Third Circuit Civil Appeals Appellees Brief Reply Brief and Cross Appeals (W 012 3358)

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1 Resource ID: W-012-3358 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals STEPHEN M. ORLOFSKY AND ADRIENNE C. ROGOVE, BLANK ROME LLP, WITH PRACTICAL LAW LITIGATION Resource ID numbers in blue on Westlaw for more. Search the TIMING A Practice Note explaining how to prepare and The Third Circuit clerk typically issues a briefing and scheduling order submit the appellee’s brief and the appellant’s shortly after an appeal is docketed. Unless the court orders otherwise: reply brief in civil appeals to the United States „ „ The appellant must serve and file its opening brief within 40 days after the date on which the record is filed. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit from a „ „ The appellee must serve and file its brief within 30 days after the federal district court’s order or judgment. This appellant serves its brief. Note also explains how to brief cross-appeals, „ „ The appellant may serve and file a reply brief within 14 days after the appellee serves its brief, but at least seven days before and how to submit supplemental authorities argument, unless the court orders otherwise. using so-called Rule 28(j) letters. (FRAP 31(a)(1), (2) .) A party receiving service by US mail or commercial carrier may add After the appellant files its opening brief, the appellee responds three days to the time otherwise available to respond. However, with a brief of its own. The appellant then has an opportunity to parties receiving a brief by electronic service may not add three days reply. If both parties appeal, the appellee has an opportunity to FRAP 26(c) to a response time. ( .) reply in support of its cross-appeal. Whether the briefing ends If the case is referred to mediation, the court defers establishing after the third or fourth brief, the parties can submit any significant a briefing schedule, unless the Chief Circuit Mediator or the court legal authority of which they become aware after briefing and ). 3d Cir. L.A.R. 33.3 determines otherwise ( before argument. This Note explains briefing schedules in the Third Circuit, how to compile and format the appellee’s brief and EXTENSIONS OF THE BRIEFING SCHEDULE reply brief, cross-appeals, and Rule 28(j) letters alerting the court to supplemental authorities. A party that cannot meet a deadline to file its brief may ask the court for an extension. The parties may not agree or stipulate to change the briefing schedule on their own. The court does not automatically grant BRIEFING SCHEDULES a request for an extension, even where the request is unopposed. The parties must serve and file their briefs according to the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure (FRAP) and the local A party may make its first request for an extension of 14 days or rules for the Third Circuit (3d Cir. L.A.R.) or, if ordered otherwise, less by telephone or in writing. The clerk may grant extensions on a according to a briefing schedule set by the Third Circuit. The showing of good cause. The requesting party should notify opposing parties may request an extension if they have good reasons for counsel before requesting an extension. A party must request an being unable to meet the court’s deadlines. Attorneys should be extension at least three days before the brief’s due date. If less than aware of the: three days remain before the due date, the requesting party must make the request by written motion and demonstrate that good Time to file and serve briefs (see Timing „ „ ). cause for the extension either: „ „ Ways to extend the briefing schedule (see Extensions of the Did not exist earlier. „ „ ). Briefing Schedule „ Could not with due diligence have been known or communicated „ Consequences of failing to comply with the briefing schedule „ „ to the court earlier. ). (see Failure to Comply with Briefing Schedule .) (3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.4 © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved.

2 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals „ The Third Circuit greatly disfavors second requests for an extension The title or caption of the case, including the parties to the appeal „ of time to file a brief. The court grants second extension requests and their appellate designations (for example, Plaintiff-Appellee). only on a showing of good cause that was not foreseeable when „ The nature of the proceeding and the name of the court below „ the first request was made. A party must make a second extension (for example, On Appeal from the United States District Court for .) 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.4 request by written motion. ( the District of New Jersey). The title of the brief, which must indicate the name of the party for „ „ FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH BRIEFING SCHEDULE whom the brief is filed (for example, Appellee’s Brief). If an appellee fails to timely file its brief, it is not permitted to participate „ The name, office address, and telephone number of counsel „ FRAP 31(c)). at oral argument unless the court grants permission ( representing the party for whom the brief is filed. (FRAP 32(a)(2) .) THE APPELLEE’S BRIEF The appellee’s brief is the primary vehicle for the appellee to explain Except for filings by unrepresented parties, paper copies of the to the Third Circuit why it should affirm the district court’s order or appellee’s brief must have a red cover ( ). If the appellee FRAP 32(a)(2) judgment and why the appellant’s arguments are wrong. uses a transparent cover, the underlying cover sheet must be red ). (3d Cir. L.A.R. 32.2(b) CONTENTS OF THE APPELLEE’S BRIEF If the full official caption does not fit on the cover, counsel may The appellee’s brief must contain, in order: continue it on the inside of the cover. „ „ ). A cover (see Cover Disclosure Statement „ „ A corporate disclosure statement and statement of financial ). interest (see Disclosure Statement The appellee’s brief must include a disclosure statement immediately FR AP 26.1(b) after the cover ( ). The statement must: and 28(a)(1) „ A table of contents (see Table of Contents ). „ „ „ Appear before the table of contents. „ A table of authorities (see Table of Authorities ). „ „ „ For corporate parties, identify any parent corporation and any „ „ A statement of subject-matter and appellate jurisdiction, where publicly held corporation that owns 10% or more of the party’s appropriate (see Jurisdictional Statement ). stock. A statement of the issues, if desired (see Statement of the Issues „ „ ). „ „ For all parties, identify any publicly owned corporation that has a „ „ A statement of related cases and proceedings (see Statement of financial interest in the outcome of the litigation and the nature of Related Cases and Proceedings ). the interest. „ „ A statement of the relevant facts, if desired (see Statement of the ). Case (FR AP 26.1(a) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 26.1.1 ; see Practice Note, Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Post-Initiation Filings and Mediation: Corporate ). „ „ A summary of the argument (see Summary of the Argument Disclosure Statement and Statement of Financial Interest „ ). An argument (see Argument „ ( )). W-010-8497 „ „ ). A conclusion, if desired (see Conclusion Counsel must use the Corporate Disclosure and Statement of „ „ ). A signature (see Signature Financial Interest form on the court’s website . „ ). A certificate of compliance (see Certificate of Compliance „ The appellee’s brief must include the disclosure statement even „ „ An electronic document certificate (see Electronic Document if the appellee previously submitted one to the court. Counsel Certificate ). must immediately supplement the statement if any of the relevant „ A certificate of bar admission (see Certificate of Bar Admission ). „ information changes. ( .) FR AP 26.1(b) „ ). Proof of service (see Certificate of Service „ For more information about drafting, formatting, and updating the , 26.1 (FRAP 25(d) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. , and 32(a)(2), (d), and (g) , 28(a), (b) corporate disclosure statement, see Practice Note, Third Circuit ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.4 ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(d) .) 28.1 ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.2 Civil Appeals: Post-Initiation Filings and Mediation: Corporate Disclosure Statement and Statement of Financial Interest Unlike in some other federal courts of appeals, in the Third Circuit, ( W-010-8497 ). the appellee does not request oral argument in its brief. Instead, the appellee must file a separate oral argument statement within seven Table of Contents days after filing its brief, explaining why the court should hear oral The appellee’s brief must include a table of contents indicating the argument and setting out the amount of argument time sought. page on which each section of the brief begins. The table also must (3d Cir. L.A.R. 34.1(b) .) include specific page references to each heading or subheading of FRAP 28(a)(2), (b) each issue to be argued. ( .) Cover The cover page must list: Table of Authorities „ „ The court of appeals docket number centered at the top of the page. The appellee’s brief must include a table of authorities listing the The name of the court (United States Court of Appeals for the „ „ cases, statutes, and other authorities cited in the brief, along with Third Circuit). © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 2

3 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals page references to where the appellee cited each authority. Cases a defendant-appellee may have argued in the district court that the .) FRAP 28(a)(3), (b) must appear in the table in alphabetical order. ( plaintiff’s complaint should be dismissed because it: Some attorneys use passim when an authority appears on several „ „ Is barred by the applicable statute of limitations. pages of the brief (usually more than five) rather than providing a „ „ Fails to state a claim on which relief may be granted. lengthy list of pages. Even if the district court dismisses the action on limitations Jurisdictional Statement grounds without addressing the merits of the plaintiff’s claims, the defendant-appellee’s brief on appeal may argue that the merits The appellee’s brief may include a statement of subject matter and provide an alternative ground for affirmance. In this example, the appellate jurisdiction if either: defendant-appellee should include both limitations and the merits in „ „ The appellee disagrees with the appellant about the existence of its statement of the issues presented for review. jurisdiction. Even if the appellee does not intend to present alternative grounds The appellant incorrectly identified the basis for jurisdiction. „ „ for affirmance, the appellee usually wants to rephrase the issues in a (FRAP 28(a)(4), (b) .) way that frames them more favorable for the appellee. If the appellee includes a jurisdictional statement, it must state: The rules do not specify any particular format for the issues „ The basis for the district court’s subject matter jurisdiction (for „ presented. Most attorneys phrase their issues as either: example, federal question jurisdiction or diversity jurisdiction), „ A question (for example, “Does a plaintiff need to plead with „ with any relevant facts establishing jurisdiction and citations to the particularity a claim of negligent misrepresentation?”). appropriate statutes. „ „ A declaratory statement beginning with “whether” (for example, „ „ The basis for appellate jurisdiction (for example, an appeal from “Whether a plaintiff must plead with particularity a claim of a final judgment), with any relevant facts establishing jurisdiction negligent misrepresentation.”). and citations to the appropriate statutes. If an issue involves some facts, attorneys often include a generic The filing dates necessary to establish the timeliness of the „ „ description of them. There is no need to present the specific facts of appeal. These typically include: the appeal in the statement of issues presented for review. An issue in „ z the date the district court issued the order or judgment a negligence case may be, for example, “Whether a driver violates his appealed from; and duty of due care to others when he accelerates through a yellow light.” „ z the date the appellant filed the notice of appeal or petition for Each issue can be multiple sentences. For example, the negligence permission to appeal. issue above could alternatively be phrased as: “A driver accelerated „ „ A statement that the appeal is either: while driving through a yellow light. Did he violate his duty of care z „ from a final order or judgment disposing of all claims; or to others?” „ z premised on some other proper basis for appellate jurisdiction. The rules do not specify how many issues a brief may present or .) (FRAP 28(a)(4), (b) what makes something significant enough to constitute an issue presented for review. Some attorneys present as many issues If the second and fourth items are duplicative, the jurisdictional as there are main sections of the argument (see Argument ). For statement may recite the relevant information once. For example, example, if the argument section of a brief has three main points, counsel need not state twice that the appeal is taken from a final some attorneys have three issues presented, even if some of the order or judgment. points have sub-points. If the appellee disputes the existence of jurisdiction, either in the Attorneys commonly place each issue presented in a separate, district court or in the Third Circuit, its jurisdictional statement should numbered paragraph. explain why jurisdiction does not exist. For example, an appellee may state that although the appeal is from a final judgment, the Statement of Related Cases and Proceedings district court lacked subject matter jurisdiction to enter that final Following the statement of the issues, the appellee’s brief must judgment because there is no federal question and the parties were contain a statement of related cases and proceedings stating whether: not diverse. This case was previously before the Third Circuit. „ „ The jurisdictional statement is often a single paragraph. „ Any other related case or proceeding is completed, pending, or „ about to be presented to any state or federal court or agency. Statement of the Issues Any previous or pending appeal before the Third Circuit arose out „ „ The appellee’s brief may include a statement of the issues of the same case or proceeding. presented for appellate review after the jurisdictional statement ). (FRAP 28(a)(5), (b) (3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.1(a)(2) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.2 .) An appellee may include a statement of the issues to re-frame Statement of the Case an issue presented in the appellant’s brief or to present bases The appellee’s brief may include a statement of the case after the for affirmance that the appellant did not address. For example, ). FRAP 28(a)(6), (b) statement of the related cases and proceedings ( © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 3

4 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals An appellee may include a statement of the case to add events that Circuit should affirm the district court’s order or judgment. The the appellant omitted or to present its own narrative. argument section must include: A concise statement of the applicable standard of review before „ „ If the appellee includes a statement of the case, the beginning of the the discussion of each issue. statement must: „ The appellee’s contentions and the legal reasons supporting them. „ „ „ Set out the facts relevant to the issues presented on appeal. Citations to legal authorities and materials in the record relied on „ „ „ „ Describe the relevant procedural history. by the appellee. Identify the rulings on review. „ „ ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.1(b) (FRAP 28(a)(8), (b) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.2 .) .) (FRAP 28(a)(6), (b) The statement of the applicable standard should appear under a 3d Cir. separate heading placed before the discussion of each issue ( Counsel must support all statements of fact and procedural L.A.R. 28.1(b) ). ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.2 FRAP 28(a)(6), (e) history with citations to the record on appeal ( ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(c) ). Counsel must support all references to The appellee’s brief should present the legal argument in a portions of the record contained in the appendix by a citation narrative form with proper headings. The argument should to the appendix followed by a parenthetical description of the be organized in a concise and logical way free of irrelevant document, unless it is otherwise apparent from the context of information. It may or may not follow the organization of the ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(c) ). Counsel may FRAP 30(c)(2) the sentence ( appellant’s argument depending on the particulars of the case. include hyperlinks to the electronic appendix in addition to the Counsel should not make any personal attacks against opposing citation to the page in the paper appendix ( ). 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(c) ). counsel or parties ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.1(d) Counsel must seek and obtain permission before including hyperlinks to audio and video files ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(c) ). Counsel Counsel often divide the argument section into points, with each may not include hyperlinks to sealed or otherwise restricted point addressing one of the appellee’s main arguments. Each point documents ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(c) ). may contain sub-points. For example: „ „ Point I may argue that the district court had diversity jurisdiction The statement of the case should be written as a persuasive (but not over the action. argumentative) narrative and not as a bullet point string of relevant „ Point II may argue that the complaint stated a claim for „ facts. In describing the facts and procedural history, counsel should negligence, and may contain sub-points II.A, II.B, II.C, and II.D, set out only the material events and dates. Superfluous information for example, that the plaintiff adequately alleged duty, arguing, may distract or confuse readers. breach, causation, and damages, respectively. When providing all of the relevant facts, counsel should disclose Just as in the statement of the case, counsel must support every all material facts, even those that do not favor the appellant’s statement in the argument section which concerns matters in the argument. Counsel may seek to minimize those “bad facts” but record, including factual assertions, with a citation to the record should not conceal them. These facts may look substantially worse (FRAP 28(a)(6), (e) Statement of the Case ). ; see when revealed for the first time in the reply brief and the appellee’s counsel may lose credibility with the court. Counsel must identify the proper reporter or source when citing legal authorities: Although not required, counsel often divide the statement of the case into separate sections with headings. For example, a heading in a „ „ Published federal decisions. For citations to federal opinions breach of contract action may be, “The Parties Enter into a Contract.” reported in the United States Reports, Federal Reporter, Federal Counsel need not number these headings. Supplement, or Federal Rules Decisions, counsel must cite to those reporters. Counsel may cite to the Supreme Court Reporter, Counsel should refer to the parties by their names or by descriptive Lawyer’s Edition, or United States Law Week, in that order, for terms that identify them clearly, as opposed to “appellant” and United States Supreme Court decisions that have not yet been “appellee” ( FRAP 28(d)). For example, a brief may describe the published in the United States Reports. parties as the employer and the employee, the buyer and the seller, For citations to federal opinions Unpublished federal decisions. „ „ or the plaintiff and defendant. not formally reported in one of the above-listed reporters, counsel must identify the court, docket number, the full date of decision, Summary of the Argument and a citation to a publicly available electronic database, such as The appellee’s brief must include a summary of its argument. Westlaw. The summary should provide a brief narrative overview of the „ For citations to state court decisions, „ State court decisions. argument. The summary should not merely restate the headings in counsel should include the West Reporter citation whenever ). Counsel may, for example, the argument section ( FRAP 28(a)(7), (b) possible, and identify the state court. provide a single-paragraph synopsis of each point in the argument section. (3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(a) .) Argument Counsel may include hyperlinks to all cited decisions if counsel 3d Cir. L.A.R. also includes the standard citation to the reporter ( After presenting a summary of its argument on appeal, the 28.3(a) ). If the appellee cites a federal judicial opinion, order, appellee’s brief must set out in full its argument for why the Third © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 4

5 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals „ judgment, or other written disposition not available in a publicly Identifying the parties whose signatures are required and „ accessible electronic database, the party must file and serve a submitting a notice of endorsement by the other parties within three business days of filing. copy of that opinion, order, judgment, or disposition with the brief (FR AP 32.1(b) ). „ In any other manner approved by the court. „ If disposition of the appeal “requires the study” of statutes, rules, .) (3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.9(c) regulations, or other legal authorities (for example, because the appeals turn on a question of statutory interpretation), an appellee Certificate of Compliance must set out the relevant parts of these authorities in one of the An appellee’s brief must contain a certificate by the appellee’s following: attorney stating that the brief complies with the type-volume The appellee’s brief. „ „ FRAP 28(a)(10), (b) and 32(g)(1) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) limitations ( ; see Length or Type-Volume ). When preparing the certificate, counsel „ An addendum at the end of the brief. „ may rely on the word or line count provided by the word processing A separate volume provided to the court. „ „ software used when drafting the brief ( FRAP 32(g)(1) ). The certificate .) (FRAP 28(f) must state either the number of: „ „ Words in the brief. Counsel typically quote the relevant portions of a statute, regulation, rule, or other authority in the appellee’s brief itself. If the relevant „ „ Lines of monospaced type in the brief. portion is lengthy or if an authority is not easily accessible (for .) ; see Font (FRAP 32(g)(1) example, a local law not published online), counsel may include a copy of it in an addendum at the end of a brief. Counsel may use Form 6 in the Appendix of Forms to the FRAP ). (FRAP 32(g)(2) Conclusion Electronic Document Certificate The appellee’s brief may contain a short conclusion, stating the precise relief sought in the appeal ( ). For example, FRAP 28(a)(9), (b) Counsel must certify that: the conclusion may read, “For all of the foregoing reasons, this Court „ „ The text of the electronic brief is identical to the text in the paper should affirm the district court’s judgment.” copies. A virus detection program was run on the electronic brief and no „ „ Signature virus was detected. Counsel must identify the version of the virus The appellee’s brief must include a signature from one of the detection program. FRAP 32(d) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. attorneys representing the appellee ( ). For electronically filed documents, the ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 46.4 28.4 .) (3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) filing attorney’s case management/electronic case filing (CM/ECF) The court may impose sanctions if a filing contains a computer virus system log-in and password constitute the required signature for ). 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) or worm ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. all purposes. A manual signature is unnecessary ( ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 46.4 28.4 ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.9(a) ). The filing attorney Certificate of Bar Admission must type “s/[ATTORNEY’S NAME]” on the signature line to signify The appellee’s brief must include a certification that at least one of that the document is signed. The Third Circuit also allows counsel the attorneys whose names appear on the brief is a member of the to apply an electronic signature, but the use of an “s/” is the more Third Circuit bar or has filed an application for admission to the Third ; 3 d Cir. 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.4 common method of signing documents. ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(d) ). Circuit ( .) L.A.R. 113.9(b) Counsel also must include a signature block directly below the Certificate of Service signature line, including the filing attorney’s: Counsel must include a certificate of service in the appellee’s brief, „ Name. „ even if all parties receive service via CM/ECF ( FRAP 25(d) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.4(c) ). The Notice of Docket Activity (NDA) generated by „ State bar number. „ CM/ECF is service of the brief on all counsel registered to use Third Business address. „ „ ). 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.3(a) Circuit CM/ECF ( „ Telephone number. „ The certificate must state that: (3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.4 .) Counsel for the other parties are registered to use Third Circuit „ „ If a brief is submitted jointly on behalf of two or more separately CM/ECF and receive service by the NDA. represented parties, the filing attorney must include a separate „ „ If one or more parties are exempt from using CM/EF, that the signature line and block for each attorney. If so, counsel must file the appellee effects service by: document: „ z personal delivery; Containing a scanned image with all necessary signatures. „ „ „ z first-class mail; or „ Containing a statement representing the consent of the non-filing „ „ z third-party commercial carrier for delivery within three days. signatories. ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.4(c) .) (FRAP 25(c)(1), (d) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.4(b) © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 5

6 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals Length or Type-Volume FORMATTING THE APPELLEE’S BRIEF The appellee’s brief must comply with formatting requirements The appellee’s brief may not exceed 30 pages without prior approval from the court, unless it either: regarding: Contains no more than 13,000 words. „ Page size, line spacing, and margins (see Page Size, Line Spacing, „ „ „ and Margins ). Uses a monospaced font and contains no more than 1,300 lines „ „ Font (see Font „ „ ). of text. Length or type-volume (see Length or Type-Volume ). „ „ .) (FRAP 32(a)(7) „ „ File format for electronic briefs (see File Format). Counsel may rely on the word or line count provided by the word „ „ Paper copies of briefs (see Paper Briefs ). processing software used to draft the brief ( ). An FRAP 32(g)(1) appellee’s brief must contain a certificate by the appellee’s attorney Page Size, Line Spacing, and Margins stating that the brief complies with these “type-volume” limitations Counsel must prepare the appellee’s brief using 8.5 by 11 inch pages ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) (FRAP 28(a)(10), (b) and 32(g)(1) ; see Certificate (FRAP 32(a)(4) ). ). of Compliance Brief pages must have margins of at least: In determining the word or line count of a brief, counsel must include the headings, text, footnotes, and quotations. Counsel may exclude: „ „ One inch on the left and right sides of the page. „ „ The cover page. „ „ Three-quarters of an inch on the top and bottom of each page. The corporate disclosure statement and statement of financial „ „ .) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 32.1(b) (FRAP 32(a)(4) interest. Except for page numbers, the appellee’s brief may not include any „ „ The table of contents. FRAP 32(a)(4) text in the margins ( ). „ The table of authorities. „ The text of the appellee’s brief must be double-spaced. However, a The signature block. „ „ brief may use single-spacing for: Any addendum containing statutes, rules, or regulations. „ „ „ „ Headings. The certificates of counsel. „ „ „ „ Footnotes. (FRAP 32(f) .) „ „ Quotations more than two lines long (which should be indented on both sides). File Format .) (FRAP 32(a)(4) When serving and filing a brief using CM/ECF, the appellee must prepare its brief in PDF format. Counsel should create the PDF Font document by converting a word processing document, not by scanning. (3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(b) and committee comments.) Converting the brief Briefs must use black type ( FRAP 32(a)(1)(A) ). The appellee’s from the word processing software file directly to PDF produces the brief must use a plain, roman style font. However, appellees may smallest document and ensures the text is easily searchable. occasionally use italics or boldface for emphasis. Case names must .) be italicized or underlined. ( FRAP 32(a)(6) Paper Briefs The appellee’s brief may be written in either a proportionally spaced Paper copies of the appellee’s brief must include a red cover of font (for example, Times New Roman) or a monospaced font (for ; see ). Briefs must be printed durable quality ( FRAP 32(a)(2) Cover example, Courier) ( ; Third Circuit Font and Page Length FRAP 32(a)(5) single-sided ( ). The print quality must be at least as FRAP 32(a)(1)(A) ). Requirements for Filing Briefs good as that of a laser printer ( FRAP 32(a)(1)(B) ). The required font size depends on which type of font the appellee Counsel must bind paper copies of the appellee’s brief along the left uses: margin, in a way that: An appellee’s brief written in a Proportionally spaced font. „ „ „ „ Is secure. proportionally spaced font must use at least a 14-point font Does not obscure the text. „ „ size. This font must include serifs (for example, Times New Roman). However, headings and captions may appear in „ „ Permits the brief to lie reasonably flat when open. sans-serif type (that is, a font without serifs, like Arial or (FRAP 32(a)(3) .) Counsel may use velo or spiral binding, but may not Helvetica). use backbones or spines. Any metal fasteners or staples must have Monospaced font. „ „ An appellee’s brief printed in a monospaced .) 3d Cir. L.A.R. 32.1(a) smooth edges and be covered. ( font may not contain more than 10.5 characters per inch. This roughly translates to 12-point Courier font. FILING AND SERVING THE APPELLEE’S BRIEF (FRAP 32(a)(5) ; Third Circuit Font and Page Length Requirements for Counsel must use CM/ECF to serve and file the appellee’s brief .) Filing Briefs (3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(b)(1) ). Counsel also must serve one paper copy of © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 6

7 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals Cover pro the appellee’s brief on any party exempt from CM/ECF and any party, unless opposing counsel has consented to electronic service se The cover page must list: ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(d) (FRAP 25(b) ). Acceptable ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) The court of appeals docket number centered at the top of the „ „ methods of paper service include: page. Personal delivery. „ „ „ „ The name of the court (United States Court of Appeals for the First-class mail. „ „ Third Circuit). „ „ Third-party commercial carrier for delivery within three days. The title or caption of the case, including the parties to the appeal „ „ and their appellate designations (for example, Plaintiff-Appellee). .) (FRAP 25(c)(1) The nature of the proceeding and the name of the court below (for „ „ On the same day the appellee electronically files its brief, the example, On Appeal from the United States District Court for the appellee must send one originally signed brief and six paper copies District of New Jersey). to the clerk of the court by either: „ „ The title of the brief, which must indicate the name of the party for „ „ First-class mail. whom the brief is filed (for example, Appellant’s Reply Brief). Third-party commercial carrier for delivery within three days. „ „ „ „ The name, office address, and telephone number of counsel representing the party for whom the brief is filed. ; 3d Cir. (FRAP 25(a)(2)(B) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 25.1(a) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) L.A.R. 31.1(b)(3) ; see Standing Order: Reduced Number of Copies of .) (FRAP 32(a)(2) Briefs Required (Apr. 29, 2013) .) Except for filings by unrepresented parties, paper copies of the reply In appeals from the District Court for the District of the Virgin ). If the appellant uses a brief must have a grey cover ( FRAP 32(a)(2) Islands, counsel must file one additional paper copy of the brief with transparent cover, the underlying cover sheet must be grey ( 3d Cir. the clerk of the district court in the location from which the appeal is ). L.A.R. 32.2(b) taken (St. Thomas or St. Croix) ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) ). The court may order additional paper copies to be filed if the court orders hearing or Disclosure Statement (3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) rehearin g en banc ). The appellant does not need to include a disclosure statement or statement of financial interest in its reply brief unless the statement The paper copies must be identical to the electronic copies except included in its principal brief is outdated. Any disclosure statement that they must have a red cover ( FRAP 32(a)(2) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) ). contained in the reply briefs may include only persons and entities The brief is considered filed on the date counsel files the electronic FRAP omitted from the statement contained in the principal brief. ( version via CM/ECF if the paper copies are mailed to the clerk on the 26.1(b) and 28(c) .) same day ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(b)(3) ). Table of Contents THE REPLY BRIEF The reply brief must include a table of contents indicating the page The reply brief provides the appellant with an opportunity to answer on which each section of the brief begins. The table also must the appellee’s brief and explain why the Third Circuit should grant include specific page references to each heading or subheading of the appellant relief. A reply brief is optional ( FRAP 28(c)). FRAP 28(a)(2), (c) each issue to be argued. ( .) CONTENTS OF THE REPLY BRIEF Table of Authorities The appellant’s reply brief must include: The reply brief must include a table of authorities listing the cases, „ „ A cover (see Cover ). statutes, and other authorities cited in the brief along with page „ „ A corporate disclosure statement and statement of financial references to where the appellant cited each authority. Cases must ). interest, where appropriate (see Disclosure Statement .) Some FRAP 28(a)(3), (c) appear in the table in alphabetical order. ( passim when an authority appears on several pages of attorneys use „ ). A table of contents (see Table of Contents „ the brief rather than providing a lengthy list of pages. „ A table of authorities (see Table of Authorities ). „ „ „ An argument (see Argument ). Argument A signature (see Signature „ ). „ The appellant’s reply brief must set out in full its argument for rejecting the appellee’s contentions and granting relief from the „ „ A certificate of compliance (see Certificate of Compliance ). district court’s order or judgment. The argument section must „ „ An electronic document certificate (see Electronic Document include: Certificate ). The appellant’s reply arguments and the legal reasons supporting „ „ „ „ ). Proof of service (see Certificate of Service them. (FRAP 25(d) , 26.1 , 28(c) , and 32(a)(2), (d), and (g) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.4 .) Citations to legal authorities and record materials the appellant „ „ relied on. Many attorneys also include a brief conclusion after the argument (see Conclusion ). (FRAP 28(a)(8) .) © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 7

8 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals Conclusion The reply brief should present the legal argument in a narrative form with proper headings. The argument should be organized in The reply brief does not need a conclusion ( FRAP 28(c)). Still, a concise and logical way free of irrelevant information. It may or appellants commonly include a short conclusion reiterating their may not follow the organization of the prior briefs depending on the request for relief. particular circumstances of a given case. Signature Counsel often divide the argument section into points using The appellant’s reply brief must include a signature from one of the descriptive headings, with each point addressing one of the attorneys representing the appellant ( FRAP 32(d) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. appellant’s main reply arguments. Each point may contain subpoints 28.4 ). For electronically filed documents, the ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 46.4 addressing subsidiary arguments. filing attorney’s CM/ECF system log-in and password constitute Counsel must support every statement in the argument section the required signature for all purposes. A manual signature is which concerns matters in the record, including factual assertions, ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. unnecessary ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.4 ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 46.4 ). with a citation to the record ( FRAP 28(a)(6), (e) 113.9(a) ). The filing attorney must type “s/[ATTORNEY’S NAME]” on the signature line to signify that the document is signed. The Third Counsel must identify the proper reporter or source when citing legal Circuit also allows counsel to apply an electronic signature, but the authorities: use of an “s/” is the more common method of signing documents. For citations to federal opinions Published federal decisions. „ „ (3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.4 ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.9(b) .) reported in the United States Reports, Federal Reporter, Federal Supplement, or Federal Rules Decisions, counsel must cite to Counsel also must include a signature block directly below the those reporters. Counsel may cite to the Supreme Court Reporter, signature line, including the filing attorney’s: Lawyer’s Edition, or United States Law Week, in that order, for „ „ Name. United States Supreme Court decisions that have not yet been State bar number. „ „ published in the United States Reports. „ Business address. „ For citations to federal opinions „ „ Unpublished federal decisions. Telephone number. „ „ not formally reported in one of the above-listed reporters, counsel must identify the court, docket number, the full date of decision, (3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.4 .) and a citation to a publicly available electronic database, such as Westlaw. If a brief is submitted jointly on behalf of two or more separately represented parties, the filing attorney must include a separate „ State court decisions. For citations to state court decisions, „ signature line and block for each attorney. If so, counsel must file the counsel should include the West Reporter citation whenever document: possible, and identify the state court. Containing a scanned image with all necessary signatures. „ „ (3d Cir. L.A.R. 28.3(a) .) „ „ Containing a statement representing the consent of the non-filing Counsel may include hyperlinks to all cited decisions if counsel signatories. 3d Cir. L.A.R. also includes the standard citation to the reporter ( „ „ Identifying the parties whose signatures are required and 28.3(a) ). If the appellant cites a federal judicial opinion, order, submitting a notice of endorsement by the other parties within judgment, or other written disposition not available in a publicly three business days of filing. accessible electronic database, the party must file and serve a „ In any other manner approved by the court. „ copy of that opinion, order, judgment, or disposition with the brief ). (FR AP 32.1(b) (3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.9(c) .) If disposition of the appeal “requires the study” of statutes, rules, Certificate of Compliance regulations, or other legal authorities (for example, because the A reply brief must contain a certificate by the appellant’s attorney appeals turn on a question of statutory interpretation), an appellant stating that the brief complies with the type-volume limitations must set out the relevant parts of these authorities in one of the ). ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) ; see Length or Type-Volume (FRAP 32(g)(1) following: When preparing the certificate, counsel may rely on the word or „ The reply brief. „ line count provided by the word processing software used when „ An addendum at the end of the brief. „ drafting the brief ( FRAP 32(g)(1) ). The certificate must state either „ A separate volume provided to the court. „ the number of: Words in the brief. „ „ .) (FRAP 28(f) „ Lines of monospaced type in the brief. „ Counsel typically quote the relevant portions of a statute, regulation, (FRAP 32(g)(1) .) ; see Font rule, or other authority in the reply brief itself. If the relevant portion is lengthy or if an authority is not easily accessible (for example, a Counsel may use Form 6 in the Appendix of Forms to the FRAP local law not published online), counsel may include a copy of it in an ). (FRAP 32(g)(2) addendum at the end of a brief. © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 8

9 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals Electronic Document Certificate Footnotes. „ „ Quotations more than two lines long (which should be indented on „ „ Counsel must certify that: both sides). The text of the electronic brief is identical to the text in the paper „ „ copies. .) (FRAP 32(a)(4) „ A virus detection program was run on the electronic brief and no „ Font virus was detected. Counsel must identify the version of the virus detection program. ). The reply brief must Briefs must use black type ( FRAP 32(a)(1)(A) use a plain, roman style font. However, appellants may occasionally .) (3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) use italics or boldface for emphasis. Case names must be italicized or The court may impose sanctions if a filing contains a computer virus FRAP 32(a)(6) .) underlined. ( ). 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) or worm ( The reply brief may be written in either a proportionally spaced font (for example, Times New Roman) or a monospaced font (for Certificate of Service example, Courier) ( FRAP 32(a)(5) ; Third Circuit Font and Page Length Counsel must include a certificate of service in the reply brief, even if all Requirements for Filing Briefs ). parties receive service via CM/ECF ( ). ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.4(c) FRAP 25(d) The NDA generated by CM/ECF is service of the brief on all counsel The required font size depends on which type of font the appellant uses: ). 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.3(a) registered to use Third Circuit CM/ECF ( „ „ Proportionally spaced font. A reply brief written in a proportionally spaced font must use at least a 14-point font size. The certificate must state that: This font must include serifs (for example, Times New Roman). „ Counsel for the other parties are registered to use Third Circuit „ However, headings and captions may appear in sans-serif type CM/ECF and receive service by the NDA. (that is, a font without serifs, like Arial or Helvetica). „ „ If one or more parties are exempt from using CM/EF, that the A reply brief printed in a monospaced font Monospaced font. „ „ appellant effects service by: may not contain more than 10.5 characters per inch. This roughly „ z personal delivery; translates to 12-point Courier font. „ z first-class mail; or ; Third Circuit Font and Page Length Requirements for (FRAP 32(a)(5) z „ third-party commercial carrier for delivery within three days. .) Filing Briefs (FRAP 25(c)(1), (d) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.4(c) .) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 113.4(b) Length or Type-Volume FORMATTING THE REPLY BRIEF The reply brief may not exceed 15 pages without prior approval from the court, unless it either: The appellant’s reply brief must comply with formatting „ „ Contains no more than 6,500 words. requirements regarding: Uses a monospaced font and contains no more than 650 lines „ „ Page size, line spacing, and margins (see Page Size, Line Spacing, „ „ of text. and Margins ). „ „ Font (see Font ). .) (FRAP 32(a)(7) „ „ Length or type-volume (see Length or Type-Volume ). Counsel may rely on the word or line count provided by the word „ „ File format for electronic briefs (see File Format). ). A reply processing software used to draft the brief ( FRAP 32(g)(1) ). „ Paper copies of briefs (see Paper Briefs „ brief must contain a certificate by the appellant’s attorney stating that the brief complies with these “type-volume” limitations ( FRAP Page Size, Line Spacing, and Margins ; see Certificate of Compliance ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) 32(g)(1) ). Counsel must prepare the reply brief using 8.5 by 11 inch pages In determining the word or line count of a brief, counsel must include ). (FRAP 32(a)(4) the headings, text, footnotes, and quotations. Counsel may exclude: Brief pages must have margins of at least: „ The cover page. „ „ „ One inch on the left and right sides of the page. Any corporate disclosure statement and statement of financial „ „ interest. Three-quarters of an inch on the top and bottom of each page. „ „ „ „ The table of contents. .) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 32.1(b) (FRAP 32(a)(4) „ „ The table of authorities. Except for page numbers, the reply brief may not include any text in „ „ The signature block. FRAP 32(a)(4) the margins ( ). Any addendum containing statutes, rules, or regulations. „ „ The text of the reply brief must be double-spaced. However, a brief The certificates of counsel. „ „ may use single-spacing for: (FRAP 32(f) .) „ Headings. „ © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 9

10 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals File Format CROSS-APPEALS When serving and filing a brief using CM/ECF, the appellant must If the appellee is aggrieved by the order or judgment from which the prepare its brief in PDF format. Counsel should create the PDF appellant appeals, the appellee may cross-appeal. For example, if document by converting a word processing document, not by scanning. the plaintiff prevails at trial on one of its two claims and then appeals (3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(b) and committee comments.) Converting the brief from the judgment as relates to the second claim, the defendant may from the word processing software file directly to PDF produces the cross-appeal from the judgment as relates to the first claim. smallest document and ensures the text is easily searchable. PARTY NAMES ON CROSS-APPEAL Paper Briefs The court deems the first party to file a notice of appeal the appellant. Paper copies of the reply brief must include a grey cover of durable If both parties file notices of appeal on the same day, the court deems ). Briefs must be printed single-sided Cover quality ( ; see FRAP 32(a)(2) the plaintiff the appellant. However, these default designations may ). The print quality must be at least as good as that (FRAP 32(a)(1)(A) ). be altered by stipulation or court order ( FRAP 28.1(b) of a laser printer ( FRAP 32(a)(1)(B) ). A party taking a cross-appeal is called a cross-appellant. A party Counsel must bind paper copies of the reply brief along the left defending against a cross-appeal is called a cross-appellee. margin, in a way that: Therefore, if the defendant appeals from a district court judgment „ „ Is secure. and the plaintiff then cross-appeals from the same judgment, the Does not obscure the text. „ „ Third Circuit designates the parties as the “Defendant-Appellant/ Cross-Appellee” and the “Plaintiff-Appellee/Cross-Appellant.” „ „ Permits the brief to lie reasonably flat when open. (FRAP 32(a)(3) .) Counsel may use velo or spiral binding, but may not BRIEFS ON CROSS-APPEAL use backbones or spines. Any metal fasteners or staples must have A cross-appeal has a total of four briefs, rather than the three filed in smooth edges and be covered. ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 32.1(a) .) an ordinary appeal. The parties brief a cross-appeal as follows: The appellant/cross-appellee files its principal brief stating its „ „ FILING AND SERVING THE REPLY BRIEF arguments supporting the appeal (the “Appellant’s Principal Brief” Counsel must use CM/ECF to serve and file the reply brief ( 3d Cir. or the “Blue Brief”). L.A.R. 31.1(b)(1) ). Counsel also must serve one paper copy of the reply „ The appellee/cross-appellant files a brief stating its arguments „ party, unless pro se brief on any party exempt from CM/ECF and any opposing the appellant’s appeal and supporting the cross-appeal opposing counsel has consented to electronic service ( FRAP 25(b) ; (the “Appellee’s Principal and Response Brief” or the “Red Brief”). ). Acceptable methods of ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(d) 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) paper service include: The appellant/cross-appellee files a brief stating its reply arguments „ „ supporting the appeal and its arguments opposing the cross-appeal Personal delivery. „ „ (the “Appellant’s Response and Reply Brief” or the “Yellow Brief”). „ First-class mail. „ „ „ The appellee/cross-appellant files a brief stating its reply „ „ Third-party commercial carrier for delivery within three days. arguments supporting the cross-appeal (the “Appellee’s Reply Brief” or the “Grey Brief”). .) (FRAP 25(c)(1) (FRAP 28.1(c) .) On the same day the appellant electronically files its reply brief, the appellant must send one originally signed brief and six paper copies BRIEFING SCHEDULES FOR CROSS-APPEALS to the clerk of the court by either: Unless the court orders otherwise: „ First-class mail. „ „ „ The appellant/cross-appellee must serve and file the Blue Brief „ Third-party commercial carrier for delivery within three days. „ within 40 days after the record is filed. ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) ; 3d Cir. (FRAP 25(a)(2)(B) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 25.1(a) „ „ The appellee/cross-appellant must serve and file the Red Brief L.A.R. 31.1(b)(3) ; see Standing Order: Reduced Number of Copies of within 30 days after service of the Blue Brief. .) Briefs Required (Apr. 29, 2013) The appellant/cross-appellee must serve and file the Yellow Brief „ „ In appeals from the District Court for the District of the Virgin within 30 days after service of the Red Brief. Islands, counsel must file one additional paper copy of the brief with „ „ The appellee/cross-appellant must serve and file the Grey Brief the clerk of the district court in the location from which the appeal is within 14 days after service of the Yellow Brief, but in any case at 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) ). The court may taken (St. Thomas or St. Croix) ( least seven days before argument. order additional paper copies to be filed if the court orders hearing or ). rehearing en banc ( 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(a) .) (FRAP 28.1(f) The paper copies must be identical to the electronic copies except CONTENT, FORMATTING, FILING, AND SERVICE RULES that they must have a grey cover ( FRAP 32(a)(2) ; 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(c) ). FOR CROSS-APPEALS The brief is considered filed on the date counsel files the electronic The briefs for a cross-appeal follow the rules generally applicable to version via CM/ECF if the paper copies are mailed to the clerk on the briefs in an ordinary appeal, with a few exceptions ( FRAP 28.1(c) ). ). 3d Cir. L.A.R. 31.1(b)(3) same day ( © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. 10

11 Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellee’s Brief, Reply Brief, and Cross-Appeals The Blue Brief follows the same rules as any other appellant’s Counsel must serve any parties exempt from CM/ECF by paper ; see Practice , and 32(a) , 28.1(c)(1), (d) and (e) FRAP 28(a) brief ( means and file proof of service with the response. Acceptable Note, Third Circuit Civil Appeals: Appellant’s Brief and Appendix methods of paper service include: )). W-011-2754 ( „ „ Personal delivery. „ „ First-class mail. The Red Brief follows the rules for the appellant’s brief, except: Third-party commercial carrier for delivery within three days. „ „ The statement of the case is optional. „ „ „ Paper copies of the brief must have a red cover. „ (FRAP 25(b)-(d) .) „ „ The brief may satisfy any of the following length or type-volume requirements: „ z be no more than 35 pages long; z „ contain no more than 15,300 words; or „ z contain no more than 1,500 lines of monospaced typeface text. (FRAP 28.1(c)(2), (d), and (e) .) The Yellow Brief follows the rules for the appellee’s brief, except paper FRAP 28.1(c)(3), (d), copies of the brief must have a yellow cover ( ; see The Appellee’s Brief ). The appellant-cross-appellee may and (e) choose how many pages it devotes to reply arguments supporting the appeal and how many pages it devotes to arguments in opposition to the cross-appeal. The Grey Brief follows the rules for the reply brief ( FRAP 28.1(c)(4), (d) ). The Grey Brief may address only the ; see The Reply Brief and (e) cross-appeal and may not serve as a sur-reply on the principal appeal (FRAP 28.1(c)(4) ). SUBMITTING SUPPLEMENTAL AUTHORITIES A party may bring to the Third Circuit’s attention “pertinent and significant authorities” that it learns of either: „ „ After filing its last brief but before oral argument. After oral argument but before the Court enters a decision. „ „ (FRAP 28(j) .) A party does this by sending a letter to the clerk, with copy to all other parties, setting forth the citations to the supplemental ). The body of the letter may not exceed 350 authorities ( FRAP 28(j) words, including footnotes ( FRAP 28(j) ). If a new case is not reported, counsel should attach a copy to the letter. The requirement that authority be “significant” means that a party letter every time there is a new should not submit a Rule 28(j) decision reiterating or applying existing law. Appropriate grounds for letter may include any of the following: a Rule 28(j) ABOUT PRACTICAL LAW „ „ A Supreme Court decision. Practical Law provides legal know-how that gives lawyers a better starting „ „ A Third Circuit opinion (but not a summary order). point. Our expert team of attorney editors creates and maintains thousands of A novel opinion by: „ „ up-to-date, practical resources across all major practice areas. We go beyond z „ primary law and traditional legal research to give you the resources needed to another federal court of appeals; or practice more efficiently, improve client service and add more value. „ z a state high court, if the appeal involves a question of state law. If you are not currently a subscriber, we invite you to take a trial of our online Any other party may respond to the letter “promptly” by submitting a services at legalsolutions.com/practical-law . For more information or to letter of its own, addressed to the clerk of the court. The body of the schedule training, call 1-800-733-2889 [email protected] or e-mail response letter cannot exceed 350 words ( FRAP 28(j) ). letters and Counsel must use CM/ECF to serve and file Rule 28(j) 09-18 responses. © 2018 Thomson Reuters. All rights reserved. Use of Practical Law websites and services is subject to the Terms of Use (http://static.legalsolutions.thomsonreuters.com/static/agreement/westlaw-additional-terms.pdf) and Privacy Policy (https://a.next.westlaw.com/Privacy). 11

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