Division 2, Subdivision D, Walking Working Surfaces *

Transcript

1 Oregon Administrative Rules Chapter 437 Division 2 ccupational Safety and Health General O Subdivision Working Surfaces Walking - AO 2 - 201 7

2 The Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services adopted these rules pursuant to ORS 654.025(2). The Secretary of State designated OAR Chapter 437 as the “Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code.” Six general subject areas within this code are designated as “Divisions.” Division 1 General Administrative Rules • • Division 2 General Occupational Safety and Health Rules • Division 3 Construction Division 4 Agriculture • • Division 5 Maritime Activities Division 7 Forest Activities • Oregon Revised Statutes • (ORS) 654 The Oregon Safe Employment Act (OSEAct) Oregon-initiated rules in this division of the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code are numbered in a uniform system developed by the Secretary of State. This system does not number the rules in sequence (001, 002, 003, etc.). Omitted numbers may be assigned to new rules at the time of their adoption. Oregon -initiated rules are arranged in the following Basic Codification Structure adopted by the R): Secretary of State for Oregon Administrative Rules (OA Division Rule Section Subsection Paragraphs Chapter 0322 002 (1) 437 (a) (A)(i)(I) The majority of Oregon OSHA rules are adopted by reference from the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), and are arranged in the following basic federal numbering syste m: Division Subpart Section Paragraphs Chapter Part (Subdivision) 437 1910 G .303 (a) 002 The terms “subdivision” and “subpart” are synonymous within OAR 437, Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Code. To obtain an order form or copies of these codes, address: of Consumer & Business Services Department Oregon Occupational Safety & Health Division (Orego n OSHA) rd Floor 350 Winter St. NE, 3 Salem, OR 97301 -3882 Or call the Oregon OSHA Resource Library at 503- 378- 3272 The rules referenced in this division are available for viewing in the Office of the Secretary of State, Oregon State Archives Building, Salem, Oregon, or the Central Office, Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division of the Department of Consumer and Business Services, 350 Winter St. . NE, Salem, Oregon, and on our web site at osha.oregon.gov ii

3 Walking Working Surfaces - D Division Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division 2 Table of contents - 002 437 0020 Adoption by Reference ... ... 1 - 1910.21 Scope and definitions ... ... 2 437 - 002 - 2021 Additional Oregon Definitions ... ... 7 1910.22 ... ... 8 General requirements - - 0022 Additional Oregon General Requirements 437 ... 9 002 437 - 002 - 0032 Ramps and Runways ... ... 10 10 437 002 - 0033 Piers and Wharves ... ... - 1910.23 Ladders ... ... ... 11 0026 002 - 20 ... ... Portable Ladders 437 - 1910.24 Step bolts and manhole steps ... ... 22 Stairways ... ... ... 25 1910.25 1910.26 Dockboards ... ... ... 30 1910.27 Scaffolds and rope descent systems ... ... 30 31 437 - 002 - 2027 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems ... 1910.28 39 ... Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection 1910.29 – criteria Fall protection systems and falling object protection ... ... ... 49 and practices ... Training requiremen ts ... 1910.30 59 - 437 002 - 2031 Delayed Effective Dates for Walking - Working Surfaces ... 60 63 Historical Notes for Subdivision D ... ... List of Figures f 66 .. ... ... or Subdivision D 66 ... ... ... List of Tables for Subdivision D D Table of contents iii Table of contents -

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5 Adoption by Reference D Oregon Administrative Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Rules - 002 - 0020 Adoption by Reference 437 In addition to, and not in lieu of, any other safety and health codes contained in OAR Chapter 437, the Department adopts by reference the following federal regulations printed as part of the Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910, in the Federal Register: (1) 29 CFR 1910.21 Scope and definitions, published 11 /18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (2) 29 CFR 1910.22 General Requirements, published 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (3) 29 CFR 1910.23 Ladders, published 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. ( 4) 29 CFR 1910.24 Step bolts and manhole steps, published 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (5) 29 CFR 1910.25 Stairways, published 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (6) 29 CFR 1910.26 Dockboards, published 11/18 /16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (7) 29 CFR 1910.27 Scaffolds and rope descent systems, published 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (8) 29 CFR 1910.28 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection, publi shed 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (9) 29 CFR 1910.29 Fall protection systems and falling object protection – criteria and practices, published 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. (10) 29 CFR 1910.30 Training r equirements, published 11/18/16, Federal Register, vol. 81, no. 223, p. 82494. These standards are available at the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division, Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services, and the United States Government Printi ng Office. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 to 654.295. OR Hist: 1990, f. 1/23/90, ef. 1/23/90. - 4 OSHA Admin. Order - - OSHA Admin. Order 2 1991, f. 2/4/91, ef. 4/1/91. - OR OSHA Admin. Order 4 - 1997, f. 4/2/97, ef. 4/2/97. OR - - OSHA Admin. Order 10 1999, f. 9/10/99, ef. 9/10/99. OR - 2013, f. 2/15/13, ef. 4/1/13. - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR OR 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - A Admin. Order 2 OSH - 437 - 002 - 0020 D 0020 (10) - 1 437 - 002 -

6 Scope and definitions D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 efinitions d Scope and 1910.21 (a) Scope. This subdivision applies to all general industry workplaces. It covers all walking - working surfaces unless specifically excluded by an individual sec vision. tion of this subdi (b) Definitions. The following definit ions apply in this subdivision: Alternating tread type stair means a type of stairway consisting of a series of - treads that usually are attached to a center support in an alternating manner such that an employe e typically does not have both feet on the same level while using the stairway. Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for equipment such as lifelines, lanyards, deceleration dev ices, and rope descent systems. Authorized means an employee who the employer assigns to perform a in a specific location or area. specific type of duty, or allows Cage means an enclosure mounted on the side rails of a fixed ladder or is designed to fastened to a structure behind the fixed ladder that surround the climbing space of the ladder. A cage also is called a ‘‘ca ge guard’’ or ‘‘basket guard.’’ Carrier means the track of a ladder safety system that consists of a flexible ely adjacent to cable or rigid rail attached to the fixed ladder or immediat it. Combination ladder means a portable ladder that can be used as a stepladder, extension ladder, trestle ladder, or stairway ladder. The components of a combination ladder also may be used separately as a single ladder. Dangerous equipmen t means equipment, such as vats, tanks, electrical equipment, machinery, equipment or machinery with protruding parts, or other similar units, that, because of their function or form, may harm an employee who fal ls into or onto the equipment. working surface - rea means a distinct portion of a walking Designated a delineated by a warning line in which employees may perform work out additional fall protection. with Dockboard means a portable or fixed device that spans a gap or compensates evation between a loading platform and a transport for a difference in el vehicle. Dockboards include, but are not limited to, bridge plates, dock plates, and dock levelers. 1910.21 (a) D 1910.21 (b) - 2

7 Scope and definitions D Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Equivalent means alternative designs, equipment, materials, or methods, that the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees compared to the designs, equipment, materials, or hods specified in this subpart. met - r that is Extension ladder means a non self supporting portable ladde adjustable in length. Failure means a load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. A load refusal is the point at which the ultimate strength of a c omponent or object is exceeded. Fall hazard means any condition on a walking - working surface that exposes an employee to a risk of h arm from a fall on the same level or to a lower level. Fall protection means any equipment, device, or system that prevents an employee from falling from an elevation or mitig ates the effect of such a fall. Fixed ladder means a ladder with rails or individual rungs that is permanently attached to a structure, building, or equipment. Fixed ladders include individual , step bolts, or - rung ladders, but not ship stairs manhole steps. Grab bar means an individual horizontal or vertical handhold installed to above the height of the ladder. provide access Guardrail system means a barrier erected along an unprotected or exposed working side, edge, or other area of a walking - surface to prevent employees from falling to a lower level. Handrail means a rail used to provide employe es with a handhold for support. working surface Hoist area means any elevated access opening to a walking - ed or received. terials are load through which equipment or ma - Hole means a gap or open space in a floor, roof, horizontal walking working (5 cm) in its least surface, or similar surface that is at least 2 inches dimension. - Individual rung ladder means a ladder that has rungs individually attached to building or structure. An individual rung ladder does not include manhole - a steps. Ladder means a device with rungs, steps, or cleats used to gain a ccess to a different elevation. 1910.21 (b) D 1910.21 (b) - 3

8 Scope and definitions D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Ladder safety system means a system designed to eliminate or reduce the possibility of falling from a ladder. A ladder safety system usually consists of a carrier, safety sleeve, lanyard, connectors, and body harness. Cages and wells are not ladder safety systems. Note: Low slope roof. Instead, see - Oregon OSHA did not adopt the federal OSHA definition of - 002 - 2021(2) slope roof in OAR 437 Additional Oregon Definitions. the definition of Low - Lower level means a surface or area to which an employee could fall. Such surfaces or areas include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, roofs, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, materials, water, hereof. equipment, and similar surfaces and structures, or portions t he Manhole steps means steps that are individually attached to, or set into, t wall of a manhole structure. mum intended load means the total load (weight and force) of all Maxi employees, equipment, vehicles, tools, materials, and other loads the - employer reasonab ly anticipates to be applied to a walking w orking surface at any one time. Mobile means manually propell ed or moveable. - Mobile ladder stand (ladder stand) means a mobile, fixed - height, self supporting ladder that usually consists of wheels or casters on a rigid base and steps leading to a top step. A mobile ladder stand also may have designed for use by one employee at a time. handrails and is - supporting height, self Mobile ladder stand platform means a mobile, fixed - unit having one or more standing platforms that are provided with means of access or egress. Open riser means the gap or space between tr eads of stairways that do not have upright or inclined members (risers). Opening means a gap or open space in a wall, partition, vertical walking - working surface, or similar surface that is at least 30 inches (76 cm) high oyee can fall e, through which an empl and at least 18 inches (46 cm) wid to a lower level. Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a working surface. It consists of a body harness, - fall from a walking anchorage, and connector. The means of connection may inc lude a able combination of these. lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or a suit 1910.21 (b) D 1910.21 (b) - 4

9 Scope and definitions D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Personal fall protection system means a system (including all components) an employer uses to provide protection from falling or to safely arrest an ccurs. Examples of personal fall protection systems employee’s fall if one o , and travel include personal fall arrest systems, positioning systems restraint systems. ted above the Platform means a walking - working surface that is eleva surrounding area. Portable ladder means a ladde r that can readily be moved or carried, and usually consists of side rails joined at interv als by steps, rungs, or cleats. Positioning system (work positioning system) means a system of equipment - and connectors that, when used with a body harness or body b elt, allows an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall or window sill, and work with both hands free. Positioning systems positioning also are called ‘‘positioning system devices’’ and ‘‘work - equipment.’’ Qualified describe s a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve ma work, or the roblems relating to the subject tter, the or resolve p project. e used to access another - Ramp means an inclined walking working surfac level. Riser means the upright (vertical) or inclined member of a stair that is located at the back of a stair tread or platform and connects close to the front e of the next higher tread, platform, or landing. edg Rope descent system means a suspension system that allows an employee to descend in a controlled manner and, as needed, stop at any point during anchorage, the descent. A rope descent system usually consists of a roof support rope, a descent device, carabiner(s) or shackle(s), and a chair (seatboard). A rope descent system also is called controlled descent equipment or apparatus. Rope descent systems do not include industrial rope access systems. or cleat means the crosspiece of a ladder on which an employee Rung, step, step s to climb up and down. - Runway means an elevated walking working surface, such as a catwalk, a ated walkway between buildings. foot walk along shafting, or an elev 1910.21 (b) D 1910.21 (b) - 5

10 Scope and definitions D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division ary elevated or suspended platform and its Scaffold means any tempor supporting structure, including anchorage points, used to support employees, equipment, materials, and other items. For purposes of this suspended or derrick - - subpart, a scaffold does not include a crane suspended personnel pla tform or a rope descent system. Ship stair (ship ladder) means a stairway that is equipped with treads, stair 70 degrees rails, and open risers, and has a slope that is between 50 and from the horizontal. ladder that requires an employee to step ladder means a type of fixed - Side ing surface, such as step sideways from it in order to reach a walking - work a landing. Spiral stairs means a series of treads attached to a vertical pole in a winding fashion, usua lly within a cylindrical space. Stair ra il or stair rail system means a barrier erected along the exposed or from falling to a lower level. open side of stairways to prevent employees Stairway (stairs) means risers and treads that connect one level with another, and includes any landings and pla tforms in between those levels. type, and ship stairs. - ng tread Stairways include standard, spiral, alternati Standard stairs means a fixed or permanently installed stairway. Ship, spiral, and alternating tread . ard stairs type stairs are not considered stand - Step bolt (pole step) means a bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member used for foot placement and as a hand hold when climbing or standing. supporting, portable ladder that has a fixed height, - Stepladder means a self hinged back. flat steps, and a Stepstool means a self - supporting, portable ladder that has flat steps and side of the final rule, stepstool includes only those ladders rails. For purposes that have a fixed height, do not have a pail shelf, and do not exceed 32 inches (81 cm) in overall height to the top cap, although side rails may an employee can extend above the top cap. A stepstool is designed so climb and stand on all of the steps and the top cap. Through ladder means a type of fixed ladder that allows the employee to step - through the side rails at the top of the ladder to reach a walking working surface, such as a landing. 1910.21 (b) D 1910.21 (b) - 6

11 Scope and definitions | Additional Oregon Definitions D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 means an attachment between an anchorage (e.g., structural Tieback member) and a supporting device (e.g., parapet clamp or cornice hook). Toeboard means a low protective barrier that is designed to prevent evel, and protect materials, tools, and equipment from falling to a lower l employees from falling. Travel restraint system means a combination of an anchorage, anchorage connector, lanyard (or other means of connection), and body support that r an employer uses to eliminate the possibility of an employee going ove the edge of a walking working surface. - Tread means a horizontal member of a stair or stairway, but does not include landings or platforms. Unprotected sides and edges mean any side or edge of a walking working - s of access) where there is no surface (except at entrances and other point wall, guardrail system, or stair rail system to protect an employee from falling to a lower level. Walking - working surface means any horizontal or vertical surface on or through which an employee walks, works, or gains access to a work area or workplace location. Warning line means a barrier erected to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected side or edge, and which designates an area in which work may take place without the use of other means of fall protection . Well means a permanent, complete e nclosure around a fixed ladder. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. - 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR Hist: - 2021 437 - 002 Definitions Additional Oregon (1) Scope and application. These definitions apply to Subdivision 2/D. Additional terms in 1910.21(b) also apply to Subdivision 2/D. (2) Definitions. slope roof means a roof that has a slope less than or equal to a ratio of 2 - Low al to horizontal). in 12 (vertic Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. - OR Hist: 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - OSHA Admin. Order 2 2021 (2) D - 1910.21 (b) 7 437 - 002 -

12 General requirements D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 General requirements 1910.22 ions. The employer must ensure: (a) Surface condit (1) All places of employment, passageways, storerooms, service rooms, and walking - working surfaces are kept in a clean, o rderly, and sanitary condition. (2) The floor of each workroom is maintained in a clean and, to the extent feasible, in a dry condition. W hen wet processes are used, drainage must be maintained and, to the extent feasible, dry standing places, such as rms, and mats must be provided. false floors, platfo - (3) Walking working surfaces are maintained free of hazards such as sharp or ice. jects, loose boards, corrosion, leaks, spills, snow, and protruding ob (b) Loads. The employer must ensure that each walking working surface can - support the maximum intended load for that surface. ployee (c) Access and egress. The employer must provide, and ensure each em uses, a safe means of access and egress to and working - from walking surfaces. (d) Inspection, maintenance, and re pair. The employer must ensure: - (1) Walking working surfaces are inspected, regularly and as necessary, and maintained in a safe conditi on; working surfaces are corrected or (2) Hazardous conditions on walking - working surface again. If - repaired before an employee uses the walking the correction or repair cannot be made immediately, the hazard must be the walking - guarded to prevent employees from using working surface until the hazard is co rrected or repaired; and (3) When any correction or repair involves the structural integrity of the walking working surface, a qualified person performs or super vises the - correction or repair. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR Hist: 1910.22 (a) D 1910.22 (d)(3) - 8

13 Additional Oregon General Requirements D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Additional Oregon General Requirements 437 - 002 - 0022 (1) Scope and application. This rule applies in addition to those in Division 2/D - Walking Working Surfaces. (2) Barriers. The employe r must ensure: (a) Protective barriers or suitable guards are erected when covers over openings are removed or excavations made in places accessible to vehicular or pedestrian traffic. Warning lights or flares shall be displayed if work is being done at ni ght. These protective measures shall be maintained until permanent or adequate covers or barricades are in place or the hazard removed. (b) A watchperson is stationed where temporary conditions do not permit ning signs, lights, safeguarding of employees through the use of war protective barriers, or covers. (3) Plant Arrangement. The employer must ensure: (a) Provisions for safety (such as adequate work and storage space for the full process, and finished materials, and for machinery, needs of raw, in - ent and operations) are included in plant design, layout, and equipm operation. (b) A vertical clearance of not less than 6 1/2 feet is provided over work areas. Where it is otherwise impractical to secure adequate head room, r may be indicated by means of overhead obstructions may be padded o contrasting paint, telltales, or similar means, if such means will furnish adequate protection. (c) Work platforms provided shall be of sufficient width to provide a safe working space. (4) Aisles, Passageways, Walkways, Incl ines. The employer must ensure: (a) Aisles, passageways, and walkways are of adequate width for their intended or actual use, and in no event shall they be less than 22 inches wide. (b) Fixed inclined walkways are not less than 22 inches wide, inclined at no greater angle than 24 degrees, and are securely fastened at the top and bottom. - 002 - 0022 (1) D 437 - 9 437 - 002 - 0022 (4)(b)

14 Additional Oregon General Requirements | Ramps and Runways | Piers and D Wharves Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 (c) Moveable inclined walkways which extend to floats or floating equipment (except to vessels under Federal jurisdiction) are not less than 20 inches at the upper end only with clear space provided for wide, and are secured the lower end to adjust automatically with the heights of water. (d) An adequate antislip surface is applied to inclined walkways whenever the gradient so warrants. Adequate cleats secured at uniform int ervals not to exceed 18 inches, and extending the full width of the walkway when practical, may be used for this purpose. (e) Inclines extending from floor to floor which are used instead of stairways have standard railings in accordance with the requireme nts in 1910.29(b). (f) In addition to the surface conditions in 1910.22(a)(3), aisles, passageways, walkways, and inclines are maintained free of holes, unevenness, or any unnecessary obstructions or debris that may create a hazard. 656.726(4). Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 to 654.295. - WCB No. 1 Hist: 1967, f. 1/12/67, ef. 1/15/67. OSHA Admin. Order 4 1990, f. 1/23/90, ef. 1/23/90. OR - - - OR 1994, f. 9/30/94, ef. 9/30/94. - OSHA Admin. Order 6 ef. 11/1/17. 2017, f. 5/16/17, - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR - 002 437 Ramps and Runways 0032 - (1) Scope and application. This rule applies to the safe use of ramps and runways for vehicles in addition to the rules in Division 2/D. (2) The employer must ensure ramps and runways for vehicles: adequate width and evenness for safe operation of equipment. (a) Have - (b) Are provided with timber guards of not less than nominal 6 - inch by 6 inch material set on nominal 3 inch blocks, or the equivalent, placed parallel to - and secured to the sides of the ramp or runway. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. Hist: - OSHA Admin. Order 4 - 1990, f. 1/23/90, ef. 1/23/90. OR - - OSHA Admin. Order 2 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. OR Piers and Wharves 0033 - 002 - 437 pe and application. This rule applies to piers and wharves in addition to (1) Sco the rules in Division 2/D. - 002 - 0022 (4)(c) 0033 (1) D 437 - 10 437 - 002 -

15 Piers and Wharves | Ladders D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (2) The employer must ensure piers and wharves: (a) With open sides of piers and wharves, more than 4 feet above the ground - r guard timber (bull rail) of not less than 6 or water level, have a shear o inch blocking, or material - inch wood material set on nominal 3 inch by 6 - of equal strength and minimum height securely attached. (b) Except for areas where vessels’ mooring lines are handled, the open sides, mo re than 4 feet above the ground or water level, not used for loading or unloading purposes, shall be provided with standard guardrails in accordance with 1910.29(b) in addition to shear timbers in accordance with paragraph (2)(a) of this section. rs or other means of access reaching from low water mark to the (c) Ladde dock floor shall be provided for each 400 feet or portion thereof of the water side of all wharves and piers. Where portable ladders are used, a secure method of fastening them shall be provid ed. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. 1990, f. 1/23/90, ef. 1/23/90. - OSHA Admin. Order 4 - OR Hist: OR - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. Ladders 1910.23 employer must ensure that each ladder used meets the (a) Application. The ers, except when the requirements of this section. This section covers all ladd ladder is: (1) Used in emergency operations such as firefighting, rescue, and tactical ng for these operations; or aini law enforcement operations, or tr part of machines or equipment. (2) Designed into or is an integral ders. The employer must ensure: (b) General requirements for all lad (1) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats are parallel, level, and uniformly spaced ladder is in position for use; when the (2) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats are spaced not less than 10 inches (25 cm) and not more than 14 inches (36 cm) apart, as measured between cleats, and steps, except that: the centerlines of the rungs, in elevator shafts must be spaced not less than (i) Ladder rungs and steps 6 inches (15 cm) apart and not more than 16.5 inches (42 cm) apart, long the ladder side rails; and as measured a 1910.23 (b)(2)(i) - 002 - 0033 (2) 437 D - 11

16 Ladders D Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (ii) Fixed ladder rungs and steps on telecommunication towers must be nches (46 cm) apart, measured between the spaced not more than 18 i cen terlines of the rungs or steps; (3) Steps on stepstools are spaced not less than 8 inches (20 cm) apart and not more than 12 inches (30 cm) apart, as measured between the centerlines of the steps; (4) Ladder ru ngs, steps, and cleats have a minimum clear width of 11.5 inches (29 cm) on portable ladders and 16 inches (41 cm) (measured before installation of ladder safety systems) for fixed ladders, except that: with narrow rungs (i) The minimum clear width does not apply to ladders that are not designed to be stepped on, such as those located on the tapered end of orchard ladders and similar ladders; (ii) Rungs and steps of manhole entry ladders that are supported by the dth of 9 inches (23 manhole opening must have a minimum clear wi cm); (iii) Rungs and steps on rolling ladders used in telecommunication centers must have a minimum clear width of 8 inches (20 cm); and of 10.5 inches (26.7 cm); (iv) Stepstools have a minimum clear width (5) Wooden ladders are not coated with any material that may obscure structural defects; or protected - resistant material (6) Metal ladders are made with corrosion against corrosion; laceration hazards; (7) Ladder surfaces are free of puncture and s for which they were designed; (8) Ladders are used only for the purpose inspected before initial use in each work shift, a nd more (9) Ladders are frequently as necessary, to identify any visible defects that could cause employee inju ry; (10) Any ladder with structural or other defects is immediately tagged ‘‘Dangerous: Do Not Use’’ or with similar language in accordance with § with § emoved from service until repaired in accordance 1910.145 and r 1910.22(d), or replaced; er when climbing up or down it; (11) Each employee faces the ladd 1910.23 (b)(11) D 1910.23 (b)(2)(ii) - 12

17 Ladders D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (12) Each employee uses at least one hand to grasp the ladder wh en climbing up and down it; and (13) No employ ee carries any object or load that could cause the employee to lose balance and fall while climbing up or down the ladder. (c) Portable lad ders. The employer must ensure: (1) Rungs and steps of portable metal ladders are corrugated, knurled, resistant material, or otherwise treated to d with skid - dimpled, coate minimi ze the possibility of slipping; 0026(4)(a). - 002 - Note: Oregon OSHA did not adopt 1910.23(c)(2). Instead, see OAR 437 (3) Ladders are not loaded beyond the maximum intended load; The maximum intended load, as defined in § 1910.21(b), ph (c)(3): Note to paragra includes the total load (weight and force) of the employee and all tools, equipment, and materials being carried. (4) Ladders are used only on stable and level surfaces unless they are secur ed or stabilized to prevent accidental displacement; (5) No portable single rail ladders are used; (6) No ladder is moved, shifted, or extended while an employee is on it; (7) Ladders placed in locations such as passageways, doorways, or driveways ey can be displaced by other activities or traffic: where th (i) Are secured to prevent accidental displacement; or (ii) Are guarded by a temporary barricade, such as a row of traffic cones or caution tape, to keep the activities or traffic away from the ladder; ) The cap (if equipped) and top step of a stepladder are not used as steps; (8 (9) Portable ladders used on slippery surfaces are secured and stabilized; (10) The top of a non - supporting ladder is placed so that both side rails - self are supported, unless the ladder is equipped with a single support attachment; (11) Portable ladders used to gain access to an upper landing surface have side rails that extend at least 3 feet (0.9 m) above the upper landing – surface (see Figure D 1 of this section); 1910.23 (c)(11) ) D 1910.23 (b)(12 - 13

18 Ladders D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division up - Portable Ladder Set 1 - Figure D - (12) Ladders and ladder sections are not tied or fastened together to provide added length unless they are specifically designed for such use; es to (13) Ladders are not placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bas obtain additional height. (d) Fixed ladders. The employer must ensure: supporting their maximum intended load; (1) Fixed ladders are capable of (2) The minimum perpendicular distance from the centerline of the steps or rungs, or grab bars, or both, to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder is 7 inches (18 cm), except for elevator pit ladders, whi ch have a minimum perpendicular distance of 4.5 inches (11 cm); (3) Grab bars do not protrude on the climbing side beyond the rungs of the ladder that they serve; - D 1910.23 (c)(12) 1910.23 (d)(3) 14

19 Ladders D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (4) The side rails of through or sidestep ladders extend 42 inches (1.1 m) the access level or landing platform served by the ladder. above the top of For parapet ladders, the access level is: (i) The roof, if the parapet is cut to permit passage through the parapet; or (ii) The top of the parapet, if the parapet is continuous; dders, the steps or rungs are omitted from the extensions, (5) For through la and the side rails are flared to provide not less than 24 inches (61cm) and not more than 30 inches (76 cm) of clearance. When a ladder safety rails of the system is provided, the maximum clearance between side extension must not exceed 36 inches (91 cm); (6) For side - step ladders, the side rails, rungs, and steps must be continuous in the extension (see Figure D – 2 of this section); 2 - Side Figure D - Step Fixed Ladder Sections - (7) Grab bars extend 42 inches (1.1 m) above the access level or landing platforms served by the ladder; ) D 1910.23 (d)(4 - 1910.23 (d)(7) 15

20 Ladders D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division section) of grab bars is the same size as the - (8) The minimum size (cross rungs of the ladder. 3 of this – see Figure D (9) When a fixed ladder terminates at a hatch ( section), the hatch cover: (i) Opens with sufficient clearance to provide easy access to or from the ladder; and (ii) Opens at least 70 degrees from horizontal if the hatch is counterbalanced; Figure D - Example of Counterbalanced Hatch Cover at Roof - 3 rung ladders are constructed to prevent the - (10) Individual employee’s feet 4 of this section); – from sliding off the ends of the rungs (see Figure D 1910.23 (d)(8) D (d)(10) 1910.23 6 1 -

21 Ladders D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 - 4 - Figure D Individual Rung Ladder (11) Fixed ladders having a pitch greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal are not used; step - across distance from the centerline of the rungs or steps is: (12) The (i) For through ladders, not less than 7 inches (18 cm) and not more than 12 inches (30 cm) to the nearest edge of the structure, building, or equipment accessed from the ladders; step ladders, not less than 15 inches (38 cm) and not more (ii) For - side than 20 inches (51 cm) to the access points of the platform edge; (13) Fixed ladders that do not have cages or wells have: (i) A clear width of at least 15 inches (38 cm) on each side of the ladder centerline to the nearest permanent object; and (ii) A minimum perpendicular distance of 30 inches (76 cm) from the centerline of the steps or rungs to the nearest object on the climbing um side. When unavoidable obstructions are encountered, the minim clearance at the obstruction may be reduced to 24 inches (61 cm), – provided deflector plates are installed (see Figure D 5 of this section). 1910.23 (d)(13)(ii) ) D 1910.23 (d)(11 - 17

22 Ladders D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division - 5 - Figure D Fixed Ladder Clearances Section 1910.28 establishes the employer’s duty to provide fall protection Note to paragraph (d): for employees on fixed ladders, and § 1910.29 specifies the criteria for fall protection systems for fixed ladders. r stand platforms (e) Mobile ladder stands and mobile ladde (1) General requirements. The employer must ensure: (i) Mobile ladder stands and platforms have a step width of at least 16 inches (41 cm); (ii) The steps and platforms of mobile ladder stands and platforms are slip resistant surfaces must be either an integral part of the - resistant. Slip design and construction of the mobile ladder stand and platform, or ration, such as dimpling, provided as a secondary process or ope - knurling, shotblasting, coating, spraying, or applying durable slip esistant tapes; r (iii) Mobile ladder stands and platforms are capable of supporting at least four times their maximum intended load; D 1910.23 (e) - 18 1910.23 (e)(1)(iii)

23 Ladders D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 load are capable of supporting their (iv) Wheels or casters under proportional share of four times the maximum intended load, plus their proportional share of the unit’s weight; (v) Unless otherwise specified in this section, mobile ladder stands and f 4 feet (1.2 m) or above have platforms with a top step height o handrails with a vertical height of 29.5 inches (75 cm) to 37 inches (94 cm), measured from the front edge of a step. Removable gates or non - rigid members, such as chains, may be used instead of handrails in cations; special use appli (vi) The maximum work surface height of mobile ladder stands and - platforms does not exceed four times the shortest base dimension, without additional support. For greater heights, outriggers, mobile ladder counterweights, or comparable means that stabilize the stands and platforms and prevent overturning must be used; (vii) Mobile ladder stands and platforms that have wheels or casters are equipped with a system to impede horizontal movement when an employee is on the stand or platform; and No mobile ladder stand or platform moves when an employee is on (viii) it. (2) Design requirements for mobile ladder stands. The employer must ensure: (i) Steps are uniformly spaced and arranged, with a rise of not more than less than 7 inches (18 cm). The 10 inches (25 cm) and a depth of not slope of the step stringer to which the steps are attached must not be more than 60 degrees, measured from the horizontal; (ii) Mobile ladder stands with a top step height above 10 feet (3 m) have the top step protected on t hree sides by a handrail with a vertical height of at least 36 inches (91 cm); and top steps that are 20 inches (51 cm) or more, front to back, have a midrail and toeboard. - Removable gates or non rigid members, such as chains, may be used ils in special use applications; and - instead of handra (iii) The standing area of mobile ladder stands is within the base frame. (3) Design requirements for mobile ladder stand platforms. The employer must ensure: 1910.23 (e)(3) D 1910.23 (e)(1)(iv) - 19

24 Ladders | Portable La dders D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division ents of (i) Steps of mobile ladder stand platforms meet the requirem paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. When the employer demonstrates that the requirement is not feasible, steeper slopes or vertical rung ladders may be used, provided the units are stabilized to prevent overturning; (ii) Mobile ladder stand platfo rms with a platform height of 4 to 10 feet (1.2 m to 3 m) have, in the platform area, handrails with a vertical height of at least 36 inches (91 cm) and midrails; and (iii) All ladder stand platforms with a platform height above 10 feet (3 m) have guardrai ls and toeboards on the exposed sides and ends of the platform. (iv) Removable gates or non rigid members, such as chains, may be used - on mobile ladder stand platforms instead of handrails and guardrails in use applications. - special Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. OR Hist: OSHA Admin. Order 2 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - - Portable Ladders 0026 - 002 - 437 (1) Scope and application. This rule applies to the use of portable ladders, including job - made ladders, in addition to the rules in 1910.23 Ladders. (2) Definitions. These definitions apply to portable ladder terms in this rule. n 1910.23 and Additional terms in 1910.21(b) apply to portable ladders withi this rule. made ladder. A non commercially manufactured portable ladder - - Job constructed on the worksite for temporary use. - self - supporting ladder. A class of portable ladders that, by design, must Non be placed against a structure independe nt of itself, such as a wall, to remain standing for use. Single ladders, extension ladders, sectional ladders, and articulating ladders set up in a straight ladder mode are examples of non self - - supporting ladders. ble ladders that, by design, stand on supporting ladder. A class of porta - Self their own when erected for use without assistance from external structures. Stepladders, double front ladders, platform ladders, trestle ladders, and articulating ladders set up in a stepladder mode are examples of sel f - supporting ladders. D 0026 (2) - 1910.23 (e)(3)(i) 20 437 - 002 -

25 Portable Ladders D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (3) Ladder selection. The employer must ensure: - (a) Wood ladders comply with American National Standard ANSI/ASC A14.1 2007. (b) Portable metal ladders comply with American National Standard - ANSI/ASC A14.2 2007. (c) Portable reinforced plastic (fiberglass) ladders comply with American National Standard ANSI/ASC A14.5 - 2007. 0026(3): - 002 - Note to 437 Unaltered and properly maintained ladders that meet the ANSI standard in effect at the time of their manufacture comply with this standard. This includes 1979 - made ladders designed and built according to American National Standard A14.4 job - and portable ladders that comply with newer versions of the particular ANSI standard. – (4) Use all portable ladders. The employer must ensure: - (a) Each self supporting ladder or combination ladder used in a self - supporting ladder mode is equipped with a metal spreader or locking device that securely holds the front and back sections in a fully open position while the ladder is in use. - supporting ladder is erected to the angle represented in on (b) Each n - self - of 1910.23(c)(11) unless otherwise instructed in writing by the 1 Figure D facture. ladder manu up - Portable Ladder Set - 1 - Figure D - 002 - 0026 (3) D 0026 (4)(b) 437 - 21 437 - 002 -

26 Portable Ladders | Step bolts and manhole steps D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 (c) No employee steps, jumps or otherwise moves from one erected ladder to another. - working (d) Ladders are not used as planks or bridges between walking surfaces or in other horizontal applications. (e) Ladde rs are not used to gain additional height from elevated surfaces such as scaffolds, truck beds, vehicle bodies, tractor scoops or boom truck buckets. (f) Ladders are not used as supports for working platforms or scaffolding purposes by the ladder manufacturer. planks unless approved for such When working on or near electric circuits or energized lines, - - 0026(4): Note to 437 002 comply with 1910.333(c) in Division 2/S. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. Hist: 1999, f. 9/10/99, ef. 9/10/99. - OSHA Admin. Order 10 OR - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - OR 1910.24 Step bolts and manhole steps (a) Step bolts. Th e employer must ensure. (1) Each step bolt installed on or after January 17, 2017 in an environment hat r coated with, material t where corrosion may occur is constructed of, o protects against corrosion; The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in Note to 1910.24(a)(1): ective date is January accordance with OAR 437 - 002 - 2031(2)(a), the Oregon delayed eff 1, 2018. lt is designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent the (2) Each step bo employee’s foot from slipping off the end of the s tep bolt; (3) Step bolts are uniformly spaced at a vertical distance of not less than 12 inches (30 cm) and not more than 18 inches (46 cm) apart, measured center to center (see Figure D – 6 of this section). The spacing from the entry and exit surface to the first step bolt may differ from the spacin g between the other step bolts; 437 - 002 - 0026 (4)(c) 1910.24 (a)(3) D - 22

27 Step bolts and manhole steps D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Figure D - Step Bolt Spacing 6 - (4) Each step bolt has a minimum clear width of 4.5 inches (11 cm); (5) The minimum perpendicular distance between the centerline of each step bolt to the nearest permanent object in back of the step bolt is 7 inches obstruction cannot be (18 cm). When the employer demonstrates that an avoided, the distance must be at least 4.5 inches (11 cm); (6) Each step bolt installed before January 17, 2017 is capable of supporting its maximum intended load; The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in Note to 1910.24(a)(6): 002 2031(2)(b), the Oregon delayed effective date is January - - accordance with OAR 437 1, 2018. (7) Each step bolt installed on or after January 17, 2017 is capable of times its maximum intended load; supporting at least four Note to 1910.24(a)(7): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 2031(2)(c), the Oregon delayed effective date is January - 002 - 1, 2018. art of the workshift and maintained in (8) Each step bolt is inspected at the st accordance with § 1910.22; and 1910.24 (a)(4) D 1910.24 (a)(8) - 23

28 Step bolts and manhole steps D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules (9) Any step bolt that is bent more than 15 degrees from the perpendicular in any direction is removed and replaced with a step bolt that meets the requirements of this section before an employee uses it. (b) Manhole steps. (1) The employer must ensure that each manhole step is capable of suppor ting its maximum intended load. (2) The employer must ensure that each manhole step installe d on or after January 17, 2017: Note to 1910.24(b)(2 ): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in 002 - accordance with OAR 437 ective date is January 2031(2)(d), the Oregon delayed eff - 1, 2018. (i) Has a corrugated, knurled, dimpled, or other surface that minimizes the mployee slipping; bility of an e possi (ii) Is constructed of, or coated with, material that protects against corrosion if the manhole step is located in an environ ment where corrosion may occur; (iii) Has a minimum clear s tep width of 10 inches (25 cm); (iv) Is uniformly spac ed at a vertical distance not more than 16 inches (41cm) apart, measured center to center between steps. The spacing from the entry and exit surface to the first manhole step may differ from the spacing between the other steps. lar distance between the centerline of the (v) Has a minimum perpendicu manhole step to the nearest permanent object in back of the step of at least 4.5 inches (11 cm); and (vi) Is designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent the employee’s foot from slipping or sliding off the en d. (3) The employer must ensure that each manhole step is inspected at the d in accordance with § 1910.22. start of the work shift and maintaine Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR Hist: 1910.24 (a)(9) D 1910.24 (b)(3) - 24

29 Stairways D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 1910.25 Stairways stairways (including standard, spiral, ship, (a) Application. This section covers all type stairs), except for stairs serving floating roof tanks, - and alternating tread stairs on scaffolds, stairs designed into machines or equipment, and stairs on - self propelled motorized equipment. (b) General r equirements. The employer must ensure: (1) Handrails, stair rail systems, and guardrail systems are provided in accordance with § 1910.28; (2) Vertical clearance above any stair tread to any overhead obstruction is at least 6 feet, 8 inches (203 cm), as me asured from the leading edge of the tread. Spiral stairs must meet the vertical clearance requirements in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. (3) Stairs have uniform riser heights and tread depths between landings; (4) Stairway landings and platforms are at least the width of the stair and at least 30 inches (76 cm) in depth, as measured in the direction of travel; (5) When a door or a gate opens directly on a stairway, a platform is provided, and the swing of the door or gate does not reduce the platform’s e ffective usable depth to: (i) Less than 20 inches (51 cm) for platforms installed before January 17, 2017; and The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Note to 1910.25(b)(5)(i): - 2031(3)(a), the Oregon del ayed effective - 002 Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 date is January 1, 2018. stalled on or after January (ii) Less than 22 inches (56 cm) for platforms in 17, 2017 (see Figure D – 7 of this section); The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Note to 1910.25(b)(5)(ii): Instead, in acco 2031(3)(b), the Oregon delayed eff - 002 - rdance with OAR 437 ective date is January 1, 2018. 1910.25 (a) D 1910.25 (b)(5)(ii) - 25

30 Stairways D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules - Door or Gate Opening on Stairway 7 - Figure D (6) Each stair can support at least five times the normal anticipated live load, but never less than a concentrated load of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) applied at any point; (7) Standard stairs are used to provide access from one walking - working surface to another when operations necessitate regular and routine travel between levels, including access to operating platforms for equipment. Winding stairways may be used on tanks and similar round structures when the diameter of the ta nk or struct ure is at least 5 feet (1.5 m). (8) Spiral, ship, or alternating tread - type stairs are used only when the ble to provide standard stairs. employer can demonstrate that it is not feasi piral, ship, or (9) When paragraph (b)(8) of this section allows the use of s type stairs, they are installed, used, and maintained in alternating tread - accordance wi th manufacturer’s instructions. (c) Standard stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employ er must ensure standard stairs: 50 degrees from the horizontal; (1) Are ins talled at angles between 30 to (2) Have a maximum riser height of 9 .5 inches (24 cm); (3) Have a minimum tread d epth of 9.5 inches (24 cm); and (4) Have a minimum width of 22 inches (56 cm) between vertical barriers ee Fig (s 8 of this section). – ure D 1910.25 (b)(6) D 1910.25 (c)(4) - 26

31 Stairways D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Dimensions of Standard Stairs - - Figure D 8 (5) Exception to paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section. The requirements installed prior of paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) do not apply to standard stairs to 2017. OSHA will deem those stairs in compliance if they January 17, 1 of this section or – meet the dimension requirements specified in Table D they use a combination that achieves the angle requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section. Note to 1910.25 (c)(5): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in - 002 - 2031(3)(c), the Oregon delayed effective date is January accordance with OAR 437 1, 2018. - D 1910.25 (c)(5) 27 1910.25 (c)(5)

32 Stairways D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules T - 1 - Stairway Rise and Tread Dimensions able D (in inches) Tread run Angle to horizontal Rise (in inches) 30 deg. 35' 6 1/2 11 32 deg. 08' 6 3/4 10 3/4 33 deg. 41' 7 10 1/2 35 deg. 16' 7 1/4 10 1/4 7 1/2 10 36 deg. 52' 9 3/4 7 3/4 38 deg. 29' 8 40 deg. 08' 9 1/2 41 deg. 44' 8 1/4 9 1/4 8 1/2 9 43 deg. 22' 45 deg. 00' 8 3/4 8 3/4 46 deg. 38' 9 8 1/2 8 1/4 48 deg. 16' 9 1/4 8 9 1/2 49 deg. 54' oyer must (d) Spiral stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the empl ensure spiral stairs: ear width of (1) Have a minimum cl 26 inches (66 cm); r height of 9.5 inches (24 cm); (2) Have a maximum rise (3) Have a minimum headroom above spiral stair treads of at least 6 feet, 6 inches (2 m), measured from the leading edge of the tread; (4) Have a minimum tread depth of 7.5 inches ( 19 cm), measured at a point 12 inches (30 cm) from the narrower edge; (5) Have a uniform tread size; (e) Ship stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must 9 of this section): – ee Figure D ensure ship stairs (s 70 degrees from the horizontal; (1) Are installed at a slope of 50 to (2) Have open risers with a vertical rise between tread surfaces of 6.5 to 12 inches (17 to 30 cm); depth of 4 inches (10 cm); and (3) Have minimum tread (4) Have a minimum tre ad width of 18 inches (46 cm). 1910.25 (e)(4) D 1910.25 (d) - 28

33 Stairways D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Figure D - Ship Stairs - 9 - (f) Alternating tread type stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the type stairs: - alternating tread employer must ensure alled at a slope of 50 to (1) Have a series of treads inst 70 degrees from the horizontal; (2) Have a distance between handrails of 17 to 24 inches (51 to 61 cm); (3) Have a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (22 cm); and s less than 9.5 inches (24 (4) Have open risers if the tread depth i cm); (5) Have a minimum tread width of 7 inches (18 cm), measured at the leading ed ge of the tread (i.e., nosing). Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. ef. 11/1/17. OR - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - 2017, f. 5/16/17, Hist: 1910.25 (f)(5) D 1910.25 (f) - 29

34 Dockboards | Scaffolds and rope descent systems D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 1910.26 Dockboards The employer must ensure that each dockboard used meets the requirements of this sec tion. The employer must ensure: n (a) Dockboards are capable of supporting the maximum intended load i accordance with § 1910.22(b); (b) 1) Dockboards put into initial service on or after January 17, 2017 are ( designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent transfer vehicles from running off the dockboard edge; Note to 1910.26(b)(1): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Inst ead, in - 002 ective date is January 1, 2031(4), the Oregon delayed eff accordance with OAR 437 - 2018. (2) Exception to paragraph (b)(1) of this section. When the employer demonstrates there is no hazard of transfer vehicles running off the dockb oard edge, the - do not have run dockboards that employer may use off protection. (c) Portable dockboards are secured by anchoring them in place or using equipment or devices that prevent the dockboard from moving out of a safe position. When the employer demonstrates that securing the dockboard is not feasible, the employer must ensure there is sufficient contact between the dockboard and the surface to prevent the dockboard from moving out of a safe position; (d) Measures, such as wheel chocks or sand shoes, are used to prevent the transport vehicle (e.g. a truck, semitrailer, trailer, or rail car) on which a dockboard is placed, from moving while empl oyees are on the dockboard; and (e) Portable dockboards are equipped with handholds or other means to perm it ing of dockboards. safe handl Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. Hist: OR - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. 1910.27 Scaffolds and rope descent systems (a) Scaffolds. Scaffolds used in general industry must meet the requirements in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L (Scaffolds). ds used in general industry are located in Divisio The regulations for scaffol Note 1: n 3/L. - D 1910.26 1910.27 (a) 30

35 Scaffolds and rope descent systems | Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Note 2: The following rules were repealed on 11/1/2017 with AO 2 - 2017: 0072 Manually propelled elevation aerial platforms. - 002 - OAR 437  0074 Scissor lifts self platforms.  OAR 437 - 002 - propelled elevating work – - 002 - 0076 Boom supported elevating work.  OAR 437 - These requirements were previously located in Division 2/F. The regulations for these three devices used in general industry are now located in Division 3/L and are identified as: 071 Manually propelled elevation aerial platforms. 0 - 003 - OAR 437  - propelled elevating work platforms. self  OAR 437 - 003 - 0074 Scissor lifts – -  OAR 437 003 - 0073 Boom supported elevating work. 002 - - 2027 Rope descent & rope access Note: 1910.27(b) was not adopted. See OAR 437 systems. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR Hist: 437 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems 2027 - 002 - (1) Scope and application. This rule establishes safety requirements for rope descent and rope access. Rope descent and rope access systems can provide reach locations, either natural or - a safe way for employees to reach hard - to - of this rule include, but are not limited to, the made. The requirements man cleaning of buildings or structures, the inspection of dams and spillways, access to interior or exterior structural and architectural components of buildings, highway/bridge inspection and maintenance, pow erplant penstocks and other difficult access areas. (2) Definitions. For the purposes of this rule the following definitions apply: Access is the means of reaching a workspace of a work area. ropes are Rope access means the use of rope access equipment where two used; one as the primary means of support and a second for fall arrest protection. The employee accesses the work area by ascending, descending, or traversing along both ropes by alternating connections and weight between the two ropes. Rope acc ess may also be called industrial rope access but is not limited to industrial applications. 1910.27 (a) D - 2027 (2) 31 437 - 002 -

36 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Rope descent system means a suspension system that allows an employee to descend in a controlled manner and, as needed, stop at any point during the ope descent system usually consists of a roof anchorage, support descent. A r rope, a descent device, carabiner(s) or shackle(s), and a chair (seatboard). A rope descent system also is called controlled descent equipment or apparatus. ude industrial rope access systems. Rope descent systems do not incl (3) Personal Protective Equipment. The employer must ensure personal protective equipment is in accordance with Division 2/I when rope descent systems or rope access methods are used. (4) Anchorages for Rope Descent and Rope Access Systems. (a) Permanent Anchorages on Buildings. (A) Before any rope descent or rope access system is used, the building owner must inform the employer, in writing that the building owner ermanent has identified, tested, certified, and maintained each p anchorage so it is capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.24kN), in any direction, for each employee attached. The information must be based on an annual inspection by a qualified person and certification of each anchorage by a qualified person, as necessary, and at least every 10 years. (B) The employer must ensure that no employee uses any permanent anchorage before the employer has obtained written information from the building owner that each anchorage meets the requirements of - 437 - 002 2027(4)(a)(A). The employer must keep the information for the duration of the job. (C) The requirements of 437 - 002 2027(4)(a)(A) and (B) must be - implemented no later than December 1, 2018. (b) Temporary Anchorages. Anchorages for rope descent or rope acce ss systems on structure or natural surroundings other than buildings must be all independent from each other (primary support rope and secondary f arrest system) and must be: (A) Capable of supporting at least 5000 pounds (22.24 kN) for each employee attached: or qualified (B) Designed, installed, and used, under the supervision of a person, as part of a complete system that maintains a safety factor of at least two. 437 - 002 - 2027 (2) D 2027 (4)(b)(B) - 32 437 - 002 -

37 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (5) Rope descent systems. The employer must ensure: (a) No rope descent system is used for heights greater than 300 feet (91 m) above grade unless the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to access such heights by any other means or that those means pose a greater hazard than using a rope descent system; (b) The rope descent system is used in accordance with instructions, warnings, and design limitations set by the manufacturer or under the direction of a qualified person; (c) Each employee who uses the rope descent system is trained in accordance with 1910.30; (d) The rope descent system is inspected at the start of each workshift that it is to be used. The employer must ensure damaged or defective equipment is removed from service immediately and replaced; (e) The rope descent system has proper rigging, including anchorages and tiebacks, with particular emphasis on providing tiebacks when permanent anchorages are - cornice hooks, or similar non counterweights, used; (f) Each employee uses a separate, independent personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of 1910.140 in Division 2, Subdivision I; (g) All components of each rope descent system, e xcept seat boards, are capable of sustaining a minimum rated load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN). Seat boards must be capable of supporting a live load of 300 pounds (136 kg); 002 - Note to 437 Oregon OSHA based this rule on federal OSHA’s 2027(5)(g): - 1910.27(b) (2)(vii). Federal OSHA’s discussion on final rule 1910.27(b)(2)(vii), as published on page 82577 of the Federal Register on November 18, 2016, states the following: “OSHA notes that the final rule does not preclude the use of lines or ropes that have kno ts, swage, or eye splice, which could reduce the tensile strength of a rope or line. However, under final paragraph (b)(2)(vii), even if an employer uses a line or rope ing a that has a knot, swage, or eye split, the rope or line still must be capable of support minimum rated load of 5,000 pounds.” (h) Prompt rescue of each employee is provided in the event of a fall, equipment malfunction or entanglement; (i) The ropes of each rope descent system are effectively padded or otherwise contact edges of the building, anchorage, protected, where they can obstructions, or other surfaces, to prevent them from being cut or weakened; 437 - 002 - 2027 (5) D - 33 437 - 002 - 2027 (5)(i)

38 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems D Division Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division 2 (j) Stabilization is provided at the specific work location when descents are greater than 130 feet (39.6 m); (k) No employee uses a rope descent system when hazardous weather conditions, such as storms or gusty or excessive wind, are present; (l) Equipment, such as tools, squeegees, or buckets, is secured by a tool lanyard or similar method to prevent it from falling; (m) The ropes of each rope descent system are protected from exposure to open flames, hot work, corrosive chemicals, and other destructive conditions; (n) The ropes of each rope descent system are made from industrial synthetic pes made from natural fibers safety rope. Ro - fibers and classified as life and polypropylene cannot be used for rope descent; (o) Descent control devices include automatic locks that will engage and prevent an uncontrolled descent in case the employee lets go or loses control of the device; ages for rope descent systems meet the requirements of 437 - 002 - (p) Anchor 2027(4) of this rule; and work briefing is conducted with each employee involved in rope - (q) A pre descent to include, but is not limited to: (A) The objective(s) of the work to be performed. specific hazards. ( B) Site - (C) Environmental conditions that could affect the safety of the employee using the system. llowed (e.g., employee rescue). (D) Emergency procedures to be fo (6) Rope access systems. (a) Exceptions. 437 - 002 - 2027(6) does not apply to: (A) Emergency search and rescue operations. (B) Entertainment performances and rehearsals. This exception does not apply to the set up, dismantling or operation of; stages, sound systems, lighting systems, pyrotechnics, associated supporting structures or props. ered by Division 2, Subdivision R. (C) Tree and shrub service activities cov 437 - 002 - 2027 (5)(j) D 2027 (6)(a)(C) - 34 437 - 002 -

39 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (b) Written Rope Access Program. The employer must develop, implement and maintain a written Rope Access Program that includes, but not be limited to the following elements: esponsible for the overall (A) Identification of a program administrator r rope access program. (B) Methods of access and anchorage used by the employer. (C) Listing of specific rope skills (i.e. ascending, descending, traversing, aid climbing, etc.) necessary to complete the work. (D) Employee selecti on criteria . (E) Equipment selection and inspection criteria. (F) Roles and responsibilities of rope access team members. (G) Communication systems. (H) Employee training program. (I) Rescue and emergency protocol. ards that may affect the safety of (J) Identification of any unique site haz employees using rope access equipment and methods. work briefings. - (K) Pre (c) Program Administration. The employer must ensure that the rope access program is administered by a program administrator knowledgeable in the elements of the written rope access program as required by subsection (6)(b) of this rule. (d) Training and Evaluation. The employer must conduct training according to the requirements of 1910.30, and ensure: /or are engaged in (A) Employees who use rope access equipment and rope access activities are trained and evaluated by persons with the qualifications and experience necessary to effectively instruct the employee in the proper fundamentals of rope access, equipment, and techniques described in subsectio n (6)(b) of this rule; (B) Employees, prior to engaging in rope access activities, are trained in accordance with the written Rope Access Program, including applicable equipment, skills and rescue methods required of the work; - 35 - 002 - 2027 (6)(b) D 437 (6)(d)(B) 2027 - 002 - 437

40 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules ing in rope access activities, are evaluated (C) Employees, prior to engag on demonstration by the employee of his/her skills; - by a hands (D) Employees, at a minimum, who perform rope access activities receive annual refresher training in accordance with 1910.30 and the written Rope Ac cess Program; (E) Employees, at a minimum, who perform rope access activities are - - annually re on demonstration) of their ability to evaluated (e.g., hands perform work in accordance with the written Rope Access Program; (F) Employees who perform rope acces - trained and re - evaluated s are re before further engaging in rope access activities when the employer has reason to believe the employee does not have the understanding or skills required by 1910.30 and the written Rope Access Program. the employer has reason to believe the employee Additionally, when has violated a condition of the written Rope Access Program, the evaluated. Re - - training and re - trained and re - employee must be re evaluation under this subsection may be limited to the specific topics, conce pts or skills which the employer believes, or the employee has demonstrated, are deficient; - evaluation events are training, evaluation and re - (G) All training, re documented, and retained for three years; and - (H) Documentation of employee training, re - training, evaluation and re ev aluation include the following: (i) Name of the employee; (ii) Skills included in the training or evaluation; - (iii) Date(s) of the training or re training; - (iv) Date(s) of the evaluation or re evaluation; (v) Identity of the person(s) perform training or evaluation. ing the (e) Rope Access Use. When rope access is used, the employer must ensure: (A)There are at least two rope access trained employees present at the physical location where rope access is being performed; (B) No employee uses a rope acc ess system when hazardous weather conditions, such as storms or excessive wind, are present; 437 - 002 - 2027 (6)(d)(C) D 2027 (6)(e)(B) - 36 437 - 002 -

41 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (C) Anchorages for rope access systems meet the requirements of 437 - 002 - 2027(4) of this rule; (D) Each employee using a rope access system 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by a personal fall arrest system in compliance with 1910.140 in 2/I with the following exceptions to 1910.140: (i) 1910.140(c)(1) does not apply when aluminum carabiners meet the 40(c)(8). strength requirements of 1910.1 (ii) 1910.140(c)(10)(i) does not apply when carabiners are connected directly to rope meeting the requirements of 437 - 002 - 2027(6)(e)(E)(i) and (ii). (iii) 1910.140(c)(10)(ii) does not apply during temporary rope transfer s are connected to each other lasting operations when carabiner only long enough to complete the transfer and not as a part of the rigging for normal use. (iv) 1910.140(c)(10)(iii) does not apply during temporary rope transfer - single D operations when multiple carabiners are connected to a ring lasting only long enough to complete the transfer and not as a part of the rigging for normal use. (E) Components used for rope access support, positioning, transfer and up (fall protection) must meet the following minimum back - requirements: (i) Primary support ropes and secondary fall arrest ropes are made safety rope. from industrial synthetic fibers and classified as life - Ropes made from natural fibers or polypropylene cannot be used for rope access. (ii) Primary support ropes and secondary fall arrest ropes have a minimum rated breaking strength before being knotted, swaged or spliced of 6,000 pounds (26.69 kN) as established by the rope eye - manufacturer. (iii) Combination harnesses (designed and manufactured for rope access positioning an d employee fall protection) are capable of sustaining a minimum rated load of 3,600 pounds (16.01 kN). (iv) Seat boards must be capable of supporting a live load of 300 pounds (136 kg). 437 - 002 - 2027 (6)(e)(C) D 2027 (6)(e)(E)(iv) - 37 437 - 002 -

42 Rope Desce nt & Rope Access Systems D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (v) Connectors must have an automatic locking feature and are capable of sustaining a minimum rated load of 5,000 pounds (22.24 kN). (vi) Descent control devices include automatic locks that will engage and prevent an uncontrolled descent in case the employee lets go or loses control of the device and are capable of sustaini ng a minimum rated load of 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN). (vii) Manufactured lanyards (cowstails) are capable of sustaining a minimum rated load of 5,000 pounds (22.24 kN) as established by the manufacturer. (viii) Job of rope, meet made lanyards (cowstails), when constructed - - the requirements of 437 - 002 2027(6)(e)(E)(i) and (ii). - up devices (fall arrest) must be capable of sustaining a (ix) Back minimum rated load of 3,600 pounds (16.01 kN). (x) Auxiliary equipment designed to allow an employee to move along a line (rope) such as rope clamps, rope grabs, chest ascenders, foot ascender and hand ascenders must be capable of sustaining a minimum rated load of 1,000 pounds (4.49 kN). (F) Rope access system components are used in accordance with instructions, warnings, and design limitations set by the manufacturer or under the direction of a qualified person; (G) Rope access system components are inspected at the start of each workshift that it is to be used. The employer must ensure damaged or ely and defective equipment is removed from service immediat replaced; (H) Prompt rescue of each employee is provided in the event of a fall, equipment malfunction or entanglement, or assure employees are able to rescue themselves; (I) The ropes of each rope access system are effectively padded or otherwise protected, where they can contact edges of the building, anchorage, obstructions, structure, or other surfaces, to prevent them from being cut or weakened; (J) The ropes of each rope access system are protected from exposure to sive chemicals, and other destructive open flames, hot work, corro conditions; - 002 - 2027 (6)(e)(J) 2027 (6)(e)(E)(v) D 437 - 38 437 - 002 -

43 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems | Duty to have fall protection and D falling object protection Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (K) Equipment, such as tools are secured by a tool lanyard or similar method to prevent it from falling where employees below are exposed to falling objects; mployee involved in rope work briefing is conducted with each e - (L) A pre access to include, but is not limited to: (i) The objective(s) of the work to be performed. (ii) Site specific hazards. - (iii) Environmental conditions that could affect the safety of the employee using the system. (iv) Emergency pr ocedures to be followed (e.g., employee rescue). Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. Hist: 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - OR - OSHA Admin. Order 2 Duty to have fall protectio 1910.28 object protection n and falling (a) General. (1) This section requires employers to provide protection for each employee exposed to fall and falling object hazards. Unless stated otherwise, the employer must ensure that all fall protection and falling object protection required by this section meet the criteria in § 1910.29, except that personal fall protection systems required by this section m eet the criteria of § 1910.140. ( 2) This section does not apply: (i) To portable ladders; vestigating, or assessing workplace (ii) When employers are inspecting, in conditions or work to be performed prior to the start of work or after all work has been completed. This exemption does not apply when fall protection systems or equipment meeting the requirements of § installed and are available for workers to use for 1910.29 have been work and post - investigations, or assessments; pre - work inspections, (iii) To fall hazards presented by the exposed perimeters of entertainment - ters of rail stages and the exposed perime station platforms; iv) To powered pla ( tforms covered by § 1910.66(j); (v) To aerial lifts covered b y § 1910.67(c)(2)(v); 437 - 002 - 2027 (6)(e)(K) 1910.28 (a)(2)(v) D - 39

44 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 (vi) To telecommunications work covered b y § 1910.268(n)(7) and (8); and (vii) To electric power generation, transmission, and distribution work - OAR 437 2 - 002 covered by 306(2) within Subdivision 2/RR. (b) Protection from fall hazar ds. ( 1) Unprotected sides and edges. (i) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, the employer must ensure that each employee on a walking - working surface with an unprotected side or edge that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling b y one or more of the following: (A) Guardrail systems; (B) Safety net systems; or (C) Personal fall protection systems, such as personal fall arrest, travel t, or positioning systems. res train Note: Oregon OSHA did not adopt paragraph 1910.28(b)(1)(ii) or the corresponding note to paragr aph (b)(1)(ii) of this section. (iii) When the employer can demonstrate that the use of fall protection systems is not feasible on th e working side of a platform used at a loading rack, loading dock, or teeming platform, the work may be done ll protection system, provided: without a fa (A) The work operation for which fall protecti on is infeasible is in process; (B) Access to the platfor m is limite d to authorized employees; and, (C) The authorized employees are traine d in accordance with § 1910.30. reas. The employer must ensure: (2) Hoist a ) Each employee in a hoist area is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) (i or more to a lower level by: (A) A guardrail system; or (B) A personal fall arrest system; 1910.28 (a)(2)(vi) D 1910.28 (b)(2)(i)(B) - 40

45 and falling object protection Duty to have fall protection D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (C) A travel restraint system. is removed, (ii) When any portion of a guardrail system, gate, or chains and an employee must lean through or over the edge of the access opening to facilitate hoisting, the employee is protected from falling by a perso nal fall arrest system. (iii) If grab handles are installed at hoist areas, they meet th e requirem ents of § 1910.29(l). oles. The employer must ensure: (3) H (i) Each employee is protected from falling through any hole (including skylights) that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level by one or more of the following: (A) Covers; systems; (B) Guardrail C) Travel restraint systems; or ( (D ) Personal fall arrest systems. (ii) Each employee is protected from tripping into or stepping into or by through any hole that is less than 4 feet (1.2 m) above a lower level covers or guardrail systems. ach employee is protected from falling into a stairway floor hole by a (iii) E fixed guardrail system on all exposed sides, except at the stairway entrance. However, for any stairway used less than once per day the use of a fixed where traffic across the stairway floor hole prevents guardrail system (e.g., holes located in aisle spaces), the employer may protect employees from falling into the hole by using a hinged floor hole cover that meets the criteria in § 1910.29 and a removable guardrail system on all expose d sides, except a t the entrance to the stairway. (iv) Each employee is protected from falling into a ladderway floor hole or ladderway platform hole by a guardrail system and toeboards erected - a self on all exposed sides, except at the entrance to the hole, where gate or an offset must be used. closing (v) Each employee is protected from falling through a hatchway and chute floor hole by: 1910.28 (b)(2)(i)(C) D 1910.28 (b)(3)(v) - 41

46 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 hole cover that meets the criteria in § 1910.29 and - (A) A hinged floor osed side. When a fixed guardrail system that leaves only one exp the hole is not in use, the employer must ensure the cover is closed or a removable guardrail system is provided on the exposed sides; (B) A removable guardrail system and toeboards on not more than two sides of the hole and a fixed guardra il system on all other exposed sides. The employer must ensure the removable guardrail system is kept in place when the hole is not in use; or (C) A guardrail system or a travel restraint system when a work operation necessitates passing material through hatchway or a chute floor hole. (4) Dockboards. (i) The employer must ensure that each employee on a dockboard is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a lower level by a guardrail system or handrails. t required when: (ii) A guardrail system or h andrails are no ions handling operat (A) Dockboards are being used solely for materials - using motorized equipment; (B) Employees engaged in these operations are not exposed to fall hazards greater than 10 feet (3 m); and (C) Those employees have been train d in accordance with § 1910.30. e (5 ) Runways and similar walkways. (i) The employer must ensure each employee on a runway or similar er walkway is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a low level by a guardrail system. can demonstrate that it is not feasible to have (ii) When the employer guardrails on both sides of a runway used exclusively for a special purpose, the employer may omit the guardrail on one side of the runway, provided the employer ensures: (46 cm) wide; and (A) The runway is at le ast 18 inches (B) Each employee is provided with and uses a personal fall arrest tem or travel restraint system. sys ment. The employer must ensure: (6) Dangerous equip 1910.28 (b)(3)(v)(A) D 1910.28 (b)(6) - 42

47 and falling object protection Duty to have fall protection D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (i) Each employee less than 4 feet (1.2 m) above dangerous equipment is m falling into or onto the dangerous equipment by a protected fro guardrail system or a travel restraint system, unless the equipment is ded to eliminate the hazard. covered or guar (ii) Each employee 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above dangerous equipment m falling by: mus t be protected fro (A) Guardrail systems; (B) Safety net systems; C) Travel restraint systems; or ( ) Personal fall arrest systems. (D (7) Openings. The employer must ensure that each employee on a walking - working surface near an opening, including one with a chute attached, where the inside bottom edge of the opening is less than 39 inches (99 working surface and the outside bottom edge of - cm) above that walking the opening is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protec ted from falling by the use of: (i) Guardrail systems; (ii) Safety net systems; (iii ) Travel restraint systems; or, ) Personal fall arrest systems. (iv (8) Repair pits, service pits, and assembly pits less than 10 feet in depth. The pair pit, service pit, use of a fall protection system is not required for a re m) deep, provided the or assembly pit that is less than 10 feet (3 employer: (i) Limits access within 6 feet (1.8 m) of the edge of the pit to authorized d in accordance with § 1910.30; employees traine 1910.28 (b)(6)(i) D 1910.28 (b)(8)(i) - 43

48 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit (ii) Applies floor markings at in colors that contrast with the surrounding area; or places a warning line at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit as well as stanchions that are capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds (71 N) applied horizontally against the stanchion at a height of 30 inches (76 cm); or places a combination of floor markings and warning lines at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit. When two or more pits in a common area are not more than 15 feet (4.5m) apart, the employer may comply by placing contrasting floor markings at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the pit edge around t he entire area of the pits; and (iii) Posts readily visible caution signs that meet the requirements of § Open Pit.’’ — 1 and state ‘‘Caution 910.145 t (7.3 m) above a lower (9) Fixed ladders (that extend more than 24 fee level). (i) For fixed ladders that extend more than 24 feet (7.3 m) above a lower evel, the employer must ensure: l (A) Existing fixed ladders. Ea ch fixed ladder installed before November 19, 2018 is equipped with a personal fall arrest system, ladder e, or well; safety system, cag Note to 1910.28(b)(9)(i)(A): The above referenced date does not apply in 2031(5)(a), the Oregon Oregon. Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 - 00 2 - ctive date is November 1, 2019. delayed effe (B) New fixed ladders. Each fixed ladder installed on and after stem November 19, 2018, is equipped with a personal fall arrest sy or a ladder safety system; The above referenced date does not apply in : Note to 1910.28(b)(9)(i)(B) 2031(5)(b), the Oregon - 002 Oregon. Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 - delayed effe ctive date is November 1, 2019. (C) Replacement. When a fixed ladder, cage, or well, or any portion of a section thereof, is repl aced, a personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system is installed in at least that section of the fixed the replacement is located; and ladder, cage, or well where (D) Final deadline. On and after November 18, 2036, all fixed ladders are equipped wi th a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system. 1910.28 (b)(9)(i)(D) D 1910.28 (b)(8)(ii) - 44

49 protection and falling object protection Duty to have fall D Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Note to 1910.28(b)(9)(i)(D): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. 2031(5)(c), the Oregon delayed effective - 002 Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 - date is Decemb er 1, 2036. (ii) Wh en a one - section fixed ladder is equipped with a personal fall protection or a ladder safety system or a fixed ladder is equipped with a personal fall arrest or ladder safety system on more than one sec tion, the employer must ensure: (A) The personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system provides protection throughout the entire vertical distance of the ladder, inc luding all ladder sections; and (B) The ladder has rest platforms provided at maximum intervals of 150 feet (45.7 m). (iii) The employer mus t ensure ladder sections having a cage or well: set from adjacent sections; and (A) Are off (B) Have landing platforms provided at maximum intervals of 50 feet (15.2 m). (iv) The employer may use a cage or well in combination with a personal tem or ladder safety system provided that the cage or fall arrest sys th the operation of the system. well does not interfere wi tdoor advertising (billboards). (10) Ou (i) The requirements in paragraph (b)(9) of this section, and other his part, apply to fixed ladders in subparts D and I of t requireme nts used in outdoor advertising activities. (ii) When an employee engaged in outdoor advertising climbs a fixed ladder before November 19, 2018 that is not equipped with a cage, well, personal fall arrest system, or a ladder sa fety system the emp loyer must ensure the employee: The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Note to 1910.28(b)(10)(ii): - - 2031(5)(d), the Oregon delayed effective 002 Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 date is Novemb er 1, 2019. ning and demonstrates the physical capability to (A) Receives trai perform the necessary climbs in accordance with § 1910.29(h); inch (46 cm) rest - n 18 (B) Wears a body harness equipped with a lanyard; 1910.28 (b)(10)(ii)(B) D 1910.28 (b)(9)(ii) - 45

50 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 hen climbing on the (C) Keeps both hands free of tools or material w r; and ladde (D) Is protected by a fall protection system u pon reaching the work position. (11) Stair ways. The employer must ensure: (i) Each employee exposed to an unprotected side or edge of a stairway landing that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected guardrail or stair rail system; by a d at least 4 risers is (ii) Each flight of stairs having at least 3 treads an equipped with stair rail sy stems and handrails as follows: s Stairway Handrail Requirement Table D - 2 - With earth built up One open side Two open sides Stair width Enclosed on both sides Less than One stair rail system One stair rail system with At least one handrail on open side. 44 inches . handrail each open side. (1.1 m) One stair rail system with One handrail on One stair rail system 44 inches m) to handrail on open side with handrail on each each enclosed ( 1.1 inches and one handrail on open side. side. 88 enclosed side. (2.2 m) One stair rail system with Greater One stair rail system One handrail on ndrail on each with ha than enclosed each handrail on open side, inches 88 open side and one side and one one handrail on enclosed side, and one intermediate (2.2 m) intermediate handrail located in the middle intermediate handrail handrail located in of the stair. the middle of the located in the middle of the stair. stair. One Exterior handrail stairs less than on at least 44 inches one side. (1.1 m) The width of the stair must be clear of all obstructions except handrails. Note to table: d with (iii) Each ship stairs and alternating tread type stairs is equippe handrails on both sides. tems. The employer must ensure: (12) Scaffolds and rope descent sys D 1910.28 (b)(10)(ii)(C) 46 1910.28 (b)(12) -

51 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 9 on a scaffold is protected from falling in accordance 2 (i) Each employee CFR part 1926, subpart L; and (ii) Each employee using a rope descent system 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by a personal fall arrest system. (13) Work on low - s lope roofs. (i) When work is performed less than 6 feet (1.6 m) from the roof edge, the employer must ensure each employee is protected from falling by a or guardrail system, safety net system, travel restraint system, personal fall arrest system. n work is performed at least 6 feet (1.6 m) but less than 15 feet (ii) Whe (4.6 m) from the roof edge, the employer must ensure each employee is protected from falling by using a guardrail system, safety net system. The system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest employer may use a designated area when performing work that is both infrequent and t emporary. (iii) When work is performed 15 feet (4.6 m) or more from th e roof edge, the employer must: (A) Protect each employee from falling by a guardrail sys tem, safety system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest system net or a designated area. The employer is not required to provide any fall protection, provided the work is both infrequent and temporary; and prohibiting employees from (B) Implement and enforce a work rule going within 15 feet (4.6 m) of the roof edge without using fall protection in accordance with paragraphs (b)(1 3)(i) and (ii) of this section. (14) S laughtering facility platforms. the unprotected working (i) The employer must protect each employee on side of a slaughtering facility platform that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more er level from falling by using: above a low (A) Guardrail systems; or (B) Travel restraint systems. 1910.28 (b)(14)(i)(B) D 1910.28 (b)(12)(i) - 47

52 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division or travel (ii) When the employer can demonstrate the use of a guardrail restraint system is not feasible, the work may be done without those rovided: systems p (A) The work operation for which fall protecti on is infeasible is in process; (B) Access to the platform is limit ed to authorized employees; and rized employees are traine d in accordance with § (C) The autho 1910.30. working surfaces not otherwise addressed. Except as provided - (15) Walking elsewhere in this section or by other subparts of this part, the employer working sur must ensure each employee on a walking - face 4 feet (1.2 m) l is protected from falling by: or more above a lower leve ardrail systems; (i) Gu (ii) Safety net systems; or (iii) Personal fall protection systems, such as personal fall arrest, travel traint, or positioning systems. res When an employee is exposed to falling from falling objects. rotection (c) P objects, the employer must ensure that each employee wears head protection that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part. In addition, the employer must protect employees from falling obj ects by implementin g one or more of the following: (1) Erecting toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems to prevent objects from falling to a lower level; (2) Erecting canopy structures and keeping potential falling objects far enough from an edge, hole, o r opening to prevent them fr om falling to a lower level; or (3) Barricading the area into which objects could fall, prohibiting employees from entering the barricaded area, and keeping objects far enough from an edge or opening to prevent them from falling to a lower level. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. Hist: 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR 1910.28 (c)(3) D 1910.28 (b)(14)(ii) - 48

53 – criteria and practices Fall protection systems and falling object protection D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 criteria – ection Fall protection systems and falling object prot 1910.29 practices and (a) General r equirements. The employer must: (1) Ensure each fall protection system and falling object protection, other than personal fall protection systems, that this part requires meets the requirements in this section. The employer must ensu re each personal fall of this part; and protection system meets the requirements in subpart I (2) Provide and install all fall protection systems and falling object protection this subpart requires, and comply with the other requirements in this subpart be fore any employee begins work that necessitates fall or falling tection. object pro (b) Guardrail systems. The employer must ensure guardrail systems meet the foll owing requirements: (1) The top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail system membe rs, are 42 inches (107 cm), plus or minus 3 inches (8 cm), above the walking - working surface. The top edge height may exceed 45 inches (114 cm), provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of paragraph 11 of thi s section). (b) of this section (se e Figure D – Guard Rail Systems - 11 - Figure D 1910.29 (b)(1) D 1910.29 (a) - 49

54 – criteria and practices Fall protection systems and falling object protection D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 (2) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent intermediate members are installed between the walking - of the guardrail system as follows when working surface and the top edge t least 21 inches (53 cm) high: there is not a wall or parapet that is a (i) Midrails are installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system a nd the walking - working surface; working surface to the top - sh extend from the walking (ii) Screens and me rail and along the entire ope ning between top rail supports; (iii) Intermediate vertical members (such as balusters) are installed no more th an 19 inches (48 cm) apart; and diate members (such as additional midrails (iv) Other equivalent interme and architectural panels) are installed so that the openings are not 48 cm) wide. more than 19 inches ( (3) Guardrail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) app lied in a downward or outward direction t any point along the top rail. within 2 inches (5 cm) of the top edge, a - N) test load is applied in a downward – (4) When the 200 pound (890 direction, the top rail of the guardrail system must not deflect to a height ve the walking - working surface. of less than 39 inches (99 cm) abo (5) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and other equivalent intermediate members are capable of withstanding, ds (667 N) applied in any without failure, a force of at least 150 poun downward or outward direction at any point along the intermediate member. surfaced to protect employees from injury, - (6) Guardrail systems are smooth tching or snagging of such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent ca clothing. (7) The ends of top rails and midrails do not overhang the terminal posts, except where the overhang does not pose a projecti on hazard for employees. (8) Steel banding and plastic banding are not used for top rails or midrails. inches (0.6 c - (9) Top rails and midrails are at least 0.25 m) in diameter or in thickness. 1910.29 (b)(2) D 1910.29 (b)(9) - 50

55 criteria and practices – Fall protection systems and falling object protection D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (10) When guardrail systems are used at hoist areas, a removable guardrail section, consisting of a top rail and midrail, are placed across the access n guardrail sections when employees are not performing opening betwee hoisting operations. The employer may use chains or gates instead of a removable guardrail section at hoist areas if the employer demonstrates the chains or gates provide a level of s afety equivalent t o guardrails. (11) When guardrail systems are used around holes, they are installed on all unprotec ted sides or edges of the hole. (12) For guardrail systems used around holes through which materials may be passed: gh the hole, not more than two (i) When materials are being passed throu sides of the gu ardrail system are removed; and (ii) When materials are not being passed through the hole, the hole must es be guarded by a guardrail system along all unprotected sides or edg or closed over with a cover. (13) W hen guardrail systems are used around holes that serve as points of access (such as ladderways) , the guardrail system opening: (i) Has a self closing gate that slides or swings away from the hole, and is - ntermediate member equipped with a top rail and midrail or equivalent i that meets the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section; or (ii) Is offset to prevent an employee from walking or fallin g into the hole; each (14) Guardrail systems on ramps and runways are installed along unprotected side or edge. (15) Manila or synthetic rope used for top rails or midrails are inspected as necessary to ensure that the rope continues to meet the strength (b)(3) and (5) of this section. requirements in paragraphs The criteria and practices requirements for guardrail Note to paragraph (b) of this section: systems on scaffolds are contained in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L. (c) Safety net systems. The employer must ensure each safety net system meets the requirements in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart M. (d) Designated areas. area, the employer must ensure: (1) When the employer uses a designated (i) Employees remain within the designated area while work operat ions are underway; and 1910.29 (d)(1)(i) D 1910.29 (b)(10) - 51

56 – criteria and practices Fall protection systems and falling object protection D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 (ii) The perimeter of the designated area is delineated with a warning line consisting of a ro pe, wire, tape, or chain that meets the requirements (d)(2) and (3) of this section. of paragraphs ing line: (2) The employer must ensure each warn (i) Has a minimum breaking st rength of 200 pounds (0.89 kN); sag, is not less than 34 inches (ii) Is installed so its lowest point, including (86 cm) and not more than 39 inches (99 cm) abo ve the walking - working surface; (iii) Is supported in such a manner that pulling on one section of the line the will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections causing line to fall below the limits specified in paragr aph (d)(2)(ii) of this section; (iv) Is clearly visible from a distance of 25 feet (7.6 m) away, and ere within the designated area; anywh d k area as the task permits; an (v) Is erected as close to the wor (vi) Is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the roof edge for work that is both temporary and infrequent, or not less than 15 feet (4.6 m) for other work. (3) When mobile mechanical equipment is used to perform work that is both infrequent in a designated area, the employer must ensure temporary and the warning line is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the unprotected side or edge that is parallel to the direction in which the (3 m) from mechanical equipment is operated, and not less than 10 feet the unprotected side or edge that is perpendicular to the direction in which chanical equipment is operated. the me working (e) Covers. The employer must ensure each cover for a hol - e in a walking surface: ure, at least twice the maximum (1) Is capable of supporting without fail the cover at any one time; and intended load that may be imposed on ntal displacement. (2) Is secured to prevent accide tems. The employer must ensure: (f) Handrails and stair rail sys (1) Height criteria. 1910.29 (d)(1)(ii) D 1910.29 (f)(1) - 52

57 criteria and practices – Fall protection systems and falling object protection D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (i) Handrails are n ot less than 30 inches (76 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the handrail (se 12 of this section). – e Figure D (ii) The height of stair ra il systems meets the following: (A) The height of stair rail systems installed before January 17, 2017 is not less than 30 inches (76 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to the t op surface of the top rail; and n The above referenced date does not apply i Note to 1910.29(f)(1)(ii)(A): Oregon. Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 - 002 2031(6)(a), the Oregon - delayed eff ective date is January 1, 2018. (B) The height of stair rail systems installed on or after January 17, 2017 is not less than 42 inches (107 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to t he top surface of the top rail. Note to 1910.29(f)(1)(ii)(B): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in accordance with OAR 437 - 002 - 2031(6)(b), the Oregon delayed eff ective date is January 1, 2018. of a stair rail system may serve as a handrail only when: (iii) The top rail (A) The height of the stair rail system is not less than 36 inches (91 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm) as measured at the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail (see Fi gure D – 13 of this section); and (B) The top rail of the stair rail system meets the other handrail requirements in par agraph (f) of this section. (2) Finger clearance. The minimum clearance between handrails and any object is 2.25 inches (5.7 other cm). surfaced to protect - (3) Surfaces. Handrails and stair rail systems are smooth employees from injury, such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent ca tching or snagging of clothing. (4) Openings in stair rails. No opening in a stair rail system exce eds 19 inches (48 cm) at its least dimension. (5) Handhold. Handrails have the shape and dimension necessary so that employees can grasp the handrail firmly. (6) Projection hazards. The ends of handrails and stair rail systems do not hazards. present any projection 1910.29 (f)(1)(i) D 1910.29 (f)(6) - 53

58 – criteria and practices Fall protection systems and falling object protection D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 (7) Strength criteria. Handrails and the top rails of stair rail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in any downward or outward direction within 2 inches (5 cm) of any point along the top edge of the rail. - Handrail Measurement -12 Figure D - Combination Handrail and Stair Rail -13 Figure D (g) Cages, wells, and platforms used with fixed ladders. The employer must ensure: (1) Cages and wells installed on fixed ladders are designed, constructed, and maintained to permit easy access to, and egress from, the ladder that they enclose (see Figures D – 14 and D – 15 of this section); (2) Cages and wells are continuous throughout the length of the fixed ladder, except for access, egress, and other transfer points; D 1910.29 (f)(7) 1910.29 (g)(2) 54 -

59 Fall protection systems and falling object protection criteria and practices – D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (3) Cages and wells are designed, constructed, and maintained to contain employees in the event of a fall, and to direct them to a lower landing; and (4) Platforms used with fixed ladders provide a horizontal surface of at least 24 inches by 30 inches (61 cm by 76 cm). Section 1910.28 establishes the requirements that employers Note to paragraph (g): must follow on the use of cages and wells as a means of fall protection. - Clearances for Fixed Ladders in Wells -14 Figure D 1910.29 (g)(4) 55 - D 1910.29 (g)(3)

60 Fall protection systems an d falling object protection – criteria and practices D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Orego n Occupational Safety and Health Division Figure D-15 - Example of General Construction of Cages (h) Outdoor advertising. This paragraph (h ) applies only to employers engaged in outdoor advertising operations (see § 1910.28(b)(10)). Employers must ensure that each employee who climbs a fixed ladder without fall protection: (1) Is physically capable, as demonstrated through observations of actual climbing activities or by a physical examination, to perform the duties that may be assigned, including climbing fixed ladders without fall protection; ng or apprenticeship program that (2) Has successfully completed a traini climbing of ladders and is retrained includes hands-on training on the safe as necessary to maintain the necessary skills; D - 56 1910.29 (h) 1910.29 (h)(2)

61 d falling object protection – criteria and practices Fall protection systems an D Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (3) Has the skill to climb ladders safe ly, as demonstrated through formal classroom training or on-the-job tr aining, and performance observation; and (4) Performs climbing duties as a part of routine work activity. The employer must ensure: (i) Ladder safety systems. (1) Each ladder safety system allows the employee to climb up and down ire that the employee continuously using both hands and does not requ hold, push, or pull any part of the system while climbing; (2) The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body harness or belt do es not exceed 9 inches (23 cm); (3) Mountings for rigid carriers are attach ed at each end of the carrier, with cessary, along the entire length of intermediate mountings spaced, as ne the carrier so the system has the strength to stop employee falls; (4) Mountings for flexible ca ch end of the carrier and rriers are attached at ea cable guides for flexible carriers are in stalled at least 25 feet (7.6 m) apart but not more than 40 feet (12.2 m) ap art along the entire length of the carrier; (5) The design and installation of moun tings and cable guides does not reduce the design strength of the ladder; and (6) Ladder safety systems and their support systems are capable of st consisting of an 18-inch (41-cm) withstanding, without failure, a drop te drop of a 500-pound (227-kg) weight. belts, harnesses, and other components (j) Personal fall protection systems. Body work positioning systems, and travel used in personal fall arrest systems, restraint systems must meet the requirements of §1910.140. (k) Protection from falling objects. (1) The employers must ensure toeboard s used for falling object protection: (i) Are erected along the exposed edge of the overhead walking-working surface for a length that is suffi cient to protect employees below. of 3.5 inches (9 cm) as measured (ii) Have a minimum vertical height to the level of the walking-working from the top edge of the toeboard surface. (iii) Do not have more than a 0.25- inch (0.5-cm) clearance or opening above the walking-working surface. D - 57 1910.29 (h)(3) 1910.29 (k)(1)(iii)

62 Fall protection systems an d falling object protection – criteria and practices D Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules Orego n Occupational Safety and Health Division (iv) Are solid or do not have any opening that exceeds 1 inch (3 cm) at its greatest dimension. inches (6 cm) when used around (v) Have a minimum height of 2.5 vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits. Toeboards may be omitted around vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits when the employer can demonstrate that a toeboard would prevent access to a vehicle that is over the pit. (vi) Are capable of withstanding, with out failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 N) applied in any downwa rd or outward direction at any point along the toeboard. (2) The employer must ensure: als are piled higher than the top of (i) Where tools, equipment, or materi the toeboard, paneling or screening is installed from the toeboard to the midrail of the guardrail system and for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below. If the items are piled higher than the midrail, ng or screening to the top rail and the employer also must install paneli for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below; and (ii) All openings in guardrail system s are small enough to prevent objects from falling through the opening. (3) The employer must ensure canopies used for falling object protection are strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by falling objects. (l) Grab handles. The employer must ensure each grab handle: (1) Is not less than 12 inches (30 cm) long; (2) Is mounted to provide at least 3 inches (8 cm) of clearance from the framing or opening; and (3) Is capable of withstanding a maximu m horizontal pull-out force equal to two times the maximum intended load or 200 pounds (890 N), whichever is greater. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. Hist: OR-OSHA Admin. Order 2-2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. D - 58 1910.29 (k)(1)(iv) 1910.29 (l)(3)

63 Training requirements D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 1910.30 Training requirements (a) Fall hazards. (1) Before any employee is exposed to a fall hazard, the employer must provide training for each employee who uses personal fall protection systems or who is required to be trained as specified elsewhere in this subpart. Employers must ensure employees are trained in the requirements of this paragraph on or before May 17, 2017. Note to 1910.30(a)(1): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in accordance with OAR 437- 002-2031(7)(a), the Oregon delayed effective date is May 1, 2018. (2) The employer must ensure that each employee is trained by a qualified person. (3) The employer must train each employee in at least the following topics: (i) The nature of the fall hazards in the work area and how to recognize them; (ii) The procedures to be followed to minimize those hazards; (iii) The correct procedures for installing, inspecting, operating, maintaining, and disassembling the personal fall protection systems that the employee uses; and (iv) The correct use of personal fall protection systems and equipment spec ified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, including, but not limited to, proper hook-up, anchoring, and tie-off techniques, and methods of equipment inspection and storage, as specified by the manufacturer. (b) Equipment hazards. (1) The employer must train each employee on or before May 17, 2017 in the proper care, inspection, storage, and use of equipment covered by this subpart before an employee uses the equipment. Note to 1910.30(b)(1): The above referenced date does not apply in Oregon. Instead, in accordance with OAR 437- 002-2031(7)(b), the Oregon delayed effective date is May 1, 2018. (2) The employer must train each employee who uses a dockboard to properly place and secure it to prevent unintentional movement. (3) The employer must train each employee who uses a rope descent system in proper rigging and use of the equipment in accordance with § 1910.27. 1910.30 (b)(3) 1910.30 (a) D - 59

64 - W orking Training requirements | Delayed Effective Dates for Walking D Surfaces Division 2 Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules - 2027 Rope - Oregon OSHA did not adopt 1910.27. Instead, see OAR 437 Note: 002 d escent and rope access systems. (4) The employer must train each employee who uses a designated area in the pro per set up and use of the area. - (c) Retraining. The employer must retrain an employee when the employer has reason to believe the employee does not have the understanding and skill required by paragraphs (a) a nd (b) of this section. Situations requiring to, the following: retraining include, but are not limited raining obsolete or (1) When changes in the workplace render previous t inadequate; (2) When changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be ning obsolete or inadequate; or used render previous trai (3) When inadequacies in an affected employee’s knowledge or use of fall protection systems or equipment indicate that the employee no longer has to use equip ment or perform the requisite understanding or skill necessary the job safely. (d) Training must be understandable. The employer must provide information that the employee understands. and training to each employee in a manner Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. OR OSHA Admin. Order 2 - Hist: 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. - - Working Surfaces - es for Walking Delayed Effective Dat 2031 - 437 002 (1) Scope and application. The delayed effective dates in this rule apply in 1910.30 within Oregon to 1910.24, 1910.25, 1910.26, 1910.28, 1910.29 and Subdivision 2/D. (2) Step bolts and manhole steps (1910.24). The delayed f ederal effective dates referenced in 1910.24 do not apply in Oregon. In Oregon, the following delayed effective dates apply: 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (a) 1910.24(a)(1): Replace January 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (b) 1910.24(a)(6): Replace January 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (c) 1910.24(a)(7): Replace January (d) 1910.24(b)(2): Replace January 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. 1910.30 (b)(4) D - 2031 (2)(d) 60 437 - 002 -

65 Working Surfaces - Delayed Effective Dates for Walking D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 (3) Stairways (1910.25). The delayed federal effective dates referenced in following delayed effective 1910.25 do not apply in Oregon. In Oregon, the dates apply: 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (a) 1910.25(b)(5)(i): Replace January (b) 1910.25(b)(5)(ii): Replace January 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (c) 1910.25(c)(5): Replace January 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (4) Dockboards (1910.26). The delayed federal effective date referenced in 1910.26(b)(1) does not apply in Oregon. In Oregon, replace January 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (5) Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection (1910.28). The delayed f ederal effective dates referenced in 1910.28 do not apply in Oregon. In Oregon, the following delayed effective dates apply: 9, 2018 with November 1, (a) 1910.28(b)(9)(i)(A): Replace November 1 2019. (b) 1910.28(b)(9)(i)(B): Replace November 1 9, 2018 with November 1, 2019. (c) 1910.28(b)(9)(i)(D): Replace November 1 8, 2036 with December 1, 2036. (d) 1910.28(b)(10)(ii): Replace November 1 9, 2018 with November 1, 2019. criteria and practices (6) Fall protection systems and falling object protection – (1910 .29). The delayed federal effective dates referenced in 1910.29 do not delayed effective dates apply: apply in Oregon. In Oregon, the following (a) 1910.29(f)(1)(ii)(A): Replace January 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (b) 1910.29(f)(1)(ii)(B): Replace Janua ry 17, 2017 with January 1, 2018. (7) Training requirements (1910.30). The delayed federal effective dates referenced in 1910.30 do not apply in Oregon. In Oregon, the following delayed effecti ve dates apply: (a) 1910.30(a)(1): Replace y 1, 2018. May 17, 2017 with Ma (b) 1910.30(b)(1): Replace May 17, 2017 with May 1, 2018. Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4). Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295. 2017, f. 5/16/17, ef. 11/1/17. Hist: - OSHA Admin. Order 2 - OR - 002 2031 (7)(b) - 2031 (3) D 437 - 61 437 - 002 -

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67 Hi Walking - Working Surfaces storical Notes for D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 Notes Sub for division D Historical Notes Note: 1990, filed 1/23/90, The following rules were adopted by OR - OSHA Admin. Order 4 - EFFECTIVE 1/23/90: Subdivision D, Walking - Working Surfaces (29 CFR 1910.21 through 1910.32), Subdivision E, Means of Egress (29 CFR 1910.35 through 1910.40), and Subdivision F , Mounted Work Platforms (29 CFR 1910.66 through Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle - 1910.70). These rules superseded OAR 437, Division 41, Buildings, Structures and Workplaces, ehicles (OAR 437 - 56 - 005(4) Division 88, Ladders and Scaffolds, and specific rules in Division 56, V - through (12), and 437 56 - 200 through 437 - 56 - 260). OSHA Admin. Order 2 1991, filed 2/4/91, Amendments were made to Subdivisions D and F by OR - - effective 4/1/91. Amendments were made to Subdivision D by OR - filed 9/30/94, 1994, OSHA Admin. Order 6 - effective 9/30/94. Amendments were made to Subdivisions D, E and F by OR - OSHA Admin. Order 4 - 1997, filed 4/2/97, effective 4/2/97. Note: - Amendments were made to Subdivisions D by OR OSHA Admin. Order 10 - 1999, filed 9/10/99, effective 9/10/9 9. Oregon OSHA repealed: OAR 437 - 002 - 1910.25, Portable Wood Ladders; 1910.26, Portable Metal Ladders; 1910.27, Fixed Ladders; portions of 1910.21, - 0025, Extension Ladders. In their place, two new rules are added Definitions; and OAR 437 - 002 - 0026, Portable 002 - working surfaces): OAR 437 /D (general industry/walking to Division 2 - - Ladders; and, 437 002 - 0027, Fixed Ladders. to update the existing standards, re - organize them into a more These changes are necessary ith ORS 183.025 that requires us to write understandable sequence, make them compliant w standards in “clear language,” and to add language covering plastic ( reinforced fiberglass) ladders. We deleted old language that went into great detail about the design and construction of ladders. t its respective ANSI e added a simple requirement that each type of ladder mee In its place w standard. Basic use and care requirements are grouped by type of ladder rather than the material from which it is made. Fixed ladder requirements will change to meet the newest - edition of ANSI A 14.3 which changes es and climbing safety devices. requirements for landing platforms, cag Personal Protective Equipment in Construction: Note: Oregon OSHA is revising the personal protective equipment (PPE) sections of its construction tandards regarding requirements for eye and face protective devices, head protection, foot s protection, extremities and torso to include protective clothing, respiratory devices, and protective shields and barriers. Historical Notes D Historical Notes - 63

68 king Surfaces Walking - Wor storical Notes for Hi D Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Oregon OSHA updated the Division 2, Subdi vision I, Personal Protective Equipment references in its regulations on December 8, 2011.The update referenced more recent editions of applicable national consensus standards and removed requirements that employers prepare and maintain written training ce rtification records. Oregon OSHA repealed all of Division 2/I rules with some 002 0134 Personal Protective - exceptions and replaced them with a new Oregon initiated rule, 437 - Equipment, that includes sections covering the scope/application, hazard assessmen t, equipment, training, payment, fall protection, clothing, high visibility garments, and eye, head, foot, leg, hand and skin protection. The change was mostly a format change that simplified the existing text while making little change to the overall rule requirements with a few exceptions. Oregon OSHA modified the hazard assessment requirement to clarify that employers must identify hazards to the entire body, including the torso and extremities, when performing the assessment. The assessment previously s and face and foot protection. as limited to head, hands, eye w We are removing the current PPE requirements in various locations of the construction standard and replacing them with the same requirements that are in General Industry standards of Division 2, Subdivision I. These requirements (with the exception of a written assessment certification) will be substantially similar allowing for greater consistency in con struction and general Industry. head protection, and foot protection protective devices, The design requirements for eye and face - are currently the same in Division 2 General Industry, Shipyard Employment, Marine Terminals, Longshoring, and Division 3 Construction. These revisions are a continuation of Oregon OSHA’s industry standards. nsensus and effort to update co Personal Protective Equipment in General Industry: Oregon OSHA is also amending the general industry PPE rule 437 - 0134, to include ANSI - 002 2009, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection, as another option of - Z89.1 comp liance, as published in the June 22, 2012 Federal Register. http://www.osha.gov/Fed Reg_osha_pdf/FED20120622A.pdf Hole Openings (including skylights) in General Industry: Oregon OSHA is also changing the hole covering requirements for holes in floors, roo fs, and other walking/working surfaces (to include skylights and skylight screens). Currently employers in construction and general industry have different hole cover strength criteria. To eliminate the the general industry requirements to be confusion and inconsistency, Oregon OSHA is changing the same as the construction requirements as referenced in the Federal OSHA proposal for walking working surfaces and personal protective equipment (fall protection) found in the May 24. dReg_osha_pdf/FED20100524.pdf . www.osha.gov/Fe 2010 Federal Register http:// 2013, adopted February 15, 2013, and effective April - This is Oregon OSHA Administrative Order 2 1, 2013. Historical Notes D Historical Notes - 64

69 Hi Walking - Working Surfaces storical Notes for D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Oregon Administrative Rules Division 2 working Note: On February 24, 2017 Oregon OSHA proposed to revise the existing walking - surface and pers onal protective equipment rules for general industry. This proposal was required to harmonize Oregon OSHA’s existing Division 2 regulations with the new Federal OSHA’s rule titled: “Walking Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protectio - n Systems)” as published in the Federal Register on November 18, 2016. Federal OSHA’s general industry final - rule revised the previous walking working surfaces standards within 29 CFR part 1910, subpart D and created a new standard and two new non mandator - y appendixes for fall protection systems within 29 CFR part 1910, subpart I. In addition to the significant changes made to Subparts D and I, federal OSHA also amended standards in 29 CFR part 1910, subparts F, N, and R to create uniformity across all of t he affected subparts where walking working surfaces and personal fall - protection systems are addressed. Oregon OSHA’s proposal made significant revisions to Subdivision 2/D (Walking Working Surfaces) and Subdivision 2/I (Personal Protective Equipment) - of C hapter 437, Division 2 including a proposal for rope access systems. Subsequently, since many existing Oregon OSHA regulations are based on those within 2/D and 2/I, the following Division 2 subdivisions also were amended in the February 24th proposal: 2/A , 2/F, 2/L, 2/N, 2/R, and 2/RR. Four public hearings were held during March and April of 2017. Oregon OSHA received oral testimony at three of the public hearings in addition to written comments. Several comments making. Several comments opposed specific sections of the received supported the overall rule overall rulemaking. Major topics Oregon OSHA received comment on were; impacts of limiting acceptable standard guardrail heights to 42 inches +/ 3 inches, use of body belts in travel - restraint sys tems, inspection of permanent mount lifeline systems, fall protection for fixed ladders and the associated inspections, duty to have fall protection when exposed to unprotected sides surfaces not otherwise - working and edges, duty to have fall protection while exposed to walking addressed by proposed 1910.28(b), an d rope descent/access systems. Oregon OSHA considered all comments received. Oregon OSHA, based on comments received, - Changes 2027 Rope Descent & Rope Access Systems. - 002 made adjustments to proposed 437 include separating the rules for rope descent from those for rope access with the exception of anchorages which both systems share in the final rule. Furthermore, the rope descent portion of portion. The proposed “assessment of the rule is no longer the foundation for the rope access need” for rope access work was removed, a rope access program administrator was added, a section listing minimum capacity requirements for rope access specific equipment was added, and a section establishing exception s to 1910.140 Fall Protection was added when rope access work is conducted. Finally, Oregon OSHA added language to Division 2/I (Personal Protective Equipment) e to permit general industry employers to use anchorages for travel restraint systems that meet th same capacity requirements previous afforded to construction employers in the construction regulations (Division 3/M). s OR 2017, adopted May 16, 2017 and effective November 1, - 2 OSHA Administrative Order - This i 2017. Historical Notes D Historical Notes - 65

70 Walking - Wor king Surfaces D Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division Division 2 Oregon Administrative Rules ist of Figures for Sub division D L up D 1 - Portable Ladder Set - - ... ... 14 Figure Figure D - 2 - Side - Step Fixed Ladder Sections ... ... 15 Figure D - - Example of Counterbalanced Hatch Cover at Roof ... 16 3 ... Figure D - Individual Rung Ladder 4 ... 17 - Figure D - 5 - Fixed Ladder Clearances ... ... 18 Figure D 6 - Step Bolt Spacing - ... ... ... 23 26 ... ... Door or Gate Opening on Stairway - 7 - Figure D ... Figure D - Dimensions of Standard Stairs 8 ... 27 - - 9 - Ship Stairs ... ... ... 29 Figure D Figure D 11 - Guard Rail Systems - ... ... 49 Figure D - 12 - Handrail Measurement ... ... 54 - ... ... Combination Handrail and Stair Rail - 54 Figure D 13 Figure D 14 - Clearances for Fixed Ladders in Wells ... ... 55 - Example of General Construction of Cages Figure D 15 - - 56 ... Sub L of Tables for division D ist - 1 - Stairway Rise and Tread Dimensions ... ... 28 Table D 46 - Stairway Handrail Requirements 2 ... ... Table D - Table of Tables D Table of Figures - 66

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