AM FM Viscoelastic Mapping Mode

Transcript

1 AM-FM Viscoelastic Mapping Mode Asylum Research AFM Information on mechanical properties is important in many applications. AM-FM Viscoelastic Mapping Mode lets you quickly and gently image viscoelastic properties including storage modulus and loss tangent with nanoscale spatial resolution. Its very wide operating range, from less than 1 MPa to hundreds of GPa, makes it a highly versatile technique. AM-FM Mode is NanomechPro ™ Toolkit MFP-3D available on all Cypher ™ family AFMs and is one of many options in Asylum’s ™ and for nanomechanical measurements. Capabilities and Benefits 1 is a Asylum’s exclusive AM-FM Viscoelastic Mapping Mode flexible, convenient tool for nanomechanical characterization. With a range of applicability that spans a remarkable six orders of magnitude in storage modulus (from less than 1 MPa to hundreds of GPa), it is a general-purpose technique for anything from biomaterials and polymers to metals and ceramics. AM-FM Mode provides elastic information including storage modulus, Young’s modulus, and contact stiffness and viscoelastic information including viscoelastic loss tangent and loss modulus. AM-FM Mode gets results by operating at two cantilever resonances simultaneously. As the name indicates, the first resonance is used for tapping mode imaging, also known as amplitude modulation (AM), while a higher resonance mode is operated in frequency modulation (FM). At resonance, the cantilever frequency and phase respond sensitively to changes Cantilever Deflection + Shake Piezo AM-FM Mode images for a polystyrene-polycaprolactone (PS-PCL) polymer film on mica: elastic storage modulus (a and c), viscoelastic loss tangent (b), and indentation depth (d). Scan sizes 5 μm (a and b) Resonance 1 - AM and 1.5 μm (c and d). Storage modulus is higher in PS regions (light Sample brown) than PCL regions (dark brown), while PCL regions exhibit Topography A 1 φ higher loss tangent than PS. The ability to capture the fine fibrillar 1 Loss Tangent structure of PCL (c and d) demonstrates AM-FM Mode’s high spatial resolution and gentle nature. Images acquired on a Cypher S AFM Resonance 2 - FM at 2 Hz scan rate with blueDrive™ photothermal excitation. f Stiffness and Elasticity 2 A Dissipation 2 In AM-FM Mode, two separate excitation signals (blue and red curves on right) are combined to excite two cantilever resonances simultaneously (purple curve, center). The resulting cantilever deflection (purple curve, left) is analyzed to determine the response at each resonance. Resonance 1 operates in AM mode (blue box). controls the vertical feedback loop for standard The amplitude A 1 and the phase tapping mode topography, while A φ give values for 1 1 loss tangent. Resonance 2 operates in FM mode (red box). Changes in resonance frequency determine stiffness and elasticity, while give viscous or dissipation information. changes in the amplitude A 2

2 AM-FM Viscoelastic Mapping Mode in sample properties. Small frequency and phase shifts can What is Loss Tangent? be measured with very high precision and accuracy, reducing uncertainty and increasing sensitivity. You can use raw output tan In materials mechanics, the loss tangent δ is the ratio of signals to quickly visualize relative contrast and identify sample a material’s dissipated energy to stored energy in response components; or you can use the observed amplitude, phase, to cyclic excitation. Equivalently, the angle describes the δ and frequency data to make quantitative estimates of phase lag between an applied strain and the resulting stress mechanical properties based on built-in or your own models. in a material with time-dependent response. Loss tangent is defined in terms of the material’s elastic storage modulus E’ Because AM-FM Mode works like tapping mode in the repulsive tan δ by E” and viscoelastic loss modulus = E”/E’ . For many regime, it is familiar and straightforward to use. It also has the polymeric materials, loss tangent is a very sensitive probe of other advantages of tapping mode including fast scanning, phase transitions, which can relate to performance-critical high spatial resolution, and gentle forces. On high speed, properties such as toughness and impact resistance. When low-noise systems such as Asylum’s Cypher S and ES AFMs, measured on bulk samples with traditional techniques, tan δ modulus mapping in AM-FM Mode can routinely operate at typically ranges from less than 0.001 for metals and ceramics line scan rates as fast as 20 Hz (equivalent tip velocity 300 μm/s) 2 to more than 1 for elastomers and biological materials. and forces as low as 50 pN. Low forces mean less sample deformation, typically only a few nanometers, which both The loss tangent measured in AM-FM Mode is the ratio of 3 minimizes damage and maximizes spatial resolution. Because dissipated to stored power in the AFM tip-sample interaction. the FM amplitude is just a tiny fraction of the AM amplitude Attractive forces and dissipative processes such as adhesive and is at a different frequency, topographic imaging operates rupture mean that the measurements are an upper bound on the same as in standard tapping mode. This makes AM-FM tan the material’s actual δ . Further technique development and Mode very stable and reliable to operate. calibration protocols may improve agreement. Nonetheless, the measured loss tangent provides a useful estimate with which to assess viscoelastic behavior. How it Works AM-FM Mode has its roots in research on multifrequency 4-8 and bimodal AFM . The diagram on page 1 explains the to keep the amplitude at the setpoint value. Just like tapping basic concepts of operation. The signals from two oscillators mode, this signal provides topography data. are summed and sent to the cantilever excitation or “shake” piezo, exciting two different vibrational modes of the cantilever Meanwhile, a second lock-in measures the phase and amplitude simultaneously. Typically, the first and the second flexural at the higher cantilever resonance, which operates in FM mode. resonances are used, although the third and even higher An automatic gain control circuit monitors the amplitude and resonances can be used. adjusts the drive voltage to keep the amplitude constant. A phase-locked loop monitors the phase and adjusts the drive The cantilever’s response is analyzed in two ways. The lower frequency to keep the phase at 90º. The output drive voltage cantilever resonance operates in AM mode, exactly like standard signal contains information on viscous or dissipative forces. tapping mode. The amplitude and phase at a fixed frequency The output resonance frequency describes the elastic tip-sample are measured by a lock-in amplifier. Together, these signals 3 interaction; basically, higher frequency means greater stiffness determine the loss tangent. The AFM also uses the amplitude or modulus. for feedback control, adjusting the cantilever’s vertical position LDPE 4 1.5x10 PS 1.0 ts Fibrils on PS 0. 5 Coun 0. 0 3. 0 0. 0 1. 0 2. 0 Young’s modulus (GPa) AM-FM Mode images of dissipation (left) and elastic modulus (right) for mouse prion amyloid fibrils on a polystyrene (PS) substrate with a (LDPE) low-density polyethylene domain. Values for Young’s modulus in the image and histogram (far right) were obtained by referencing to the PS-LDPE substrate. The dissipative signal shows greater contrast between the fibrils and the substrate than the elastic modulus. Image scan size 3 μm. , 3851 (2014). 8 For more information see G. Lamour, K.C. Yip, H. Li, and J. Gsponer, ACS Nano 2

3 AM-FM Viscoelastic Mapping Mode Contact Resonance Mode is another exclusive Asylum technique for quantitative measurements of elastic and viscoelastic modulus. This makes it useful for direct comparison to AM-FM Mode. Both Contact Resonance Mode and AM-FM Mode exploit sensitive shifts in the cantilever’s resonance frequency to achieve high precision and accuracy. Contact Resonance Mode is best suited to materials with relatively high storage modulus (>1 GPa). Force curves are a quasistatic indentation method for nanomechanical measurements. The sensitivity of force curve methods drops as the material modulus increases, so it is best suited for relatively soft materials. Also, image acquisition times with standard force curve methods are relatively slow. Fast Force Mapping Mode on Asylum Infinity MFP-3D AFMs overcomes this limitation with 300 Hz pixel rates. Like other techniques, force curves require analysis with contact models to achieve quantitative results. Asylum’s MFP Nanoindenter option for MFP-3D AFMs gives true, ISO-compliant measurements of nanoindentation modulus. However, it makes much larger and deeper indentations than AFM techniques. This can decrease lateral spatial resolution and limit applicability to thin films. (top) Loss tangent and (bottom) frequency for a commercial coffee packaging bag in cross section. Both images distinguish between the different sample components (vapor barriers, “tie” layers, and metal layer). Scan size 15 μm. Acquired with a Cypher S. Quantitative elastic modulus is determined from frequency, amplitude, and phase of the two modes with a contact mechanics model. Model parameters such as the cantilever tip radius can be determined either by directly measuring the tip shape with a tip-check sample or, much more easily, with use of 2 a reference sample with known modulus. In this case, model parameters such as tip radius are simply adjusted in software while scanning the reference sample to obtain the expected modulus value. The test sample is then imaged with the same parameter values. Results are most accurate when the reference and test samples have similar modulus. Loss modulus can be calculated by combining storage modulus and loss tangent, and tip-sample contact stiffness can be determined with use of the cantilever spring constant. In addition, maps of sample indentation (sometimes called deformation) are available for further insight. Comparison to Other Techniques AM-FM Mode is a widely applicable tool, but it is just one technique in Asylum’s NanomechPro Toolkit. You are encouraged to explore other options including Contact Resonance Viscoelastic Mapping Mode, instrumented indentation with (top) Storage modulus and (bottom) indentation depth overlaid on the MFP Nanoindenter™ option, and force curves. Fast Force topography for tin / lead alloy solder. Tin-rich (yellow) and lead-rich Mapping Mode is also available on MFP-3D Infinity™ AFMs. (purple) regions can be identified in the storage modulus map. Scan Comparing results from different methods is a valuable way to size 23 μm. Images acquired on a Cypher S AFM at 2 Hz scan rate enhance measurement confidence. with blueDrive photothermal excitation. 3

4 Using AM-FM Mode on Your Asylum Research AFM AM-FM Mode can be performed on all Asylum AFMs with standard software. ModeMaster™ simplifies AM-FM operation by automatically configuring the software and guiding you through the experiment. Setup time is minimized even more on Infinity MFP-3D AFMs with GetStarted™ software, which automatically sets tapping mode parameters. For absolute contact stiffness measurements with AM-FM Mode, cantilever spring constants are easily and accurately calibrated with GetReal™ software, free on all Asylum AFMs. AM-FM Mode requires a cantilever excitation source with relatively flat response over a wide frequency range. These needs are met with the AM-FM Probe Holder for Cypher S and MFP-3D AFMs. Another option is the exceptionally clean and stable photothermal actuation of blueDrive, available on Cypher S and ES AFMs. Specialized cantilevers are not required with AM-FM Mode. References 1. Protected by certain U.S. patents assigned to or licensed by Oxford Instruments Asylum Research, Inc., including 8,555,711, 8,448,501, 8,024,963, 7,958,563, 7,603,891, and 7,921,466. 49 , 1897 (2013). Eur. Polym. J. R. Garcia and R. Proksch, 2. Frequency images for a polypropylene-polyethylene-polystyrene (PP-PE-PS) blend. In the top image with scan size 8 μm, regions of Appl. Phys. Lett. R. Proksch and D.G. Yablon, , 100 3. PS (yellow) and PE (purple) are clearly distinguished from PP (orange) 073106 (2012). despite relatively small differences in elastic modulus. The bottom image with scan size 300 nm shows the lamellar structure of PP, H. Hölscher, B. Gotsmann, W. Allers, U.D. Schwarz, 4. demonstrating AM-FM Mode’s high spatial resolution and sensitivity. 64 , H. Fuchs, and R. Wiesendanger, Phys. Rev. B Sample courtesy of Dalia Yablon and Andy Tsou, ExxonMobil Research 075402 (2001). and Engineering, Corporate Strategic Research. Appl. Phys. Lett. , 84 5. T.R. Rodriguez and R. Garcia, 449 (2004). N.F. Martinez, S. Patil, J.R. Lozano, and R. Garcia, 6. , 153115 (2006). 89 Appl. Phys. Lett. Appl. Phys. Lett. , 113121 (2006). 89 7. R. Proksch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8. 99 , G. Chawla and S.D. Solares, 074103 (2011). www.AsylumResearch.com to learn more Visit The foregoing application note is copyrighted by Oxford Instruments Asylum Research, Inc. Oxford Instruments Asylum Research, Inc. does not intend the application note or any part thereof to form part of any order or contract or regarded as a representation relating to the products or service concerned, but it may, with acknowledgement to Oxford Instruments Asylum Research, Inc., be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose. Oxford Instruments Asylum Research, Inc. reserves the right to alter, without notice the specification, design or conditions of supply of any product or service. Application Note 27 – 6/2014. 6310 Hollister Avenue Santa Barbara, CA 93117 www.AsylumResearch.com +1 (805) 696-6466 Voice [email protected] +1 (888) 472-2795 Toll free [email protected] +1 (805) 696-6444 Fax

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