rr11

Transcript

1 Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading Kerry Hempenstall Edited by Jennifer Buckingham Research Report | March 2016

2 National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: Creator: Hempenstall, Kerry, author. Title: Read about it : scientific evidence for effective teaching of reading / Kerry Hempenstall ; edited by Jennifer Buckingham. ISBN: 9781922184610? (paperback) Series: CIS research report ; 11. Subjects: Effective teaching. Early childhood education--Research--Australia. Literacy--Research--Australia. Teacher effectiveness. Other Creators/Contributors: Buckingham, Jennifer, editor. Centre for Independent Studies (Australia), issuing body. Dewey Number: 371.10994

3 Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading Kerry Hempenstall Edited by Jennifer Buckingham Research Report 11

4 Related CIS publications Research Report RR9 Jennifer Buckingham and Trisha Jha, One School Does Not Fit All (2016) Policy Magazine Spring Issue Jennifer Buckingham, Kevin Wheldall and Robyn Beaman-Wheldall, ‘Why Jaydon can’t read: The triumph of ideology over evidence in teaching reading’ (2013)

5 Contents Executive Summary 1 ... ... 3 Introduction ... 4 The power of improved instruction Effective, evidence-based reading instruction: The five ‘keys’ to reading ... 4 5 Explicit instruction ... ... 6 Phonemic Awareness What is phonemic awareness and why is it important? ... 6 Development of phonemic awareness 6 ... Phonemic awareness predicts later reading progress. 7 ... Screening of phonemic awareness ... 7 ... 7 The impact of phonological awareness instruction on reading At what age is phonemic awareness training most effective? ... 8 What should be the focus of phonemic awareness instruction? ... 9 Do teachers know how to teach phonemic awareness? 9 ... Is phonemic awareness still important later? 9 ... ... 10 Phonics ... 10 What is phonics? Teaching phonics ... 10 Evidence for systematic synthetic phonics instruction ... 11 ... 13 Phonics should be taught early Phonics and at-risk children ... 13 Phonics and struggling readers ... 14 Fluency ... 15 What is reading fluency? ... 15 How automaticity aids comprehension ... 16

6 Oral reading fluency is related to reading comprehension ... 16 ... 17 Effective fluency teaching ... 17 Repeated reading vs silent reading ... 18 Early assessment for effective intervention ... 18 Effective intervention ... 19 Vocabulary What is vocabulary? 19 ... Vocabulary predicts later reading development 20 ... Vocabulary development in the years prior to school ... 20 Shared reading at home ... 20 Early education at preschools and childcare ... 21 Early intervention at school — the earlier the better 21 ... Effective vocabulary instruction ... 22 ... Morphology 22 Strategic classroom discussion ... 23 The role of reading practice in extending vocabulary development ... 23 ... 24 Vocabulary and older students Comprehension ... 25 What is reading comprehension? ... 25 Poor reading comprehension has multiple possible causes ... 25 Accurate and fluent decoding ... 26

7 Prosody 26 ... Vocabulary ... 26 ... Domain knowledge 26 ... Effective teaching of reading comprehension skills and strategies 27 Effective interventions for struggling readers: explicit instruction in comprehension strategies 28 ... ... 29 Older students ... 29 Reading comprehension is difficult to assess ... 31 Explicit instruction What is explicit instruction? ... 31 Some teaching methods are more effective than others ... 31 A brief history of the effective teaching research 32 ... ... Project ‘Follow Through’ 32 Explicit instruction v discovery learning ... 34 Explicit instruction ... 34 Discovery learning ... 35 ... 35 Minimally guided instruction The importance of systematic explicit instruction in literacy development ... 36 Explicit instruction is especially important for children at risk of reading failure ... 37 Conclusions ... 39 Endnotes ... 41

8

9 Executive Summary One million Australian children are at risk of reading There are five essential and interdependent components failure, with serious negative consequences for their of effective, evidence-based reading instruction — the quality This figure society. of life and for Australian five ‘keys’ to reading: — based on the results of national and international Phonemic awareness: Knowledge of, and capacity to • tests — is five times higher literacy than the number manipulate, the smallest distinct sounds (phonemes) of children reading scientists estimate to have serious in spoken words. learning difficulties. • Phonics: Learning and using the relationships from disadvantaged Children backgrounds are five times between sounds and letter-symbols to sound out more likely to have low literacy at school, perpetuating a (decode) written words. cycle of low educational attainment and poverty. One in • Fluency: The ability to read accurately, quickly and three disadvantaged children arrive at school with very expressively. Fluent readers are able to focus on poor language skills, and the gap between the language- reading for meaning. rich and the language-poor grows over time. Vocabulary: The words children need to know in order • Despite there being various causes of disadvantage, to comprehend and communicate. Oral vocabulary is there is only one domain in which an education system the words children recognise or use in listening and can have a significant and sustained impact — by speaking. Reading vocabulary is the words children harnessing the power of improved instruction, especially recognise or use in reading and writing. in literacy in the early years of school. • Comprehension: Extracting and constructing Major reviews of research on reading not only agree on meaning from written text using knowledge of the key components of reading programs but also the most effective way of teaching them. words, concepts, facts, and ideas. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 1

10 There is also mounting evidence that explicit or direct Progress in knowledge of teaching and reading is dependent on evidence from studies that conform to the instruction is the most effective teaching method, rigors of research in other disciplines where the human especially for the fundamental code-based components and economic costs of failure are high. and phonics awareness — and especially ― phonemic for children at-risk of reading failure. In recent years, There is an extensive and rigorous body of evidence about research has continued to demonstrate that explicit how children learn to read and the most effective ways teaching of the five keys to reading all children benefits to teach them. While this research is slowly beginning to and can significantly reduce literacy gaps. be acknowledged in government policy, unfortunately it reflected is not always education in teacher or classroom The impact of reducing the number of struggling students practice. through more effective initial class teaching should not be underestimated. School resources and teacher time This decade could be the beginning of one of the most can be deployed more effectively, learning support can be exciting periods in education history, as the sleeping targeted to children with serious learning problems, and giant of educational knowledge — ignored for so long educational from improved for students benefits extend the around — begins to influence education systems achievement through to a lower likelihood of the mental world. If the evidence on teaching reading is adopted health and behavioural problems that frequently arise and implemented, there should be no more casualties in the ‘reading wars’. following reading difficulties. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 2 | Read

11 Introduction to National and international assessments indicate that them to enable skills at least sufficient literacy about one quarter of Australian students achieve literacy participate in our society. How big is the problem in results at or below the minimum standards. There is real terms? There are nearly four million students also concern about a seemingly intractable gulf between in Australian schools, and taking a conservative the educational outcomes of students in high and low percentage of 25% whose literacy progress threatens socio-economic groups. their future wellbeing, we have a million students at serious risk. “ ...some Australian students are not being equipped with the literacy skills they will Attaining broad scale literacy has been a long-term need to participate fully in life beyond challenge, but today low levels of literacy are more school. Australia faces the urgent challenge limiting for those affected than in the past. The demands of closing the achievement gaps that exist on literacy today are greater than they were when many between students from metropolitan and jobs were available to those with minimal literacy skills. rural Australia, between Indigenous and non- Not so today, as unskilled jobs are becoming rare. Indigenous students, between students from Increased education spending has had little effect on higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds 3 1 literacy and numeracy levels in the student population. and, in some cases, between boys and girls”. Andrew Leigh and Chris Ryan conclude in their This gulf becomes very large as students approach the analysis of school productivity that “resources alone middle stages of secondary school. For example, from are not the answer to improving school performance. 2012 PISA results: Instead, education policy makers should rigorously “In reading literacy, students in the highest evaluate the impact of new reforms and focus on socioeconomic quartile achieved a mean raising the quality of education expenditure”. Education score of 557 points, compared to a mean economist Kevin Gould notes that “School funding has score of 471 points for students in the lowest risen by at least 14% over the past ten years. But in that quartile. The mean score difference of 86 time our international performance has declined. One- points on average equates to about two-and- meeting third of 15-year olds aren’t national literacy 2 a-half years of schooling”. standards and in less than a decade, Australian school performance in maths by the has declined students’ in ensuring So we have a significant problem our most 4 equivalent of half a year of schooling.” vulnerable students have the opportunity to develop Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 3

12 reason the quality of the teacher is the single greatest in-school increased funding hasn’t A further why greatly have been There achievement”. on student influence made a difference: a necessary step in ascertaining 9 with similar findings. Leigh found studies numerous whether a program is effective, and therefore whether “In terms of literacy and numeracy test scores, a that it should be continued, is to evaluate it. Evaluation of 75th percentile teacher can achieve in three-quarters of programs and policies has been either weak or non- 5 a year what a 25th percentile teacher can achieve in a existent. full year; while a 90th percentile teacher can achieve in 232. A key problem in assessing the impact half a year what a 10th percentile teacher can achieve of targeted programs for disadvantaged 10 Auguste, Kihn, and Miller reported that in a full year”. groups is the absence of any formal th students at the 50 percentile would differ by more than evaluation for many of these programs. This 50 percentile points after three years, depending on the weakness is present across all school sectors quality of their teachers (teachers among the top 20% and systems, and all states and territories. ... 11 vs those among the bottom 20%). over 40 per cent of programs did not record If evidence-based programs were to be employed wide any evaluation having been undertaken. scale, far fewer students would be left in the parlous 254. Re students from disadvantaged groups, they currently state in which find themselves. When learning disabilities, indigenous, ESL, low more students make good progress consequent upon SES, remote areas. Weak monitoring and their participation in these programs, there remains reporting inhibits the capacity of school a smaller more manageable number of students systems to build sector knowledge of the left requiring small group or individual instruction. relevance and context of improvement A number of studies have estimated that the residual strategies that have demonstrated proportion of students with serious literacy problems effectiveness. This means there is a lack of following early evidence-based reading instruction may 12 evidence-based links for programs and their be around 5%. effects on learning. Effective, evidence-based reading The power of improved instruction instruction: The five ‘keys’ to reading Despite there being various causes of educational What is the evidence base for optimal instruction disadvantage, there is only one domain in which an in reading? Academic journals contain thousands of system ― by impact can have a significant education studies on reading instruction. Reading this research harnessing the potential power of improved instruction. would require a huge amount of time. For most people, a viable alternative approach is to examine findings 40% that about research Reid Lyon reported systematic reviews and meta-analyses that enable the of children learn to read readily with only minimal trends across many studies to be teased out. Even more significant will require 30-40% another instruction; efficient completed of large scale reports is the study support to make progress in reading; and for 20-30% by expert panels (often government sponsored) who sift exemplary is a seriously reading difficult task requiring through mountains of research using tight acceptability instruction, probably both intensive and over a longer criteria to ensure that only studies of high quality are 6 Other estimates, such as by Tyce Palmaffy, period. produce similar findings included. across If such panels 7 The National vary only slightly from those figures. different countries and educational settings, then one find that about 5% of children Panel reported Reading can feel some sense that this consensus may represent learning to read to be a readily achieved process. About a trusted source of information to guide practice. This is and a third to a half difficult, 60% find early reading the case with research on reading instruction, and the 8 (National Reading of that number have great difficulty identification of the five ‘keys’ or ‘big ideas’. Panel, 2000). In 2000, in the largest, most comprehensive evidenced- The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and based review ever conducted of research on how Development (2005) reported: “Research shows that children learn to read, the USA National Reading Panel 13 (NRP) presented its findings. For its review, the NRP Figure 1 selected methodologically sound research from the approximately 100,000 reading studies that had been published since 1966, and from another 15,000 earlier studies. The specific areas the NRP noted as crucial for reading instruction were phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The recommendations were that students be explicitly and systematically taught: 1. Phonemic awareness: The ability to hear and identify individual sounds in spoken words. Source: National Reading Panel (2000) About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 4 | Read

13 The 2006 UK Primary National Strategy mandated a 2. Phonics: The relationship between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language. instruction — a synthetic phonics form of explicit specific approach, in which letter-sound correspondences are Fluency: The capacity to read text accurately and 3. in a clearly sequence, defined and the skills of taught quickly. blending and segmenting phonemes are assigned high Vocabulary: All the words students must know to 4. priority. This approach contrasts with the less effective communicate effectively. analytic phonics , in which the phonemes associated with particular graphemes are not pronounced in isolation Comprehension: The ability to understand what has 5. (i.e., outside of whole words). In the analytic phonics been read. approach, students are asked to analyse the common emphasis The Panel’s elements is on the five critical phoneme in a set of words in which each word contains major of other several with the findings also consonant 20 the phoneme being introduced. The lesser overall National international reports, such as those of the US effectiveness of analytic phonics instruction may be due Research Council (1998), the US National Institute to a lack of sufficient systematic and feedback practice (1997 ), for Child Health and Human Development the 21 usually required by the less able reading student. UK Rose Report (2006) and the UK Primary National 14 Strategy (2006). In Australia, the 2005 National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy produced similar recommendations, In the UK in 2006, the Primary Framework for Literacy field to turn towards the education exhorting science and Mathematics was released, updating its 1998 22 for its inspiration. The committee argued strongly for even more firmly predecessor, and mandating practice 15 empirical evidence to be used to improve the manner in onto an evidence base. In particular, it withdrew its which reading is taught in Australia. imprimatur from the 3-cueing system, and embraced the Simple View of Reading: that reading is the combination from finding “In sum, the incontrovertible 16 of decoding and comprehension. the extensive body of local and international evidence-based literacy research is that for The Simple View has had increasing empirical support over the last 25 years, and highlights the importance children during the early years of schooling of decoding as the pre-eminent strategy for saying (and subsequently if needed), to be able comprehension for what’s and language on the page, to link their knowledge of spoken language understanding that which has been decoded. In contrast, to their knowledge of written language, under the 3-cueing system popularised in the Whole must first master they the alphabetic Language approach to reading, making meaning by any code – the system of grapheme-phoneme method (for example, guessing from pictures, syntactic, correspondences that link written words and semantic cues) was considered optimal, and, for to their pronunciations. Because these are many protagonists, took precedence over decoding as both foundational and essential skills for 17 the prime strategy. the development of competence in reading, writing and spelling, they must be taught explicitly, systematically, early and well.” Explicit instruction (p.37) The major reviews of reading not only agreed on the key components of reading programs but also the most Clear evidence exists to enable schools to improve their effective way of teaching them. They found that explicit performance in supporting students, particularly those or direct instruction was the most effective teaching whose progress is dangerously slow. method, especially for the fundamental code-based The impact of reducing the number of struggling components―phonemic awareness and phonics. students through more effective initial class teaching The NRP recommended that conjoint phonemic should not be underestimated. School resources and awareness and phonics emphases should be taught teacher time can be deployed more effectively, and directly, rather than incidentally, as effective instruction from improved educational extend for students benefits in both skills leads to strong early progress in reading achievement through to a lower likelihood of the mental and spelling. The emphasis on direct, explicit, and difficulties arise health and behavioural that frequently systematic instruction in these domains was because 23 following serious reading difficulties. expecting students to induce these skills with only minimal guidance leads to an unnecessarily wide range This paper will outline the research evidence 18 of learning outcomes. each of the ‘Big Five’ elements of effective underpinning reading approaches as well as the importance of A review of research on explicit instruction by Marchand- explicit instruction pedagogies. It is not intended to Martella, Martella, Modderman, Petersen, & Pan in 2013 be an exhaustive reference; it is rather a concise but found that “Research almost universally supports explicit comprehensive guide to major studies and research instructional practices...Explicit instructional approaches published since the review reports described above. as compared and efficient more effective are considered to discovery-based approaches...particularly when 19 students are naïve or struggling learners”. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 5

14 Phonemic Awareness for beginning readers to understand that written words What is phonemic awareness and why are composed of graphemes (printed letters and letter is it important? combinations) that correspond to phonemes, a concept the ‘alphabetic with good Students principle’. called Phonemic awareness concerns the structure phonemic awareness tend to become better readers of spoken words rather than their meaning or 27 than those without. their representation in print. Phonemes are the smallest discernible unit of sound in speech and phonemic awareness is knowledge of, and capacity Development of phonemic awareness to manipulate, individual phonemes in spoken There may be a typical developmental sequence of 24 words. phonological awareness. It begins with awareness of words as a unit of analysis; then proceeds to the awareness that words can share certain ending Phonemic awareness facilitates learning to read because properties that we call rhyme, to an awareness that or develop, must first have, readers beginning some words can be decomposed into syllables, then (possibly understanding that spoken words are composed of though units not definitely) more finely into sub-syllabic individual and distinguishable sounds, rather than final, and medial and rimes, called onsets to beginning, perceiving each word as a single indivisible sound properties, and then (and most importantly for reading) stream. into awareness of individual phonemes, the smallest Phonemic awareness appears to be part of a sequence of 28 unit of sound analysis. development ranging from simple to complex. Phonemic However, the apparent developmental sequence of awareness is a complex sensitivity to individual sounds phonemic awareness should not be viewed as fixed while its close relative, phonological awareness, is a more global term that includes the earlier developing, “... because this type of generalisation simpler aspects of speech sound recognition, such as obscures important variation that occurs in 25 rhyme, initial sound, and syllable awareness. response to the demands of the assessment task, the type of instruction taking place in concept has had a significant The phonemic awareness the classroom and the nature of the spoken influence on our understanding of reading and its 29 26 and written languages under investigation.” Good phonemic awareness makes it easier acquisition. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 6 | Read

15 difficulties failure Synthesis (also known as blending) and analysis (also term reading cycle for students whose known as segmentation) are the most important The are unidentified until late in their primary years. elements of phonemic awareness, with synthesis usually probability that a child who was initially a poor reader preceding segmentation. These two components are the be classified in first grade would as a poor reader in the most directly salient to reading. Students need to be fourth grade has been found to be a depressingly high 38 able to combine the individual phonemes to construct +0.88. a spoken word, and also when given a spoken word, The cost of slow initial progress is high, both for the be able to break down the word into its constituent low progress student and for the system that will 30 phonemes. need to devote much greater resources to redressing in always Phonemic awareness doesn’t occur naturally such a situation than in preventing it. Identification is the same manner as speech and oral language and often a necessary step towards intervention. Simple, brief 30% of first-graders Research needs to be taught. shows phonemic awareness assessment tools are readily the phonemic don’t appreciate structure of words, and available, which have been shown to predict later 31 the proportion is even higher in disadvantaged children. reading difficulties with a high degree of accuracy. Some examples: Phonemic awareness predicts later • Catts et al. (2015) screened 366 children with a reading progress battery of tests at the beginning of school and assessed progress over the school year. The The discovery that phonemic awareness is a powerful naming fluency, phonological tests were of letter predictor of subsequent reading progress led to an awareness, rapid naming, and non-word repetition. interest in teaching it prior to reading instruction, They achieved accuracy levels of around 90% in thereby priming the student for a higher likelihood of predicting end of year reading levels. They also success when reading instruction is introduced. provided an intervention program to those deemed Phonological awareness and knowledge of letters have at-risk in the screening measure. Regular monitoring been shown in numerous studies to be the two best of progress in literacy skills over the year predicted 32 Students who predictors of initial reading progress. reading outcomes over and above that of the start with low phonological awareness develop reading 39 screening battery. 33 ability at much slower rates. In one study, students Hurford et al (1994) assessed 170 school beginners • who were assessed as low progress readers in Year 5 using phoneme deletion, phonological discrimination, were those whose pre-school progress in developing IQ, pseudo-words. They accurately predicted all phonemic awareness was slower than most, even if students diagnosed with reading disability two years some of them eventually reached an acceptable level of 40 34 later. phonemic awareness. • Badian (1994) assessed 118 pre-schoolers mid- phonemic awareness development at With respect to year and successfully predicted 91% would be good the beginning of school, there are likely to be three or poor readers two years later. The study used groups of students: phonological awareness, naming speed, and an • well into the is those The first group already 41 orthographic matching task. developmental sequence, probably because of home- Maisterek & Ellenwood (1995) used two measures • based activities such as singing nursery rhymes of phonemic awareness (sound blending and rhyme and language games like Spoonerisms and tongue related and found they were significantly detection) twisters. These students are primed to appreciate to word reading accuracy three years later, that is, at school-based phonological and phonics instruction. 42 the end of Year 2. • The second group have had few such early • Stuart (1995) found that sound to letter matching at experiences, but when presented with an appropriate the start of school predicted 93% of reading progress phonologically-based curriculum, display increasing 43 at the end of Year One, and seven months later. sensitivity to phonology relatively quickly and make strong progress in tying their new-found phonological knowledge to the task of reading. The impact of phonological awareness The third group • don’t seem to ‘get it’ so easily. instruction on reading They make slow progress, even with a structured Over the past four decades, but particularly in the last systematic approach with appropriate monitoring 30 years, there has been an increasing acceptance 35 This group may have a resistance to and intensity. that phonemic awareness plays an important role in 36 instruction that is at least partly genetically-based. reading and also in specific beginning reading success, Hence this group, in particular, require intensive 44 disability or dyslexia. 37 interventions. skill areas, there are genetic influences As in most human involved in reading acquisition. This is obviously Screening of phonemic awareness when considering important the potential influence of teaching. For the early stages of reading, print awareness, Given the role of phonemic awareness in early reading phonological awareness, and decoding have been found acquisition, screening phonemic awareness early in to be influenced and environmental by both genetic the long may help prevent careers school children’s Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 7

16 45 53 Their analysis indicated The degree found in different studies varies, factors. difficulties. with reading but estimates for heritability of phonological awareness alone that phonemic awareness interventions did were quite high, explaining 50%–65% of the variance. effects or spelling. on reading significant not produce Adding complexity is that gene expression is influenced When combined into a phonics intervention the effects 46 by environmental experience. Nonetheless, there Additionally, increasing small. though were significant, remains a role for education; genetic vulnerability to duration and intensity of interventions was associated phonemic and effective deficits require instruction with stronger effects. The small effects may be due 47 intervention. to the interventions being provided to older students rather than to beginners, and to the preponderance of published in Bradley and Bryant’s seminal paper struggling readers in these studies, rather than including 1983 described a longitudinal study that appeared 54 the full range of reading attainment. to convincingly argue for a causal role of phonemic 48 They were able to awareness in reading acquisition. Duff et al reported that in a range of studies demonstrate high correlations between initial phonemic “interventions for children at family risk of dyslexia and spelling sensitivity and students’ reading scores before that are delivered the onset of formal reading more than three years later. Selecting 65 of the students instruction tend to show short-term effects on phoneme with low phonemic awareness scores, Bradley and awareness and letter knowledge. Though there are Bryant randomly assigned them to either a training these initial benefits seem not to transfer exceptions, 55 or a non-training group. The first group group, was This is not surprising, as to higher level literacy skills”. taught (in 40 sessions over two years) to attend to the the function of phonemic awareness program is only to sound structure of words, while the second was taught to sensitise students to the alphabetic principle. That is, categorise words in terms of their meaning. The children it is intended to aid them in decoding print. Successful received normal reading instruction in school, and at step towards but insufficient is a necessary decoding the end of the project were re-assessed. The training skilled reading. A successful reading program will also group had made significantly more progress in reading. include phonics, vocabulary, fluency, other components: In 1990, Bradley retested the original experimental and and comprehension. control groups 5 years after the training was completed, The issue of the relationship of phonemic awareness and the differences were still present in all four reading to subsequent reading development is still debated. As 49 and spelling tests. Subsequent intervention studies and Coltheart Castles to disentangle it is difficult explain, obtained similar results, and those that employed 56 the causal variables involved. However, there is an follow-up assessments have noted the endurance of the increasing trend towards the acceptance of a reciprocal 50 effects. relationship — a basic sensitivity to phonology aids There have also been other meta-analyses since that the understanding of the alphabetic principle, and this of the National Reading Panel, including those by Ehri results in the acquisition of spelling and reading skills and colleagues in 2001 that examined 52 training 57 that then further enhance phoneme awareness. studies measuring the results of phonemic awareness 51 They reported large instruction on reading outcomes. At what age is phonemic awareness effects on subsequent phonemic awareness assessment, training most effective? and moderate effects on reading (d = 0.86) and spelling (d = 0.59). Some level of simple phonological awareness, such as rhyming and alliteration, may develop around the ages In 2009 the US National Early Literacy Panel reviewed of two to four years, though there will be individual 300 studies that examined the relevant instructional experience, capacity, on a child’s depending variation emphases that led to subsequent progress in reading 58 52 and interest. Some suggest that initial experiences of Their results were consistent with those and spelling. phonemic awareness activities should be in the home of the reports described above. Most relevant were or in child care, others in pre-school, while it is often knowledge of letter names and sounds, phonological seen as best corresponding to the time of initial reading awareness (particularly blending and segmenting), instruction. A report from the National Association for oral language, being able to write (at least one’s name), the Education of Young Children argues that there is and knowing how books work. Strongest results derived ample time in the preschool day for phonemic awareness from approaches that were adult directed, and which 59 For children at activities within a play-based program. focused upon the structure of spoken and written words. risk, in particular, early intervention has been shown to at home and in preschool beneficial, So, it is singularly 60 be of critical importance. settings, to teach children about the alphabet (e.g., letter names/sounds) and simple phonics tasks (e.g., The US National Reading Panel found that children as blending letter sounds to make words). Other emphases young as four years of age benefited from instruction of worth are reading to children, and aiding their oral in phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle language development through conversation. when the instruction was presented in an interesting 61 and entertaining, albeit systematic manner. Children Several studies have not found strong effects of who attended more academically-oriented preschool purely phonemic awareness training. Galuschka, Ise, higher in reading, scores programs had significantly Krick, and Schulte-Körn conducted a meta-analysis math, and general knowledge when tested in the fall of 22 randomised controlled trials from a total of 305 of their kindergarten year than children attending less studies involving school aged children and adolescents About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 8 | Read

17 grained sensitivity to the sound structure of words. For academically-oriented preschools. Reid Lyon suggested in 2001 that the 20 million children suffering from example, in one study only 2% of teachers-in-training reading failure in the US at the time could be reduced and 19% of working teachers knew that the word box 66 by approximately two-thirds through effective phonemic is constructed from four speech sounds. In a recent 62 awareness training. Australian findings study, a mismatch between indicated what teachers believed they knew about phonological 67 processes and what they did know. The teachers What should be the focus of phonemic generally had positive perceptions about the value of awareness instruction? such teaching, but had not themselves been taught how There is the possibility that students exposed to a to do so. Teachers tend to erroneously believe that their purely oral phonemic awareness program long before reading about knowledge implicit is sufficient for them reading instruction commences will fail to appreciate to instruct others explicitly. the salience to reading skill development of this new Studies in the USA have found that 50% of teachers found phonological sensitivity. One role for a beginning are young, inexperienced, and with little knowledge reading teacher is to make salient to the reading task 68 A 2012 concerning phonics teaching and word study. those phoneme awareness skills previously developed. study by Binks-Cantrell, Washburn, Joshi, & Hougen If the teacher’s initial instruction is meaning-dominated noted that there were similar issues among teachers in or has an initial whole word emphasis, then students are 69 both Australia and Great Britain. Numerous Australian unlikely to notice that phonological skills can be helpful. studies over the last decade the confirm published 70 Research shows that phonemic awareness training has overseas Additionally, teacher educators findings. a stronger association with reading development when themselves have often lacked a good understanding letter knowledge is taught simultaneously with, and of basic language constructs, perpetuating what the incorporated into, the phonemic awareness activities as the ‘Peter Effect’ authors — one cannot described 63 their mutual to reading. so as to highlight benefits teach what one does not know. According to Castles and colleagues, “Overall, the data In many teacher-training facilities, pre-service suggest that there is little value in training pre-schoolers instruction in these areas is not among the priorities in in either letter forms or sounds in isolation in advance 71 presenting a teacher education curriculum on literacy. 64 of providing instruction on the links between the two.” Hence, many teachers are likely to need retraining if the When phonemic awareness is combined with letter results of phonological process research into beginning knowledge training, one might argue that this constitutes reading are to be put into practice successfully. phonics instruction. New phonics programs may incorporate both but earlier traditional phonics programs Is phonemic awareness still important were less alert to the need for beginning readers to have later? or develop phonological sensitivity in order to obtain teaching. In a report maximum benefit from phonics Recognising that phonemic awareness has a role to play Snow, Burns, and for the US National Research Council, in beginning reading, and becomes less of a primary commented, Griffin “In conventional phonics programs... driver as reading progresses into the independent such [phonemic] awareness was generally taken for phase, might it continue to have even a diminished role? granted, and therein lies the force of the research on 65 A study by Ziegler, Bertrand, Lété, & Grainger in phonemic awareness.” 2014 indicated that phonemic awareness continues 72 reading An earlier to influence across development. Do teachers know how to teach study by Shankweiler, Lundquist, Dreyer, and Dickinson phonemic awareness? also noted a phonological role that was associated with 73 A 2008 meta- differences in reading comprehension. A classroom emphasis on phonological processes assumes analysis indicated a strong association of phonological that teachers have the necessary deep understanding awareness and reading comprehension using cross- of phonemic awareness required to teach it effectively. 74 sectional and longitudinal design. Given that the This assumption may not be warranted, as research has majority of struggling readers are those who do not indicated that some teachers do not themselves have a word reading/decoding develop it strategies, efficient solid foundation in their own phonemic awareness, and would not be surprising that the underlying problem few have received the level of training that produces the 75 fine- children’s in awakening level important supra-skill might be phonemic in nature. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 9

18 Phonics What is phonics? synthetic phonics In , teachers build up phonic skills from their smallest unit (graphemes). In a synthetic program, The English written language is an alphabetic code the processes of blending (“What word do these sounds by symbols is codified language spoken in which make when we put them together mmm-aaa-nnn?”), (letters). Phonics has several related meanings: and segmenting (“Sound out this word for me”) are also taught. It is of little value knowing the building blocks 1) the relationship between speech sounds and of our language’s structure if one does not know how to their symbols; put those blocks together appropriately to allow written 2) the methods employed to teach that communication, or to separate them to enable decoding relationship; of a letter grouping. the phonological process of using the 3) After letter-sound correspondence has been taught, relationship to sound out (decode) a new phonograms (such as: er, ir, ur, wor, ear, sh, ee, th) are 76 word. introduced, and more complex words can be introduced into reading activities. In conjunction with this approach ‘controlled vocabulary’ stories may be used — books Teaching phonics current using the students’ using only words decodable 77 This is intended to reduce the memory knowledge base. All approaches to teaching phonics are not equal. It is load on beginning readers that follows from having too possible to teach phonics carefully, and with parsimony; large a range of words at a time when the aim is for it is possible to do so ineffectively and excessively; and 78 students to induce the alphabetic principle. it is possible to do it in name only. involves the analysis (breaking Analytic phonics There are essentially two broad approaches to teaching down) of the whole word to its parts (an analysis only phonics: synthetic and analytic phonics instruction. It is necessary when a child cannot read it as a whole word). important to understand the difference between these In analytic phonics, students are expected to absorb or induce the required information from the word’s two approaches, as their effectiveness differs markedly. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 10 | Read

19 structure, merely from presentation of similar sounding systematic, synthetic or explicit does not guarantee its words. For example, “The sound you want occurs in effectiveness. Experimental evaluation is still important. these words: mad, maple, moon.” The words may be The aim of phonics teaching in a code-emphasis program pointed to or spoken by the teacher, but the sounds is to make explicit to students the alphabetic principle. in isolation from words are not presented to children. When teachers simply point out word parts to students A major problem with analytic phonics methods is the in the context of authentic literature as the situation erroneous assumption that all students will already arises, the limitations of such incidental analytic phonics have the fairly sophisticated phonemic awareness skills are most apparent for at-risk students. This is the group needed to enable the comparison of sounds within the on whom the failure of incidental analytic phonics to various words. most be sufficiently explicit impacts and unambiguous children by sight at first, learn words In analytic phonics, heavily. 81 and their attention is drawn only to initial letter sounds. “Children who need to gain insight into a Segmenting and blending are introduced later after all systematic system are probably best served the letter sounds have been introduced. By contrast, when the instruction they receive is also synthetic phonics teaches children to sound and blend the fact that the systematic. More specifically, from the beginning of reading instruction, after a few phoneme /s/ is (almost) always represented letter sounds have been taught. by the letter “s” irrespective of its position There is also an approach known as analogy-based in a word can be taught by systematically phonics in which students are taught to use known words confronting children with (regular) words 79 to decode unknown words. More recently, this has been with the phoneme /s/ in different positions. to a synthetic as an adjunct found to be more beneficial Children who are confronted with too many phonics program rather than as a stand-alone approach words at a time that consist of many different students store first need to build a substantial because letters will have more difficulties gaining 80 of comparison words for it to be helpful. 82 insight in the alphabetic principle.” When synthetic phonics is taught explicitly, students will learn the associations between the letters and their Evidence for systematic synthetic sounds in a direct and usually systematic way, separately phonics instruction from text reading. This may comprise showing students the graphemes (letters or letter combinations) and Scientific has demonstrated that initial synthetic research teaching them the sounds that correspond to them, as phonics instruction is the single most effective decoding in “this letter makes the sound sssss.” Alternatively, approach for students. Obviously, many students can 83 some teachers prefer teaching students single sounds learn to read without such instruction; however, it (phonemes) the orally at first, and then later introducing is not only the seriously at-risk students who achieve visual cue (the grapheme) for the sound, as in “You know greater success under such a phonics regime — so do well here’s we’ve been practising, the the mmmm sound those in the average range, and also do those in below- letter used in writing that tells us to make that sound.” average reading groups, that is, those who are making 84 progress, but slowly. implies that there is attention paid to the Systematic detail of the teaching process. Instruction will usually on review Panel’s Reading The National of the research be teacher-directed, based on a logical analysis of the phonics instruction came to the following conclusions: skills required and their optimal sequence. At its most • Systematic phonics instruction makes a bigger systematic, it will probably involve massed and spaced to children’s growth in reading contribution than practice of those skills (sometimes in isolation and in alternative programs providing unsystematic or no text), corrective feedback of errors, and continuous phonics instruction (2.84) evaluation of progress. Various types of systematic phonics approaches • In contrast, incidental instruction shifts the responsibility than non-phonics more effective are significantly for making use of phonic cues from the teacher to the approaches in promoting substantial growth in student. It assumes that students will develop a self- reading (2.85) sustaining, natural, unique reading style that integrates the use of contextual and graphophonic cues without • Phonics instruction taught early proved much more any preordained teaching sequence, but dependent effective than phonics instruction introduced after upon opportunity arising from the passages being read. first grade (2.85) Within phonics teaching there are several other models, more • Systematic phonics instruction is significantly levels They differ of efficacy. in again with varying effective than non-phonics instruction in helping to their curriculum construction and in the degree of their at risk students prevent reading difficulties among explicitness. Examples are Phonics through spelling, in and in helping to remediate reading difficulties Embedded phonics, and Onset-rime phonics instruction. disabled readers (2.86) At present the model known as explicit synthetic phonics There was some criticism of the NRP report initially; has the strongest research support. However, just there have been numerous studies because a phonics program is described or marketed as however, since then Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 11

20 An analysis by McArthur et al. focused on studies of of the findings of the National and reports supportive 85 phonics training for children, adolescents, and adults Reading Panel meta-analysis. readers. Their tight criteria as ‘low-progress’ classes The National Inquiry into Teaching Literacy in Australia for acceptable research designs led to only 11 studies in 2005: in the analysis. They found that phonics instruction 2. The Committee recommends that teachers had “statistically for non-word effects significant provide systematic, direct and explicit reading accuracy (large effect), word reading accuracy phonics instruction so that children master (moderate effect), and letter-sound knowledge (small- the essential alphabetic code-breaking to-moderate effect). For several other outcomes, there skills required for foundational reading were small or moderate effect sizes that did not reach 86 proficiency. statistical significance but may be meaningful: word spelling, reading fluency, phonological output, and The ‘Rose’ review in England in 2006: 92 reading comprehension.” 4.16 “The evidence is clear that the teaching The synthetic approach has been exciting much interest of systematic synthetic phonics is the most due to some very powerful and long-lasting effects effective way of teaching young children to 93 In reported from Clackmannanshire in Scotland. read, particularly for those at risk of having Scotland, 300 school beginners were taught by either 87 problems with reading.” synthetic or analytic phonics programs for 20 minutes per day over an intensive 16-week period from school 51. “The case for systematic phonic work is commencement. All students completed the programs overwhelming and much strengthened by by the end of their first year. They were then re-assessed a synthetic approach, the key features of annually. which are to teach beginner readers: “In our version of synthetic phonics children • grapheme/phoneme (letter/sound) use magnetic letters to build up words and correspondences (the alphabetic principle) to help them understand how letter sounds in a clearly defined, incremental sequence can be blended together to pronounce the words. In order to read a word, the • to apply the highly important skill of blending appropriate magnetic letters are set out; (synthesising) phonemes in order, all through the children then blend the letter sounds a word to read it together, smoothly co-articulating them, to apply the skills of segmenting words into • while pushing the letters together. The their constituent phonemes to spell approach is also used for learning to spell (and to reinforce blending for reading). The • that blending and segmenting are reversible 88 children listen to a spoken word, select the processes. letters for the sounds, and then push the Individual studies have come to similar conclusions. A letters together, sounding and blending them large scale study by Barbara Foorman and colleagues to pronounce the word. Consonant blends from the University of Houston found that synthetic, are not explicitly taught at all as they can be systematic phonics was by far the most effective read by blending, although digraphs (i.e. a 89 It was also more effective in reducing the approach. phoneme represented by two letters, such as occurrence of reading problems than any of the one- 94 ‘sh’, ‘th’, ‘ai’, ‘oa’) are taught.” on-one tutorial programs that were evaluated, including are consistent both with Recovery. Reading Her findings by At the end of the first year, those who were taught currently accepted theories of reading development the synthetic phonics method were seven months above and instruction, and with other empirical research their chronological age and similarly advanced beyond emphasising student outcome measures. their analytically taught peers. In the 2003 follow-up, was three- ability word-reading group’s the synthetic An Australian study by Christensen and Bowey found and-a-half years ahead of the analytic group, and almost clear advantages for systematic synthetic phonics over two years ahead in spelling. Disadvantaged children analytic phonics in reading and spelling for the full range achieved a similar rate of progress. Unaccountably, the 90 They also of students in their second year of school. progress of boys exceeded that of girls (by 11 months), noted that those in the analytic phonics group tended and only 5.6% of the students taught synthetic phonics to focus only upon the initial letter of words in their at the five-year in word reading were behind follow-up. attempts to decode, rather than a complete decoding In a longer term follow-up, students taught by the two of all the letters in the word as the synthetic group had methods were re-assessed at age 10. been taught to do. It has been suggested that because analytic approaches include a strong sight word element “Overall, the group taught by synthetic in initial teaching, student confusion between whether to phonics had better word reading, spelling, employ whole word or initial letter strategies may lead and reading comprehension. ... It was found 91 to guessing or only partial decoding attempts. in Study 1 that, after 6 years at school, About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 12 | Read

21 At-risk students require careful systematic instruction in children taught by the synthetic phonics approach read words, spelt words and had individual letter-sound correspondences, and developing skills significantly reading comprehension them requires teachers to explicitly isolate the phoneme in advance of those taught by the analytic from the word (This “mmm” sound matches this letter: phonics method. This shows that despite ). At-risk students also need ample practice of these m English being an opaque orthography, sounds in isolation from stories if they are to build a children are not impaired when taught by memory of each sound-symbol relationship. an approach to reading that is common in It is necessary to teach at least 40-50 such associations, transparent orthographies. ... Maintaining and to provide stories in which these associations are the gain in word reading for age would have of teaching beneficial. The restriction to authentic texts been noteworthy, but in fact it increased over precludes the use of controlled vocabulary stories — time, leading to a high level of attainment at confidence the very ones that will build students’ in 95 the age of 10.” the decoding strategies which they have been taught. controlled Cheatham and Allor analysed seven studies of vocabulary: Phonics should be taught early “... decodability is a critical characteristic By the second year of schooling there are already of early reading text as it increases the differences in the amount of reading in which students likelihood that students will use a decoding engage. The fast starters read more, thereby enhancing in immediate and results strategy benefits, both their ease and enjoyment of reading. Further, they particularly in regard to accuracy. ... increase their associated skills in spelling, vocabulary, 96 Theoretical research and empirical evidence world knowledge, and comprehension. In contrast, support the need for students to apply those whose initial progress lags are more likely to repeat phonics skills in connected text. The evidence grades, be referred for special education intervention, is very clear that decodable text positively become disheartened, and disengaged from reading with 101 impacts early reading progress.” its subsequent academic consequences. This decline towards the achievement gulf known as the Matthew Flooding children with an uncontrolled array of words Effect (rich get richer, poor get poorer) commences in text reading does no favours for struggling students; 98 97 early. Hence, the advice phonics first and fast . it forces them to guess from context (a strategy still “... earlier intervention led to significantly promoted in some education systems). Even good better outcomes than the same interventions find that contextual guessing readers is accurate on begun later in kindergarten. ... First, students for every only one occasion four or five times it is 102 with poorly developed English language, attempted. Guessing is a hallmark of poor readers — 103 whether the deficit is related to experience good readers abandon it as moribund. The end result and exposure, to cognitive development, or is that struggling students are burdened with a limp to learning English as a second language, strategy—one that fails them regularly when they most responded well to instruction very similar need it. to what the field considers in best practice that it is valuable implies model in context’ The ‘phonics Specifically, kindergarten literacy instruction. to mix sound-spelling instruction with comprehension intervention that focuses on letter knowledge, activities. In the early years of schooling, students are phonemic awareness, the alphabetic vastly superior in oral comprehension compared to principle, and oral language appears to be written comprehension. Children enter school knowing successful for the majority of students with thousands of words, but it is some years before their 99 limited vocabulary in English.” written vocabulary matches their oral lexicon. Both written and oral language development are appropriate emphases for instruction, but given the wide initial Phonics and at-risk children disparity, it is more effective to address them separately. Many students have great difficulty in appreciating Thus, the use of teacher-read stories is an appropriate individual sound-spelling relationships if their only vehicle for oral comprehension, and allows for a level of opportunities to master them occur at variable intervals, language complexity which students could not attain if and solely within a story context. In a story, the primary the stories were presented in written form. focus is quite properly on story comprehension not The relatively undeveloped decoding skill requires word structure, so restricting the opportunity to focus simpler text to allow the development of the competence on word parts to such activities is both distracting and and confidence objective — needed for the ultimate ineffective. The de Graaf et al. study found that with proficiency. comprehension oral/written equivalent the same curriculum their systematic-phonics group Those arguing that the two are inextricable have significantly progressed more than did the unsystematic confused process with objective, and compromise the phonemic training group on follow-up of the students’ 100 development of both oral and written language. awareness, spelling, and reading skills. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 13

22 It is now accepted that for struggling readers, the Phonics and struggling readers intensity of instruction is very important. do not find it easy to alter the inefficient Older students “Students who are behind do not learn more strategies over time. Even at risk entrenched they’ve in the same amount of time as students who students in Year 1 may require extensive support. are ahead. Catch-up growth is driven by Abbott et al. estimated that about 2.5 hours per day for proportional increases in direct instructional two years is the level of intensity needed for some of to time. Catch-up growth is so difficult these students. This intervention includes whole class 104 achieve that it can be the product only of and small group programs. 107 quality instruction in great quantity.” In later primary and into the secondary years, the decoding problem has commonly broadened as predicted Phonics is essential for struggling readers, as well as 108 by the Matthew Effects mentioned earlier. Their needs students with learning disabilities including dyslexia, 109 identified by now encompass all the components students with intellectual disabilities, and students for 110 the National Reading Panel, along with additional whom English is not their first language. motivational issues. In their analyses of interventions 105 with this cohort, Vaughn et al. and Scammacca 106 et al. found that only those multifocal, intensive interventions had any significant impact. The need for systematic synthetic phonics should be included as part of the multiple reading component approach as word level problems remain unresolved. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 14 | Read

23 Fluency coherent sound representations, unitizing What is reading fluency? those sound components into recognizable wholes, and automatically accessing lexical to read accurately, is the ability fluency Reading representations, processing meaningful 111 quickly and expressively. connections within and between sentences, relating text meaning to prior information, and making inferences to supply missing 113 by the fluency named Why is reading as important information.” 112 National Reading Panel? Surely the purpose of reading Despite the complex coordination of processes required, is to comprehend the meaning of the written word. Why the conversion of print to elegant speech appears is speed so important? effortless. It is breathtaking when you stop to think Fluency in any activity is achieved largely through about it, yet it is largely taken for granted. By contrast, aloud reading practice. Listening to fluent readers a to listen to a low progress reader struggle with text for the first time, one first notices an easy passage demonstrates what happens when the coordinated speech rhythm, with few errors or regressions to prior processes don't occur. The reading is slow, halting, words to assist self-correction. One can detect changes error-prone and it is obvious that the reader is unlikely in their volume and pitch, and be aware of inserted to understand what has been read. grammatically appropriate pauses and emphases that help to guide both reader and listener towards the Oral reading text passages fluency refers to reading meaning. intended author’s there is evident Because aloud. When students first begin to read, their efforts at grammatical attention to the passage’s structure, it decoding consume most of their attentional resources, is clear that to be able to achieve this print to speech and their reading will be tentative rather than smooth. conversion the reader must be comprehending the As their familiarity with written words increases, their author’s meaning on-the-fly. One has to know the reading rate increases. When students reach about 80 meaning and the syntax in order to insert the pauses words correct per minute (wcpm) on age-appropriate and emphases appropriately. text, they are considered to have achieved ‘automaticity’ 114 and be classed as independent readers. By about Year The complexity involved is described by reading Three, an average the will approach fluency reader’s researchers Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, and Jenkins: 115 average speech rate of 120-150 words per minute. “Oral reading fluency represents a of most skills, practice For fluency, as with development complicated, multifaceted performance that is the key. As they progress with their understanding of entails, for example, a reader’s perceptual the function of the alphabet, students begin to appreciate skill at automatically translating letters into Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 15

24 126 that each time they decode an unfamiliar word its reported correlations as high as .91 for older students. 116 recognition subsequently becomes easier and faster. with Oral reading correlate measures fluency better Practising decoding enables them to become adept at reading comprehension tests than those same tests 127 storing letter-patterns — orthographic information that correlate with each other. can dramatically hasten word recognition of these and fluency between Oral reading acts as the link or bridge 117 These are not simply visual images, as are new words. 128 word reading and reading comprehension, and pictographs, but are alphabetic sequences. reading to be the have been shown difficulties fluency It is in reaching the stage of automaticity that the single biggest concern for more than 90% of children apparent magic of skilled reading becomes evident – 129 with under-developed reading comprehension. These whole words are recognised as quickly as are individual a causal findings suggest, but don’t demonstrate, letters. The actual process of reading, of transforming the have confirmed connection; however, recent studies appears squiggles into language, ― transparent strong impact of this automaticity of processes on reading that is, the words seem to leap off the page and 130 boost to comprehension An additional comprehension. into consciousness without any noticeable effort or gain access readers is that fluent from fluency arising 118 strategy. According to Begeny et al. this level of to more vocabulary readers, by than do less fluent development should be evident during Year 2 for of their greater virtue volume of reading. So, fluency 119 average readers. The apparent effortlessness of fluent comprehension via increased influences also indirectly reading belies the complex synchronisation of a variety 131 vocabulary growth. 120 include the These of cognitive and textual processes. orthographic, phonological, and semantic processes is The relationship of fluency to reading comprehension necessary for identifying words, and the grammatical, exemplified below. Researchers compared in the graph syntactic, and semantic linguistic processes necessary on the Dynamic performance readers’ third grade 121 . for making sense of connected text Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) measure of Oral Reading Fluency to their scores on 132 state assessments of reading comprehension. They How automaticity aids comprehension found high correlations, as did other similar analyses Reading demands that numerous cognitive processes with the North Carolina end-of-grade assessment and are simultaneously managed by the reader. Prior to 133 in Michigan. automatization, this produces a heavy load on working memory ― to both hold information and deal with it. The FCAT passmark is a score of 280. For students Working memory is a limited resource, and too much is below whose fluency 80 wcpm, the vast majority fall complexity can be overwhelming. When cognitive below the passmark (see in the lower left segment). processes become automatic through practice, there For students reading between 80 and 110 wcpm (see is a reduced load on a reader’s working memory. This the centre column) about half fall above and below is because the assets required now reside in long term the passmark. For students above 110 wcpm, the vast memory and are instantly accessible with minimal effort. majority passed the FCAT comprehension test. For those 122 For The explanation is known as Cognitive Load Theory. fluency 110 wcpm, only whose students was at or above beginners and struggling readers, the heavy cognitive 9% of these students were reading below grade level load leaves few resources available for comprehension; on the state reading comprehension test (FCAT). By is upon achieving sufficient fluency the reader however, contrast, 81% of those students who scored below 80 free to concentrate on the extraction of meaning. wcpm failed the comprehension test. The issue of variation in the effort required to make Figure 2: The relationship between oral reading sense of print has been addressed by employing neuro- fluency and reading comprehension. imaging techniques when both capable and struggling students are engaged in reading. Richards et al. noted that the low progress readers used four to five times as much physical energy (oxygen, glucose) as the capable readers do in order to complete the same phonologically- 123 based reading tasks. This difference was not observed when non-language tasks were presented. It is unsurprising that struggling students claim that reading is too hard, and reduced motivation to read becomes a serious secondary obstacle for dysfluent readers. Oral reading fluency is related to reading comprehension fluency Oral reading to be strongly has been found 124 Shinn, Good, . related to reading comprehension Knutson, Tilly, and Collins found oral reading fluency in the early grades was as valid a measure of reading 125 Source: Barger (2003) comprehension as of decoding ability. Others have About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 16 | Read

25 narrative, expository, poetry, song lyrics, jokes, and so Effective fluency teaching on. Teachers should both model and expect expression Effective teachers model the fluency strategies, teach 141 in reading these passages. explicitly, maximise student time on task, and provide 134 Repeated reading can be individualised through the small group individualised instruction as required. use of parents, para-professionals, and computers to The Begeny et al. analysis of effective programs added monitor the multiple repetitions of words or passages. these components: cueing students to read with cost beneficial, The use of computers is attractive, and expression and comprehension, providing systematic can be more motivating for students than are teacher- criteria to determine error-correction, fluency using 142 presented programs. how many passage repetitions are required beyond the standard three times, having clear written protocols The National Reading Panel reported on the effectiveness that determine which activities are provided and of repeated oral reading: progress, the students’ and supporting when, graphing “...repeated reading and other procedures student effort via praise and structured reinforcement that have students reading passages orally 135 with those of findings These are consonant schedules. multiple times while receiving guidance or the National Reading Panel: feedback from peers, parents, or teachers The demonstrated effectiveness of guided “ are effective in improving a variety of oral reading compared to the lack of reading skills...These procedures help demonstrated effectiveness of strategies ability, reading students’ improve at least encouraging independent silent reading through grade 5, and they help improve the suggests the importance of explicit compared reading of students with learning problems to more implicit instructional approaches for much later than this. ... (And they) tended 136 improving reading fluency.” recognition, word to improve fluency (speed and accuracy of oral reading), and Evidence-based teaching approaches that include 143 comprehension with most groups.” 137 component, a fluency such as MULTILIT and the Corrective Reading program, have demonstrated their Since the NRP there have been six major reviews of the effectiveness in this domain but have not yet achieved intervention oral reading with five literature, repeated 138 There is the mainstream recognition they deserve. reviews offering support to the method and one review 144 much to gain for our education system in addressing the unsupportive. reading fluency component of the five keys to reading. has been a popular literacy activity in Silent reading of fluency intention The general is to assist programs Australian schools for decades, under several names students the value of more fluent reading, to appreciate such as uninterrupted sustained silent reading (USSR) and to provide regular opportunities for them to test and Drop Everything and Read (DEAR). The activity and chart their developing rate and accuracy. Various sounds intuitively attractive, particularly as a means including to assist fluency, have been employed methods of encouraging wider and more frequent recreational repeated reading, speed drills, computer-guided reading A concern has always objective. ― a worthwhile 139 been, for struggling readers in particular, that they may practice, and rapid word recognition charts. simply entrench their uncorrected errors; and that there reading Because letter, well established fluency requires is no obvious way to detect whether they are, in fact, word part, and whole word recognition, activities have reading during this period. included flash cards that are either presented for brief and silent reading fluency the NRP programs, Regarding durations, or incorporate a timing system to chart was guarded due to the lack of well-designed studies how long it takes to complete a card. The aim is both available for their analysis. to evaluate and promote speed of recognition of these 140 word parts, and whole words. At the letter fluency, “With regard students of having to the efficacy passage level, choral reading of short texts in which the engage in independent silent reading with whole class reads a short passage in unison with the minimal guidance or feedback, the Panel was teacher is another common approach. Partner reading unable between relationship to find a positive pairs students to take turns reading aloud to each other. programs and instruction that encourage Usually, a more fluent reader is paired with a less fluent large amounts of independent reading and reader. improvements in reading achievement, 145 including fluency.” Repeated reading vs silent reading For struggling readers, every instructional minute is of texts remains the most frequently Repeated reading precious; and in an evidence-based perspective, time employed strategy. This involves multiple readings of is better spent on activities with known associations the same text with feedback, increasing in speed until a in this progress. with fluency A crucial component criterion is reached, for example, a 20% improvement. perspective is that these students are engaged in the texts should be brief ― When using passages, structured, monitored activities if they are to develop 146 ― and at a difficulty words 100-200 around level that the fluency skills required for comprehension. Future allows about 95% correct reading. Texts can vary, from research may identify the circumstances under which Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 17

26 may be a beneficial use of time. However, silent reading is a necessary for fluency precondition accuracy Improved gains, and certainly contributes to such gains. However, it appears thus far that silent reading is best reserved providing solely a decoding focus seems insufficient for average and above average readers. component a fluency adding unless for some students also forms part of the multi-component intervention for Early assessment for effective those whose reading progress is compromised. Allowing intervention that strong fluency gains are difficult to obtain without intense longer-term programs, particularly among older components to Fluency the most difficult is among struggling students, even relatively small increases are 147 As with the rectify among older struggling students. valuable because they add to reading comprehension other Reading by the National identified components and also to motivation toward reading, a quality known Panel, intervening early when a student displays slow 157 to increase time spent in reading. in oral reading fluency progress is more efficient and 148 effective than are later attempts. from For some students, fluency may develop simply practice when students’ at reading, but can be enhanced It is generally accepted that fluency with grade level attention is drawn to the goal of increasing their 149 the first and third years. text should occur between reading speed. The greater the volume of appropriately Thus, screening and regular monitoring are critical constructed text read at a student’s reading independent of fluency the development for ensuring prerequisites is likely the more rapidly level (95% accuracy), fluency 150 . over this period. 158 to develop. Students whose fluency does not develop normally support, additional significant may require a Both standardised and informal assessments of oral overlooked unless regular circumstance fluency easily reading accuracy and rate are recommended in the 151 checks are an element in the reading program. National Reading Panel Report and in Australian 152 National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy. The Intervention has not been as effective with older report also recommends guided oral reading as a valuable 159 It requires far more intensity and duration students. fluency enhancing activity, yet acknowledges that both 160 than that for younger students. Nevertheless, progress fluency and instruction are notably absent assessment is achievable for older students when systematic from the reading curricula of many schools, and the research-validated approaches are well implemented 161 panel recommended that the topic should be included in over an extended period. In the Rasinski, Homan, and teacher education curricula. Biggs analysis, best results for struggling students arose from direct instruction in all of the skills underlying It has been noted that such students who struggle with 162 The Galuschka, Ise, Krick, and Schulte- fluency. awareness fluency with phonemic display problems Korne meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of in preschool, and subsequently with decoding of approaches for children and adolescents with reading 153 Another pseudowords (i.e. phonics skill) . finding is disabilities found that to be effective, treatment should that letter-naming and letter-sound fluency in preschool 163 on fluency However, when activities. not focus solely 154 subsequent oral reading fluency. predicted If these fluency and systematic phonics are combined the effects upon school skills are assessed the first entry or during can be very helpful to these students. year of schooling, a plan can be established for careful Of course, older students may also require attention to fluency monitoring of the at-risk cohort. vocabulary enhancement, metacognitive strategies, and, possibly, motivational supports — the Matthew effects Effective intervention added having For example, burden. to the student’s their to discard persuading it can be difficult students of fluency the mechanisms that underlie The deficits existing focus on context-and-initial-letters in favour of have been less studied than other aspects of reading careful attention to all the letters and their positions in 155 until recently. This suggests that there are likely to words as it usually involves a temporary slowing of the be more effective strategies developed as research 164 reading rate. However, the intensive daily students’ improving — while At present, progresses. fluency practice over a period of a year or more is eventually possible and worthwhile — has been a stumbling block considered worthwhile by the students when they begin for many students whose accuracy can been fairly readily to appreciate that reading actually can be enjoyable and 156 increased by effective evidence-based interventions. 165 meaningful. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 18 | Read

27 Vocabulary during the early years. Knowledge of What is vocabulary? vocabulary meanings affects children’s abilities to understand and use words Vocabulary refers to the words children need to appropriately during the language acts of know to comprehend and communicate. Oral listening, speaking, reading, and writing. vocabulary is the words children recognise or use Such knowledge influences the complexities in listening and speaking. Reading vocabulary is how thinking, and nuances of children’s the words children recognise or use in reading and they communicate in the oral and written 166 writing. languages, and how well they will understand printed texts. ... Unless children develop strong vocabularies early in life and continue to deepen and broaden their vocabulary The National Reading Panel included vocabulary as knowledge throughout the schooling years, an essential component of a comprehensive reading in will predictably they face difficulty 167 program. of corpus has significant Vocabulary understanding what they read, will not use research. Hairrell, Rupley, and Simmons documented advanced and mature words in their writing, six reviews and two meta-analyses published between will have problems with academic subjects, 168 across from age groups 1998 and 2009. The findings will perform poorly on national achievement preschool through to Year 12 highlighted how important tests, and will fall steadily behind their more was early vocabulary knowledge and hence instruction 170 vocabulary-proficient peers.” to academic success. The US National Assessment of Educational Practice reports also reiterate the know a word What does it mean to ? Developing a 169 significance of vocabulary in reading attainment. vocabulary is an incremental process in which there are degrees of knowing. Students initially hear a word The importance of vocabulary development for reading as foreign to them. They may hear the word again has been well described by Sinatra, Zygouris-Coe, and somewhere, but still have no idea what it means. Dasinger. They may make some strategic guesses and derive “The process of acquiring and using words an inkling of the meaning based upon the differing in oral and written contexts is a life-long being told, heard it. Through they’ve contexts in which or by checking a definition, they arrive at a meaning learning process that begins quite critically Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 19

28 for the word and its appropriate contexts. Finally, they While recognising that genetic influences play a part in are able to employ the word appropriately in speech determining who will thrive and who will struggle, in the 171 Students gradually learn that many and writing. years prior to early primary school, the environmental words have the quality of more than one meaning far exceed on vocabulary influences those development 181 (polysemy). They learn that some words are common, due to genetics. Research over the past 20 years has some rare, some words frequently go along with others, shown the role of parental interactions with children some words share similarity of construction and have thought. than originally to be even more significant related meaning. Hart and Risley showed, through their observation studies, vast differences between parents in the level of Vocabulary is wide, complex, and deep. There is a whole with their children in the first three interaction language network underlying the words we use, not simply a huge years. Some of these differences were associated with list of unrelated words. 182 Children from families whose parents worked in SES. a profession heard 30 million more words by age three, Vocabulary predicts later reading and developed a spoken vocabulary more than twice 183 The average as large as their less advantaged peers. development growth of vocabulary is spectacular — from around 200 The most obvious application of vocabulary in reading 184 This words at age two up to 20,000 words by age eight. is to enable reading comprehension. It is clear that avalanche is dependent upon stimulation to commence, knowledge of word meanings is essential if a reader is and important catalysts for this growth are parent-child to comprehend what has been decoded in a text. This conversations and language interactions, including story knowledge beyond simple extends of words definition reading. to it acting as a cue to information about the word, and to make sense of any communication in which the word Adding detail to the conversations research, Weisleder is immersed. It is likely that vocabulary exerts a direct and Fernald noted that it was speech directed to a child effect on reading because early vocabulary level is a growth in vocabulary that was significant rather than better predictor of later reading comprehension than , presumably because of the overheard speech simply 172 is early listening comprehension level. In fact, it is attention-drawing salience to the child of speech directly 185 the most powerful pre-school predictor of early reading Fernald, Marchman, and Weisleder spoken to the child. 173 for reading comprehension. Beyond its significance reported that, over the period from age 18 months to comprehension, word knowledge has an impact on three years, children from wealthier homes learned 30% 174 and thinking, speaking, and writing throughout life, more words than did the children from homes in low 175 186 perhaps, even on cognitive development. Hoff added that language minority children SES areas. 187 As early as 18 face similar risk to their low SES peers. Early vocabulary acquisition, prior to preschool, has been can be detected. By deficits of age, vocabulary months demonstrated to be particularly important because of its age two, some students are already six months delayed, relationship to subsequent reading progress throughout and by the time they reach school, they may be as far as 176 Additionally, it appears to play a role the school years. two years behind their peers on standardised language in the development of phonemic awareness, a quality 188 tests. associated with decoding development. The mechanism seems to relate to the manner in which children begin Given the recognised extent to which parental language to gradually appreciate the sound structure of words interaction promotes child language development, it when their attention is directed to sound rather than to is apparent that many children raised in impoverished meaning. The more words they know that have similar circumstances may also be at risk of long term inhibited 189 sounds, such as sleep and sleet, the more they attend language development that leads to school failure. to the slight differences in sound between such words, and they continue to build more accurate phonological Shared reading at home representations. Their sensitivity to the sounds in speech grows, and ultimately they achieve phonemic awareness, Even when students do begin attending school, they in part due to having access to a wide range of words spend five times as long at home and in the community 177 190 in their vocabulary. Early vocabulary gaps tend to not as they do in class. Home-based language intervention only persist over time, but also evoke further disparities has enormous potential, but has yet to have a major 178 in students’ subsequent educational careers. national impact. The Reach Out and Read shared book 191 program has been in operation in the US since 1989. of infants’ the nurturing from It encourages language Vocabulary development in the years birth through talking, singing, and playing, and it also prior to school offers guidance and books to parents encouraging reading aloud to infants and toddlers. It has numerous The 2009 Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) 192 A What Works on its efficacy. studies research showed that 23% of children were vulnerable in language Clearinghouse review of shared book programs covered skills and that 25% were vulnerable in communication 179 eight studies that met their criteria, and reported the skills. The Oral Language Supporting Early Literacy studies produced mixed effects on language, some report indicated that on school entry approximately 20% worthwhile others not. There were only small effects on of Australian students in the vocabulary are deficient other literacy components, such as alphabetics, reading domain, and in disadvantaged areas this percentage 180 193 rises to near 30%. comprehension, and phonemic awareness. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 20 | Read

29 operation and Development, (OECD) reported research Recent research on reading to young children emphasises indicating that, by age 15, children who had attended the need to include the child in the reading activity, rather pre-school were a year ahead in academic achievement than solely reading books aloud. Hence the expression 202 of those children who had not experienced pre-school. shared reading. Just as phonemic awareness activities are enhanced by addressing the alphabetic nature of our Two qualities that have been shown to be important in written language, so too is reading aloud to children. programs programs preschool of a year’s are: longer Reading aloud may be enjoyable and an excellent family to have a significant are needed duration and impact, activity, but of itself it appears the literacy not to benefit need to be delivered by well qualified those programs development of all children. However, if children are able 203 personnel. Such requirements are not easily met, to see the print, and have the function of letters, words, but short term programs provided by unskilled staff are and sounds made explicit to them then the positive 204 unlikely to have the desired effect. 194 aspects Other include impact is enhanced. beneficial Greenwood et al. noted several issues to be addressed in exposure to more complex or rare words in books than 205 Despite an increased preschool vocabulary education. are found in general conversation, and the opportunity focus on academics, research studies (including a for discussion about the text meaning, promoting further 195 number of randomised controlled trials) have not found parent-child beneficial subsequent communication. improvement significant as a consequence in language In a study by Treiman et al. children of parents who of most of the more popular programs, though teacher included in their shared reading conversations the initial development programs focused on alphabetics have letter of their child’s first name tended to be superior 196 experienced success in that domain. The results for in their first year of school. readers So the emphasis disadvantaged have been less children’s vocabulary for parents is on natural conversations with children, impressive, and the authors attribute this to a lack of asking questions about the story while reading books, differentiated treatment for this cohort. and helping children identify letters and words during reading time. Redressing slow early language development requires much more than is currently provided in a whole group vocabulary curriculum. They argue for explicit Early education at preschools and instruction provided at a greater intensity and childcare duration. They consider the lack of structure in implicit Dickinson, McCabe, Anastasopoulos, Feinberg, and to flounder. To improve approaches leaves this group Poe examined the relationship between phonology vocabulary instruction with these students, a Response and vocabulary in early literacy, and noted the strong to Intervention model would be the best option both correlation between early vocabulary and later reading to ensure progress is monitored and to offer the high 197 They made the point that while comprehension. level of differentiated instruction required. The structure preschool programs are beginning to pay attention to should involve repeated readings (rather than a single code-based literacy instruction, they should not neglect exposure to each text) over multiple days, with many the important role that vocabulary plays in early literacy planned opportunities for student responses. progress. So, vocabulary belongs along with code- based instruction in an effective preschool program. Early intervention at school — the The results of a recent preschool intervention study earlier the better by Fricke, Bowyer-Crane, Haley, Hulme, and Snowling demonstrated just how successful such an early focus While recognising the important role of early vocabulary 198 can be. growth in subsequent literacy development, there will a sufficient entering without school be students always Abrya, Latham, Bassok, and LoCasale-Crouch in their vocabulary store to make the most of the phonologically study of 2650 preschool students found their teachers, based instruction that forms the foundation of initial when asked to rate the importance of various skills, reading instruction. placed academic skills last in the three categories of 199 academic, or self-regulatory competencies. They The average school-age child learns about 3,000 new also found the children’s subsequent performance in 206 words per year. Unfortunately, many children with when there was a their first year of school was affected delayed vocabulary are either not detected, or are not the preschool teachers’ attitudes between misalignment provided with adequate assistance. This may be because and the teachers in their new school. This deleterious of a teacher belief in a natural developmental trajectory, effect was most dramatic for economically disadvantaged in which later maturation will cause a catch-up. This children. is not a helpful concept as the gap does not typically reduce. Vocabulary for this cohort will increase over the Reports and studies emphasise this time period as school years, but it is largely limited to gains deriving the Benevolent In Australia, beneficial. highly potentially from conversation—they do not catch up without Society in their analysis of research into early childhood intensive, extended levels of intervention. education called for a strong commitment to effective preschool programs to help redress the disadvantage “Students with low levels of initial vocabulary 200 experienced by so many children. knowledge likely require supplemental intervention in addition to classroom-based from 18 asserted that “the benefit deriving Melhuish vocabulary instruction in order to make gains months of pre-school is similar to that gained from 6 years 201 The Organisation for Economic Co- of primary school.” Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 21

30 To help develop a model of instruction for teaching similar to those of students with higher levels 207 words to at-risk beginning students, Lenfest and Reed of initial vocabulary knowledge.” designed research-based 15-minute/day supplementary deficits detected with vocabulary can be readily Students vocabulary program for whole class or small group as part of an initial screening process, and intervention 215 They selected 66 highly functional instruction. in vocabulary development included as part of their words, teaching 12 words per week over 4 sessions by O’Connor, initial Bocian, instruction. In a study per week. They used reinforcement techniques to aid Beebe-Frankenberger, and Linklater, intervention at the the students’ on-task were reviewed Words behaviour. beginning of school produced far better outcomes than in several read-alouds of the same stories. The program 208 did intervening later in that first year. In fact, twice as also incorporated home-based frequent review of many needy students whose support commenced at the words, and weekly monitoring of student word end beginning were within the average range by year’s knowledge. The program was effective, and its structure as those whose support was delayed. This intervention is similar to a Tier 2 Response to Intervention approach embedded vocabulary enrichment within the program in which all students receive the basal program, and of letter knowledge, phonemic awareness, and the the low progress students receive additional small alphabetic principle and was equally effective regardless group instruction. the students’ of whether limited vocabulary in English relies The implicit approach largely on students’ was due to a lack of language experience and exposure, own preparedness and capacity to interrogate the or to lower cognitive development, or to learning English text to derive meanings of new words. The idea is to as a second language. find clues in the context that help with the unknown Hirsch also pointed to evidence that improving has been less word’s meaning. This latter approach 216 vocabulary before age 6 was very highly associated with successful for struggling students. Additionally, word literacy success (particularly reading comprehension) meanings can be gleaned from listening, discussing, in late primary school and even into mid secondary and writing. However, Nicholson and Whyte warned 209 school. Farkas and Beron found that, for those that expecting incidental learning of words through disadvantaged students whose language development reading stories to them was only effective with above 217 was delayed by a low level of stimulation in their early Connors and Paratore refer - Ford average readers. years, intensive assistance in letters, sounds, language, to several survey research studies noting that many and word recognition was capable of at least reducing teachers spent too little time engaging in vocabulary the projected language and literacy gap they were likely discussion, instead merely suggesting synonyms, and 210 218 to experience. providing lists of words for dictionary investigation. The authors describe how reliance on these strategies has been shown to be unproductive, and the dictionary Effective vocabulary instruction approach may actually lead to imprecise and misleading Research have emphasised a multiple strategy findings understanding of word meanings. approach is necessary for vocabulary building. The The question for direct teaching is which words to features highlighted are direct instruction/explicit teach, and how many? There are differences in the teaching, guided instruction, multiple encounters of the way researchers have addressed this issue. Beck and same words in varying contexts, working with a partner 219 argue for selecting and teaching intensively McKeown or small group, story retelling, use of props or concrete those words that have both immediate utility in age- objects, comprehension and vocabulary discussion, appropriate text, but also are likely to be helpful in and ensuring vocabulary instruction is embedded in all various other contexts, while, Biemiller argues for 211 curriculum areas. 220 over volume immediate Thus, he significance. The most successful methods typically involve direct supports introducing a much larger corpus of new words teaching of vocabulary. In a randomised controlled trial, as a means of kick starting subsequent growth. Pressley, Clarke, Snowling, Truelove, and Hulme, reported that Mohan, Raphael, and Fingeret take a broader view that children’s was more development enhancing vocabulary word introduction needs to be incorporated within a 221 effective at improving reading comprehension than was multi-strategy approach. 212 It is teaching the students comprehension strategies. There is research focusing upon just which words are rare for students to struggle with reading comprehension most useful at the different stages of reading maturity. 213 if their decoding and vocabulary are well developed. By determining what corpus of words is needed to read Both explicit and implicit methods have their place but a particular literacy text, and then determining what to derive appear students less advanced more benefit ‘precursor would enhance the vocabulary readings’ from the more explicit approach. In this approach, needed for that particular text, a better understanding 222 children are taught word meanings directly, using of which words to teach becomes possible. rather definitions. than dictionary language everyday It is important for retention of word meanings into the Morphology long term store that students engage with the same 214 words frequently and in varying contexts. The use Teaching about morphology can enable students to of syntactical knowledge and morphology (root words, comprehend the meanings of new words based upon prefixes, and suffixes) making may to help with meaning their structural similarity to known words. For example, , view be included. if a student knows the meaning of the word About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 22 | Read

31 233 words a year. , then the new By Year 12, students need to know over of prefixes, and the notion pre such as can be understood without being directly preview word 100,000 words to comprehend the information in their 234 taught. Students can become word detectives. When Somehow, vocabulary needs to grow far faster texts. words share such a similarity they are known as word than schools can teach it. families, and when students are sensitised to seeking Large differences in reading practice occur, often out similarities between a target word and a similar consequent leading difficulties, upon early reading to word that they know from the same family, they are diminished exposure to words, and lowered vocabulary 223 more likely to derive the correct meaning. development. How large might be these differences in This is an area that only recently has become a focus for reading practice? enhancing vocabulary. It is also important in reading and In a study of Year One students, Allington noted that the spelling, but has had little emphasis until the late primary 224 number of words read per week ranged from 16 in the grades, if at all. Recent meta-analyses, such as by 235 225 226 less skilled group to nearly 2000 in the upper group. and Bowers, Kirby, and Deacon, Goodwin and Ahn Nagy and Anderson estimated that struggling mid- have demonstrated its value in improving literacy from the early stages, in particular for the less able students primary readers may read around 100,000 words per 236 who are unlikely to note these morphemic similarities for keen students whereas, year in school; the figure without being taught how to do so. Morphological is closer to 10,000,000, that is, a 100 fold difference. instruction has been to improve the performance of For out-of-school reading, Fielding, Wilson and Anderson students in several literacy domains, and recently this (1986) suggested a similar ratio, noting that children at 227 th has begun to include vocabulary. One program that percentile of reading ability in their Year Five the 10 teaches these relationships is called Spelling through sample read about 50,000 words per year out of school, 228 Morphographs. th while those at the 90 percentile read about 4,500,000 237 words per year. So, successful readers read more There are large differences by Grade 2 in the number 229 from the early stages, develop the habit of reading, of base words known by students. Those who are and there is a mutually supportive relationship between alert to this morphological aspect of language have a their vocabulary, fluency, their reading and their reading distinct advantage subsequently in literacy, including in 238 comprehension. vocabulary. Nagy and Anderson estimated that when a child learns a word, there are up to three related words So, while good readers are continuously increasing their in English that children will be able to understand if they vocabulary and understanding of the world through their 230 can make use of morphology to induce meanings. 239 the struggling students compromise not only reading, their vocabulary development but also their reading 240 Strategic classroom discussion Continued vocabulary development comprehension. is vitally dependent on the volume of reading, as other Strategic classroom discussion can provide “a language- potential sources, such as conversation and television to explore words’ meanings and in which rich context have much less impact on vocabulary growth than uses and to tie important vocabulary to texts and 241 231 Written language is not simply speech does reading. content.” The quality of these discussions is the written down. It employs more complex structures and major variable, but few teachers have been offered also includes far more rare words than does speech. the training needed to make optimal use of these have more rare books and children’s Even magazines procedures. It is another potentially important addition words than do adult conversation and television, and to the range of vocabulary enhancement components of a comprehensive vocabulary program. provide three times as many opportunities for the 242 learning of new words. Of course, reading volume According to Ford-Connors and Paratore, is a crude variable. What is most helpful to vocabulary “... greater student outcomes are associated growth is reading frequency and quantity, reading with teachers who emphasise rich widely, and of texts with age-appropriate complexity. language, critical thinking, and conceptual and Artelt found Dörfler, Pfost, that the most powerful content to students’ understanding; connect association with vocabulary was from choosing narrative backgrounds and experience; develop 243 (fiction) books. students’ content and strategic knowledge; The process in which children who struggle to read and emphasise instructional coherence initially then read less than those who are adept has through the links they created among 244 circle’. been described The adept group, as a ‘vicious instructional activities and within and across 232 is in a ‘virtuous circle’, and its vocabulary however, lessons and subject areas.” knowledge accelerates, group circle’ while the ‘vicious languishes, and may even fall further behind over time The role of reading practice in as the gap between their volume of reading and that of extending vocabulary development their peers continues to grow. Such students are greatly and increasingly hampered throughout their education is no Even with the most efficient instruction, there as vocabulary assumes even greater importance for possibility of directly teaching students all the words 245 Stanovich described reading comprehension over time. they need to know. The average number of new words this rich-get-richer-poor-get-poorer phenomenon as the taught in school in a year is about 300-500, yet students 246 on average increase their vocabulary by 3000–4000 Matthew Effect. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 23

32 The fate of such older students is clear and unpromising, Vocabulary and older students and the message for the education system is early Secondary school is characterised by an array of intervention saves time, money, and heartache. Later increasingly sophisticated concepts across all curriculum intervention, however difficult, is a matter of necessity. areas. Additionally, the complexity of language So, to summarise, vocabulary should be paid a greater increases, representing a challenge to students. For amount of attention because of its strong and enduring older students who struggle to read, reading volume is impact on overall reading progress. Early development low, the increasing educational demands threaten their rests initially with parents, and there are educational progress, and quality vocabulary instruction remains a resources to both raise awareness and provide suitable crucial contributor to their future. activities. Preschools can play a role, and research is increasingly demonstrating its potential impact Given what is known about the Matthew Effect, it is when evidence-based programs are instituted. While unsurprising that there is a direct relationship between vocabulary development in the very early years is the age of intervention and the increasing difficulty control, to significantly the attention beyond schools 247 and cost of providing effective intervention. Though from children’s entry point can be very beneficial. school some moderate success has been documented with Again research has shown that there are approaches 248 an systematic, explicit multi-focus interventions, than others. efficient that are more and successful additional focus on motivation is often required, as Research has also shown the continued significance of disillusionment can arise and act as a further obstacle vocabulary growth for academic success right through 249 Due to the vocabulary chasm that usually to progress. to the senior years. becomes increasingly deep in the middle primary and through the secondary grades, the level of intensity of vocabulary instruction required by students follows a 250 similarly steep gradient. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 24 | Read

33 Comprehension Poor reading comprehension has What is reading comprehension? multiple possible causes Reading comprehension is extracting and The Simple View of Reading predicts that if decoding 252 constructing meaning from written text using is compromised, so will be reading comprehension. knowledge of words, concepts, and ideas. For beginners, the most common stumbling blocks for reading comprehension are inadequate decoding 253 In a large study of first, followed by vocabulary. over 400,000 students from Year One to Three, it was We have already seen how important vocabulary is revealed that among students whose decoding and to reading comprehension, and that phonological vocabulary were developing normally, less than 1% processes Important, too, are are also significant. 254 displayed reading comprehension problems. phonics In fact, each of the five and reading fluency. components highlighted in this series is related to the However, numerous potential disruptors to skilful other components in some way. been have comprehension decoding; identified: vocabulary; syntax; working memory; making Reading is not a natural process as are speech and inferences; monitoring of comprehension; domain brain areas dedicated to language, with their specific 255 Ability to sustain knowledge; and text structure. speech and language development, so we must recruit in is also a factor called ‘attention-allocation’, attention, other brain areas and processes and have them function reading comprehension. 251 harmoniously if comprehension is to occur. We must be able to say what is on the page using accurate and by either observed comprehension Often, difficulties We must be word-level fluent (decoding). processing formal testing or from teacher observation are addressed able to assign meaning to each word (vocabulary). We by teaching reading comprehension strategies. However, need to assemble these words into sentences, attending it should not be assumed the problem is at the reading also to syntax and morphology to enable sentence comprehension strategy level until domains such as comprehension. We need to retain this information and vocabulary have been ruled out. fluent decoding while attending to subsequent sentences, continuously If there are problems at these levels, then intervening updating our understanding of the text. We must also solely at the level of reading comprehension strategies 256 make use of our knowledge of the world to supply Unless one has the will not have the desired effect. further context. resources to tackle each domain intensively at the Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 25

34 inappropriate pauses in a sentence that may occur due first to those be directed should same time, attention 257 In most cases, compromised lower order processes. re-reading errors to decoding and thus ― necessitating the reading comprehension issue will recede as the other a failure of real-time comprehension processing. When processes advance. If not, then reading comprehension to the natural flow are read with pauses unrelated words becomes a subsequent focus. of speech, comprehension is seriously compromised. For older readers, this technique loses its value, as written sentences develop a style of their own that is not the Accurate and fluent decoding same as speech. The importance of decoding is clear: accurate misreading words alters the meaning of the text, making Vocabulary comprehension less likely. One can sometimes garner the identity of troublesome words from the context; deficits decoding is established, ability Once in however, context clues are notoriously unreliable knowledge of words and language become more salient 258 266 sources of word identity. Error-prone reading is a very in comprehension. Over time, the relative influence of attention demanding process. Poor readers use four to reading fluency and lis tening comprehension (including energy in the left anterior five times as much physical vocabulary) on reading comprehension reverses. The lobe of the brain as do capable readers in completing the correlation between fluency comprehension and reading 259 same phonological tasks. falls from 0.9 to 0.77 over the Years 1 to 4, while the correlation between lis tening comprehension and Fluent decoding is also important. All readers have a reading comprehension rises from 0 .70 to 0.90 over the limited amount of attentional capacity to devote to 267 same period. the reading task. If the basic process of extracting the words from the page is laboured (slow and usually error- Wagner and Meros found that nine out of 10 Year 2 prone), readers will lose track of that which already has was fluent, but whose reading whose students decoding been read and be unable to follow the text’s sequence comprehension was inadequate, had a low vocabulary 260 268 Beginners and low progress students are of ideas. level. also relatively slow at reading passages, leading to the Initially, the number of words children understand additional obstacle to comprehension: a high demand on in speech exceeds the number of written words they working memory that leads to an inability to remember recognise, and hence vocabulary-related comprehension 261 what was in preceding sentences. So, it is unsurprising issues may be present but do not become evident in Year 1 is the fluency rate in oral reading that growth until the middle primary years. A classic study on the largest single predictor of reading comprehension in Year 'fourth grade reading slump' noted that students with 262 3, with vocabulary being the next most influential. under-developed vocabulary in Year Three had reading Attention-allocation may be a general problem for 269 comprehension problems evident by Years 4 and 5. with attention students those deficits. However, other 270 Effective early intervention can change the trajectory. students may have low working-memory capacity which Fricke, Bowyer-Crane, Haley, Hulme, and Snowling compromises their capacity to maintain information as completed a late-preschool year study with at risk 263 For this latter group, improving decoding they read. pre-schoolers in which language intervention enabled can enhance More attentional fluency comprehension. reading comprehension problems to be avoided or and memory capacity can be released when fewer 271 ameliorated in the school years. precious cognitive resources are needed to decode what is on the page. Additionally for this group, the use of non- Domain knowledge written media can be employed to teach comprehension processes and strategies as some comprehension A wide array of knowledge is not easily or quickly strategies are also involved in listening comprehension. achieved, yet it is crucial to reading comprehension. So, both listening to a text, or presenting a visual Willingham considers that a wide vocabulary and a high presentation of a narrative text, can be of value in level of background knowledge add more to reading teaching reading comprehension. comprehension over time than do comprehension 272 Compton, Miller, Elleman, and Steacy strategies. also highlighted domain knowledge as a necessary Prosody precondition for the outcomes of strategy instruction to Pressley asserts that beginning readers literally or 273 Hirsch too argued in favour of domain be optimised. listen to themselves reading to in order figuratively knowledge over reading comprehension strategies as comprehend the written sentence as though it were 274 the major focus for instruction: 264 They are then able to employ their listening spoken. “Cognitive psychologists have determined comprehension skills which are far better developed at that when a text is being understood, the this stage than is their reading comprehension capacity. reader is filling in a lot of the (or listener) Arcand So, they read in a way that is similar to speech. unstated connections between the words to that is, with et al. found that reading with expression ― create an imagined situation model based on appropriate changes in intonation and with attention domain-specific understand knowledge...To enhances reading ― to syntax and punctuation 265 language, whether written or spoken, Perhaps, more directly relevant for comprehension. we need to construct a situation model those struggling with comprehension is the insertion of About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 26 | Read

35 consisting of meanings construed from the encountered in the text might be used in the explicit words of the text as well as meanings future. Young and less skilled readers, in inferred or constructed from relevant contrast, exhibit a lack of such activity (e.g., 279 background knowledge. The spoken and Cordón & Day, 1996).” the unspoken taken together constitute the Most reasonably frequent readers will acquire at least meaning. Without this relevant, unspoken some strategies for comprehension informally. They will background knowledge, we can’t understand 275 realise it requires an active process of bringing what the text.” you know to make sense of what you read. However, Domain knowledge confers other advantages, too. as text complexity increases these simple strategies Memory is easier to build when we start from a broad Strategies may be insufficient for full comprehension. base of knowledge about a given topic. If you have no are procedures students can use to guide them in rich set of associations between aspects of a domain, unravelling At their simplest, they a text’s true meaning. is more difficult. new knowledge then adding The more who, what, where, why question type. may be of the you know, the less hard your brain has to work to They are sometimes called meta-cognitive strategies incorporate what are simply additions to you but entirely because they ask us to think about our thinking in novel to someone lacking such knowledge. means above, so Meta order to aid our understanding. we are monitoring our own thoughts using even higher cognitive processes. Effective teaching of reading comprehension skills and strategies Some of the common strategies are described by Cooper, 280 McWilliams, Boschken, and Pistochini. Fluent decoding and vocabulary are necessary skills for successful comprehension, but alone may be insufficient Teacher and students take Reciprocal teaching: for the level of reading comprehension required in later turns acting as teacher, modelling the strategies after primary and secondary schooling. For many students, reading a portion of a text. It has often been said that directly teaching reading comprehension skills is an excellent way to learn a skill is to attempt to teach it necessary, and for students older than about ten years, to others. A caveat to this approach is offered by Mason reading comprehension becomes the most concerning who noted that there can be error problems transmitted 276 focus. Willingham argues that this is the optimal time from student to student unless careful oversight is taken 277 281 to introduce comprehension strategies. by teachers, especially with low-progress students. The National Reading Panel commented about reading A task once common in schools was Summarising: comprehension: instruction in how to produce a précis – a written summary of a passage that has just been read, that “Teaching a variety of reading comprehension is brief, but contains the main thrust of the passage. strategies leads to increased learning of the Directly teaching the strategies involved in précis strategies, to of learning, to specific transfer production, along with the active processing of increased memory and understanding of new information required by the task, have also been passages, and, in some cases, to general shown to improve comprehension. Thus, learning how 278 improvements in comprehension.” to summarise helps students identify and integrate the most important information in the text. One way of determining what strategies might best be included is to consider how sophisticated readers Sentence combination: As with summarisation, having approach text: students practise combining two or more sentences 282 has been shown to enhance comprehension. Both “ Good readers are extremely active as they strategies direct closer attention to the substance of a read, as is apparent whenever excellent text, and it may be this feature that has the impact on adult readers are asked to think aloud as comprehension. they go through text. Good readers are aware of why they are reading a text, gain Questioning: This involves students in formulating their an overview of the text before reading, own question about the text that can be answered from make predictions about the upcoming text, at specific within questions text it. Initially, are directed read selectively based on their overview, information. Subsequently, this approach progresses associate ideas in text to what they already to using the text plus one’s own domain to knowledge know, note whether their predictions and produce inferential and evaluative questions. Again, the expectations about text content are being strategy scaffolds increasingly deep analysis of what met, revise their prior knowledge when one is reading. Comprehension improves when analysis new ideas conflicting compelling with prior is deeper rather than shallow. At the extreme, skim out the figure are encountered, knowledge reading would normally produce a shallow analysis. meanings of unfamiliar vocabulary based Clarifying: Students learn to monitor their on context clues, underline and reread and comprehension, and rescue the meaning that eludes make notes and paraphrase to remember them, by recourse to domain knowledge, syntax, word important points, interpret the text, evaluate meanings, or word pronunciations. Even encouraging its quality, review important points as they conclude reading, and think about how ideas students to pause when they recognise a failure Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 27

36 of comprehension is an important step in reading Effective interventions for struggling comprehension improvement. Some students disregard readers: explicit instruction in a non-comprehended sentence, hoping it will all turn out comprehension strategies okay in the end. Swanson and Sachse-Lee reported a meta-analysis : By asking What do I think will occur in this Predicting of 30 years of studies of reading comprehension 286 passage? students are orienting themselves to the task, The strongest effects occurred in interventions. and can then draw on relevant background knowledge studies that incorporated explicit instruction as their as There is also a motivational benefit, of the topic. curriculum delivery method. This entails small highly interactive groups employing a mode of instruction that students having posed the question are more likely to emphasised an initial orientation to a task, followed read on to solve the puzzle. by teacher modelling of steps when presenting new Another common strategy involves Mapping: material that had also been optimally sequenced. visualisation and graphic organisers to aid the Sufficient opportunities for student responses, corrective comprehension and recall of text meaning. Story maps feedback, massed and then spaced practice, and ongoing and concept maps provide a concrete format to assist monitoring were also elements of the effective systems. the visualisation. The intent is to support students to The ultimate objective of this demonstration-practice- seek main ideas and their supporting details, so as to review is the students’ mode internalisation of the understand the relationships between them. strategies, so that eventually they can summon up the relevant strategy as needed without further assistance. There is increasing focus on the Inference making: importance of inference-making; that is, how to use Subsequently, and increasingly, research has supported background knowledge to enable inferences to improve the systematic and explicit model of instruction and there 283 All text contains reading comprehension. a writer’s has been continued attention on what is the optimal mix assumptions about what the reader will already know. of comprehension strategies to enhance the ability of all 287 in the meaning These must be filled by the holes Hairrell et students to make sense of what they read. background knowledge of the reader or comprehension al. noted also that when teachers were provided with will not eventuate. The more relevant knowledge a reader professional development on comprehension programs student outcomes were optimal when they implemented has, the easier is the reading and the comprehension. 288 the approaches with fidelity. So, inferences must be made. Teaching how to do this because in fluency the process will lead to a reduction More recent research has been generally supportive is initially slow. However, with practice the process of the role of strategies, such as main idea strategy becomes automatic, occurring quickly and without instruction, comprehension monitoring, mnemonics, conscious attention. 289 mapping, summarisation, and questioning. Multiple 290 The strategy instruction has had strong support. How much time should be spent on teaching reading common finding across the Solis et al. cohort of studies comprehension strategies? with upper-primary school low-progress readers was the The proportion of time spent on comprehension should strong impact of the teaching method: explicit instruction be student-dependent, that is, based on need. As the that included modelling, feedback, and opportunities for texts become more complex, requiring more advanced practice. comprehension skills, so too students will differ in the Ciullo and Reutebuch provided a systematic review of degree to which they require assistance. the use of computer-based concept maps in classrooms 291 As described above, there are many interacting skills for low-progress readers in Years 4 to 8. Teachers involved in reading comprehension, but how much time is were able to successfully make use of them, and needed just for the comprehension strategies described the computer-based delivery was motivating to the students. Student comprehension was improved, but earlier, such as main idea strategy instruction, mapping, only when the teachers employed explicit instruction, summarisation, and questioning? Willingham sees the guided practice, feedback to support learning, and knowledge of comprehension strategies as a one-time taught students to use the software proficiently. only five to ten 20-30 (requiring boost to reading minute sessions) rather than being a long-term curriculum The Elbro and Buch-Iversen short, eight-lesson training topic, apart from the occasional review. He argues that study in inference-making produced a large effect on once a student has learned a range of comprehension 292 reading comprehension for the subjects. It appears strategies, there is little value in continuing with further some students already have unused comprehension 284 such teaching, particularly after about Year 7. capacities, but need direction to incorporate them into their day-to-day efforts at understanding what they Mason also noted that the effects of their strategy read. The results were impressive, even when other intervention once developed, remained stable over possibly confounding variables such as word decoding, 285 time. Yet, a self-developing system of new strategies receptive vocabulary, and verbal IQ were taken into did not eventuate. Further research is needed to consider account. whether there is a need for more complex strategies for the increasingly complex text students meet over McMaster, Espin, & van den Broek had students think time, or whether the learned strategies do not require aloud when reading passages in order to access the 293 The students who additional emphasis beyond the initial instruction. strategies they were employing. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 28 | Read

37 struggled with comprehension tended to restrict their and to combine different measures and materials and strategy paraphrasing use to one of two kinds ― frequent procedures to fully assess reading comprehension. and text repetition, or making elaborative inferences, Much of the intervention research has involved rather than choosing strategies most suitable for a experimenter-devised tests, and these have often given task. The authors believe these predilections produced larger effect sizes than have standardised are alterable, and suggest how teacher guidance may tests when evaluating the same instructional method. them more flexible make in their approach, given Experimenter-devised tests may favour the intervention the task characteristics of the current passage under group over the control group if the test items are very ― including to attend students directing consideration closely aligned to the curriculum taught, but not to the to important, highly connected parts of the text they control group. The control group may receive different are reading, and providing explicit feedback that is 302 content, or a briefer intervention. ways of processing to individual students’ responsive For the studies on question generation , the average text. effect size averaged about 0.90 for experimenter-written There appears to be an underlying commonality in tests, which is a large effect; whereas, for standardised the reader in ― they involve strategies the various tests, the average effect size was small at 0.36. The interrogating actively interacting with or the text. It pattern was similar for the multiple strategy instruction strategy is universally is also significant that no single experiments in which for experimenter-written tests the effective. Compton et al. also consider that perhaps 0.88, and for standardised tests, average effect size was it is not the content of the actual strategies that are 303 only 0.32. Clearly some consensus is needed about 294 the causal factors. Perhaps the process of employing what forms of comprehension assessment are optimal strategies evokes “deeper engagement with the text and for a specific given purpose. 295 awareness of the need to monitor comprehension.” Standardised comprehension tests are predicated on the assumption that there is a consensus on what are Older students appropriate, progressively increasing grade levels of There has been research focussing on older students. comprehension. However, there are many variables to Generally speaking, the same issues arise as they cloud interpretation of results. Grade level materials do with younger students, and similar intervention can be analysed on the basis of their readability, approaches (with age-related adaptations where usually utilising one or other algorithms based upon 296 necessary) are effective with this cohort. Scammaca word length, word prevalence, and sentence length. et al. found that well-designed interventions focussing of vocabulary levels and syntax can However, difficulty on both word level and text level issues could be equally and are not quantified across tests, vary significantly 297 effective with adolescents as with younger students. by readability measures. Are the questions literal or Similarly, Vaughn et al. noted that effective programs inferential? Inferential questions are usually considered for secondary school students offered targeted levels than literal questions, harder but both have difficulty structured reading intervention addressing variously along a continuum. A weakness, then, of comprehension comprehension, multiple reading components, and measures is that the methods chosen are only indirect 298 word-recognition strategies. of whether the reader has ‘got it’, and to what indicators extent. And each of the numerous and varied methods tried has had its own set of weaknesses, whether issues Reading comprehension is difficult to of validity (particularly for individual scores), external assess 304 Perhaps, accountability, reliability, or generalisability. future brain imaging techniques will provide more insight Given the less well developed state of research into into the process of comprehension, thereby leading to reading comprehension compared with the lower-order more precise assessment tools. aspects of reading, it is unsurprising that current testing instruments also have their problems. Comprehension Miller et al. were interested in the interplay between as there are many and assess, is difficult to observe text characteristics and reader characteristics in reading 299 processes at work simultaneously. 305 comprehension assessment. They described text ― whether variations that is, a text was cohesive, Garcia and Cain in their meta-analysis of 110 studies requiring little inference-making, how readily decodable and 42,000 readers noted differences in comprehension it was, and the complexity of vocabulary and syntax. assessment results depending on the assessment tasks variations their decoding fluency, included Student chosen and the activities students were required to 300 morphological knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, the complete. Thus, the nature of the assessment can capacity to hold previous information and integrate also influence the obtained reading profile, a finding 301 subsequent ideas, and employ inference skills, and emphasised by Keenan, Betjemann, and Olson. relevant background knowledge. The authors consider Across tests, there may be differences in the format that for assessment to guide intervention it needs to of the comprehension materials, the type of reading account for these co-variations. They too found that task comprehension task, expository versus narrative variation did indeed interact with student skills, such that passages, the information assessed (e.g., literal or some common assessment tests may produce markedly inferential questions), whether re-reading is accepted, different outcomes for a given student than did tasks whether tests are time limited or not, and whether in a different assessment tool. As tools vary in passage participants must read the test items themselves. Their recommendation is to be aware of this variation, indicates length, genre, topic, and format this finding Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 29

38 in GISA include increased construct relevant the need for the development of more sophisticated assessment devices. sources of variance, decreased construct irrelevant variance, alignment to theories As an example of improved assessments in the future, and effective instruction, and improved Halderman, and Bruce recommended Sabatini, O’Reilly, examinee motivation and engagement a more authentic scenario-based comprehension 307 (Mislevy & Sabatini, 2012).” assessment approach in which students are asked to read a range of sources to complete a particular reading Clearly, this style of comprehension assessment 306 task. is far more complex and time-consuming than the traditional read-a-passage-and-answer-some-questions The authors describe the scenario-based comprehension style. Sabatini et al. also recognised that the major assessment as: determining factor in comprehension success remained are provided with a specific “Test takers the students’ skills. Thus, they developed basic reading purpose for reading (e.g., studying for a a dual assessment that considered whether a problem test, preparing for a class presentation, was due to language-based analytic/evaluation skills etc.) and a set of materials (e.g., websites, skills that are developed component or insufficiently blogs, newspaper articles, Op Ed pieces, such as fluent decoding for success, needed skills. Hence, authoritative texts, etc.). Test takers their battery includes word recognition and decoding, progress through the materials in a vocabulary, morphological awareness, sentence structured, scaffolded way that enables them processing, efficiency of basic reading comprehension, to: demonstrate different dimensions of test ― in order reading and a traditional comprehension comprehension (e.g., conceptual and social); to ascertain the required intervention focus for students learn, remember, and organise what they who are struggling with reading comprehension. read; manage their learning through strategy To conclude, the research on reading comprehension is use; and apply, synthesise, and extrapolate less well advanced than is the research on lower-order what they have learned to satisfy their processes. However, research is continuing apace, and The benefits for reading. purpose original there are some exciting and, one hopes, fruitful lines of of properly designed and implemented innovative task designs such as those used enquiry such as those described in this paper. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 30 | Read

39 Explicit instruction What is explicit instruction? Some teaching methods are more effective than others Education has always been ready to adopt new ideas, The term explicit instruction involves the evaluation and scientific but without large-scale teacher directly instructing the students in the data analysis it was not easy to detect whether any content or skill to be learned, employing clear innovations enhanced or inhibited student progress. and unambiguous language. Teacher modelling, As recently as 2009, there have been criticisms that teacher guidance, and then students producing programs are not routinely evaluated by some education the relevant outcomes/answers with specific and 309 authorities. Perhaps that failing represents a remnant immediate feedback, is followed by scheduled is incapable of the belief that education of influencing a opportunities for practice. Student/teacher 310 student’s progress in school and beyond. interaction is high, and their responses are many. Students are made aware of the objectives, and deflated many The Coleman Report and other studies 308 what is required of them. in the educational community when they reported that what occurred in schools had little impact on Explicit instruction is also systematic: there is 311 It was argued that the effects student achievement. a carefully planned sequence for instruction, on educational outcomes of genetic inheritance, not simply a spur of the moment approach. The early childhood experiences, and subsequent family plan is constructed in a logical sequence that environment vastly outweigh school effects. That being proceeds in a hierarchy from simple to complex the case, there would be little point in stressing a objectives. There is a planned and observable particular curriculum or teaching model over any other outcome of the instructional sequence, and the since the effects would be negligible compared to other sequence commences from the point at which the outside a school’s control. variables Fortunately, this students are already competent. The sequence is 312 usually dissected into manageable chunks that are perspective has been challenged and it is now clear presented without ambiguity. on student influence can be a powerful that teaching attainment, and further that there are attainment differences associated with different teaching approaches. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 31

40 Figure 3: Cumulative effect of teacher quality A brief history of the effective teaching over three years research Attempts to enhance student attainment through factors external to the classroom have not generally produced 313 Through further research and strong outcomes. powerful statistical methods, it has become apparent aspects that system input into, for example, the financial of teaching — salaries and higher degrees for teachers influence student to strongly — have not been shown 314 Similarly, huge expenditure on modest achievement. reductions in class size has not met with improvement in 315 student outcomes in Australia and elsewhere. A major school influence on student achievement is now, clearly, classroom practice. According to Hattie, Source: Auguste, Kiln and Miller (2010) what students bring to their learning accounts for 50% of the variation of achievement; but even so, 30% of 316 the variation is still attributed to teaching variables. Wenglinsky reported a total standardised effect for because funded in the USA in the late 1960’s, arising teacher variables as 0.70, larger than the total standard of a concern about the poor educational outcomes for effect of background measures such as socio-economic 317 disadvantaged students. status (0.56). Based upon his analysis of empirical available his altered Jencks findings since the 1970s, Follow Through was aimed at the primary school earlier view, and accepted the potential of education to stage, and was designed to determine which methods 318 achievement. in student inequality significantly reduce of teaching would be most effective for disadvantaged Sanders and Rivers found that students who were in 324 students throughout their primary school career. It classes with very effective teachers (in the Rosenshine was a huge study — involving 75,000 children in 180 sense) for three years in a row achieved 50% more over the first three years of their school communities learning than those in classes with ineffective teachers life. It has been the largest educational experiment 319 over the same period. ever undertaken, extending from 1967 to 1995, at a Hanushek found that effective teachers achieve for cost of almost a billion dollars. There were comparisons 320 students a learning gain of 1.5 grade level equivalents; across 20 competing sponsors covering a broad range whereas ineffective teachers may produce a gain of only of educational philosophies. They included child- 0.5 grade level equivalents. Thus, variation in the quality directed learning, individualised instruction, language a difference of up to a full year’s of teachers may produce experience, learning styles, self-esteem development, learning growth. In Australia, Hill and Rowe observed cognitive emphasis, parent-based teaching, Direct that differences among classrooms within schools were Instruction, and behavioural teaching. Each of the 20 321 greater than differences among schools. They pointed sponsors had extensive requirements for program 325 out that these differences between classrooms are design, implementation and evaluation. important foci in improving school performance. What The models can be reduced to three distinct themes — individual teachers do in those classes is pivotal for those emphasising basic academic outcomes, cognitive 322 student learning. development, or affective development. The targeted Auguste, Kihn, and Miller reported that students at the basic skills included reading, language, spelling, writing, th 50 percentile (i.e., the average student) may differ and maths. The models that emphasised the systematic by more than 50 percentile points after three years, teaching of basic skills (Direct Instruction, and Behaviour depending on the quality of their teachers (teachers Analysis) performed by far the best across the skill areas; among the top 20% vs those among the bottom 20% most of the other models failed to produce results better 323 for each of the three years). than those of the control groups, comprising students 326 receiving usual classroom education. Project ‘Follow Through’ In reading, the Direct Instruction model, which also has a strong phonic emphasis, had the most impressive Any discussion on the history of the development of results in both academic and affective areas. Later follow explicit instruction should include a ground-breaking up studies of the DI students showed “strong consistent study known as Follow Through, a major study federally About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 32 | Read

41 Image from Education Consumers.Org long term benefits in reading” three, These are welcome developments in education research six, and nine years after the DI students completed Follow Through. The and analysis. They promote and give credence to high effects were evident in higher achievement, fewer grade find high syntheses These studies. quality routinely retentions, and more university acceptances than in impacts of explicit teaching methods, particularly for comparison groups that had traditional education in the Hattie’s instruction. meta-analysis found strong reading 327 same communities. effects on student achievement for the key components of effective, evidence-based reading instruction (effect In recent years, there have been attempts to isolate, sizes greater than 0.4) and weak effects for discovery and rank the specific practices in schools and quantify learning and whole language approaches (effect sizes classrooms that have an impact on how much students less than 0.4). learn. The intent of these exercises is to allow system authorities, principals and teachers to focus their efforts and resources on activities that are likely to yield the greatest outcomes. Table 1: Effect sizes from Hattie’s meta-analysis (2009) ―Benchmark of 0.4 for ‘real world’ impact synthesis, Visible Learning Hattie’s John , research examined the research evidence for dozens of student- Constructivist/discovery Effective, evidence- and school-related variables. Since most variables have approaches based reading instruction been found to have a positive relationship with learning outcomes, the more pertinent question is which have Phonics 0.6 Whole language 0.06 the largest impacts. Hattie posited an effect size of 0.4 Exposure to reading 0.36 Vocabulary programs that have a noticeable for variables as a benchmark ‘real 0.67 328 world difference’. Student control over learning Comprehension In addition to evaluating and rating the effectiveness 0.04 programs 0.58 of educational programs, What Works Clearinghouse Mentoring 0.15 Mastery learning 0.58 indicates the strength of the evidence to support their Worked examples 0.57 Inquiry-based teaching 0.31 of studies on the number based findings, and their Problem-based learning 0.15 Spaced practice 0.71 methodological rigor. The Australian Teaching and Feedback 0.73 Learning Toolkit, which is based on work done by the UK Education Endowment Foundation and Sutton Trust, was Questioning 0.46 329 devised as a guide for educators and administrators. Direct instruction 0.59 It adds a further piece of information — the relative cost of implementation. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 33

42 The Australian Teaching and Learning Toolkit lists academically oriented feedback to students. These phonics, reading comprehension, mastery learning and were some of the features noted among teachers who feedback among the teaching strategies with the highest achieved results above those of their peers. impact, strongest evidence-base and lowest cost of Barak Rosenshine created 10 instructional principles to implementation. assist teachers in lesson structure plans (which form the core of recommended steps for direct or explicit 335 instruction). Explicit instruction v discovery learning There are essentially two approaches to teaching. The 1. Begin a lesson with a short review of previous first is ‘explicit’ or ‘direct’— I tell you —and the second is learning. . These —You find out for yourself or ‘inquiry’ ‘discovery’ Present new material in small steps with student 2. approaches are rarely used in their extreme forms. In practice after each step. practice, the two approaches represent a continuum Ask a large number of questions and check the 3. rather than a dichotomy. Thus, there are degrees responses of all students. of explicitness in instruction through to degrees of discovery learning. 4. Provide models. There is a strong body of research supportive of a 5. Guide student practice. systematic, explicit approach generally, but particularly 6. Check for student understanding. when it involves learning of new concepts and operations, 330 By and also for students who struggle with learning. Obtain a high success rate. 7. contrast, approaches that are student-led, unsystematic, Provide scaffolds for difficult tasks. 8. and rely largely on personal discovery have not been supported by evidence. 9. Require and monitor independent practice. “After half a century of advocacy associated Engage students in weekly and monthly review. 10. with instruction using minimal guidance, it appears that there is no body of sound research that supports using the technique In recent years, there have been many studies with anyone other than the most expert highlighting both the importance of this model of students. Evidence from controlled effective teaching, and its identifying qualities. For a experimental (a.k.a. “gold standard”) studies detailed review of research in this area, see Archer and almost uniformly supports full and explicit 336 An example of such findings is below: Hughes. instructional guidance rather than partial or “The results of this study suggest that minimal guidance for novice to intermediate effective teachers whose students score learners. These findings and their associated high on standardized tests in urban school theories suggest teachers should provide their settings actively engage their students in students with clear, explicit instruction rather learning in a teacher-centered classroom. than merely assisting students in attempting 331 These teachers are consistent in following to discover knowledge themselves.” set rules and procedures resulting in instructional flow as students stay on task. Explicit instruction The teachers have developed rapport with their students through good verbal and During instructional of classroom studies the 1970’s, nonverbal communication skills. Their focus processes began in earnest. What was it that effective on instruction seems to be linked with teachers did, that was missing from the repertoires seamless classroom management. These of ineffective teachers? Attention was thus drawn to teachers are committed to helping students 332 than to learner instruction Engelmann deficits. rather learn through the use of repetition as a that a student’s argued and Witcher and Skillman, Garcia, means of ensuring student understanding of failure to learn should be viewed as a consequence 337 concepts and skills.” 333 of a failure to teach effectively. Rosenshine used the expression direct instruction to describe a set of A report on effective teaching strategies produced by instructional variables that tied teacher behaviour and the NSW Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation classroom organization to higher levels of academic (CESE) include explicit teaching among the seven 334 performance for primary school students. High levels approaches that have a high impact on student learning, of achievement were related to a number of variables— and a rigorous evidence-base for their effectiveness. among them being the amount of content covered and The report highlighted explicit phonics instruction as a mastered, the amount of student academic engaged particularly strong example. time, having an academic focus rather than an self- was first evaluated teaching Explicit during esteem emphasis, teacher-centred rather than student- in ‘Project Follow Through’, the 1960s centred classrooms, low cognitive level questions, a a ten-year study involving over 72,000 high success rate (above 80%), and immediate and About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 34 | Read

43 Further, it is implied that teacher centred instruction is students (including control groups)...This dealing that ‘when demonstrates research not compatible with good teacher/student relationships. with novel information, learners should be An additional assumption of the whole language explicitly shown what to do and how to do it’. approach is that students should learn at their own have confirmed Subsequent the studies pace, and in ways consistent with their learning style. original of the benefits about findings If these constructivist principles are accepted, then explicit teaching, which has been found to a priori preferable student centred learning becomes the be particularly effective for disadvantaged method of ensuring student success, and empirical data 343 children. One review of meta-analyses in this is unnecessary. that ‘citing an individual study area concluded to prove that direct instruction doesn’t work Minimally guided instruction is like citing a rainstorm in Tucson to prove Arizona isn’t a desert. The that southern The term ‘minimally guided instruction’ has been coined shows preponderance of evidence otherwise’. to cover those strategies that offer some guidance Another review of evidence found that the rather than constituting pure discovery. Is minimally empirical research was overwhelming and guided instruction useful in any settings? There is some 338 unambiguous. evidence that when students are of high aptitude and have already established understanding of a domain, An analysis of nine high-performing and high then minimally guided instruction can be helpful. Thus, improvement schools in Western Australia in 2015 found the level of instructional guidance should vary with that seven schools had adopted explicit instruction student need, sometimes described as differentiated pedagogy across the curriculum, and all nine schools instruction. For initial instruction in a skills/knowledge used explicit and systematic phonics instruction for area, however, systematic instruction is generally found 339 teaching reading. to be superior. Additionally, when students are not when students are not self-starters, they are inclined, Discovery learning are inclined to struggle with new learning, then again systematic instruction is generally found to be superior. Some have argued that learning by discovery is a superior form of learning, and leads to learning being One finding has been that discovery of interest retained more strongly, through students subsequently approaches typically require substantially higher levels embracing exploration as their approach, and through 344 in order to have a beneficial impact. of practice When increased student motivation. Though there have been considering the needs of low progress students there some problem solving domains in which this outcome requirement efficiency, and is a strong for instructional may occur, there is scant evidence for it as a general student learning time should be carefully conserved. 340 finding, and in the literacy domain in particular. When students have fallen behind their rate of learning is below average. If they are to catch-up it can only “Like some zombie that keeps returning from be because they are now learning faster than average, its grave, pure discovery continues to have because the other students continue to progress while an its advocates. However, anyone who takes intervention is implemented with those who are behind. an evidence-based approach to educational To achieve accelerated learning requires exemplary practice must ask the same question: Where programs that teach more in less time. That is, they are is the evidence that it works? In spite of 345 efficient in design and implementation. calls for free discovery in every decade, the 341 supporting evidence is hard to find.” One reason for the superiority of systematic instruction in most settings is offered by cognitive psychologist John as exemplified perspective, the constructivist From 346 Sweller, and is known as Cognitive Load Theory. The by the whole language philosophy, student reading demands on working memory are greater when a student progress is largely self-determined, and thus teachers 342 is engaged in their own process of discovery than when This should act not as instructors, but as facilitators. they are being taught through explicit teaching. The approach to reading assumes that children will discover act of construction is cognitively expensive. It involves the alphabetic principle through exposure to print and processes of managing attention, analysis, sequencing through their writing experiences. Within this whole and applying strategies, applying meta-knowledge and language approach, teachers are expected to react thinking processes, and holding components in memory. appropriately to student-initiated direction, rather than The additional cognitive load that is consequent upon expect students to respond to a curriculum presented in the unstructured discovery approach makes the learning a preplanned, systematic manner. The level of student more difficult, and thereby less successful. In explicit engagement determines how much learning occurs. instruction these processes have been at least partly Good relationships evoke student engagement, and completed for the student making the learning task less thus the ability to establish relationships with students 347 becomes the single most important quality for a teacher. onerous. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 35

44 Table 2: Summary of explicit teaching v discovery learning 348 Source: Gauthier and Dembele (2004). how similar are the processes we employ in reading. The importance of systematic explicit Those who read well share a distinctive neural signature, instruction in literacy development and those who do not read well also share a different but In reading, there has long been substantial agreement distinctive neural signature. among researchers about how best to initiate reading “It simply is not true that there are hundreds instruction. of ways to learn to read [...] when it comes to “A number of major studies have reading we all have roughly the same brain demonstrated the importance of direct or that imposes the same constraints and the explicit instruction to student learning. 351 same learning sequence.” Explicit = direct instruction has been shown and teaching to be efficacious the in learning under An influential report by Snow, Burns, and Griffin major components of the reading process the auspices of the US National Research Council was 352 phonics, awareness, — phonemic fluency, published in 1998. Without being overtly critical vocabulary, and comprehension (National of discovery learning, the report made clear the Institute of Child Health and Human and systematic of the of explicit significance teaching Development, 2000). Baumann and Duffy alphabetic principle, a point made even more strongly (1997) of the National Reading Research 353 by the National Reading Panel in 2000. Center summarized the key ideas that are “Beginning readers need explicit instruction instrumental in fostering motivated, lifelong and practice that lead to an appreciation that readers. Five years of research on fostering made up of smaller units spoken words are reading growth showed that reading skills of sounds, familiarity with spelling-sound and strategies can be taught effectively correspondences and common spelling and efficiently in preschool and elementary conventions and their use in identifying school reading programs when instruction is 349 printed words, “sight” recognition of frequent systematic and explicit.” words, and independent reading, including The debate over effective teaching is not simply reading aloud. Fluency should be promoted technical. Reading researchers over the years have through practice with a wide variety of well- argued that the notion of learning to read by discovery own and engaging written texts at the child’s 354 is cavalier and prejudicial to the progress of at-risk comfortable reading level.” students — those least likely to induce the alphabetic The tension between constructivist ideologies and direct principle, and who make up the majority of the children 350 teaching continues across the basic skills in education, who do not learn to read adequately. ‘Discovering’ not solely in reading development. However, the case how to read is time-wasting and fraught with risk. If it for explicit instruction over minimally guided instruction were true that everyone has a unique reading style it is strong: would be understandable, but neuroscience has shown About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 36 | Read

45 “At the current state of knowledge, it is socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, the adequate to conclude that the systematic corollary is that they are more adversely affected by the instruction of letter-sound correspondences absence of high-quality literacy instruction. and decoding strategies, and the application Genes can influence the effects of life experiences, and of these skills in reading and writing activities, the manner in which can influence those life experiences is the most effective method for improving those genes are expressed. In disadvantaged families, literacy skills of children and adolescents 60% of the variance in IQ is accounted for by the 355 with reading disabilities. environment, particularly the educational environment. This makes high quality teaching a much more important “We now know that the whole-language approach is requirement for such low progress students. Teacher all children of their socioeconomic regardless inefficient; backgrounds and early teaching benefit from explicit effectiveness varies considerably across education of the correspondences between letters and speech systems. sounds. This is a well-established fact, corroborated by “ ... high value added teachers have a different a great many classroom experiments. Furthermore, it than do low profile of instructional practices is coherent with our present understanding of how the value added teachers. Teachers in the top 356 reader’s brain works.” quartile as measured by value added scores score higher than second quartile teachers Explicit instruction is especially on all 16 elements of instruction that were important for children at risk of reading measured. The differences are statistically failure including of practices for a subset significant 364 explicit strategy instruction” It is important to note that explicit instruction in basic to all students. skills is beneficial time in Instructional Unfortunately, the disadvantaged group is less likely class is fixed, so efficiency basic skills enables in teaching to receive high quality instruction than are their more all students to learn more in less time. However, a major advantaged peers. For example, advantaged students concern with educational attainment is the gap between are more commonly situated among studious peers class on one hand, compared and the middle the affluent in orderly classes have the opportunity to learn more. with those from low-income and minority groups. Data Further, teachers are able to produce their best because from the National Assessment Program for Literacy and they are less distracted and exhausted by classroom Numeracy (NAPLAN) show that students with parents 365 management concerns. from the lowest status education and occupation groups are six to seven times more likely to fail to reach minimum “Clearly, there is a tremendous interaction reading standards than students whose parents are in effect between longitudinal exposure to 357 Similar literacy gaps are the highest status groups. ineffective teachers and effective teachers 358 found in international assessments. when crossed with prior student achievement level. A sequence of ineffective teachers found a ‘moderate’ statistical Studies have persistently with a student already low achieving is relationship between socioeconomic background and 366 educationally deadly.” literacy achievement, but there is evidence to suggest that rather than being a direct on influence causal One way to think about the particular need for high literacy, socioeconomic status is a proxy for other quality teaching for disadvantaged students is to mediating factors. In the early years, the language and consider the interaction between what the student literacy environment provided by parents is strongly brings to the learning task and what is contributed by 359 implicated. When children reach school age, the the teacher and school. 360 quality of instruction is highly salient. Learning to occur is sufficient when there is likely High-quality reading instruction can reduce literacy in the learning setting, whether provided by capital 361 In a longitudinal study of Canadian children gaps. the student or the system. The student brings (in no from Kindergarten to Grade 5 in which children were particular order) intelligence, attitude, motivation, literacy and on-going with a ‘rich’ initial provided parent prior learning, influence, resilience, attendance, program which included explicit instruction in phonemic 367 and sibling and peer history. The capital produced by awareness and phonics, initial literacy gaps associated the interaction of these student qualities may be strong, with socioeconomic status decreased with each year 362 average, or weak. of school and were no longer evident in Grade 3. In the ‘Clackmannshire gaps between no literacy study’, The system brings curriculum, teacher quality, and socioeconomic groups remained among children who infrastructure. Similarly, the system qualities may be had been given synthetic phonics instruction as part strong, average, or weak. For students who can only of a balanced literacy program, up to Grade 5 for contribute little, it is incumbent upon the system to 363 comprehension and Grade 7 for reading and spelling. provide more for that cohort than is necessary for other less needy students. Our education system struggles to beneficial are especially methods literacy If effective for struggling readers, particularly those from meet this goal of providing quality education for all. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 37

46 Figure 4: Why some students do well in the absence of effective instruction, while others struggle. Bright, engaged student compensates for low impact teaching Teachers Student contribution contribution + Average student + average impact teacher Student Teachers Learning contribution contribution + Lesser child contribution demands high impact teaching Teachers Student contribution contribution + thereby requiring less from the education system to These boxes are not necessarily immutable. For at least achieve success. The earlier these interventions are some students the improvements in their attainment introduced, the more likely that the at-risk students are wrought by successful intervention will enable them to supply more capital to subsequent learning tasks, able to reduce their demand upon the system. About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 38 | Read

47 Conclusions After thousands of hours of literacy teaching, around one existing gap between research and practice continues to widen...students will perish in four Australian children is unable to read at a basic 368 while educational researchers publish their Reading level. this is at least five estimate scientists 371 findings.” times the number of children who will have significant 369 difficulty learning As well. to read if they are taught The web has provided an access portal to vast quantities this report shows, there is an extensive and rigorous of information, but there is no guarantee of its quality. body of evidence about how children learn to read and There are many sites that claim to make use of an the most effective ways to teach them. Unfortunately, evidence base, often to sell a product. Identifying reflected in teacher this research is not always education worthwhile, trustworthy sites can be a fraught process. 370 or classroom practice. Teachers, principals and parents need to be critical and informed consumers of claims made about reading There are reams of information about the results of instruction. As cognitive scientist Daniel Willingham puts high quality educational research. However, linking this 372 it, they need to know when to trust the experts. research to the world of teachers has been problematic. Research journals are expensive, teachers have not Of course this does not mean we now know everything typically been trained to seek out and interpret these there is to know. The processes by which the foundation resources, and there often remains the thorny issue of and fluent word lower-order skills required for accurate implementation of research into effective practice. decoding are well established. There is increasing recognition of the importance of early acquisition of “First, research reports are inaccessible vocabulary and oral language It is clear that proficiency. to many practitioners. Second, there is a these skills and knowledge are powerful predictors and lack of professional norms for practitioners essential precursors of reading comprehension. Yet the to engage with research. Third, very few complex interplay of cognitive operations required for practitioners and policy makers carry out skilled and sophisticated reading comprehension, and research. Fourth, educational researchers, the most effective way to teach and assess it, need more policy makers, and practitioners seldom work and better research. in collaborative forums. Finally, research used to formulate new findings are rarely This decade could be the beginning of one of the most policies; they are rather used to support exciting periods in education history, as the sleeping giant political decisions already made. If this of educational knowledge, ignored for so long, begins Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 39

48 around education to influence systems implementing them has led to improvements the world. These effects may become evident at both a macro/policy level in learning, gives us something to work with.” level―these and at a micro/classroom have two arenas They consider a variety of options, and conclude that never been well attuned. There may develop increased multiple measures, including value-added assessments funding and demand for higher quality research: more of student learning provide the strongest evidence. longitudinal studies; better designs; and evaluations of larger scale implementations. Progress in knowledge of teaching and reading is dependent on evidence from studies that conform to the In Australia, the budgets for the provision of health and rigors of research in other disciplines where the human education services are roughly similar; however, the and economic costs of failure are high. According to funding provided for health research is about 16 times 373 Professor Keith Stanovich, that for educational research. This has made large scale exemplary studies necessarily rare in this country “An adherence to a subjective, personalized and hence much of what has been gleaned from literacy view of knowledge is what continually leads research has been from research from countries other to educational fads that could easily be than Australia. One hopes that a change in attitudes in avoided by grounding teachers and other education towards research will also lead to an increase practitioners of scientific in the importance in the volume and quality in Australia. thinking for solving educational problems. How might one begin to investigate further the skills and Nothing has retarded the cumulative growth techniques that exemplify highly effective teaching? A of knowledge in the psychology of reading review by a consortium of researchers in the UK rejected more than failure to deal with problems in a the idea that effectiveness is not measurable while 375 scientific manner.” 374 acknowledging the complexities. While more sound research can only be helpful, more “How teaching leads to learning is than forty years of research has shown a clear path to undoubtedly very complex. It may be that improve literacy rates that can be taken immediately. teaching will always be more of an art than a instruction with explicit in the five ‘keys to If provided science, and that attempts to reduce it to a literacy’ when most children from the first year of school set of component parts will always fail. If that turn five ― ‘Five from Five’ ― with effective early is the case then it is simply a free-for-all: no intervention for children who struggle, most (if not all) advice about how to teach can claim a basis children will learn to read. If the evidence on teaching in evidence. However, the fact that there are reading is adopted and implemented, there should be no some practices that have been found to be more casualties in the ‘reading wars’. implementable in real classrooms, and that About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 40 | Read

49 Endnotes of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Thomson, S 2011, Challenges for Australian 1 education. Research developments, 25, Art. 2, Assessment Center, Knoxville, TN. 2-6, p.5. http://research.acer.edu.au/resdev/ Leigh, A 2009, Estimating teacher effectiveness 10 vol25/iss25/2 from two-year changes in students’ test scores, Thomson, S, De Bortoli, L, & Buckley, S 2013, 2 Discussion Paper No. 619, Research School of Highlights from the full Australian report: PISA Social Sciences, Australian National University. 2012: How Australia measures up. Camberwell: https://www.cbe.anu.edu.au/researchpapers/ ACER, p.21. http://www.acer.edu.au/ozpisa/pisa- cepr/DP619.pdf 2012 11 Auguste, B, Kihn, P, & Miller, M 2010, Closing the 3 Australian Government Productivity Commission talent gap: Attracting and retaining the top-third 2012, Schools Workforce. http://www.pc.gov.au/ graduates to careers in teaching, McKinsey & Co. inquiries/completed/education-workforce-schools/ http://mckinseyonsociety.com/closing-the-talent- report; Leigh, A, & Ryan, C 2011, Long-run trends gap/ in school productivity: Evidence from Australia. 12 Brown, IS & Felton, RH 1990, Effects of instruction Education Finance and Policy, 6(1), 105–135. on beginning reading skills in children at risk www.andrewleigh.org/pdf/schoolproductivity.pdf for reading disability, Reading & Writing: An 4 Gould, K 2013, Securing Australia’s future: Interdisciplinary Journal, 2, 223-241; Lyon, Education. The Conversation, 19 December 2013. GR 2003, Why do some children have difficulty http://theconversation.com/securing-australias- learning to read? What can be done about it? future-education-19606 Perspectives, 29(2), The International Dyslexia Association. www.wrightslaw.com/info/read. Rorris, A, Weldon, P, Beavis, A, McKenzie, P, 5 disability.lyon.pdf; Felton, RH 1993, Effects of Bramich, M, & Deery, A 2011, Assessment of instruction on the decoding skills of children with current process for targeting of schools funding phonological-processing problems, Journal of to disadvantaged students. An Australian Council Learning Disabilities, 26, 583-589; Torgesen, JK, for Educational Research report prepared for The Wagner, R, Rashotte, C, Alexander, A, & Conway, T Review of Funding for Schooling Panel. http:// 1997, Preventative and remedial interventions for research.acer.edu.au/policy_analysis_misc/10/ children with severe reading disabilities, Learning Lyon, GR 1998, Overview of NICHD reading 6 Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8, 51- and literacy initiatives, U.S. Senate Committee 61; Torgesen, JK, Alexander, AW, Wagner, RK, on Labor and Human Resources, United States Rashotte, CA, Voeller, KKS, & Conway, T 2001, Congress, Congressional Printing Office, Intensive remedial instruction for children with Washington, D.C. severe reading disabilities, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58; Vellutino, FR, Scanlon, 7 Palmaffy, T 1997, See Dick Flunk, Policy Review, DM, Sipay, ER, Small, SG, Pratt, A, Chen, R, & 86, 32-40. Denckla, MB 1996, Cognitive profiles of difficult to 8 National Institute of Child Health and Human remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Development 2000, Report of the National Reading Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence- between cognitive and experiential deficits as based assessment of the scientific research basic causes of specific reading disability, Journal literature on reading and its implications for of Educational Psychology, 88, 601-638. reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769), 13 National Institute of Child Health and Human U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, Development 2000, Report of the National Reading D.C. www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/ Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence- documents/report.pdf based assessment of the scientific research 9 Goldhaber, D 2002, The mystery of good teaching: literature on reading and its implications for Surveying the evidence on student achievement reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769), and teachers’ characteristics, Education Next, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 2(1), 50–55; Leigh, A 2009, Estimating teacher D.C. www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/ effectiveness from two-year changes in students’ documents/report.pdf test scores, Discussion Paper No. 619, Research 14 Snow, CE, Burns, S, & Griffin, P (Eds.) 1998. School of Social Sciences, Australian National Preventing reading difficulties in young children. University. https://www.cbe.anu.edu.au/ Report of the National Research Council. researchpapers/cepr/DP619.pdf; Raj Chetty, http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/ R, Friedman, JN, & Rockoff, JE 2011, The long- reading/; Grossen, B 1997. A synthesis of term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added research on reading from the National Institute and student outcomes in adulthood, Executive of Child Health and Human Development. Summary of National Bureau of Economic http://uncw.edu/wha/hillcrest/documents/ Research Working Paper No. 17699, December ASynthesisofResearchonReadingbyBonitaGrossen. 2011. http://obs.rc.fas.harvard.edu/chetty/ pdf; Rose, J 2006, Independent review of the va_exec_summ.pdf; Sanders, W & Rivers, J 1996, teaching of early reading. Bristol: Department Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement, University for Education and Skills. http://dera.ioe. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 41

50 ac.uk/5551/2/report.pdf; Primary National analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250-287 Strategy 2006, Primary framework for literacy and 25 Ouellette, G & Haley, A 2013, One complicated mathematics, UK Department of Education and extended family: The influence of alphabetic Skills. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov. knowledge and vocabulary on phonemic uk/20100202100434/nationalstrategies.standards. awareness, Journal of Research in Reading, 36(1), dcsf.gov.uk/node/84445 29-41. 15 Primary National Strategy 2006, Primary Melby-Lervåg, M, Lyster, S.-AH, & Hulme, C 2012, 26 framework for literacy and mathematics, Phonological skills and their role in learning to UK Department of Education and Skills. read: A meta-analytic review, Psychological http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov. Bulletin, 138(2), 322-352. uk/20100202100434/nationalstrategies.standards. 27 McNamara, JK, Scissons, M, & Gutknecth, N 2011. dcsf.gov.uk/node/84445 A longitudinal study of kindergarten children at 16 Hempenstall, K 2003, The three-cueing system: risk for reading disabilities: The poor really are Trojan horse? Australian Journal of Learning getting poorer, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Disabilities, 8(3), 15-23. Hoover, WA & Gough, PB 44(4), 21-430. 1990, The simple view of reading, Reading and Ehri, LC. Nunes, SR, Willows, DM, Schuster, BV, 28 Writing: An interdisciplinary journal, 2, 127-160. Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z, Shanahan, T 2001, Phonemic http://www.homepage.psy.utexas.edu/HomePage/ awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Class/Psy338K/Gough/Chapter7/simple_view.pdf Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta- Weaver, C 1988, Reading process & practice: 17 analysis, Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250- From socio-psycholinguistics to whole language, 287. Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH. 29 Duncan, LG, Castro, SL, Defior, S, Seymour, PHK, Clark, RE, Kirschner, PA, & Sweller, J 2012, Putting 18 Baillie, S, Leybaert, J, Mousty, P, Genard, N, students on the path to learning: The case for fully Sarris, M, Porpodas, CD, Lund, R, Sigurðsson, B, guided instruction, American Educator, March 23, Þráinsdóttir, AS, Sucena, A, & Serrano, F 2013, 2012. http://www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/ Phonological development in relation to native spring2012/Clark.pdf language and literacy: Variations on a theme in six alphabetic orthographies, Cognition, 127(3), 398- 19 Marchand-Martella, N, Martella, RC, Modderman, 419. SL, Petersen, HM, & Pan, S 2013, Key areas of effective adolescent literacy programs, Education Ouellette, G & Haley, A 2013, One complicated 30 & Treatment of Children, 36(1), 161-184. extended family: The influence of alphabetic knowledge and vocabulary on phonemic Ehri, LC, Satlow, E, & Gaskins, I 2009, Grapho- 20 awareness, Journal of Research in Reading, 36(1), phonemic enrichment strengthens keyword 29-41; Smith, SB, Simmons, DC, & Kameenui, analogy instruction for struggling young readers, EJ 1995, Synthesis of research on phonological Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2), 162–191. awareness: Principles and implications for Adams, MJ 1990, Beginning to read: Thinking and 21 reading acquisition. National Center To Improve learning about print, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA; the Tools of Educators, Eugene, OR. http://eric. Johnston, RS, McGeown, S, & Watson, JE 2012, ed.gov/?id=ED386868 Long-term effects of synthetic versus analytic 31 Adams, MJ 1990, Beginning to read: Thinking phonics teaching on the reading and spelling and learning about print, MIT Press, Cambridge, ability of 10 year old boys and girls, Reading and MA; Raz, IS & Bryant, P 1990, Social background, Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25(6), 1365- phonological awareness and children’s reading, 1384. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(3), 22 National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy 209–225. 2005, Teaching reading - A review of the Adams, MJ 1990, Beginning to read: Thinking 32 evidence-based research literature on approaches and learning about print, MIT Press, Cambridge, to the teaching of literacy, particularly those that MA; Ball, EW & Blachman, BA 1991, Does are effective in assisting students with reading phoneme awareness training in kindergarten difficulties. Australian Government Department of make a difference in early word recognition Education, Science and Training. http://research. and developmental spelling? Reading Research acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?filename=2&articl Quarterly, 25, 49-66; Bradley, L & Bryant, P 1983, e=1004&context=tll_misc&type=additional Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A causal 23 Hempenstall, K 2012. Literacy and behaviour. connection, Nature, 301, 419-421; Byrne, B & National Institute for Direct Instruction. http:// Fielding-Barnsley, R 1989, Phonemic awareness nifdi.org/news/hempenstall-blog/405-literacy- and letter knowledge in the child’s acquisition of and-behaviour; Hempenstall, K 2012, Literacy the alphabetic principle, Journal of Educational and mental health, National Institute for Direct Psychology, 81, 313-321; Scarborough, HS 1998, Instruction. http://nifdi.org/news/hempenstall- Early identification of children at risk for reading blog/404-literacy-and-mental-health disabilities: Phonological awareness and some Ehri, LC, Nunes, SR, Willows, DM, Schuster, BV, 24 other promising predictors. In BK Shaprio, PJ Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z, Shanahan, T 2001, Phonemic Accardo & AJ Capute (Eds.), Specific reading awareness instruction helps children learn to read: disability: A view of the spectrum (pp. 75-119), Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta- York Press, Timonium, MD; Stuart, M, & Coltheart, About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 42 | Read

51 M 1988, Does reading develop in a sequence of 2012, Phonological skills and their role in learning stages? Cognition, 30(2), 139-181. to read: A meta-analytic review, Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 322-352; Nelson, JM, Lindstrom, Byrne, B, Fielding-Barnsley, R & Ashley, L 2000, 33 JH, Lindstrom, W, & Denis, D 2012, The structure Effects of preschool phoneme identity training of phonological processing and its relationship to after six years: Outcome level distinguished basic reading, Exceptionality: A Special Education from rate of response, Journal of Educational Journal, 20(3), 179-196; Share, DL 1995, Psychology, 92, 659-667; McNamara, JK, Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua Scissons, M, & Gutknecth, N 2011, A longitudinal non of reading acquisition, Cognition, 55, 151- study of kindergarten children at risk for reading 218. disabilities: The poor really are getting poorer, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(4), 21-430. 45 Soden-Hensler, B, Taylor, J, & Schatschneider, C 2012, Evidence for common etiological influences Byrne, B, Fielding-Barnsley, R & Ashley, L 2000, 34 on early literacy skills in kindergarten, Scientific Effects of preschool phoneme identity training Studies of Reading, 16(5), 457-474; Christopher, after six years: Outcome level distinguished ME, Hulslander, J, Byrne, B, Samuelsson, from rate of response, Journal of Educational S, Keenan, JM, Pennington, B, DeFries, JC, Psychology, 92, 659-667. Wadsworth, SJ, Willcutt, EG, & Olson, RK 2013, Catts, HW, Nielsen, DC, Bridges, MS, Liu, YS, & 35 Modeling the etiology of individual differences in Bontempo, DE 2015, Early identification of reading early reading development: Evidence for strong disabilities within an RTI framework, Journal of genetic influences, Scientific Studies of Reading, Learning Disabilities, 48(3), 281-97. 17(5), 350-368; Skeide, MA, Kirsten, H, Kraft, I, Schaadt, G, Müller, B, Neef, N, Brauer, J, Wilcke, Olson, RK, Keenan, JM, Byrne, B, & Samuelsson, S 36 A, Emmrich, F, Boltze, J, & Friederici, AD 2015, 2014, Why do children differ in their development Genetic dyslexia risk variant is related to neural of reading and related skills? Scientific Studies of connectivity patterns underlying phonological Reading, 18(1), 38-54; Skeide, MA, Kirsten, H, awareness in children, Neuroimage, 118, 414-421. Kraft, I, Schaadt, G, Müller, B, Neef, N, Brauer, J, Wilcke, A, Emmrich, F, Boltze, J, & Friederici, Hart, SA, Logan, JAR, Soden-Hensler, B, Kershaw, 46 AD 2015, Genetic dyslexia risk variant is related S, Taylor, J, & Schatschneider, C 2013, Exploring to neural connectivity patterns underlying how nature and nurture affect the development phonological awareness in children, NeuroImage, of reading: An analysis of the Florida twin project 118, 414-421. on reading, Developmental Psychology, 49(10), 1971-1981. Catts, HW, Nielsen, DC, Bridges, MS, Liu, YS, & 37 Bontempo, DE 2015, Early identification of reading 47 Byrne, B, Coventry, WL, Olson, RK, Wadsworth, disabilities within an RTI framework, Journal of SJ, Samuelsson, S, Petrill, SA, Willcutt, EG, & Learning Disabilities, 48(3), 281-97. Corley, R 2010, “Teacher effects” in early literacy Juel, C 1988, Learning to read & write: A 38 development: Evidence from a study of twins, longitudinal study of 54 children from first through Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 32–42. fourth grades, Journal of Educational Psychology, 48 Bradley, L & Bryant, P 1983, Categorizing sounds 80, 437-447. and learning to read - A causal connection, Catts, HW, Nielsen, DC, Bridges, MS, Liu, YS, & 39 Nature, 301, 419-421. Bontempo, DE 2015, Early identification of reading Bradley, L 1990, Rhyming connections in learning 49 disabilities within an RTI framework, Journal of to read and spell. In PD Pumphrey and CD Elliot Learning Disabilities, 48(3), 281-97. (Eds.), Children’s difficulties in reading, spelling 40 Hurford, DP, Schauf, JD, Bunce, L, Blaich, T, & and writing: Challenges and responses (pp. 83- Moore, K 1994, Early identification of children at 100), The Falmer Press London. risk for reading disabilities, Journal of Learning Ball, EW & Blachman, BA 1988, Phoneme 50 Disabilities, 27, 371-382. segmentation training: Effect on reading Badian, NA 1994, Preschool prediction: 41 readiness, Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 208-225; Orthographic and phonological skills, and reading, Ball, EW & Blachman, BA 1991, Does phoneme Annals of Dyslexia, 44, 3-25. awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and Majsterek, DJ, & Ellenwood, AE 1995, Phonological 42 developmental spelling? Reading Research awareness and beginning reading: Evaluation of Quarterly, 25, 49-66; Byrne, B & Fielding- a school-based screening procedure, Journal of Barnsley, R 1989, Phonemic awareness and Learning Disabilities, 28, 449-456. letter knowledge in the child’s acquisition of Stuart, M 1995, Prediction and qualitative 43 the alphabetic principle, Journal of Educational assessment of five and six-year-old children’s Psychology, 81, 313-321; Byrne, B & Fielding- reading: A longitudinal study, British Journal of Barnsley, R 1990, Acquiring the alphabetic Educational Psychology, 65, 287-296. principle: A case for teaching recognition of phoneme identity, Journal of Educational Hatcher, P, Hulme, C, & Ellis, A 1994, Ameliorating 44 Psychology, 82, 805-812; Byrne, B & Fielding- reading failure by integrating the teaching of Barnsley, R 1991, Evaluation of a program to reading and phonological skills: The phonological teach phonemic awareness to young children, linkage hypothesis, Child Development, 65, 41- 57; Melby-Lervåg, M, Lyster, S.-AH, & Hulme, C Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 451-455; Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 43

52 Victoria, 20, 37–49; Nag, S, & Snowling, MJ 2012, Byrne, B & Fielding-Barnsley, R 1993 Evaluation Reading in an alphasyllabary: Implications for a of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children: A one-year follow-up, Journal of language universal theory of learning to read, Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(5), 404-423. Educational Psychology, 85, 104-111; Byrne, B & Fielding-Barnsley, R 1995, Evaluation of a program 58 Maclean, M, Bryant, P & Bradley, L 1987, Rhyme, to teach phonemic awareness to young children: nursery rhymes and reading in early childhood. A 2- and 3- year follow-up and a new preschool Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 255-282; Moats, trial, Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 488- L, & Tolman, C 2009, Language essentials for 503; Cunningham, A 1990, Explicit vs implicit teachers of reading and spelling (LETRS): The instruction in phonemic awareness, Journal of speech sounds of English: Phonetics, phonology, Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 429-444; and phoneme awareness (Module 2). Sopris Hatcher, P, Hulme, C & Ellis, A 1994, Ameliorating West, Boston; Nithart, C, Demont, E, Metz-Lutz, reading failure by integrating the teaching of M, Majerus, S, Poncelet, M, & Leybaert, J 2011, reading and phonological skills: The phonological Early contribution of phonological awareness and linkage hypothesis, Child Development, 65, 41- later influence of phonological memory throughout 57; Lundberg, I, Frost, J & Petersen, OP 1988, reading acquisition, Journal of Research in Effects of an extensive program for stimulating Reading, 34(3), 346-363. phonological awareness in preschool children, 59 Snow, K 2012, Research news you can use: Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 263-284; Tangel, Debunking the play vs. learning dichotomy, DM & Blackman, BA 1992, Effect of phoneme National Association for the Education of Young awareness instruction on kindergarten children’s Children. http://www.naeyc.org/content/research- invented spelling, Journal of Reading Behaviour, 2, news-you-can-use-play-vs-learning 233-261. Cunningham, AE & Chen, Y 2014, Matthew 60 Ehri, LC, Nunes, SR, Willows, DM, Schuster, BV, 51 Effects: the rich get richer in literacy, Encyclopedia Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z, Shanahan, T 2001, Phonemic of Language Development, SAGE Publications Inc, awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Thousand Oaks, CA; Griffiths, Y & Stuart, M 2013, Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta- Reviewing evidence-based practice for pupils analysis, Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250- with dyslexia and literacy difficulties, Journal of 287. Research in Reading, 36(1), 96-116. National Early Literacy Panel. (2009). Developing 52 National Reading Panel 2000, Teaching children 61 Early Literacy: Report of the National Early to read: An evidence-based assessment of Literacy Panel, Executive Summary. Washington, the scientific research literature on reading DC: National Institute for Literacy. http://www. and its implications for reading instruction. nifl.gov/nifl/publications/pdf/NELPReport09.pdf U.S. Department of Health and Human 53 Galuschka, K, Ise, E, Krick, K, & Schulte-Korne, G Services, Washington, DC. http://www. 2014. Effectiveness of treatment approaches for nationalreadingpanel.org children and adolescents with reading disabilities: 62 Lyon, GR 2001, Measuring success: Using A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. assessments and accountability to raise student PLoS ONE 9(2), 1-12. e89900. doi:10.1371/ achievement. Subcommittee on Education Reform journal.pone.0089900 Committee on Education and the Workforce, 54 Goodwin, AP & Ahn, S 2013, A meta-analysis of U.S. House of Representatives Washington, D.C. morphological interventions in English: Effects http://www.reidlyon.com/edpolicy/10-measuring- on literacy outcomes for school-age children, success-using-assessments-and-accountability-to- Scientific Studies of Reading, 179(4), 257-285. raise-student-achievement.pdf 55 Duff, FJ, Hulme, C, Grainger, K, Hardwick, SJ, Byrne, B & Fielding-Barnsley, R 1991, Evaluation 63 Miles, J, & Snowling, MJ 2014, Reading and of a program to teach phonemic awareness to language intervention for children at risk of young children, Journal of Educational Psychology, dyslexia: A randomised controlled trial, Journal of 83, 451-455; Ehri, LC, Nunes, SR, Willows, DM, Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(11), 1234-43, Schuster, BV, Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z, Shanahan, T p. 1235. 2001, Phonemic awareness instruction helps 56 Castles, A & Coltheart, M 2004, Is there a causal children learn to read: Evidence from the National link from phonological awareness to success in Reading Panel’s meta-analysis, Reading Research learning to read? Cognition, 91(1), 77-111. Quarterly, 36, 250-287; Griffiths, Y & Stuart, M 2013, Reviewing evidence-based practice 57 Duncan, LG, Castro, SL, Defior, S, Seymour, PHK, for pupils with dyslexia and literacy difficulties, Baillie, S, Leybaert, J, Mousty, P, Genard, N, Journal of Research in Reading, 36(1), 96-116; Sarris, M, Porpodas, CD, Lund, R, Sigurðsson, B, Shankweiler, D, & Fowler, AE 2004, Questions Þráinsdóttir, AS, Sucena, A, & Serrano, F 2013, people ask about the role of phonological Phonological development in relation to native processes in learning to read, Reading and language and literacy: Variations on a theme in Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 483-516. six alphabetic orthographies, Cognition, 127(3), 398-419; Magloughlin, L 2010, Learning to read 64 Castles, A, Coltheart, M, Wilson, K, Valpied, J, and the development of phonological awareness: & Wedgwood, J 2009, The genesis of reading Altering our pedagogical approach. Working ability: What helps children learn letter-sound Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of correspondences? Journal of Experimental Child About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 44 | Read

53 learningfirst.org.au/s/A-new-approach.pdf Psychology, 104, 68-88. 65 Snow, CE, Burns, S & Griffin, P (Eds) 1998, 72 Ziegler, JC, Bertrand, D, Lété, B & Grainger, J Preventing reading difficulties in young children. 2014, Orthographic and phonological contributions Report of the National Research Council. pp 1-432, to reading development: Tracking developmental National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. http:// trajectories using masked priming, Developmental www.nap.edu/catalog/6023/preventing-reading- Psychology, 50(4), 1026-1036. difficulties-in-young-children 73 Shankweiler, D, Lundquist, E, Dreyer, LG, & 66 Mather, N, Bos, C, & Babur, N 2001, Perceptions Dickinson, CC 1996, Reading and spelling and knowledge of preservice and in-service difficulties in high school students: Causes teachers about early literacy instruction, Journal of and consequences, Reading and Writing: An Learning Disabilities, 34, 472-482. Interdisciplinary Journal, 8, 267-294. 67 Hammond, L. 2015, Early childhood educators’ 74 ; Yaghoub Zadeh, Z, Farnia, F, Chan, E, perceived and actual metalinguistic knowledge, Thompson, T, Cohen, N & Ungerleider, C 2008, A beliefs and enacted practice about teaching early meta-analysis of phonological-based interventions reading, Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, on reading comprehension. Canadian Literacy and doi: 10.1080/19404158.2015.1023208 Research Network. http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ ResearchReports/CACAP_readingcomprehension. 68 Clark, SK, Jones, CD, Reutzel, R, & Andreasen, pdf. L 2013, An examination of the influences of a teacher preparation program on beginning Nelson, JM, Lindstrom, JH, Lindstrom, W & 75 teachers’ reading instruction, Literacy Research Denis, D 2012, The structure of phonological and Instruction, 52(2), 87-105. processing and its relationship to basic reading, Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal, 20(3), 69 Binks-Cantrell, E, Washburn, EK, Joshi, RM, & 179-196. Hougen, M 2012, Peter Effect in the preparation of reading teachers, Scientific Studies of Reading, 76 Adams, MJ 1990, Beginning to read: Thinking & 16(6), 526-536. learning about print, as above Fielding-Barnsley, R 2010, Australian pre-service 70 77 Cheatham, JP & Allor, JH 2012, The influence teachers’ knowledge of phonemic awareness of decodability in early reading text on reading and phonics in the process of learning to read, achievement: A review of the evidence, Reading Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 15(1), and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25(9), 99-110; Fielding-Barnsley, R & Purdie, N 2005, pp.2223-2246 Teachers’ attitude to and knowledge of meta- de Graaff, S, Bosman, AMT, Hasselman, F & 78 linguistics in the process of learning to read, Asia- Verhoeven, L 2009, Benefits of systematic phonics Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 33, 65–76; instruction, Scientific Studies of Reading, 13(4), Hammond, L 2015, Early childhood educators’ pp. 318-333, http://fredhasselman.com/main/wp- perceived and actual meta-linguistic knowledge, content/papercite-data/pdf/degraaff2009.pdf beliefs and enacted practice about teaching early reading, Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 79 Gaskins, IW, Ehri, LC, Cress, C, O’Hara, C & DOI: 10.1080/19404158.2015.1023208; Mahar, Donnelly, K, 1996, Procedures for word learning: NE, & Richdale, AL 2008, Primary teachers’ Making discoveries about words, The Reading linguistic knowledge and perceptions of early Teacher, 50, pp. 312-327, http://citeseerx.ist.psu. literacy instruction, Australian Journal of Learning edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.120.2162&rep Difficulties, 13, 17–37; Rohl, M, & Greaves, D =rep1&type=pdf 2005, How are pre-service teachers in Australia Ehri, LC, Satlow, E & Gaskins, I 2009, Grapho- 80 being prepared for teaching literacy and numeracy phonemic enrichment strengthens keyword to a diverse range of students? Australian Journal analogy instruction for struggling young readers, of Learning Disabilities, 10(1), 3-8; Tetleya, D, & Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2), pp. 162-191 Jones, C 2014, Pre-service teachers’ knowledge of language concepts: Relationships to field Byrne, B 1996, The learnability of the alphabetic 81 experiences, Australian Journal of Learning principle: Children’s initial hypotheses about Difficulties, 19(1), 17-32. how print represents spoken speech, Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, pp. 401-426 71 DEECD 2012, New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession: Discussion Simner, ML 1995, Reply to the Ministries’ reactions paper, June 2012. http://www.eduweb.vic. to the Canadian Psychological Association’s gov.au/edulibrary/public/commrel/about/ position paper on beginning reading instruction, teachingprofession.pdf; National Inquiry into the Canadian Psychology, 36, pp. 333-342 Teaching of Literacy 2005, Teaching reading - A de Graaff, S, Bosman, AMT, Hasselman, F & 82 review of the evidence-based research literature Verhoeven, L 2009, Benefits of systematic phonics on approaches to the teaching of literacy, instruction, as above particularly those that are effective in assisting Sonnenschein, S, Stapleton, LM & Benson, A 83 students with reading difficulties. Australian 2010 The relation between the type and amount Government Department of Education, Science of instruction and growth in children’s reading and Training; Roberts-Hull, K, Jensen, B & Cooper, competencies, American Educational Research S 2015. A new approach: Teacher education Journal, 47(2), pp. 358-389 reform. Learning First, Melbourne, Australia. www. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 45

54 84 org/10.1002/14651858.CD009115.pub2 National Reading Panel 2000, National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read, www.nichd.nih. Johnston, RS & Watson JE 2003, Accelerating 93 gov/publications/pubs/nrp/documents/report.pdf reading and spelling with synthetic phonics: A five 85 Stuebing, KK, Barth, AE, Cirino, PT, Francis, DJ & year follow up, Research, Economic and Corporate Fletcher, JM 2008, A response to recent reanalyses Strategy (RECS) Unit, Edinburgh, http://dera.ioe. of the National Reading Panel report: Effects of ac.uk/4938/1/nls_phonics0303rjohnston.pdf systematic phonics instruction are practically Johnston, RS, McGeown, S & Watson, JE 2012, significant, Journal of Educational Psychology, Long-term effects of synthetic versus analytic 100(1), pp.123-134; Galuschka, K, Ise, E, Krick, phonics teaching on the reading and spelling K & Schulte-Korne, G 2014, Effectiveness of ability of 10 year old boys and girls, Reading & treatment approaches for children and adolescents Writing, 25 (6), pp. 1365-1384, http://www2.hull. with reading disabilities: A meta-analysis of ac.uk/science/pdf/johnston_etal.pdf randomized controlled trials, PLoS ONE 9(2), 1-12. Watson, JE & Johnston, RS 1998, Accelerating e89900. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089900; reading attainment: The Effectiveness of Synthetic Piasta, SB & Wagner, RK 2010, Developing Phonics, Interchange, Scottish Office Education early literacy skills: A meta-analysis of alphabet and Industry Department (SOEID), Edinburgh learning and instruction, Reading Research Quarterly, 45(1), pp.8-38; Piasta, SB & Wagner, Johnston, RS & Watson JE 2003, Accelerating 94 RK 2010, Developing early literacy skills: A meta- reading and spelling with synthetic phonics: A five analysis of alphabet learning and instruction, year follow up, as above Reading Research Quarterly, 45(1), pp.8-38; 95 Johnston, RS, McGeown, S & Watson, JE 2012, Ziegler, JC, Bertrand D, Lété, B & Grainger, J Long-term effects of synthetic versus analytic 2014, Orthographic and phonological contributions phonics teaching on the reading and spelling to reading development: Tracking developmental ability of 10 year old boys and girls, as above trajectories using masked priming, Developmental Psychology, 50, pp. 1026-1036; de Graaff, S, 96 Reschly, AL 2010, Reading and school completion: Bosman, AMT, Hasselman, F & Verhoeven, L Critical connections and Matthew Effects, Reading 2009, Benefits of systematic phonics instruction, & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Scientific Studies of Reading, 13(4), pp. 318-333, Difficulties, 26(1), 67-90;Sparks, RL, Patton J & http://fredhasselman.com/main/wp-content/ Murdoch, A 2014, Early reading success and its papercite-data/pdf/degraaff2009.pdf relationship to reading achievement and reading volume: Replication of ‘10 years later’, Reading 86 Department of Education, Science and Training, and Writing, 27(1), pp. 189-211. 2005, National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy, Canberra, Commonwealth of Australia 97 McGuinness AL 2010, Reading and school completion: Critical connections and Matthew 87 Department for Education, 2010, Importance of Effects, Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Teaching: The Schools White Paper Executive Learning Difficulties, 26(1), pp. 67-90 Summary, TSO, London, England, http://www. official-documents.gov.uk/ Education and Skills Committee 2005, Select 98 Committee on Education and Skills Eighth Report, Rose, J 2006, Independent review of the teaching 88 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ of early reading, as above cm200405/cmselect/cmeduski/121/12106.htm 89 Foorman, B, Francis, D, Beeler, T, Winikates, 99 O’Connor, RE, Bocian, K, Beebe-Frankenberger, M D & Fletcher, J 1997, Early interventions for & Linklater, DL 2010, Responsiveness of students children with reading problems: Study designs and preliminary findings, Learning Disabilities: A with language difficulties to early intervention in Multidisciplinary Journal, 8, pp. 63-71 reading, The Journal of Special Education, 43(4), pp.220-235 90 Christensen, CA & Bowey JA 2005, The efficacy of orthographic rime, grapheme-phoneme 100 de Graaff, S, Bosman AMT, Hasselman, F & correspondence, and implicit phonics approaches Verhoeven, L 2009, Benefits of systematic phonics to teaching decoding skills, Scientific Studies of instruction. Scientific Studies of Reading, as above Reading, 9(4), pp. 327-349, http://coaches4. 101 Cheatham, JP & Allor, JH 2012, The influence wikispaces.com/file/view/onset%2Brime%2Bdeco of decodability in early reading text on reading ding%2Barticle.pdf achievement: A review of the evidence, p. 2241- Johnston, RS, McGeown, S & Watson, JE, 2012, 91 2242 Long-term effects of synthetic versus analytic Stanovich, KE 1990, Concepts in developmental 102 phonics teaching on the reading and spelling theories of reading skill: Cognitive resources, ability of 10 year old boys and girls, Reading & automaticity, and modularity, Developmental Writing, 25(6), pp. 1365-1384, http://www2.hull. Review, 10, pp.72-100 ac.uk/science/pdf/johnston_etal.pdf Rose, J 2006, Independent review of the teaching 103 McArthur, G, Eve, PM, Jones, K, Banales, E, 92 of early reading, as above Kohnen, S, Anandakumar, T, Larsen, L, Marinus Abbott, M, Wills, H, Greenwood, CR, Kamps, D, 104 E, Wang, HC, & Castles, A. 2012. Phonics training Heitzman-Powell, L & Selig, J 2010, The combined for English-speaking poor readers (Review). effects of grade retention and targeted small- Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 12, Art. No.: CD009115. http://dx.doi. group intervention on students’ literacy outcomes, About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 46 | Read

55 Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Contextualizing treatment impacts by classroom literacy instruction, Journal of Educational Difficulties, 26(1), pp.4-25 Psychology, 104(4), pp. 987-1005 Vaughn, S, Wexler, J, Roberts, G, Barth, AA, 105 111 Carnine, D, Silbert, J, Kame’enui, EJ, Tarver, SG, Cirino, PT, Romain, MA, Francis, D, Fletcher, J & & Jungjohann, K. 2006. Teaching Reading to Denton, CA 2011, Effects of individualized and standardized interventions on middle school Struggling and At-Risk Readers, Pearson Prentice students with reading disabilities, Exceptional Hall, New Jersey. Children, 77(4), pp.391-407 112 National Reading Panel 2000, Teaching children 106 Scammacca, N, Roberts G, Vaughn, S, Edmonds, to read: An evidence-based assessment of the M, Wexler, J, Reutebuch, CK & Torgesen, JK 2007, scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction, Department Interventions for adolescent struggling readers: of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, A meta-analysis with implications for practice, http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org RMC Research Corporation, Centre on Instruction, Portsmouth, NH, http://www.centeroninstruction. 113 Fuchs, LS, Fuchs, D, Hosp, MD & Jenkins, J org/interventions-for-adolescent-struggling- 2001, Oral reading fluency as an indicator of readers-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for- reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and practice historical analysis, Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, pp. 239-240, http://www.specialistedpsy.com/ 107 Fielding, L, Kerr, N & Rosier, P 2007, Fielding, fuchsetalreadfluency.pdf-link.pdf L., Kerr, N., Rosier, P. (2007). Annual growth for all students, Catch-up growth for those who Abbott, M, Wills, H, Greenwood, CR, Kamps, D, 114 are behind, The New Foundation Press Inc., Heitzman-Powell, L & Selig, J 2010, The combined Kennewick, WA effects of grade retention and targeted small- group intervention on students’ literacy outcomes, 108 Denton, CA & Al Otaiba, S 2011, Teaching word Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning identification to students with reading difficulties Difficulties, 26(1), pp. 4-25 and disabilities, Focus on Exceptional Children, 43(7), pp. 1-16, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 115 Shipley, KG & McAfee, JG 2015, Assessment in pmc/articles/PMC4299759/ speech-language pathology: A resource manual, 5th ed., Cengage Learning, Boston, MA House of Commons Science and Technology Committee 2009, Evidence Check 1: Early Literacy Share, DL 1995, Phonological recoding and self- 116 Interventions, http://www.publications.parliament. teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition, uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmsctech/44/4402. Cognition, 55, pp. 151-218 htm Torgesen, JK 1998, Catch them before they fall: 117 Sonnenschein, S, Stapleton, LM & Benson, A Identification and assessment to prevent reading 2010, The relation between the type and amount failure in young children, American Educator, of instruction and growth in children’s reading http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/reading/ competencies, American Educational Research torgeson_catchthem.html Journal, 47(2), pp.358-389 Laberge, D & Samuels, S 1974, Toward a theory 118 109 Allor, JH, Mathes, PG, Roberts, JK, Cheatham, JP of automatic information processing in reading, & Al Otaiba, S 2014, Is scientifically based reading Cognitive Psychology, 6, pp. 293-323 instruction effective for students with below- Begeny, JC, Laugle, Km, Krouse, HE, Lynn, AE, 119 average IQs? Exceptional Children, 80(3), pp. Tayrose, MP & Stage, SA 2010, A control-group 287-306 comparison of two reading fluency programs: The Fredrick, LD, David, DH, Alberto, PA & Waugh, RE Helping Early Literacy With Practice Strategies 2013, From initial phonics to functional phonics: (HELPS) Program and the Great Leaps K–2 Teaching word-analysis skills to students with Reading Program, School Psychology Review, moderate intellectual disability, Education and 39(1), pp. 137–155 Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 120 Langer, N, Benjamin, C, Minas, J & Gaab, N 2015, 48(1), pp. 49-66 The neural correlates of reading fluency deficits in Lemons, CJ, Mrachko, AA, Kostewicz, DE & children, Cerebral Cortex, 25, pp. 1441–1453 Paterra, MF 2012, Effectiveness of decoding and 121 O’Brien, BA, Wallot, S, Haussmann, A & Kloos, H phonological awareness interventions for children 2014, Using complexity metrics to assess silent with Down Syndrome, Exceptional Children, 79(1), a cross-sectional fluency: reading study comparing pp. 67-90 oral and silent reading, Scientific Studies of Nishanimut, SP, Padakannaya, P, Johnston, RS, 110 Reading, 18(4), pp. 235-254 Joshi, RM & Thomas, PJ 2013, Effect of synthetic 122 Paas, F, van Gog, T & Sweller, J 2010, Cognitive phonics instruction on literacy skills in an ESL Load Theory: New conceptualizations, setting, Learning and Individual Differences, specifications, and integrated research 27, pp. 47-53, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. perspectives, Educational Psychology lindif.2013.06.007 Review, 22, pp.115–121, http://download. Vadasy, PF & Sanders, EA 2012, Two-year follow- springer.com/static/pdf/195/art%253 up of a kindergarten phonics intervention for A10.1007%252Fs10648-010-9133-8. English learners and native English speakers: pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer. Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 47

56 com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10648-010- pp. 239-256 9133-8&token2=exp=1448860352~acl=%2Fstati 127 Fuchs, LS & Fuchs, D 1992, Identifying a measure c%2Fpdf%2F195%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252 for monitoring student reading progress, School Fs10648-010-9133-8.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%2 Psychology Review, 21, pp. 45-58 53A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle% Young-Suk, K, Chea, HP & Wagner, RK 2014, Is 128 252F10.1007%252Fs10648-010-9133-8*~hmac= oral/text reading fluency a “bridge” to reading 2cac7923c97a7ad849977ddc72f96edb351fb15360 comprehension?, Reading and Writing, 27(1), 4c96478590dbc3800791d7 pp.79-99, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ Park, P, Chaparro, EA, Preciado, J & articles/PMC4313766/pdf/nihms657868.pdf Cummings, KD 2015, Is earlier better? 129 Rasinski, T, Homan, S & Biggs, M 2009, Teaching Mastery of reading fluency in early schooling, reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, Early Education and Development, DOI: materials, and evidence, Reading & Writing 10.1080/10409289.2015.1015855 Quarterly, 25(2), pp. 192-204, http://accelerating- Sweller, J 1988, Cognitive load during problem literacy-learning.edu.au/files/52d258db98d66.pdf solving: Effects on learning, Cognitive Science, 130 Veenendaal, NJ, Groen, MA & Verhoeven, L 2015, 12, pp. 257 285, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ What oral text reading fluency can reveal about doi/10.1207/s15516709cog1202_4/epdf reading comprehension, Journal of Research in 123 Richards, TL, Dager, SR, Corina, D, Serafini, Reading, 38(3), pp. 213–225 S, Heide, AC, Steury, K, Strauss, W, Hayes, Park, P, Chaparro, EA, Preciado, J & 131 CE, Abbott, RD, Craft, S, Shaw, D, Posse, S & Cummings, KD 2015, Is earlier better? Berninger, VW 1999, Dyslexic children have Mastery of reading fluency in early schooling, abnormal brain lactate response to reading- Early Education and Development, DOI, related language tasks, American Journal of 10.1080/10409289.2015.1015855 Neuroradiology, 20, pp. 1393-1398 Barger, J 2003, Comparing the DIBELS Oral 132 Richards, TL, Corina, D, Serafini, S, Steury, K, Reading Fluency indicator and the North Carolina Echelard, DR, Dager, SR, Marro, K, Abbott, RD, end of grade reading assessment (Technical Maravilla, KR & Berninger, VW 2000, The effects Report), North Carolina Teacher Academy, of a phonologically-driven treatment for dyslexia Asheville, NC, https://dibels.uoregon.edu/docs/ on lactate levels as measured by Proton MRSI, techreports/NC_Tech_Report.pdf American Journal of Neuroradiology, 21, pp. 916-922. http://faculty.washington.edu/toddr/ Carlisle, JF, Schilling, SG, Scott, SE & Zeng, 133 dyslexic2.htm J 2004, Do fluency measures predict reading achievement? Results from the 2002-2003 school 124 Hiebart, EH, Samuels, SJ, Rasinski, T 2012, year in Michigan’s Reading First Schools Technical Comprehension-based silent reading rates: Report #1, Evaluation of Reading First in Michigan, what do we know? What do we need to know?, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, http://www. Literacy Research and Instruction, 51(2), pp. mireadingfirst.org/resources/research/downloads/ 110-124; Wayman, MM, Wallace, T, Wiley, HI, tr1.pdf Ticha, R & Espin, CA 2007, Literature synthesis on curriculum-based measurement in reading, The Al Otaiba, S, Connor, C, Lane, H, Kosanovich, 134 Journal of Special Education, 41(2), pp. 85-120 ML, Schatschneider, C, Dyrlund, AK, Miller, MS & Wright, TL 2008, Reading First kindergarten Miller, J & Schwanenflugel, PL 2006, Prosody classroom instruction and students’ growth in of syntactically complex sentences in the oral phonological awareness and letter naming– reading of young children, Journal of Educational decoding fluency, Journal of School Psychology, Psychology, 98(4), pp. 839-853 46(3), pp. 281-314 O’Connor, RE, Bell, KM, Harty, KR, Larkin, 135 Begeny, JC, Laugle, KM, Krouse, HE, Lynn, AE, LK, Sackor, SM & Zigmond, N 2002, Teaching Tayrose, MP & Stage, SA 2010, A control-group reading to poor readers in the intermediate comparison of two reading fluency programs: The grades: A comparison of text difficulty, Journal of Helping Early Literacy With Practice Strategies Educational Psychology, 94, pp. 474-485 (HELPS) Program and the Great Leaps K–2 Roehrig, AD, Petscher, Y, Nettles, SM, Hudson, Reading Program, as above RF & Torgesen, JT 2008, Accuracy of the DIBELS National Reading Panel 2000, Teaching children 136 Oral Reading Fluency measure for predicting third to read: An evidence-based assessment of the grade reading comprehension outcomes, Journal scientific research literature on reading and its of School Psychology, 46(3), pp. 343–366 implications for reading instruction, Chapter 3-4 Shinn, MR, Good, RH, Knutson, N, Tilly, WD & 125 137 Wheldall, K & Beaman, R 2000, An evaluation of Collins, V 1992, Curriculum-based measurement MULTILIT: ‘Making Up Lost Time In Literacy, as of oral reading fluency: A confirmatory analysis of above its relation to reading, School Psychology Review, 21, pp. 459-479 Adams, G & Engelmann, S 1996, Research on 138 Direct Instruction: 25 years beyond DISTAR, Fuchs, LS, Fuchs, D, Hosp, MK Jenkins, JR 2001, 126 Educational Achievement System, Seattle, WA Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and Gunn, G, Biglan, A, Smolkowski, K & Ary, D 2000, The efficacy of supplemental instruction historical analysis, Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 48 | Read

57 in decoding skills for Hispanic and non-Hispanic 150 Snow, CE, Burns, S & Griffin, P (Eds.) 1998, students in early elementary school, The Journal Preventing reading difficulties in young children, of Special Education, 34, pp. 90-103 Report of the National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, http://www. 139 Marinus, E, de Jong, P & van der Leij, A 2012, nap.edu/readingroom/books/reading/ ; California Increasing word-reading speed in poor readers: Department of Education 2014, Reading/language No additional benefits of explicit letter-cluster arts framework for California public schools: training, Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(2), pp. Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, http://www. 166-185 cde.ca.gov/ci/rl/cf/documents/elaeldfwchapter8. As above 140 pdf; Dion, E, Brodeur, M, Gosselin, C, Campeasu, ME & Fuchs, D 2010, Implementing research- Rasinski, T, Homan, S & Biggs, M 2009, Teaching 141 based instruction to prevent reading problems reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, materials, and evidence, Reading & Writing among low-income students: Is earlier better?, Quarterly, 25(2),pp. 192 - 204 Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25, pp. 87–96 142 Rasinski, TV 2003, The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, 151 National Institute for Child Health and Human and comprehension, Scholastic, New York, NY; Development 2006, Report of the National Reading Homan, SP, Klesius, JP & Hite, C 1993, Effects of Panel: Teaching Children to Read, Findings and repeated readings and nonrepetitive strategies Determinations of the National Reading Panel on students’ fluency and comprehension, Journal by Topic Areas, https://www.nichd.nih.gov/ of Educational Research, 87, pp. 94–99; Heikkilä, publications/pubs/nrp/Pages/findings.aspx R, Aro, M, Närhi, V, Westerholm, J, & Ahonen, T 152 National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy 2013, Does training in syllable recognition improve 2005, Teaching Reading: A review of the evidence- reading speed? A computer-based trial with poor based research literature on approaches to readers from second and third grade, as above the teaching of literacy, particularly those that National Reading Panel 2000, Report of the 143 are effective in assisting students with reading National Reading Panel, Teaching children to read: difficulties, Commonwealth of Australia An evidence-based assessment of the scientific 153 Savage, RS & Frederickson, N 2006, Beyond research literature on reading and its implications phonology: What else is needed to describe the for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups, problems of below-average readers and spellers?, pp. 3-20 Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), pp. 399– 144 O’Keeffe, BV, Slocum, TA, Burlingame, C, Snyder, 413 K & Bundock, K 2012, Comparing results of Speeve, DL, Mills, C, Ritchey, KD & Hillman, E 154 systematic reviews: Parallel reviews of research 2003, Initial evidence that letter fluency tasks are on repeated reading, Education & Treatment of valid indicators of early reading skill, Journal of Children, 35(2), pp. 333 – 366 Special Education, 36, pp. 223-233 145 National Institute for Child Health and Human Stage, SA, Sheppard, J, Davidson, MM & Development 2006, Report of the National Reading Browning, MM 2001, Prediction of first-graders’ Panel: Teaching Children to Read, para. 39 growth in oral reading fluency using kindergarten Paige, DD 2011, Testing the acceleration 146 letter fluency, Journal of School Psychology, 9(3), hypothesis: Fluency outcomes utilizing still- pp. 225-237 versus accelerated-text in sixth-grade students Langer, N, Benjamin, C, Minas, J & Gaab, N 2015, 155 with reading disabilities, Literacy Research and The neural correlates of reading fluency deficits in Instruction, 50(4), pp. 294-312 children, as above Langer, N, Benjamin, C, Minas, J & Gaab, N 2015, 147 Spencer, SA & Manis, FR 2010, The effects of 156 The neural correlates of reading fluency deficits in a fluency intervention program on the fluency children, as above and comprehension outcomes of middle-school Spencer, SA & Mains, FR 2010, The effects of students with severe reading deficits, as above a fluency intervention program on the fluency 157 Heikkilä, R, Aro, M, Närhi, V, Westerholm, J, and comprehension outcomes of middle-school & Ahonen, T 2013, Does training in syllable students with severe reading deficits, Learning recognition improve reading speed? A computer- Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(2), pp. 76–86 based trial with poor readers from second and 148 Griffiths, Y & Stuart, M 2013, Reviewing evidence- third grade, Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(6), based practice for pupils with dyslexia and literacy pp. 398-414 difficulties, Journal of Research in Reading, 36(1), Lyon, GR 1998, Overview of reading and literacy 158 pp. 96-116 initiatives, Statement to Committee on Labor Begeny, JC, Laugle, KM, Krouse, HE, Lynn, AE, 149 and Human Resources, www.nrrf.org/learning/ Tayrose, MP & Stage, SA 2010, A control-group overview-of-nichd-reading-and-literacy-initiatives/ comparison of two reading fluency programs: The 159 Griffiths, Y & Stuart, M 2013, Reviewing evidence- Helping Early Literacy With Practice Strategies based practice for pupils with dyslexia and literacy (HELPS) Program and the Great Leaps K–2 difficulties, Journal of Research in Reading, Reading Program, School Psychology Review, 36(1),pp. 96-116 39(1), pp. 137–155 Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 49

58 160 Alexander, K, Entwisle, D & Olsen, CR 1997, Quarterly, 28(4), pp. 333-334 Early schooling and inequality: Socioeconomic 171 Ford-Connors, E & Paratore, JP 2015, Vocabulary disparities in children’s learning, Falmer Press, instruction in fifth grade and beyond: Sources London; Swanson, HL 2001, Research on of word learning and productive contexts interventions for adolescents with learning for development, Review of Educational disabilities: A meta-analysis of outcomes related Research, 85(1),pp. 50–91, http://www. to higher-order processing, The Elementary School bu.edu/sedreadingclinic/files/2015/09/Ford- Journal, 101, pp. 331-348; Shaywitz, SE, Fletcher, ConnorsParatore_2015_RER.pdf JM, Holahan, JM, Schneider, AE, Marchioone, KE, 172 Perfetti, C & Strafura, J 2014, Word knowledge Stuebing, KK, Francis, DJ, Pugh, KR & Shaywitz, in a theory of reading comprehension, Scientific BA 1999, Persistence of dyslexia: The Connecticut Studies of Reading, 18, pp. 22–37, http://www. longitudinal study at adolescence, Pediatrics, 104, tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10888438.2013. pp. 1336; Torgesen, JK, 1998, Catch them before 827687 they fall: Identification and assessment to prevent reading failure in young children, as above Papademitriou, AM & Vlachos, FM 2014,Which 173 specific skills developing during preschool years 161 Wheldall, K & Beaman, R 2000, An evaluation predict the reading performance in the first and of MULTILIT: ‘Making Up Lost Time In Literacy’, second grade of primary school? Early Child Training and Youth Affairs, Department of Development and Care, 184(11), pp. 1706-1722 Education, Canberra 174 Verhoeven, L & van Leeuwe, J 2011, Vocabulary 162 Rasinski, T, Homan, S & Biggs, M 2009, Teaching growth and reading development across the reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, elementary school years, Scientific Studies of materials, and evidence, as above Reading, 15, pp. 8–25 Galuschka, K, Ise, E, Krick, K & Schulte-Korne, G 163 175 Sparks, RL, Patton, J & Murdoch, A 2014, Early 2014, Effectiveness of treatment approaches for reading success and its relationship to reading children and adolescents with reading disabilities: achievement and reading volume: Replication of A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, ‘10 years later’, Reading and Writing, 27(1), pp. PLoS ONE 9(2): e89900. doi:10.1371/journal. 189-211 pone.0089900 Stanovich, KE 1993, Does reading make you 164 Apel, K & Swank, LK 1999, Second chances: smarter? Literacy and the development of verbal Improving decoding skills in the older student. intelligence. In Reese, H (Ed.), Advances in child Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, development and behaviour, Vol. 24, Academic 30, pp. 231-243 Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 133-180 Swanson, HL 2001, Research on interventions for 165 Sinatra, R, Zygouris-Coe, V & Dasinger, S 2011, 176 adolescents with learning disabilities: A meta- Preventing a vocabulary lag: What lessons are analysis of outcomes related to higher-order learned from research, pp. 333-357 processing, as above 177 Cunningham, AJ & Carroll, JM 2015, Early Wong, BYL 2001, Commentary: Pointers for predictors of phonological and morphological literacy instruction from educational technology awareness and the link with reading: Evidence and research on writing instruction, The from children with different patterns of early Elementary School Journal, 101, pp. 359-369 deficit, Applied Psycholinguistics, 36, pp. 509-531 166 Carnine, D, Silbert, J, Kame’enui, EJ, Tarver, SG, Taylor, CL, Christensen, D, Lawrence, D, Mitrou, 178 & Jungjohann, K. 2006. Teaching Reading to F & Zubrick, SR 2013, Risk factors for children’s Struggling and At-Risk Readers, Pearson Prentice receptive vocabulary development from four to Hall, New Jersey. eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian 167 National Reading Panel 2000, Teaching children children, PLoS ONE, 8(11), pp.1-20 to read: An evidence-based assessment of the Australian Early Development Index 2009, 179 scientific research literature on reading and its A snapshot of early childhood development implications for reading instruction, Department of in Australia, Australian Early Development Health and Human Services, Jessup, MD, http:// Index (AEDI) National Report 2009, Centre for www.nationalreadingpanel.org Community Child Health and the Telethon Institute Hairrell, A, Rupley, W & Simmons, D 2011, The 168 for Child Health Research, http://www.rch.org. state of vocabulary research. Literacy Research au/uploadedFiles/Main/Content/aedi/Report_ and Instruction, 50(4), pp. 253-271 NationalReport2011Reissue_1103.pdf 169 National Assessment of Educational Practice 2012, Hay, I & Fielding-Barnsley, R 2009, Competencies 180 The nation’s report card: Vocabulary results from that underpin children’s transition into early the 2009 and 2011 NAEP Reading Assessments, literacy, Australian Journal of Language and Institute of Educational Sciences, Washington, Literacy, 32(2), 148-162; Reilly, S, Wake, M, DC, http://nces.edgov/nationsreportcard/pubs/ Ukoumunne, O, Bavin, E, Prior, M, Cini, E, main2011/2013452.asp Conway, L, Eadie, P, & Bretherton, L 2010, Sinatra, R, Zygouris-Coe, V & Dasinger, S 2011, 170 Predicting language outcomes at 4 years of age: Preventing a vocabulary lag: What lessons findings from Early Language in Victoria study, are learned from research, Reading & Writing Pediatrics, 126(6), 1530-1537, doi: DOI: 10.1542/ About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 50 | Read

59 Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, http:// peds.2010- 0254 ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ Olson, RK, Keenan, JM, Byrnw, B, Samuelsson, S, 181 193 Conventry, WL, Corley, R, Wadsworth, SJ, Willcutt, What Works Clearinghouse, 2015, Shared book reading, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. SG, DeFries, JC, Pennington, BF & Hulslander, J Department of Education, http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/ 2007 Genetic and environmental influences on wwc/interventionreport.aspx?sid=458 vocabulary and reading development. Scientific Studies of Reading : The Official Journal of the 194 Levy, BA, Gong, Z, Hessels, S, Evans, MA & Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, 20(1- Jared, D 2006, Understanding print: Early reading 2), pp. 51–75, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ development and the contributions of home articles/PMC3019615/ literacy experiences, Journal of Experimental Child 182 Hart, B & Risley, T 1995, Meaningful differences Psychology, 93(1), pp. 63-93 in the everyday experiences of young American Robins, S, Treiman, R, Rosales, N & Otakes, S children, Paul H. Brookes Publishing, Baltimore, 2012, Parent–child conversations about letters and in ... to child in the preschool and school years. pictures, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Presentation at the session on Consequences Journal, 25, pp. 2039–2059 of Child Poverty and Deprivation, at the Annual Duursma, E, Augustyn, M, Zuckerman, B 2008, 195 Meetings of the Population Association of America, Reading aloud to children: The evidence, Archives Washington, D.C., http://www.pop.psu.edu/ of Diseases in Children, 93(7), pp. 554-7, http:// general/pubs/working_papers/psu-pri/wp0105.pdf www.reachoutandread.org/FileRepository/ Hart, B & Risley, TR 2003, The early catastrophe: 183 ReadingAloudtoChildren_ADC_July2008.pdf The 30 million word gap, American Educator, 196 Treiman, R, Schmidt, J, Decker, K Robins, S, pp. 4-9 https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/ Levine, SC & Demir, ÖE, Parents’ talk about letters periodicals/TheEarlyCatastrophe.pdf with their young children, Child Development 184 Taylor, CL, Christensen, D, Lawrence, D, Mitrou, 197 Dickinson, DK, McCabe, A, Anastaspoulos, L, F & Zubrick, SR 2013, Risk factors for children’s Feinberg, ES & Poe, MD 2003, The comprehensive receptive vocabulary development from four to language approach to early literacy: The eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian interrelationships among vocabulary, phonological children, as above sensitivity, and print knowledge among preschool- 185 Weisleder, A & Fernald, A 2013, Talking to children aged children, Journal of Educational Psychology, matters: Early language experience strengthens 95(3), pp. 465-481 processing and builds vocabulary, Psychological Fricke, S, Bowyer-Crane, C, Haley, AJ, Hulme, 198 Science, 24(11), pp. 2143-2152 C & Snowling, MJ 2013, Efficacy of language Fernald, A, Marchman, VA & Weisleder, A 2013, 186 intervention in the early years, Journal of Child SES differences in language processing skill Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(3), pp. 280–290 and vocabulary are evident at 18 months, Abrya, T, Latham, S, Bassok, D & LoCasale- 199 Psychological Science, 16(2), pp. 234-238 Crouch, J 2015, Preschool and kindergarten Hoff, E 2013, Interpreting the early language 187 teachers’ beliefs about early school competencies: trajectories of children from low-SES and Misalignment matters for kindergarten language minority homes: Implications for closing adjustment, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, achievement gaps, Developmental Psychology, 31, pp. 78–88 49(1), pp.4–14 200 Moore, TG & McDonald, M 2013, Acting Early, 188 Fernald, A, Marchman, VA & Weisleder, A 2013, Changing Lives: How prevention and early action SES differences in language processing skill and saves money and improves wellbeing, Prepared vocabulary are evident at 18 months , as above for The Benevolent Society, Centre for Community Farkas, G & Beron, K 2001, Family linguistic 189 Child Health at The Murdoch Childrens Research culture and social reproduction: Verbal skill from Institute & The Royal Children’s Hospital, Parkville, parent to child in the preschool and school years, Victoria, http://www.benevolent.org.au/~/media/ Prepared for presentation at the session on Benevolent/Think/Actingearlychanginglives%20. Consequences of Child Poverty and Deprivation, at pdf the Annual Meetings of the Population Association 201 Melluish, EC 2011, Preschool Matters, Science, of America, Washington, D.C 333, p. 300 Hart, B & Risley, TR 2003, The early catastrophe: 202 OCD 2011, Pisa in focus 2011/1: Does The 30 million word gap, as above participation in preprimary education translate into 190 Berliner, CD 2006, Our impoverished view of better learning outcomes at school?, Paris, http:// educational reform, Teachers College Record, www.pisa.oecd.org/dataoecd/37/0/47034256.pdf 108(6), pp. 949-995, http://epsl.asu.edu/epru/ 203 Education Endowment Foundation 2015, documents/EPSL-0508-116-EPRU.pdf Early years intervention, London, https:// Reach Out & Read 2015, Reach Out & Read educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/ 191 Program, Reach Out and Read National Center, toolkit-a-z/early-years-intervention/ http://www.reachoutandread.org/ 204 Loftus, SM & Coyne, MD 2013, Vocabulary What Works Clearinghouse 2015, Evidence for instruction within a multi-tier approach, Reading & 192 what works in education, Institute of Education Writing Quarterly, 29(1), pp. 4-19 Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 51

60 vocabulary instruction in kindergarten, Learning Greenwood, CR, Carta, JJ, Goldstein, H, Kaminski, 205 Disabilities Research & Practice, 30(1), pp. 43–50 RA, McConnell, SR & Atwater, J 2015, The Center on Response to Intervention in Early Childhood Clarke, P, Snowling, MJ, Truelove, E & Hulme, 216 (CRTIEC): Developing evidence-based tools for C 2010, Ameliorating children’s reading a multi-tier approach to preschool language comprehension difficulties: A randomised and early literacy instruction, Journal of Early controlled trial, Psychological Science, 21, Intervention, 36, pp. 246-262 pp.1106-1116 206 Baumann, JF, Kame’enui, EJ & Ash, GE 2003, 217 Nicholson, T & Whyte, B 1992, Matthew effect Research on vocabulary instruction: Voltaire in learning new words while listening to stories. redux. In J. Flood, J. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. R. In Literacy research: Theory and practice: Views Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching from many perspectives. In Charles K. Kinzer the English language arts, Macmillan, New York, and Donald J. Leu (Eds.), National Reading NY, pp. 752-785 Conference, Chicago 207 Loftus, SM & Coyne, MD 2013, Vocabulary 218 Ford-Connors, E & Paratore, JP 2015, Vocabulary instruction within a multi-tier approach, Reading instruction in fifth grade and beyond: Sources & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning of word learning and productive contexts for Difficulties, 29(1), p.8 development, Review of Educational Research, 85(1), pp. 50–91 208 O’Connor, RE, Bocian, K, Beebe-Frankenberger, M & Linklater, DL 2010, Responsiveness of students 219 Beck, LL & McKeown, MG 2007, Increasing young with language difficulties to early intervention in low-income children’s oral vocabulary repertoires reading, The Journal of Special Education, 43(4), through rich and focused instruction, The pp. 220-235 Elementary School Journal, 107, pp. 251–271, https://chrisshively.wikispaces.com/file/view/Incre Hirsch, ED 2013, Primer on success: Character 209 asing+Young+Low%E2%80%90Income+Children and knowledge make the difference, Education %E2%80%99s+Oral+Vocabulary+Repertoires+thr Next, 13(1), http://educationnext.org/primer-on- ough+Rich+and+Focused+Instruction.pdf success/; Figurate, L 2010, Teaching vocabulary: Intentional, explicit instruction, US Department Biemiller, A 2010, Words worth teaching: Closing 220 of Education, No Child Left Behind, http:// the vocabulary gap, McGraw-Hill, Columbus, OH esu4vocabularystrategies.wikispaces.com/ 221 Pressley, M, Mohan, I, Raphael, LM & Fingeret, Teaching+Strategies L 2007, How does Bennet Woods Elementary Farkas, G & Beron, K 2001, Family linguistic 210 School produce such high reading and writing culture and social reproduction: Verbal skill from achievement? Journal of Educational Psychology, parent to child in the preschool and school years, 99(2), pp. 221–240 Prepared for presentation at the session on Biemiller, A, Rosenstein, M, Spakrs, R, LAndauer, 222 Consequences of Child Poverty and Deprivation, at TK, Foltz, PW 2014, Models of vocabulary the Annual Meetings of the Population Association acquisition: Direct tests and text-derived of America, Washington, D.C simulations of vocabulary growth, Scientific 211 Sinatra, R, Zygouris-Coe, V & Dasinger, S 2011, Studies of Reading, 18(2), p. 146 Preventing a vocabulary lag: What lessons 223 Bowers, PN & Kirby, JR 2010, Effects of are learned from research, Reading & Writing morphological instruction on vocabulary Quarterly, 28(4), pp. 333-357; Lenfest, A & Reed, acquisition, Reading and Writing: An DK 2015, Enhancing basal vocabulary instruction Interdisciplinary Journal, 23, pp. 515–537, http:// in kindergarten, Learning Disabilities Research & wordworkskingston.com/WordWorks/Research_ Practice, 30(1), pp. 43–50 files/published%20vocab%20paper.pdf Clarke, P, Snowling, MJ, Truelove, E & Hulme, 212 224 Berninger, VW, Nielsen, KH, Abbott, RD, Wijsman, C 2010, Ameliorating children’s reading E & Raskind, W 2008, Writing problems in comprehension difficulties: A randomised developmental dyslexia: Under-recognized and controlled trial, Psychological Science, 21, pp. under-treated, Journal of School Psychology, 46, 1106-1116 pp.1–21 Spencer, M, Quinn, JM & Wagner, RK 2014, 213 Carlisle, JF 2010, Effects of instruction in Specific reading comprehension disability: morphological awareness on literacy achievement: Major problem, myth, or misnomer?, Learning An integrative review, Reading Research Quarterly, Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(1), pp. 3-8 45, pp. 464–487 214 Marzano, R 2004, Building background knowledge 225 Goodwin, AP & Ahn S 2013, A meta-analysis of for academic achievement: Research on what morphological interventions in English: Effects on works in schools, Association for Supervision literacy outcomes for school-age children Scientific and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA, Studies of Reading, 179(4), pp. 257-285 http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/video/ Bowers, PN, Kirby, JR & Deacon, SH 2010, The 226 buildingacademic.pdf effects of morphological instruction on literacy Stahl, SA 1999, Vocabulary development, skills: A systematic review of the literature, Brookline Books, Cambridge, MA, Review of Educational Research, 80, pp. 144–179, http://wordworkskingston.com/WordWorks/ Lenfest, A & Reed, DK 2015, Enhancing basal 215 About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 52 | Read

61 Research_files/published%20Meta-Analysis.pdf achievement, Subcommittee on Education Reform Committee on Education and the Workforce U.S. Bowers, PN & Kirby JR 2010, Effects of 227 House of Representatives Washington, D.C, http:// morphological instruction on vocabulary learninghelp.org.au/information-sheets-from- acquisition, as above ses-with-permission/measuring-success-using- 228 Dixon, R & Engelmann, S 2007, Spelling through assessments-and-accountability-to-raise-student- morphographs, McGraw-Hill, SRA achievement/ 229 Biemiller, A & Slonin, N 2001, Estimating root Cunningham, A & Stanovich, KE 1998, What 241 word vocabulary growth in normative and reading does for the mind, American Educator, advantaged populations: Evidence for a common 22(1-2), pp. 8-15, http://www.aft.org/pdfs/ sequence of vocabulary acquisition, Journal of americaneducator/springsummer1998/ Educational Psychology, 93, pp. 498-520 cunningham.pdf 230 Nagy, WE & Anderson RC 1984, How many words 242 Stanovich, KE 1993, Does reading make you are there in printed English?, Reading Research smarter?, Literacy and the development of verbal Quarterly, 19, pp.304-330 intelligence, Advances in Child Development and 231 Ford-Connors, E & Paratore, JP 2015, Vocabulary Behaviour, 24, pp. 133-180 instruction in fifth grade and beyond: Sources 243 Pfost, M, Dörfler, T & Artelt, C, 2013, Students’ of word learning and productive contexts for extracurricular reading behavior and the development, Review of Educational Research, development of vocabulary and reading 85(1),p.77 comprehension, Learning and Individual 232 Ford-Connors, E & Paratore, JP 2015, Vocabulary Differences, 26, pp. 89-102, https://www. instruction in fifth grade and beyond: Sources uni-bamberg.de/fileadmin/uni/fakultaeten/ of word learning and productive contexts for ppp_lehrstuehle/bildungsforschung/Publikationen/ development, Review of Educational Research, Artelt/Pfost_Doerfler_Artelt_Students_ 85(1),p.80-81 Extracurricular.pdf 233 Osborn, JH & Armbruster, BB 2001, Vocabulary Pulido, D & Hambrick, DZ 2008, The virtuous 244 acquisition: Direct teaching and indirect learning, circle: Modeling individual differences in L2 Basic Education Online Edition, 46(3), pp. 11-16 reading and vocabulary development, Reading in a Foreign Language, 20, pp. 164-190, http://nflrc. Baumann, JF, Kame’enui, EJ & Ash, GE 2003, hawaii.edu/rfl/October2008/pulido/pulido.pdf Research on vocabulary instruction: Voltaire redux. In J. Flood, J. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. R. 245 Sparks, RL, Patton, J & Murdoch, A 2014, Early Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching reading success and its relationship to reading the English language arts, Macmillan, New York, achievement and reading volume: Replication of NY, pp. 752–785 ‘10 years later’, Reading and Writing, 27(1), pp. 189-211 234 Nagy, W 1998, Increasing students’ reading vocabularies, Presentation at the Commissioner’s 246 Stanovich, KE 1986, Matthew effects in reading: Reading Day Conference, Austin, TX Some consequences of individual differences Allington, RL 1984, Content coverage and 235 in the acquisition of literacy, Reading Research contextual reading in reading groups, Journal Quarterly, 21, pp. 360-406 of Reading Behaviour, 16, pp. 85-96, http://jlr. 247 Moore, TG & McDonald, M 2013, Acting Early, sagepub.com/content/16/2/85.full.pdf Changing Lives: How prevention and early action 236 Nagy, WE & Anderson, RC 1984, How many words saves money and improves wellbeing, as above are there in printed English?, Reading Research 248 Scammacca, N, Roberts, G, Vaughn, S, Edmonds, Quarterly, 19, pp.304-330 M, Wexler, J, Reutebuch, CK & Torgesen, JK 2007, Fielding, L, Wilson, P & Anderson, R 1986, A new 237 Interventions for adolescent struggling readers: focus on free reading: The role of trade books in A meta-analysis with implications for practice, reading instruction. In R. Raphael and R. Reynolds Centre on Instructions RMC Research Corporation (Eds.), Contexts in literacy, Longman, New York, Portsmouth, NH, http://www.centeroninstruction. NY org/interventions-for-adolescent-struggling- readers-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for- 238 Sparks, Rl, Patton, J & Murdoch, A 2014, Early practice reading success and its relationship to reading achievement and reading volume: Replication of Vaughn, S, Wexler, J, Roberts, G Barth, AA, ‘10 years later’, Reading and Writing, 27(1), pp. Cirino, PT, Romain, MA, Francis, D, Fletcher, J & 189-211 Denton, CA 2011, Effects of individualized and standardized interventions on middle school Nagy, WE & Anderson, RC 1984, How many words 239 students with reading disabilities, Exceptional are there in printed English?, Reading Research Children, 77(4), pp. 391-407 Quarterly, 19, pp. 304-330 249 Griffiths, Y & Stuart, M 2013, Reviewing evidence- Osborn, JH & Armbruster, BB 2001, Vocabulary based practice for pupils with dyslexia and literacy acquisition: Direct teaching and indirect learning, difficulties, Journal of Research in Reading, 36(1), Basic Education Online Edition, 46(3), pp. 11-16 pp. 96-116 Lyon, GR 2001, Measuring success: Using 240 assessments and accountability to raise student Marchand-Martelle, NE, Martella, RC, Modderman, Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 53

62 SL, Petersen, HM & Pan, S 2013, Key areas of Primary National Strategy 2006, Phonics and early reading: An overview for headteachers, effective adolescent literacy programs, Education and Treatment of Children, 36(1), pp. 161-184 literacy leaders and teachers in schools, and managers and practitioners in Early Years settings, 250 Denton, CA, Tolar, TD, Fletcher, JM, Barth, AE, Department of Education and Skills, UK, Vaughn, S & Francis, DJ 2013, Effects of Tier 3 http://www.frameworkplanning.co.uk/resources/ Intervention for students with persistent reading docs/Phonics_and_early_reading.doc difficulties and characteristics of inadequate responders Journal of Educational Psychology, Spear- Swerling, L 2006, The use of context cues 105(1), pp. 1-16 in reading, LDOnline, http://www.ldonline.org/ 251 Lyon, GR 2000, Why reading is not a natural spearswerling/11773 process, LDA Newsbriefs, http://www.ldonline. 259 Richards, TL Dager, SR Corina, D, Serfafini, org/article/6396; Landi, N, Frost, SJ, Menci, WE, S, Heide, AC, Steury, K, Strauss, W, Hayes, Sandak, R & Pugh, KR 2013, Neurobiological CE, Abbott, RD, Craft, S, Shaw, D, Posse, S & bases of reading comprehension: Insights From Berninger, VW 1999, Dyslexic children have neuroimaging studies of word-level and text- abnormal brain lactate response to reading- level processing in skilled and impaired readers, related language tasks, American Journal of Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Neuroradiology, 20, pp. 1393-1398 Difficulties, 29(2), pp. 145-167 260 Mastropieri, MA, Leinart, AW & Scruggs, TE 252 Gough, PB & Tunmer WE 1986, Decoding, reading, 1999, Strategies to increase reading fluency, and reading disability, Remedial and Special Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(5), pp. Education, 7, pp. 6–10 278-292; Kamhi, AG & Catts, HW 1999, Reading development. In H. W. Catts & A. G. Kamhi (Eds.), 253 Sabatini, JP, O’Reilly, T, Halderman, LK & Bruce, K 2014, Integrating scenario-based and component Language and reading disabilities, Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA, pp. 25-50 reading skill measures to understand the reading behavior of struggling readers, Learning 261 Just, MA & Carpenter, PA 1992, A capacity theory Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(1), pp. 36–43 of comprehension: Individual differences in Spencer, M, Quinn, JM & Wagner, RK 2014, working memory, Psychological Review, 99(1), pp. 122-149, http://repository.cmu.edu/cgi/ Specific reading comprehension disability: Major viewcontent.cgi?article=1730&context=psycholo problem, myth, or misnomer?, as above gy Wagner, RK & Meros, D 2010, Vocabulary and Kudo, M, Lussier, C & Swanson, HL 2015, reading comprehension: Direct, indirect, and Reading disabilities in children: A selective meta- reciprocal influences, Focus on Exceptional analysis of the cognitive literature, Research in Children, 43, pp. 1-12 Developmental Disabilities, 40, pp. 51–62 254 Spencer, M, Quinn, JM & Wagner, RK 2014, Young-Suk, K, Petscher, Y, Schatschneider, C Specific reading comprehension disability: Major 262 & Foorman, B 2010, Does growth rate in oral problem, myth, or misnomer?, as above reading fluency matter in predicting reading Wagner, RK & Meros, D 2010, Vocabulary and 255 comprehension achievement?, Journal of reading comprehension: Direct, indirect, and Educational Psychology, 102(3),pp.652–667 reciprocal influences, as above Kendeou, P, van de Broek, P, Helder, A & 263 256 Garcia, JR & Cain, K 2014, Decoding and reading Karlsson, J 2014, A cognitive view of reading comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which comprehension: Implications for reading reader and assessment characteristics influence difficulties, Learning Disabilities Research & the strength of the relationship in English, Review Practice, 29(1), pp. 10–16 of Educational Research, 84(1), pp. 74–111, http://rer.sagepub.com/content/84/1/74.full. Pressley, M, Duke, NK, Gaskins, IW, Fingeret, L, 264 pdf+html Halliday, J, Hilden, K & Collins, S 2009, Working with the struggling readers: Why we must get Gentaz, E., Sprenger-Charolles, L., & Theurel, A. 257 beyond the simple view of reading and visions of (2015). Differences in the predictors of reading how it might be done, as above comprehension in first graders from low socio- Arcand, M-S, Dion, E, Lemire-Théberge, E, Guay, economic status families with either good or 265 poor decoding skills. PLoS ONE 10(3). e0119581. M-H, Barrette, A, Gagnon, V, Caron, P-O & Fuchs, D 2014, Segmenting texts into meaningful doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119581 word groups: Beginning readers’ prosody and Spencer, M, Quinn, JM & Wagner, RK 2014, comprehension, Scientific Studies of Reading, Specific reading comprehension disability: 18(3), pp. 208-223 Major problem, myth, or misnomer?, Learning Chall, J & Jacobs, VA 2003, The classic study 266 Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(1), pp. 3-9, on poor children’s fourth grade reading slump, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ ldrp.12024/pdf American Educator, Spring. http://www.aft.org/ periodical/american-educator/spring-2003/classic- Nicholson, T 1993, The case against context, In 258 study-poor-childrens-fourth-grade-slump G. B. Thompson, W. E. Tunmer, & T. Nicholson (Eds.), Reading acquisition processes, pp. 91-104, Garcia, JR & Cain, K 2014, Decoding and reading Multilingual, Clevedon, UK comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 54 | Read

63 reader and assessment characteristics influence Reading intervention for intermediate-grade the strength of the relationship in English, Review students, Miflin, Houghton, New York, http://www. of Educational Research, 84(1), pp. 74–111 eduplace.com/intervention/soar06/articles/cooper. html 267 Young-Sek, K, Chea, HP & Wagner, RK 2014, Is oral/text reading fluency a “bridge” to reading Mason, LH 2013, Teaching students who struggle 281 comprehension?, Reading and Writing, 27(1), with learning to think before, while, and after pp.79-99 reading: Effects of self-regulated strategy development instruction, Reading & Writing 268 Wagner, RK & Meros, D 2010, Vocabulary and Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, reading comprehension: Direct, indirect, and 29(2), pp. 124-144 reciprocal influences, as above 282 Mason, LH 2013, Teaching students who struggle 269 Chall, J & Jacobs, VA 2003, The classic study on with learning to think before, while, and after poor children’s fourth grade reading slump, as reading: Effects of self-regulated strategy above development instruction, Reading & Writing 270 Sinatra, R, Zygouris-Coe & Dasinger, S 2011, Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, Preventing a vocabulary lag: What lessons 29(2), pp. 124-144 are learned from research, Reading & Writing 283 Elbro, C & Buch-Iversen, I 2013, Activation of Quarterly, 28(4), pp. 333-357 background knowledge for inference making: Fricke, S, Bowyer-Crane, C, Haley, AJ, Hume, C & 271 Effects on reading comprehension, Scientific Snowling, MJ 2013, Studies of Reading, 17(6), pp. 435-452 Efficacy of language intervention in the early Landi, N, Frost, SJ, Menci, WE, Sandak, R & years, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Pugh, KR 2013, Neurobiological bases of reading 54(3), pp. 280–290 comprehension: Insights From neuroimaging studies of word-level and text-level processing in 272 Willingham, DT 2006, The usefulness of brief skilled and impaired readers, Reading & Writing instruction in reading comprehension strategies. Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, American Educator, pp. 39-50, http://www.aft. 29(2), pp. 145-167 org/sites/default/files/periodicals/CogSci.pdf 284 Willingham, DT 2006, The usefulness of brief 273 Compton, DL, Miller AC, Elleman, AM & steacy, instruction in reading comprehension strategies, LM 2014, Have we forsaken reading theory in the as above name of “quick fix” interventions for children with reading disability?, as above 285 Mason, LH & Hagaman, JL 2012, Highlights in reading comprehension intervention research for 274 Hirsch, ED 2013, Primer on success: Character students with learning disabilities, as above and knowledge make the difference, Education Next, 13(1), http://educationnext.org/primer-on- 286 Swanson, HL & Sachse-Lee, C 2000, A meta- success/ analysis of single-subject-design intervention research for students with LD, Journal of Learning 275 Hirsch, ED 2006, The knowledge deficit, Mifflin, Disabilities, 33, pp. 114-136 Houghton, New York, pp. 38 287 Solis, M, Ciullo, S, Vaughn, S, Pyle, N, Hassaram, Garcia, JR & Cain, K 2014, Decoding and reading 276 B & Leroux, A 2012, Reading comprehension comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which interventions for middle school students with reader and assessment characteristics influence learning disabilities: A synthesis of 30 years of the strength of the relationship in English, as research, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, above pp.327- 340 277 Willingham, DT 2006, The usefulness of brief Hairrell, A, Rupley, WH, Edmonds, M, Larsen, R, 288 instruction in reading comprehension strategies, Simmons, D, Willson, V, Byrns, G & Vaughn, S American Educator, pp. 39-50, as above 2011, Examining the impact of teacher quality 278 National Reading Panel 2000, Teaching children on fourth-grade students’ comprehension and to read: An evidence-based assessment of content-area achievement, Reading & Writing the scientific research literature on reading Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, and its implications for reading instruction, 27(3), pp. 239-260 U.S. Department of Health and Human 289 Solis, M, Ciullo, S, Vaughn, S, Pyle, N, Hassaram, Services, Jessup, MD, pp. 4-51, http://www. B & Leroux, A 2012, Reading comprehension nationalreadingpanel.org, interventions for middle school students with 279 Pressley, M, Duke, NK, Gaskins, IW, Fingeret, L, learning disabilities: A synthesis of 30 years of Halliday, J, Hilden, K & Collins, S 2009, Working research, as above with the struggling readers: Why we must get 290 Compton, Dl, Miller, AC, Elleman, AM & Steacy, beyond the simple view of reading and visions LM 2014, Have we forsaken reading theory in the of how it might be done. In T. B. Gutkin & C. R. name of “quick fix” interventions for children with Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of school psychology reading disability?, Scientific Studies of Reading, (4th ed.), pp. 522-546, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, p. 18(1), pp. 55-73 548 Ciullo, S & Reutebuch 2013, Computer-based 291 Cooper, JD, McWilliams, J, Boschken, I & 280 Pistochini, L 1997, Stopping reading failure: graphic organizers for students with LD: A Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 55

64 systematic review of literature, Learning of reading comprehension: A review of practices Disabilities Research & Practice, 28(4), pp. – past, present, and future, pp. 13-69, In S. G. 196–210 Paris, & S. A. Stahl (Eds.), Children’s reading comprehension and assessment, Lawrence Elbro, C & Buch-Iversen, I 2013, Activation of 292 Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, pp. background knowledge for inference making: 131-160 Effects on reading comprehension, as above Miller, AC, Davis, N, Gilbert, JK, Cho, S-J, Toste, 305 293 McMaster, KL, Espin, CA, van den Broek, P JR, Street, J & Cutting, LE 2014, Novel approaches 2014, Making connections: Linking Cognitive to examine passage, student, and question effects Psychology and intervention research to improve on reading comprehension, Learning Disabilities comprehension of struggling readers, Learning Research & Practice, 29(1), pp. 25–35 Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(1), pp. 17–24 306 Sabatini, SP, O’Reilly, T, Halderman, LK & Bruce, K Compton, DL, Miller AC, Elleman, AM & Steacy, 294 2014, Integrating scenario-based and component LM 2014, Have we forsaken reading theory in the reading skill measures to understand the name of “quick fix” interventions for children with reading behavior of struggling readers, Learning reading disability?, as above Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(1), pp. 36–43 Compton, DL, Miller, AC, Elleman, AM & steacy, 295 307 Sabatini, JP, O’Reilly, T, Halderman, LK & Bruce, K LM 2014, Have we forsaken reading theory in the 2014, Integrating scenario-based and component name of “quick fix” interventions for children with reading skill measures to understand the reading reading disability?, pp. 64 behavior of struggling readers, as above 296 Griffiths, Y & Stuart, M 2013, Reviewing evidence- Archer, AL & Hughes, CA 2011, Explicit instruction: 308 based practice for pupils with dyslexia and literacy Effective and efficient teaching, The Guilford difficulties, Journal of Research in Reading, 36(1), Press, New York, NY pp. 96-116 309 Victorian Auditor-General 2012, Programs 297 Scammacca, N, Roberts, G, Vaughn, S, Edmonds, for students with special learning needs: M, Wexler, J, Reutebuch, CK & Torgesen, JK 2007, Audit summary, http://www.audit.vic.gov. Interventions for adolescent struggling readers: A au/publications/20120829-Special-Learning- meta-analysis with implications for practice, RMC Need/20120829-Special-Learning-Need.rtf Research Corporation, Centre on Instructions, Portsmouth, NH, http://www.centeroninstruction. 310 Jencks, CS, Smith, M, Acland, H, Bane, MJ, org/interventions-for-adolescent-struggling- Cohen, D, Ginits, H, et al. 1972, Inequality: A readers-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for- reassessment of the effect of family and schooling practice in America, Basic Books, New York, NY Vaughn, S, Wexler, J, Roberts, G, Barth, AA, 298 Coleman, J, Campbell, E, Hobson, C, McPartland, 311 Cirino, PT, Romain, MA, Francis, D, Fletcher, J & J, Mood, A, Weinfeld, FD, et al 1966, Equality of Denton, CA 2011, Effects of individualized and educational opportunity, Department of Health, standardized interventions on middle school Education & Welfare, Washington, DC, http://files. students with reading disabilities, Exceptional eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012275.pdf Children, 77(4),pp.391-407 312 Auguste, B, Kihn, P & Miller, M 2010, Closing the 299 Kendeou, P, van den Broek, P, Helder, A & talent gap: Attracting and retaining the top-third Karlsson, J 2014, A cognitive view of reading graduates to careers in Teaching, McKinsey & Co., comprehension: Implications for reading http://www.ptec.org/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID= difficulties, Learning Disabilities Research & 10526&DocID=2026&Attachment=1 Practice, 29(1), pp. 10–16 Hattie, J 2009, Visible Learning; a synthesis of 300 Garcia, JR & Cain, K 2014, Decoding and reading over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement, comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which Routledge, London reader and assessment characteristics influence 313 Productivity Commission 2011, Issues paper the strength of the relationship in English, Review - Education and Training Workforce: Schools of Educational Research, 84(1), pp. 74–111 Workforce Study, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/ 301 Keenan, JM, Betjemann, RS & Olson, RK 2008, word.../schools-workforce-issues.doc Reading comprehension tests vary in the skills Wenglinsky, H 2000, How teaching matters, 314 they assess: Differential dependence on decoding Milken Foundation & Educational Testing Service, and oral comprehension, Scientific Studies of Princeton, NJ, www.ets.org/research/pic/teamat. Reading, 12, pp. 281–300 pdf Slavin R, & Madden, NA 2011, Measures inherent 302 Leigh, A & Ryan, C 2008, How has school 315 to treatments in program effectiveness reviews, productivity changed in Australia?, The Australian Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, National University, Canberra, http://econrsss. 4, 370–380. anu.edu.au/~aleigh/pdf/SchoolProductivity.pdf National Reading Panel 2000, Teaching children 303 316 Hattie, J 2009, Visible Learning; a synthesis of to read: An evidence-based assessment of the over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement, scientific research literature on reading and its Routledge, London implications for reading instruction, as above 304 Pearson, PD & Hamm, DN 2005, The assessment Wenglinsky, H 2003, Using large- scale research 317 About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 56 | Read

65 to gauge the impact of instructional practices on Kirschner, PA, Sweller, J & Clark, RE 2006, Why student reading comprehension: An exploratory minimal guidance during instruction does not study, Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(19), work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v11n19/ discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching, Educational Psychologist, 318 Jencks, CS & Phillips, M 1998, America’s next 41(2), pp. 75–86, http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/ achievement test, The American Prospect, 9(40), publications/kirschner_Sweller_Clark.pdf http://www.prospect.org/print/V9/40/jencks-c. html Klahr, D & Nigam, M 2004, The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: Effects 319 Sanders, W & Rivers, J 1996, Cumulative and of direct instruction and discovery learning, residual effects of teachers on future student Psychological Science, 15, pp. 661–67, academic achievement, University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center. Marchand-Martelle, NE, Martella, RC, Modderman, Knoxville, http://www.cgp.upenn.edu/pdf/ SL, Petersen, HM & Pan, S 2013, Key areas of Sanders_Rivers-TVASS_teacher%20effects.pdf effective adolescent literacy programs, Education and Treatment of Children, 36(1), pp. 161-184, 320 Hanuschek, EA 1992, The trade-off between child https://www.mheonline.com/research/assets/ quantity and quality, Journal of Political Economy, products/3cec07e9ba5f5bb2/key_areas_effective_ 100(1), pp. 84–117, http://hanushek.stanford. adolescent_literacy_programs.pdf edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%20 1992%20JPE%20100(1).pdf Sweller, J, Kirschner, PA & Clark, RE 2007, Why minimally guided teaching techniques do not 321 Hill, P & Rowe, KJ 1996, Multilevel modelling in work: A reply to commentaries, Educational school effectiveness research, School Effectiveness Psychologist, 42(2), pp. 115–121, http://www. Rupley, WH 2011, Research on teacher quality: 322 vincematsko.com/Talks/WorkedExamples/sweller_ Improving reading and writing instruction, kirschner_clark_reply_ep07.pdf Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning 331 Clark, RE, Kirschner, PA & Sweller, J 2012, Putting Difficulties, 27(3), pp. 179-182 students on the path to learning: The case for Auguste, B, Kihn, P & Miller, M 2010, Closing the 323 fully guided instruction, American Educator, p. talent gap: Attracting and retaining the top-third 11, http://www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/ graduates to careers in Teaching, McKinsey & Co., spring2012/Clark.pdf http://www.ptec.org/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID= Engelmann, S 1980, Toward the design of faultless 332 10526&DocID=2026&Attachment=1 instruction: The theoretical basis of concept Engelmann, S, Becker, WC, Carnine, D, & Gersten, 324 analysis, Educational Technology, 20(2), pp. R 1988, The Direct Instruction Follow Through 28–36 model: Design and outcomes. Education and 333 Skillman, L, Garcia, L & Witcher, C 1977, Direct Treatment of Children, 11, 303-317. Instruction model implementation manual II. 325 Watkins, CL 1997, Project Follow Through: A Case Guidebook for supervisors, Eugene: Follow Study of Contingencies Influencing Instructional Through Project, Division of Teacher Education, Practices of the Educational Establishment, University of Oregon Cambridge Center for Behavioural Studies, Rosenshine, BV 1979, Content, time, and direct 334 Cambridge, MA. www.behavior.org/resources/901. instruction. In P. L. Peterson & H. J. Walbert pdf (Eds.), Research on teaching: Concepts, findings, 326 Education Consumers.Org 2015, Supplement: A and implications, McCutchan, Berkeley, CA, pp. summary of the results of Project Follow Through. 28-56 Retrieved from http://education-consumers. Rosenshine, B & Stevens, R 1995, Functions org/pdf/PFT_page.pdf; Gersten, RM, Keating, T, for teaching well-structured tasks, Journal of & Becker, W 1988, The continued impact of the Educational Research, 88, pp.262–268 Direct Instruction Model: Longitudinal studies of Follow Through students, Education and Treatment 335 Rosenshine, B 2010, Principles of Instruction. of Children, 11(4), 318-327. International Academy of Education, UNESCO. Geneva: International Bureau of Education. http:// 327 Gersten, RM, Keating, T, & Becker, W 1988, The www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ continued impact of the Direct Instruction Model: Publications/Educational_Practices/EdPractices_21. Longitudinal studies of Follow Through students, pdf Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 318- 327. Rosenshine, B 2012, Principles of Instruction: Research based principles that all teachers should Hattie, J 2009, Visible Learning; a synthesis of 328 know. American Educator, Spring 2012. http:// over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement, www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/spring2012/ Routledge, London. Rosenshine.pdf http://australia.teachingandlearningtoolkit.net.au/ 329 336 Archer, AL & Hughes, CA 2011, Explicit instruction: Clark, RE, Kirschner, PA & Sweller, J 2012, Putting 330 Effective and efficient teaching, The Guilford students on the path to learning: The case for fully Press, New York, NY guided instruction, American Educator, http:// Thompson, S, Ransdell, MF & Rousseau, CK 2005, 337 www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/spring2012/ Clark.pdf Effective teachers in urban school settings: Linking Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 57

66 Rupley, WH, Blair, TR & Nichols, WD 2009, 349 teacher disposition and student performance on standardized tests, Journal of Authentic Learning, Effective reading instruction for struggling 2(1) p. 22, http://dspace.sunyconnect.suny. readers: The role of direct/explicit teaching, edu/bitstream/handle/1951/6596/thompson. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2), pp. pdf?sequence=1 125-126. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ pdf/10.1080/10573560802683523 338 Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation 2014, What works best: Evidence-based practices 350 Groff, P 1990, An analysis of the debate: Teaching to help improve NSW student performance, NSW reading without conveying phonics information, Department of Education and Communities, Interchange, 21(4), pp. 1-14; Stahl, SA & Miller, Sydney. http://www.cese.nsw.gov.au/images/ PD 1989, Whole language & language experience stories/PDF/what_works_best.pdf approaches for beginning reading: A quantitative research synthesis, Review of Educational Louden, B. 2015, High performing primary 339 Research, 59, pp. 87-116. schools: What do they have in common? Western Australian Department of Education. http://www. Dehaene, S 2009, Reading in the brain: The 351 education.wa.edu.au/home/detcms/cms-service/ science and evolution of a human invention, download/asset/?asset_id=16987548 Viking/Penguin, New York, p.218. Sonnenschein, S, Stapleton, LM & Benson, A 340 352 Snow, M, Burns, S 7 Griffin, P 1998, Preventing 2010, The relation between the type and amount Reading Difficulties in Young Children - Executive of instruction and growth in children’s reading Summary, Committee on the Prevention of competencies, American Educational Research Reading Difficulties in Young Children, National Journal, 47(2), pp. 358-389 Research Council, p. 7, http://www.nap.edu/ catalog/6023.html Mayer, RE 2004, Should there be a three-strikes 341 rule against pure discovery learning? The case National Reading Panel 2000, Teaching children 353 for guided methods of instruction, American to read: An evidence-based assessment of the Psychologist, 59, p. 17, http://projects.ict.usc. scientific research literature on reading and its edu/itw/vtt/MayerThreeStrikesAP04.pdf implications for reading instruction, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 342 Schickendanz, JA 1986, More than the ABC’s: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/ The early stages of reading and writing, NAEYC, documents/report.pdf Washington, DC, https://www.naeyc.org/store/ files/store/TOC/709%20So%20Much%20More%20 354 Snow, M, Burns, S 7 Griffin, P 1998, Preventing than%20the%20ABCs.pdf Reading Difficulties in Young Children - Executive Summary, as above Smith, F 1973, Psychology and reading, Rinehart & Winston, Holt, New York 355 Galuschka, K, Ise, E, Krick, K& Schulte- Körne, G 2014, Effectiveness of treatment approaches for Weaver, C 1988, Reading process & practice: children and adolescents with reading disabilities: From socio-psycholinguistics to whole language, A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH PLoS ONE 9(2), p. 9. Smith, F 1992, Learning to read: The never- 343 356 Dehaene, S 2009, Reading in the brain: The ending debate, Phi Delta Kappan, 74, 432-441, p. science and evolution of a human invention, p. 440 326 344 Lee, HS & Anderson, JR 2013. Student learning: Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting 357 What has instruction got to do with it? Annual Authority 2015, NAPLAN Achievement in Reading, Review of Psychology, 64, 445-469. Persuasive Writing, Language Conventions and Vaughn, S, Denton, CA & Fletcher, JM 2010, Why 345 Numeracy: National Report for 2015, ACARA, intensive interventions are necessary for students Sydney. with severe reading difficulties, Psychology in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and 358 Schools, 47(5), pp. 432–444 Development (OECD) 2013, PISA 2012 Results: Sweller, J 1988, Cognitive load during problem 346 What Students Know and Can Do – Student solving: Effects on learning, Cognitive Science, Performance in Mathematics, Reading and Science 12, pp.257–85, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ (Volume I), PISA, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi. doi/10.1207/s15516709cog1202_4/pdf org/10.1787/9789264201118-en 347 Berninger, VW, Abbott, RD, Abbott, SP, Graham, 359 Buckingham J, Beaman R & Wheldall K 2014, S & Richards, T 2002, Writing and reading: Why poor children are more likely to become poor Connections between language by hand and readers: the early years, Educational Review, 66, language by eye, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 428-466, doi:10.1080/00131911.2013.795129 35, pp. 39-56 360 Buckingham J, Wheldall K, & Beaman-Wheldall, Gauthier, C & Dembélé, M 2004, Quality of 348 R 2013, Why poor children are more likely to teaching and quality of education: A review become poor readers: The school years, Australian of research findings, UNESCO Background Journal of Education, 57, 190-213, DOI: paper prepared for the Education for All 10.1177/0004944113495500 Global Monitoring Report 2005 The Quality Chatterji M 2006, Reading achievement gaps, 361 Imperative, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0014/001466/146641e.pdf correlates, and moderators of early reading About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading 58 | Read

67 Buckingham, J, Ferrari, J and Alegounarias, T 370 achievement: Evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study (ECLS) Kindergarten to first 2014, Why Jayden Can’t Read: A Forum on Fixing grade sample. Journal of Educational Psychology, Literacy, The Centre for Independent Studies, 98, 489–507; Faust, M & Kandelshine-Waldman, Sydney. O 2011, The effects of different approaches to 371 Anwaruddin, SM 2015, Teachers’ engagement reading instruction on letter detection tasks in with educational research: Toward a conceptual normally achieving and low achieving readers, framework for locally-based interpretive Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, communities, Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(5), pp. 545–566. 23(40). http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa. 362 D’Angiulli A, Siegel LS, & Hertzman, C 2004, v23.1776 Schooling, socioeconomic context and literacy 372 Willingham, D 2012. When can you trust the development. Educational Psychology, 24, experts? How to tell good science from bad in 865–883; D’Angiulli A, Siegel LS, & Maggi S education. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. 2004, Literacy instruction, SES, and word-reading achievement in English-language learners and 373 Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). ABS children with English as a first language: A Research and Experimental Development, All longitudinal study, Learning Disabilities Research & Sector Summary, Australia, 2008-09. Retrieved Practice, 19, 202–213. from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/ DetailsPage/8112.02008-09?OpenDocument 363 Johnston R, & Watson J E 2005, The effects of synthetic phonics teaching on reading and spelling 374 Coe, R, Aloisi, C, Higgins, S, & Major, LE 2014, attainment: A seven year longitudinal study. What makes great teaching? Review of the Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Education underpinning research, Durham University, Department. Centre for Evaluation and Monitoring. Retrieved Retrieved from www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/ from http://www.suttontrust.com/wp-content/ Doc/36496/0023582.pdf uploads/2014/10/What-Makes-Great-Teaching- REPORT.pdf Grossman, PL, Loeb, S, Cohen, J, Hammerness, 364 K, Wyckoff, JH, Boyd, DJ, & Lankford, H 2010, Stanovich, KE 2000, Progress in Understanding 375 Measure for measure: The relationship between Reading: Scientific Foundations and New Frontiers. measures of instructional practice in middle school Guilford Press, New York. English language arts and teachers’ value-added score, NBER Working Paper 16015, National Bureau for Economic Research. http://www.nber. org/papers/w16015 365 The Education Trust 2004, The real value of teachers: If good teachers matter, why don’t we act like it? Thinking K-16. www.cgp.upenn.edu/ pdf/Ed%20Trust.pdf; Turkheimer, E, Haley, A Waldron, M, D’Onofrio, B, Gottesman, II 2003, Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children. Psychological Science, 14, 623- 628. 366 Babu, S., & Mendro, R. (2004). Teacher Accountability: HLM-based teacher effectiveness indices in the investigation of teacher effects on student achievement in a state assessment program, Dallas TX public schools, AERA. http://www.dallasisd.org/cms/lib/TX01001475/ Centricity/Shared/evalacct/research/articles/ Babu-Teacher-Accountability-HLM-Based-Teacher- Effectiveness-Indices-2003.pdf. 367 Hattie, J 2009, Visible Learning; a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement, Routledge, London Lamb, S, Jackson, J, Walstab, A & Huo, S 2015, 368 Educational opportunity in Australia 2015: Who succeeds and who misses out, Centre for International Research on Education Systems, Victoria University, for the Mitchell Institute, Melbourne: Mitchell Institute. 369 Wheldall, K 2011, Ensuring that all children learn to read, LDA Bulletin, 43, July 2011, https://www. ldaustralia.org/client/migrated/bulletin_reprint_ july2011.pdf Read About It: Scientific Evidence for Effective Teaching of Reading | 59

68 About the Author Kerry Hempenstall Kerry Hempenstall is an educational psychologist, former lecturer at RMIT University and former secondary school teacher. About the Editor Jennifer Buckingham Jennifer Buckingham is a Research Fellow at The Centre for Independent Studies. Research Report 11 (RR11) • ISSN: 2204-8979 (Printed) 2204-9215 (Online) • ISBN: 978-1-922184-61-0 Published March 2016 by The Centre for Independent Studies Limited. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Centre’s staff, advisors, directors or officers. © The Centre for Independent Studies (ABN 15 001 495 012), 2016 This publication is available from The Centre for Independent Studies. phone: [email protected] email: +61 2 9439 7310 • fax: +61 2 9438 4377 • PO Box 92, St Leonards, NSW 1590 Australia •

Related documents

Microsoft Word   B3 2 Initial Evaluation and Mgmt following BBFE.doc

Microsoft Word B3 2 Initial Evaluation and Mgmt following BBFE.doc

Section B-3.2 MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL Page INFECTION CONTROL MANUAL of 11 1 Original Date of Issue June 1991 : 2/96 11/99 Reviewed 5/01 5/97 5/02 11/98 12/05 5/00 5/97 Revised 9/95 7/02 3/06 6/08 6/10 IN...

More info »
Grant Lake Hydroelectric Project—FERC Project No. 13212 005

Grant Lake Hydroelectric Project—FERC Project No. 13212 005

Office of Energy Projects May 2019 –0283F FEIS FERC/ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FINAL FOR HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hydroelectric Project —FERC Project No. 13212- 005 Grant Lake Alaska Federal Energy Re...

More info »
Microsoft Word   StrepBCarrotBrothOneStep.docx

Microsoft Word StrepBCarrotBrothOneStep.docx

STREP B CARROT BROTH™ ONE-STEP Strep B Carrot Broth™ One-Step, 13x100mm Tube, 4ml Cat. no. Z40 20 tubes/box 100 tubes/box Cat. no. Z44BX Strep B Carrot Broth™ One-Step, 12x80mm Tube, 4ml Cat. no. Z46B...

More info »
CFOC4 pdf  FINAL

CFOC4 pdf FINAL

National Health and Safety Performance Standards • Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs, 4th Edition Caring for Our Children Caring for Our Children Caring for Our National Health and Safe...

More info »
truthAboutAbsOnly4.28.indd

truthAboutAbsOnly4.28.indd

The Truth About Abstinence-Only Programs Accurate, balanced sex education – including information about contraception and condoms – is a basic human right of youth. Such education helps young people t...

More info »
CFOC3 updated final

CFOC3 updated final

Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs, Third Edition A Joint Collaborative Project of American Academy of Pediatri...

More info »
National Prevention Strategy: America's Plan For Better Health and Wellness

National Prevention Strategy: America's Plan For Better Health and Wellness

National Prevention Strategy AMERICA’S PLAN FOR BETTER HEALTH AND WELLNESS June 2011

More info »