties ubleshooting and repair for a specific aircraft requirement. 4. Global Air Mobility Support System Elements Several USAF MAJCOMs possess GAMSS elements. AMC GAMSS forces are aligned under the USAF Expeditionary Center’s administrative co ntrol, with assets at fixed overseas locations, as well as CONUS-based deployable ass ets. Unless otherwise directed, Commander, 1 8 AF, retains OPCON of deployed GAMSS for ces. a. GAMSS fixed assets are sized, manned, and equipped to support peacetime common-user air mobility operatio n. Fixed assets consist of th e following: (1) AMC has one CRW that is organized Contingency Response Wing (CRW). to produce deployable CRFs, building partner forces, rapid AMD augmentation, and AMLOs. The CRW as an organization does not deploy. However, i t coordinates the readiness and deployment of subordinate contingency GAMSS eleme nts providing expeditionary en route support, a irbase opening, support for bu ilding partner capacity, rapid AMD augmentation, and AMLO capabilities. These forces de ploy on order from CDRUSTRANSCOM or 18 AF/CC. CRW elements are designed for a dec reased transportation and logistics f ootprint to support short duratio n operations or as a quickly deployable force that can support mission requirements until a more robust unit can deploy 45 days. Written for a longer duration. CRFs deployments do not normally exceed approval from the commander with OPCON authority is required to use CRF assets and C2 of GAMSS elements personnel to support any non-primary mission requirement. The follows the normal C2 pattern of air mobility forces. (2) Air Mobility Operations Wings (AMOWs). AMOWs are located overseas and provide a single-commander, distinct-mission capab ility with the ity to meet changing appropriate level of authority to ensure response time and agil theater requirements and support the CCDR. (a) Air Mobility Operations Groups (AMOGs). AMOGs are located overseas and composed of AMSs. AMOGs formulate plans; establis h procedures; and direct the administration of their subordinate AMS, operating l ocations, and detached units in support of operations. The AMOG provides logistics, i ntelligence, and air transportation planning to meet operational requirements. AMSs. AMSs are situated at key overseas en route locations to (b) operate air terminal facilities in support of the DTS for numer ous DOD common users. AMS personnel generate, launch, and recover air mobility missio ns and en route support aircraft. Each AMS operates an air mobility control ce nter, which tracks air mobility missions and serves as the C2 conduit to the 618 AOC ( TACC) and theater AOC/AMDs executing DTS missions. b. GAMSS deployable assets are tailored to meet mission requirements, designed for a decreased transportation and logistics footprint, and are not designed as long-term ts of CBRN and weapons assets. Training for members of these deployable assets consis IV-7

78 Chapter IV pped and manned to support the contingency and/or training. These assets are equi wartime air mobility operation. T he deployable assets consist of the: (1) CRG. The CRG is an organization tasked to deploy to secure, assess, open, and initially operate airbases for the USAF component of their CCMD. The CRG may initially represent the senio r USAF leadership and, for thi s reason, the CRG is normally commanded by an O-6. The groups consist of a standard ized force module dedicated to the base opening task. This module includes a tai lored section of all forces needed after seizure, or handoff from seizure forces, to assess and maintain security of flow of air mobility into an airfield, establish initial air mobility C2, and operate the and out of the airfield. CRGs may open the airfield for the US AF, another Service, or erations, CRGs even a multinational force partner. To ensure continuity of op ANS, theater COMAFFOR/JFACC sta ff, and coordinate with USTRANSCOM, AFTR ity to sustainment forces follow-on forces to expedite and synchronize transfer of author and the development of host unit support agreements. CRGs are comprised of approximately 115 personnel with a capability to support a cont inuous working MOG of two aircraft for 24-hour a day operations. CRGs may be augm ented with various support forces to meet unique mission requirements, such as exp losive ordnance disposal or rapid engineer deployable heavy operational repair squadron engineer, uction/repair capabilities which provides initial airfield a ssessment and exp edient constr for some scenarios. (2) An AMOS trains and Air Mobility Operations Squadron (AMOS). equips personnel to augment geographic AOC/AMD positions and pr ovides personnel to manage assigned mobility forces in support of contingency op erations; humanitarian efforts; and unilateral, joint, and combined exercises. AMOS p ersonnel, when deployed to a geographic AOC/AMD , will normally be under the di rection of the AMD chief and AOC commander. CRE. A CRE is an expeditionary C2 force responsible for providing (3) continuous on-site air mobility operations management. It is a temporary organization commanded by a commissioned offi cer that deploys to provide air mobility mission support when C2, mission reporting, and/or other support functi ons at the destination do not meet operational requirements. In addition to providing C2 and communications capabilities, CREs provide aeria force protection, weather, l port, logistics, maintenance, medical, and intelligence services, as necessary. CRE size is based on projected operations flow and local conditions. CREs are comprised of approximately 58 personnel with a capability to support a continuous working MOG of two aircraft for 24-hour a day operations. (4) CRT. A CRT is an expeditionary C2 for ce that performs the same func tions as a CRE but on a smaller scale. CRTs are comprised of 11-30 p ersonnel and normally led by a non-commissioned officer. The y provide a level of aerial port and C2 services capable perations, with 24-hour of supporting a working MOG of one aircraft for 12-hour a day o C2 coverage. IV-8 JP 3-17

79 Air Mobility Support CSE. A CSE consists of personnel and equipment providing specific (5) contingency support capabilities other than core C2 such as a c ontingency air load planning team, joint air cargo inspections, or an airfield surv ey team. They may be deployed as an element of CRE or CRT, or as a small scale, stan d-alone capability. These teams may require base operating support (BOS). (6) USN Support to the GAMSS. USN air cargo companies are units handling battalions. subordinate to both active duty and reserve component USN cargo They may augment the USAF’s aerial port operators or conduct in dependent aerial port operations. They interface with U air operations. SN fleet logistics and AMC’s c. GAMSS capabilities include: (1) C2, (2) Aerial port, (3) Aircraft maintenance, and (4) Other CSEs. Airfield Survey Team. These personnel are trained and equipped to (a) d its supporting facilities, deploy to airfields, assess the capabilities of the airfield an and relay that information to t he appropriate authorities who d eploy any needed augmentation or engineer forces. For detailed discussion on AMLOs, see Chapter II, (b) AMLO. “Command and Control of Air Mob ility Operations,” subparagraph 4.d.(10), “AMLOs.” (c) ALCFs are part of the GAMSS that Airlift Control Flight (ALCF). he core C2 are gained by AMC. Personnel deployed from the ALCFs perform t functions of a CRE or CRT. Addi h as aerial port and tional capability beyond C2 suc aircraft maintenance are sourced and tasked elsewhere (typicall y from the CRWs or various mobility wings). (d) En Route Patient Staging System (ERPSS). ERPSS is a deployable asset for temporary staging, casualty care, and administration support during contingency operations. It is located at designated transporta tion hubs to support the en route care of patients in the AE system. ERPSS holding capa bility is 2-6 hours for patients in the tactical environment entering the patient movem ent system and up to 24 hours at en route strategic lo cations. The ERPSS requires logi stical, clinical, ancillary medical, and administrative support from the supporting base. The ERPSS may be augmented with additional personne l and equipment to increase c asualty staging capability as needed. IV-9

80 Chapter IV (e) Air mobility missions operate in areas where a threat Security Forces. aft security when appropriate may exist. To mitigate these threats and provide limited aircr ecurity forces called base defense forces are not present, AMC maintains deployable s Phoenix Raven teams comprised of individuals trained and equipp ed to provide protection may be augmented by CCDR- of the aircraft when transiting high-risk areas. These forces uirements to detect, deter, controlled fly-away security teams, who are trained to meet req and counter threats to personnel and aircraft at deployed locat ions by performing close-in aircraft security and advising ai rcrew on dealing with detainee personnel. These forces may be part of an airfield openi ng effort but do not provide su stained primary airfield security. 14 JANUARY–20 FEBRUARY 2010) OPERATION UNIFIED RESPONSE ( On 12 January 2010, the country of Haiti was ravaged by a magni tude 7.0 earthquake that devastated the capital city of Port-au-Prin ce and caused an estimated 112,000 deaths and 194,000 casualties. Special operations forces (SOF), including an Air Force special tactics team, arrived at Toussaint Louverture Airport on the evening of 13 January 2010 to conduct austere airfield operations. Within ho urs, United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) deployed an Air Force assessment team to assess airfield status and prepare for the 818th joint task force-port opening (JTF-PO) main body arrival. The Contingency Response Group (CRG) assessment team consisted of a ter CRG commander, an expeditionary mobility operations subject mat avement expert, an airfield operations officer, two civil engineering p specialists, a communications specialist, and a security forces specialist. an entire Shortly behind this small team was the first real-world use of Air Force CRG and Army Rapid Port Opening Element (RPOE) combined. The 817 CRG and 688 RPOE joined to form USTRANSCOM’s JTF-PO. Their mission was to safely run aerial port operations and maximize humanitarian assistance throughput at the relatively s mall, single-runway airport. After waiting in the holding pattern of Toussaint Louverture International Airport in Port-au-Prince for 2.5 hour s, the joint assessment team (JAT) stepped off the aircraft the morning of 1 4 January to chaotic conditions. The parking area at Toussaint Louverture only had 10 spots for large aircraft. Prior to the JAT’s arrival, aircraft were parked clo se together and the airfield was crowded with all manner of trucks and peop le resulting in dangerous aircraft ground operations. If an accid ent occurred on the airfield’s only runway, it could shut down the only major airport in Haiti—with disastrous consequences for the relief ef fort. The JAT immediately began inspecting the control tower, passenger terminal, and areas for the JTF-PO main body use immediately up on arrival. JP 3-17 IV-10

81 Air Mobility Support d A couple of hours after the JAT landed, the JTF-PO commander an main body arrived on five C-17s. The team immediately began coordinating bed-down and operations efforts with the JAT, SOF RPOE. controllers, special tactics teams, and Soldiers from the 688th On the periphery of the busy airfield, a 26-man security forces (SFs) team set up a layered defense of the damaged perimeter. It soo n became apparent more SF assistance was needed. On 24 January, a squadron of SF airmen from the 820th Base Defense Group, Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, arrived and began working alongside JTF-PO defenders to fully secure the airfield. The JTF-PO brought order to the parking area by controlling the flow of aircraft. A CRG maintenance crew chief was assigned to the SOF r traffic. special tactics teams who were directing aircraft ground and ai s and This Airman’s role was approving movement into the parking area iway assigning parking locations to arriving flights, preventing tax bottlenecks, and delays. Within a day, this logistical solutio n doubled the number of aircraft transiting the airfield. Due to the myr iad of aircraft supporting the relief effort and a lack of compatible ground ha ndling equipment, foreign aircraft were often unloaded by hand. The JTF-PO airfield manager developed a close working relations hip with his Haitian counterparts that proved invaluable to quickly and sed on this efficiently solving countless problems across the airfield. Ba relationship and recommendation of Haitian airfield authorities , the Haitian prime minister transferred airfield management responsi bility to the JTF-PO team. Joint Task Force-Port Opening (JTF-PO): Port-au-Prince, Haiti 5. Airfield Opening and Global Air Mobility Support System nary airfield a. GAMSS forces may be the first USAF presence on an expeditio regardless of how the airfield ptance from a HN) or which is gained (e.g., seizure or acce follow-on US or multinational entity will operate the airfield. When opening an airfield, GAMSS forces normally coordinate actions with theater command e lements to ensure theater-specific responsibilities, such as force protection, me et mission requirements. All deployed GAMSS forces should inte grate with the host organizati on to the maximum extent possible for force protection and co mmunications. Addit ional issues that should be m any seizure force to the he handoff of the airfield fro considered during planning are: t CRG or other GAMSS element, the CRG/GAMSS element to follow-on sustainment unit and reconstitutio n of the CRG/GA MSS. or HN forces, and redeployment Air Mobility Support Planning b. (1) Successful deployment and employment of forces and materie l depend upon timely and accurate planning of all US and coalition supported and supporting components. The GAMSS is an integral part of the air mobility force, and it s integration into the initial ny effective planning process. deployment flow is critical to a Although relatively small in IV-11

82 Chapter IV numbers, GAMSS forces fill a vital niche, and successful accomp lishment of air mobility and responsibilities for operations hinges on this support. Defined areas of operations ed during planning of seizure/ airfield opening GAMSS personnel should be specifi operations. (2) These forward-deployed forces may augment the JDDOC in man aging the orted CCDRs and, when a deployment of intertheater and intratheater assets for the supp contingency is complete, the redeployment of forces. Their eff ectiveness is directly related to a commander’s understanding of a number of planning factors. Each factor needs careful consideration to ensure the GCC’s requirements and objectives a re achieved. All these factors are interrelated and, th erefore, should not be consider ed in isolation. To ensure adequate support, coo rdination between GAMSS forces and theater planners should occur. The following planning factors, while not all-inclusive for eve ry operation, give in the proper use of GAMSS f orces. commanders the parameters involved (3) Within the overall mobility support-planning Fundamental Considerations. framework, there are four fundame ntal considerations: task, thr eat, core capabilities, and timing. (a) Task. Although specific circumstances and deployed locations may va ry and the GAMSS composition will change, the operational task and purpose of the GAMSS remains constant. The basic requirement is to deploy GAMSS for ces to a location where they either establish operations at a previously unsupported ba se or augment the in-place or permanent en route support system to conduct mobility suppor t to worldwide common users. Worldwide taskings for GAMSS forces center on this oper ation. The fixed infrastructure is composed of CONUS and overseas en route locat ions. This entire network is the foundation for GAMSS operations and their locations prov ide C2, logistics, and aerial port services to meet DOD operational requirements. (b) Threat. CCDRs should always be alert to the possible threats facing GAMSS forces. This includes nonco mbat missions like humanitari an support missions. Forces may face threats to security from individuals and groups , as well as military and paramilitary units. Threat assessments should be conducted in consultation with intelligence, security forces, counterintelligence forces, medi cal planners, interagency matic and defense liaison personn partners, and in-country diplo el. A provision for force protection is requi t will determine the level of red for any operation. The threat assessmen force protection required. It may be necessary to consider del aying deployments until the situation and area are stabilized. Threats can directly affect the flow of air mobility operations and objectives of the JFC. Although GAMSS forces ar e trained to protect themselves against both conventional weapons and CBRN threats a nd hazards, they should be augmented by a dedicated force protection element whenever t he assessed threat affects operational success. (c) Core Capabilities. The capabilities of the trained GAMSS forces are a fundamental consideration. These forces have unique capabiliti es. They have multiple technical qualifications and are packaged as deployment modules . They train as modules and every effort should be made to deploy them as such. This t raining, experience, and IV-12 JP 3-17

83 Air Mobility Support rtain environments. organization makes them ready for autonomous operations in unce against prioritized Consequently, commanders must car efully manage their allocation requirements. Timing. (d) The timing of force movements is a critical consideration. GAMSS forces usually preposition upon receipt of the CJCS warni ng/alert order. This g operations. GAMSS forces early positioning enables effectiv e airlift and aerial refuelin are sequenced early in the TPFDD or deployment order (DEPORD) p lanning. For large- scale mobility operations, this early integration in the deploy ment flow ensures APODs are prepared to receive cargo and passengers. c. Planning Considerations. There are additional planning considerations impacting on or campaign objectives. throughput and affecting operati Footprint. (1) the amount of equipm ent deployed for an The number of people, prise the footprint of the operation, and the physical space they occupy on the ground com t the proper balance of people force. The scale of any operation determines the footprint, bu and equipment and using the reachback concept can minimize the footprint of deployed eases, more airlift is required to support these forces and less forces. As footprint size incr c restrictions may affect the airlift is available to meet other JFC requirements. Diplomati size of a footprint. A HN may limit the number of foreign pers onnel on its soil, making the need for reachback support ev en more crucial. Paring and t ailoring of forces based on s reduction allows airlift assets the in-place infrastructure can also reduce the footprint. Thi to be reassigned for othe r priority taskings. BOS and Expeditionary Combat Support (ECS). (2) GAMSS forces may deploy with limited or no organi c BOS or ECS assets. Therefore , the supported commander should be prepared to m eet the additional requirement s of GAMSS forces. If er-assigned BOS or ECS personnel, the GA tasked to augment theat MSS force commander can plan for and deploy with addi tional support personnel. (3) HNS. Deployed operations always rely to some extent on HNS. HNS c an include diplomatic clearances, airspace access, lodging, food s ervices, POL, water, communications, labor, or other types of support. Assessment o f HNS capability and willingness is a critical consideration in the planning phases. Shortfalls in HNS are normally overcome through additional supply efforts including c ontract support. If this assessment is not accurate, forces will not have adequate suppo rt to conduct operations or finite transportation capacity will be wasted on cargo already available at the deployed location. Use of HNS agreements can be an effective force enab ler and force multiplier. Obtaining local labor support from the HN affords US forces eco nomy of force. The force multiplying effect is the reduced airlift required for force su pport. Footprint size is also dramatically reduced when HN services and support are maximized . To comply with congressional oversight, HNS shoul d be tracked and reported to the applicable command element. (4) Contracted support can be a significant force multiplier. Operational contract ervices that may be required support provides tools and processes to manage the variety of s IV-13

84 Chapter IV (i.e., base operational supp ort, transportation, and to support air mobility operations security). Contracted support an d its associated contractor ma nagement challenges must be integrated early in the operation pla nning process. For more information on operation al contract support, see JP 4-10, Operational Contract Support, and DODI 3020.41, Operational Contract Support (OCS). For detailed Planning ontract support, see CJCSM 4301.01, information on planning operational c Operational Contract Support. (5) Diplomatic Clearances. Diplomatic clearances are crucial planning considerations. These types of c learances include aircraft ove rflight and landing rights, communications connection approval, personnel visas, and other entry requirements. No TPFDD, DEPORD flow, or sustainment channel mission can occur wi thout appropriate clearances obtained in advance. Without these clearances, the ability of GAMSS forces to enable rapid global mobility can be halted. Diplomatic clearan ces impact footprint, throughput, force protection, and, ultimately, operational succ ess and should be acquired prior to execution of a TPFDD or DEPORD. IV-14 JP 3-17

85 CHAPTER V AIRLIFT “ The actual operation of a successful airlift is about as glamorous as drops of water on stone. There’s no frenzy, no flap, just the inexorable process of getting the job done. In a successful airlift, you don't see planes parked all over the place; they're either in the air, on loading or unloading ramps, or being worked on.” nt General) William H. Tunner, Major General (later Lieutena Combined Airlift Task Force Commander for the Berlin Airlift, 1 948 1. General rough the air deliver forces and materiel th Airlift operations transport and a. Airlift offers its in support of strategic, operation s. al, and/or tactical objective ed, range, and flexibility. Airl customers a high degree of spe ift enables commanders to frames that would be iety of circumstances and time respond and operate in a wide var odes of transportation. impractical through other m ional military strategy by rapidly transporting b. Airlift supports the US nat Airlift is a cornerstone of global personnel and materiel to and from or within a theater. short deploy and redeploy forces, on It provides the means to rapidly force projection. mployment missions can be notice, to any location worldwide. Within a theater, airlift e used to transport forces directly into combat. To maintain a f orce’s level of effectiveness, sonnel, and supplies. airlift sustainment missions provide resupply of equipment, per facilities and ment of patients to treatment Finally, airlift supports the move flexibility, range, and noncombatants to safe havens. Airlift’s characteristics—speed, other US mobility assets. responsiveness—complement 2. Airlift Operations her than the airframe Airlift operations are defined by the nature of the mission rat used. Most aircraft are not exc lusively assigned to one operat ional classification. In fact, the vast majority of t he air mobility force is capable of accom plishing any cl assification tratheater capabilities are ava of airlift. Intertheater and in ilable to all users of USAF airlift. s the critical link between Intertheater airlift provide Intertheater Airlift. a. theaters. operations, intertheater airlift require ments, while (1) During deployment large degree predictab significant, are to a nts normally are identified le. Such requireme ) or OPORD. A in the TPFDD associated with a particular operation plan (OPLAN TPFDD can be tailored to meet specific requirements when the mi ssion is not aligned ith a particular COA. the requirements associated w with an OPLAN or modified to meet in maintaining the flow TDD resupply via airlift from C ONUS to the theaters is critical both military and of materiel necessary to sustain operations. This concept uses V-1

86 Chapter V commercial aircraft to support the sustainment flow that must b egin as soon as deployment operations begin. (2) rces from one A key strength of airlift is its ability to quickly redeploy fo theater to another. Airlift enables commanders to rapidly reposition forces betwe en terring threats from act ing when US forces are engaged elsewhere. theaters, thereby de (3) Diplomatic overflight and lan ding clearances are key to es tablishing an ment. En route aircraft efficient air bridge for deployment of TPFDD forces and sustain clearances may be denied to aircraft suspected of having been c ontaminated. The irective (DODD) diplomatic clearances are processed IAW Department of Defense D 4500.54E, DOD Foreign Clearance Program (FCP). (4) The JFC must anticipate tha t formerly contaminated aircraf t may be removed from intertheater airlift operations. Intratheater Airlift. Intratheater airlift provides air movement of resources, b. personnel, and materie Typically, aircraf t capable of l within a GCC’s AOR. accomplishing a wide range of operational and tactical level mi ssions conduct these operations. Intratheater operati ons provide both general suppo rt, usually through common-user airlift in response t o the JFC’s movement prioritie s, and direct support, normally using GCC-assigned and attached common-user air mobili ty forces. Additionally, Service-organic airlift assets are responsive to the Service CC’s priorities. and the continuation Intratheater airlift r equirements include TPFDD force movements of sustainment movements arrivin g in the theater, as well as on -demand movements and it related cargo and routinely scheduled airlift missions for the movement of non-un personnel. (1) Unit movements within the t FC’s operation or heater are in response to the J campaign plan. Once combat units are deployed to a theater, th e JFC may use intratheater airlift to maneuver forces to ex ploit weaknesses in the adversa ry’s position. In this capacity, airlift allows the JF usly, achieve surprise, and C to reposition forces expeditio control the ti ming and tempo of operations. (2) Movements within a theater also permit the continuing resu pply of forward units. These requirements norma lly are predictable, regular, a nd quantifiable when the forces are not engaged in combat operations. During pre- or po st-hostilities, these requirements can usu ally be fulfilled thr schedule. H owever, once ough a fixed resupply forces are engaged, resupply re and become more quirements increase dramatically unpredictable and variable. Th e ability of airlift to rapidly and flexibly accommodate the critical resupply requirements o f units engaged and operating i n such a dynamic environment provides commanders w apability. ith an essential warfighting c 3. Airlift Missions The primary mission of airlift i s passenger and cargo movement. This includes combat employment and sustainmen t, AE, special operations suppo rt, and OSA. USAF airlift forces perform these missions to achieve strategic-, op erational-, and tactical-level JP 3-17 V-2

87 Airlift HUMANITARIAN RELIEF OPERATION: TSUNAMI SUPPORT On 26 December 2004 an undersea earthquake struck the Indian Oc ean, triggering a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most bordering landmasses. With waves up to 100 feet, the tsunami k illed more than 225,000 people in eleven countries, and inundated coa stal communities. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in history. The plight of the many affected people and countries prompted a widespread humanitarian response. In all, the worldwide commun ity donated more than $7 billion (2004 US dollars) in humanitarian aid, which was needed because of widespread damage of the infrastruc ture, shortages of food and water, and economic damage. Epidemics we re of special concern due to the high population density and tropical climate rnment of the affected areas. The main focus of humanitarian and gove g water to agencies was to provide sanitation facilities and fresh drinkin contain the spread of diseases such as cholera, diphtheria, dys entery, typhoid and hepatitis. There was also a great concern that the death toll could increase as disease and hunger spread. However, because of the initial quick response, this was minimized. Operation UNIFIED ASSISTANCE, controlled by Combined Support Force (CSF) 536, delivered 6,685 passengers, 5,444 cargo tons o f relief supplies and medical aid. With a focus on air mobility as oppo sed to combat operations, CSF 536 showcased how Air Mobility contribut es to humanitarian relief operations as part of a multinational effor t that included nongovernmental organizations. Brigadier General Jan-Marc Jouas, US Air Force, Director, Air Component Coordination Element Operation UNIFIED ASSISTANCE movement requirements are objectives across the range of military operations. Normally, fulfilled through regularly scheduled channel missions over fix ed-route structures with personnel and cargo capacity avail regularly scheduled able to all customers. These requirements are validated thro ugh the appropriate Service orga nization to USTRANSCOM or GCC and then tasked by the 618 AOC (TACC), an AMD , or another appropriate C2 node. Depending on user requirements, requests not supportable through the channel structure can be fulfilled through use of other mis sion categories such as SAAM, exercise, and contingency missions. Requests that cannot be satisfied by any of s of the DTS. The airlift the above missions may be referr ed to other transportation mode rge and meet requirements that system has the flexibility to su exceed routine, peacetime Operation ENDURING demands for passenger and cargo movement. For example, during FREEDOM (OEF) and Operation IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF), new channel ro utes and o support significantly increased structures were established t airlift demands. a. Combat Employment and Sustainment. Combat airlift missions are missions that rapidly move forces, equipm ent, and supplies from one area to another in response to changing battle conditions. Combat employment missions allow a commander to insert V-3

88 Chapter V surface forces directly and quickly combat operations. For into battle and to sustain lve airdropping paratroopers b example, combat missions may invo ehind adversary lines. Combat sustainment missions may consist of reinforcement of fro nt-line forces engaged with the enemy. Airlift affords commanders a high degree of co mbat maneuverability ovides friendly forces a permitting them to bypass adversary troop strongholds. This pr potent offensive advantage and complicates the adversary’s defe nsive preparations. The combat employment and sustainment mission usually accounts for a small percentage of total airlift sorties; nevertheless, its importance is far grea ter than the number of sorties indicates. This is a capability which, in most circumstances, cannot be accomplished by other means. (1) While this mission provides significant capabilities, it a lso carries substantial risk. Success in combat and combat support hinges on air super iority and threat avoidance. This requires accurate and timely intelligence regarding threat s along the ingress and egress routes and over the target area. Once delivered to the target area, the inserted force may be totally dependent upon subseq uent airlift operations for sus tainment, movement, withdrawal, or redeployment. (2) Another important aspect of combat employment and sustainm ent is the concept of forcible entry. In performing this mission, airlift forces are usually matched with airborne, air assault, li ght infantry, or special forces s pecifically designed for delivery by air. This mission normally involve s inserting airborne forc es via airdrop and will most likely require integration with combat air forces (CAF) who wil l provide SEAD and escort operations. However, carefully p ons can be equally effective. lanned airland assault operati An example of intertheater forcible entry operations is the air drop capability that the USAF provides for the Army. For more information, see JP 3-18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations. (3) Deployment and Sustainment in Nonlinear Operations. In nonlinear operations, forces orient on obj rence to adjacent forces. ectives without geographic refe These operations require signifi cant airlift/aerial delivery su pport for each deployment and continued sustainment. Nonlinear operations were applied durin g Operation JUST CAUSE. The joint forces orient ed more on their assigned object ives (e.g., destroying an enemy force or seizing and contro lation centers) and less on lling critical terrain or popu their geographic relationship to ear operations place a other friendly forces. Nonlin premium on air mobility. b. AE. AE is the movement of patients under medical supervision to and between MTFs by air transportation. AE specifically refers to USAF-pro vided movement of patients using organic and/or contracted mobility airframes wit h AE aircrew trained explicitly for this mission. M ovement of patients requires spe cial ATC considerations to comply with patient-driven alti tude and pressurization restrict ions, as well as medical esses occur once validated equipment approved for use with aircraft systems. Several proc PMRs have been identified. V-4 JP 3-17

89 Airlift THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRLIFT it with When Princess Patricia’s Light Infantry Regiment, a Canadian un 850 troops and 1500 tons of equipment, redeployed from Kandahar , Afghanistan, following their tour supporting Operation ENDURING FREEDOM in 2002, United States Transportation Command he Air (USTRANSCOM) determined airlift was the best mode available. T Mobility Command (AMC) had several options, including what type of aircraft to use and the route they would fly. In the end, C-5s were used in a stage operation based in Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean. Five C- 5s, six complete aircrews, 50 maintainers and aerial porters, a nd a planning staff were prepositioned at Diego Garcia. Because of the fuel requirement, the C-5s could not carry their maximum cargo loads and fly nonstop from Afghanistan to Diego Garcia, so enroute air re fueling was required. This allowed the C-5s to fly at their maximum ca rgo weight, which decreased the number of aircraft and sorties into Kandahar by half. This operation highlights two key points: first, it shows the C ommander, USTRANSCOM, as a warfighting commander with the appropriate sed, it authorities to determine resource allocation. Had C-17s been u The would have required 45 sorties, as opposed to 28 C-5 sorties. onnel aircrews flew tactical arrivals and departures, and ground pers conducted engine running onloads to minimize ground time in Kandahar- ground times were cut to as little as 25 minutes, vic e the to normal 3 hours, 15 minutes. Most of this time savings was due eliminating the ground refueling requirement. Minimizing the n umber of aircraft and sorties maximizes safety in all cases, but it is e specially important in combat zones. ften it is The second point this operation highlighted was the fact that o better to use a supported/supporting command relationship. The re are of aircraft times when it’s more effective to delegate operational control to the supported combatant command component commander, but many times it is more effective to pass tasking requirements to and USTRANSCOM and let AMC draw from its entire air mobility fleet conduct utilize its vast command and control and planning resources to the operation. Various Sources (1) The aeromedical evacuation theater’s control team (AECT) within each JAOC/AOC performs AE operational mission planning, tasking, sch eduling of airlift and AE assets to support PMRs during intratheater and intertheater missions. The AECT responds to PM requests that ha ve been validated by the PMRC. (2) For contingency or wartime operations, the AECT provides A E C2 for assigned and attached AE forces. The AECT is the source of AE operational expertise within the AMD. The AECT will coordinate AE operational missio n planning, tasking, V-5

90 Chapter V AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION SUCCESS STORY (vice the old The ability to use virtually any aircraft on-site or in-system system of dedicated aeromedical evacuation [AE] aircraft) provi ded a quick response to casualty movement requirements. Air Mobility Command AE forces supported approximately 7,847 patient movemen ts between 1January and 20 May 2004. “Some of the guys are hurt p retty I can do bad (sic). I wish that I could help them somehow, but the most is make sure the aircraft are configured right before every lau nch, make sure that there is always a crew that is ready to fly, and that the aircraft launches on time. You will never know how much it means to me that I have had the opportunity to participate.”—Deployed AE support t roop, in email home. Air Mobility - General John W. Handy, USAF, Operation Iraqi Freedom (Headquarters Air Mobility Command, By The Numbers October 1, 2003) M in coordination with the scheduling, and execution of airlift and AE assets to support P PMRC. The AECT will work closely with other JAOC divisions and teams to ensure AE missions are completely int egrated into the ATO. (3) Intertheater AE will typically be OPCON to USTRANSCOM with C2 provided by the 618 AOC (TACC) and is accomplished using design ated or retrograde e pursued when competing to organic AE aircraft may b organic AE aircraft. Alternatives airlift or evacuee requirements reduce airframe availability. These alternatives could include use of other organic military airlift, contracted comme rcial passenger aircraft, or authorization for commercial travel for ambulatory patients who do not require in-flight supportive medical care. (4) Use of contracted commercia on the threat in the l aircraft for AE is dependent region. Normally, civilian aircrews are neither trained nor eq uipped to fly in contaminated tracting for specialized air conditions. Except in very limited circumstances involving con ambulance services, commercial aircraft will not be used to mov e contaminated or contagious patients. nts within the (5) Intratheater AE is the movement of casualties and/or patie theater of operations by aircraft directly or laterally to hosp itals or to definitive care within A variety of operational support airlift aircraft illustrate the variety of airlift missions. JP 3-17 V-6

91 Airlift Aeromedical evacuation missions require use of medical equipment approved for use with aircraft systems. the GCC with C2 the theater. Intratheater-assigne d AE forces will be OPCON to provided by the GCC’s JAOC to pr to the 618 AOC ovide ITV of PMs and a handoff (TACC) for intertheater lift using designated or retrograde org anic AE aircraft. can be found in JP 4-02, AFTTP Further information on AE PM Joint Health Services; 3-3.AOC, Operational Employment–Air an d Space Operations Center; Air Force Aeromedical Doctrine Annex 3-17, Air Mobility Operations; and AFTTP 3-42.5, Evacuation. Specified airlift forces p c. Special Operations Support. rovide unique airland and rlift assets dedicated to here are a limited number of ai airdrop support to SOF. Since t economy of force is particularly applicable. When this mission, the principle of and AR crews normally act performing special operations mi ssions, highly trained airlift airlift missi ons routinely as an integral member of a larger joint package. Because these nsive planning, in a hostile environment, exte operate under adverse conditions ess. Airlift and AR used equired to enhan coordination, and training are r ce mission succ vides commanders the capability to achieve specific in a special operations role pro operations or campaign objectives, rough more conventional which may not be feasible th airlift practices. OSA is the movement of high-prio d. time, OSA. rity passengers and cargo with irements. OSA missions are a s place, or mission-sensitive requ pecial classification of imited numbers of priority airlift mission support to provide for the timely movement of l personnel or cargo. The OSA airc raft fleet consists of executi ve and non-executive aircraft. Executive aircraft ar e dedicated to the airlift of D OD and federal senior officials V-7

92 Chapter V and DOD-approved senior official ort passenger and cargo s. Non-executive aircraft supp ents during conflict. airlift during peacetime but also support CCMD wartime requirem scheduling and tasking of OSA operations USTRANSCOM is responsible for the regarding CONUS-based a ssets while the Serv ices validate OSA re quests. Theaters with onsible for scheduling and execu tion tasking of OSA their own OSA aircraft are resp their scheduling should operations within their AORs. Within a theater, OSA assets and rvice component and may be made available for tasking at reside with their respective Se the CCDRs direction. OSA missions can be found in DODD 4500.56, DOD Policy on Further information on the Use of Government Aircraft and Air Travel, and DODI 4500.43, Operational Support Airlift (OSA). (1) In theory, almost any aircr bute to the int ratheater effort. In aft could contri practice, however, the bulk of i ly done by fixed-wing ntratheater missions are normal aircraft provided by the USAF co mponent, while some limited or specialized missions may be accomplished by fixed-wi ng and rotary-wing aircraft prov ided by other Services. It is important to consider that aircraft performance character istics will be directly affected by such factors as gross weight, atmospheric condition s, runway length and condition, and flight obstacles as outlined in Service publicat ions. Additionally, the Services operate more specialize d fixed-wing transports capable of performing TS/MC requirements for forward-deploye d units. TS/MC missions are th ose that are generally unplanned in nature and which r rs’ immediate espond to the supported commande operational or tacti cal requirements. f the components of (2) It is often difficult to view the relative contributions o the joint force in isolation. Each is critical to the success of a joint operation and each has unique capabilities that can airlift achieves an not be duplicated. Common-user economy of force. Rather than eac h Service and non-DOD agency providing its own airlift, airlift is consolidated and tasked to support all orga nizations. While different types of operations will have va ng highlights some of the rying requirements, the followi airlift requirements of the vari ous organizations that use comm on-user airlift. (a) USTRANSCOM. GAMSS forces normally deploy early in an operation to establish en route and destination support. This may consume a large portion of the first air lift missions. (b) Army. ant organic airlift assets, it Even though the Army has signific often has the largest -user airlift. ARF OR rely heavily on requirement for common intertheater and intratheater airlift for deployment, airborne operations, and redeployment of personnel and ea rly arriving or departing unit equipment. Sustainment is also moved during deployment, ly be balanced against but its delivery must frequent force deployment or redeployment requirements because these ope rations share the same deployment and distribution infra structure and other resources. The Army’s pre- positioning program al so requires significant airlift to move t roops to designated ned equipment. up with prepositio locations to link JP 3-17 V-8

93 Airlift Limited or specialized missions may be accomplished by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft provided by Services other than the Air Force. Sustainment and combat readiness of deployed naval forces (c) USN. depends on flexible and highly responsive intertheater airlift support. Afloat naval forces least amount of common- normally serve as a force enabler and consequently require the airlift to sustain forward- user airlift support. However, the USN depends on common-user US to overseas bases. l, materiel, and mail from CON deployed operations with personne The Navy depends on organic, la t assets to transport nd-based, fleet-essential airlif passengers and cargo intratheater from the APOD to forward logi stics sites for further unique fleet essential airlift, transfer to fleet units. Naval organic airlift, known as Navy- then transports passengers, mail, and critical materiel from fo rward sites to underway forces. Although naval organic ai rlift satisfies most intrathe ater requirements, the Navy requires some common-user airlif t to augment this capability. USMC forces require common-user (d) USMC. airlift when deploying into GTF or as an air contingency a theater as part of either a maritime pre-positioning force MA MAGTF. During maritime pre-pos forces are airlifted to itioning force operations, USMC join maritime pre-positioned equipment and supplies at the arri val and assembly area. Additional fly-in echelons of personnel, equipment, and supplie s are airlifted into the theater to complete and sustain the force. The air contingency MAGTF requires g on the mission, operations rsonnel and equipment. Dependin intertheater airlift of both pe ashore may require intertheater an d intratheater common-user ai rlift support to sustain and/or support the force. V-9

94 Chapter V (e) Most USAF mobility aircraft self-deploy; however, unit support USAF. irlift to the destination with personnel and equipment require a or before the deploying unit aircraft. Dedication of signifi cant airlift assets to USAF uni ts may be required early in deployment operations. USAF units normally begin air operation s shortly after arrival. Therefore, airlift must be able to rapidly deploy full squadron support packages, to include combat support elements, their e quipment, and both initial and sustainment supplies. (f) United States Coast Guard (USCG). The USCG operates fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, whic h are capable of providing flexib le and responsive common- user airlift but is limited by st atutory priorities and a lack of strategic support facilities. lift requirements. In USCG organic airlift is normally sufficient to satisfy USCG air addition, the USCG often relies CONUS deployments and on DOD airlift assistance for O CCMD-supported missions. If Congre ss or the President transfer s the USCG from Department of Homeland Security to DOD during wartime (as a Ser vice within the Department of the Navy, per Title 14, United States Code [USC], Section 3), designated USCG aircraft may be available as common-user airlift. Otherwi se, USCG airlift may be requested from Commander, USCG Atlantic Area, or Commander, USC G Pacific Area, under Title 31, USC, Sections 1535 and 1536. (g) SOF. SOF have highly trained aircre ws and specially configured aircr aft dedicated to conduct specialized air mobility tasks, including infiltration, exfiltration, and resupply of SOF. These aircraft are not part of the common-use r system and have limited redeployment operations. capability to perform large-scale deployment, sustainment, and Due to their unique capabilities, special operations aircrew an d aircraft may be requested t their use must be to support other specific specialized air mobility missions, bu deconflicted with higher-priority special operations requiremen ts. Although it is possible for SOF to provide some common-user airlift to the theater if d irected by the JFC, this would only be done in exceptional cases. SOF are augmented by common-user airlift support. Additionally, selected conventional airlift forces wi th specially trained aircrews and modified aircraft may augment SOF airlift capability. 1. The JFSOCC obtains airlift a nd provides an STT to support a irlift operations by following the procedures in this publication and in JP 3-05, Special Operations. For routine Intratheater airlift forces provide valuable support for SOF. logistics requirements, SOF request intratheater airlift suppor t through their respective supporting Service component. When SOF units require airlift t o perform special operations-specific missions that require specially trained and equipped airlift forces, they transmit their request through their SOF command channels. Air lift personnel (particularly aircrews) expected to provide employment airlift support to SOF should be fully incorporated into the SOF operation planning process and, if ne cessary, entered into isolation for tactic al rehearsals. 2. Airlift aircraft and crews should not be taken out of the a irlift system any longer than necessary to prepare them for the anticipated o peration. Standing down and increase the signature of aircraft for longer periods coul d waste valuable lift capacity the SOF’s preparation phase. JP 3-17 V-10

95 Airlift Contract Airlift. (h) National airlift policy dictates that commanders shift airlift workload to commercial carriers if surge and training r equirements have been met and threat conditions allow. Gaining rapid access to commercia l carriers through a flexible and responsive contractual mechanism is a significant force mul tiplier. Commercial carriers can provide tremendous cap rcial networks on short ability using existing comme notice allowing JFCs the flexibility to use organic aircraft fo r higher priority missions or for special missions unsuited f or commercial airlift. (i) Other Non-DOD Agencies. USG departments and agencies, such as DOS and the Drug Enforcement Administration, use DOD airlift fo r activities such as NEO, counterdrug operations, foreign humanitarian assistance, a nd defense support of civil viding the DOD mission authorities. Non-DOD agencies may use common-user airlift, pro is not impaired. ically The movement must be of an emergency, lifesaving nature, specif authorized by statute, in di rect support of the DOD mission, or requested by the head of an agency of the government under the Economy Act (Title 31, USC, Sections 1535 and 1536) and/or the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Ass istance Act (or Stafford Act) (Title 42, USC, Chapter 68, Section 5121). The Economy Ac t permits one federal agency to request the support of another, provided that the req uested services cannot be obtained more cheaply or conveni ently by contract. Under this act, a lead federal agency ration of an emergency as may request the support of the DOD without a presidential decla required by the Stafford Act. The Stafford Act sets the policy of the USG to provide an e and local governments in orderly and continuing means of supplemental assistance to stat their responsibilities to allevi ate the suffering and damage th at result from major disasters participation in domestic or emergencies. It is the primary legal authority for federal disaster relief. Under the Stafford Act, the President may dir ect federal agencies, including e assistance in one of three DOD, to support disaster relief. DOD may be directed to provid l declaration of a major disa ster, a presidential order to different scenarios: a presidentia perform emergency work for the p reservation of life and propert y, or a presidential declaration of emergency. To obtain common-user airlift, non-D OD agencies submit tation Regulation (DTR) 4500.9-R, The Defense requests IAW Defense Transpor Transportation Regulations. 4. Airland Delivery a. Airland is the preferred method of aerial delivery. Planners should view airland delivery as the primary means for most air movements. In the a irland delivery method, airlifted personnel and materiel are disembarked, unloaded, or unslung from an aircraft after it has landed or, in the case of vertical takeoff and lan ding aircraft, after it has entered a hover. b. Airland delivery is usually the most efficient delivery met hod for moving equipment, personnel, and supplies for the following reasons: (1) It allows a greater degree of unit integrity and the capab ility to rapidly employ units after landing. ng loads. (2) It carries the least risk of injur ing personnel and damagi V-11

96 Chapter V lized training and equipment for transported (3) It requires minimal specia personnel. (4) It seldom requires special rigging of materiel. (5) It permits the maximum utilization of ACL by eliminating t he volume and weight penalties of prep aring loads for airdrop deliveries. (6) It maximizes the opportunity to backhaul or evacuate cargo , patients, and personnel. c. The principal disadvantag es of airland operations are: unobstructed and (1) It requires airfields or LZs that are moderately level or adequate for the anticipated operation. e for delivery of a (2) It may increase mission inte rvals and, thus, the total tim given force, depending on airfiel d size, offload equipment avai lability, and airfield support capability. d-handling and (3) It normally requires air lift mission support such as groun transportation assets. (4) It prolongs exposure of aircraft, crews, and ground suppor t personnel to air or ground attacks. (5) It reduces available airlif t flexibility when using uncon taminated aircraft to land in a contaminated environment. Once an aircraft is contam inated, it will not be allowed to be operated in an uncontaminated environment. (6) It may require additiona l sorties to deliver MHE. d. When planning airland operations, consideration should be g iven, but not limited, to the following: (1) The duration and lo cation of the operation. (2) The type and amount of elivery. cargo or number of passengers for d (3) The number and type airlift assets available and aircrews and ground crews available to fly and service them. (4) The desired phasing of for ces into the operating area. (5) The expected threa ts throughout the mission. (6) Force protection requirements. (7) APOE/en route/APOD airfi eld capabilities, to include: V-12 JP 3-17

97 Airlift number of aircraft that can cyc le through (a) Working MOG reflecting the an airfield in a given time based on services available. (b) Available MHE. ispensing capability. (c) POL storage and d sonnel. (d) Available transportation a ssets to transport cargo and per (e) Pavement strength and obstacl e clearance requirements. (f) Aircraft servic ing, maintenance, and damage repair capabil ities. (g) Crew rest facilities. include the ability to control (8) Airspace considerations, to airspace in the absence of ATC facilities. For further information on TTP for terminal airfield ATC, see Army Techniques Publication 3-52.3 (FM 3-52.3)/MC Multi-Service RP 3-25A/NTTP 3-56.3/AFTTP 3-2.23, es for Joint Air Traffic Contr ol. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedur (9) The weather conditions. (10) Night operation/night vi sion device requirements. (11) Aircrew survival measures, including escape and evasion p oints, routes, corridors, and safe haven locations. concepts: e. Airland operations generally f all within the following four (1) Intertheater airland operations normally Hub and Spoke Operations. offload personnel and materiel at a main operating location wit hin the theater. Subsequently, intratheater air lift moves designated personnel a nd equipment to forward and spoke operation (see operating locations, an employment concept referred to as a hub tions allow planners to maximi ze the capabilities of each Figure V-1). Hub and spoke opera aircraft type and they provide a safe location for transloading operations by avoiding flights into high-threat or contaminated locations. This is particular ly important for nonmilitary aircraft which typically lack defe nsive countermeasure equipmen t. (a) Hub and spoke operations permit flexible dispersion (to in clude last- minute changes in requirement s) between the various FOBs. (b) Units should consider the required MHE and transportation assets needed to transfer personnel, equipme nt, and cargo from one aircraft t o another. (2) Direct Delivery. Direct delivery involves airl ifting personnel and materiel from ports of embarkation to forward operating locations in the theater. By bypassing typically associated intermediate operating bases and the transshipment of payloads V-13

98 Chapter V poke and Direct Delivery Illustration of Hub and S Employment Concepts APOE POD/FOB A APOD/ POD/FOB A Hub APOD/FOB Legend APOD aerial port of debarkation hub and spoke APOE aerial port of embarkation direct delivery FOB forward operating base Figure V-1. Illustration of Hub a nd Spoke and Direct Delivery with hub and spoke operations (see Figure V-1), direct delivery typically shortens in- transit time and reduces congestion at main operating bases. D irect delivery can use n be airlifted from airland or airdrop delivery methods. For example, personnel ca rdropping them at a CONUS and delivered directly to the theater by airlanding or ai forward operating location. (a) Direct delivery is often the quickest method for delivery of TS cargo. While these operations are more complex, they can significantly reduce the GAMSS footprint by eliminating transshipping operations, reducing the number of diplomatic . Direct delivery is not, clearances required and, in most cases, decreasing closure time however, the best solution for large movements or when there ar e multiple FOBs that must be serviced. and (b) Most direct delivery operations will require an air bridge associated AR support. AR suppo aircraft required to rt will increase the number of accomplish the mission. (3) Stage Operations. Aircraft ranges, crew requirements, and mission practice is also called “lily limitations may dictate the need for intermediate stops. This r JOA may terminate at pad operations” (see Figure V-2). The final leg into the AOR o quire en route support the final destination or at a theater hub. These operations re locations and may place a heavier burden on the GAMSS. JP 3-17 V-14

99 Airlift Illustration of Lily Pad Operations Intermediate Stop  Refuel  New crew Onload Point Offload Point Figure V-2. Illustration of Lily Pad Operations Air bridge operations refer to flights between CONUS and Air Bridge. (4) OCONUS terminals where the recei ed by an in-flight ver aircraft’s range is augment racks (see Figure V-3). refueling on designated AR t f. Planners should also consider the following for airland operati ons: abilities may result in missio n delays and backlog (1) Airfield and aerial port cap cargo at intermediate or theater offload terminals. (2) AR and airlift forces have tion cycles, which finite maintenance and regenera may quickly be exceeded. perate (3) GAMSS forces have limited organic resources and can only o “barebase” terminals for limited time periods. g. For movement planning purposes, airlift aircraft load plann ing considerations are ading or combat-loading. either administrative-lo Illustration of Air Bridge Operations Air Refueling Point Intermediate Stop Bypassed or Minimized Onload Point Offload Point Figure V-3. Illustration of Air Bridge Operations V-15

100 Chapter V (1) Administrative-loading give g airlift assets s primary consideration to usin mes and weight capacities most efficiently. Administrative-loading maximizes use of volu L without regard to ground forc e tactical considerations. of airlift aircraft and their AC Routine air movement is usuall y unopposed and uses secure airfi elds or well-established loading of troops and LZs; the majority of these missions involve the administrative equipment. (2) Combat-loading arranges pers onnel and materiel to arrive a t their intended destination in an order and condition so they are ready for imm ediate use. Combat-loading maximizes the combat readiness of the organizations and equipme nt being moved and stresses effectiveness. Airlift forces can move combat-loaded units to maximize their readiness for immediate combat operations. Given the assumptio n of immediate combat, user requirements should dictat e scheduling and load planning. h. LZ Considerations: (1) The JFC determines the most suitable LZ locations. The se lected sites must meet aircraft operational require ments, ground component requir ements, and construction considerations. (a) If an airfield is to be c onstructed, the supported compone nt engineer, the JFC-designated representative, a nd the USAF staff engineer must agree on its specific site. The supported component engineer controls the selected site unt il the designated airlift representative accepts use of the LZ. is completed. (b) Aircraft may have to use LZ facilities before construction In addition to emergency landing situations, delivery of additi onal construction equipment, emergency supplies, or reinforcing units may be necessary. The supported component construction engineer and the des ignated airlift representative should jointly agree to such use. (c) When established construction requirements have been met a nd the designated airlift representative accepts the LZ, control of th e LZ passes to the airlift mission commander. The JFC staff assigns an appropriate engine er force to repair and maintain the critical landing su rfaces, taxiway, and hardstands . The composition and size ion of the LZ, availability of of the unit will depend on the threat situation, type and locat engineering forces, expect ed LZ use, and weather. (2) Although the senior planning headquarters assigns the gene ral landing area, subordinate units usually designa te specific LZs. Desirable cha racteristics of LZs are ease of identification from the air; suitable airfield capabilities; a straight, unobstructed, and secure approach for aircraft; a nd close proximity to ground obj ectives. Depending upon mission requirements, some LZs may be developed into more sophi sticated facilities. For additional information, see JP 3-34, Joint Engineer Operations. (3) LZs should be classified according to the applicable aircr aft and airfield land facilities should be uction engineer. Essential air criteria furnished by the constr V-16 JP 3-17

101 Airlift provided initially to permit identified before the operation begins. Minimum facilities are Plans and orders should early occupancy and for safe and efficient landing operations. provide for later improvements to increase the efficiency of op erations and safety factors of the facility. (4) Suitability of LZ dimensions vary according to the types o f aircraft involved. Factors considered include air craft ground roll, temperature, f ield elevation, and nature and conditions of the landing surface. Expected maximum takeoff an d landing gross weights, obstructions, and terrain on appro ach and departure must also b e considered. (5) Existing facilities, such as roads and open areas, should be used to reduce the time and effort for new construc tion. Furthermore, airland fac ilities should be dispersed to avoid becoming lucrative targets. HN agencies may be used to i dentify emergency or contingency runways. 5. Airdrop In the various airdrop methods, airlifted personnel and materie l are deployed from aircraft still in flight. Air drop of forces, equipment, and/or supplies support the joint functions movement and ma neuver, and sustainment. a. Airdrop is often militarily advantageous. (1) It permits sustainment deliveries to units operating away from airfields and LZs. (2) It permits the delivery of c centrated and in ombat forces and materiel, con mass, in minimum space and time (often with the element of surp rise). riel in conditions of (3) It may allow airlift aircraft to deploy personnel and mate ise preclude ai rland operation s. poor visibility that would otherw (4) Medium-/high-altitude airdr op methods enable aircraft to r emain above some low-altitude threats. (5) It permits criti rcraft into a cal cargo delivery by an uncontaminated ai contaminated LZ or airfield. (6) It may require SEAD escort operations, which will require reallocation of CAF assets. b. In relation to airland deliver y, airdrop delivery has sever al disadvantages. (1) It carries an increased r isk of injury to personnel or dam age to cargo. (2) It requires special traini ng for the riggers, transported personnel, and the aircrews. V-17

102 Chapter V (3) It can limit ACL utilizati special rigging on substantially because of the required for airdropped materiel. (4) It requires more mission planning time due to the complexi ty of airdrop operations. (5) If employed by a large formation, it represents an operati onal-level risk. n the loss of two critical Detection and successful attack by the adversary could result i e unit and/or materiel being ca rried. Accordingl y, the decision assets: the airlift force and th to use the airdrop method is pre dicated on determining if a use r’s requirements justify the risk to, and expenditure of, s carce and costly airdrop resource s. (6) It is less precise than with airland delivery and carries greater potential for unplanned dispersion. c. Responsibilities. The JFC makes the decision to continue, cancel, or postpone airdrop operations based on the recommendations of the ground a nd air CCs. The airborne force commander and airlift missi on commander should coordinate with each other throughout the aerial deliver y planning and mission execution o n matters such as: (1) Flight routing to/from the objective area to include re-at tack options. (2) DZ size and geographic rela tionship to the initial objecti ve. (3) Terrain conditions on the DZ that could cause an unaccepta ble number of injuries, excessive equipment da nt delays. mage or loss, or other deployme (4) Routes to the DZ, terrain obstructions, ease of zone ident ification, and adversary defenses. (5) Earliest possible collabora tion on intelligence matters, t o include requirements for intelligence data, information, and geospatial products. (6) Identification of MC car go and a “go or no-go” decision po int. d. The airlift mission commande r should also coordinate with t he supported force commander before determining the tactics to employ. Many facto rs influence this decision, including the size of DZs, surr al scheme of maneuver, ounding terrain features, tactic enemy air defenses, and en rout e and objective area weather. e. C2. Clear C2 authorities are essen tial. The airdrop system should be designed to be responsive in supporting requirements. Airdrop resupply is a joint action between the USAF component and the compone nt being supported. Supported co mponents are responsible for providing requi red supplies, rigging them for a irdrop, and delivering them to the departure airfield. The supported component is also res ponsible for loading the rsonnel. ision of USAF pe supplies onto the airdrop aircr aft under superv V-18 JP 3-17

103 Airlift supply have responsibilities to accomplish both (1) Units requesting airdrop re before and after submission of airdrop requests. Before submit ting requests, units should determine: (a) Supplies and equipment needed, (b) Location of DZ, and (c) Time and date airdrop is desired. (2) After airdrop request s are submitted, units: (a) Prepare and secure the DZ. el may (b) Control the DZ in the absence of a USAF STT. DZST personn operate DZs under visual meteorological conditions and instrume nt meteorological y) for a single aircraft and conditions (peacetime training based upon equipment availabilit uding three aircraft). formations up to and incl (c) Recover airdropped supplies and equipment. (d) Recover, retrograde, o r destroy airdrop equipment. f. Airdrop Methods. Airdrop is an alternate to air land for delivering personnel, equipment, and supplies. The type of airdrop (low or medium-hi gh altitude, low velocity drop, high velocity drop, free drop, single aircraft, or multi- aircraft) depends on the threat, the required payload, the accuracy required, and whether mass i s required on the DZ. Units requesting airdrop should request a capability. The supporting command should task the should determine the appropria appropriate asset and tacticians te method of airdrop. (1) Personnel Airdrop. Personnel airdrops use static line or free fall procedures. ing aircraft at altitudes below In general, static line airdrops occur from fixed-wing/rotary-w and are often used to minim ize paratroopers’ 1,500 feet above ground level (AGL) free all airdrops normally exposure to ground threats while under the canopy. Conversely, occur above 5000 feet AGL. Speci igh-altitude low- alized free fall procedures (h opening/high-altitude high-opening) may be used to insert perso nnel as part of a clandestine operation. For additional information, see applicable Service manuals and directives (i.e., FM 3- 21.220, Static Line Parachuting Techniques and Training, and Army Techniques Publication 3-18.11, Special Forces Military F ree-Fall Operations). (2) Heavy-Equipment Airdrop. Heavy equipment loads consist of vehicles, equipment, or supplies rigged for airdrop on Type V platforms w hich are extracted singularly or sequentially by extraction parachutes. (3) CDS Airdrop. A CDS airdrop is a gravity assisted airdrop utilizing A-22 rigging varieties for CDS: containers rigged to different parachutes. There are two basic V-19

104 Chapter V CDS (using low rate of fall chutes) and high-velocity container delivery system (HVCDS) terial and contain supplies in which the loads are cushioned with extra energy absorbing ma is the low-cost aerial that can withstand high-velocity impact. A subset of the HVCDS delivery system (LCADS) which use s one-time-use, low-cost parac hutes to deploy materiel. Extracted Container Delivery System (XCDS). XCDS airdrop (a) the aircraft ramp and door at very-low altitudes via an deploys standard CDS bundles from extraction chute. XCDS provides a circular error (CE) within 1 00 meters while enabling a higher-density/smaller-disper sal footprint on the DZ. (b) Low-Cost, Low-Altitude. Low-cost, low-altitude airdrop is an aerial delivery system consisting of low -weight airdrop bundles deploy ed from the aircraft ramp and door at very-low altitudes, enabling CE accuracy within 100 meters. This airdrop is appropriate for employment with in or near a FOB or close to tro ops. (4) Improved Container Delivery System (ICDS) Airdrop. An ICDS airdrop uses standard A-22 containers (up to 10,000 pounds in weight) r igged with various types of parachutes. The improved aspect is achieved by using joint precision airdrop system (JPADS) software to leverage 557th Weather Wing wind data and d ropsonde (an expendable weather reconnaissance device designed to be dropped from an aircraft at altitude to measure atmospheri c conditions as it falls to the s urface) GPS telemetry data to calculate a more accurate ballistic wind and a more refined rel ease point. The resultant effect is potential increased drop accuracy from low- and high- altitude airdrops (chute-type dependent) operations, in day/ni ght/instrument meteorological c onditions/visual r to conventional CDS, ICDS m ay be rigged as CDS or meteorological conditions. Simila HVCDS, or LCADS. LCADS offers t on benefits of ICDS, he accuracy and threat mitigati while also mitigating the equipment retrograde requirement thro ugh the use of one-time- use chutes. (5) JPADS. JPADS is a family of GPS-gui ded, self-maneuvering systems. T he overall basic system consists of a common mission planner, an a irborne guidance unit, and multiple steerable parachute/parafoil systems. Certain systems require dropsonde employment. Flight profiles can vary significantly with system type utilized. Airspace deconfliction is a critical JPADS employment operations plannin g factor. While JPADS is not a universal airdrop solution, it is the preferred method for high-altitude drops over difficult terrain where limiting the exposure of ground troops to enemy fire and minimizing risk to aircraft and aircr ews are at a premium. (6) Free Fall Airdrop. Free fall airdrop involves dropping small items such as packaged meals or unbreakable obje cts like hay bales without th e use of a parachute. (a) Leaflet Airdrop. Leaflets are used in support of military information support operations. The required leaflet dispersion pattern is based on leaflet size, paper weight utilized, target/coverage area size, and wind speed. Th ese factors impact drop altitude and possible run-in hea dings. An accurate weather for ecast is the single most important requirement. V-20 JP 3-17

105 Airlift Container delivery system bundles departing a C-17 during an airdrop mission. Tri-wall Aerial Distribution System Airdrop. Tri-wall Aerial (b) an daily rations during Distribution System is used to airdrop containers of humanitari es with boxes rigged to humanitarian airdrop operations. It uses standard CDS procedur destruct at the end of a static line as they exit the aircraft, causing their contents to be dispersed into the air. Like leaflet drops, target/coverage ar ea size is a factor when determining drop altitude. g. DZ Considerations. DZ size and selection are the shared responsibility of the ped, method of delivery, supporting and supported JFCs and depend on the load being drop dispersal pattern, and the level of risk the JFC is willing to accept. A physical survey, accomplished by a qualified surveyor, and a safety-of-flight re view are required before a for DZ establishment, DZ can be approved for use. The supported force is responsible operation, safety, and elimination or acceptance of ground haza rds associated with the DZ. esponsible for the safety-of- The airlift mission commander is r flight review. (1) DZ Types. There are several different type s of DZs that can be tailored t o specific operations and locations. Rectangular. DZs are normally rectangular due to the longer length (a) n-ins from opposite requirements. These DZs have one axis of flight that permit ru directions. (b) Area. An area DZ, illustrated in Figure V-4, consists of a start po int (point A), an end point (point B), and a prearranged flight pat h (line of flight) over a series of acceptable drop sites between these points. V-21

106 Chapter V Area Drop Zone cceptable A Drop Sites Point A + A i r c r a f t L i n e o f F l i g h t Point B Figure V-4. Area Drop Zone A circular DZ, shown in Figure V-5, has multiple run-in (c) Circular. able terrain govern its headings and is inherently random. Mission requirements and us equired distance from the size. The radius of a circular DZ corresponds to the minimum r gular DZ for the same type point of impact to one of the tr ailing edge corners of a rectan DZ box fits inside the circle. and number of loads being dropped. In other words, the entire Water DZs and JPADS DZs are normally circular in shape. (2) Airdrop Considerations. A wide variety of factors determine the conduct of airdrop operations. The JFC, based on recommendations by the ground and air DZ Wind. (a) CCs, may accept the high risk, cancel, or postpone the operatio n because of excessive wind velocity on the DZ. (b) Drop Altitudes. Minimum altitudes for airdrop operations are based on the operational requirements of the personnel and cargo airdrop systems used. In a high- risk, high-threat environment, survivability of airlift aircraf t may require dropping parachutists and equipment at the lowest possible altitude. Ho wever, if the threat situation permits, aircraft performing normal low-altitude, low-velocity drop operations should drop above the minimum altitude to increase load survivability. The JFC determines the general area for the (c) DZ Size and Selection. uencing DZ selection are: airborne operation. Factors infl V-22 JP 3-17

107 Airlift Circular Drop Zone Aircraft Line of Flight Point of Impact Trailing Edge Drop Zo n e Radiu s Figure V-5. Circular Drop Zone vailable DZs and surrounding a 1. Physical characteristics of a reas, 2. Threat assessment, 3. Method of air delivery, 4. Number of airdrop loads or personnel, and 5. Length of the desirabl e dispersion pattern. 6. Planning Considerations for Airborne Assaults and Follow-on Airland Operations Planning airlift operations is a complicated process involving a. a few basic principles and numerous interdependent considerations. Service components must facilitate their airlift movement process. This responsibility includes performing and arranging to: (1) Bring units and materiel to departure terminals; (2) Prepare those resources for air movement; ther appropriate (3) Provide support services (meals, medical, billeting, and o services) to transient and arriving units; V-23

108 Chapter V (4) Receive and transport units a inals; and nd materiel from arrival term ated to the actual (5) Prepare all manifests, movement documents, and reports rel movement. For additional information on airborne assaults and follow-on land operations, see JP 3- 18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations. expeditiously, with b. The purpose of these actions is to move component resources e actions. minimum expenditure of resources and minimum exposure to hostil Responsibility for controlling movements does not equate to com mand authority over airlift forces. Studies, concepts, and OPLANs for employment of forces are prep ared to cover possible missions and loca tions. Detailed planning for s pecific operations is performed by the participating component commands and subordina te commands; to enhance efficiency, all participants should make maximum use of existing plans. c. Consider these principles when planning for airlift movements: (1) Minimize movement congesti on and vulnerabili ty by reducing the time units and materiel spend en masse at fo rward terminals and synchroniz e the positioning of units and material with airlift capability. (2) Maximize the productivity and survivability of airlift air craft by minimizing aircraft ground times at forward locations. or air shipment, (3) Minimize sortie requirement s by repackaging all materiel f ensuring combat personnel travel with their maximum authorized individual loads of rations, ammunition, or other per sonal protective equipment and splitting units into air- essential and surface movement echelons (whenever possible). (4) Ensure personnel are adequa tely fed, rested, and protected at en route stops. (5) Deploy personnel and communications equipment necessary to track and report on all air movements. d. Different missions will require the use of different airlif t assets. The Services possess a variety of fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms capab le of performing the air mobility role. (1) The main advantage of fixed -wing aircraft over ground surf ace transportation modes is that they combine speed n aircraft type) and the (250 to 500 knots, depending o ability to carry substantial to v ery large cargo capacities (7 to over 100 tons, also depending on aircraft type). This provides the capability to quickly mov e large amounts of personnel and materiel over greater dista nces. Airlift can also be emplo yed to reduce the need for ground convoy operations that are vu lnerable to enemy attack. The combination of their speed and tactics also enhances t heir survivability, while thei r range generally allows them to be based in relatively secure and logistically easier-to-sup port rear areas. The main their flexibility, and their disadvantages are their terminal requirements, which can limit JP 3-17 V-24

109 Airlift bility to ground and air size and limited maneuverability, which increases their vulnera re particularly pronounced for th e larger transports. Under attack. These disadvantages a most circumstances, smaller transports, such as the C-130, are usually suited to a sustained uited for the intertheater airlift intratheater airlift role, and the larger transports are best s role. (2) In a CBRN-contaminated environment, plan to avoid contamin ating air mobility aircraft, thus preserving limited assets for future us e. Avoid airland operations into contaminated airfields by airdropping critical supplies an d equipment or shifting deliveries to uncontaminated airfi elds (consider use of austere LZs such as highway landing strips and dirt and/or gravel LZ construction). (3) The Services and US Special Operations Command also operat e rotary-wing and tiltrotor aircraft, such as the UH-1, H-60, V-22, CV-22, CH -46, CH-47, and CH-53, which possess intrinsic intratheater airlift capabilities. Rot ary-wing and tiltrotor aircraft can be useful for intratheater pu rposes for the following reaso ns: (a) Their ability to operate at smaller, undeveloped LZs incre ases their flexibility and often reduces ground -transit times for their lo ads. (b) Their ability to transport personnel and materiel to and f rom forward- xpeditionary flexibility. deployed ships increases e (c) Their terrain-hugging flight rvivability in capabilities enhance their su certain threat situations. (d) Their ability to sling-loa d some types of materiel allows them to pick up and deliver loads with minim al ground-handling delays. ed-wing aircraft, the inherent aerodynamic (4) However, in relation to fix and range capabilities. In inefficiencies of rotary-wing aircraft sharply restrict payload addition, their mechanical chara cteristics give them a high rat io of support-man-hours to flight-hours. Consequen tly, rotary-winged assets: ustained airlift operations bey ond about 50-100 (a) Usually are not suited to s nautical miles from a refueling point. tenance hours per hour of flight time. (b) Usually require more main (c) Usually are based at LZs not well suited to large-scale, s ustained, fixed- wing airlift operations. (5) For these reasons, airlift- capable rotary-wing and tiltrot or assets are normally assigned as organic combat and combat support elements to surfa ce combat organizations. Thus, in deciding to use the capab ilities of any organic rotary -wing assets to support the intratheater airlift effort, the JFC should consider their vita l importance to their assigned organizations, as well as their utility to specific airlift mis sions. Intratheater airlift could include large requirements that might best be filled by rotary-wing aircraft V-25

110 Chapter V requirement, short-distance operations, such as resupplying shi ps at sea and unloading als, or routine small-payload operations to sites not ships at undeveloped water termin collocated with LZs, such as dail y courier flights to deployed air defense units. V-26 JP 3-17

111 CHAPTER VI AIR REFUELING “I had to fly nine sorties on the day the St. Mihiel offensive started... We all wished we could refuel somehow without having to return to our bases just when the action got interesting.” Lieutenant John Richter, US Army Air Service Pilot in World War I 1. General nd the world with less dly reach any trouble spot arou a. AR allows air assets to rapi dependence on forward staging bases. Furthermore, AR significa ntly expands the force ad, loiter time, and by increasing the range, paylo options available to a commander flexibility of other aircraft. s of aircraft may be b. Because AR increases the range of other aircraft, many type t. AR allows some aircraft based at locations well outside the range of an adversary threa ard-deploy. Operations to participate in contingency operations without having to forw theater logistics based from CONUS or established main operating bases reduce the requirements, thereby simplifying sustainment efforts. Positio ning forces outside the portion of comba t assets to co ncentrate on offensive rather threat’s reach permits a greater lt of the reduced need to forw than defensive action. As a resu ard-deploy forces, AR reduces force protection requirements as well. es, carry larger takeoff c. AR permits aircraft to operate beyond their unrefueled rang ir payload, the combat payloads, and extends operational endurance. By maximizing the potential of receiver aircraft is significantly increased. d. Although other Services and nations maintain some organic A R capability, the USAF possesses the overwhelming preponderance of common-user AR assets. With boom st USAF, USN, and USMC and drogue capability, these assets are capable of refueling mo aircraft and can accommodate most foreign aircraft. he most efficient means r by another and is t the AR of one tanke e. Force extension is aircraft. This capability to provide deployment support, given a limited number of tanker can be used whenever the fuel requirements of the escorting tan ker and its receivers exceed ted by the amount of payload the tanker’s takeoff fuel capacity. Since takeoff fuel is limi l tankers are refuelable. All carried, dual-role tankers may require force extension. Not al and therefore can be KC-10s and a small number of KC-135s are equipped as receivers e, force extension missions sh ould be planned along air force extended. Whenever possibl bridge routes to use tankers supporting air bridge movements. form a bulk cargo role to augme f. USAF tanker aircraft may per nt core airlift assets. ation of passengers and Under the dual-role concept, AR aircraft can transport a combin re efficient to employ cargo while performing AR. In some circumstances, it may be mo y be tasked to use their organic AR aircraft strictly in an airlift role. Deploying AR units ma VI-1

112 Chapter VI assengers and cargo from capacity to transport unit personnel and support equipment or p other units. AR aircraft may als o be used to support airlift r equirements such as routine channel operations or SAAMs. g. Components of the AR Force. The majority of the USAF’s AR asse ts are assigned to USAF Reserve and ANG units. (1) Active Duty Forces. Similar to airlift forces, CDRUSTRANSCOM has COCOM of most CONUS-based active duty AR forces and delegates O PCON to AMC/CC who further delegates OPCON to 18 AF/CC. Similarly, theater-as signed AR forces come under COCOM of their GCC (e.g., Commander, USEUCOM, or Commande r, USINDOPACOM) and under OPCON of the theater COMAFFOR (e.g., USA Fs in Europe or Pacific numbered air forces). These forces perform core and specialized AR missions and are readily available for tas king and deployment. In addit ion to the USAF, the USN and USMC possess some organic AR resources, which may also augm ent joint AR operations. (2) Air Force Reserve and ANG Forces. During crises, vol unteers or activated AFRC and/or ANG units augment the active duty AR force, providi ng substantial increases in AR capacity. AFRC and ANG personnel train to the same stand ards as the active duty AR force. Peacetime access to AFRC and ANG forces is provided through a system of volunteerism or mobilization authorization for non-wartime even ts such as defense support ies, however, normally of civil authorities and preplanned missions. Major contingenc require activation of AFRC and/or ANG units. 2. Air Refueling Operations AR’s contribution to air operations is based on the force enabl ing and force range, payload, and endurance provided to refueled multiplying effects of increased aircraft. AR forces conduct both AR operations. intertheater and intratheater a. Intertheater AR. Intertheater AR supports the long-range movement of combat and combat support aircraft between theaters. Intertheater AR operations also support global strike missions and airlif t assets in an air bridge. AR enables deploying aircraft to fly nonstop to their destinati on, reducing clo sure time. b. Intratheater AR. Intratheater AR supports operations within a GCC’s AOR by extending the range, payload, and endurance of combat and comba t support assets. Both theater-assigned and USTRANSCOM-a ssigned AR aircraft can perfor m these operations. ces participate in these operati ons, they are When USTRANSCOM-assigned AR for exercises OPCON over these fo rces through the typically attached to the GCC who COMAFFOR. Although the primary purpose is to refuel CAF operat ing within the theater, consideration should be given to the best utilization of the ta nker aircraft fleet to meet the President’s and SecD ef’s objectives. c. Anchor Areas and AR Tracks. While AR is normally conducted in friendly airspace, missions may require operations over hostile territor y and in contested airspace. rable position and should Anchor areas and tracks may place tankers in an extremely vulne VI-2 JP 3-17

113 Air Refueling mmand’s area of responsibility refuel almost Air refueling missions in United States Central Co 74,000 aircraft per year. r hostile territory should be be limited to friendly airspace when possible. AR missions ove ast regional air superiority conducted only after careful risk considerations and when at le is achieved. in defined airspace r flies a racetrack pattern with (1) In anchor areas, the tanke while waiting for receiver aircraft to arrive. Once joined wit h the receiver, the tanker then flies in an expanded racetrack p Anchor AR is iver. attern while refueling the rece normally used for intratheater operations where airspace is con fined or where receivers operate in a central location. Anchor areas are best suited for small, highly s. maneuverable aircraft, especially in marginal weather condition track or precoordinated series of navigation points, (2) An AR track is a published which can be located anywhere throughout the world. To maximiz e effectiveness, AR ight. However, AR track tracks will normally be placed along the receiver’s route of fl g to develop an integrated location(s) must be balanced with tanker availability and basin ts overall. AR along an AR plan making the best use of limited receiver and tanker asse AR track is the preferred met hod for intertheater operations. (3) The tanker RV can be accomplished in multiple ways. see North Atlantic Treaty Organization For more information about RV procedures, (NATO) Standard Allied Tac tical Publication (ATP)-, Air-to-Air Refueling. d. Tanker Formation Refueling. Many missions require tankers to refuel their irements may dictate several receivers while in a multiple-aircraft formation. Mission requ and/or drogue equipped) and mu ltiple receiver types (from different types of tankers (boom a variety of nations) in the same formation. Formation refueli ng is one of the most VI-3

114 Chapter VI demanding operations due to the nu d block of airspace and mber of aircraft in a confine the formation. It also because receiver aircraft may be constantly joining and leaving t amount of coordination to brings in additional planning factors and requires a significan ensure smooth, safe execution of the mission. e. Joint and Multinational Operations. Joint and multinational operations require to AR. When working with teamwork, unity of effort, and principles that are fundamental s in capabilities , procedures, other Services and nations, there is a potential for difference and terminology, which may cause misunderstandings and confusio n. Such operations therefore require a standard set of tactics, terminology, and p rocedures. (1) For example, NATO Standard ATP-, Air-to-Air Refueling, standardizes operating procedur es and enhances interoperability among NATO member ll depend on aircraft type, nations possessing AR assets. While the detailed procedures wi mode of employment, and national requirements, many allies shou ld be able to achieve sufficient commonality so that a combined set of procedures can be developed. Commanders of a multinational force should agree as soon as pos sible on a common set of doctrine, tactics, and procedures f or particular operations. (2) In addition, airspace may be a primary limitation to AR op erations. Standardizing multinational cell formation procedures allows a variety of AR assets to operate in compressed airspace. This is particularly important when large numbers of tankers may be refueling multiple receivers or formations of re ceivers. To generate the capabilities must be maximum combat power in multinational operations, all military integrated to the fullest extent. Multinational exercises are a key component to common as often as feasible to foster doctrine and interoperability. These exercises should be used a common understanding. The doc trine and procedures establishe d by the multinational commander will provide additional flexibility, deployability, a nd sustainability in multinational air operations. 3. Air Refueling Missions The Basic Missions of AR. AR is a critical force multiplier across the full range of global and theater employment scenarios. Tankers directly enha nce the operational flexibility of US and allied/coalition strike, support, and sur veillance aircraft. AR missions represent the broad, f undamental, and contin uing activities of the AR system. In the same the nearly unlimited flight endurance provided by tanker assets manner, is an indispensable component of the US strategic airborne command po It st concept. provides the President and SecDef the ability to continue to di rect military action from an airborne platform—regardl ess of the situation. a. Global Strike Support. AR assets are a critical enabler for global strike operations (conventional or nuclear). For e xample, AR significantly incre ases the range and endurance of bomber aircraft, directly enhancing their flexibil ity to strike at distant targets and maximizing their operational utility for warfighter mission requirements. Tanker availability can also be critical to overall mission success th rough support of a wide variety n, AR can mitigate ueling requirements. In additio of support package aircraft ref VI-4 JP 3-17

115 Air Refueling upport aircraft by decreasing r eliance on OCONUS/forward operational risk for strike or s basing locations. AR is key to US ability to rapidly strike ta rgets in distant locations and recover to safe areas. The ability to perform long-range strik e missions from CONUS is particularly crucial. b. Air Bridge Support. An air bridge creates an ALOC linking CONUS and a theater or any two theaters. AR makes possible accelerated air bridge operations since en route refueling stops for receivers are reduced or eliminated. It re duces reliance on forward and enables airlift assets staging bases, minimizes potential en route maintenance delays, to maximize their payloads. This significantly increases the e fficiency of airlift operations by making possible the direct de livery of personnel and materie l. Aircraft Deployment Support. c. AR assets can extend the range of deploying combat and combat support aircra p to an AOR or JOA. This ft, allowing them to fly nonsto and allows a rapid capability increases the deterrent effect of CONUS-based forces capability of air assets to f ly nonstop to a theater may response to regional crises. The eliminate the need to obtain land ing or overflight rights from foreign countries that may in a given conflict want to remain neutral on of the USAF’s aerospace . Successful executi expeditionary force concept, for e xample, is heavily dependent on the capabilities rendered through deployment support. Coronets normally have long lead t imes for planning, tasking, and execution. Planners should use this time to maxim ize the overall efficiency of the movement for both receivers and tankers, while rememberi ng their purpose is safe and effective movement of the receivers. d. Intratheater AR enables fighter aircraft to increase their Theater Support to CAF. y. During a combat operation, range, endurance, and flexibilit the highest priority for intratheater AR forces is normally supporting combat and combat support aircraft executing air operations. This is especially true during the i nitial phases of a conflict. Theater-based AR assets bolster the security of combat and comb at support air assets by the range of adversary threats allowing them to be based beyond . Extending endurance reduces the number of sorties required, decreases ground suppor t requirements at forward locations, and may reduce the num ber of aircraft deployed to an AOR. (1) AR allows combat aircraft t o carry a larger payload on ini tial takeoff by decreasing the amount of fuel carried in its tanks. Fuel neces sary for mission range requirements is onloaded after ta keoff on either pre-strike or post-strike refuelings. The ombat force and combat ability to increase an aircraft’s weapons load multiplies the c efficiency of that aircraft. ED FORCE have highlighted the importance (2) OEF, OIF, and Operation ALLI of airspace required for AR, especially during combat support m issions. A lack of AR airspace can limit the amount of combat and combat support sort ies the JFACC is able to schedule and execute. Airspace planning for these operations i ncludes sufficient allowances for ingress/egress of both receivers and tankers and allow deconflicting aircraft operating at significantly different speeds. Experience in OEF and OIF shows that without sufficient airspace deconfliction, the greatest threat to frien dly forces can be from mid-air collisions with our own forces. VI-5

116 Chapter VI (3) Tankers allocated for thea o provide AR ter support may be called upon t director, the DIRMOBFOR support to air bridge operations. In conjunction with the JAOC equirements for, tankers must coordinate with the COMAFFOR on the capabilities of, and r assigned or attached to the theater to determine their ability to provide air bridge support. The COMAFFOR will determine air bridge support using GCC-assign ed and attached mpact the theater’s forces based on the JFC’s guidance, as doing so may adversely i r bridge cannot be fully operation/campaign, as well as impact logistics support. If ai supported by theater-assigned/attached forces, the DIRMOBFOR wi ll coordinate with USTRANSCOM for air bridge suppor t using USTRANSCOM forces. e. Special Operations Support. AR enables SOF to maintain a long-range operating capability. The USAF maintains AR crews who are trained to air refuel fixed-wing, rotary- wing, and tiltrotor special operations aircraft. Successful mi ssion completion requires special equipment, specialize d crew training, and modified oper ational procedures. f. Other Associated AR Missions. Additional taskings for AR aircraft include emergency AR, airlift, AE, and personnel recovery (PR). (1) Emergency AR. Some AR aircraft may be kept on ground or airborne alert to provide short-notice support for airborne fuel emergencies. Fuel emergencies can result from missed refuelings, en route winds greater than planned, ba ttle damage, or excessive time engaged with adversary or ene my aircraft or targets. Whil e dedicated ground alert aircraft sometimes meet emergency AR requirements, excess fuel capacity of airborne tankers is another method of providing emergency AR capability. Putting more fuel in a ering fuel,” gives that tanker than is required to complete the mission, known as “tank bility. aircraft an automatic, though limited, emergency refueling capa Intertheater Operations. OPCON of intertheater AR will typically be (a) delegated to 18 AF/CC with C2 provided by the 618 AOC (TACC). Whenever possible, lanned either over, or in clos intertheater missions should be p e proximity to, existing air bridge routes. This allows tanke rs positioned for air bridge s upport to also provide emergency AR support. When intertheater missions cannot be pla nned along air bridge routes and the mission is deemed important enough to provide em ergency AR support, planners should use a combinati on of ground and airborne spare aircraft. Ground spare aircraft are maintained in various stages of readiness dependin g on mission requirements. Airborne spare aircraft consist of one or more tankers that acc ompany the AR formation but do not participate in any ARs unless required to do so. No matter which option is used, the concepts must be adequately delineated in mission directive s so tankers, receivers, and participating C2 elements are thoroughly familiar with procedur es to be used in a fuel emergency. (b) Intratheater Operations. The dynamic environment and quick tempo of intratheater operations provide a greater need for emergency AR support. The shorter distances involved and the larger number of available assets ma kes providing emergency AR support much easier to accomplish. The preferred method of providing emergency on of ground and airborne aircraf t. support is through a combinati VI-6 JP 3-17

117 Air Refueling h the 1. Ground alert aircraft and crews primarily provide units wit capability to meet mission requirements when fuel emergencies o ccur due to battle damage argets. The best tanker dversary or enemy aircraft or t or excessive time engaged with a are those capable of quick res ponse times, high cruise aircraft for ground alert duties speeds, and a takeoff fuel load large enough to accommodate all offloads. Ideally, ground spare aircraft should be capable of refueling drogue and boom t ype refueling on the same round alert, configured for mission. Otherwise, units must maintain separate aircraft on g each type of refueling. Ground alert tankers and crews can be dedicated solely to that function. 2. Refuelers are normally based w ell away from tactical operat ions areas n area in a timely manner for safety reasons. Ground spares might not be able to reach a r receivers miss scheduled should tasked tankers not be able to provide adequate offload o operate in a given area with n refuelings. Reliability tankers o scheduled receivers and act as flying spares. Because of the cascading effects of the loss of AR, reliability tankers should be used when assets are available. If a reliability tan ker can also accept fuel, the capability is leveraged through extended endurance. Airlift. Refueling platforms may act as augmentation to airlift. This (2) airlift requirements are capability is most important during deployment operations when highest and requirements for th eater support refuelings are the lowest. During contingencies, commanders should continually evaluate tanker al locations to airlift missions, weighing the loss of a ssets from traditional tanker m issions against the benefits n must consider the objectives gained by a larger, augmented airlift capacity. This evaluatio of the entire joint operati on or campaign and not just those of the USAF component. ole occurs during (a) Another key application of t anker aircraft in an airlift r tanker unit movements. Tanker units deploying to a theater or en route location will typically airlift their own s upport requirements under the inte gral tanker unit deployment sonnel on hand as soon as concept. This allows tanker units to have key supplies and per transportation system of at least they arrive at their deployed location, and it relieves the air a portion of their requirements. (b) Dual-Role Tanker. Accomplishing airlift and AR on the same mission (dual-role operations) maximizes the full capabilities of tanke r aircraft. Dual-role may be as simple as carrying opportune cargo or passengers on a routine operations nit move. On Coronet intertheater AR mission, or it may be as complex as a fighter u missions, tankers carry a unit’s personnel and equipment while escorting its fighters to a deployed location. Upon arrival, the tankers download their ca rgo and passengers who may immediately reconstitute and launch the deployed fighters. This allows arriving aircraft to be ready for follow-on missions quickly, simplifyin g required coordination for airlift support of deployments a nd reducing the number of dedic ated airlift aircraft required to support an operation. (3) AE. KC-135 and KC-10 tankers can be u sed for AE when crewed by a fully d for use on the aircraft. qualified and current AE crew us ing AE equipment tested/modifie VI-7

118 Chapter VI (4) Tanker aircraft provide a lim ited capability to assist PR ope rations as a PR. link between airborne and groun communications and coordination d-based elements. This capability derives from the tanker’s long endurance characteris tics and organic case of a downed fighter, the wingman will attempt to communications equipment. In the remain on scene to ascertain the downed crewmen’s status and pr ovide protection until PR forces arrive. During this process, the tanker will normally r emain at altitude, relaying information where communications connectivity is easiest, and w ill refuel on scene forces as required. During Operation A LLIED FORCE, KC-135s were diver ted to the scene of a downed airman. Once on the scene, tankers refueled two A-10 ai rcraft that were providing close air support for the rescue effort, AWACS aircraft providi ng C2 for the operation, and combat search and rescue aircra ft affecting the rescue. Refer to JP 3-50, Personnel Recovery, for further information on PR. 4. Planning Air Refueling Operations a. While many considerations for air mobility forces are the s ame for airlift and AR assets, there are some specific considerations unique to tanker operations. These include the following: (1) Boom Versus Drogue. If planned operations will include a significant number of receivers requiring drogue-type refueling intermixed with receivers requiring hould consider using tankers cap able of both types of boom-type refueling, planners s refueling on the same mission. Total Offload Versus Booms in the Air. Planners must consider whether (2) planned operations will emphasize total offload capability for only a few receivers or a rapid refueling capability for multiple receivers. If total of fload capability is more important (such as for large aircraft), fewer numbers of tanker s with larger fuel loads should be planned. If the mission emphasis is on frequent, rap id refuelings to multiple receivers (such as multiple fighter strike packages), it is mor e effective to use a larger number of tankers maximizing the number of available “booms in the air.” b. Daily Allocation. At the operational level, force allocation consists of translat ing the JFC’s air apportionment decisions into total number of AR s orties, by aircraft type, available for each operation or task. AR assets are matched ag ainst receivers in the ATO based on the JFC’s air apportionment guidance but tempered by c hanging conditions. At this level, the most important decisions are those that place t anker aircraft types against receiver requirements, while opt imizing the use of those assets . c. AR capability can be increase d without increasing the numbe r or size of tanker aircraft by carefully matching ta nker aircraft types against re ceiver mission requirements. This involves greater use of refuelable reliability tankers, as signing individual tankers to multiple receivers or receiver packages, and ensuring receiver AR requests accurately reflect their mission requirements. The considerations for dai ly allocation decisions are much the same as for contingency allocations as discussed above . When developing daily JP 3-17 VI-8

119 Air Refueling rements, emphasis on AR allocations, planners must consider boom versus drogue requi total offload versus booms in the air, and SOF requirements. Many countries have specific restrictions on AR operations Airspace and ATC. d. aware of potential conducted within their sovereign airspace. Planners need to be restrictions. e. Altitude Reservation (ALTRV). Most intertheater AR operations require an es of the ALTRV to reserve AR airspace. ALTRVs must be submitted IAW rul International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in internation al airspace and must be airspace. Planners submitted IAW ICAO and HN rules when conducted over territorial perations. ALTRVs do must ensure ALTRV approval is received prior to conducting AR o earances or to file flight not relieve aircrews of the requirement to obtain diplomatic cl plans. f. AR Airspace. Most intratheater AR is conducte d in airspace specifically designated for AR. For peacetime operations, AR airspace is pu blished in flight information publications with boundaries, altitudes, and commun ications frequencies agreed to by the ATC authorities. During a contingency, AR air space close to the adversary will change frequently, and its altitudes and communications fr equencies will be classified ill also change in response to avoid predictability. Routi ng to and from the AR airspace w to changes in air operations a nd threats to friendly forces. Communications Capabilities and Emissions Control. g. AR operations are highly dependent on both air-to-air and air-to-ground communications. Throughout AR ivers, AWACS controllers, operations, tankers must be able to communicate with their rece a listening watch on local ATC, and other tankers in formation and maintain at least designated high frequency channe ls. Mission requirements norma lly dictate that tankers maintain positive contact on most all of these frequencies simu ltaneously. Combat or politically sensitive missions may require both the tanker and receiver to exercise emission control (EMCON) procedures. These procedures minimize an aircr aft’s transmission of electronic signals (communication and navigation) to reduce the amount of information other forces can gather. Use of EMCON entails bringing two air craft together, in the same airspace with an intentionally degraded communication and navig ation capability. To be successful in refueling under EMCON conditions, standardized pr ocedures must be developed between tanker and receiver(s). The procedures must be regularly exercised by both tanker and receiver aircrews, and they must be thoroughly briefed on the procedures to be used prior to each mission. VI-9

120 Chapter VI Intentionally Blank VI-10 JP 3-17

121 APPENDIX A POINTS OF CONTACT Joint Staff/J-7/Joint Doctrine Division Website: Phone number: 1-703-692-7273 (DSN 222) Joint Staff Doctrine Sponsor/J-4 Joint Air Mobility Distribution Branch Lead Agent/United States Trans portation Command (USTRANSCOM) Policy and Doctrine Division (TCJ4-P) E-mail Support: [email protected] Phone Number: 1-618-220-4764 (DSN 770) Technical Review Authority (TRA) /United States Special Operatio ns Command (USSOCOM)/J7-CDI-J Joint Civil Affairs Propone nt: Phone: 813-826-2319 (DSN 299) TRA/United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) Phone number: 1-910-432-1654/8253/1548 A-1

122 Appendix A Intentionally Blank A-2 JP 3-17

123 APPENDIX B REFERENCES The development of JP 3-17 is based upon the following primary references. 1. General rective Number 280, 24 June 19 87, National Airlift a. National Security Decision Di Policy. b. Executive Order 12148, 20 July 1979, Federal Emergency Management, as amended. 2. Department of Defense Publications a. DODD 4500.09E, Transportation and Traffic Management. b. DODD 4500.54E, DOD Foreign Clear ance Program (FCP). c. DODD 5100.01, Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components. United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). d. DODD 5158.04, e. DODI 3020.41, Operational Contract Support (OCS). f. DODI 4500.43, Operational Support Airlift (OSA). Air Transportation Eligibility. g. DODI 4515.13, Operation of the DOD Engineering for Transportability and h. DODI 4540.07, Deployability Program. Armed Service Medical Regulation. i. DODI 5154.06, j. DTR 4500.9-R, The Defense Transportation Regulations. k. DODI 4515.13, Air Transportation Eligibility. l. DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. m. Unified Command Plan. 3. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Publications a. CJCSM 3122.01A, Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) Volume I (Planning Policies and Procedures). B-1

124 Appendix B b. CJCSM 3122.02D, Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) nt Data Development and Deployment Volume III (Time-Phased Force and Deployme Execution). c. CJCSM 3130.03, Adaptive Planning and Execution (APEX) Planning Formats and Guidance. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. d. JP 1, e. JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence. f. JP 3-0, Joint Operations. g. JP 3-02, Amphibious Operations. h. JP 3-05, Special Operations. i. JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater. j. JP 3-11, Operations in Chemical, Biological, Ra diological, and Nucl ear Environments. k. JP 3-13, Information Operations. Multinational Operations. l. JP 3-16, m. JP 3-18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations. n. JP 3-30, Command and Control of Joint Air Operations. o. JP 3-34, Joint Engineer Operations. p. JP 3-35, Deployment and Redepl oyment Operations. ogical, and Nuclear Response. q. JP 3-41, Chemical, Biological, Radiol r. JP 3-50, Personnel Recovery. s. JP 3-52, Joint Airspace Control. t. JP 3-59, Meteorological and Oceanographic Operations. u. JP 3-61, Public Affairs. v. JP 3-63, Detainee Operations. w. JP 4-0, Joint Logistics. The Defense Transportation System. x. JP 4-01, B-2 JP 3-17

125 References Joint Terminal Operations. y. JP 4-01.5, z. JP 4-02, Joint Health Services. Joint Mobilization Planning. aa. JP 4-05, bb. JP 4-09, Distribution Operations. cc. JP 6-0, Joint Communications System. 4. Multi-Service Publication 3- Army Techniques Publication 3-52.3 (FM 3-52.3)/MCRP 3-25A/NTTP 56.3/AFTTP 3-2.23, Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Joint Air Traffic Control. 5. United States Army Publications a. Army Doctrine Publication 3-0, Unified Land Operations. Unified Land Operations. b. Army Doctrine Reference Publication 3-0, 6. United States Air Force Publications a. Air Force Doctrine Annex 3-05, Special Operations. Air Mobility Operations. b. Air Force Doctrine Annex 3-17, c. Air Force Doctrine Annex 3-52, Airspace Control Medical Operation. d. Air Force Doctrine Annex 4-02, e. Air Force Instruction 13-1, AOC series publications. f. Air Force Instruction 13-217, Drop Zone and Landing Zone Operations. g. AFTTP 3-3.AOC, Operational Employment-Air and Space Operations Center. h. AFTPP 3-42.5, Aeromedical Evacuation. 7. North Atlantic Treaty O rganization Publication ATP-, Air-to-Air Refueling. B-3

126 Appendix B Intentionally Blank B-4 JP 3-17

127 APPENDIX C ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS 1. User Comments this publicati on using the Users in the field are highly encouraged to submit comments on k Form located at: h ttps://jde jdeis/jel/jp_feedback_form.pdf Joint Doctrine Feedbac [email protected] T hese comments should address and e-mail it to: js.pentagon. content (accuracy, us efulness, consistenc y, and organization), writing, and appearance. 2. Authorship a. The lead agent for this publication is the US Transportatio n Command. The Joint Staff doctrine sponsor for this Logistics Directorate (J-4). publication is the Joint Staff b. The following staff, in conjunction with the joint doctrine development community, made a valuable contribution to the revision of this joint publ ication: lead ag ent, Mr. Ray Van Zwienan, US Transportation Co mmand, and Mr. Scott Amato, US Transportation Command; Joint Staff doctrine s ponsor, Lt Col Elizabeth Hanson, Joint Staff J-4; Mr. Craig Corey, Joint Staff J-7, Joint Do ctrine Analysis Division; and L CDR Adam Yates, Joint Staff J-7, Joint Doctrine Division. 3. Supersession 20 September 2013. Air Mobility Operations, This publication supersedes JP 3-17, 4. Change Recommendations a. To provide recommendations for urgent and/or routine change s to this publication, please complete the Joint Doctrine Feedback Form located at: p_feedback_form.pdf and e-mail it to: [email protected] b. When a Joint Staff directorate submits a proposal to the CJ CS that would change source document information reflected in this publication, that directorate will include a proposed change to this publication as an enclosure to its prop osal. The Services and other organizations are requested to notify the Joint Staff J-7 when changes to source documents reflected in this publi cation are initiated. 5. Lessons Learned The Joint Lessons Learned Program (JLLP) primary objective is t o enhance joint force readiness and effectiveness by contributing to improvements in doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, facili ties, and policy. The Joint Lessons Learned Information System (JLLIS) is the DOD system of record for lessons learned and facilitates the collection, tracking, management, s haring, collaborative resolution, and dissemination of lessons learned to improve the development and readiness rough the joint doctrine of the joint force. The JLLP int egrates with joint doctrine th C-1

128 Appendix C rived from operations, development process by providing lessons and lessons learned de events, and exercises. As these inputs are incorporated into j oint doctrine, they become institutionalized for future us e, a major goal of the JLLP. Le ssons and lessons learned are routinely sought and incorporat ed into draft JPs throughout for mal staffing of the development process. The JLLIS Website can be found at https:/ / (NIPRNET) or http://www.jllis (SIPRNET). 6. Distribution of Publications Local reproduction is authorized, and access to unclassified pu blications is unrestricted. However, access to and reproduction authorizatio n for classified JPs must be IAW DOD Manual 5200.01, Volume 1, DOD Information Security Program: Overview, Classification, and Declassification, and DOD Manual 5200.01, Volume 3, DOD . Information Security Program: Prot ection of Classified Information 7. Distribution of Electronic Publications a. Joint Staff J-7 will not pri on. Electronic versions are nt copies of JPs for distributi available on JDEIS Joint Electronic Library Plus (JEL+) at http s:// (NIPRNET) and https:/ / s/index.jsp (SIPRNE T), and on the JEL at ctrine (NIPRNET). b. Only approved JPs are releasab le outside the combatant comm ands, Services, and Joint Staff. Defense attachés may request classified JPs by se nding written requests to t Base Anacostia- Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)/IE-3, 200 MacDill Blvd., Join Bolling, Washington, DC 20340-5100. c. JEL CD-ROM. Upon request of a joint doctrine development c ommunity member, the Joint Staff J-7 will produce and deliver one CD-ROM with cu rrent JPs. This JEL CD- ROM will be updated not less than semi-annually and when receiv ed can be locally combat support reproduced for use within the co mbatant commands, Services, and agencies. C-2 JP 3-17

129 GLOSSARY PART I—ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS, AND INITIALISMS allowable cabin load ACL A/DACG arrival/departure airfield control group AE aeromedical evacuation aeromedical evacuation control team AECT Air Force Reserve Command AFRC AFTRANS Air Forces Transportation AFTTP Air Force tactics, techniques, and procedures AGL above ground level ALCF airlift control flight ALOC air line of communications ALTRV altitude reservation AMC Air Mobility Command AMD air mobility division AMLO air mobility liaison officer AMOG air mobility operations group AMOS air mobility operations squadron AMOW air mobility operations wing AMS air mobility squadron AMX air mobility express ANG Air National Guard AOC air operations center AOR area of responsibility Adaptive Planning and Execution APEX APOD aerial port of debarkation APOE aerial port of embarkation air refueling AR ARFOR Army forces Army Service component command ASCC air traffic control ATC ATO air tasking order ATP Allied tactical publication AV asset visibility AWACS Airborne Warni ng and Control System battlefield coordina tion detachment (USA) BCD BDOC base defense operations center BOS base operating support C2 command and control CAF combat air forces CAP combat air patrol CBRN chemical, biological, r adiological, and nuclear component commander CC GL-1

130 Glossary CCDR combatant commander combatant command CCMD CDRUSTRANSCOM Commander, Unite d States Transportation Command CDS container delivery system CE circular error CJCS Chairman of the Joi nt Chiefs of Staff CJCSM Chairman of the Joi nt Chiefs of Staff manual CJTF commander, j oint task force COA course of action COCOM combatant command (command authority) COMAFFOR commander, Air Force forces CONOPS concept of operations CONUS continental United States CRAF Civil Reserve Air Fleet CRC control and reporting center CRE contingency response element CRF contingency response force CRG contingency response group CRT contingency response team CRW contingency response wing contingency support element CSE DACG departure airfield control group Deployment and Distrib ution Operations Center DDOC (USTRANSCOM) DEPORD deployment order DIRMOBFOR director of mobility forces DOD Department of Defense DODD Department of D efense directive DODI Department of Defense instruction DOS Department of State DTR Defense Transportation Regulation DTS Defense Transportation System DZ drop zone drop zone support team DZST 18 AF Eighteenth Air Force ECS expeditionary combat support EMCON emission control EOC emergency operations center ERPSS En Route Patient Staging System EW electronic warfare EZ exchange zone FM field manual (USA) forward operating base FOB GL-2 JP 3-17

131 Glossary GAMSS Global Air Mobility Support System Global Air Transportation Execution System GATES GCC geographic combatant commander GDSS Global Decision Support System GLO ground liaison officer GME global mobility enterprise GPS Global Positioning System host nation HN HNS host-nation support HVCDS high-velocity cont ainer delivery system in accordance with IAW International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO r delivery system ICDS improved containe Integrated Data Environment/Global Transportation IGC Network Convergence ITV in-transit visibility logistics director ate of a joint staff J-4 JA/ATT joint airborne and air transportability training JAOC joint air operations center JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff oordinator JDDC Joint Deployment and D istribution C (USTRANSCOM) joint deployment a JDDE nd distribution enterprise JDDOC joint deployment and di stribution operations center JENM joint enterprise network manager JFACC joint force air component commander JFC joint force commander JFSOCC joint force special operations component commander JIPOE joint intell igence preparation of the operational environment JMC joint movement center JOA joint operations area JOPES Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JP joint publication JPADS joint precision airdrop system JPEC joint planning a nd execution community JPMRC joint patient movement requirements center JRSOI joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integratio n JTF joint task force JTF-PO joint task force-port opening low-cost aerial delivery system LCADS GL-3

132 Glossary LNO liaison officer long-range surveillance team LRST landing zone LZ MAF mobility air forces Marine air-ground task force MAGTF major command (USAF) MAJCOM MC mission-critical MCRP Marine Corps reference publication MCT movement control team MDDOC Marine air-ground task force deployment and distribution operations center MHE materials handling equipment MILDEC military deception MOG maximum (aircraft) on ground MOPP mission-oriented protective posture MRT maintenance recovery team MTF medical treatment facility NAMS National Air Mobility System NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NEO noncombatant evacuation operation NGO nongovernmental organization NTTP ques, and procedures Navy tactics, techni O&M operation and maintenance OA operational area OCONUS outside the continental United States OEF Operation ENDURING FREEDOM OIF Operation IRAQI FREEDOM OPCON operational control OPLAN operation plan OPORD operation order OPSEC operations security OSA operational support airlift PA public affairs PM patient movement PMR patient movement requirement PMRC patient movement requirements center POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants PR personnel recovery RAMCC regional air m ovement control center rendezvous RV JP 3-17 GL-4

133 Glossary 618 AOC (TACC) 618th Air Operations Center (Tanker Airlift Cont rol Center) senior airfield authority SAA special assignment airlift mission SAAM SATCOM satellite communications SEAD suppression of enemy air defenses SecDef Secretary of Defense SOF special operations forces SPM single port manager STO special technical operations STT special tactics team SUST BDE sustainment brigade TACON tactical control TACP tactical air control party TACS theater air control system tactical aviation control team TACT time-definite delivery TDD THX theater express TOC tactical operations center TPFDD time-phased force and deployment data ansportation Command TPMRC United States Tr patient movement requirements center time-sensitive TS TSC theater sustain ment command (USA) tactics, techniques, and procedures TTP TWCF Transportation Working Capital Fund United States Air Force USAF USAFRICOM United States Africa Command USC United States Code USCENTCOM United States Central Command USCG United States Coast Guard USEUCOM United States European Command USG United States Government USINDOPACOM United States Indo-Pacific Command USMC United States Marine Corps USN United States Navy USNORTHCOM United States Northern Command USSOUTHCOM United States Southern Command USTRANSCOM United States Transportation Command iner delivery system XCDS extracted conta GL-5

134 PART II—TERMS AND DEFINITIONS aerial port. An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air mo vement of personnel and materiel, as well as an authorized port for entra nce into or departure from the country where located. (Approved for incorporation in to the DOD Dictionary.) aeromedical evacuation control team. A core team assigned to a component-numbered Air Force air operations center air mobility division that prov ides operational planning, scheduling, and execution of theater aeromedical evacuation mis sions and positioning of aeromedical evacuation ground forces. Also called AECT. (Approved for incorporation into the DOD Dictionary.) airborne. roops especially trained to eff ect, following transport 1. In relation to personnel, t by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchd own. 2. In relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially design ed for use by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation, as well as some aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 3. When applied to ma teriel, items that form an integral part of the aircraft. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained. (Approved for incorporation into the DOD Dictionary.) t. (DOD Dictionary. airdrop. The unloading of personnel or materiel from aircraft in fligh SOURCE: JP 3-17) airfield. gs, installations, An area prepared for the accommodation (including any buildin and equipment), landing, and ta keoff of aircraft. (DOD Diction ary. Source: JP 3-17) airhead. None. (Approved for removal from the DOD Dictionary.) airland. Move by air and disembark, or unload, after the aircraft has landed or while an aircraft is hovering. (DOD Di ctionary. Source: JP 3-17) airland operation. An operation involving movement by air with a designated dest ination for further ground deployment of units and personnel and/or fur ther ground distribution of supplies. (Approved for replacement of “air la nd operation” in the DOD Dictionary.) terms of number of passengers and/or The total capacity expressed in airlift capability. weight/cubic displacement of car go that can be carried at any o ne time to a given t. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) destination by available airlif airlift control team. A core team within the joint air operations center with intra theater airlift functional expertise to p lan, coordinate, manage, and e xecute intratheater airlift operations in support of the joint force air component commande r. Also called ALCT. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) GL-6 JP 3-17

135 Glossary A commander designated wh airlift mission commander. en airlift aircraft are participating in airlift operations specified in the implementi ng directive. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) The total number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displaceme nt of airlift requirement. Dictionary. Source: JP cargo required to be carried by air for a specific task. (DOD 3-17) air mobility. The rapid movement of personnel, materiel, and forces to and from or within a theater by air. (DOD Dic tionary. Source: JP 3-17) Air Mobility Command. The Air Force component command of the United States Transportation Command. Also called (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) AMC. air mobility control team. A core team within the joint air operations center that direc ts or redirects air mobility forces in response to requirements ch anges, higher priorities, or immediate execution requirements. Also called AMCT. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) air mobility division. Located in the joint air operat ions center to plan, coordinat e, task, and execute the air mobility mission consisting of the air mobi lity control team, airlift control team, air refueling control team, and aeromedical evacu ation control team. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) Also called AMD. air mobility liaison officer. A rated United States Air Force mobility air forces officer ssist with mobility air selected, trained, and equipped to assess, train, advise, and a nment. Also called forces and ground force integration for air movement and sustai AMLO. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) air movement. Air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment, i ncluding oved for incorporation into th airdrops and air landings. (Appr e DOD Dictionary.) air refueling. The refueling of an aircraft in flight by another aircraft. Also called AR. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) air refueling control team. A core team within the joint air operations center that coordinates aerial refueling to support combat air operations o r to support a strategic airbridge. Also called (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) ARCT. air terminal. A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transporta tion hub and accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the in-transit processing of traffic. (Approved for incor poration into the DOD Dictionar y.) allowable cabin load. The maximum payload that can be carried on an individual sort ie. Also called ACL. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) chalk number. The number given to a complete load and to the transporting c arrier. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) GL-7

136 Glossary channel airlift. either Airlift provided for movement of sustainment cargo, scheduled ted ports of regularly or depending upon volume of workload, between designa or distribution embarkation and ports of debarkation over validated contingency routes. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) A program in which the Department of Defense contracts for th e Civil Reserve Air Fleet. services of specific aircraft, owned by a United States entity or citizen, during national emergencies and defense-oriented situations when expanded civil augmentation of military airlift activity is required. Also called CRAF. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) combat control team. A task-organized team of speci al operations forces who are certified air traffic controllers that are trained and equipped to deploy into hostile environments to establish and c ontrol assault zones and airfiel ds. Also called CCT. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) common-user airlift service. The airlift service provided on a common basis for all Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other ag encies of the United States Government. (DOD Di ctionary. Source: JP 3-17) cross-loading. The distribution of leaders, k ey weapons, personnel, and key equipment among the aircraft, vessels, or vehicles of a formation to aid rapid assembly of units control or command and at the drop zone or landing zone or preclude the total loss of unit effectiveness if an aircraft (DOD Dictionary. Source: , vessel, or vehicle is lost. JP 3-17) departure airfield. An airfield on which troops and/ or materiel are enplaned for flight. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) departure point. A navigational check point used by aircraft as a marker for s etting course. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) director of mobility forces. The designated agent for all air mobility issues in the area of responsibility or joint operati ons area exercising coordinating authority between the er command and contr air operations center (or appropriate theat ol node), the 618th Air Operations Center (Tanker Airlift Control Center), and the join t deployment and distribution operations center or joint movement center to expe dite the resolution of air mobility issues. Also called DIRMOBFOR. (Approved for incorporation into the DOD Dictionary.) dispersion. 1. The spreading or separating of troops, materiel, establish ments, or activities, which are usually concentrated in limited areas to reduce vulne rability. (JP 5-0) 2. In chemical and biological operations, the dissemination of agents in liquid or aerosol form. (JP 3-41) 3. In airdrop operations, the scatter of pers onnel and/or cargo on the drop zone. (JP 3-17) 4. In naval control of shipping, the reb erthing of a ship in the periphery of the port area or in the vicinity of the port for i ts own protection in order to minimize the risk of damage from attack. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 4-01.2) JP 3-17 GL-8

137 Glossary The altitude above mean sea level at which airdrop is execute drop altitude. d. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) drop zone. A specific area upon which airborne troops, equipment, or sup plies are DZ. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) airdropped. Also called An aircraft that can carry sup port personnel, supplies, and e quipment dual-role tanker. for the deploying force while esc orting and/or refueling combat aircraft to the area of responsibility. (DOD Dicti onary. Source: JP 3-17) free drop. The dropping of equipment or supplies from an aircraft withou t the use of parachutes. (DOD Dicti onary. Source: JP 3-17) free fall. A parachute maneuver in which the parachute is manually activ ated at the discretion of the jumper or automatically at a preset altitude. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) Global Air Transportation Execution System. The Air Mobility Command’s aerial port operations and management infor mation system designed to suppor t automated cargo and passenger processing, the re porting of in-transit visibilit y data to the Global Transportation Network, and bil ling to Air Mobility Command’s f inancial management directorate. Also called GATES. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) The command and control system employed by Global Decision Support System. mobility air forces that provides schedules, arrival and/or dep arture information, and visibility of mobility airlif status data to support in-transit t and air refueling aircraft and aircrews. Also called GDSS. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) high velocity drop. A drop procedure in which the d rop velocity is greater than 3 0 feet per second and lower than free dr Source: JP 3-17) op velocity. (DOD Dictionary. intertheater airlift. The common-user airlift linking theaters to the continental U nited States and to other theaters, as well as the airlift within the continental United States. (Approved for incorporation i nto the DOD Dictionary.) intratheater airlift. Airlift conducted with in a theater with assets assigned to a geographic combatant commander or attached to a subordinate joint force co mmander. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) jumpmaster. The assigned airborne-qualified individual who controls parat roops from the time they enter the aircraft until they exit. (Approved fo r incorporation into the DOD Dictionary.) landing zone. Any specified zone used for the landing of aircraft. Also ca lled LZ. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) low velocity drop. A drop procedure in which the drop velocity does not exceed 3 0 feet onary. Source: JP 3-17) per second. (DOD Dicti GL-9

138 Glossary marshalling. articipating in an amphibious or airborne 1. The process by which units p le when feasible or move to t operation group together or assemb emporary camps in the vicinity of embarkation points, complete preparations for c ombat, or prepare for mbling, holding, and organizing supplies and/or loading. 2. The process of asse equipment, especially vehicles of transportation, for onward mo vement. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) mobility. A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary m ission. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) mobility air forces. Air components and Service components that are assigned and/o r routinely exercise command aut Also called MAF. hority over mobility operations. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) multipoint refueling system. KC-135 aircraft equipped with external wing-mounted pods to conduct drogue air refueling, while still maintaining boom a ir refueling capability on the same mission. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) Navy-unique fleet essential aircraft. Combatant commander-controlled airlift assets deemed essential for providing air transportation in support of naval operations’ transportation requirements. Also called NUFEA. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) nt is originated, node. m where a movement requireme 1. A location in a mobility syste processed for onward movement, or terminated. (JP 3-17) 2. In communications and computer systems, the physical location that provides terminati ng, switching, and gateway access services to support information exchange. (JP 6- 0) 3. An element of a system that represents a person, place, or physical thing. ( DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-0) operational support airlift. Airlift movements of high-prio rity passengers and cargo with time, place, or mission-sensitive requirements. Also called OSA. (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) oversized cargo. 1. Large items of specific equipment such as a barge; side lo adable owered; or causeway section, no warping tug; causeway section, p npowered that require transport by sea. 2. Air cargo exceeding the usable di mension of a 463L pallet loaded to the design height of 96 inches but equal to or less t han 1,000 inches in length, 117 inches in width, and 105 inches in height. (Approved for i ncorporation into the DOD Dictionary.) rapid global mobility. The timely movement, positioning, and sustainment of military forces and capabilities across the range of military operations . (DOD Dictionary. Source: JP 3-17) senior airfield authority. An individual designated by the joint force commander to be responsible for the control, operation, and maintenance of an a irfield, to include the es whose proximity rking ramps, land, and faciliti runways, associated taxiways, pa JP 3-17 GL-10

139 Glossary directly affects airfield operations. Also called SAA. (Approved for incorporation into the DOD Dictionary.) station time. In air transport operations, the time at which crews, passeng ers, and cargo Source: JP 3-17) are to be on board and ready for t he flight. (DOD Dictionary. Those aircraft provided to an aircraft unit for the performan ce of a flying unit aircraft. mission. (Approved for incorporat ion into the DOD Dictionary.) withdrawal operation. None. (Approved for removal from the DOD Dictionary.) GL-11

140 Glossary Intentionally Blank GL-12 JP 3-17

141 JOINT DOCTRINE PUBLICATIONS HIERARCHY JP 1 JOINT DOCTRINE JP 3-0 JP 1-0 JP 2-0 JP 4-0 JP 6-0 JP 5-0 COMMUNICATIONS LOGISTICS INTELLIGENCE PERSONNEL PLANS OPERATIONS SYSTEM All joint publications are organized into a comprehensive hierarchy as shown in the chart above. Joint is in the Publication (JP) 3-17 Operations series of joint doctrine publications. The diagram below illustrates an overview of the development process: STEP #1 - Initiation STEP #4 - Maintenance l JP published and continuously l Joint doctrine development assessed by users community (JDDC) submission to fill extant operational void l Formal assessment begins 24-27 months following l Joint Staff (JS) J-7 conducts front- publication end analysis l Revision begins 3.5 years l Joint Doctrine Planning Conference after publication validation l Each JP revision is completed l Program directive (PD) development no later than 5 years after and staffing/joint working group signature l PD includes scope, references, outline, milestones, and draft authorship l JS J-7 approves and releases PD to lead agent (LA) (Service, combatant command, JS directorate) Maintenance Initiation ENHANCED JOINT JOINT WARFIGHTING DOCTRINE CAPABILITY PUBLICATION Approval Development STEP #3 - Approval STEP #2 - Development l l LA selects primary review authority (PRA) to develop the first JSDS delivers adjudicated matrix to JS J-7 draft (FD) l JS J-7 prepares publication for signature l PRA develops FD for staffing with JDDC l JSDS prepares JS staffing package l FD comment matrix adjudication l JSDS staffs the publication via JSAP for l JS J-7 produces the final coordination (FC) draft, staffs to signature JDDC and JS via Joint Staff Action Processing (JSAP) system l Joint Staff doctrine sponsor (JSDS) adjudicates FC comment matrix l FC joint working group


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