Am I Too Fat To Be A Princess? Examining The Effects Of Popular Children's Media On Preschoolers' Body Image

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1 Univ ersit entral Flo rid a y of C Masters Thesis (Open Access) ses and Dissertations Electronic The Am I Too Fat To Be A Princess? Examinin g The Effects Of Popular Children's Media On Prescho olers' Body Image 2008 Sharon Hayes n i v er sit U tr a l F lo r i d a y of Cen Find simi lar works at: http://stars.library.ucf.edu/etd University of Central Florida Libraries http://library.ucf.edu Part of the Clinical P sychology Common s STARS Citation mage" Hayes, Sharon, "Am I Too Fat To Be A P rincess? Examining The Effe cts Of Popular Children's Media On Preschoolers' Body I t a t c s n io . 3747. (2008). E le d Disser tr o n ic Th e se s a n http://stars.library.ucf.edu/etd/3747 ree and ope ses and ctronic The n access by STARS. It has been accepted for inclusion in Ele This Masters Thesis (Open Access) is brought to you for f . .edu [email protected] Dissertations by an authorized administrator of STARS. For more information, please contact

2 AM I TOO FAT TO BE A PRINCESS? EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF POPULAR CHILDREN’S MEDIA ON PRESCHOOLERS’ BODY IMAGE SHARON HAYES B.S., University of Central Florida, 2003 A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Psychology in the College of Sciences at the University of Central Florida Orlando, FL Spring Term 2008

3 © 2008 Sharon Hayes ii

4 ABSTRACT The current study investigated the effects of brief exposure to appearance-related m edia on female preschoolers’ body image. Results i ndicated that exposure did not affect body dissatisfaction or engagement in appearance-relat ed play behaviors. Surp risingly, participants’ self-reported frequency of weight concerns decreased at posttest. In contrast to older populations, it is possible that young children may adopt the persona of attractive charact ers with whom they identify rather than comparing themselves to the characters. This level of identification temporarily may alleviate weight concerns. This is the first empirical study to provide support for previous findings that suggest media expos ure does not affect body image in young children. Also presented are data regarding familial influences and other media consumption (e.g., television viewing) on girl s’ body dissatisfaction. iii

5 This work is dedicated to children everywhere. May you always appreciate the magnificence of your body for the functions it se rves – you only get one, so treat it well and think kindly of it often.

6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To my mentor and advisor, Dr. St acey Dunn – Thank you for your guidance, support, and strong belief in my abilities thr oughout this process. You took a chance and I am reaping the benefits. For that, I will al ways be grateful. On to the dissertation! To my committee members, Dr. Kimber ly Renk and Dr. Valerie Sims – your feedback and contributions are invaluable and appreciated more than you know. Thank you for your patience! search assistants who worked with me To all of the exceptional undergraduate re for several years on this pr oject – thank you for your hard work and dedication! To my friends and colleagues, Pamela Brown, Karen Grippo, and Rachel Peterson– graduate school would not be th e same without you. Thank you for always being available to commiserate, motivate, and celebrate! To my family, mom, grandma, and poppa – I am me only because of you. You are the absolute best! Mark – you are the mo st supportive and patient person I know...thank you! Finally, Pierre – thank you for allowing me the privilege of your company. You take all my stress away! v

7 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT... iii LIST OF FIGURES ... ix LIST OF TABLES ... x INTRODUCTION ... 1 METHOD ... 11 Participants... 11 Measures ... 12 Video stimuli... 12 Behavioral rating scale... 13 Child interview... 14 Body dissatisfaction. ... 15 Parent Measures. ... 16 Procedure ... 17 RESULTS ... 21 ... 21 Self-report of appearance-related ild interview concerns: The ch Effect of appearance-related m edia on play behavior... 23 Effect of appearance-related media on young girls’ body image ... 24 Posttest analysis. ... 24 Repeated measures analysis. ... 24 Effects of maternal body im age on girls’ play behavior and body image ... 25 Maternal body image. ... 25 Effects of appearance-related teasi ng and praise on girls’ body im 25 age... vi

8 26 Exploratory analyses ... Effect of appearance-related media on girls’ concerns about w eight: Posttest analysis... 26 Effect of appearance-related media on girls’ concerns about w eight: Repeated measures analysis... 26 Media exposure posttest correlates. ... 27 t Effect of appearance-related media on gi rls’ perceptions of princesses: Pretes princess identification. ... 27 Repeated measures analysis. ... 28 DISCUSSION ... 29 Body Dissatisfaction. ... 29 30 Behavioral Observations. ... Interview. ... 30 Perceptions of Princesses. ... 32 Parental Relationships... 32 Television Viewing. ... 32 34 Limitations and Future Directions ... Conclusions... 36 APPENDIX A.1: FIGURES AND TABLES ... 38 APPENDIX A: RECRUITMENT FLYER... 48 ... 50 APPENDIX B: HUMAN PARTICIPANT INFORMED CONSENT FORMS APPENDIX C: STIMULI... 62 64 APPENDIX D: BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION FORM ... vii

9 APPENDIX E: CHILD INTERVIEW... 69 APPENDIX F: DEMOGRAPHIC FORM... 77 APPENDIX G: WYBI ... 80 APPENDIX H: ASI ... 86 APPENDIX I: PASTAS ... 89 APPENDIX J: DEBRIEFING FORM ... 92 REFERENCES ... 95 viii

10 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. MEAN RATINGS OF IDENTIFIED ADULT PRINCESS AS A FUNCTION OF CONDITION AND AGE. ... 39 ix

11 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. AGE DISTRIBUTION WITHIN EACH CONDITION. 40 TABLE 2. PARTICIPANT DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION. 41 TABLE 3. PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT ENGAGED IN APPEARANCE-RELATED PLAY. 42 TABLE 4. UNIVARIATE ANOVAS: EFFECTS OF AGE ON BODY IMAGE. 43 TABLE 5. PARTICIPANT BODY IMAGE RA TINGS: POSTTEST MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS. 44 TABLE 6. MEANS AND STANDA RD DEVIATIONS OF PRINCESS CHOICES AT PRETEST AND POSTTEST. 46 TABLE 7. MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF ADULT PRINCESS CHOICES. 47 x

12 INTRODUCTION e and eating behavior is concentrated Much of the research examining body imag dult females. However, recen heavily on adolescent and young a suggests that t literature girls as young as 6-years-old experien ce body dissatisfaction, as evidenced by a preference for an ideal figure that is thinner than their perceived current body size (Ambrosi-Randic, 2000; Davison, Markey, & Birch, 2003; Dittmar, Halliwell, & Ive, a ; Lowes & Tiggemann, 2003). Results are 2006; Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2004, 2005, 2006 generally mixed with regard to body dissatisf action in children younger than 6-years-old (e.g., Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2005; Hendy, Gustitus, & Leitzel-Schwalm, 2001; Lowes & Tiggemann, 2003). For instance, approximately 28 % of 5-year-old girls in one sample desired a thinner body (Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2005), whereas close to 60% of 5-year-old b ). d a heavier body (Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2006 girls in a different sample desire of assessment (e.g., interview) reported Researchers using alternative methods that some children as young as 5-years-ol d are concerned about their weight (e.g., t, & Birch, 2002; Davison, Markey, & Birch, Abramovitz & Birch, 2000; Davison, Earnes s sampled by Davison and colleagues (2000) 2000). Approximately 20% of the 5-year-old reported experiencing weight concerns at leas t some of the time. These concerns were associated with self-reported body dissatisfaction but were un related to participant body mass index (BMI). Longitudinal data indica ted that body dissatisfaction and weight concerns at the age of 5 were predictive of future reports at the ag es of 7 and 9 (Davison et al., 2003). This study also reports that dieting and, in some cases, problem eating of body dissatisfaction behaviors are more prevalent in 9-year-old girls who display signs

13 and weight concerns at younger ages than those who do not. Additionally, many male and aware of the “thin ideal” that exists in female children as young as 5-years-old are Western society and are able to identify dieting as a method used in order to attain the a ideal, thin body (e.g., Davison et al., 2000; Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2004, 2005, 2006 ; Lowes & Tiggemann, 2003). Due to studies like these that report awar eness of the thin ideal and associations between body dissa tisfaction and weight concerns in young children, it is not surprising that other rese archers focus their st udies on the underlying factors that may contribute to the onset of a disturbance. One way researchers are focusing on underlying factors is by exploring sociocultural in fluences, such as family, peers, and the media – just like they have done with older populations. It has been argued that the ral ideals (thin is good, fat internalization of sociocultu is bad) is a contributing f body image disturbance, weight actor to the development of concerns, and possibly even disturbed eati ng behavior (e.g., Levine & Smolak, 1996; Myers & Biocca, 1992; Sands & Wardle, 2003; Striegel-Moore & Cachelin, 1999; unn, 1999; Tiggemann, 2002). With regard to Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-D ecting body image, parents a sociocultural factors aff nd peers both are cited as contributing agents in the internalization pro cess of the thin ideal for children. Parental appearance-related feedback generally increas es with children’s age (Striegel-Moore & Kearney-Cooke, 1994) and, along with parental b ody image, is associated with children’s body image (e.g., Lowes & Tiggemann, 2003; Sands & Wardle, 2003; Smolak, Levine, & Schermer, 1999). Maternal body image also is associated with child body image in girls as young as 5-years-old (Davis on et al., 2000). Further, maternal body image is often McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2005; reported as more influential than that of fathers (e.g., 2

14 Smolak et al., 1999). Findings are inconsistent studies suggest that , however, as other of child BMI, may be more impactful paternal body image or feedback, independent (e.g., Agras, Bryson, Hammer, & Kraemer, 2007; Thelen & Cormier, 1995). Parental so associated with more body dissatisfaction in children as appearance-related teasing is al young as 8-years-old (Phares, Steinberg, & Thompson, 2004). In addition to parental factors, peer re lationships also play a role in children’s body image satisfaction. For inst ance, exposure to adolescents in a school setting is related to more body dissatisfaction, weight c oncerns, and dieting experiences in children as young as 9-years-old (Wardle & Watte rs, 2003). Perceptions of peer body dissatisfaction and engagement in appearance-r elated conversations with peers are related to older children and adolescents’ own body dissatisfaction (e.g., Clark & Tiggemann, 2006; Lieberman, Gauvin, Bukowski, & White, 2001; Sands & Wardle, 2003). The relationship between perceived peer body di ssatisfaction and own body dissatisfaction is a ). an 7-years-old (Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2006 not significant for children younger th Researchers suggest that null findings for children younger than 6-years-old are related to the fact that they typically do not report conversing about their physi cal appearance in the a ). same way that older children do (Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2006 In addition to parents and p eers, the role of the media is often studied and cited as another important sociocultural influence on body image (for reviews, see Levine & Smolak, 1996, and Tiggemann, 2002). Recent cross- sectional studies have implicated media exposure via magazines and televisi on programs as a factor contributing to children’s internalization of the thin ideal and body image concerns, especially for older a b children (e.g., Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2006 , 2006 ; Harrison & Hefner, 2006). Assessment 3

15 of body dissatisfaction for particip self also is asso ciated significantly ants’ future adult er, 2006). Similar to other sociocultural with media consumption (Harrison & Hefn factors, however, studies fail to reveal a correlation between self-reported media exposure and body dissatisfacti on in children (Harrison, 2000; Sands & Wardle, 2003). Collectively, results of extant literature indicat e that sociocultural factors associated with body dissatisfaction in older children, adol escents, and adults may not affect young children to the same magnitude. The age of 6-years-old appears to be a particularly significant age for many children, especially girls, as it is the age during which sociocultural factors ap pear to begin forming stronger asso ciations with m easures of body dissatisfaction. Children younger than 6-years-old are clearly not imm une to the culture given that a surprising percentage of th em express weight concerns and, although statistically nonsignificant, i ss (e.g., Davison et al., 2000, ndicate a preference for thinne Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2005). The cultural impact extends to the development of implicit or review, see Latner & Schwartz, 2005). and explicit weight biases and preferences (f Sands and Wardle (2003) acknowledge that beauty ideals are influenced heavily n portrayed by the Western media is thin” by culture and that the “prototypical woma ifically females, tend to be attracted to (p.194). Adults, adolescents, and children, spec figures that they believe are thinner than their current size (Ambrosi-Randic  , 2000; Collins, 1990; Tiggemann & Lowes, 2002; Tiggemann & Wilson-Barrett, 1998; Truby & Paxton, 2002). Conversely, they are repelled by endomorphic figures (Smolak & Levine, 1994; Tiggemann & Anesbury, 2000). Children, lik e adults, seem to subscribe to the “what is beautiful is good” philosophy (Dion, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972, p. 285). ilbert, 1998; Harris, Harris, & Negative stereotypes are typica lly reserved for the obese (G 4

16 Bochner, 1982; Tiggemann & Anesbury, 2000; Tiggemann & Wilson-Barrett, 1998). In a 000), 96 children ranging in age from 8- study conducted by Tiggemann and Anesbury (2 to 12-years-old were shown a normal-weight a nd obese figure drawing of a child or adult that they believed would be friendlier, side-by-side and asked to choose the figure happier, lazier, smarter, health ier, more attractive, more c onfident, and a harder worker. Results of this study indicate th at children choose the normal- weight child figure as being liked best and the preferred friend or playmate the children often rate . As in other studies, the obese adult figure as bei ng lazier, unattractive, less ha ppy, less hard working, and less healthy. Children as young as 5-years-old also assign negative charac teristics to larger, rounder body types (Brylin sky & Moore, 1994; Penny & Haddock, 2007). Evidence implicitly against the obese (Cramer & suggests that even 3-year-olds discriminate Steinwert, 1998). As a result of recent litera ture that illustrates the apparent biases and persisted in their examination of the role ideals children possess, some researchers have that media targeted at children plays in the development and maintenance of these feelings. Levin (1994) reports that the average American child exhausted up to 35 hours and/or playing video games. per week watching television Even toddlers are watching quite a bit of television, with the averag e 2-year-old viewing approximately 10.5 hours per week and the average 4-ye ar-old viewing 17.5 hours per week (Liebert & Sprafkin, 1988). When queried about their favorite pastim es, children frequen tly refer to watching television (Gilbert, 1998). Gilbert (1998) reports that young children often are seen imitating their favorite sports, movie, or televi sion star and that they appear to exhibit ngage in these play behaviors. Interestingly, heightened levels of confidence when they e 5

17 nd 6-year-old participants identify animated Gilbert also reports that some of his 5- a cartoon characters as resembling them more frequently than their own family members or peers. He notes that these animated figures often depict “human lik e figures” that some children tend to misidentify as “real.” In many cases, it is impossible for a child or adolescent to attain the ideal portrayed by their favorite character, animated or not. A content analysis of po pular children’s media, incl uding twenty-five children’s videos and twenty children’s books, was conducted recently (Herbozo, Tantleff-Dunn, Gokee-LaRose, & Thompson, 2004). An analysis of the videos reveals there is an average of 8.7 body image-related messages pe r film, with 12 animated films including ’s books reveals an 10 or more body image-related messages. The analysis of children average of 2.8 body image-related messages, with 5 books containing 5 or more body image-related messages. The researchers consistently document that the physical appearance of characters often is valued more than any other quality the characters may possess. “Good” characters often are depi cted as beautiful and thin. Further, attractiveness is associated with sociabil ity, kindness, contentedness, and success. In contrast, “evil” is linked more readily to obesity, cruelty, and general unattractiveness. Obese characters, as animated humans or animals, are not received well by other characters. Results indicate that more importa nce is placed on female beauty and physical appearance than on males’ physical appearan ce. Overall, media aimed specifically at children clearly depict an unrealistic thin id eal. Results of studies conducted by Klein and Shiffman (2005, 2006) echo these findings, even in animated television shows lasting less than 30 minutes. Klein and Shiffman (2005, 2006) also note that the number of thin characters depicted in children’s animated shows has increased steadily since the 1950s, 6

18 whereas the number of overweight charac ters has decreased. From their findings, tion of these images may promote body image researchers suggest that the internaliza disturbance and problem eating behaviors – ju st like non-animated media (Herbozo et al., 2004; Klein & Shiffmann, 2006). Many researchers suggest a need for future studies to examine the development of body image and weight concerns with young children, as well as sociocultural factors that may contribute to and reinforce cultural id Davison et al., 2003; eals and biases (e.g., Herbozo, et al., 2003). Despite these suggestio ns, relatively little literature has been produced. One explanation for the dearth of studies focusing on young children’s body image can be attributed to the lack of available measures shown to possess sound psychometric properties with younger age groups . Body image measures for children are adapted frequently from measures standa rdized on adult populations (Collins, 1991; Gardner, 2001; Truby & Paxton, 2002). In f act, many are not reliable for use with children younger than 8-years-old (Gardner, 2001; Mendelson & White, 1982). For instance, figural stimuli are employed freque ntly to assess the discrepancy between children’s ideal and pe rceived self (Gardner, 2001; Offman & Bradley, 1992; Tiggemann & Wilson-Barrett, 1998). Figural drawings al so can supplement questions, making items simpler and potentially easier for young partic ipants to answer by presenting them with an alternative to verbal responses (Collins, 1991; Tiggemann & Wilson-Barrett, 1998; Truby & Paxton, 2002). There is no psychometric da ta to support their use with children younger than 8-years-old, however (Gardner, 2001; Gardner, Urru tia, Morrell, Watson, & b ) report that there is no Sandoval, 1990). Additionally, Dohnt and Tiggemann (2006 responses of body dissatisfaction and ideal documented relationship between self-report 7

19 figural scale. Other problems regarding the use of figural and current size ratings using a scales are the age-appropriateness of the draw ings and the use of st ereotypical Caucasian features (Byrne & Hill, 1996; Collins, 1991; Gardner, 2001; Tiggemann & Wilson- Barrett, 1998; Truby & Paxton, 2002). In order to accurately assess body image concerns, ideals, and biases in very young children, th e development of a psychometrically sound measure will be required. Alternatively, re searchers could utilize other methods of measurement, such as behavioral observation. In addition to age-adapted measures, past research focusing on young children’s body image has relied heavily on self-report me thods that have questionable reliability (Davison et al., 2000; Lowes & Ti ggemann, 2003). Within the li terature, there is also a (Hendy et al., 2001), which is surprising significant lack of observational data considering the cognitive and attentional limitations and difficulties younger children 2002). Again, observational data could experience (Gardner, 2001; Truby & Paxton, eliminate the stress placed on the child particip ant and the researcher, as it would reduce significantly the amount of inte ractions and time needed to collect data and eliminate several possible threats to validity. Another deficit in research focused on young children’s body image is the relative absence of empirical studies. Relevant to ex amining the effects of media, many empirical studies using adolescent and adult particip ants rely on exposure methods (e.g., Durkin & Paxton, 2002; Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2003; Harrison & Cantor, 1997; Heinberg & Thompson, 1995; Stice & Shaw, 1994; Stice, Spangler, & Agras, 2001). To date, only one experimental study examines the effect of exposure to appearance-related stimuli on ., 2006). Dittmar and colleagues (2006) young girls’ body image (i.e., Dittmar et al 8

20 exposed 5- to 8-year-old girls to a storybook containing illustrations of Barbie dolls zed figure), or no dolls (control condition). (unrealistic figure), Emme dolls (average-si Children sat in a group and were assigned rando mly to one of the three books, which they then were asked to flip through as a story was read aloud. Body dissatisfaction was assessed using a figure rating s cale. Findings of this study suggest that children exposed to the Barbie book exhibit greater body dissa tisfaction compared to the other groups. However, this effect is observed only fo r the younger age groups (5.5 to 7.5-years), with girls older than 7.5-years showing no effect from exposure to the Barbie images. The researchers suggest that dolls like Barbie may serve as agen ts of social comparison for younger girls, just as peers and adolescen ts do for older children. Given that body dissatisfaction is observed in participan ts younger than 6-years-old, Dittmar and the exploration of body image development in colleagues urge researchers to persist in young children. Herbozo and colleagues (2003) al so suggest that an empirically based significantly to the furthe r understandin g of media’s exposure study would contribute tisfaction, body ideals, and biases in young contribution to the development of body dissa children. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of exposure to popular animated children’s media on preschool -aged girls’ body image, ideals, biases, and behaviors. It was hypothesized that e xposure to appearance-related media would result in more appearance-related play behavior (e.g., spending more time in front of the mirror, playing dress-up more, playing with a vanity) than demonstrated by children in the control group. A second hypothesis was that children exposed to appearance-related n as evidenced by a discrepancy between media would exhibit greater body dissatisfactio 9

21 their ideal and perceived cu rrent body size using figural stimuli. Additionally, it was hypothesized that appearance-related teasing by family memb ers would be related to more body dissatisfaction. Finally, it was hypothesized that girls with mothers who placed emphasis on their own physical appearan ce and had high trait body image anxiety would exhibit more appearance-related behaviors. 10

22 METHOD Participants Participants were recruited from local preschools and elementary schools, e-mail to employees of a large metropolitan solicitations via a weekly newsletter sent d (see Appendix A) at local lib raries, pediatrician offices, University, and flyers distribute and shopping centers throughout two counties. Informed consent was obtained from a parent of each participant. Consent forms provided a description of the study, procedure, and risks and benefits attributable to the child’s participation (see Appendix B). As compensation for participation, all parent s and legal guardians were offered the opportunity to receive a brief assessment of th eir child’s general inte llectual strengths and weakness as assessed by the Kaufmann Brief Intelligence Test – Second Edition (4- to 6- year-olds) or the Wechsler Preschool and Pr imary Scale of Intelligence – Third Edition (3-year-olds). dyads from a metropolitan area in the Participants were 58 mother/daughter Southeast. Data were collected from seven r, data from their additional girls; howeve mothers were not available due to lack of completion (parent did not return completed n = 6] or parent was a non-native reader of English [ n = 1]. Girls ranged in survey packet [ M = 4.15, SD age from 3- to 6-years-old ( = 1.06) and were predominantly Caucasian (58.5%; 15.4% Biracial; 6.2% African Americ an; 6.2% Asian; 4.6% Hispanic; and 9.2% did not provide a response). The majority of children were of a healthy weight based on th th percentile based to 85 ight (41.5% with a BMI in the 5 maternal report of height and we th th upon age; 15.4% overweight [BMI > percentile]; 12.3% at risk for overweight [85 95 11

23 th th underweight [BMI < 5 percentile < BMI > 95 percentile]. percentile]; and 6.2% Mothers, who served as informants, ra M = 35.90, nged in age from 23- to 50-years-old ( SD = 5.82). Mothers provided parental employ ment titles which indicated the vast majority held professional jobs (e.g., executi ves, professors, lawyer s) or were full-time students. Their report ( = 28) indicated that the girls watched an average of more than 10 n hours of television per week ( M = 11.18, SD = 9.03; range = 3 hours to 47.5 hours). With regard to Disney DVDs, girls ( n = 38) owned, on average, 22 DVDs ( SD = 19.94; range = 0 to 75). Measures Ten children participated in a pilot study to assess and refine all included rm the methodology of measures. Pilot study results helped to info the current study, and information about pilot data is provi ded within each relevant section. Video stimuli. Children in the experimental group were shown a video containing appearance-related clip s from ten animated children’s movies (e.g., Cinderella, Barbie and the Nutcracker, Little Mermaid, Anastasia; see Appendix C for complete list). These clips included only animated characters. Her bozo and colleagues ( 2004) report that eight of the ten films selected for the current st n appearance-related udy contained at least te messages. The remaining two films (Barbie se ries) were not included in the Herbozo et al. content analysis. One to three clips were selected from each animated film, and each clip ranged from one to two minutes for a total of approximately 14 minutes. The control group viewed a neutral montag e of clips from seven animated films that did not contain any app earance-related messages (e.g., Dora the Explorer, Clifford, ee Appendix C for complete list). Each clip Dragon Tales, Lilo & Stitch, Care Bears; s 12

24 ever, unlike the humans depicted in the contained animation of a human figure; how experimental clips, these humans were ofte n secondary rather than primary characters. Two clips were selected from each film fo r a total of approximately 14 minutes. These clips were viewed and rated by children in a pilot study to ensure that they were comparable to the experimental video clips in interest and familiarity. Behavioral rating scale. A behavioral rating scale was created and used to identify children’s appearance-related behavi ors after being exposed to the video clips (see Appendix D). This method was employed to supplement additional assessments that have been reported to be less reliab le for use with young children (e.g., body dissatisfaction measures). The rating scale included items such as type of costume chosen and time spent in the costume, time spent playing at the vanity, time spent playing in the ts were trained by the researcher to code kitchen, etc. Two undergraduate research assistan the observations. Raters noted the start and stop times of each activity in which a child to gain a frequency count of appearance- engaged, and a 15 second interval was used related and nonappearance-related behaviors. Th ey were not blind to condition given that room and the room in which children were their observation room connected to the play this should not be viewed as a limitation as exposed to the different film clips. However, the number of activities in which a child co uld engage was finite and each activity was clearly defined a priori as appearance -related or nonappearance-related. Research assistants viewed participants with the re searcher during pilot testing. Definitions of appearance-related and nonappear ance-related play were spec ified and discussed during this time. Interrater reliability was establ ished over the course of training. Methods correct for chance agreement between the suggested by Cohen (1960) were employed to 13

25 raters. In several cases, particip single type of play, violating ants engaged exclusively in a culate an accurate kappa statistic. For the remaining the conditions necessary to cal .76 to 1.0, with an average of .92. participants, Cohen’s kappa ranged from Child interview. A semi-structured interview (see Appendix E) was conducted before and after video exposure to assess any pretest group differences and between- group effects. A trained interviewer asked th bout their appearance e children questions a satisfaction (e.g., “Do you like the way you look?”). A visual scale with three markers to illustrate response options (never or almost never, sometimes, and nearly all the time) was used to help children answer ea ch question. Response options were coded numerically to allow for quantitative analyses . Other appearance-rel ated questions also were asked (e.g., “Who do you look like the most?,” “Could you be a princess?,” “What cess?”). Verbal reinforcement was provided would you have to change to become a prin throughout the interview for answering questions regardless of the content of responses. Additionally, children were shown images of three girls and three women dressed as princesses. The images varied by weight bu t not height or any other characteristic. man they believed to be the “real” princess. Children were asked to select the child or wo w for quantitative analysis. Children also The choices were coded numerically to allo were asked to explain their choice. The pr imary researcher and a research assistant categorized responses as app earance-related nonappearance-rel ated and weight-related or nonweight-related. In the event of a discrepancy, the resear cher and assistant discussed the response and their rationa le for coding with an objectiv e member of their research team until agreement was reached. Within each category (appearance-related response or numerical values in order nonappearance-related response), sp ecific responses were given 14

26 to examine response frequencies. Given th at the coding system was not complex or subjective (i.e., each response was assigned a numerical value in order to run frequency analyses), all responses were coded by the primary researcher. It is important to note that the interview was amended several times over the course of data collection. Amendments only took the form of question additi on used for clarification purposes. Body dissatisfaction. Child figures were created using a computer software program that allowed for the manipulation of physical size and skin color. Digital photographs of the participan ts’ faces were added to th e bodies of the computer- generated figures. Face and body color were matched for each participant. Body dissatisfaction was measured using personalized figures to po tentially compensate for the limitations of generic figure rating scales that present a developmental challenge to younger children because they require them to think of the figure as a representation of themselves. Additionally, gene n fail to account for racial ric figure rating scales ofte differences (see Gardner, 2001). During pilot testing, children manipulated the size of a jority of pilot participants extended the single figure using a computer mouse. The ma body to an extreme size but reported that they did not think the figure actually looked like them. Given the trend for young children to morph the body shape to the largest or smallest extreme despite instruction to stop once the figure looked like them or how they would like to look, an alternative method of assessment was u tilized during data collection. Each participant was presented two figures at a time on a 15.4” computer screen and asked to choose the figure that looked most like her. Children were presented with the figure they chose a nd another figure until the same figure was chosen twice. The wer asked, “Which one do you want to look process was then repeated, but the intervie 15

27 like the most?” The order of initial figur istent throughout the e presentation was cons study. Presented figures became thinner or heavier depending upon the participant’s initial choice. Body image was calculated by subtracting the figure chosen as the perceived current size from th e figure chosen as the ideal size. A negative score indicates a desire for a thinner size, a positive score indicates a desire for a heavier size, and a score of zero indicates conten tment with one’s body size. Parent Measures. questionnaire including items Parents completed a demographic about their child’s time spent watching tele vision, favorite show or movie, favorite character, etc. (see Appendix F) . It is important to note that the original wording of the questions related to television viewing did not allow for thei r inclusion in the analyses. The original question asked parents to choos e a predetermined range of hours children watched television per day; however, the ra nges provided were grouped according to weekly categories (i.e., 0-5; 5-10; 10-15, etc.) rather than daily categories. All parents alysis to inquire about the tota l number of hours their child were contacted prior to data an spends watching television per week, and approximately half responded. The mean levision was comparable to other studies number of hours per week spent watching te nge of responses was reported (3 hours to (e.g., Liebert & Sprafkin, 1988), and a wide ra at the respondents were representative of 47.5 hours per week); therefore, it is believed th the entire sample. The parent section of the “ What’s Your Body Image ?” questionnaire (Kearney- Cooke & Striegel-Moore, 1989; see Appendix G) was administered to assess parents’ opinions of their children’s phys ical appearance, eating hab its, exercise routines, and earance. BMI for each parent and child was actions taken to alter their children’s app 16

28 calculated based upon heights and weights provided by mothers. Parent BMI was 2 calculated in the typical fashi on (weight (lb) / [height (in)] x 703). For children, weight percentiles were calculated and used to classify each child’ s weight category according to standards set forth by the Ce nter for Disease Control (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/child rens_BMI/about_childrens_BMI.htm). The Appearance Schema Inventory (ASI; Cash & Labarge, 1996) is a 14-item self-report measure that utili zes a 5-point Likert scale. It provides information about mothers’ beliefs about the c ognitive significance of pers onal appearance in their own lives (e.g., what I look like is an importa nt part of who I am; see Appendix H). Cronbach’s alpha has been reported as .84. The Trait subscale of the Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS; Reed, Thompson, Brannick, & Sacco, 1991) was used to assess mothers’ trait and non-weight-related (e.g., lips) . The body image anxiety, weight- (e.g., thighs) zes a 5-point Likert s cale. Cronbach’s alphas PASTAS is a self-report measure that utili from .82 to .92, and test for both weight and non-weight scales ranged -retest reliability has been found to be .82 (see Appendix I). Procedure Children were assigned randomly to the experimental or control condition (see Table 1 for the distribution of ages with in each condition). Informed consent was obtained from each participating parent, and assent was obtained from each child. With parental permission, a digital headshot was taken of each child participant upon arrival. riment, parents completed a survey packet While their children participated in the expe 17

29 and participated in a brief interview related to child and family eating behavior for a related study. Each child was accompanied to a room with a couch, television, and mirror by one of three trained female research assist ants who acted as the child’s playmate. The research assistant “playmates” all had prev ious experience worki ng with children (e.g., extensive child care background, early education internship) and were trained carefully regarding their role in interacting with the participants. Each playmate was Caucasian, slender, and in her early 20s. All playmates wore casual, a ppropriate clothing typical of what one might wear to baby-sit (i.e., solid colored shirts or sweaters and jeans). After several minutes of chatting to build rapport, each participant was asked to stand in front of the mirror and answer quest ions related to physic al appearance. Given the developmental limitations related to in terviewing young children, the girls were asked to look at their reflection in the mirror a nd think of themselves when they answered. themselves on a computer screen with two Participants then were shown two pictures of pick the picture that looked most like them. different body sizes, and they were asked to r figure that was either slightly thinner Depending on the size of the figure chosen, anothe or heavier was shown on the screen and the picture not chosen was removed. A forced choice was imposed until the same figure was ch osen twice or the most extreme (thinnest or heaviest) figure was chosen. This process was repeated to obtain an ideal figure rating. It is important to note that a pretest figure rating was obtaine d for approximately half of the sample. Pictures were taken upon entrance to the interview room fo r the first half of of participants. The participants, while pictures were taken upon arri val for the last half 18

30 rival afforded the oppor tunity to collect extra time resulting from taking pictures upon ar pretest body dissatisfaction ratings. Participants were then show n a series of three child and three adult figures of varying weights dressed as princesses. The a dult and child princesses were presented as Caucasian with blond hair and brown eyes. Ch ild princesses wore a pink ballerina outfit and adult princesses wore a sleeveless pi nk gown. Computer software allowed for the manipulation of proportional wei ght changes while keeping he ight stable. Participants were told that, although each figure looked th e same, only one was a “real princess” and that they were to identify the “real” one. The research assistant playmates then asked each child to explain their choice. w questions and measures, girls in the After completion of all pretest intervie experimental condition viewed clips featuri ng animated characters from films containing the Beast), whereas gi rls in the control appearance-related messages (e.g., Beauty and condition viewed clips featuring animated human characters from television shows and (e.g., Dora the Explorer). The playmate movies that were not appearance-focused ntion to the “movie” and reinforced attentive encouraged the child participants to pay atte behavior. After viewing the video clip s, each participant was taken to a playroom next door in which children’s music was played softly to create a more comfortable and inviting environment. The playroom contained differe nt play stations including a dress-up rack consisting of costumes similar to those worn by characters featured in the experimental video clips as well as costumes that were unrelated to the clips (e.g., fireman, doctor). uding brush, “play” make-up, hair accessories, The playroom also contained a vanity (incl 19

31 etc.), blocks and legos, dinosaurs, a dollhouse, and a kitchen set. Free play was observed for 8-15 minutes. Variance in pl aytime was largely due to the individual child’s interest and participation. Given attentional li mitations in young children, play time was advanced when it became evident that a chil d was becoming disinterested or unfocused. Although the playmate accompanied the child to the playroom, she did not initiate any particular play activities. She joined the child in an activity only if she was invited, and she refrained from directing the child or rein forcing any particular play activity. Children related study prior to were asked to complete a five-minute color- a-person activity for a leaving the playroom. The activity required children to color their favorite and least child figure silhouette s. After playing and favorite parts of their body on two separate completing the five-minute activity, each partic ipant was accompanied back to the other room where the pretest interview and measures were administered again at posttest. After completion of a survey packet a nd an interview for a related study, parents were debriefed (Appendix J), offered the oppor tunity to schedule an appointment for a brief assessment of the child’s general strengths and weaknesses in intellectual functioning, and reunited with their child. 20

32 RESULTS Al ss, kurtosis, outliers, and homogeneity of l variables were screened for skewne variance using Levene's test. There were only two variables for which both nonnormality of distribution and unequal variance were a pr oblem, suggesting that the majority of variables experienced no majo r violations in statistical assumptions underlying the parametric statistics used (Keppel & Zedeck, 1989). Violations of normality were observed for analyses on body dissatisfaction (i deal size minus perceived current size) at pretest (significant Levene’s test, = .020; negatively skewed, z = -4.07, and positively p kurtotic, = - = 3.60) and posttest (si gnificant Levene’s test, p = .024; negatively skew, z z 2.07). Analyses using girls’ choices for identif etest also violated ied child princess at pr the assumptions of normality (significant Levene’s test, = .019; and negatively kurtotic, p z = -2.30). Attempts to correct these violati ons were unsuccessful using square-root and these variables remained untransformed. logarithmic transformations. Therefore, d from analyses on a case-by-case basis. Participants with missing data were exclude Based on independent t-tests and chi-squa re analyses, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups in demographics, weight classification category, television viewing, or number of Disney DVDs owned (see Table 2). Self-report of appearance-related concerns: The child interview Pretest interviews revealed that all but one participant liked the way she looked; however, when asked if there was anything th ey disliked, close to half the sample ts indicated that they spontaneously provided a response (24.6% [ n = 16] of all participan 21

33 disliked something about their physical appe arance [e.g., hair, skin color, body part], n = 1] tisfied with their clothing, and 1.5% [ n 10.8% [ = 7] revealed that they were dissa f that was non-appearance rela ted). In response to being disliked something about hersel asked “If you could change anything about the way you look, what would it be?,” 32.3% ( n = 21) of girls noted that they would change something about their physical appearance (of those responders, 57.1% [ = 12] would change their hair, 30.8% [ n = 7] would n change their skin color, 15.4% w ould make their legs skinnier [ n = 2]), 22.4% [ n = 15] would alter their clothing or accessories, 14.9% [ n = 9] would change into a princess character, 3.0% [ n = 2] would look more like a female friend or family member, and n 1.5% [ n = 1] would change something non-appearance related). Approximately 27% ( = 17) of participants would not change anything about the way they look, were non- responsive, or responded by saying “I don’t know.” More than half of participants indicated that they worry about being fat sometimes n = 14) or almost always (33.8%, n = 22). Comparable endorsements were (21.5%, 2 (6) = 3.12, p = .793) and weight classification χ observed in all girls regardless of age ( 2 (6) = 8.34, p = .214). To further explore chil dren’s thoughts about fatness, χ category ( several participants were asked to express their thoughts about being fat, and responses ranged from “being fat is bad” to “my mommy thinks she’s fat.” Additional example responses included, “I don’t want to be fat b ecause I don’t like it,” “I want a baby in my tummy so it’s bigger...my mom just had a baby,” and “mom don’t want to be fat.” With regard to teasing, almost half of participants indicated that they ha ve been teased about ng perpetrators; being fat (48%; n = 32). The majority of girls did not identify teasi 22

34 n = 6), siblings (6%; n = 4), ly identified friends (9%; however, several girls spontaneous n = 4). and parents (6%; they could be a prince ss regardless of their The vast majority of girls believed that 2 2 p (3) = 2.40, weight ( = .494 ) and age ( χ χ (3) = 1.96, p = .580). The majority of girls indicated that something non-appearance rela ted (e.g., have a queen for a mom; 29.2%, n = 19) or their clothing or accessories (e.g., have a pretty dress or a crown; 38.5%, n = 25) would make them a princess. Approximately 8% ( n = 5) endorsed needing to change their hair or skin color to become a princess. Example responses included “my hair would have to grow long,” “I’d need yellow hair white,” and “I would ,” “I’d paint myself change from brown skin to white skin.” Overall, results were largely comparab le at posttest regardless of assigned condition, age, or weight category. At postte st, however, more girls (24.6%) indicated could change anything a bout their appearance. that they would look like a princess if they A larger percentage of girls were also nonresponsive, replied with “I don’t know,” or indicated that they would not change a nything (32.3%). Consequently, fewer girls reported that they would alter their physical appearance (23.1%), clothing or accessories (12.3%), or change to look more like a family member or friend (7.7%). Differences in frequency of concerns about we ight are described below. Effect of appearance-relate d media on play behavior A 2 x 4 univariate analysis of varian ce (ANOVA; condition x age) was conducted to determine if girls exposed to appearance -related children’s media would be more likely to engage in appearance-rela ted play activities than cont rol group particip ants. Although independent variable no a priori hypotheses were made about age, it was included as an 23

35 to explore any potential de velopmental differences. Results of the ANOVA suggested significant be that the manipulation failed to produce tween-group differences for F (1, 50) =.511 , p condition, F (3, 50) = .380, p = .768. The interaction = .478, or age, between condition and age also was non-significant, F (3, 50) = .350, p = .788. Means and standard deviations ar e presented in Table 3. Effect of appearance-related media on young girls’ body image Posttes t analysis. A 2 x 4 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA; condition x age) was conducted to assess any post -exposure body dissatisfaction differences between groups. Results of the MANOVA did not reveal a main effect of condition, F (2, p 44) =.762 , p = .473, or an interaction of condition and age, F (6, 88) =.738, = .620. Although results of the MANOVA did not indica (6, F te a significant main effect of age, 88) = 2.10 , p = .061, a trend toward significance was observed. Univariate analyses were trend (see Table 4). Overall, 3- year-olds were more likely to interpreted in light of this ent size compared to 4- and 5-years-olds. No select a larger figure for their perceived curr differences were observed between the othe r age groups. With regard to ideal size selection, 5-year-olds selected a significantly smaller figure compared to 3-year-olds. Ideal size selection did not vary between the other age groups . Body dissatisfaction (discrepancy between ideal and perceived cu t did not significantly rrent size) at posttes differ between the age groups. Means and standa rd deviations are presented in Table 5. Repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to further evaluate the effects of exposure to appearance-related media on young girls’ body image. Body image ratings at pretest and posttest ( n = 29) were examined as a function of lf of participants after a condition and age. Pretest data were obtained from the last ha 24

36 change in methodology described previously. With d size, results failed regard to perceive e (pretest vs. posttest) as a function of to reveal any significant main effects for tim F (1, 23) = 1.57, p condition, F (2, 23) = 1.45, p = .255, or an interaction of = .223, age, condition and age, F (2, 23) = 0.20, p = .824. Results of a repeated measures ANOVA examining the effect of exposure on ideal figure reveal any significant over time failed to main effects of condition, F (1, 23) = 2.46, p = .130, or age, F (2, 23) = 0.99, p = .387. Further, no interaction was revealed, F (2, 23) = 1.61, p = .622. was assessed using Body dissatisfaction (ideal rating minus pe rceived rating) also repeated measures ANOVA. Results failed to re veal any significant main effects of time (1, 23) = 0.36, p = .555, age, F (2, 23) = 1.97, p = .162, or an as a function of condition, F F (2, 23) = 0.35, p = .966. interaction of condition and age, Effects of maternal body image on girls’ play behavior and body image Maternal body image. The relationship between maternal and child pretest and posttest measures of body image were examined using multiple regression analyses. Results indicated that matern al reports of anxiety about weight- and nonweight-related features and importance placed on physical a ppearance failed to account for any variance in child body dissatisfaction, id eal body size, perceived body size, or frequency of weight concerns. Effects of appearance-related teasin g and praise on girls’ body image Stepwise multiple regression correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship between child body dissatisfaction and weight concerns and frequency of experience with familial (mother, father, sibl ing, grandparent) appearance-related teasing nal independent variable to also consider and praise. Condition was included as an additio 25

37 any effect of exposure to appearance-related media. Only sibling teasing, (1, 49) = 4.70, F = .035, was retained as a significant predictor of girls’ posttest frequency of weight p the variance. Results indicated that more concerns accounting for approximately 7% of ssociated with more frequent self-reported frequent appearance-related teasing was a weight concerns. Exploratory analyses Effect of appearance-related media on girls’ concerns about weight: Posttest analysis. A 2 x4 univariate ANOVA was conducted to assess any differences in the reported frequency of weight worries experien lts failed to reveal ced by participants. Resu main effects of condition, F (3, 44) = .66, p = .579, age, F (1, 44) = .12, p = .727, or an interaction of condition and age, F (3, 44) = .27, p = .846. About half of girls reported = 14) reported that they never worry about being fat (50.8%, n = 33), whereas 21.5% ( n that they worry sometimes and 13.8% ( = 9) reported worrying almost always. Several n girls were not responsive when queried at posttest (13.8%, n = 9). Effect of appearance-related media on girls’ concerns about weight: Repeated Repeated measures ANOVAs were c onducted to further evaluate the measures analysis. media on young girls’ weight concerns. Self- effects of exposure to appearance-related reported frequency of weight con n = 52) were examined as a cerns at pretest and posttest ( function of condition and age. Several partic ipants were not included in the current analysis because data were not obtained at the child refused to pretest and posttest (e.g., respond at pretest or posttest). Results failed to reveal any significant main effects for time (pretest vs. posttest) as a function of condition, (3, (1, 44) = 0.49, p = .825, age, F F = .232. 44) = 0.41, p = .746, or an interaction of condition and age, F (3, 44) = 1.49, p 26

38 However, a general effect of time (p F (1, 44) = 11.40, p = retest to posttest) was revealed, .002. This effect indicated that self-reported frequency of fat worry across all participants SD = 2.00, SD decreased significantly from pretest ( M = 1.52, M = = 0.89) to posttest ( 0.73). Media exposure posttest correlates. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to examine relationships between gi rls’ weekly television consumption (parent reported) and number of Disney DVDs owned sfaction and weight with their body dissati concerns. Overall, thinner perceived current sizes ( r = -.402, p = .017, n = 35) and less body dissatisfaction ( r = .344, p = .043, n = 35) were associated w ith the larger quantities of Disney DVDs. Results indicated that the total number of hours spent watching r television per week ( = 15) was positively related to the number of = .691, p = .004, n Disney DVDs they owned. The number of re ported hours girls spent watching television e, however. With regard to girls’ weight, was unrelated to any measure of child body imag with greater numbers of Disney DVDs ( r = -.350, lower BMI percentiles were associated = .042, n p to television viewing. = 34). BMI was unrelated Effect of appearance-related media on gi rls’ perceptions of princesses: Pretest princess identification. Pretest frequency analyses revealed that the majority of responding participants (43.1%; n = 28) identified the thinnest figure as the “real” child princess. A similar number of participan n = 16) ts chose the average size figure (24.6%; and heaviest figure (23.1%; n = 15), whereas 9.2% ( n = 6) refused to choose. A one-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of age, F (3, 54) = 2.80, p = .049. Follow-up LSD post-hoc analyses indicated that 3- and 4- year-olds chose significantly larger figures 6-year-olds. Five-year-olds did not vary for the “real” child princess compared to 27

39 significantly from the other age groups. Means ons are presented in and standard deviati were examined using a one-way ANOVA, Table 6. Reasons for figure identification F (3, 51) = 6.72, p = .001. Follow-up LSD post-hoc which revealed a main effect of age, re likely than younger children to provide analyses indicated that 6-year-olds were mo weight-related reasons for their selections. With regard to the identification of the “real” adult princess, pretest frequency analyses indicated that a comparable number of participants chose each figure (thinnest [32.3%, = 21]; average [30.8%, n = 20]; heaviest [29.2%; n = 19]). A one-way n ANOVA revealed a trend ( F (3, 55) = 2.12, p = .109) for a main effect of age, and LSD post-hoc analyses indicated that six-year-old girls tended to identify a thinner “real” adult princess than three-year old girls (see Table 6). A one-w ay ANOVA revealed that the (3, 51) = 7.25, reasons girls provided for their choi ce differed between the age groups, F p <.001. As with the child princes es revealed that 3-year- s responses, LSD post-hoc analys olds were least likely to pr ovide weight-related reasons for their selection, whereas 6- year-olds were most likely. Repeated measures analysis. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to ance-related media exposure on girls’ choice of “real” assess the effects of appear of the “real” child prin cess did not vary over princess. Results indicated that the selection = .752, age, F (1, 47) = .10, p F time as a function of condition, (3, 47) = 0.87, p = .465, or an interaction of condition and age, (3, 47) = 1.11, p = .356. With regard to F identification of the “real” adult princess, ra tings varied over time as a function of an interaction between condition and age, F (3, 46) = 4.71, p = .006 (see Figure 1; see Table rd deviations). 7 for means and standa 28

40 DISCUSSION Recent literature suggests animated children’s media c ontains a surprising number of appearance-related messages. As a result of such findings, the aim of the current study was to investigate what impact exposure to this type of media may have on very young girls’ body image. The current experimental st udy was the first to test the effects of exposure to appearance-related animated media (e.g., clips from Beauty and the Beast) with girls as young as 3-years-old. Results faile negative effects of d to reveal any direct appearance-related media exposure on very youn g girls’ body image. These results are in contrast to what was hypothesized; however, they are consistent with several cross- sectional studies that also have report ed that media exposure does not affect body dissatisfaction in girls younger than 6- years-old (e.g., Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2004, 2005). body dissatisfaction scores (discrepancy Body image was assessed in three ways: between ideal and perceived current size), behavioral observations, and interviews. xplored other correlates that might contribute to girls’ body Additionally, the study e dissatisfaction. Overall, results indicated that exposure to appearance- Body Dissatisfaction. related media did not affect participant body dissatisfaction ratings . Body dissatisfaction was assessed using actual pictures of particip ants’ faces, which were realistically attached to computer-generated figures. Figures were personalized in consideration of developmental concerns (e.g., children are e xpected to understand the figure outline acts as a representation of their own body) and ps ychometric limitations (i.e., not reliable for use with children younger than 8-years-old [see Gardner, 2001]) associated with generic rsonalization of the figures would increase figure rating scales. It was hoped that the pe 29

41 the girls’ immersion in the task and thei r identification with the figure. Although not be of clinical interest to no te that approximately a quarter statistically significant, it may (24.6%) of all participants and -olds desired a thinner ideal close to half (47.6%) of 3-year figure compared to their current perceived size. This trend may be of particular interest in light of the work by Davison and colleagues (2003) which suggests weight concerns at younger ages are predictive of disturbed eating behavior at older ages. However, despite the personalization of the di t body dissatisfaction results ssatisfaction measure, curren echo the null findings of many studies us ing generic figure rating scales with young participants (e.g., Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2004, 2005). Behavioral Observations. Although it was hypothesized that exposure to appearance-related media would result in more appearance-rel ated play activity, results ct, a wide range of failed to reveal any differences between the e xposure conditions. In fa play behaviors were observed within each group, with some children engaging tivities. Given the wide range nonappearance-related play ac exclusively in appearance- or of play behaviors observed from all childre n, the choices for play were unrelated to dia. It is possible that girl s chose play activities that exposure to appearance-related me and, thus, most comforta ble in the artificial were similar to those they normally engage in played with novel toys that they do not environment. Other participants may have regularly encounter in their home setting. Interview. In general, results suggested that girls’ were satisfied with their appearance and that the vast majority of pa rticipants believed th at they could be a princess. However, close to a third of girls at pretest and a quarte r of girls at posttest possible, change something about their physical appearance indicated that they would, if 30

42 (e.g., hair, skin color, or weight). Additionall rticipants at pretest y, close to half of pa s or almost all the time. Surprisingly, a reported worrying about their weight sometime concerns was observed in each condition and mean decrease in the frequency of weight age group. The reason for the decline in freque ncy of reported weight concern is unclear, but there are at least two possi bilities to consider. First, interview data obtained from young children has been cited as being unreliable (see Gardner, 2001). It is possible that the change observed was due to the unreliab le nature of child responses; however, if reliability was the only issue we would likel y have observed increases and decreases in the frequency of worries rather than a stable change across age groups within each condition. It is important to remember that although the control group was not exposed directly to appearance-related media, both gr oups spent time in a playroom that included many appearance-related toys (e.g., princess costumes, vanity set). Additionally, both sion about appearance via interview questions groups of girls were inundated with discus and the administration of more objective meas ures of body image and weight preference ely on princesses. Gilb ert (1998) reported – including two measures focused exclusiv n who had imitated their favorite star or observed increases in confidence in childre character. It is possible that engagement in appearance-relate d discussions, in part about princesses, and exposure to appearance-related toys actually enhanced girls’ confidence and subsequently reduced, at least temporarily, their weight concerns. Specifically, the stimuli to which children were exposed may have been potent enough to create a fairytale-like environment in which girls adopted the personas of princesses. The adoption of such personas then may have re sulted in their concerns about their actual appearance. 31

43 Girls’ perceptions of what a “real” princess looks like Perceptions of Princesses. conceptualize princesses as thin suggested that girls typically . However, 6-year-olds were most likely to choose the thinnest figures as the “real” princess. It is possible that 6-year- olds are able to more accurately choose the si ze illustrated most frequently in appearance- related animations (i.e., the th innest princess). This might be related to the fact that 6- year-olds likely have had more exposure to th is type of media. The age discrepancies, however, may reflect spurious findings seconda ry to uneven cell sizes and small samples, and therefore should be interpreted with caution. Parental Relationships. Examination of the effects of maternal body image on participant body dissatisfaction failed to re veal any significant effects. Additionally, In contrast, sibling teasing parental teasing was unrelated to girls’ ratings and reports. was associated with more frequent self -reported posttest weight concerns. This ar interest given that, on aver age, the frequency of weight association may be of particul participant groups. Having a criti cal sibling may be a risk concerns decreased across all ditional investigation. Some researchers have factor for weight concerns that warrants ad focused on parental appearance-related teasi ng and its association with more negative child body image (e.g., Phares et al., 2004); however, sibling influences have been studied less often with children. The curre nt finding suggests a need for more investigation about the rela tionship between sibling comm entary and young children’s body dissatisfaction and weight concerns. Television Viewing. The number of Disney DVDs owned was correlated with thinner current size selec tions and less body dissatisfaction, as measured by the contrast to what discrepancy between ideal and current size. Th is finding was, again, in 32

44 we anticipated based on the impact of media exposure on adolescent and adult body image (see Thompson et al., 1999). However, it is consistent with our finding that exposure to appearance-related stimuli (e.g., toys, princess pictures) was associated with weight concerns. Collectively, these findings a decrease in the reported frequency of indicate that media e xposure, specifically appearance-r elated media, for girls may be associated with fewer or less intense weight and shape concerns. This may be due in part to a developmental phenomenon associated wi th young children’s pote ntial inability to like an attractive person or ch aracter without engaging in some form of imitation or personal identification with that individual (e.g., if a child li kes Belle, she may pretend to een herself and Belle). The be Belle rather than engagi ng in a social comparison betw adoption of a persona may, at least tem porarily, protect the child’s body esteem. Interestingly, lower BMI was associated with greater numbers of Disney DVDs owned. Future research should seek to investig ate the relationship between young children’s Specifically, researchers should seek to appearance-related media consumption and BMI. determine if BMI varies by type of media consumed most frequently (e.g., video games, nonappearance-related media, appearance-related media) . Although the number of Disney DVDs was associated positively with weekly television viewing, the number of hours spent watching television per week was unr elated to all measur es of participant body image and BMI. The range of hours spen t watching television was comparable to other studies, so it is possible that this finding may be refl ective of insufficient power secondary to a low sample of participants who provided television viewing estimates. 33

45 Limitations and Future Directions Limitations of the current study should be considered when evaluating the results. First, the sample size was quite small, especi ally for 5- and 6-year-olds. Given that the current sample size did not meet criteria to ensure adequate power (Cohen, 1992), null findings may be a result of too few particip ants rather than a lack of between-group differences. Dittmar and colleagues (2006) re port a greater sample size in their work exploring the impact of exposure to Barbie images. Their methodology yielded significant results based upon parametric test s, but results were only significant for children older than 5.5-years-old. The current results are commensurate with all previous cross-sectional studies evaluating the effects of me dia exposure on young children. Therefore, it is plausible that results woul d be null even with a larger sample size. The relative brevity of exposure should be considered as another limitation of the ed to a total of 14 mi current study. The experimental group was expos nutes of clips that ranged from 1 to 3 minutes each. This exposur e may have been inadequate given that children are saturated with this type of medi a on a regular basis (the average child in the current study watched approximately 11 hour s of television per week and owned 22 Disney DVDs). Future studies may wish to e xplore in greater deta il children’s everyday exposure to appearance-related media rather than relying on longer periods of exposure given potential concerns rela ted to young children’s attenti on span. A third limitation of the current study is that all pa rticipants were exposed to a ppearance-related play stimuli, princess images, and appearance-related questio ns prior to exposure. As a result, it was not possible to isolate the effects of exposure to appearance-related media. In future control group exposure to appearance-related studies it will be important to avoid or limit 34

46 stimuli prior to posttest assessments. An assessment only, posttest design may be e the effects of media exposure. beneficial to help further isolat The demographic make-up of the current sa mple should be considered as a fourth limitation. Although the current sample was more ethnically and racially diverse than typically reported in other studies (e.g., Dittmar et al., [2006] and Dohnt & Tiggemann [2005] reported that more than 90% of thei r participants were Caucasian), the small sample size did not allow for examination of differences between the various groups. Future studies should attempt to recruit greater numbers of participants from varying ethnic/racial backgrounds to allow for analys es based upon this variable. It may be of particular interest given that the majority of animated princess characters are portrayed, almost exclusively, as Caucasian women. Additionally, the sample was composed primarily of participants with parents who were well-educated and whose socioeconomic status likely fell within the middle- to uppe r-class (e.g., university professors, lawyers, was approximately 36-years-old. Given that students, etc.). The mean age of mothers parents were, on average, highly educated, of at least middl e-class status, and in their mid-to late-30s, replication with a more heterogeneous sample would increase the generalizabiltiy of the current findings to a broader population. This is especially iterature that suggests body dissatisfaction may vary by important in light of l socioeconomic status (e.g., Gardner, Friedman, & Jackson, 1999; Wang, Nuala, & Kenardy, 2005). Additionally, it is possible that parent-child interactions regarding physical appearance are affected by fact ors such as socioeconomic status. Finally, the current measure of body dissa tisfaction has not been standardized determine test-retest with a large, heterogeneous sample. Future studies should seek to 35

47 rticular, researchers should seek larger reliability with younger and older children. In pa samples of children to determine if th e personalization of the body dissatisfaction assessment instrument yields adequate reli ability estimates with young children unlike more generic figure rating scales. Conclusions Collectively, results of this study and other children’s m edi a studies suggest strongly that developmental considerati ons must be made when defining and investigating body image in children. Based upon extant literature, subtle shifts in cognition may occur around what appears to be the critical age of six-years-old. These changes might contribute to a movement from identification with favorite media figures to an inappropriate comparison with th em. This was the first study to explore experimentally the relationship between media exposure and body dissatisfaction in preschool-age children. Despite indicates children’s media objective evidence that contains many appearance-related messages that may affect body dissatisfaction, young children may not be affected or may actually experience some benefits, at least in the short-term, such as decreases in reported weight worries. This may be because, at younger ages, children frequently engage in pret end play (thus, adopting the role of the character) and may not be capable of maki ng subtle social comparisons. However, as children become older and more cognitively sa vvy, they engage less in pretend play and as a result may stop identifying themselves as the characters they idolize. At this time, they likely begin to recognize the differen ces between themselves and their favorite characters – including appearance-related diffe rences – just as they do with their peers. However, to date, it is unknown if early exposure to the thin ideal has any effect on future 36

48 body image concerns or satisfaction. Longitudi nal data are needed to determine the long- term effects of early exposure to media that illustrates the thin id eal and conveys beauty messages and ideals that are often associat ed with body dissatisfaction and disturbed eating behavior in much older populations. 37

49 APPENDIX A.1: FIGURES AND TABLES 38

50 Control Group 2.6 2.4 2.2 Age 3.0 2.0 (n = 7) 1.8 4.0 (n = 8) 1.6 5.0 1.4 (n = 7) 1.2 6.0 1.0 (n = 4) Estimated Marginal Means 1 2 Time Experimental Group 2.4 2.2 Age 2.0 3.0 1.8 (n =11) 4.0 1.6 (n = 10) 1.4 5.0 (n = 3) 1.2 6.0 1.0 (n = 4) Est i mat ed Mar gi nal Means 1 2 Time incess as a function of condition and age. Figure 1. Mean ratings of identified adult pr 39

51 Table 1. Age distribution within each condition. 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 5-year-olds 6-year-olds 10 Control (n = 32) 10 8 4 Experimental (n = 11 10 4 5 30) 40

52 Table 2. Participant demographic information. Control Experimental Significance Test p Value Age ( n = 61) 4.19 (1.05) .734 4.10 (1.09) (59) = .341 t BMI Percentile = 49) n 57.96 (34.43) Rank ( 61.52 (36.33) t (47) = -.352 .726 2 .255 (4) = 5.33 = 59) χ Ethnicity ( n Total TV . a (n = 28) 9.44 (6.18) t (26) = 1.19 time/week 246 13.50 (11.73) Disney DVDs owned ( n 21.10 (19.05) = 38) t (36) = .294 23.03 (21.38) .770 a = total time in hours per week. Note. 41

53 Table 3. Percentage of Time Spent Engaged in Appearance-Related Play. Age Condition 4-years 3-years Combined 5-years 6-years 45.20 (27.78) 47.28 (36.38) 54.56 (40.63) 39.58 (48.77) 47.57 (35.31) Control Experimental 36.00 (35.56) 40.59 (34.41) 33.93 (31.39) 53.77 (39.14) 33.13 (35.25) 42

54 Table 4. Univariate ANOVAs: Effects of Age on Body Image. F df p Perceived Current Size 2.79 3, 45 .051 Ideal Size 6.26 3, 45 .062 Age Body Image a 2.84 3, 45 Dissatisfaction .317 a = ideal rating – perceived current size rating Note. 43

55 = 53) n 4.14 (0.69) 4.29 (0.49) 3.94 (1.47) 5.11 (2.05)* 3.72 (1.49)* 2.89 (1.67)* 4.47 (1.95)* 3.67 (1.00)* Total ( b = 28) n 3.79 (1.77) 4.29 (1.65) 4.91 (2.05) 4.33 (1.15) 4.10 (1.29) 4.67 (0.58) 3.70 (1.25) 2.25 (1.50) 3.91 (2.21) 3.75 (0.96) Condition Experimental ( a = 25) n 5.38 (2.00) 4.20 (1.41) 4.28 (1.72) 4.00 (0.00) 3.75 (1.75) 4.00 (0.00) 3.75 (1.83) 3.40 (0.55) 5.25 (1.28) 3.60 (1.14) 44 Control ( Age 6-years-old 4-years-old 3-years-old 5-years-old 6-years-old 5-years-old 4-years-old 3-years-old Measure Ideal Size Current Size Table 5. Participant Body Image Ratings: Posttest Means and Standard Deviations.

56 n 0.22 (1.17) -0.63 (1.98) -0.14 (0.38) -0.78 (1.56) = 3-year-olds ( b -1.0 (1.95) 0.40 (1.51) -0.50 (1.77) -1.50 (1.91) -0.33 (0.58) Condition 5), 6-year-olds (n = 4), = ideal rating-perceived rating c Control Experimental Total = 3), 0.00 (0.53) 0.00 (0.00) -0.08 (1.22) -0.13 (2.03) -0.20 (1.10) 45 n = 8), 5-year-olds (n = n = 4), 6-year-olds ( n Age = 8), 4-year-olds ( n 5-years-old 5-years-old 4-years-old 3-years-old = 10), 5-year-olds ( c n = 3-year-olds ( a < .05. p Measure * = = 11), 4-year-olds ( Note. Body dissatisfaction

57 Table 6. Means and Standard Deviations of Princess Choices at Pretest and Posttest. 6-year-olds 3-year-olds 5-year-olds Princess Choice 4-year-olds Child a n = 55) 2.05 (0.85) 1.84 (0.90) 1.56 (0.73) 1.13 (0.35)* Pretest ( Posttest ( n = 60) 1.33 (0.50) 2.10 (0.72) 1.63 (0.68) 1.83 (0.83) Adult n = 56) Pretest ( 2.21 (0.78) 1.89 (0.81) 2.00 (0.94) 1.38 (0.52) Posttest ( n = 57) 1.33 (0.50) 2.26 (0.73) 1.67 (0.84) 1.55 (0.69) Note. * = p < .05. a = 6-years-old chose a significantly thinner fi gure compared to 3- and 4-year-olds 46

58 ions of Adult Princess Choices. Table 7. Means and Standard Deviat Participants Pretest Posttest n = 26) Control ( 3-year-olds ( n = 7) 2.43 (0.79) 2.14 (0.69) 4-year-olds ( n = 8) 1.88 (0.83) 2.13 (0.83) 5-year-olds ( n = 7) 2.14 (0.90) 1.29 (0.49) 6-year-olds ( n = 4) 1.25 (0.50) 1.25 (0.50) 1.77 (0.76) 2.00 (0.85) Experimental ( n = 28) n 3-year-olds ( 2.27 (0.79) = 11) 2.00 (0.77) 4-year-olds ( n = 10) 2.00 (0.82) 1.30 (0.67) 5-year-olds ( n = 3) 1.67 (1.15) 2.00 (1.00) 6-year-olds ( n = 4) 1.50 (0.58) 1.25 (0.50) 1.89 (0.79) 1.75 (0.84) 47

59 APPENDIX A: RECRUITMENT FLYER 48

60 If your daughter is between the ages of and , she is invited to participate in a research study being conducted at examining media effects on children. Your child will watch clips from children’s movies, play, and be asked questions about physical appearance. You will be asked to complete a qu estionnaire packet and a brief interview while she participates. You will be eligible to schedule a brief assessment of your daughter’s general intellectual strengths and weaknesses a feedback session as compensation for participation in the study! n more or to set up an Please contact us to lear appointment: or [email protected] All information obtained, including identities, will remain completely confidential. This study has been appr oved by UCF’s Institutional Review Board and will be conducted by Sharon Ha yes, a Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student, under the supervision of Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn, an Associate Professor of Psychology. 49

61 APPENDIX B: HUMAN PARTICIPANT INFORMED CONSENT FORMS 50

62 be in a research study of popular animated children’s media You and your child are invited to and body image. This study is being conducted by Sharon Hayes and Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn at the University of Central Florida. We ask that you read this document and ask any questions you may have before agreeing to be in the study. The topics of this survey may be considered sensitive and you will be asked to provide personal information. The purpose of this study is to gain a clearer understanding of the beliefs and experiences of parents and children in areas su ch as physical appearance and body image. Any information that you provide will be held in strict confidence to the extent allowable by law, and utilized only for the purpose of this study. Y ou will only place your name on the consent form and not on any of the surveys. Your informatio n will be assigned a code number and will be ill not be connected to the information you provide. stored separate from this form. Your name w Only people directly involved in the st udy will have access to this information. If you agree to participate in this study, we will ask you to complete a few questionnaires for a total of about 15 minutes and a brief intervie w lasting no longer than 45 minutes. You do not have to reply to any question you do not wish to answer. As compensation for your participation we are offering you the opportunity to schedule a brief assessment of your child’s general intellectual strengths and weaknesses. This a ssessment will not measure your child’s global or overall IQ but it will provide you with information about verb al and nonverbal strengths and weaknesses as determined by a comparison to th e average scores obtained by children the same age. Please indicate your inte rest in scheduling an assessmen t and feedback session for your daughter. 51

63 nd you may discontinue participation at any time Your participation is strictly voluntary, a without penalty. The only foreseeable risk in volved in this study is the low likelihood of psychological discomfort from disclosing personal information. You have the opportunity to ask, tions you may have about this re search at any point during the and to have answered, any ques (407) 823-3872 or study. If you have such questions, you may call Sharon Hayes at , or Stacey Tantleff Dunn, Ph.D., at (407) 823–3578 or [email protected] [email protected] . If you want to talk to someone other than the research ers, you may contact Dr. Bob Dipboye, Psychology Depart ment Chair at (407) 823-2216. This research study has been reviewed and approved by the UCF Institutional Review Board. Questions or concerns regarding research partic ipants’ rights may be dir ected to the UCF IRB, 12201 Research Parkway, Suite 501, Orlando, FL Office of Research & Commercialization, 32826-3246. The telephone number is 407-823-2091. If you believe you have been injured you may file a claim wi th UCF Environmental during participation in this research project, Insurance Office, P.O. B ox 163500, Orlando, FL 32816-3500 (407) Health & Safety, Risk and Florida is an agency of the St ate of Florida for purposes of 823-6300. The University of Central sovereign immunity and the university's and the st ate's liability for personal injury or property damage is extremely limited under Florida law. Accordingly, the university's and the state's ability to compensate you for any personal injury or property damage suffered during this research project is very limited. I have read the information provided on the previous page. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I voluntaril y agree to participate in this study. I after it is signed. understand that I will receive a copy of this consent form 52

64 Date Printed Name Date Signature Signature of the Investigator COMPENSATION INFORMATION I am interested in scheduling a brief assessme nt of my daughter’s general intellectual strengths and weaknesses. I understand this assessment will not measu re my child’s global or overall IQ but it will provide me with information about her verbal and nonverbal ermined by a comparison to the average scores obtained by strengths and weaknesses as det children the same age. I understand that I will be offered the opportunity to schedule an w the results at the conclusion of my assessment and a feedback session to revie participation today. Date Printed Name Signature Date Signature of the Investigator 53

65 ssment of my daughter’s general intellectual I am NOT interested in scheduling a brief asse strengths and weaknesses at this time. I understand that I retain my right to receive this compensation at a later time and may sche dule by calling Sharon Hayes at (407) 823-3872. I understand that I will be offered the opportunity to schedule an assessment and a feedback session to review the results at th e conclusion of my pa rticipation today. Date Printed Name Date Signature Signature of the Investigator 54

66 Human Participants Parental Informed Consent Form You and your child are invited to be in a re search study of popular animated children’s media and body image. This study is bein g conducted by Sharon Hayes and Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn at the University of Central Florida. We ask that you read this document and ask any questions you may have before agreeing to be in the study. If you choose to participate, please know that you may withdr aw your consent for participation at any time without penalty. Dear Parent/Guardian: I am a graduate student at the University of Central Florida under the supervision of Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn conducting research on children and body image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of popular ch body image and play behavior. The ildren’s media on children’s results of the study may help researchers, parent s, and teachers better und erstand the relationship between exposure to appearance-related medi a and the way children feel about their own appearance. These results may not directly help your child today, but may prove to be beneficial in the future. Your child will be asked questions about their favorite animated television shows and characters. They will have a digital photograph taken of th eir face in order to personalize a computer- animated child figure that will help them to id entify how they think they look and what they photograph will be deleted imme would like to look like. This diately after your child has completed this part of the study. If for a your child’s photograph ny reason you do not want taken, he or she may still participate in the st udy. Please indicate your pref erence at the end of this form. ren will either watch clips fr om popular animated films and Half of the participating child arance-related messages such as Cinderella, while the other television shows containing appe children watch clips from popular animated films and television shows cont aining no or minimal appearance-related messages such as Lilo and Stitc h. Your child will be es corted to a playroom and allowed to play with various toys, dres s-up clothes, coloring books, etc. She will be accompanied by an undergraduate “playmate” that will supervise and play with your child. Children will then be asked seve ral questions about how they f eel about their appearance, but they will not have to respond to any question they do not wish to answer. A research assistant will be present with your child at all times. The total amount of time to complete the study will be approximately 1 hour. With your permission, your child will be videot aped during his or her time spent in the for observational purposes. At playroom. The video will be acces sible only to the research team 55

67 the end of the study, the tape wi written permission (see next ll be erased unless you provide consent form) to allow the researcher to retain the tape for future research and/or educational purposes. Although the children will be asked their names, their iden tity will be ke pt confidential to the extent provided by law. We will replace th eir names with code numbers. Results will only be reported in the form of group data. All publis hed information will not contain any identifying information or individual results. to withdraw consent for your ch ild's participation at any time You and your child have the right without consequence. There are no known immediate be nefits to the particip ants. Effects of such brief exposure to appearance-related media are e xpected to have subtle short-term effects. However, in the event that a child becomes upset by any part of th e study, his or her participation immediately will be discontinued without penalty. In the unlikely event that a child is upset by the exercise or exhibits cha researchers will take care to nges that require counseling, the immediately calm the child. If th e child appears to need follow-up counseling due to his or her iate referrals. The refe rral list will include the participation, the researchers will make appropr UCF Community Counseling Clinic (CCC) whic h provides free services to the community. Parents of children who are unable to complete the study still will be offered the incentive promised. As compensation for your particip ation we are offering you the opportunity to schedule a brief assessment of your child’s general intellectual strengths and weaknesses. This assessment will not measure your child’s global or overall IQ but it will provide you with information about verbal and nonverbal stre ngths and weaknesses as determined by a comparison to the average scores obtained by children the same age. This assessment will be conducted by a graduate student in the clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Central Florida. This student will work under the supervision of a st ate licensed clinical psychologist. Group results of this study are anti cipated to be available in December of 2006 d to have answered, any questions you may upon request. You have the opportunity to ask, an 56

68 ny point during the study. If you ha ve such questions, you may call have about this research at a Sharon Hayes at (407) 823-3872 or Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn at (407) 823-3578. This research study has been reviewed and approved by the UCF Institutional Review Board. Questions or concerns regarding research partic ipants’ rights may be dir ected to the UCF IRB, Office of Research & Commercialization, 12201 Research Parkway, Suite 501, Orlando, FL 32826-3246. The telephone number is 407-823-2091. If you believe you have been injured during participation in this research project, you may file a claim wi th UCF Environmental Health & Safety, Risk and Insurance Office, P.O. B ox 163500, Orlando, FL 32816-3500 (407) ate of Florida for purposes of 823-6300. The University of Central Florida is an agency of the St sovereign immunity and the university's and the st ate's liability for personal injury or property Accordingly, the university's and the state's damage is extremely limited under Florida law. ability to compensate you for any personal injury or property damage suffered during this research project is very limited. Sincerely, Sharon Hayes Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student I have read the procedure described above. ____________My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I voluntarily agree to participate in this study. I understand that I will receive a copy of this consent form after it is signed. 57

69 , to I voluntarily give my consent for my child, participate in the current study. / Parent/Guardian Date I voluntarily give my consent for a photogra ph of my child’s face to be taken for the purposes of this study. I understand that this photograph will only be of my child’s face and will be immediatel y deleted upon completion of the study. / Parent/Guardian Date I do NOT give my consent for a photograph of my child’s face to be taken for the purposes of this study. / Parent/Guardian Date I would like to receive a copy of the procedure description. ure description. I would not like to receive a c opy of the proced / nd 2 Parent/Guardian Date nd (or Witness if no 2 Parent/Guardian) 58

70 Consent Form to Maintain Videotapes Human Participants Parental Informed You and your child are invited to be in a re search study of popular animated children’s media and body image. This study is bein g conducted by Sharon Hayes and Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn at the University of Central Florida. We ask that you read this document and ask any questions you may have before agreeing to be in the study. With your permission, your child will be videotap ed during her time spent in the playroom as described in the previous consent form. The video will be accessible only to the research team for observational purposes. At the end of the study, the tape will be er ased unless you provide written permission to allow the researcher to retain the tape for future research and/or ked their names, their identity will be kept educational purposes. Although the children will be as confidential to the exte nt provided by law. This form a llows you to provide your consent to allow the researcher to maintain a copy of your ch ild’s videotaped particip ation. This tape would for future research and educational purpos es. Examples of future use include but are be used only not limited to follow-up studies and educational a nd research conferences such as the American Psychological Association’s annual m that your child’s face may be eeting. It is important to note visible on this tape. It is possi een by other professionals if the ble that your child’s face may be s tape is shown at a research conference. Only the primary researchers, Sharon Hayes and Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn, will have access to and your permission to use the videotape of your child’s participation. consent for the maintenance of your child’s You and your child have the right to withdraw time. Consent to allow maintenance of your child’s videotaped videotaped participation at any participation is not required. You will receive the compensation fo r your child’s participation as described in the previous consent forms regardle ss of consent to allow the maintenance of your child’s videotaped participati on. You have the opportunity to ask, and to have answered, any questions you may have about this research at any point during the study. If you have such questions, you may call Sharon Hayes at (407) 823-3872 or Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn at (407) 823-3578. This research study has been reviewed and approved by the UCF Institutional Review Board. Questions or concerns regarding research partic ipants’ rights may be dir ected to the UCF IRB, Office of Research & Commercialization, 12201 Research Parkway, Suite 501, Orlando, FL If you believe you have been injured 32826-3246. The telephone number is 407-823-2091. 59

71 during participation in this research project, you may file a claim wi th UCF Environmental Health & Safety, Risk and Insurance Office, P.O. B ox 163500, Orlando, FL 32816-3500 (407) 823-6300. The University of Central ate of Florida for purposes of Florida is an agency of the St sovereign immunity and the university's and the st ate's liability for personal injury or property damage is extremely limited under Florida law. Accordingly, the university's and the state's ability to compensate you for any personal injury or property damage suffered during this research project is very limited. 60

72 I have read the information provided above. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I voluntarily agree to par I understand that I will ticipate in this study. receive a copy of this consent form after it is signed. Hayes and Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn to I voluntarily give my consent for Sharon maintain a copy of my child’s, , videotaped pa rticipation and understand that this videotape will only be used for future res earch and educational purposes. / Parent/Guardian Date / nd Parent/Guardian Date 2 nd Parent/Guardian) (or Witness if no 2 I do NOT give my consent for Sharon Hayes and Dr. Stacey Tantleff Dunn to maintain a copy of my child’s, , videotaped pa rticipation. / Parent/Guardian Date / nd 2 Parent/Guardian Date nd Parent/Guardian) (or Witness if no 2 61

73 APPENDIX C: STIMULI 62

74 Control Media Experimental Media Care Bears Aladdin Clifford Anastasia Dora the Explorer Barbie and the Nutcracker Dragon Tales Barbie and the Princess and the Pauper Beauty and the Beast Lilo and Stitch Monsters, Inc. Cinderella The Rescuers Hercules Little Mermaid Peter Pan Sleeping Beauty 63

75 APPENDIX D: BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION FORM 64

76 Place a mark in the box each time you witness the following behavior: The child... : __________________________________ Brief description of child’s appearance Looked in the mirror without costume ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments: (Mark a box every 15 seconds) ___________________________________________________________________ Looked in the mirror while dressed in costume ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Co mments: (mark a box every 15 seconds) Costume 1: ________________________, ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Costume 2: ________________________, ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Costume 3: ________________________, ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Costume 4: ________________________, Costume 5: ________________________, ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Engaged playmate in activity. (Mark activity and time) □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ :___________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Activity Activity ___________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Vanity Station: _____________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Doll House: ________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Dress-Up: _________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Comments _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 65

77 (Mark activity and time) □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Played alone. □ □ □ □ :___________________________ Activity ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Activity ___________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Vanity Station: _____________________ ___:___ - ___:___, Doll House: ________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Dress-Up: _________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Comments ______________________________________________________________________ Put on costume/Changed their costume □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Costume 1: _________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Costume 2: _________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Costume 3: _________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Costume 4: _________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Costume 5: _________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Comments:____________________________________________________________ Acted out a part of a clip in the video : (Note if Dramatically or With toys) □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Acting activity ___:___ - ___:___, Drama □ W/toys □ 1: _______________________ ___:___ - ___:___, □ W/toys □ Acting activity 2: _______________________ Drama Comments (mark every 15 seconds) ______________________________________________________________________ Acted like a specific character from one of the clips □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ ho 1: ______________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ W Who 2: ______________________________ ___:___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___ Comments: 66

78 ______________________________________________________________________ Made a positive AR comment about a character in the video □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comment & Context 1: ___________________________________________________ Comment & Context 2: ___________________________________________________ Comments: (check box each time they do it) ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Made a positive AR comment about herself □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments:____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ □ Made a positive AR comment to playmate □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments:____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Made a negative AR comment about a character in the video □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments:____________________________________________________________ Made a negative comment about herself □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments:____________________________________________________________ 67

79 Made a negative comment to playmate □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments:____________________________________________________________ Teased playmate about appearance □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments:____________________________________________________________ □ Cried □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ ___: ___ - ___:___, ___:___ - ___:___, Comments:____________________________________________________________ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Laughed □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments:____________________________________________________________ Was aggressive □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments: ______________________________________________________________________ Additional Co mments: ____________________________________________________ 68

80 APPENDIX E: CHILD INTERVIEW 69

81 Look in the mirror for me. Tell me who woul d you WANT to look like the most if you 1a. could look like anyone ______________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Mom Sister Character Famous Person Other relative_____________________ 1b. Tell me what they look like. __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2a . Look in the mirror a nd tell me who do you THIN K you look like the most __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Mom Sister Character Famous Person Other relative________________________ what makes you look like them . Look in the mirror and Tell me 2b ______________________________ ________________________________________ Looking in the mirror, do you LI KE the way that you look? YES NO 3a. Depend on response ask positive or negative question first 3b. Tell me what you LIKE about the way that you look __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Eyes Hair Height/Size Clothing Shoes 70

82 6 7 Other ________________________ Other appearance___________________ 3c. Tell me what you DON’T like about the way you look. __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Hair Height/Size Clothing Shoes Eyes 6 7 Other appearance___________________ Other_________________________ I am going to ask you some questions using these 3 bars, I want you to POINT to the bar when you answer 4a. Point to how much you WORRY about being fat 1 2 3 Almost Sometimes Almost Never Always 4b. Do you ever get TEASED ( Made fun of ) about being fat 1 2 3 Almost Sometimes Almost Never Always 71

83 4c. ( ) Tell me who teases you ___________________________________________ If so 2 1 4 5 6 3 Mother Father Brother Sister Frie nd Other _______________ 4d. Tell me what ______________ says when they tease you _____________________ ________________________________________________________________________ I am going to ask you some questions using these 3 bars, I want you to POINT to the bar when you answer 5a . Point to how much you WORRY about being skinny 1 2 3 Almost Sometimes Almost Always Never (Made fun of) about being skinny Point to how much you get TEASED 5b. 1 2 3 Almost Sometimes Almost Never Always 5c. (if yes) Tell me who teases you___________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 nd Other ____________ Mother Father Brother Sister Frie 72

84 I am going to ask you some questions using these 3 bars, I want you to POINT to the bar when you answer 6a. Point to how much you get TEASED (Made fun of) about anything else 1 2 3 Almost Sometimes Almost Never Always tell me who teases you___________________________________________ 6b. (if yes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mother Father Brother Sister Frie nd Other ____________ 6c. Tell me what they tease you about/what they say _______________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 73

85 Looking in the mirror, tell me what you wo 7a. uld change if you could change anything about the way you look _________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hair Height/Size Clothing Shoes Eyes Look like someone else 7 8 9 Look like a character Look lik Other appearance_______________ e a princess 7b. Weight related response Tell me what would you have to do to change that ________________________________________________________________________ 8a. Tell me if you could be a princess YES NO 8b . Looking in the mirror, tell me what would make you a princess __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Crown Clothing High Heels Makeup Nail polish Ha ir color Height/Size 8 9 10 Other _______________ Being a characte r Other appearance______________ 8c. Tell me what you would have to change about the way you look to be a princess (provide details as well) 74

86 __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Crown Clothing High Heels Makeup Nail polish Hair color Height/Size 8 9 10 r Other appearance______________ Other _______________ Being a characte Princess Questions These girls are all your age. : Playmate 1. Point to the one you would like to play with the MOST. 1 2 3 Thin Average Large Include detail too) 2. Tell me what makes her the one you want to play with. ( __________________________________________________________________ 4 1 2 3 Clothing Other appe arance Other__________________ Weight Point to the one you would NOT LIKE to play with. 3. 1 2 3 Thin Average Large 4. Tell me what makes her the one you do not want to play with. ( Include detail too) __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 Weight Clothing Other a ppearance Other__________________ 75

87 Child Princess: These girls are all your age, but only ONE is REAL a princess. is the REAL princess 5. Point to the one you think 1 2 3 Average Large Thin 6. Tell me what makes her the real princess. ( Include detail too) __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 Weight Other a ppearance Other__________________ Clothing Adult Princess: These women are all the same age, but only ONE is a REAL princess. Point to the one you th 7. ink is the princess 1 2 3 Thin Average Large 8. Tell me what makes her the real princess. ( Include detail too) __________________________________________________________________ 4 1 2 3 Weight Clothing Other a ppearance Other__________________ 76

88 APPENDIX F: DEMOGRAPHIC FORM 77

89 yourself and your child. All information will Please provide the following information about remain confidential and anonymous. 1. Your sex M F 2. Other parent or guardian’s sex M F 3. Your Age ______ 4. Other parent or guardian’s age _____ 5. Mother’s Race (Please circle) Af rican American Asian Caucas ian Hispanic Biracial Other 6. Father’s Race (Please circle) African American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Biracial Other 7. Child’s Age _____ 8. Child’s Race: African American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Biracial Other 9. Child’s Year in Preschool (Please circle) 1 2 3 4 10. kindergarten 1 2 Child’s Year in school (Please circle) Do you own a television? 11. No Yes 12. Do you subscribe to cable television? Yes No 13. Approximately how many hours per day during the week does your child watch television? 0 1-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 25-30 30+ does your child watch 14. Approximately how many hours per day during the weekend television? 0 1-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 25-30 30+ 15. Are there certain programs on television that you do NOT allow your child to view? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 78

90 16. What are your child’s favorite animated te levision shows? (Listing multiple shows is okay) ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 17. What are your child’s favorite animated movies? (Listing multiple movies is okay) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 18. Who are your child’s favorite animated charact ers? (Listing multiple characters is okay) ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 19. Does your child ever act like or pretend to be one of her favorite characters? Yes No If so, who? _______________________________________________ 20. How often does your child engage in this type of pretend play? Less than once per week Everyday 1 x week 2-4 x week 5-6 x week How often do you watch animated televisi on shows or movies with your child? 21. Always Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never 22. How many times has your child visited one of the Walt Disney theme parks? 0 1-3 4-6 7-10 11 or more 23. Does your child play video games or onlin e learning games that contain animated characters? No Yes Which ones? __________________________________ 79

91 APPENDIX G: WYBI 80

92 Fill in, circle, or check the appropriate response(s). 1. My child is ____ft. ____in. tall. 2. My child weighs ____lbs. 3. During the past year, your child’s health has been: Excellent Poor 1 2 3 4 5 4. Compared to other children the sa me age, do you think your child is Much more Much less physically attractive physically attractive 1 2 3 4 5 5. How important is it to you that your child is physically attractive? Extremely important Not at all important 1 2 3 4 5 6. In your opinion is your child Definitely Just Much too overweight right skinny 1 2 3 4 5 7. Is your child handicapped? No Yes (describe) ______________________________________ 81

93 8. Is your child physically disfigured? No Yes (describe) ______________________________________ 9. Which statement best describes your child’s diet during the past 6 months? ____ My child’s diet is essent ially healthy and nutritious. ____ My child’s diet is a mix of healthy and unhealthy foods. ____ My child’s diet consists largely of high fat, high-sugar, and junk foods. 10. Are you basically satisfied with your child’s diet? ____ Yes ____ Yes, but I have to nag my child to eat properly. ____No, but my child’s eating habi ts are difficult to control. 11. Thinking of the past 6 mont hs, do you believe your child eats: Too much Too little 1 2 3 4 5 12. Thinking of the past 6 months, how often did your child exercise for at least 20 minutes at a time? ____ Not at all ____ 3 times a week ____ Less than once a week ____ 4 or 5 times a week ____ Once or twice a week ____ 6 or more times a week 82

94 13. What athletic activit ipate in regularly? ies does your child partic __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 14. Do you think your child exercises Much too Much too much little 1 2 3 4 5 15. Have you ever tried to he lp your child lose weight? No Yes (How?) _____________________________________________ 16. Have you ever tried to he lp your child gain weight? No Yes (How?) _____________________________________________ 17. Have you ever tried to help your ch ild change his or her appearance? No Yes (How?) _____________________________________________ 18. How often do you or other family members bout his or her praise your child a appearance? Does not Never Frequently apply Myself 0 1 2 3 4 5 My spouse 0 1 2 3 4 5 Child’s siblings 0 1 2 3 4 5 Child’s grandparents 0 1 2 3 4 5 83

95 ize your child about his or her appearance? 19. How often do you or others tease or critic Does not Never Frequently apply Myself 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 My spouse Child’s siblings 0 1 2 3 4 5 Child’s grandparents 0 1 2 3 4 5 20. How do you typically feel when your child is subj ected to this kind of criticism about others? (check all that apply.) his/her appearance from ____ Annoyed at the person for being rude ____ Annoyed at my child ____ Sorry for my child ____ Sorry for myself ____ Embarrassed ____ Nothing, don’t care 21. If your child is criticized about his or her appearance, what do you typically do? (check all that apply.) ____ Don’ do anything ____ Put child on diet ____ Encourage child to exercise/firm up ____ Encourage child to take greater care of appearance ____ Comfort and reassure child 84

96 ____ Express anger at person who made comment ____ Tell the person he/she is wrong 22. Have other people ever pressure d you about your child’s appearance? No Yes (explain) _____________________________________________ 23. In the past year, how often has your ch ild expressed concern that he or she Never Frequently 1 2 3 4 5 Is too fat Is too thin 1 2 3 4 5 Is unattractive 1 2 3 4 5 Is unathletic/ uncoordinated 1 2 3 4 5 Doesn’t have nice 1 2 3 4 5 enough clothes 85

97 APPENDIX H: ASI 86

98 ems using the 1 to 5 scale below. Indicate your beliefs about these it 1 = Strongly 2 = Mostly 3 = Neither 4 = Mostly 5 = Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree 1. What I look like is an im portant part of who I am. 1 2 3 4 5 2. What’s wrong with my appearance is one of the first 1 2 3 4 5 things that people wi ll notice about me. 3. One’s outward physical appearance is a sign of the 1 2 3 4 5 character of the inner person If I could look just as I wish, my life would be much 4. 1 2 3 4 5 happier. 5. If people know how I really look, they would like me 1 2 3 4 5 less. By controlling my appearance, I can control many of the 6. 1 2 3 4 5 social and emotional events in my life. 7. My appearance is responsible for much of what has 1 2 3 4 5 happened to me in my life. 8. I should do whatever I can to always look my best. 1 2 3 4 5 87

99 Aging will make me less attractive. 9. 1 2 3 4 5 10. For women: To be feminine, a woman must be as pretty as 1 2 3 4 5 possible. For men: To be masculine, a man must be as handsome as possible. The media’s messages in our society make it impossible 11. 1 2 3 4 5 for me to be satisfied with my appearance. 12. The only way I could ever like my looks would be to 1 2 3 4 5 change what I look like. 13. Attractive people have it all. 1 2 3 4 5 14. Homely people have a hard time finding happiness. 1 2 3 4 5 88

100 APPENDIX I: PASTAS 89

101 describe how often IN GENERAL (that is, usually), The statements listed below are to be used to you feel anxious, tense, or nervous about your bo dy or specific parts of your body. Please read each statement and CIRCLE the number that best indicates the extent to which each statement holds true IN GENERAL. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. 0 = NEVER 1 = RARELY 2 = SOMETIMES 3 = OFTEN 4 = ALMOST ALWAYS IN GENERAL, I feel anxious, tens e, concerned, or nervous about: Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always 1. the extent to which I look overweight. 0 1 2 3 4 2. my thighs. 0 1 2 3 4 3. my buttocks. 0 1 2 3 4 4. my hips. 0 1 2 3 4 5. my stomach (abdomen). 0 1 2 3 4 6. my legs. 0 1 2 3 4 7. my waist. 0 1 2 3 4 8. my muscle tone. 0 1 2 3 4 9. my ears. 0 1 2 3 4 10. my lips. 0 1 2 3 4 11. my wrists. 0 1 2 3 4 90

102 12. my hands. 0 1 2 3 4 13. my forehead. 0 1 2 3 4 14. my neck. 0 1 2 3 4 15. my chin. 0 1 2 3 4 16. my feet. 0 1 2 3 4 91

103 APPENDIX J: DEBRIEFING FORM 92

104 Effects of Popular Children’s Media on Preschoolers’ Body Image Research conducted by Sharon Hayes, B.S. and Stacey Tantleff Dunn, Ph.D. University of Central Florida. Thank you for your participation in this research project. Participation by parents and children like you is critical for the research and results to be relevant. The purpose of this study is to ascertain a clearer understanding of the relationship between subjects such as messages in popular children’s media, body image, play behavior, and appearance-related attitudes. Recent research has revealed that children as young as five and six years old report experiencing some body image dissatisfaction and are able to identify the thin ideal that exists in Western society (Lowes & Tiggemann, 2003). Levin (1994) determined the average American child exhausted up to 35 hours per week watching television and/or playing video games. Even toddlers are watching quite a bit of television with the average 2 year old viewing approximately 10.5 hours per week and the average 4 year old viewing 17.5 hours per week (Liebert & Sprafkin, 1988). Some researchers concluded that the thin ideal is depicted in animated children’s media just like non-animated media (Herbozo, Tantleff-Dunn, Gokee-LaRose, & Thompson, 2003). It has been established that adults who are exposed to images of the thin ideal are more likely to report being more dissatisfied with their own and others physical appearances. Many researchers have suggested a need for future studies to examine the development of body image and weight concerns with young children, as well as sociocultural factors that may contribute to and reinforce cultural ideals and biases (Davison, Markey, & Birch, 2003; Herbozo, et al., 2003). 93

105 completely confidential . If you or your child experience As a reminder, your participation was discomfort or negative feelings after your participation in the study, you may call Dr. Stacey Dunn at the University of Central Florida. Thank you, your participation is very much appreciated. Dr. Stacey Tantleff-Dunn (407) 823-5378 Dr. Bob Dipboye, Psychology Department Chair (407) 823-2216 If you are interested in learning more about body image or eating disorders, we recommend the following resources: National Eating Disorders Organization (918) 481-4044 National Eating Disorders Association (206) 382-3587 The Alliance for Eating Disorders Awareness (866) 662-1235 94

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