Talking about pictures: a case for photo elicitation

Transcript

1 Studies, No. 1, 2002 17, Visual Vol. pictures: a case for photo elicitation Talking about HARPER* DOUGLAS DEFINITIONS is a definition of photo elicitation and a This paper its in anthropology and soci- of development history of is based on the simple idea Photo elicitation view of photo elicitation in these ology. The interview. into a photograph inserting The a research elici- photo of number greatest the where disciplines, images between difference and text, using interviews photo organizes place, taken have studies tation and using interviews the ways we in lies alone words paper studies by topic and elicitation by form. The forms two representa- to respond symbolic these of practical presents also a frequent from considerations the tion. has a physical basis: This parts of the brain researcher and concludes that photo photo elicitation evolutionarily information that process visual are conventional enlarges the possibilities of elicitation information. verbal process that parts the than older the addition, empirical research. In paper argues that human Thus images evoke deeper elements of produces different also elicitation photo kind of a words; on do that based exchanges consciousness elicitation Photo information, information. evokes alone words of than s capacity brain’ the less utilize do photo- feelings, and memories that are due to the images exchanges in which the brain is processing as graph’ s particular form of representation. some of the reasons the These well may be words. as not like seems simply interview elicitation photo an information, more elicits that process interview but INTRODUCTION of information. rather one that evokes a different kind the John memory, to photographs of connection On Most but photographs, use elicitation studies Berger wrote: done with paint- there is no reason studies cannot be from comes a photograph in found thrill The graffiti as such displays public cartoons, ings, or the is obvious onrush of memory. This when 1 visual advertising billboards or virtually any image. once knew. it’ s a picture of we something But research elicitation all nearly point this at has young. That house we lived in. Mother when photographs been shall focus the be that and on based my of paper. in But once another sense, we knew every- photographs The elicitation photo in used recognize thing we in any photo. That’ s grass research extend along a continuum. At one extreme that, growing. Tiles on a roof get wet like what scientific, might be considered the that most are the of one is Here t they. don’ in ways seven is, visual inventories of objects, people and artifacts. is This smile. bosses which s woman’ a subjectivities Like all photographs these represent the shoulder, snow the Just s. a man’ not way in framing, exposure embodied other technical and melts. Photographs considerations. of of this type are typical faculty. is a strange Memory and The sharper field anthropological studies. isolated receives, memory stimulus the more are of middle the the images that continuum In it remembers; the more comprehen- the more part institu- events or collective depict of that were the less it remembers. This sive the stimulus, schools, of work, photos be might These pasts. tional is perhaps why black-and-white photography or experiences, depicting or images other institutional than colour evocative more is paradoxically of lifetimes the in earlier occurred that the events of onrush a faster It stimulates photography. subjects. connect an to These images may individual less because given, memories has more been even eras reflect not do or experiences images if the 193). (1992:192– out... left been has lives. the s actual subject’ research photo- At the other extreme of our continuum This a paper is an overview of photo elicitation: – of dimensions intimate the portray graphs social the an and history and potential. use I its of assessment family s own one’ or group, social intimate other or case my on based elicitation photo for make the definitions body. Elicitation interviews connect “ core my experience that its with the method, and sense now huge is usefulness largely potential and of the self” to society, culture and history. This work d. unrecognize corresponds to postmodern sociology’ s decentered of Chair and . Sociology Visual of editor founding is the and is Professor USA, University, Duquesne at Sociology of Department the *Doug Harper 14 1472– 586X print/ ISSN Ltd Francis & Taylor © 2002 1472– 010013– 02/ online/ 5878 ISSN 0137345 DOI: 10.1080/ 1472586022

2 14 Harper D. and body, the of sociology the social narrative; difficulty of problem: research teams were having of emotion. of studies in the agreeing on categories of the quality of housing it made survey s photographic Collier’ area. research their for previously possible researchers to agree on Forms Image of Elicitation Other categories. taken-for-granted photo at elicitation more in looking Before depth technique The when research in use to put the was research, I briefly note the existence of elicitation examine Cornell how team used photo elicitation to a research done with film video. Edgar Morin, or families adapted to residence among ethnically Rouch, French sociologist, and Jean a French visual people, forms of work in different urban new to and produced é té d’ un Chronique film anthropologist, the The factories. environ- the was question overriding 2 of the measured ( Chronicle Summer ) which a The stress. psychological of basis mental researchers pulse the cultural of Paris inter- at the end of 1950s by themes these found had surveys in explore to difficult on viewing several randomly chosen Parisians the to decided and interviews in-depth or inter- a new try matter of happiness and truth. In the final sequences, view images of and old using photographic technique reflect on and rushes the watch actors amateur the inhabited by the subjects. new What worlds was consisted film the Thus filmed their both of portraits. was this that the researchers particularly about useful and analysis – people observed, and people subject did as well as interviews non-photo- elicitation photo commenting on their natural performances. The film with graphic interviews how the see to families same the was was made which technique, this use to first method each worked. The researchers felt that the with possible portable sound sync developed newly memory and photos sharpened the informants’ movie meantime in documentaries Many cameras. the of misunderstanding. areas Collier the reduced elicitive (see have included devises reflexive, or concluded: 1991:44– Nichols 56). the of of characteristics The methods two Within visual anthropology there have been a The stated. simply be can interviewing mate- number small of film elicitation studies. For example, obtained with photographs was precise rial Linda and Tim Asch filmed the Connor, Patsy at and control the encyclopedic; even times ethno- a conventional Balinese healer Jero Tapakan in and rambling, structured, less were interviews then to seeing and film, recorded her reaction graphic in the photo- association. freer in Statements these film. in a second separate Film one presents films to the response direct in were interviews a conventional anthropological itself film two as film; graphic as character in different and probes own shows the savvy Jero Tapakan asserting self- her the of content whereas differed, pictures the by provided that against first film. the definition character 3 the of the control interviews seemed experiments are most additional a few and These inform- to mood the by be the governed of in found elicitations film the of The anthropology. (1957:856) ants. reasons may to do with the difficulties encoun- have in tered Marcus as films-about-films, constructing elicited longer pictures “ The noted: Collier Further, recently Banks noted: “ ... even more so than still same the at but more interviews and comprehensive or photography, the moving image – film, video tele- overcome the fatigue subjects and repeti- time helped difficult medium, – is a wayward broadcast vision for conventional interviews” Collier (1957:858). tion of the researcher control” (2001:99). This wayward- to that noted a more “ ... involved: interviewing photo spoken ness is partly film’ s grounding in time and the of function its was This imagery. graphic subtle a film that fact resulting contain and word, can the upon effect to ability its compelling informant, the The book. essay an to relative words few very or latent and stimulate to memory, release prod the presents elicitation on film of organization based emotional about ” s life... informant’ the statements images about speak people of problem difficult having (1957:858). viewer; yet a film which must be presented to the film this experiment was published in The report of 4 if it is rooted in static images. seldom works well the 1957 in American Anthropologist . Collier’ s text which this and anthropology, described on visual AND DEVELOPMENT ORIGINS with further experiments photo interviewing, was 1967) (Collier and became later published ten years a paper published Photo elicitation was first named in introduction to visual anthropology and the standard Collier by the photographer and researcher John in expanded form two decades sociology, published was, in the mid-1950s, a member of (1957), who and Collier years later In later (Collier 1986). Collier research Cornell University’ s multi-disciplinary team make elicitation, for photo for case the continued to in communities changing in health examining mental the of Provinces in Canada. Collier proposed example in his contribution to the inaugural issue Maritime as the solution to a practical 1987). interviewing the journal Visual Anthropology (Collier photo

3 Talking about pictures 15 one would expect in Indonesia. In Hockings’ encyclopedic harvesting such fanfare Announced with Anthropology Principles energetic following in photo (1975), an Visual of attracted have to method the a small number of published only but anthropology, passing in interviewing a small is only mentioned in on be may It elicitation. photo have relied studies of number does studies, a separate warrant not and routine in informally place takes elicitation photo Visual journal the Examining discussion. Anthro- and work that its impact is not formally realized. field the pology (1986 to present) and Visual the on a rural For example, in the course of research (approximately the same Anthropology Review run) Paolo talking recalls Chiozzi a Italy, in community to finds almost no photo elicitation-based research, bombed World had house been subject whose during by a study self-portraiture for except of Kenney Keith He a of a catalogue War II. informant showed his and (1993). identity town the early during the photo book documenting elicitation has played in role greater a Photo overwhelmed of part the century: “ Suddenly I was in developments recent the In sociology. visual with been moment, that until which, information had Wagner text, (1978) lists sociology visual seminal Jon not reluctance some with or fragmentarily given “ photographs stimuli” as one of four interview as but lack of real from of because distrust, any a research to contribution strategies. own His visual involvement These (1989:45). informant” the of inter- of volume was a photo elicitation study that views into ethnography but not folded were an “ perceiving In 100). (1978:83– community” a planned elicitation a photo as presented study. offering papers and research strategies for definitions tells field Guindi el a similar story Fadwa about sociology 1987a, visual 2000) photo (Harper 1988, work America: Latin in was defined as one of four ways elicitation use might researchers standard in photographs interview I ... in-depth a regular, Following 1993, papers other research In techniques. (Harper showed I had slides ... informant] [the taken photo that I suggested 1998) as regarded be elicitation of comments his recorded and events ritual dialogue a postmodern on the authority of the based notion and reactions to them. I had no fixed Emmison subject rather than the researcher. Even and as ques- specific what nor expect to what to book in photography to hostile openly Smith, a recent one instance ... the tions to ask him ... In on methods, include photo elicitation exercises visual the placed stones two to pointed informant on designed students for (2001:36– 38). valuable information volunteered and shrine greatest The concentration of photo elicitation I had as (which ... “ sacredness” the[ir] about journal Visual studies have been published in the observed used regularly were frequently, by Sociology . Photo elicitation demonstrated the the to caretakers village the pound dirt on it thrust image; quality polysemic the into images of grave instance other The burial). after a research agenda; center the of the it demonstrated deco- church the of a slide concerned altar usefulness of images quality ranging from fine-arts Christmas the for elaborately rated to documentary its to Due snapshots. family ceremonies. In an enthusiastic burst, Martin elici- the photo authority decentering of the author, of pointed the to saying: “ Ha, there is the altar tation addresses some of the postmodernism of already raised.” This comment led little house be to reasons these For itself. ethnography a it seems revealing discussion extended an to data rich version sociological visual research. of particularly on various aspects Christmas and Easter- of and rituals related (1998:477) myths. disciplines Photo elicitation has also crept into the et of psychology 1999), education (Dempsey (Sustik use Thus be the case it may that often anthropologists et al Smith . 1994; al organizational and studies . 1999) are photographs in interviews but that few of these to but 1998), a waif as is treated point this (Buchanan elicitation photo as up written Anthropolog- studies. rather on the margins a devel- in actor a robust as than that photo elicitation, ical studies on rely primarily oping research traditions. example, between. however, are few For and far in entire the Studies of run publication in the Anthro- THE MAPPING TERRAIN pology Communication 1979; (1974– Visual of In the following I refer to the Appendix, which lists renamed Visual Communication in Studies studies chronologically photo organized elicitation articles relying only appeared there 1985) 1980– three to attempted I have topic. by and all locate examples on primarily photo elicitation: Ximena Bunster B.’ s but I may have inadvertently of elicitation photo study of the culture of proletarian mothers in (1978) omitted important examples. Some will undoubtedly Messaris and Paul in a book to 1989), (expanded Peru with disagree my typology. it will provide a Still, Larry Gross’ (1977) analysis of how different age starting locate researchers help should which point groups a about story photo a fictional interpreted their acci- doctor’ s indifference to an automobile medical own research projects, either planned or in s (1985) Calderola’ duck Victor and dent, egg of study progress. I have excluded documentary studies, that

4 16 D. Harper Table elicitation: forms and topics Photo 1. Books Articles, reflections Dissertations fully research Articles, studies larger described on social class/ 1995) Steiger 1985; 2 (Guschker 2000; Social 2 (Calderola 3 (Barndt 1980, 1990; 1957; 2 (Collier 1989) B. Bunster Guindi 1998) 1999) family organization/ Sustik 1988, Community/ historical 1 (Sampson-Cordle 2 (Harper 2001; 2 (Chiozzi 1989; 6 (Orellana 1999; Suchar Suchar ethnography Rusted 1995) and 1994; Rotenberg Schwartz 1992) 1992; 2001) van et al. 1992; Wagner Does der 1978) biography/ Clark 1987b, 1994; Identity/ 7 (Blinn and Harrist 1991; 3 (Harper 1986) Spence autobiography 1999; Gold 1991; Hethorn and Kaiser Jansen 1999; 1991; Kenney 1993; 1999) Smith Culture/ cultural studies 1 (Faccioli and and Curry 8 (Craig et al. 1997; 1998) Zuccheri Strauss 1986; Harper 2000; Kretsedemas 1993; Messaris and Snyder Snyder Gross 1977; 1990; 1993; Ammons and 1999) Stiebling apart sociological circum- material the compare easily to viewer the is, those done from or other theoretical children, first with families of stances and methodological considera- academic and the this meanings of changes. family these from consideration. tions Photo concentrated studies have rephotographed elicitation Steiger has in the meantime been four social organization/ social class, commu- their to areas, children add and move, age, in they as couples the case include now interviews elicitation The families. nity, we culture of identity (in culture and the and make the strange bedfellows of cultural studies and and the change development, themes of family If we present this information in a family of comprise photographs a kind studies of culture). album. studies how see we 1), (Table form different slightly in different depths have taken place in different done Community and Historical Ethnography table excludes those entries that subject areas. This Suchar’ s studies of gentrification (1988, 1992; Suchar outside the four topics listed. fall and Rotenberg 1994) use photographs to show how discussion highlights how photo The following urban residents transform urban neighborhoods based some of these subject areas elicitation has operated in on strategies which derive from their own social loca- inquiry. The discussion does not cover and forms of tions and identities. Suchar’ s photographs record table. all cells of the refurbishing, and ways of occupying redecorating, a documen- Suchar approaches his project as space. Class/ Social Organization/ Family Social tary photographer and his photographic skill and essays to visual sociological could that lead acuity empirical include study of family studies These as museum as sociological articles. walls grace well document that books 2000), (Guschker photographs 1990), 1980, (Barndt movements education The portfolios of fine-arts quality images presented to popular subjects of larger projects in which photo elicitation encourage serious engagement reports research 2). (Figure in which researchers studies a part, played studies and children on completed projects on the impact of portraits Suchar’ s environmentally contexted (Steiger organ- family social the and 1995), dynamics residents, the gentrifica- new who represent portray an ization of Indonesian village (Calderola 1985). long-term whose worlds and residents tion process, in cata- used photographs the of Many these studies threatened posed are Subjects gentrification. by are in social logue by produced are photographs other life; houses, by and surrounded the apartments their the people researched. being spaces. The objects through which they define their demonstrates portraits recalls the technical how study s Steiger’ studies environmental and work suburbia of completed by Bill Owens in 1972. photographs contribute to the aspects of communica- of a photojournalist was then techniques uses Steiger who ideas. sociological of tion a student Owens, as such flash, varying shutter speeds and the double the from statements brief included Collier, John photo of form a rudimentary photographed, he people s perspective (Figure 1) to suggest the child’ phenom- this subjects elicitation. Suchar’ from come s work Her child. the of frame enological more fully develops including several classes driven analytically and lengthy in by method Switzerland, which allows social

5 Talking about 17 pictures her Figure photograph shows a mother who integrates This child into her work-world. 1. taken “ This picture was walk. before Caspar could Subject: It was easier to bring him along to work then. Now he can up!” walk and reach much more to tear things somebody I often “ When I take him to work, I always hope that the telephone won’ t ring. When I work else, together with telephone. July along, so that I don’ t have to answer the him Or I take him during vacation time in take and August I had because there are fewer consultations. Today a consultation that was not too difficult and during that half hour that Caspar Caspar was totally quiet. I was glad about that. Otherwise I would have explained that I am here alone with and more.” much work to I have vacation is on else everybody when [continues] of Both Suchar used medium interviews. Owens the and sections analysis make a photo essay. In the role pilot studies she considered her changing in the and images consistent produced format photography as and politically committed community a researcher that technology. photographic with individual. to elicitation base necessary however, It is not, professional essays into and lengthy research on were documentary or These the art photo- integrated Sampson-Cordle’ many-dimensioned community study. graphs. (2001) dissertation s recent Sampson- a rural photog- how people who studies the relationship between shows school and its Cordle are not skilled by subjects (teachers, community extremely having study raphers, working with equipment, modest students) their to and worlds social community members record to taught be and their photograph can Her automatic inexpensive with worlds cameras. self-interviewing in statements visual those process what she calls “ photofeedback” 3). and conventional elicitation methods (Figure methods include (where photographers analyze their photographs with Historical ethnography considered the be can written comments, what might be photo-self- called create of community. For photo memory elicitation to elicitation), “ photointerviewing” (a conven- more represent must photographs ethnography, historical people interviewed. In tional the “ photoessays,” and elicitation) photo of form earlier experience of prac- several tical terms, subjects where more be analyt- of elements cannot photos the that means this integrate than sixty old. years reflection. and images thinking, ical seventy perhaps or She on performed several pilot studies, working first One book-length historical ethnography relies that photos might as a photographer, to uncover “ the biases photo elicitation (Harper 2001). Here show the educator.” a rural being of years of out come the collective organization of agricultural labor, these In farming studies photographed the social world under pilot she technology portraits and past, in the years sixty assembled that evoke an to images and text the were and consideration era in which rural identities etched

6 18 D. Harper things there?” “ ... could you tell me a little about the Suchar: in the photograph ... are there significant things 2. Figure Subject: “ The big thing is David and Daniel ... and Max the cat ... our other cat Missy would be jealous ... I should have trays.” dusted the of house.” Suchar: “ What about the trays and ice cream collection? That’ s obviously a major the part try that re a major part of this room, but we “ They’ to keep it somewhat balanced. We have it balanced so Subject: the been collection doesn’ t take over the house ... We’ ve to some people’ s houses where the collections take over the house; down; can’ where they’ re everywhere and become oppressive ... I’ ve been to a friend’ s house in Atlanta, where you t sit ... down sit to things move to got ve you’ [continues] it.” about t think don’ you collection] it [the with live you When and photographic the facial expressions, the gestures, the clothes in ography. As in the case of community, of people photo- on is seen, raising the interactional mannerisms of the studies what identity rely heavily photographs of the in farmers The graphed. question the what parts of historical visible! not are identity Spence’ s (1986) autobiography body employs her Jo the who different were interviewed, were subjects than physical as a text to confront the social definitions of their the by experienced as same the was farming but the and her debili- of experience own attractiveness photographs a became research subjects. The historical is a tating One other study (Harper 1987b) illness. point kind of memory bookend, a starting from which single individual: here book-length portrait of a which had occurred in to evaluate in farming changes a rural of photographs on reflects his Willie, artisan, the the meantime. In this historical photo- instance deconstructing building, fixing, and in and creating operated simultaneously on graphs the empirical through his work. recreating himself in the photographs details saw farmers’ (the dimension Several people of identity ways on focus studies specifically had they work of imagined for not are mark themselves through clothes, or how they decades) as the research and dimension subjective or differences. ethnic impor- marked by illness The implicitly from in images subjects saw themselves clothes tance of a natural it made adolescents for earlier of decades their lives. study Kaiser and (Hethorn elicitation photo using of 1999). the matter of ethnicity, the in visibility In Identity ethnic difference to outsiders a photo elicitation make have elicitation photo using Researchers s research Gold’ in examined as method, a natural demonstrated definition immigrants’ Asian on kids, identity social the drug of addicts, ethnically ethnicity Asian of (1991). autobi- visual and worlds work immigrants, different

7 Talking about 19 pictures the Figure informs narrative passages such as photograph following excerpt from the dissertation: The 3. The evening’ s awards, essays, words of encouragement and inspiration, anecdotes, acknowledgements, songs, “ It’ s over. new tears give way to applause. The of graduates stand and turn to leave the stage. In honor and the new graduates, the the school’ follow tradition and hold lit candles, standing along s juniors aisle to send their former classmates off into the class. world and to take their place as the new legion at the top of the applauds and cheers audience the fanfare, much With whisking heads their to caps their holding by, the are who adults young six the As ... hand in diplomas their clutching and and applause house lights are brought up. Audience members the distinguished guests stand and stretch in the subsides, auditorium made cooler by the night breezes. They turn and shake hands, hug, or call out to acquaintances, former and teachers, neighbors, customers, coworkers, family members. Some of these individuals are parents who have just thirteen completed official association with the school that began an years ago. Many of the ceremony’ s attendees are some There Woody Gap graduates with children, grandchildren or great-grandchildren enrolled at Woody Gap School. are years sixty attended great-grandparents great their school the attending are who aisle the down racing children ago.” of studies researchers interviewed subjects such as visual the form the not The key element is and women African and Americans, American Italian but its relationship with the culture representation, others how about of advertisements to show meanings may by under study. Images be researcher the made the that advertisements are aimed at interpret groups the they or or the subject may during have research, (accept, contest, These messages. their reject) or prior to the study, as in the case of where been made insights must then be understood that is, theoretically, pasts through the analysis of subjects interpret their as cultural processing of sociologically indicators of 2001). Harper 1989; (Chiozzi archives photo meaningful messages. the Several elicitation studies focused on Culture/ Studies Cultural studies of a these In meaning cultures. local interpretation of the is studies cultural of At the core takes researcher its photograph a group doing s of of is that studies cultural criticism common signs. A normal subjects inspire of activity. Interviews round or how assume often researchers a public audiences interpret the events depicted. they how define to define other ideological messages. or hegemonic athletic subcultures investigated been have Several cultural for a means grounding offers elicitation Photo Snyder in this manner and Strauss 1986; (Curry mundane interpretations studies culture in the of 1993). This is a straight- 1990; Snyder and Ammons users. of advertising texts (Craig et al . Three studies which sometimes produces forward procedure beg Kretsedemas substan- and theoretical greater for 2000; that studies Faccioli and Harper 1997; 1993) words, other In significance. tive may offer a model of how could be this In these study micro the done.

8 20 D. Harper technologies such at ground visible hardly were that farming of level, describe to photos aerial used Farmers 4. Figure an interview in available farms of photographs aerial several Having image. this in shown pit manure the encouraged as neighbors their and they why and how discuss to farmers another. over strategy one chosen had visualized culture an end in may become be can that Breaking Frames mind, itself. most With this muted it is in criticism do Photos not automatically elicit useful interviews. of local culture remarkable how few investigations For example, I photograph ed farmers in neigh- my photo elicitation, an obvious choice for have used that I hoped would borhood to guide interviews circumstances in which the local cultures have a phenomeno farming. I was explore the inter- logy of visual distinctive character. the defined farmers how in ested animals they land, the raised, decided the fate of; and changing milked METHODOLOGICAL INSIGHTS FROM A ; their relationships role of agricultural technology FLYER FREQUENT as farmers. The identity their neighbors with and in its forms In-depth all interviewing faces the chal- evoke their not did work of s I made photograph two lenge of establishing communication between on I deep the in. interested I was issues reflections rarely share taken-for-granted cultural who people to perhaps my because it was that think photo- came backgrounds. Sociological questions are often not essentially graphs looked the in illustrations the like meaningful There non-sociologists. to is the need, many shop. magazines found in the house and farm of methods qualitative books, all in described not normal farmers’ of frame the break did They researcher gaps between the worlds of the bridging not to lead - vis-à stance a reflective views; they did may and the researched. Photo elicitation overcome ranted vis the taken-for-g and aspects of work the posed interviewing difficulties by in-depth community. it is anchored is understood, that image an in because able eventually to I was gain this perspective both in at part, by parties. If has interview the least (Harper 2001) by using 4) (Figure aerial photographs successful, understanding the increased has been (Figure photographs historical and aerial The 5). the I following the In process. interview through strategies, farm upon reflect to farmers led photos two lead may elicitation photo which in discuss ways structural the and farms between differences patterns of the common of change. The historical photos evoked aspects researchers and subjects toward that understanding. the past that have a great deal of significance in

9 Talking about 21 pictures circa had This photograph, of a neighborhood threshing crew, 5. 1945, was shown to several farmers who Figure social worked together in similar crews during their youth. Several messages were conveyed: farmers remembered the crews, they and people, events, of details remembered connections and they work such of part as experienced The feast that gave meaning to the memory of farming. circumstances farm wives who had prepared the the men were the little eating often contested these idyllic perspectives: the labor exchange required intense preparation and of by experienced sociability men. the stages context evolution. Suddenly farming’ our of s continuing next the for photograph I should of taciturn farmers had a great deal to say. previously research. a similar problem studying the skill and These how few examples demonstrate I faced photo- social a in working individual an of existence awareness their a new into subjects jolt can graphs of At shop (Harper mechanical I photo- first 1987b). considers someone As existence. social new this graphed what the as take would one from normal framing of taken-for-granted experiences they are 5 eye is, that view, I at held lens a 35-mm level. with deconstruct to able own phenomenological their any which through perspective was the reproducing assumptions. would person in the environment gaze, and these deep commentary to lead not photographs did any Crossing Cultural Boundaries When owner. shop the Willie, from I photographed photo- that is frame the breaking behind idea The from (Figure close 6), it very from unusual angles, or graphs may lead an individual to a new view of their Willie led to see his activities from a new and inter- as social existence. It is also to use images possible esting perspective. between worlds that are more culturally bridges from world Willie perspective, As his saw a new one two research, ongoing In distinct. colleagues, he Willie to realize how little of it I understood. came (the and the author) other American Italian (Faccioli) he then photos the used to which in a role welcomed normal his teach me routines and knowledge. about Italian on research in elicitation photo using are how and Harper 2000; (Harper studies these In culture. He also began to and suggestions for what make

10 22 D. Harper I say, “ is transferring “ What I find hard about sharpening a chain saw,” 6. the pressure from one hand to the Figure other so you... ” so Willie: “ ... file.” your t rocking aren’ you – so across going pressure even an keeping re you’ cut a log in a slot situation you watched “ I’ ve a perfect in be to t have – it doesn’ vice your in be to t have doesn’ saw] – [the still to no matter what position you’ re in you’ re – and able re-create the even pressure, the straight movement of the file teeth... ” across the got ve “ You’ Willie: ” [continues] flow... steady the movement, steady the have to communicated Faccioli American researcher has photo- some feels she whom for and the never 2000), degree apprehension. of the graphed topics such as the social life of a piazza; photographs some- become the examples these In and of in auto an traffic a bicycle from negotiation of like a Rorschach ink blot in which people thing private homes. and traffic, dinners urban family in their different cultures spin out respective worlds of with in used then interviews are photographs These meaning. This procedure is fueled by the radical but completed by the In author. Italian subjects second idea that two people standing side by side, simple and events portrayed the deconstructing to addition 6 see different things. at identical objects, looking left been has “ what include: questions normal scenes, is made that shared view, the When a photo differ- of photo out” of this sequence? perception in ences and compared defined, be can Van and Dutch four her Does der co-authors constructed eventually understood by to be socially photo (1992) used elicitation to explore the cultural both parties. definitions five ethnically distinct Dutch neighbors. of which five researchers completed interviews in The neighbor- the each subject outlined in history their SUMMARY hood. researchers and subjects toured the The photo Unlike methods, research elicitation many topics. important and neighborhood photographed works (or does not) for rather mysterious reasons. I The elicitation photo completed then researchers photo that consider are elicitation useful in studies interviews the Finally, photos. the photo with rather conventional: photo elicitation empirical and elderly sequences were exchanged so, for example, an a may add validity and reliability to word-based neighborhood her how see could resident Dutch white survey this (recall, was Collier’ s first project). But at is elicitation by defined a Moroccan youth, with whom she has the other extreme I believe photo mines

11 Talking 23 pictures about different of shafts part into a deeper based study using participant-produced photo- human (dissertation). graphs” is It interviews. words-alone do than consciousness partly remembering how to due is enlarged photo- by 2. Marjorie Faulstich. 1999. “ Space and Orellana, to the partly due of quality particular the graphs and from chil- landscape: urban an in place learning itself. photograph capture to appear the Photographs (article). worlds” social of s views dren’ their That person an event past. gone; impossible: a photog- a house: “ Framing 1995. Brian. Rusted, 3. sense extraordinary of seeming to retrieve something heritage” raphy and the (article). performance of the photograph, to alone belongs disappeared has that Robert Rotenberg. 1994. S. Charles 4. and Suchar, and talk. interesting and it leads deep to shelter: adequacy “ Judging the of a case from this Throughout paper I have maintained an Lincoln Park” (article). elicitation I impartial stance. The truth is that in photo Does, der van 5. Imke Edelaar, Sonja Patricia, a method have found in which I have taken a deep Marije van Gooskens, and Liefting Margreet in interest due to partly is this I think pleasure. my a of study a images: “ Reading 1992. Mierlo. enter photographs. time machine prom- I want to the Dutch (article). neighborhood” that course, I cannot. knowing, image, the by ised of 1992. Suchar, “ Icons and images of 6. S. Charles Because this way about photographs, it is I feel of culture material changed the gentrification: an to others. natural that I want share them with community” urban (article). also elicitation photo for enthusiasm comes My 7. Schwartz, Dona. 1992. Waucoma Twilight: from When two or more the collaboration it inspires. Generations of the Farm (book). the they people photographs of to meaning try discuss 1988. 8. Suchar, Charles S. “ Photographing the something out figure an I believe, is, This together. changing of a gentrified commu- culture material research. for ideal model nity” (article). 1978. “ Perceiving a planned Wagner, Jon. 9. (chapter). community” APPENDIX Chronologically Presented Type; Elicitation Studies by Ethnography C. Historical Social A. Family Social Organization/ Class/ Visions Works: Changing 2001. Douglas. Harper, 1. of Agriculture (book). a Lost auto-photographic, 1. Sustik, natu- Anne. “ An 1999. Chiozzi, 2. anthro- and “ Photography 1989. Paolo. investigation refugees of adjustment the of ralistic (article). pological research: studies” case three the in to Union Soviet former the from Life States” United (dissertation). D. Identity/ Biography 2. Guindi, 1998. “ From pictorializing to Fadwa El. visual anthropology” (report of completed Guschker, Stefan. 2000. “ Picture world and 1. research). reality of life – a sociological study about the role 3. Steiger, Ricabeth. 1995. “ First children and private of meaningfulness the iden- of for photos longitu- of step first (article, dynamics” family in tity” dissertation; German). (Ph.D. dinal study). Cindy inter- autodriven “ The 1999. Dell. Clark, 2. Victor. Calderola, a contexts: “ Visual 1985. 4. into view: a photographic s children’ viewfinder method anthropology” research photographic in (article). experience” report (article; study). larger of 1999. Kaiser. Susan and Janet Hethorn, 3. “ Youth Education 5. Barndt, Deborah. 1980. and Social articulating (article). anxiety” cultural style: Peru (book). Study A Photographic of Change: Smith, 4. 1999. Woodward. Anne-Marie and Zoe C. “ Talking 1978. Ximena. Bunster, a study pictures: 6. and voice gives method “ Photo-elicitation reac- (article; Peru” in mothers proletarian of Lima, subjects” of tions (article). Bunster, expanded and published as: Ximena, E. 1952: 5. Douglas, ed. 1994. Cape Breton, Harper, Chaney E. Young. 1989. Sellers and and Serv- Anthropological Asch Timothy of Vision The Peru Lima, in , book). Working ants: Women (book). 7. anthro- in “ Photography 1957. Jr, John Collier, Kenney, photo- self-portrait “ Using 1993. Keith. 6. a report on two experiments” (reports on pology: Chinese of self-concepts understand to graphs completed research). students” American and university (article). and J. “ Ethnic 1991. Steven Gold, 7. boundaries B. Community ethnic entrepreneurship: a photo-elicitation study” (article). Alice Vera. 2001. “ Exploring 1. Sampson-Cordle, 8. school in a small between relationship the rural Jansen, Margriet. 1991. “ Better little than too an Georgia Northeast image- community: its and much” (article).

12 24 Harper D. of Latino past, and they are well conflicting meanings Knowledge: Working 1987. Douglas. Harper, 9. the subjects commented on painted. For the study, however, a Small in (book). Skill and Community Shop texts photographs of than their art rather texts the Myself in A the Spence, Picture: Putting 1986. Jo. 10. themselves. Autobiog- Political Personal and Photographic [2] in Studies of subject the was a Summer” of “ Chronicle (book). raphy Communication 11(1), 1985. The journal edition Visual participants the of some filmmakers, the by articles included for filmscript, complete the and a socio- a model providing Cultural Culture/ Popular E. Studies film. logical study of by these of an For [3] overview projects, see the text related 1. Stiebling, Megan T. 1999. “ Practicing gender in Connor et al. (1986). youth (article). sports” and overview an for (1975) sugges- See [4] procedural Krebs 1998. 2. Faccioli, Patrizia and Nicoletta Zuccheri. Banks tions. challenges and describes 99) (2001:96– vision (article). alcohol” of double “ The elicitation Recent difficulties film of using film elicitation. Eldon Snyder, E. 3. 1993. Ammons. Ronald and (2000). Bissell include studies For a useful based [5] on deconstruction of description non- getting work: s emotion “ Baseball’ to psyched (1994:47, et Gubrium see interviewing elicitation al. (article). play” between connection methodological natural The 182– 203). 1990. E. a sport: and “ Emotion 4. Snyder, Eldon photo and researchers inspired elicita- phenomenologically collegiate women gymnasts” case of study developed. be tion has yet to (article). interesting connection [6] For an yet another yet to be made, 34). Zerubavel Zerubavel see (1997:23– calls the visual 1986. Curry, Timothy Jon and Richard Strauss. 5. not does but “ social reality of construction optics” associate “ A a photo-essay anybody: hurt never pain little in cognitive soci- his parallels natural its to sociology visual of (article). injuries” sports on the normalization photo or ology elicitation. Gross. 6. Messaris, Paul and Larry 1977. “ Interpre- narrative viewers in by tations of a photographic ES REFEREN C four age groups” (article). Banks, Methods Visual 2001. in Social Research . Marcus. Sage. London: Cultural Advertising Reading Studies: F. Texts and Change: A Education 1980. Deborah. Barndt, Social 2000. 1. Harper, Douglas and Patrizia Faccioli. of Kendall . Dubuque, Photographic IA: Study Peru mutual silly “ ‘ Small seduction and , insults’ Hunt. Deborah. Change To 1990. Barndt, Popular House: This misogyny: advertising the interpretation of Italian Education Sandinistas. Under the Between Toronto: signs” (article). Lines Press. the Kretsedemas and Craig, Bruce 2. Philip Robert, Berger, 1992. York: . New a Rendezvous John. Keeping African-Ameri- 1997. Gryniewski. “ Picturing International. Vintage advertisements” magazine reading cans: readers W. Harrist. 1991. Blinn, Lynn and Amanda “ Combining (article). and photography instant native photo-elicitation,” advertise- 1993. Philip. Kretsedemas, 3. “ Reading Visual 4:175– Anthropology 192. (article). race vs ments: ethnicity?” Bissell, 2000. “ In focus: film, focus groups and Susan. working children Bangladesh,” Visual Anthro- in Studies Evaluation G. pology 13(2):169– 183. process: “ Representing 1998. D. Buchanan, contribu- the 1. 1991. Dempsey. V. John and A. Susan Tucker, International of tion frame,” Journal a re-engineering evaluating techno- “ Photo-interviewing: a tool for Production Management 18(11/ of Operations and (article). logical innovations” 12):1163– 1182. John Dempsey, Susan A. V. 2. Tucker. 1994. and Bunster, of study a pictures: “ Talking 1978. Ximena. “ Using research for a tool as photo-interviewing in proletarian mothers in Lima, Peru,” Studies the and evaluation” (article). 5(1):37– 55. Communication Anthropology Visual of and Ellan Young. 1989. Elsa Ximena, Bunster, Chaney . Working Women Peru Lima, in Servants: Sellers and H. Institutional Culture Bergin New York: Garvey. and 1. D. Buchanan, 1998. “ Representing process: the a photographic contexts: “ Visual 1985. Victor. Calderola, frame” of contribution a re-engineering (article). research method Visual in Studies anthropology,” in Communication 55. 11(3):33– “ Photography 1989. Paolo. anthropological Chiozzi, and T O N ES case three research: Robert in studies,” Boonzajer on I identified only one [1] study that was based elicitation Water the Across Eyes ed., Flaes, Het . Amsterdam: Cowan (1999) visual texts other than photographs. Peter Spinhuis, 50. 43– autos the art Latino studied painted on low-rider adolescents “ The 1999. Dell. Cindy Clark, a autodriven interview: the intersec- with elicitation interviews. His study examined into photographic s experience,” viewfinder children’ artistic tions The of ethnicity, age, power and practice. 2):39– 14(1/ Sociology Visual 50. various paintings are semiotic collages that draw on and

13 pictures Talking about 25 Research Jr “ Photography in anthropology: a Publications, Sage CA: Park, . Newbury 1957. Collier, John 412. 403– American experiments,” two on report Anthropologist 1994. Anthropolog- — , ed. — — Cape Breton, 1952: The 859. 59:843– . Louisville: ical Vision of Timothy Asch International — . 1967. as Photography — a Anthropology: — Visual Sociology Association. Visual Method Research and Rinehart Holt, York: . New . 1998. sociology,” — — — Jon “ An argument for visual Winston. A Sourcebook ed., for Image-based Prosser, Research: “ Visual anthropology’ — . 1987. s contributions to the — — Qualitative Press, Falmer London: . Researchers Anthropology field anthropology,” Visual of 24– 41. 46. 1(1):37– — — — . 2000. “ Reimagining visual methods: Galileo to Collier. Malcolm Jr and John Anthro- Visual 1986. Collier, Denzin and Norman Neuromancer,” in Yvonna as Photography pology: (revised a Research Method , 2nd Research Qualitative of Handbook eds, Lincoln, expanded). and of New University Albuquerque: CA: Oaks, Thousand edn. s, Publication Sage Press. Mexico 732. 717– Jero Patsy 1986. Asch. Timothy and Asch Connor, Linda, Agricul- . 2001. Changing Works: Visions of a Lost — — — Tapakan: Film Ethnographic an Healer, Balinese of Press. ture . Chicago: University Chicago University Press. . Cambridge: Cambridge Monograph Patrizia Harper, Douglas and Faccioli. 2000. “ ‘ Small silly Cowan, 1999. re- community: the into “ ‘ Drawn’ Peter. misogyny: interpre- the insults’ , mutual seduction and Latino of the artwork considering adolescents,” Visual signs,” advertising Italian Sociology Visual tation of Sociology 107. 2):91– 14(1/ 15(1/ 2):23– 49. Gryniewski. Bruce and Kretsedemas Philip Robert, Craig, and Kaiser. 1999. “ Youth style: Hethorn, Janet artic- Susan “ Picturing reading readers African-Americans: 1997. anxiety,” cultural ulating 14(1/ Sociology Visual Sociology Visual advertisements,” magazine 2):109– 125. 58. 12(1):28– Visual of Principles 1975. ed. Paul, Hockings, Anthro- Strauss. Richard and little “ A 1986. Curry, Timothy Jon Publishers. Mouton Hague: . The pology normal- a photo-essay the anybody: hurt never pain on Jansen, Margriet. 1991. “ Better little than too much,” Sociology of sports of ization Sport injuries,” Journal 23. Review Visual Sociology 6(1):13– 208. 11(2):192– self-portrait photograph Kenney, “ Using 1993. Keith. s to V. John Dempsey, and Susan A. Tucker. 1994. “ Using and understand self-concepts of Chinese American photo-interviewing evalua- as a tool for research and gy University Anthropolo Visual Students,” 34(4):55– Educational-Techno logy tion,” 62. 5:245– 269. Emmison, and Philip Smith. 2001. Researching Michael “ The film elicitation Stephanie. Krebs, technique,” in 1975. the Images, Objects, Contexts and Interactions Visual: Visual of Principles ed., Hockings, Paul . Anthropology Cultural Inquiry . London: Social in Sage. and Hague: 302. 283– Publishers, Mouton The Patrizia Faccioli, and Nicoletta Zuccheri. 1998. “ The Philip. race advertisements: “ Reading 1993. Kretsedemas, of double vision alcohol,” Visual Sociology vs. 47. 8(2):40– Sociology Visual ethnicity?,” 90. 13(2):75– Messaris, a of “ Interpretations 1977. Gross. Larry and Paul boundaries “ Ethnic J. 1991. Gold, Steven ethnic and entre- groups,” photographic narrative by viewers in four age a preneurship: photo-elicitation study,” Visual the in Studies Anthropology of Visual Communication Sociology , 6(2):9– 22. 4(2):99– 111. Jaber Gubrium, F., James Holstein Buck- R. David and Reality Representing Nichols, Bill. 1991. . Bloomington: holdt. Constructing the Life Course . New York: 1994. University Press. Indiana General Hall. Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich. an Space and place in 1999. visual “ From pictorializing to Fadwa El. Guindi, 1998. children’ landscape: urban s views of from learning ed., H. in anthropology,” Handbook Hernard, Russel 2):73– their social worlds,” 89. Sociology 14(1/ Visual Sage, Cultural . London: in Methods Anthropology of Owens, Bill. 1972. Suburbia Francisco: Straight . San 511. 459– Arrow Books. Guschker, – 2000. “ Picture world Stefan. and reality of life “ Framing photography a house: Brian. 1995. and Rusted, role private of a sociological the about for photos study the Canadian heritage,” Folklore of performance the dissertation, Ph.D. identity,” of meaningfulness 157. 17(2):139– Germany (in German). Sampson-Cordle, the rela- “ Exploring 2001. Alice Vera. visual ethnographic narra- “ The Douglas. Harper, 1987a. rural a small between tionship in school Northeast 1(1):1– 19. tive,” Visual Anthropology study Georgia image-based an community: its and Knowledge: — . 1987b. Skill and Community — Working — photographs,” participant-produced Ph.D. using Small University Shop . Chicago: a in Chicago of Athens, dissertation, Georgia. Press. Schwartz, Dona. 1992. Waucoma Twilight: of Generations — — . 1988. “ Visual sociology: expanding sociological — DC: the Farm . Washington, Smithsonian Press. vision,” 19(1):54– American The Sociologist 70. Smith, C. Zoe and Anne-Marie Woodward. 1999. “ Photo- — . 1993. — — soci- image: the of authority the “ On visual elicitation method gives voice and reactions of the crossroads,” in Norman K. Denzin and ology at subjects,” Journalism-and-Mass-Com munication- Qualitative 41. Lincoln, eds, Handbook of Educator 53(4):31– Yvonna

14 26 D. Harper “ Emotion and sport: a case study of “ Judging 1994. Rotenberg. Robert and S. Charles Suchar, Snyder, 1990. E. Eldon shelter: the Sport of Sociology gymnasts,” women Park,” Lincoln from a case collegiate of adequacy , Journal of Architectural and Planning Research Journal 7(3):254– 270. 11(2):149– E. Ronald Ammons. 1993. “ Baseball’ s and 165. Snyder, Eldon auto-photographic Anne. emotion work: getting psyched to play,” Qualitative 1999. “ An , naturalistic Sustik, of 132. 16(2):111– Sociology investigation the adjustment of the from refugees States,” former Union United to life in the Spence, Soviet A Political Picture: the in Myself Putting 1986. Jo. Personal dissertation, Ph.D. Loyola . Seattle: University. Photographic and Autobiography Real Press. “ Photo- Tucker, Susan Comet and John V. Dempsey. 1991. A. “ First children and family inno- technological evaluating for Ricabeth. a tool interviewing: Steiger, 1995. 10(1/ 654. 15(5):639– Evaluation-Review vations,” dynamics,” Visual Sociology 2):28– 49. van Stiebling, in gender “ Practicing 1999. T. Megan youth der Does, Patricia, Sonja Edelaar, Imke Gooskens, 144. sports,” 1992. 127– 2): 14(1/ Sociology Visual Margreet Liefting and Marije van Mierlo. Charles the changing Suchar, S. 1988. “ Photographing “ Reading images: a study of a Dutch neighborhood,” Visual material culture of 67. community,” Visual Sociology 7(1):4– a gentrified 3(2):17– Sociology 22. Review Wagner, Jon. 1978. “ Perceiving a planned community,” in of gentrification: Hills, — — — . 1992. “ Icons and images Jon Wagner, ed., Images of Information . Beverly the culture of 100. urban community,” changed material CA: Sage Publishers, 85– an Urban Gentrification and Urban Invitation Research in Zerubavel, Evitar. 1997. Social Mindscapes: An Change: 2:165– 192. Sociology to Cognitive Sociology . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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