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1 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality Guidance for Registered Nurses Silver Spring, Maryland 2010

2 Summary Today, in response to variations in the quality of health care and rising health care costs, many policy makers and purchasers of health care services are exploring and promoting pay-for- performance (P4P) or value-based purchasing (VBP) systems. There are multiple variations of Pay for Quality programs all with designs and strategies to refocus the health care system on cost- effective quality care. At the core of any program are the measures used to rate the provider’s performance. ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality: Guidance for Nurses presents ten principles to guide the nurse in any Pay for Quality discussion. American Nurses Association Published by Nursesbooks.org The Publishing Program of ANA 8515 Georgia Avenue, Suite 400 Silver Spring, MD 20910-3492 www.Nursesbooks.org 1-800-274-4ANA www.Nursingworld.org © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-283-5 eBook publication, November 2010

3 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality • 1 Contents 2 Overview of Pay for Quality National Priorities Partnership Goals and Priorities ANA and Pay for Quality: Process and Participants Pay for Quality, Pay-for-Performance, and Value-Based Purchasing ANA Pay for Quality Principles: A Call to Action 7 Background Publications and Policy Statements 9 Pay for Quality Principles 11 Recommendations on Pay for Quality Staff Nurses Advanced Practice Registered Nurses Nurse Administrators Nurse Educators and Researchers 15 References and Bibliography 21 Contributors © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

4 Overview of Pay for Quality • National Priorities Partnership Goals and Priorities • ANA and Pay for Quality: Process and Participants • Pay for Quality, Pay-for-Performance, and Value-Based Purchasing • ANA Pay for Quality Principles: A Call to Action ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Overview of Pay for Quality • 2

5 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | • 3 Overview of Pay for Quality Overview of Pay for Quality With growing national attention on the cost of health care and issues related to quality of care in the United States, it is not surprising that the federal government and selected health care insurers are looking at ways to clearly link payment to quality of care irrespective of settings. “High value” health care is the provision of high quality care by improving patient outcomes, while containing costs. Registered nurses (RNs), as members of the interprofessional team responsible for patient care in any kind of bundled payment system, will be able to contribute best to lower overall costs and improve outcomes if provided an opportunity to practice to their full professional scope. This is particularly true of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) who, in their capacity as primary care providers, can lead accountable care organizations, patient- centered medical/health care homes, and other integrated care systems to benefit the coordination of quality, efficient patient care. National Priorities Partnership Goals and Priorities Nursing is (and has been) actively involved in discussions focusing on development of the National Priorities Partnership (NPP) goals and priorities, which were selected because they collectively and individually address four major challenges that are important to every American: • Eliminating harm • Eradicating disparities • Reducing disease burden • Removing waste Nursing, along with the other NPP partners, has agreed to work with each other and with policymakers, health care leaders, and the community at large, to build on the NPP framework, and to develop actions in each of the major areas that will drive improvements needed: • Performance measurement • Public reporting, payment systems Research and knowledge dissemination • • Professional development System capacity • © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

6 Overview of Pay for Quality • 4 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Today, in response to variations in the quality of health care and rising health care costs, many policy makers and purchasers of health care pay-for-performance services are exploring and promoting (P4P) or value-based purchasing (VBP) systems. There are multiple variations of Pay for Quality programs all with designs and strategies to refocus the health care system on cost effective quality care. At the core of any program are the measures used to rate the provider’s performance. ANA and Pay for Quality: Process and Participants A Pay-for-Performance Action Proposal was submitted, reviewed and discussed at the American Nurses Association (ANA) House of Delegates (HOD) in June, 2006. As a result, the HOD directed the ANA Board of Directors to investigate further the complexities and implications of pay- for-performance. The ANA Board in turn assigned the responsibility to the Congress on Nursing Practice and Economics (CNPE) workgroup. The CNPE Pay-for-Performance/Value-Based Purchasing workgroup has reviewed the literature; evaluated various Pay for Quality programs, their respective targets, type of measures collected, incentives offered and implications for nurses’ practice; and analyzed the evolution of the pay- for performance movement. Key stakeholders—chief nursing officers and advanced practice registered nurses—were interviewed to validate understanding of pay-for-performance initiatives and to identify nursing implications and considerations for practice. Pay for Quality, Pay-for-Performance, and Value-Based Purchasing Pay for Quality has evolved from the reporting of quality measures to the payment or non-payment for actual performance on those quality measures. The terms pay-for-performance (P4P) and value-based purchasing (VBP) are used to identify various methods that link payments to some measure of individual, group or organizational performance. An increasing number of purchasers and payors of health care services, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are embracing P4P/VBP strategies in an effort to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of care while achieving high value for their health care dollars and thereby promoting high value health care. © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

7 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Overview of Pay for Quality • 5 The move toward greater use of P4P/VBP systems in the current health care environment presents a unique set of opportunities and challenges for health care providers including registered nurses. Registered nurses and advanced practice registered nurses, individually and collectively, confront the complex issues related to pay-for-performance. Both P4P and VBP are considered Pay for Quality, and both provide an incentive to an individual, group or organization for achieving a targeted outcome that impacts patient quality care. Public reporting of quality performance initially began with CMS in 1984 with the reporting of hospital mortality rates of Medicare patients. By 2002, CMS had launched several quality initiatives for hospitals, nursing homes, and home health, dialysis and transplant facilities. Public reporting of quality measures was initially on a volunteer basis, with the exception of dialysis facilities that were required by CMS to report specific measures to participate in Medicare. Hospital participation was low until CMS instituted a payment incentive for public reporting, and the program became Pay-for-Reporting. Compliance increased from a hospital participation rate of 10% to 95% after the incentive was implemented. The CMS Pay-for Reporting program then expanded to pay-for- performance beginning in October 2008, with their hospital- acquired conditions policy that eliminates some Medicare payments for selected inpatient adverse events. Value-based purchasing is when “buyers of health care” hold providers of care responsible for the quality and cost of care. VBP programs include pay for reporting and pay-for-performance in the public and private sectors, with CMS being the largest purchaser of care and supporting various demonstration projects. © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

8 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Overview of Pay for Quality • 6 ANA Pay for Quality Principles: A Call to Action There are multiple Pay for Quality programs and demonstration projects in both the public and private sectors wherein the incentive can be in the form of a financial payment, increased referrals, or financial penalties for the absence of particular outcomes. The ANA Pay for Quality Principles are a call to action to allow nurses in all settings to have the ability to recognize their contributions to the discussion at the local, regional, or national level and to understand the ongoing work necessary to ensure nurses are well represented. • Nursing administrators have a broad accountability to all aspects of the health care system: the public/patient, staff, and organization. • Staff nurses have direct impact on patient outcomes, and as such need to be acutely aware of their role in any quality initiative, public reporting, or pay-for-performance program. • APRNs such as clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs) , and nurse practitioners (NPs) are financially impacted by Pay for Quality reimbursement and incentives. Nurse administrators, staff nurses, APRNs, and nurse educators and • researchers impact Pay for Quality on various levels. As Pay for Quality evolves, these principles provide the foundation for nurses to actively participate. © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

9 Background Publications and Policy Statements ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Background Publications and Policy Statements • 7

10 • 8 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Background Publications and Policy Statements Background Publications and Policy Statements The following policy statements and publications provide the driving force for the ANA Pay for Quality Principles. • Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (ANA, 2001) guides nurses in their non-negotiable ethical obligations, duties, and commitment to society. • Nursing’s Social Policy Statement (ANA, 2010a) guides the nurse in addressing the social context of nursing and expresses the social contract between society and the profession of nursing. • Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, Second Edition (ANA, 2010b) guides the nurse in addressing issues of quality of practice. The registered nurse systematically enhances the quality and effectiveness of nursing practice (see in particular Standard 7, Quality of Practice; p. 33–34). • Nursing Administration: Scope and Standards of Practice (ANA, 2009) guides nurse administrators in the duties they are expected to perform competently. In particular, the nurse administrator systematically enhances the quality and effectiveness of nursing practice, nursing service administration, and the delivery of service (see especially Standard 7, Quality of Practice; p. 35). • Health System Reform Agenda (ANA, 2008) guides the nurse in understanding the four critical components of health system reform: access, quality, cost, and workforce. The quality aims to encompass providing safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable health care. © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

11 Pay for Quality Principles ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Pay for Quality Principles • 9

12 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Pay for Quality Principles • 10 Pay for Quality Principles The current editions of ANA’s foundational documents— Code of Ethics Nursing: Scope and (2001), for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, Standards of Practice (2010) and Nursing’s Social Policy Statement (2010)—as well as accrediting organizations and federal regulation include quality as an essential component of nursing practice. The American Nurses Association presents these ten principles to guide the nurse in any Pay for Quality discussion: 1. Health care professionals are accountable for the care they provide as individuals and as members of integrated health care teams. 2. Nurses must acquire and maintain knowledge of current and emerging concepts of quality included in various Pay for Quality programs at the local, state, and national level. 3. An adequate nursing workforce and a healthy professional practice environment, providing 24/7 care to patients across settings, positively contributes to quality patient outcomes. 4. Nurse leaders must ensure availability of adequate resources to achieve high value patient care. 5. Active involvement by nurses in all practice settings and roles in quality measure selection, measurement reporting, and practice evaluation is critical to ensure high value patient care. 6. Performance data on which Pay for Quality programs are based must be reliable, valid, pose minimal data collection burden to nurses, and reflect nursing practice. 7. Discipline specific and interprofessional measures utilized in Pay for Quality need to reflect current science- and evidence-based practice. 8. Nursing-sensitive quality measures should be reported at the local, state, and national level. 9. Incentives intended to achieve high value health care need to stimulate improvements and efficiencies in team-based care, and Pay for Quality programs should assure equitable incentives for all health care providers. 10. APRNs are eligible for direct reimbursement and incentives under all Pay for Quality programs. © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

13 Recommendations on Pay for Quality • Staff Nurses • Advanced Practice Registered Nurses • Nurse Administrators • Nurse Educators and Researchers ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Recommendations on Pay for Quality • 11

14 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Recommendations on Pay for Quality • 12 Recommendations on Pay for Quality Pay for Quality is an evolving program in the private and public sectors. Nurses have a responsibility to understand, promote, recognize, and highlight their role and impact on high value patient care. To do so, nurses need to be knowledgable of those facets of Pay for Quality that are germane to their areas of practice and roles. Accordingly, ANA makes the following recommendations grouped by four major practice and role areas: staff nurses, advanced practice registered nurses, nurse administrators, and nurse educators and researchers. Staff Nurses Staff nurses will: Advocate for appropriate resources to optimize patient outcomes • Acquire knowledge of Pay for Quality, quality measures, impact of • nursing care on reimbursement and their role in these programs, and implications for practice • Participate in fostering a culture of safety that supports a systems view to improve quality of care • Participate in decision making and contribute to the development and selection of best practices, measurable criteria and Pay for Quality implementation Identify areas for measure development or inquiry with the potential • to lead to appropriate measures • Anticipate an increased emphasis on quality with emphasis on nursing risk assessment, surveillance, prevention, early detection and aggressive treatment of complications, errors, and preventable injuries and infections Advanced Practice Registered Nurses Advanced practice registered nurses, in addition to the above recommendations for staff nurses, will: • Lead and implement quality improvements, Pay for Quality measures, and patient protocols Evaluate clinical protocols for the adequacy of their evidence base • © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

15 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Recommendations on Pay for Quality • 13 • Participate in Pay for Quality initiatives and realize direct reimbursements for care provided using a National Provider Identifier (NPI) for billing according to state standards Disseminate results of outcomes of care and the impact on practice • through presentations and publications Nurse Administrators Nurse administrators will: • Acquire knowledge of history, rationale, process, core measures, and measurement systems of public reporting, pay-for-performance, and value-based purchasing Foster a culture of safety that supports a systems view to improve • quality of care Assure evidence-based nursing practice that results in positive patient • outcomes • Position the organization so that there is appropriate allocation of human and financial resources • Advocate for nurses at all levels of decision-making on issues related to rewards, financial incentives, pay for quality programs, and the resources needed to optimize patient outcomes • Develop incentives for excellence in nursing performance from the point of care through nursing administration • Provide leadership that drives quality improvement including the selection, utilization, and reporting of nursing measures at the facility level and within interprofessional teams used to rate performance • Educate nursing staff on the rationale, value, and outcomes of the Pay for Quality program, the role for nursing, and implications for practice Disseminate the results of performance measures to staff at all levels • • Support research to generate and evaluate nursing-sensitive quality measures © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

16 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | • 14 Recommendations on Pay for Quality Nurse Educators and Researchers Nurse educators and researchers will: • Address the impact of the “aggregate of nursing care” on quality outcomes, the health care delivery model, and financing in entry-level curricula Address the range of financing mechanisms and the collection and • use of outcomes data in graduate curricula Educate the next generation of health services researchers committed • to advancing the science of quality nursing and health care Continue to develop nursing measures and corresponding evidence • that captures the work and contributions of nurses that demonstrate outcomes of high value care • Continue to perform research that examines the relationship between nursing workforce characteristics, nursing practice, the effects of nursing intensity, and direct nursing costs to patient outcomes © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17 References and Bibliography ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | References and Bibliography • 15

18 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | • 16 References and Bibliography References and Bibliography All URLS were current as accessed on September, 30, 2010. Alliance for Healthcare Reform. (2006) (February). Pay-for-Performance: A promising start (Issue Brief ). Washington, DC: Author. Alliance for Healthcare Reform. (2007) (March). Rewarding quality (Issue Brief). Washington, DC: Author. performance: The role of nursing American Medical Association. (2004) (November). Physician Pay-for- Performance (PFP) initiatives (White Paper). Chicago, IL: Author. Nursing: Scope and standards of American Nurses Association. (2010b). nd Edition. Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org practice, 2 Nursing’s social policy statement: American Nurses Association. (2010a). Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org The essence of the profession. Nursing administration: Scope and American Nurses Association. (2009). standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org Health system reform agenda. American Nurses Association. (2008). Silver Spring, MD: Author. American Nurses Association. (2006). Action Proposal to the American Silver Nurses Association House of Delegates: Pay-for-Performance. Spring, MD: Author. American Nurses Association. (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretative statements. Washington, DC: Nursesbooks.org American Nurses Association (ANA). (1998). RNs and Pay-for- Performance: The right prescription? Workplace Issues: Wages and Benefits. Washington, DC: Author. Baker, M. L. (2006). Pay-for-Performance programs spark debate. Health care IT. eWeek.com . February 2, 2007. New York, San Francisco, Ziff-Davis Media. http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Health-Care-IT/PayforPerformance- Programs-Spark-Debate/ Becker, C. (2005). Right on the money: CMS awarding Pay-for- . Modern Health Care Performance bonuses (November): 8–9. © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

19 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | References and Bibliography • 17 Newtown, CT. Bridges to Excellence. (2010). http://www.bridgestoexcellence.org Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). (2005) . Medicare Pay for Performance (P4P) initiatives . Office of Public Affairs. (January 31, 2005.) Baltimore, MD: Author. / http://www.cms.hhs.gov/apps/media/press/release.asp?Counter=1343 –––. (2007). Medicare Hospital Value-Based Purchasing. Options Paper. Prepared by the CMS Hospital Pay-for-Performance Workgroup with Assistance from the RAND Corporation, Brandeis University, Booz | Allen | Hamilton, and Boston University. (2nd Public Listening Session, April 12, 2007.) Baltimore, MD: Author. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/downloads/HospitalV http://www.cms.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/ : BPOptions.pdf / Also Medicare Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Plan Development –––. (2007). Issue Paper. Prepared by the CMS Hospital Pay-for-Performance Workgroup with Assistance from the RAND Corporation, Brandeis University, Booz | Allen | Hamilton, and Boston University. (1st Public Listening Session , January 17, 2007.) Baltimore, MD: Author. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/Downloads/Hospital_VBP / _Plan_Issues_Paper.pdf Also : http://www.cms.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/ –––. (2007). Report to Congress: Plan to implement a Medicare hospital . Prepared by the CMS Hospital Value-Based Purchasing program Value-Based Purchasing Workgroup with Assistance from the RAND Corporation, Brandeis University, Booz | Allen | Hamilton, and Boston University. Baltimore, MD: Author. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/downloads/HospitalV BPPlanRTCFINALS BMITTED2007.pdf/ Baltimore, MD: Author. –––. (2008). Hospital Quality Initiative. Overview. https://www.cms.gov/HospitalQualityInits/Downloads/Hospitalover http://www.cms.gov/HomeHealthQualityInits view.pdf Also : –––. (2009). Acute Inpatient PPS. FY 2010 Final Rule Home Page. Baltimore, MD: Author. CMS-1406: Final rule and correction notice. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/10FR/itemdetail.asp?fi lterType=none&filterByDID=99&sortByDID=1&sortOrder=ascen ding&itemID=CMS1227477&intNumPerPage=10 © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

20 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | • 18 References and Bibliography –––. (2009). Office of Public Affairs. Medicare adds quality measures for reporting by acute care hospitals for inpatient stays in 2010. Media Release Database: Fact Sheets. Baltimore, MD: Author. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/apps/media/press/factsheet.asp?Counter=3 485&intNumPerPage=10&checkDate=&checkKey=&srchType=1 &numDays=3500&srchOpt=0&srchData=&keywordType=All&ch kNewsType=6&intPage=&showAll=&pYear=&year=&desc=&cbo Order=date / Also: http://www.cms.gov/apps/media/fact_sheets.asp Overview. –––. (2010). Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI) Baltimore, MD: Author. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/PQRI Clark, S. P., C. Raphael, and J. Disch. (2008). Challenges and directions for nursing in the Pay-for-Performance movement . Policy, Politics and Nursing Practice, 9 :127 –134. The Commonwealth Fund. (2006). Quality matters: Pay-for- Performance in Medicare (Issue Brief ). Washington, DC: Author. Theory and reality Department of Health and Human Services. (2007). (AHRQ of Value-Based Purchasing: Lessons from the pioneers Publication No. 98-0004) Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare . / http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/meyerrpt.htm Research and Quality. Dall, T. M., Y. J. Chen, R. F. Seifert, P. J. Maddox, and P. F. Hogan. (2009). The economic value of professional nursing . Medical Care, 47 :97–104. Draper, D. A., L. E. Felland, A. Liebhaber, and L. Melichar. (2008). The role of nurses in hospital quality improvement. (Research Brief . Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health System no. 3) Change. Pay for Performance: A Dudley, R. A., and M. B. Rosenthal. (2006). decision guide for purchasers (AHRQ Pub. No. 06-0047) . Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality . George Washington University. (2007). A Summary of the impact of reforms to the hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems (IPPS) (White Paper). Washington, DC: Author. on nursing services © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

21 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | References and Bibliography • 19 Hines, P. A. and K. M. Yu. (2009). The changing reimbursement landscape: Nurses’ role in quality and operational excellence. Nursing Economic$, 27 :7–14. Institute of Medicine. (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health Washington, DC: National Academies Press. system. –––. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Kahn, C., T. Ault, H. Isenstein, L. Potetz, and S. Van Gelder. 2006. Snapshot of Hospital Quality Reporting and Pay-for-Performance under Medicare. Health Affairs 25 (1): 148–161. Kennedy, S. 2007. The impending reimbursement revolution: How to (2): Nursing Economic$ 25 prepare for future APN reimbursement. 81–84 . Kirchheimer, B. (2008). Nurses wrestle with the pros and cons of Pay- for-Performance plans, Nurse.com. July 14, 2008. Falls Church, VA: Gannett Healthcare Group. http://news.nurse.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080714/NAT IONAL01/107140137/-1/frontpage/ Kurtzman, E. T., E. M. Dawson, and J. E. Johnson. (2008). The current state of nursing performance measurement, public . Policy, Politics and Nursing reporting, and value-based purchasing :181–191. Practice, 9 Kurtzman, E. T., and B. M. Jennings. (2008). Capturing the imagination of nurse executives in tracking the quality of nursing care. Nursing Administration Quarterly 32 :235–246. Leapfrog Hospitals Reward Program. (2010). Washington, DC: Academy Health. http://www.leapfroggroup.org/home Mason, D. (2005). Congress, Medicare, and Pay-for-Performance. (3): 26–28. Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association 85 Medicare Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC). (2005). . Report to Congress. Washington, DC: Author payment policy . http://www.medpac.gov © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

22 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | References and Bibliography • 20 National Priorities Partnership. (2008). Aligning our efforts to transform America’s health care: National Priorities Partnership. November. Executive Summary in National Priorities and Goals. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum. http://www.nationalprioritiespartnership.org/uploadedFiles/NPP/0 8-253-NQF%20ReportLo%5B6%5D.pdf/ Publications tab at: Also via the http://www.nationalprioritiespartnership.org/AboutNPP.aspx National Quality Forum. (2010). Consensus development projects. Washington, DC: Author. / http://www.qualityforum.org/Projects.aspx Needleman, J. and E. T. Kurtzman. (2007). Performance measurement . Medical Care Research and Review, no. 64:10S–43S. of nursing care Nichols, L. and A. S. O’Malley. (2006). Hospital payment systems: Will Health Affairs25 (1): 819–93. payers like the future better than the past? (Issue Brief Partnership for Public Service. (2005). Pay for Performance PPS-05-01). Washington, DC: Author. http://ourpublicservice.org/OPS/publications/ Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009a). Perspective on pay for performance in nursing: Key considerations in shaping payment Charting Nursing’s systems to drive better patient care outcomes. In Future, pp. 1–8. March. Quality Alliance Steering Committee. Princeton, NJ: Author. http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/2009novemberchartingnursingsf uture.pdf/ Charting the course to high Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009b). value health care (Issue and Policy Brief ). May 6, 2009. The Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform at the Brookings Institution (with support from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). Princeton, NJ: Author. http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=39688/ Rosenthal, M., R. Frank, Z. Li, and A. Epstein. (2005). Early experience with Pay-for-Performance: From concept to practice. (14): 1788–1798. Journal of the American Medical Association 294 © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

23 Contributors ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Contributors • 21

24 ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality | Contributors • 22 Workgroup Kathleen M. White, PhD, RN, CNAA-BC – Chair Bette M. Ferree, MSN, RN, FNP-BC Kimberly A. Hickey, MSN, APRN-BC Patricia Holloman, BSN, RN, CNOR Sally Burrows-Hudson, MS, RN, CNN Jane Kirschling, DNS, RN Karen Leone-Natale, BSN, RN Sara A. McCumber, RN, CNP, CNS Catherine E. Neuman, MSN, RN, NEA-BC ANA Staff Isis Montalvo, MBA, MS, RN Eileen Carlson, JD, RN About ANA The American Nurses Association (ANA) is the only full-service professional organization representing the interests of the nation’s 3.1 million registered nurses through its constituent member nurses associations, its organizational affiliates, and the Center for American Nurses. The ANA advances the nursing profession by fostering high standards of nursing practice, promoting the rights of nurses in the workplace, projecting a positive and realistic view of nursing, and by lobbying the Congress and regulatory agencies on health care issues affecting nurses and the public. This ANA publication— ANA’s Principles of Pay for Quality —reflects the thinking of the nursing profession on various issues and should be reviewed in conjunction with state board of nursing policies and practices. State law, rules, and regulations govern the practice of nursing, while this publication guides nurses in the application of their professional skills and responsibilities. © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, Copyright American Nurses Association or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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