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1 A Day Without Space: Economic Security Ramifications Rebecca Spyke Keiser Associate Deputy Administrator for Policy Integration NASA Headquarters Dec 9, 2011

2 Outline • Introduction NASA Technology Transfer • • Local Economic Impacts Impact on Launch Industry • Science Missions Services and Economic Impacts • • Commercial Space Investments • Space Communication Services • Aeronautics Economic Benefits • NASA’s Impact on Education • Summary 2

3 Introduction The NASA Vision To reach for new heights and reveal the unknown, so that what we do and learn will benefit all humankind. The NASA Mission Drive advances in science, technology, and exploration to enhance knowledge, education innovation, economic vitality and stewardship of Earth. 3

4 Introduction NASA conducts its missions and activities with the ultimate goal of public • benefit. • NASA provides the knowledge (data, technology infusion) which enable services that greatly benefit our Nation and the world. Examples of services include: satellite communications, earth remote sensing, • - aided search & rescue and space weather monitoring, disaster response, satellite weather forecast. • Economic benefit can be measured in a number of different ways: NASA’s missions contributes significantly to the aerospace • industry through contracts and jobs. • Technology transfer to commercial markets • Economic impact to local regional areas • Education programs support students to pursue careers in science & engineering. Tracking of Hurricane Karl Space images of Haiti earthquake

5 NASA in Your Life over 1,750 recorded NASA spinoffs , NASA technologies influence our lives in a With making us safer, healthier, and more efficient. — variety of ways Information Technology Goods Consumer Transportation Spinoffs have occurred in every Energy and Public Safety sector Environment Industrial Medicine and Health Productivity 5

6 NASA Technology: Improving Our Lives successes) over the 250 tech transfer A 2011 survey showed 34% respondents (of the past five years revealed that commercialized NASA technologies have: Created over 8000 jobs • Generated over $1B in revenue • Created more than $6B in cost avoidance • • Saved more than 250,000 lives Significantly improved quality of life for • more 100 million people than Clean Energy Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity Infrared Thermometers Lithium Batteries for Cars Flooding at the Junction Tornado damage of the Mississippi and near Birmingham, Ohio Rivers (5/3/11) Alabama (5/4/11 ) Groundwater Remediation LED Light Therapy For Pain Management 6 Weather Forecasting

7 Local Economic Impact • All NASA funding is “spent on the ground”, fueling the economy with jobs, industry contracts, commodity purchases, partnerships with industry, DoD and academia, local travel and tourism, and growth to household incomes. • NASA funds 9 NASA Centers and JPL across the country adding to the economy of its local regional areas. • Some studies estimate that NASA investment produces x2 impact on local economy .

8 KSC’s Economic Impact FY 2010 • $1.8 billion in FY 2010 was spent in support of space program activities in the State of Florida. • - site KSC in FY 2010 was 13,630. The total worker population on/near 73% were employed by prime contractors, 17% were KSC/NASA related federal civil service workers. Total gross earnings of all space - workers at KSC were $1.1 billion.

9 NASA’s impact on US launch industry Launch Alliance United • is a launch system provider with annual . sales of about $2B employing 3,600 people across the US Most Recent NASA In 2011, ULA’s fleet of Atlas V, Delta II and Delta IV launched • Payload Launches 11 missions which accounted for approximately 80% of US launches in 2011. Atlas V ’s • NASA missions account for 30% of United Launch Alliance MSL (ULA) customer base (since 2006, 17 out of 56 missions have 11/26/11 been NASA missions). Denver, CO  ULA Headquarters  Program Management, Engineering, and Mission Support Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), CA Pueblo, CO 3  – SLC - Atlas V Delta II Storage  – - 2 SLC Delta II  Delta II SLC - – Delta IV  6 NPP Decatur, AL 10/28/11 Delta II and IV  Fabrication, Assembly, and Test  Atlas Booster Tank Fabrication and Final Assembly Cape Canaveral Air Force Station San Diego, CA (CCAFS), FL Delta IV – SLC  Atlas V 41 -  Atlas V Centaur Tank Fabrication – SLC - 17A/B  Delta II GOES - P Atlas V Booster Fluid and  –  37 - SLC Delta IV Pneumatic Lines 3/4/10 Harlingen, TX  GX Booster Tank Fabrication Atlas V and GX Mechanical Structures  Payload Fairing Fabrication and Assembly   Adapter Fabrication and Assembly 9

10 Missions provide services to multiple users and fuel the economy. 10

11 Earth Science Mission Data and Services NASA’s Earth Science division operates multiple Earth Observation • satellites and provides data for multiple users and services in the U.S. and abroad: • Agriculture: enhance agriculture management and policy making Air quality management (partnership with EPA) • Climate change assessment, planning to respond to climate changes and • policy analysis • Disaster forecast, mitigation and response (extreme weather events, fires, large scale natural and human - induced disasters) • Remote sensing data is used for ecological forecasting and environmental P Mission - GOES management of National Parks, endangered species, etc. • Public health applications of environmental data: emergency preparedness and response, infectious diseases, and environmental health issues Water resources management • Weather monitoring and forecast • NOAA - N Mission NPP Mission Smoke from Yellowstone Fires

12 Detecting Oil During the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill • An Applied Sciences project that began in 2008 helped jump start efforts to track the location of oil in the Gulf of Mexico – The sheer size of the Gulf of Mexico has historically forced federal agencies to rely on chance sightings of oil spills – The collaboration of researchers from NRL, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Center for Satellite Applications and Research (NOAA/STAR) developed innovative techniques for using satellite data to - automate detection of oil improve and semi spills – This technology was used to track the spill, provide data for operational decisions and assess the impact on the Gulf habitat The Applied Sciences Program of SMD supports efforts to discover and demonstrate innovative and practical uses of NASA Earth science and satellite observations. More at http://appliedsciences.nasa.gov 12

13 Tracking Volcanic Ash from Iceland • When ash from a volcano in Iceland closed airports and threatened the safety of international travel, Applied Sciences projects and partnerships provided critical information on the location and trajectory of ash plume – NASA’s investment in volcanic ash research and its longstanding partnership with NOAA provided the framework for developing customized reports for the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in London using data from several instruments on NASA and European satellites. • This event was the first time NASA directly assisted a non U.S. Volcanic Ash Advisory - Center. – Critical information was provided to VAAC during the height of the shutdown of European air traffic. The Applied Sciences Program of SMD supports efforts to discover and demonstrate innovative and practical uses of NASA Earth science and satellite observations. More at http://appliedsciences.nasa.gov 13

14 & Astrophysics 14

15 James Webb Space Telescope - Overview 15

16 Total $M/FY10 FTEs JWST Fuels the Economy ~$110M/40 FTEs New York ~$23M ~$65 M/50 FTEs Aeroflex Utah New Hampshire Cranetech Inc Idaho Ohio Indium Corp of America ATK Aerospace Company Optical Solutions Inc University of Idaho Brush Wellman ITT Space Systems, LLC Space Dyamics Lab/ Utah St. U Timkin Aerospace & Super Precision Keithley JPW Structural Contracting, Inc Hexcel Corporation Moog Inc Lake Shore Cryotronics Aerospace Machining Minnesota Sigmaddyne Massachusetts Glenn Research Center ION Corp University of Rochester Appli Tec Inc - Minco Products, Inc. ValveTech Inc Hypertronics Corporation Oregon Sheidahl CO. Precision Measurements & Instr. Connecticut ~$2,600M/~500 FTEs Zygo Illinois Pennsylvania Maryland Nevada Boeing Alaska Tyco Engineered Systems Bechdon Company, Inc. TRAX International Inc ~$20M Numerical Precision ASRC Boeing New Jersey Computer Science Corporation Newark Electronics Conceptual Analytics Quantum Coatings, Inc ~$330 M/80 FTEs Colorado Curtis Management Co. ABSL Space Products Energy Solutions International, LLC Ball Aerospace & Tech Corp General Dynamics Blue Line Engineering Genesis Engineering Co., LLC CTD Global Science & Technology Raytheon Company Goddard Space Flight Center SEAKR Engineering, Inc Hammers Company Space Science Institute Honeywell / HTSI Jackson & Tull Chartered Engineers California Janis Research Company $1,750 M/~400FTEs ATK Space Systems Inc Johns Hopkins University Composite Optics Litton Dow - Key Microwave Corp Geologics Corp Lockheed Martin Glenair Lorr Company Hewlett Packard Washington DC Mega Engineering JDS Uniphase Catholic University Microtel JPL Naval Research Lab NGST Electronics Lockheed Martin ATC Northrop Grumman NEA electronics Magna Tool Tek Nu - Maxwell Technologies QSS Group, Inc. Moog Raytheon Newport Corporation RSTX Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Science Application International Corporation HI Parsons Infrastructure & Technology North Carolina SGT Raytheon Vision Systems Rockwell Scientific Nightsky Systems Sigma Sabritec Space Telescope Science Institute SAIC ~$110M/40 FTEs SRS Technologies Texas New Mexico St Systems USA, Inc SSAI Muniz Engineering SVG Tinsley Laboratories Cortez III Service Corp University of Maryland Sunrise Technologies, Inc National Instruments DoE Tennessee West Virginia USRA Synopsys, Inc Texas A&M University Jacobs Technology Tayco Engineering, Inc NASA GSFC IV&V Wolcott Park Johnson Space Center Tavis Corp University of California Vacco ~$25M/10 FTEs Arizona Ames Research Center ~$40M/15 FTEs ~$77M/45 FTEs Dynaco Virginia Alabama Honeywell International, Inc BAE Systems Information & Electronics Systems Integration Hawaii Axsys Technologies Florida Optical Device Engineering Corp General Dynamics GL Scientific Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Quick Circuits University of Arizona Man Tech Mauna Kea Engineering SRI CDA InterCorp National Research Initiatives Arizona State University University of Hawaii Mantech - Nexolve Orbital Sciences Corporation Geodetic Services

17 NASA invests in Commercial Space NASA’s COTS and CCDev programs are investing in • Commercial Space to develop commercial cargo and crew space systems to service ISS and incentivize other commercial space markets. – Analysis by Commercial Space Flight Federation, an industry group, estimates that an average of 11,800 direct jobs would exist each year from FY 2011 to FY 2015 as a result of investment in commercial crew and cargo services with the amount of funding in NASA’s budget request. • NASA is also investing in Google X - Prize activities (contracts total $30M with 6 companies for lunar data) and has established partnerships with General Motors (Robonaut2, ultimately for use by GM in vehicle production), LEGO, Microsoft, Google, Facebook and FourSquare.

18 Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) The SCaN program is responsible for providing communications services for all of • NASA's missions – SCaN coordinates multiple space communications networks as well as network , maintain support functions to grow NASA's space communications regulate , and and navigation capabilities. It includes multiple programs, examples: • TDRSS – 8 operational satellites that provide in - flight communications with spacecraft operating in low - Earth orbit. Satellite Aided Search and Rescue • - Deep Space Network • Key role in the Deep Impact – Mission - maintains the link between spacecraft and earth. • Space Network – Provides tracking and data relay for spacecraft, satellites, and expendable launch vehicles (ELV) using space and ground segments. • Others, including technology development

19 Search and Rescue (SAR)/Distress Alerting Satellite System (DASS) Satellite - • Aided Search and Rescue More than 800,000 emergency beacons in use worldwide by the civil community – – most mandated by regulatory bodies. – It is expected to have more than 100,000 emergency beacons in use by U.S. military services. Since the first launch in 1982, current system has contributed to saving over – 20,000 lives worldwide. NASA is responsible for Search and Rescue Research and Development. – Technology for satellite detection and location of aircraft and vessels in distress was developed by NASA in the 1970s. It evolved into an international cooperative effort with spacecraft hardware provided by United States, Canada, France, and Russia - called Cospas - Sarsat System . - Sarsat System currently has 38 participating Cospas , SAR payloads on 11 satellites, a worldwide countries network of 58 ground terminals, and supports search and rescue agencies worldwide • GPS - based DASS development is funded by NASA with the goal to make it an operational part of International Cospas - Sarsat, which would significantly enhance its performance For more information visit https://www.spacecomm.nasa.gov/spacecomm/programs/search_and_rescue.cfm 19

20 Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) • Cluster of 8 communication satellites used mostly NASA, NOAA and DoD Earth orbiting missions, but also supports ships, airplanes and sites like Antarctic Pole Station as requested • Commercial launch providers use TDRS services for parts of ascent trajectory (i.e. can’t reliably launch commercial satellites w/o TDRS services) • Provides support to commercial satellite industry on as needed basis, (such as support to specific maneuvers, parts of the trajectory, etc.) • This space communications system has demonstrated unanticipated versatility:  The South Pole TDRSS Relay was installed in December 1997  During a medical emergency at the National Science Foundation's Scott South Pole Station in 1999, TDRS 1 provided - Antarctic Amundsen - the high speed internet connectivity that allowed Dr. Jerri Nelson to communicate with doctors in the United States, as she performed a self - biopsy and administered chemotherapy for her breast cancer.  - 1 provided a similar service three years later, when a remote team TDRS of medical personnel assisted in the knee surgery on a meteorologist at the same South Pole station. https://www.spacecomm.nasa.gov/spacecomm/programs/tdrss/default.cfm For more information visit 20

21 NASA Aeronautics = Economic Benefits NASA’s work on these technologies 20% more fuel efficient/ • Advanced composite structures Was transferred With these Chevrons • emissions reduced CO 2 for use here benefits • Laminar flow aerodynamics emissions lower NO 28% x • Advanced CFD and numeric simulation tools 801 confirmed orders smaller noise footprint 60% • Advanced ice protection system through August 2011 Boeing 787 Source: Boeing NASA’s work on these technologies Was transferred 16% more fuel efficient/ With these • Advanced composite structures for use here benefits emissions reduced CO 2 Chevrons • • Laminar flow aerodynamics 30% lower NOx emissions 114 confirmed orders Advanced CFD and numeric simulation tools • 30% smaller noise footprint through July 2011 Boeing 747 - 8 400 than 747 - Source: Boeing NASA’s work on these technologies Was transferred With these Low NO Talon combustor • 16% reduction in fuel x for use here benefits Fan Aerodynamic and Acoustic Measurements • burn/reduced C02 • Low noise, high efficiency fan design emissions Proposed for Airbus A320NEO, P&W PurePower 1000G • Ultra High Bypass technology reduction in No 50% Series, - Bombardier C x Geared Turbofan • Acoustics Modeling and Simulation tools Mitsubishi Regional Jets Source: Pratt & Whitney noise reduction 20dB NASA’s work on these technologies • Compression system aerodynamic performance advances With these Was transferred reduction in fuel burn/ 15% • Low NO TAPS II combustor benefits for use here x emissions reduced CO 2 • Low pressure turbine blade materials 50% less NO X • High - pressure turbine shroud material Proposed for Airbus A320NEO, X - CFM LEAP aluminide bond coat for the high - Nickel • Boeing 737MAX 15dB noise reduction Source: CFM pressure turbine thermal barrier coating 21

22 NASA Technology Onboard Commercial Fixed Wing Aircraft - + COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) + NASA STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (NASTRAN) + COMPOSITE STRUCTURES + AIRBORNE WIND SHEAR DETECTION + AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT + LIGHTNING PROTECTION STANDARDS + TURBO AE + DIGITAL FLY WIRE - - BY + WINGLETS + SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL + JET ENGINE + AREA RULE COMBUSTORS + GLASS COCKPIT + ICING DETECTION TOLERANT FAN CASING + ENGINE NOZZLE CHEVRONS + DAMAGE - + RUNWAY GROOVES + WIND TUNNELS 22

23 NASA’s Impact on Education NASA • invests in Space Grants to help students achieve Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) degrees through internships, flight project opportunities and awards. From 2006 to 2011, there were • 6868 students who received significant Space Grant support and graduated during that timeframe and were tracked after graduating. Of the 6868 students, the chart below shows 91% • “Advancing high quality STEM retention in STEM fields by either continuing Advanced Education using NASA’s unique degrees or pursuing a STEM career. Capabilities” 2% 9% 11% Non STEM Advanced STEM Degree 20% STEM Academia STEM Industry 46% 12% Aero Industry NASA/JPL 23

24 Summary NASA enables a number of services, such as: • Data from earth science satellites, such as, GOES, NPP, NOAA, enable a number • of applications, such as, weather monitoring and forecast, agriculture management, climate change assessment, water resources management, • NASA Satellites support disaster recovery, such as, Gulf of Mexico oil spill, Volcano eruption in Iceland, and fires over California. • TDRSS enables satellite communications • Satellite - Aided Search & Rescue NASA impacts the US economy in a variety of ways: • • Technology transfer of its research & development to commercial markets NASA funding at 9 NASA Centers and JPL produces x2 economic impact to the • local regions. NASA missions account for >30% of US launches making NASA a significant • contributor to the US launch industry and its economy. • Programs, such as JWST provide vital knowledge about our universe and fuel the economy by awarding numerous new contracts, creating new jobs for advanced, skilled workforce and adding to the local economies of contractors. • NASA’s Commercial Space programs will have a large economic impact by creating new commercial space markets, such as crew and cargo space transportation services, and Lunar space transportation services which will enable space tourism, space habitats, etc. • NASA’s Education programs encourage students to pursue STEM degrees continues to have a significant impact on the number of students entering the science and engineering workforce. 24

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