Save the Penguins ETK

Transcript

1 SAVE THE PENGUINS STEM TEACHING KIT An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Teacher’s Guide 10 29724 and #12 Developed through funding from NSF ITEST award # - 47287. - e Virginia Middle School ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with th ) 14 6 - 4 Engineering Education Initiative (updated version -

2 can be found online at This curriculum and all imbedded documents http://www.auburn.edu/~cgs0013/ETK/SaveThePenguinsETK.pdf Written by Christine Schnittka ([email protected]) With thanks to Professor Larry Richards and hi s engineering students: Kyle Adams, Chase Bennett, Rachel Cohn, Matt Gabriel, , Chilton Griffin Will Gilliam, and Spencer Ingram Editors: Mary Lou Ewald Erin Percival Randall Colvin [email protected] For questions please contact Dr. Schnittka at 29724 - 10 Developed in part through funding from NSF ITEST award # ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 3 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

3 UNIT OVERVIEW Introduction and Background Students’ alternative conceptions of heat and temperature begin at a young age and persist through scho ol. Because of the young age at which children experience warmth, experience being cold, and experience touching hot or cold things, naïve conceptions of heat, temperature and heat transfer are often resistant to change. Even young children intuitively dev elop a “framework theory of physics” to describe and explain the world they experience. The once - popular caloric theory that heat is a substance made of particles that flow still dominates children’s thinking, and they rely on their senses to rature, not understanding the kinetic theory and its implications in heat measure tempe transfer. The belief that cold is a substance that moves is prevalent with middle and high school students. These students also think that metal objects are naturally colder than pla stic ones because metal attracts the cold. The directionality of heat transfer is not understood because heat is not seen to be a form of energy. Without explicit interventions designed to target these alternative conceptions, chances are that they will pe rsist into adulthood. Teaching Kit middle grades is designed to help students with science This STEM (STK) concepts related to heat and energy as well as teach them the basics of engineering eople who design design. They also come away with a sense of how engineers are p - The students’ goal is to design and build a shelter for an ice cube solutions to problems. shaped penguin that reduces heat transfer and keeps the ice from melting. , the broad context is s s learn that the . Student Save the Penguin global climate change In energy we use to heat and cool our houses comes from power plants, most of which use fossil fuels to convert chemical energy to electrical energy. The burning of fossil fuels osphere, which in turn has has been linked to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atm been linked to increases in global temperature. This change in temperature has widespread effects upon life on Earth. Penguins live in the southern hemisphere, primarily on the icy continent of Antarctica. As the Earth warms and ice melts, penguins lose habitat. Therefore, students see that better designed houses that use less energy for - have an effect on penguins. Energy efficient houses that can heating and cooling minimize unnecessary heat transfer will draw less electricity fr om the fossil fuel burning climate change . power plants and not contribute as much to global based science learning reflects the social constructivist theory of learning by - Design uct solutions, having students work collaboratively in groups to solve problems and constr but learn certain skills through the modeling of their teacher. When students are involved - - they are in engineering design based activities, they are not being told what to do on their underlying creating and innovating, making decisions with their peers based making - knowledge. The role of the teacher is to guide students through their decision processes and model new skills to be learned. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 4 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

4 Through engineering design activities, students create their own knowledge of scientific rough active manipulation and testing of materials and ideas. But because principles th students come to school with their own understandings about the world and how it works, their understandings may not resemble those of scientists. The teacher must provide the opport unities for students to challenge and internally modify their prior beliefs. Therefore, social constructivists see that the role of the teacher is to help learners construct their knowledge through scaffolding and coaching. Social constructivists see learners construct meaning through active engagement, not passive listening. that Learners use and apply their knowledge to carry out investigations and create artifacts that represent their understanding. Learners work within a social context as they use langu age to express and debate their ideas. Learners engage in authentic tasks that are relevant to the student and connected with their lives outside of the school setting. Teaching Strategies - Based Science Design In design - based science activities, the t eacher does not tell the students what to build. Instead, the teacher serves as a facilitator and allows students to take the primary lead in their own learning as they apply scientific concepts to engineering design problems . student s P roblem solving through authe ntic tasks that relate to students’ lives increase s interest and deepen . conceptual knowledge - class demonstrations Whole While you may be tempted to jump into the design activity and skip over the demonstrations, please do not. The demonstratio ns provide the cognitive scaffolding necessary for students to link the design challenge with the complex science of heat transfer. They present students with cognitive dissonance through discrepant events; the opportunity to face their conceptions of heat and refine any incorrect ones is imperative . Without the demonstrations and discussions STEM Teaching Kit for the success of this that surround them, students will take away a fun activity that may or may not help them what engineers do. With the demonstrations, d the science, or understan understand students will gain increased conceptual understanding about thermal energy, heat transfer, and temperature. Cooperative Learning Groups h student should groups of three students should be placed in small . or four Eac Ideally, Either allow oup, such as material collector or money handler. be assigned a role in the gr students to pick their own groups, or assign them based on what you know about how working with the same your students get along and work together. Since students will be group members for the duration of this , it is best if the students like one another and unit work well together. Have students sit together with their group members from the , ideally around a table where they c beginning of this unit an each see and talk to one . another ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 5 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

5 Assessment the Save the Penguins In STEM Teaching Kit, assessment is an integral part of instruction and consists of two types: – Formative assessment A. embedded within the lessons, providing continual feedback to the t eachers and students for improving instruction. In this unit, formative assessments include: o Whole - group discussions involving s tudents’ predictions of what will eedback from students/groups happen during demonstrations and f following each demonstration . M o easuring the amount of penguin ice cube that is ‘saved’ as a result of students’ designing an energy efficient penguin dwelling . o Storyboarding during each lesson . A storyboard is like a comic strip in that it tells a story through drawings and words divide d up into sections that flow logically. Each time students learn a new concept, do an experiment, create a design, or test a design, it should be recorded on the storyboard for teachers and students to see and comment on. Ideally, the storyboard is on the wall for easy viewing. an evaluation of cumulative performance, given as written B. Summative assessment – tests before and after the unit to determine students’ content knowledge gains on heat transfer concepts. e “ Heat Transfer Teachers should have each student complete th ” Evaluation at the start of the unit, collect the assessments, score them, but do not instrument return or discuss them with the students. The “Heat Transfer Evaluation” is based on misconceptions research and has been assessed for face and content validity, construct validity, and reliability. The same evaluation will be given to each - tests, score them , and compa re each student at the end of the unit. Collect the post test scores. The assessment will provide the teacher with student’s and post - - pre information about students’ misconceptions about heat. For more information about this instrument and correct answers, contact Christine Schnittka at [email protected] . Safety considerations Caution students not to touch heat lamps during any of the demonstrations or during the or materials . The surface of the heat lamp and surrounding dome can testing of designs cause significant skin burns if touched during or immediately after use. If you use heat lamps with clamps, consider clamping them to ring stands or other stationary devices to reduce the need for handling them. Technology LCD p rojector will be needed to show screen and A computer with speakers, an If laptops or tablets are available, encourage the use P . oint presentations and videos P ower p and set u www.edmodo.com of the social networking educational space, Edmodo. Go to ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 6 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

6 an account for yourself and a “space” for your students to dialogue with each other, share ideas, photos, videos, websites, etc. It’s also a good way for you to post questions and encourage students to respond. Correlation to Standards The STEM Teaching Kit is based on standards derived from the Next Save the Pen guins National Science Education Standards, the Generation Science Standards, the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, and Standards for Technological Literacy. D TO CONTENT RELATE GRADE LEVEL STANDARD SAVE THE PENGUIN ETK Next Generation 1. Make a claim about the merit of a design solution Grades 3 - 4 3 - ESS3 - Science Standards that reduces the impacts of a weather - related hazard. ETS1 - 5 - 3 - 1. Define a simple design problem reflecting a need o r a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. 2. Generate and compare multiple possible - 3 - 5 - ETS1 solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to oblem. meet the criteria and constraints of the pr 3 - 3. Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables - ETS1 - 5 are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. 4 2. Make observations to provide evidence that energy - PS3 - can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents. 8 2. Develop and use a model to describe that waves - PS4 - Next Generation MS - Grades 6 Science Standards are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. - MS 3. Apply scientific principles to design, construct, - PS3 and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer. PS3 - MS 4. Plan an investigation to determine the - relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter , the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample. MS - ETS1 - 1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful into account relevant scientific principles solution, taking and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. - MS 2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a - ETS1 systematic process to determine how well they meet the cr iteria and constraints of the problem. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 7 12 Engineering Education Initiative (updated version 14 - 21 - )

7 3. Analyze data from tests to determine - ETS1 - MS similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. ETS1 MS - - 4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. National Science l Science Content Standard B Physica Grades 5 - 8 Education Standards 1. Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature. 2. Light interacts with matter by absorption or reflection. Chapter 4E 8 rades 6 G Benchmarks for - Science Literacy 1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another. 2. Most of what goes on in the universe... involves some form of energy being transformed into another. ost always one of the 3. Energy in the form of heat is alm products of an energy transformation. 4. Heat can be transferred through materials by the collision of atoms or across space by radiation. 5. If the material is fluid, currents will be set up in it that aid in the transfer of he at. 6. Heat energy is the disorderly motion of molecules. Standards for 8 - Standard 8: Design is a creative planning process that leads Grades 6 Technological to useful products and systems. There is no perfect design. Literacy Requirements for a design are made up of criteria and constraints. Standard 9: Design involves a set of steps which can be ded. performed in different sequences and repeated as nee Brainstorming is a group problem solving design process in - which each person in the group presents his or her ideas in an open forum. Modeling, testing, evaluating and modifying are used to transform ideas into practical solutions. oubleshooting is a problem solving method - Standard 10: Tr used to identify the cause of a malfunction in a technological system. Invention is the process of turning ideas and imagination into devices and systems. Some technological entation. problems are best solved through experim ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 8 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

8 U NIT SUMMARY UNIT BIG IDEAS · Heat transfers in predictable ways · Engineers follow a general process to design solutions to problems. LESSON 1 – Learning Targets Introduction and Insulation · Heat transfers from ar eas of high temperatures to areas of lower temperature. · Insulators slow down the rate of heat transfer. · Engineers must identify the problem in order to solve it. LESSON 2 – Learning Targets Conduction, Radiation, and Convection · Heat transfers in three different ways. · Engineers must research and understand the problem in order to solve it . Learning Targets LESSON 3 – Review of Heat Transfer and Introduction to Experimental Design at transfer. Materials affect the rate of he · · Different materials vary in their ability to reduce heat transfer. Engineers must use their knowledge of science to brainstorm possible solutions · to the problem. LESSON 4 – Learning Targets Design and Construct Penguin Dwel lings · Materials can be used in conjunction with one another to affect the rate of heat transfer. · Different materials prevent different types of heat transfer. · Engineers work within constraints (time, materials, space, money) and use sc ientific knowledge and creativity to design solutions to problems. – LESSON 5 Learning Targets Test Penguin Dwellings, Re - design and Final Testing · Scientific knowledge can be used in the design, construction, and evaluation of a device. , and re - - re e process of designing, testing, · Eng ineering is an iterativ designing testing . Engineers must document their process of design and present their solution to · the problem. t necessarily 80 minutes of instruction. Lessons do no - Each Lesson is designed for 70 correspond to a single day of instruction and may need to be adjusted depending on length of class periods. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 9 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

9 LESSON 1 and Insulation Introduction Learning Targets Heat transfers from areas of high temperatures to areas of lower temperature . 1. Insulators slow down heat transfer. 2. 3. Engineers must identify the problem in order to solve it. Purpose of the Lesson 1. Introduce students to the environmental conditions affecting penguins, the way global climate change has been tied to energy consumption, and the role engineering can play in helping both the environment and penguins. 2. Provide a series of discrepant event demonstrations related to heat transfer that allow students to form an understanding of insulation, heat, and temperature. 3. Introduce stud ents to storyboarding. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson, students will be able to: is related to  E xplain that global climate change warmer temperatures and loss of ice at the Earth’s poles. . ate change clim Explain to global may be contributing how humans  B rainstorm ways engineers might be able to reduce energy use through the design of  more energy efficient buildings.  Define heat as the transfer of thermal energy. of an indication efine temperature as ation. how hot or cold it is in a particular loc  D  E xplain the difference between heat and temperature. Heat is the transfer of thermal energy... heat, by definition, moves. Temperature can be measured with many different scales such as Fahrenheit or Celsius, and it is a measure that indicates the at the rmal energy there is a particular point . D emonstrate that some materials are better insulators than others, i.e. felt insulates  better than foil. Insulators reduce heat transfer. pply knowledge that some materials are better than others at reducing the transfer of A  thermal energy than others . reducing  heat ompare different materials to determine which ones are better at C transfer. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 10 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

10 Lesson in a Nutshell Pre - assessment on Heat Transfer (10 minutes) 1. 2. Save the Penguins Introduction PowerPoint (30 minutes) 3. Introduction to Storyboard poster (15 minutes) Soda Can Demo (20 minutes) 4. Demonstration 1 – Background Heat: Heat is the transfer of thermal energy. Thermal energy exists when something is in motion, and when the atoms or molecules in a substance vibrate. Atoms and molecules have kinetic energy, which creates thermal energy. The amount of thermal energy s omething has is the sum of the kinetic energy of all the particles. That’s why a bathtub of water has more thermal energy than a sink of water when the water is the same temperature in both. As something loses thermal energy, these vibrations slow down. As something gains thermal energy, these vibrations increase. If enough thermal energy is added to a substance, the vibrations may even cause a solid material to lose its form and melt, or a liquid substance to evaporate, or a gaseous substance to expand as the distance between particles increases. Thermal energy can be transferred from one place to another when there is a temperature difference. Heat transfer always occurs from the place where there is a higher temperature to the place where it is cooler. H eat transfer in a bathtub occurs from the hot water to the cooler air , the cooler tub sides, and to the cooler floor , to the cooler person in the water. to s the study of: Heat i processes by which thermal energy is exchanged between two bodies   anges and resulting states of those bodies related ch s primarily focused on: Heat i temperature differences between places or things   flow, or the movement of that thermal energy Heat i s driven by:  differences in temperature ; heat transfers from high to low temperatur e regions Temperature: Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy that the particles in a substance have at a particular location. We call high kinetic energy “hot” and average measure temperature. low average kinetic energy, “cold.” There are many scales used to In the Kelvin scale, 0 degrees Kelvin represents the absence of all kinetic energy, the absence of all molecular or atomic vibrations. A cup of boiling water may have a higher e kinetic energy of the temperature than a bathtub of warm water because the averag particles is higher. However, if you were to sum up the kinetic energy of all the water molecules in the tub, it would no doubt have a higher total thermal energy. If you imagine a room full of people with candy in their pockets, t e mperature is like counting the candy hermal energy is like counting that the room has in his or her pocket. Total t one person in all the candy that everyone in the room has and adding it all up. Heat transfer is like the people who fill their pockets! from a candy store to flow of candy : Heat Insulator A material that reduces the rate of heat transfer. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 11 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

11 Teacher Materials PowerPoint  Save the Penguins Computer connected to LCD projector a nd speaker system   Six - pack of canned soda, cooled in a refrigerator overnight  1 Wool Sock  1 Cotton Sock  1 roll Aluminum Foil  1 roll Paper Towel  1 roll Plastic Wrap  Instant Read Digital Thermometer s 6 Student Materials (for each group) ½ sheet poster board   1 box colored markers or pencils Preparation 1. Photocopy the Heat Transfer Evaluation Pre - Test for students (download from Internet or see Appendix B) . - 1 2. Prepare Demonstration # a. - Also, pack of canned soft drinks in a refrigerator overnight. Cool a six measure the temperature of the refrigerator. Most are ~40 degrees F. remove the cans and w rap each b. At least one hour before class, in one one of the following materials: wool soc k, cotton sock, aluminum foil, paper towel (secured with scotch tape), plastic wrap, and nothing (your control). c. Place each can in a paper lunch bag and label each bag. Prepare a data table for recording temperatures . The data table can be writt en on 3. the board, on an interactive whiteboard, or you can use the provided Excel Document . Save the Penguins Review the slide notes in the PowerPoint. 4. Procedures 1. Have students complete the Heat Transfer Evaluatio n Pre - Test . Present the 2. Save the Penguins PowerPoint . E ngag e students in a teacher - guided discussion using the d iscussion prompts in the slide notes of the PowerPoint. an example of a one blank poster board to each group and s how students 3. Distribute board Have groups develop a team name and write it at the top ory . completed st Explain that each time students learn a new concept, do an of their storyboard. experiment, create a design, or test a design, it should be recorded on the ents to see and comment on. storyboard for teachers and stud ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 12 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

12 Teacher note: Use of storyboards in the engineering design process provides a visual experience that helps students conceptualize each of the steps needed to oryboards understand each part of the entire “Save the Penguins” project. The st allow the students to break down each important concept and provide key formative assessments throughout each of the lessons. Three points are covered in the engineering design process with the use of the storyboards: Finding Solutions, an Initial g Developin Design and Presenting your Design at the end of the lesson. Sample Storyboard Pose the following dilemma to the students: 4. You are going on a field trip and must pack a lunch to take with you. You put a but when you opened your can of cold soda in your lunch bag in the morning, lunch later that day the soda was warm! What happened? Now is a good time to address the following misconception Teacher Note: students may hold about heat transfer. at their method A student may believe th “Keeping the Cold In” Misconception: will keep the cold in the can. To address this misconception, remind them that only heat (not cold) transfers. If only heat can transfer, what is their method really ld in the doing? Ultimately it is keeping the heat out of the can NOT keeping the co can. 13 ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School Engineering Education Initiative (updated version 21 - 14 ) - 12

13 5. Discuss the difference between heat and temperature. Teacher Note: Now is a good time to address the following misconception students may hold about heat transfer. “Heat and Temperature are the Same Thing” Misconception: Some students m ay think that temperature gets transferred since temperature changes. Many use the words interchangeably and do not understand their true meaning. Use the below descriptions (and information provided in the background section) to help eat and tempe students understand h rature and the difference between the two. Heat – The transfer of thermal energy   Temperature – An indication of the amount of energy in a location tions of Heat and Temperature in Have each group write the defini the first box on 6. their storyb oard. 7. Tell students that you have designed an experiment with some things found around that you thought might be good at keeping a canned drink cold. Bring your house out the six lunch bags and show students what is inside each bag. The Cans Demo 8. the following Ask students t o work with their team to make predictions. Use (or in their science journals) questions on a piece of paper : R ank the materials from most effective to least effective at keeping the cans  cold.  Why do you think your top - ranked mat erial will work the best?  Why do you think your lowest - ranked material will not work? 9. s roup s. As the groups present, present their predictions and explanation Have g address any misconceptions students may have about heat transfer. . s a list of common misconceptions students may hold Below i Teacher Note: ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 14 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

14 “Keeping the Cold In” Misconception: A student may believe that th eir method in the can. To address this k t he cold misconception , remind them that will eep only heat transfers. If only heat c an transfer, what is their method (not cold) really doing? Ultimately it is keeping the heat out of the can NOT keeping the cold in the can. “Wool Adds Warmth” Misconception: A student may think that the wool sock will warm up the soda can . This misconception stems from the idea that warm clothing wool socks, supposedly warm s up their feet in the wintertime. To , address this misconception, explain to students that when you put on socks, your feet feel warmer because the socks are trapping in the heat your body is em itting, they are not producing their own heat . Ask students “ How would this sock keep a soda warm?” work will “ Traditions ” Misconception: luminum foil A student may believe that a the best because students may have witnessed their parent wrapping sodas in aluminum foil in the past . To address this misconception, remind students that traditions get passed down for generations without question and that today they will have the opportunity to question the tradition. student 10. Open the tops of all soda cans, but do not Invite unwrap the cans. to insert digital thermometers and record the temperature s on the data volunteers table . Sample Templ ate Templ ate for Recording Temperatures Extension tunity to data acquired from Lesson 1 provides the oppor : The Math Connection . Have students develop graphs to discuss Fahrenheit to Celsius conversions determine: Box and whisker plots for each can over time   time and temperature relationship between The ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 15 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

15 e the You may want to a sk students if they know why you decided to compar 11. results with a bare soda can. You may want to d iscuss the value of having a control when experimenting with materials. This discussion could help students later in the curriculum when they start testing materials for their penguin dwellings. l temperatures are entered, 12. Once al create a bar graph. If you are using an Excel spreadsheet to record the data, you can use the graph utility to create a bar graph and record temperatures . at different times Temperature at Time 1 65 64 63 62 61 60 Temperature, °F 59 58 Cotton Nothing Plastic Wool Aluminum Paper towel sock wrap sock Material several after Soda temperatures hours outside refrigerator in paper bag 13. with your students and ask them the following questions: Discuss results Why do you think the wool sock reduced heat transfer better than the  cotton sock? Mate rials that can decrease the rate of energy transfer are called insulators.  What properties might the wool sock and paper towel have in common that make them good insulators?  Why is it better to wear wool in the winter than cotton?  Based on our results, whi ch materials can be called insulators? All of the materials in the demonstration can be considered Teacher Note: insulators to some extent because they all performed better than the control. However, w ool and plush paper toweling a re the best insulators because they trap air and prevent the air from moving around. In fact, paper is made up of dried up hollow cells from plant matter allows for many pockets of trapped air. S everal real - world examples of insulators students may be familiar with include : because it has a is or yellow fiberglass insulation k Pin  used in houses great ability to trap air. Builders may  blow paper pulp into attics to keep heat from transferring into or out of a house. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 16 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

16  Dog shelters line kennels with shredded newspaper or wood shav ings to preve nt the thermal energy from the animals ’ bodies from escaping. 14. Have each group record the results from Demonstration #1 as the first il lustration on their storyboard, and r ecord the definition of insulators on their storyboards. tor Heat Insula : A material that reduces the rate of heat transfer. : Some materials used in this demonstration may be equivalent Teacher Note insulators discriminate the small Therefore , a second measurement may help . t have time to repeat the If you don’ differences between some materials. you can or use the same cans of soda do it yourself measurements with your class, and report the values the next day for further all day with different classes . discussion Wrap - Up Wrap up the lesson with a review of the learning targets. Ask students:  Some people say that heat transfer always occurs from “where it is to where it What does this really mean? a’int.” the rate of Some things slow down  heat transfer. Can you name some? heat transfer, a wool sock or a cotton the rate of Which is better at slowing down  sock? Next time you bring a cold drink or an ice cream sandwich to school for lunch,  what can you wrap it in to keep it cold? The wool sock... what did it slow down?  Did the wool sock trap “coldness”?  Could there be any sou  rces of error measuring the can temperatures? How could we find out? Why did we include a can with no wrapping in the experiment?  Why do people wear wool in the winter, and cotton in the summer?  What does any of this have to do with penguins?  ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 17 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

17 LESSON 2 nduction, Radiation, and Convection Co Learning Targets 1. Heat transfers in three different ways . 2. Engineers must research and understand the problem in order to solve it . Purpose of the Lesson 1. Introduce students to the concept of heat transfer through conduc tion, radiation, and convection. 2. Provide a series of discrepant event demonstrations related to heat transfer that allow students to understand how: a. Heat transfers from warmer to cooler objects b. Certain materials are better heat conductors than others c. Certa in materials reflect or absorb radiation d. Convection happens when fluids (liquids or gases) sink or rise. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson, students will be able to: efine conduction as the transfer of thermal energy through a solid material. D  thermal energy moves from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower that xplain  E temperature.  D emonstrate that some materials are better conductors than others, i.e. metals conduct heat better than wood. E  xplain that thermal energy transfers through solid materials because vibrating atoms collide with each other. D  efine radiation as the transfer of thermal energy through space.  E xplain that when dark objects absorb radiation, this energy is transformed into thermal energy.  D emonstrate that materials that are light colored or shiny reflect radiation.  D emonstrate that some materials are better at reflecting radiation than others. way gets transferred in a fluid (gas or liquid) thermal energy  D efine convection as the : This is because cold fluids are Te denser when the fluid sinks or rises. ( acher note ) pushing warmer fluids up. — than warmer ones, and they sink Lesson in a Nutshell ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 18 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

18 1. Review insulation demonstration from day before (10 minutes) Demonstration 2 2. Trays demo (10 minutes) – 3. Demonstration 3 – Spo ons demo (15 minutes) - 4. Demonstration 4 – Black roofed house demo (20 minutes) – 5. Demonstration 5 Space blanket demo (5 minutes) 6. storyboard (10 minutes) Documenting learning on Background Heat Insulator : A material that reduces the rate of heat transfer. H eat Conductor: A material that increases the rate of heat transfer. : Conduction is the way thermal energy transfers from one substance to Conduction another by direct contact. It can be the direct contact between solids, or between a solid molecules netic energy is transferred as the higher temperature atoms or and a fluid. Ki increasing the ir warming them up and vibrate and collide with cooler atoms or molecules , kinetic energy. “Warmth” is an indication of how much kinetic energy is at the atomic level. Convection Convection occurs when fluids (gases or liquids) sink or rise because the : cooler fluid is denser and sinks. When this happens, the cooler fluid pushes up the . warmer fluid and it rises Radiation : Radiation is the transfer of energy in the fo rm of electromagnetic waves. Visible light and infrared light are both forms of radiation that transfer heat. Teacher Materials  1 wooden or plastic tray  1 silver tray  2 aquarium thermometer strips  1 cardboard house  1 metal light bulb encasement  ht bulb 1 60W lig Stu dent Materials (for each group) 2  penguin - shaped ice cube s  1 silver or stainless steel spoon (silver or silver - plate is preferred)  1 plastic spoon  Paper towels (from Lesson 1)  toryboard 1 s 1 box colored markers or pencils  Preparation 1. or Demonstration #2: Prepare f ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 19 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

19 a. tray . Ensure Tape an aquarium thermometer strip to the underside of each room temperature. s that each strip display 2. Prepare for Demonstration #3: a. Make penguin - shaped ice cubes the night before so they can be used in a a demonstration on this day. It is not necessary to freeze penguins using specific amount of water for this demonstration. Be sure to freeze two per group of students for each class. penguins s Prepare for Demonstration : #4 and #5 3. a. Construct a cardboard house with a roof. b. Paint the roof black. c. Cut a flap in the bottom so you can cool the house off quickly. Insert a thermometer in the attic space and another near the floor of the d. house. e. Cut a piece of Mylar space blanket so that it drapes over the roof and covers all th e black paint. f. oard) or interactive white b Draw a data table on the board (or use Excel 4. Copy the Exit Card on page 27 (one per student) for distribution at the end of this lesson. Procedures ). Allow all student plastic and metal Pass around both trays ( s to feel the trays and 1. ask students, “Which tray is colder?” Accept all answers. 2. Show students the thermometer strips taped to the back of each tray. Have students look at the strips and verify that the trays are the same temperature. 3. Engage students in a discussion and ask students the following: If both trays are at the same temperature, what happened that made you  think it was colder?  This tray is made of silver (or steel). Do you think this material would have kept our soda can cold yesterday? Why or Why not? YouTube Have students watch the following video. It shows adults being posed 4. the same situation and thinking metal is naturally colder. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqDbMEdLiCs 5. silver or steel) are not insulators, but (including have special Explain that metals e them thermal conductors. Thermal conducto rs work just the properties that mak from a warmer place insulators and speed up the rate of heat transfer opposite of r place. When you touch a metal object that is colder than your body to a colde temperature, heat transfers away from your hand; thus, the metal feels cold. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 20 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

20 6. Pass out a silver spoon and a plastic spoon to each group of students and ask students to plac e it on their c heek. Then ask the following two questions:  Which spoon feels co ol er ?  Which spoon do you think will work the best at keeping an ice cube cold? Teacher Note: believe the B oth spoons are at room temperature, but students may silver (or stainless steel) spo on to be colder. When posed with the second question many will predict that the silver (or stainless steel) spoon will keep the ice cube cooler because they believe the spoon to feel colder. two 7. Pass out in each penguin - shaped ice cubes per group . Place an ice c ube spoon and have for three students take turns holding the spoons in their hands minutes Provide paper toweling for drips. . shaped ice cubes - Silver and plastic spoons with penguin Ask 8. Have a classroom discussion about the phenomenon students exp erienced. students :  Which spoon made the ice melt faster? Why ? do you think the silver spoon made the ice melt more quickly   What is causing the ice to melt?  Would a penguin shaped ice cube last longer sitting on a metal surface or a plastic surface? W hy? The metal spoon feels colder because it is a good conductor. The Teacher Note: pulling heat from the students’ metal is hands thus giving them the feeling of being cold. This conduction from the hand to the spoon in turn heats up the spoon to a nt that melts the ice. poi 9. students Have work on their Collect the spoons, ice cubes, and paper towels. ing the definition of conduction and add a drawing of the storyboards by writing Ask students: spoons with arrows showing the direction of heat transfer. If you had the most powerful microscope in the world, what do you think  you would see when heat transfers from your hand to the ice cube? If heat is not a substance or a fluid, as people used to think, what is it?  ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 21 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

21 Conduction energy transfers from one substance Conduction is the way thermal : to another by direct contact. Student drawing of spoon demonstration to demonstrate conduction six students up in front of the class . Tell the 10. Line (perhaps a student with a red sh irt) , and tell the student at one end that he is warm . Ask (perhaps a student with a blue shirt) student at the other end that she is cold the warm student to shake from side to side and tell students that if they get bumped, they have to start shaking side to side too. Eventually all stude nts will be shaking. : Ask students the following questions 11. What do the students represent in this model?   the way heat transfers? What does this model tell us about Teacher Note : This is a demonstration that allows students to model how heat transfers. The students represent atoms or molecules. The model shows students that heat transfers through solid materials because the atoms vibrate and collide with one another. 12. Show students the cardboard house. Insert thermometers into the attic space and the f irst floor space. Show them the thermometers and have someone record the temperatures in the attic and lower floor. 18” above – approximately 12 13. the cardboard house Position the shop above light the roof , but do not turn on the light . ight l Take the temperature of . so that it shines on the black roof Turn on the shop 14. after 30 seconds. Then, ask students the following: attic the  What is causing the temperature of the roof to increase? Do you feel warm outside when you are wearing black?  e, would you rather have a black roof or a white roof on your In the wintertim  house? ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 22 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

22 Teacher Note: The reason that dark colors get hot is the same reason that dark colors are “dark.” They absorb so much light that it’s not reflected back to your more of the visible spectrum. Light colors are “light” Dark colors absorb eyes! Red because they reflect light so well. They reflect more of the visible spectrum. things just reflect red light, and absorb the other colors of the rainbow. Black things absorb all the colors of the r ainbow, all the colors in light, all the light to thermal energy. d transform the light energy in energy, an 15. Air out the house (by opening up the bottom and turning the house upside down). ce blanket. rape the roof of the cardboard house with a piece of Mylar spa Then d Explain that you are going to turn on the hot lamp again and ask students to predict what will happen to the temperature of the roof after the addition of the Mylar blanket . The demo house with Mylar draped over black roof 16. Turn on the lamp and take the temperature of the roof a fter 30 seconds. Ask students the following:  Why did the roof not get as hot after the Mylar was draped on top? Why is Mylar shiny?  If Mylar reflects light, how does that explain why the roof stays cool?  esults be the same if we draped a white cloth over the roof?  Would the r The Mylar is a shiny Mylar is a plastic that contains aluminum. Teacher note: surface because it reflects light. Its ability to reflect light slows the transfer of radiant energy (heat) to the roof and thus the roof stays cooler. A white cloth should have a similar effect. Try it if you have time! Have student volunteer place their hand under the hot lamp. Then block the light 17. ass what they felt. with the space blanket, and ask the student to describe to the cl You can try with a white cloth too, to see if it feels any different. Then ask students: ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 23 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

23  What happened to the light from the lamp? 18. Have students draw what they have observed on their storyboards in a new square. vocabula ry of the second 19. method of heat transfer, radiation. Tell Introduce the students that the black roof absorbed the radiation from the light source, but that the Mylar space blanket reflected the radiation away, keeping it out of the house. One way to illustrate this is t o have students with a variety of shirt colors come to the front of the classroom. Throw paper balls to the students and tell them that you are throwing pretend light particles. Tell students wearing dark colors to catch the imaginary , a nd tell students wearing light colors to particles of light swat them away. Ask:  Why do dark colors get so hot in the sun? Dark cars, parking lots, roof s ?  Why do light colors stay cooler in the sun? Light cars, sidewalks, and roofs?  Why do you think this occurred? use this information when building a new home?  How could a homebuilder 20. Ask students the following questions:  How does Earth get its heat? How does the heat from the sun get to Earth?   Does the Earth reflect radiation from the sun?  Which parts of the Earth reflect the most radiation? (the light parts... snow, water, ice, clouds) Teacher Note: The Earth gets its heat from the sun. It is transferred from the sun through radiation. The clouds, snow, and water are all effective at reflecting the radiation from the sun. ave students complete a section of their storyboard While the roof cools down, h 21. with the definition of radiation and a drawing of the house with arrows showing how radiation was reflected off the Mylar space blanket. Radiation : Radiation is the transfe r of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Visible light and infrared light are both forms of radiation that transfer heat. X - rays and gamma rays and microwaves are other forms of electromagnetic radiation, but they are not produced by light bulbs ( the sun produces them!) 22. Take the off the roof of the house. Air it out to get rid of the warm air inside. Use the digital thermometers to take and record the initial temperature of the air inside attic and floor on your data tabl e for all students to see. the air inside the first Turn a shop light on over the cardboard house. Invite two student volunteers to 23. second intervals out read the temperature of the attic and of the floor in 30 loud to - - the class while a third volunteer records the results on a dat a table for the class to see five minutes. for three to ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 24 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

24 24. , “ W hy is Ask students getting so hot ? ” the attic of the house Note: The attic is getting hot because the black roof is absorbing Teacher iation is converted into infrared and visible light radiation from the light. This rad on the roof. The air in the attic is getting hot because of thermal energy through the cardboard . The hot roof transfers its energy to the air conduction through conduction too . next to it inside Some students may say that hot ai r is rising. The next demonstration will address this phenomenon (convection), but it is important that students realize that in this case, hot air rising is not causing the hot attic. Remind students that all air in the oor and the roof) was the same temperature before house (at both the level of the fl starting the experiment. Energy is being transferred from the light source to the black roof, and thermal energy is conducting through the roof into the air of the attic. The hot air does not fall and heat the lower part of the house because hot air is less dense than cooler air. 25. Tell students, “In Lesson 1 when we discussed insulators we were talking about preventing heat transfer in attic spaces. What type of heat transfer does attic insulation prevent? ” predict Explain t hat you are going to turn the house upside down . Ask students to 26. what will happen to the temperature of the attic and the first floor. 27. T call out the falling temperature of the have volunteers , . Then urn the house over the rising temperature of the first floor space in 30 - second attic space and intervals until the attic and the floor reach equilibrium. A sk students the following questions:  What happened to the temperature of the attic ? The floor?  W hy ? did this chan ge in temperature hap pen 28. Tell students that heat transfers in any direction depending on where it is hot and where it is cold. In the house, the hot air in the attic was rising because the cooler air was sinking and pushing the hot air up. Tell students that this is called convection . Teacher Note : Below are two critical misconception s among students with now. regards to convection. Be sure to address them Students will often state that – heat rises. To “ Heat Rises Misconception” e student that heat is not a substance. address this misconception, remind th Explain that while hot air can rise, heat is the transfer of thermal energy. Thermal energy transfer can occur in any direction (from hot areas to cooler ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 25 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

25 areas). Hot air does not rise unless it is pushed up (displac ed) by sinking cooler air. – Students may think that because cold air “Cold Transfers Misconception” sinks, that “coldness” transfers. Remind them that cold substances can move, but cold itself does not transfer. Energy transfers. Thermal energy transfers . 29. Explain that conduction was one way that heat transfers, that radiation is another, and that convection is the third way heat can transfer. 30. H ave students complete a section of their storyboard with the definition of convection and a drawing of the hous e with arrows showing the direction heat transferred when the house got flipped upside down. Convection : Convection occurs when moving fluids (gases or liquids) rise and fall due to differences in density . Warmer fluids are less dense than colder ones, because the particles in a warmer fluid are more spread out. Up Wrap - heat transfer way There are three 1. s conduction, convection, and occurs. They are radiation. 2. Conduction is what we saw during the silver spoon/tray demonstrations. Heat s through a conductor was transferred through direct contact from our warm hand (the metal tray or metal spoon ) . - Convection is what we saw during the upside down house demonstration. Hot air 3. because cooler air sinks. Gravity pulls the cooler air down. rises 4. Radiation is w hat we saw during the Mylar house demonstration. Radiation is the radiation . transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic Encourage P answer the questions 5. . ass out the exit card below and have students Use this exit card as a form of s. them to draw in order to illustrate their answer formative assessment (do not “grade” it, but provide feedback). ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 26 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

26 Name ______________________________ Exit Card Answer the following questions with words and drawings. 3. Why does the 1. Why does the sun oke m 4. Why do s 2. Ho w does meat and hot air go up a make you feel handle of a heated in a get chimney? saucepan get hot warm? frying pan? when it is on the stove? 7. On a bright, 8. Why do you get 5. Why does the 6. Why does the sunny day, why warm standing in outside of a bowl of roof of your car get hot in the sun? soup get hot? does the pavement front of a fireplace? get very hot? 9. Why is the 11. Why is the black 10. On a hot day 12. In a fish tank, a would you rather pavement in a second floor of a small heater in one house usually hotter ack corner makes all the parking lot hotter to have a bl walk on than the water warm. How? than the first floor? umbrella to keep cool or one made of concrete sidewalk? Mylar? Why? questions above. Sometimes, multiple twelve right answer to the There is often no one assessment to formative methods of heat transfer explain the phenomenon. Use this determine your students’ current level of understanding . ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 27 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

27 LESSON 3 Introduction to Experimental Design Lea rning Targets Materials affect the rate of heat transfer . 1. 2. . Different materials vary in their ability to reduce heat transfer 3. Engineers must use their knowledge of science to brainstorm possible solutions to the problem. Purpose of the Lesson Review the t hree methods of heat transfer 1. 2. Introduce students to the materials 3. Model how to conduct experiments with the materials 4. Allow student s to experiment with materials Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:  Compare the different materials to determine which ones are better at preventing heat transfer transfer each material prevents  Discern which type of heat Lesson in a Nutshell Review exit card on methods of heat transfer (15 minutes) 1. 2. Introduce students to kit of materials (5 mi nutes) 3. Model how to conduct experiments at experimentation stations (15 minutes) 4. Students test materials and keep records of their work on storyboard (30 minutes) 5. Teacher and students discuss all the experiments done in class this day (10 minutes) Backgro und Encourage cooperation, not competition. Student groups could cooperate by testing different materials or combinations of materials and sharing the results with the class. The hot box is not needed until the dwellings are constructed and ready for tes ting, but it is good for students to see the hot box in action and brainstorm ways to prevent heat transfer given the conditions in the hot box . Teacher Materials S 7  ) one for each student group ( hop lights with clamp attachment ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 28 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

28  r spray - painted box) 1 lg. black plastic tub (o Instant Read Digital Thermometers  7 7 digital timers  7 sponges or paper towels (dampened)  1 roll heavy -  duty aluminum foil Stu dent Materials (for each group)  1 material kit box that contains a sample of each material  Lesson 1) 1 Storyboard (from  1 box colored markers or pencils Preparation 1. Prepare experimental baggies for each of your student groups. Each baggie should include two 3”x3” square sample s of each material available, including two cotton balls and two wood sticks . To do this, the “ 2. Prepare ” that will be used to test the students’ designs. hot box use a black storage bin (or black - t ed box) and line the inside with spray pain - Then position four shop Keep the black floor exposed. heavy duty aluminum foil. lamps around the outs hot box so that they shine on the bottom and the ide of the foil. hot box The 3. Set up at least three experimentation stations - it is preferable to have one for each student group . Each station will need:  hop l amp clamped to a stand or cabinet 18” of f the countertop 1 s  1 digital timer  2 instant read digital thermometers  1 sponge or paper - towel (dampened) Procedures 1. Review exit cards from day before. Have students make corrections and glue the storyboard once corrected. card onto their to each student group. al baggies materi Pass out 2. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 29 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

29 3. Explain that they are going to design and build an igloo that will keep a penguin - they will work as engineers to test the shaped ice cube from melting. But first, y may want to use in their different materials provided to see which materials the igloo designs. Sample materials 4. Show students the “ hot box ” that will test their designs. Ask the students to identify all the forms of heat transfer that might take place and explain where the heat transfer will occur. Te acher Note: The hot box allows for all three forms of heat transfer to occur: shop lights, light four rom the F reaches the little penguin dwellings, Radiation – and is also reflected off the foil sides onto the little penguin dwellings Conduction – T he b lack - painted floor gets hot from the radiation, and then when the little igloos sit on it, the heat conducts up into the dwelling. – and falls into the C onvection as hot air rises off the black floor C urrents form from the cooler room . hot box Model how 5. to properly conduct experiments at experimentation stations. Explain to students that you will be measuring the temperature underneath each material as the light shines on the material. (or multiple materials simultaneously) odel common errors students It is recommen ded that teachers m Teacher Note: should avoid. - Error 1 The sample is not blocking radiation. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 30 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

30 lace To this error , p samples on the counter and place a demonstrate Students will frequently try this. Ask them thermometer on top of each. what i s wrong with doing it this way? Error 2 - The t emperature may be higher under one sample because more time has elapsed. this, u se only one thermometer and take the temperatures To demonstrate at different times. courage the Students will often not control for time. En use of a timer. - also transferring heat. Error 3 The tabletop has gotten hot and is now To demonstrate this, show students how hot the counter or tabletop gets when a light has been shining on it for a period of time. Encourage them to TURN OFF the light between trials, and move the testing area slightly to a room - temperature testing location. . They Error 4 - The thermometers are too hot won’t cool down to room temperature. Explain to students that the thermometers will get hot. Provide a wet sponge on a plate, or a wad of wet paper toweling to quickly cool the thermometers to room temperature after every use. You could provide a cup of room temperature water, but it might spill! - . e taking the temperature of the tabl The thermometers are Error 5 Explain to students that if they elevate the thermometers slightly with cotton balls or sticks, they will measure the temperature of the air underneath the sample, and not the table surface. each gro keep track of will 6. Have students set up their data table. Explain that up may their own experimental data. The data table with each trial look like this , : representing two materials being tested at the same time with two thermometers Materials Testing Data ure after 1 min. Starting Temperat Material Trial ° F) Temperature ( ( ° F) 1 White Foam Black Foam 2 Mylar Aluminum 3 Black Paper White Paper Materials Testing Data Table Sample ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 31 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

31 After each group has experimented for 10 minutes , give students hints or 7. suggestions for testing a s needed:  Students can test combinations of different materials  Students can test combinations of the same material  Students will share their results with the class, so encourage them to test something different than the other groups  Students can add combi nations to their data table as demonstrated below: Materials Testing Data Starting Temperature after 1 min. Trial Material F) Temperature ( ° F) ( ° White Foam 4 with Mylar on top Black Foam with Mylar on top Two sheets 5 of Mylar ts Two shee of Aluminum 6 Black Paper on top of Bubble Wrap White Paper on top of Bubble Wrap discuss the following: Discuss the experiments with the class. Be sure to 8.  Which materials performed better than others?  Why do you think these materials pe rformed better? Wrap – Up storyboard Have 1. in which they list the three students to create another box on the materials that best prevented heat transfer and the three materials that were least at preventing heat transfer. effective ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 32 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

32 4 LESSON Design and Construction lings – Penguin Dwel Learning Targets Materials can be used in conjunction with one another to affect the rate of heat 1. transfer. prevent different types of heat transfer. 2. Different materials use work within constraints (time, materials Engineers , space, money) and 3. scientific knowledge and creativity to design solutions to problems. Purpose of the Lesson 1. Design and construct prototype dwellings for penguin - shaped ice cubes based on the knowledge gained from experiments conducted on the materi als. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson, students will be able to: Combine information about different materials to synthesize a unique design.   Create a device that reduces heat transfer and keeps a penguin - shaped ice cube from melting. Lesson in a Nutshell Students discuss engineering and what engineers do. (15 minutes) 1. 2. Students conduct additional experiments as needed and share results (10 minutes) 3. Students design initial dwelling (15 minutes) (10 minutes) rom Igloo Depot f Students purchase additional materials necessary 4. 5. Students construct dwelling (40 minutes) Background identifying The Engineering Design Process a Loop is an iterative cycle that involves problem, brainstorming solutions, scientific research, design, testing, and re design. - There are many representations and descriptions of this process, and no one process is “right.” However, the following cycle is a good model for what students will be doing in this unit. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 33 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

33 e n g i T h e En g i n ee r i n g D s s s o c e Pr L o o p e si n d g e R I d e n t i f y t h e Pre se n t Y o u r m e l b Pro n e g si D a t e R h e se rch Mo y f i d d n a st e T e m b Pro l D e si g n ct o n st ru ssi a n F e i n d Po C l b si g n s n o t u l So I n i t i i l D e a Se e l ct O o i t u l So e n n 7 1 Engineering Design Process Loop Teacher Materials PowerPoint  What is Engineering  7 Shop lights with clamp attachment  1 lg. black plastic tub (or spray - painted box)  7 Instant Read Digital Thermometers -  7 p laster of Paris penguins made by putting wet pl aster into the penguin ice cube tray, drying overnight, and removing.  Play money ($100 of play money per group) Student Materials (for each group) sample of each material.  1  Glue, tape, scissors 1 Storyboard (from Lesson 1)   1 box colored markers or penci ls Preparation Engineering Design Process handout. 1. Photocopy the 2. What is Engineering Review the udents in a PowerPoint in order to engage st discussion about what the world would be like without engineers, and what some engineers are doing to make the world a better place. 3. Set up Igloo Depot station with construction materials that students can ‘purchase’. , but one for each group is preferable perimentation stations Set up at least three ex 4. . Each station will need:  1 shop lamp clamped to a stand or cabinet 18” off the countertop  1 digital timer 2 instant read digital thermometers  ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 34 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

34 Procedures What is Engineering PowerPoint in order to engage students in a 1. Show the discussion about what the world would be like without engineers, and what some a engineers are doing to make the world a better place. Have students complete storyboard square on engineering. 2. Distribute one p laster of Paris penguin and a box with only one sample of each material to each group. These materials are “loaners” from the Igloo Depot, and the cost of each material used must be included in the cost of the house. (It cuts down on shopping time to have some materials already with each group). to students that they can 3. Distribute $100 of play money to each group. Explain samples they have been given, and will be allowed to purchase loaner use all addi tional materials from the I gloo Depot using their $100 play money. They will need to decide which materials are worth purchasing for the construction of their igloo. 4. Show students the following price chart. These prices are based on actual suggested prices. guide Teacher Note: This is cost (1000% markup!) (suggested prices) at Igloo Depot Construction materials Price at The Igloo Depot Item Cotton ball $10 $20 Wood stick Construction paper $5 Foam sheet $40 Felt fabric $40 Bubble wrap $10 num foil Alumi $5 $5 Mylar sheet in the 5. Students should keep a running list of the materials they purchase and use design of their igloo. Tell students that at the end of the lesson, they will have t o have a list of each material that went into building the igloo and calculate the “cost” of their igloo . students which materials they will use to construct their igloo, have determine 6. As them add the list to their storyboard. on e igloo and go shopping at Allow students to begin construction of their prototyp 7. the Igloo Depot. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 35 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

35 . 8. Visit each team of students during the construction process Discuss design decisions with each team and ensure that they are able to verbalize why they The chose the materials they did for their design. following questions will help yo creative and logical thinking: u aid them in this verbalization of their Could light get into the igloo and melt the penguin?  your igloo? Can convection currents rise and fall and enter  How is the heat from the black floor going to transfer into your iglo o?   radiation? convection? conduction? slow What are some ways to  What are some design features of your own house that keep heat out in the d keep drafts out, an Seals around windows ( attic keeps the summer time? ro of overhangs keep light from and radiation from reaching the bedrooms, shining into the windows all day, and basements help prevent conduction insulation in the walls slows down between the first floor and the ground, and conduction between the outside and the inside through the walls.)  u choose that color? Why did yo Did you do a test on that material to make sure it works like you want it to?  How does one layer of that material compare to two layers?  If air is such a good insulator, how can you trap more air?  n with bubble wrap? Is it better to have bubbles up or dow  ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 36 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

36 Wrap - Up document their 1. Have students design on their storyboard. Have students label the materials they used and indicate which type(s) of heat transfer is being prevented. See below for sample design on a storyboard and a st iteration “igloo” sample fir designed by a team of eighth grade students. first iteration - Sample student design Sample student drawing on the storyboard ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 37 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

37 LESSON 5 Penguin Dwellings – Design Testing and Retesting Learning Targets 1. Scientific knowledge can b e used in the design, construction, and evaluation of a device. Engineering is an iterative process of designing, testing, re - designing, and re - 2. testing. 3. Engineers must document their process of design and present their solution to the problem. the Lesson Purpose of 1. Students will test their penguin dwellings in a hot box with radiant, conductive, and convective heat. Students will analyze their penguin dwellings and determine which features were 2. most successful at reducing heat transfer. Students will id 3. entify the type(s) of heat transfer reduced by their penguin dwelling. test the 4. Students will re design their penguin dwellings based on results, and re - - dwelling. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson, students will be able to: Evaluate devices desi gned to reduce heat transfer, compare them, and determine  how they work  Judge the effectiveness of devices designed to reduce heat transfer Lesson in a Nutshell 1. Test designs in hot box. (20 minutes) on computers while 2. Have students research innovations in building materials penguins melt. Or use PowerPoint presentation, . Innovative Building Materials Analyze and discuss results . (20 minutes) 3. Have students r 4. ions they would like to do on their design ecord modificat , and then use their remaining money to purchase more supplies, or re - configure the materials already purchased. (20 minutes) designed igloos in hot box. (20 minutes) 5. Test re - test and work on th - Administer the post 6. eir storyboards. (10 minutes) Analyze and discuss the results. (20 minutes) 7. Background Encourage cooperation, not competition. Have students share their successes and failures with each other and learn from them. The objective is to save the penguins, not win a ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 38 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

38 competition. The redesign phase is the most important. After the first testing in the hot the student groups to talk about their designs with each other, and use the invite box, insist on “a winner” say that a nyone who can lessons learned to improve. If students improve their design and save more penguin the second time around is a winner. Teacher Materials  4 Shop lights with clamp attachment  1 lg. black plastic tub (or spray - painted box)  /group) 1 Penguin ice cubes ( Timer   Electronic balance (accurat e to 0.1 g) 1 roll heavy  - duty aluminum foil Student Materials (for each group)  1 material kit box 1 Storyboard (from Lesson 1)  1 box colored markers or pencils  1 small plastic Dixie cups (massed)  Preparation 1. cubes. The day before Lesson 5, prepare penguin ice ice Using the medical syringe, distribute equal amounts of water into each a. cube well ( 10 - 16 ml depending on your particular ice cube tray ). the same so that all ice penguins will have b. Ensure that each well is filled identical masses, noting that th e den ., 16 ml of sity of water is 1g/ml (i.e grams). water equals 16 2. Prepare the plastic Dixie cups by massing each one and writing the mass on the have a mass of ~ 2.8 side of each cup with a permanent marker (most will grams). Prepare enough cups for e ach group to have one cup. Cups can be dried and re - used over and over again. hot box ” that will be used to test the students’ designs. To do this, 3. Prepare the “ - use a black storage bin (or black spray painted box) and line the inside with heavy num foil. Keep the black floor exposed. Then position four shop duty alumi - lamps around the outside of the so that they shine on the bottom and the hot box to plug in the lights If you use an electric power strip foil. , you can turn all the e switch. lights on and off with on ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 39 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

39 4. Prepare a chart on the board or on a piece of poster paper for students to fill in their results. This could also be done digitally in Excel or on an interactive whiteboard and projected for the class to use. students to participate in while the designs are in 5. Prepare a 15 - minute activity for hot box the . Suggested examples: . Have students research modern engineered building materials online   Watch penguins using one of the many penguin cams on the Internet from zoos and other habitats. Google penguin webcams and let students watch some live in action! penguin s provided with Innovative Building Materials Deliver PowerPoint presentation,  . this STK Procedures and pre hot box Tu rn on the lamps over the 1. - heat for about 20 minutes . By pre - hot box before will be uniform , heating the surface on the bottom of the proceeding to the next step. 2. Distribute one plastic Dixie cup to each group. Have one student from each gr oup lined up with their Dixie cup ready to receive their ice penguin. Retrieve the ice penguins from the freezer and quickly distribute one ice penguin 3. to each Dixie cup. 4. le Instruct students to place their ice penguin in their igloos as quickly as possib so they are evenly (all at the same time) hot box and place their igloos in the spread apart from each other. Turn the lamps off for these few seconds to reduce to the risk of burns. Turn the lamps back on and s begin et the timer for 20 minutes ’ the igloos. ‘cooking Note that 20 minutes is approximately the time it takes for a Teacher Note: “homeless” ice penguin to totally melt . Be sure to add a “homeless” penguin as a After 20 minutes Simply place an ice penguin on the floor of the hot box. it control. will be a very tiny morsel of ice. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 40 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

40 5. While the igloos are cooking, engage students in a 15 minute lesson. For ideas see Lesson 5 Preparations. 6. , turn off the heat lamps without touching When the timer sounds after 20 minutes the bulb or the dome as the y will be VERY HOT! Move the lamps out of the way quickly retrieve their igloos. and invite students to eve the remainder of the ice penguin and place it Instruct students to quickly retri 7. in the Dixie cup. Teacher Note: Make sure students do not pour liquid “penguin juice” into the rescue cup! Sample chart of results and record the mass of the cup + 8. Have students place the cup on the digital scale remaining ice penguin. Students will then find the final mass of their ice penguin by subtracting the mass of the Dixie cup from the total mass recorded. : If students are concerned that their ice penguin continues to melt Teacher Note , remind students that the ice and find the mass melted while they wait in line to ice remaining in the cup still represent the total mass of penguin saved. Invite students to write their results on the board, along with the total cost of their 9. igloo dwelling. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 41 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

41 10. students record their results on a new Have square on their storyboard . 11. Have the class anal yze the results of the test by doing the following: a. Analyze the igloos that prevented the most heat transfer (which igloos had the greatest amount of ice penguin remaining). b. Tactfully analyze the igloos that did not perform as well and offer suggestions of what could be adjusted to improve performance. c. Ask students the following questions: ?  W hich design features were most effective at preventing heat transfer  Why were these design features effective at preventing heat transfer? ? sfer were reduced in each design of heat tran types hich W  modifications on their storyboard. If 12. Have students record their ideas for design improved design on their storyboard. its, ask them to sketch the new, time perm Extension Algebra Connection : The data acquired from Lesso n 5 provides the opportunity to discuss slope and linear equations and the value of interpolating and Hav extrapolating data points. e students develop graphs to determine:  Is there a relationship between total igloo cost and final mass of the penguin (an effective igloo design)?  Is there a relationship between the cost of the dwelling and the final mass?  If we the mass of each dwelling, would there be a relationship determined ? penguin mass and the final mass of the e igloo between th Re - Design Phase Pre paration 1. Make a fresh supply of penguin ice cubes the night before this lesson, or a double design takes place on the same day as the initial testing. Since ice batch if the re - will sublimate over time and lose mass, you should make a fresh batch each ing before testing . Use the medical syringe to ensure each penguin has the even same mass when frozen. Print the award certificate sheets so you can fill in the names of “winners” during 2. class if you desire. test assessment (Appendix B) and dist - Copy the post 3. ribute to students while redesigned dwellings are in the hot box for re testing. - Procedures 20 minutes to make revisions to their designs. - Allow students 15 1. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 42 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

42 Example of a redesigned penguin dwelling 2. Repeat the testing process as before. post , administer the test assessment to the - 3. While the ig loos are in the hot box . If students finish early, have them work on finalizing students (Appendix B) their storyboard. 4. When the t imer goes off, repeat the process of massing the penguin remains and recording the results on a chart for discussion. 5. Have students record their final design and results on their storyboard. han during the : Any team that saves a greater mass of penguin t Teacher Note original test deserves acclaim for being an engineer. about this unit. Use this information 6. Ask students what they liked and dislike d to help you plan future units that combine engineering design with science. distribute an award certificate to each member Determine winning teams and 7. of the team. An award template is provided in this STK . Teacher Note: Below is a list of suggested awards. – . penguin  Effective Design most Awarded to the te ams that saved the rd st nd (1 , 2 , and 3 place awards can be given) Awarded to the team that improved the most –  Most Improved Design from Test 1 to Test 2 – Affordable Housing Award for Financially Challenged Penguins  to the team that Awarded spent the least amount of money but still saved at least half of the penguin. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 43 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

43  – A ward ed Improved Design to e very team that actually improved their design and saved more of the penguin during the second test  People’s Choice – Awarded by students to the des ign they liked the best determined by popular vote Award sample - Wrap up Wrap up this unit with a discussion of lessons learned. Here are some possible 1. question prompts: design general process to Engineering Prompts: Engineers follow a solutions to problems.  What process did you use to design a solution to a problem?  Why was this unit called “Save the Penguins”? How does saving energy at home help animals that live so very far away?  What do engineers do that help people and animals?  Wha  t were the science concepts you had to know in order to be a good engineer in this unit?  What constraints did you have when you designed your igloo? design? - Why was it important to do a re  What were some engineering practices you had to know in order to de  sign and build the best penguin igloo you could? Science Prompts: Heat transfers in predictable ways  What are some rules about heat transfer? (it transfers from warm to cold, it is thermal energy moving, it transfers three different ways)  ys heat can transfer. Describe three wa ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 44 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

44 What is the difference between an insulator and a conductor?  Why does a silver tray feel colder than a plastic tray?   If you sat on a metal bench in the wintertime, what would it feel like? Why? tertime, would it feel different? If you sat on a plastic bench in the win  Why? Which materials were best at preventing radiation? Conduction?  Convection? Which combinations of materials worked best? Why?  What was the most interesting part of this unit to you?  ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 45 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

45 MATERIALS AND SUPP APPENDIX A LIES The materials listed in Table 1 will supply one teacher with four classes of students - approximately 112 students. Some materials will be left over for future classes. Most materials or large shopping mart. The can be purchased from a grocery store, hardware store, craft store, entire kit can also be purchased from www.stemteachingkits.com Suggested sites are provided below. Table 1 Save the Penguins Supplies needed for Source Quantity Item Pharmacy cotton balls, 100 count 1 bag 100% Craft store craft sticks, 150 count 1 pack Craft store 1 pack Black construction paper Craft store 1 pack Green construction paper Craft store 1 pack Pink construction paper Craft store White construction paper 1 pack Craft store Foam sheets in white, black, pink and green 12 each color Craft store White felt fabric, polyester, 9” x 12” 12 pieces Craft store 12 pieces Pink felt fabric, polyester, 9” x 12” e Craft stor Black felt fabric, polyester, 9” x 12” 12 pieces Craft store Green felt fabric, polyester, 9” x 12” 12 pieces Office supply store Duck bubble wrap, 12" x 10 feet 1 Grocery store 1 Heavy duty aluminum foil, 75 sq. feet Craft store 3 sheets Mylar 18” x 30” Sheets Grocery store 12 count 1 Hefty One Zip gallon storage bags, Office supply store Scotch tape 7 Craft store Aileen's Original Tacky Glue, 4 fl. Oz 7 Hardware store Plastic shoebox, 6 qt. size, 28 Hardware store Black tote bin, 108 quart capacity 1 Grocery stor e Dixie cups, white plastic 7 Online 1 Play money Online Silicone penguin ice cube trays 2 Online Digital thermometers 14 Hardware store Desk lamps or Shop lamps 7 Hardware store 7 Light bulbs, 100W Grocery store 1 6 pack of soda Sporting goods store Wool sock 1 Sporting goods store sock (charcoal/black) Cotton 1 Home goods store 1 Plastic tray Home goods store 1 Metal tray (silver or silver plate is best) Pet store 2 Top Fin flexible aquarium thermometers , large Office supply store Poster boards 14 Home goods store (silver or silver plate is best) 7 Metal spoons Grocery store Plastic spoons 7 1 Homemade cardboard house with black painted roof ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 46 - Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 12 ) 14 21

46 Online 7 Digital timers Pharmacy 20 ml Medical syringe 1 Preparation of Materials on paper, foam, Mylar, and bubble wrap by cutting the materials Prepare the felt, foil, constructi into uniform squares. If you have a quilting ruler and cutting board, 3” x 3” pieces are convenient. res. If you want each piece to be sized metrically, you can cut the pieces into 10cm x 10cm squa gallon storage bags for easy retrieval. St ore each material in separate one Materials cut and packaged 2 Supplies in large tote bin ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 47 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

47 APPENDIX B ASSESSMENT ON HEAT TRANSFER Name Date Block/Period This questionnaire is a bout your understandings of heat transfer.   For each question, circle the answer that is closest to your understanding.  Be sure to read all the choices before selecting one. 1. You pick up a can of soda off of the countertop. The countertop underneath the can feels colder than the rest of the counter. Which explanation do you think is the best? a. The cold has been transferred from the soda to the counter. b. There is no heat energy left in the counter beneath the can. from the counter to the soda. c. Some heat has been transferred d. The heat beneath the can moves away into other parts of the countertop. 2. After cooking an egg in boiling water, you cool the egg by putting it into a bowl of cold g process? water. Which of the following explains the egg’s coolin a. Temperature is transferred from the egg to the water. b. Cold moves from the water into the egg. c. Energy is transferred from the water to the egg. d. Energy is transferred from the egg to the water. 3. Why do we wear sweaters in col d weather? a. To keep cold out. b. To generate heat. c. To reduce heat loss. d. All of the above. 4. Amy wraps her dolls in blankets but can’t understand why they don’t warm up. Why don’t they warm up? ators. a. The blankets she uses are probably poor insul b. The blankets she uses are probably poor conductors. c. The dolls are made of materials which don’t hold heat well. d. None of the above. 5. As water in a freezer turns into ice, a. the water absorbs energy from the air in the freezer. he water absorbs the coldness from the air in the freezer. b. t c. the freezer air absorbs heat from the water. d. the water neither absorbs nor releases energy 6. On a warm sunny day, you will feel cooler wearing light colored clothes because they ct more radiation. a. refle b. prevent sweating. c. are not as heavy as dark clothes. d. let more air in. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 48 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

48 7. If you put a metal spoon and a wooden spoon into a pot of boiling water, one will become too hot to touch. Why? a. Metals conduct heat better than wood. b. Wood conducts heat better than metals. c. Metals pull in heat because heat is attracted to metals. d. Wood isn’t as strong as metals. 8. On a hot day, the upstairs rooms in a house are usually hotter than the downstairs rooms. Why? a. Cool air is less dense than hot air. b. Warm air rises and cool air sinks. c. The upstairs rooms are closer to the sun. d. Heat rises. 9. You have a can of soda in your lunchbox that you want to keep cold. Which material will work best to keep it cold? wrapped around the soda because metals transfer heat energy a. Aluminum foil easily. b. A paper towel wrapped around the soda because paper soaks up the moisture. c. Wax paper wrapped around the soda because wax paper traps the moisture. d. Your wool sweater wrapped aro und the soda because wool traps air. 10. When you hold a metal coat hanger in a camp fire to roast a marshmallow, the coat hanger might get too hot to hold. Why might the coat hanger get too hot? a. The heat radiates along the coat hanger. b. The heat bu ilds up near the flame until it can’t hold it anymore and then moves along the coat hanger. c. Metal atoms vibrate with more energy when they get hot, and they collide with atoms near them, which makes the neighboring atoms vibrate too. d. Since metals me lt in fire, they react very strongly to fire and get hot easily. 11. An aluminum plate and a plastic plate have been in the freezer all night long. When you remove them the next morning, a. The plates have the same temperature. b. The plastic plate has a higher temperature. c. The plastic plate has a lower temperature. d. The aluminum plate has a lower temperature. 12. When placed in direct sunlight, which object will absorb the most radiation? a. a white sweater b. a snowball c. some aluminum foil a black sweater d. ©2009 Christine G. Schnittka, Ph.D. in cooperation with the Virginia Middle School 49 12 ) Engineering Education Initiative (updated version - 21 - 14

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