ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP Strategies for Closing Academic Achievement Gaps

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1 87434 LEAR All Students Cover 9/23/04 3:31 PM Page 1 North Central Regional Educational Laboratory ALL STUDENTS Strategies for Closing Academic Achievement Gaps REACHING THE TOP A Report of the National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability

2 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page i Strategies for Closing ALL STUDENTS Academic Achievement Gaps REACHING THE TOP A Report of the National Study Group f or the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability Albert Bennett, Ph.D. Beatrice L. Bridglall Ana Mari Cauce, Ph.D. Howard T. Everson, Ph.D. Edmund W. Gordon, Ed.D. Carol D. Lee, Ph.D. Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, Ph.D. J oseph S. Renzulli, Ed.D. Ju dy K. Stewart, Ph.D. 2004

3 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page ii 1120 East Diehl Road, Suite 200 Naperville, IL 60563-1486 • 800-356-2735 630-649-6500 www.learningpt.org Copyright © 2004 Learning Point Associates, sponsored under government contract number ED-01-CO-0011. All rights reserved. This work was originally produced in part by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory with funds from the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), U.S. Department of Education, under contract number ED-01-CO-0011. The content does not necessarily reflect the position or policy of IES or the Department of Education, nor does mention or visual r epresentation of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the federal government. Learning Point Associates was founded as the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) in 1984. NCREL continues its research and development work as a wholly owned subsidiary of Learning Point Associates.

4 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page iii CONTENTS Members of the National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability iv v Preface vi Acknowledgments Executive Summary 1 3 Academic Ability and Academic Achievement Gaps Th 3 e Nature of the Academic Achievement Gaps Affirmative Development of Academic Ability and Intellective Competence 7 High-Quality Teaching and Instruction in the Classroom 9 9 Nurturing Intellective Competence 14 Tr ansfer of Knowledge: Challenges and Educational Applications T 19 he Importance of Trusting Relationships in School Psychosocial Processes That Hinder the Development of Academic Ability 19 Building Trust 20 Supports for Pro-Academic Behavior in the School and Community 23 Access to Education-Relevant Capital 23 24 Supportive Family, Community, and Academic Environments Socialization to the Attitudinal and Behavioral Demands of High 25 Academic Achievement Academic and Social Integration 26 26 Exposure to Various Forms of Supplementary Education 27 Exposure to Models of Academic Excellence and Exemplars of Scholarly Practice 29 All Students at the Top: What Will It Take? Conclusions 29 Recommendations 30 References 33 Appendix: Key Terms and Definitions 41

5 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page iv Members of the National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability Albert Bennett, Ph.D. Carol D. Lee, Ph.D. Associate Professor, School of Education Harold Washington Professor of Educational and Public Policy and Social Policy Director, St. Clair Drake Center for African American Northwestern University Studies, Roosevelt University Ray Legler, Ph.D. Senior Program Associate A. Wade Boykin, Ph.D. Learning Point Associates Codirector CRESPAR, at Howard University Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology Beatrice L. Bridglall University of California at Berkeley Editor and Assistant Director Institute for Urban and Minority Education Ulric Neisser, Ph.D. eachers College, Columbia University T Professor, Department of Psychology Cornell University Gina Burkhardt CEO Joseph S. Renzulli, Ed.D. Learning Point Associates Director, National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Ana Mari Cauce, Ph.D. Raymond and Lynn Neag Professor of Earl R. Carlson Professor and Chair Gifted Education and Talent Development Department of Psychology University of Connecticut University of Washington Reginald Clark, Ph.D. Margaret Beale Spencer, Ph.D. President Board of Overseers Professor of Education and Psychology Clark and Associates University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School Howard T. Everson, Ph.D. of Education V ice President for Academic Initiatives page iv and Chief Research Scientist Judy K. Stewart, Ph.D. The College Board President aylor Education Consulting T Patricia Gandara, Ph.D. Professor, School of Education William Trent, Ph.D. University of California at Davis Professor, Educational Policy Studies University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Edmund W. Gordon, Ed.D. Philip Uri Treisman, Ph.D. Richard March Hoe Professor of Psychology and Education, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics T eachers College, Columbia University Director, Charles A. Dana Center John M. Musser Professor of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin Emeritus, Y ale University Arie van der Ploeg Chair, National Study Group for the Affirmative Senior Program Associate Development of Academic Ability Learning Point Associates Sabrina W.M. Laine, Ph.D. Senior Advisor to the CEO Learning Point Associates The National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability was organized in 2002 by Learning Point Associates, the Institute for Urban and Minority Education at Columbia University Teachers College, and the College Board. During the course of one year, the National Study Group engaged 20 scholars in dialogue and writing for the purpose of producing a national report on critical interventions to help close the academic achievement gaps among ethnic-minority groups of students. This report will be followed by the release of an edited book by Edmund W. Gordon and Beatrice L. Bridglall, The Affirmative Development of Academic Ability, in late 2004.

6 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page v ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP PREFACE A comprehensive mission of public schools is to produce students who are intellectually compe- tent and prepared for postsecondary education and the increasingly competitive workforce. However, differences in educational outcomes of students indicate that the impact of our current public school system is limited. One of the most urgent concerns among education stakeholders today is the underrepresentation of African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans among A Nation at Risk (National high-achieving students. Twenty years since the release of the report Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), new efforts continue to emerge, promising to eliminate this academic disparity and to ensure that no child is left behind. Stakeholders have been working relentlessly to maximize educational outcomes and to respond to the unprece- dented challenge of educating increasingly multicultural, multilingual, and disadvantaged students. Although the hard work indicates signs of progress, more work is necessary to continue to improve student performance. Following up on the policy recommendations of the National Task Force on Minority High Achievement (1999), on which I served as cochair, I called for a national effort at affirmative development (Gordon, 2001). Affirmative development asserts that the purpose of learning—and, therefore, of teaching—is to acquire knowledge and technique to develop human intellect. In other words, affirmative development helps build the intellectual muscle that humans need to apply to changing situations, experiences, and contexts. These developed abilities are by no page v means restricted to subject matter knowledge. In sharp contrast, the student must now use his or her acquired knowledge and technique to adaptively and efficiently solve both common and novel problems. This past year, I have been tremendously fortunate to chair the National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability. With the support of Learning Point Associates, the College Board, and the Institute for Urban and Minority Education at Columbia University T eachers College, I have purposely united 20 leading scholars from multiple disciplines to help craft a vision for affirming academic ability, nurturing intellective competence, and moving all students—particularly minority and low-income students—to high levels of academic achievement. be clear, what follows is a discussion about intellective competence—not intelligence. (Refer to To the appendix for key terms and definitions that appear in this report.) The National Study Group maintains that intellective competence is not fixed but developed and, therefore, developable. Here, then, is our effort to marshal the chunks of knowledge needed to systematically nurture intellective competence and eliminate the academic achievement gaps among our children. Edmund W. Gordon, Chair National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability Learning Point Associates

7 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability was organized with the support of three agencies: Learning Point Associates, Columbia University Teachers College, and the College Board. As cosponsors, these agencies committed financial and human r esources to convene the National Study Group, commission several papers, and publish this report. Gina Burkhardt, CEO of Learning Point Associates, deserves special acknowledgment. Under her leadership, the National Study Group first convened and defined its purpose. She recruited Edmund W. Gordon, Ed.D., endowed chair at Yale University and Teachers College, to lead the National Study Group. Dr. Gordon’s presence and recognition in the academic and not-for-profit communities set the wheels in motion for the design and work of the National Study Group. Through his efforts, 20 researchers, scientists, and education practitioners committed to engage for one year in dialogue and substantive work on the issue of the achievement gaps. Also through Dr. Gordon, a vital partnership was forged with Howard T. Everson, Ph.D., vice president for academic initiatives and chief research scientist at the College Board. The College Board’s well-known track record in the area of achievement helped galvanize the National Study Group. In addition to the cosponsors, the National Study Group acknowledges the contributions of National Study Group members Judy Stewart, Ph.D., independent consultant and a former policy director with Learning Point Associates; Albert Bennett, Ph.D., professor, Roosevelt University; and Beatrice Bridglall, editor and assistant director, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, page vi T eachers College, Columbia University. Dr. Judy Stewart first presented the idea of a National Study Group to CEO Gina Burkhardt, who authorized her to run with the idea. Dr. Stewart has been involved in every stage of the National Study Group’s work from its inception, partnership development, meeting facilitation, to coediting the final report. Dr. Albert Bennett has been instrumental in managing the partnerships and work products of the National Study Group members. His critical insights helped keep the National Study Group on task and united. Beatrice Bridglall served as a constant source of expertise as a facilitator, researcher, writer, and coeditor. In addition to peer review by National Study Group members, invaluable criticism was received by Joshua Aronson, Ph.D., New York University; Sigmund Tobias, Ph.D., Columbia University T eachers College; Andrew Rotherham, Progressive Policy Institute; and Allan Alson, Ed.D., Evanston Township High School District 202. Learning Point Associates

8 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 1 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Overcoming the continued academic underperformance of students of color requires a systemic approach—one that combines simultaneous interventions by families, teachers and administra- tors, and the larger society. The National Task Force on Minority High Achievement, a group organized by the College Board in 1997 and cochaired by professors Edmund W. Gordon and (1999), which indicated that “until Reaching the Top Eugene Corta-Robles, issued a report titled many more...minority students from disadvantaged, middle class, and upper middle class circum- stances are very successful educationally, it will be virtually impossible to integrate our society’s institutions completely, especially at the leadership levels” (p. 2). The Task Force concluded that these problems require a national effort at the affirmative development of academic ability. Academic ability is one expression of human intellective competence that, increasingly, is recog- nized as the universal currency of technologically advanced societies. Academic ability references capabilities such as the following: • Literacy and numeracy. • Mathematical and verbal reasoning. • Skill in creating, recognizing, and resolving relationships. • Problem solving from both abstract and concrete situations, as in deductive and inductive reasoning. page 1 • Sensitivity to multiple contexts and perspectives. • Skill in accessing and managing disparate bodies and chunks of information. • Resource recognition and utilization (help seeking). • Self-regulation. Academic ability appears to be the product of exposure to the demands of specialized cultural experiences—schooling being the most common—that interact with a wide variety of human potentials (Cole, Gay, Glick, & Sharp, 1971; Cole & Scribner, 1974; Hunt, 1966; Martinez, 2002; Sternberg, 1994). The National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability met together throughout 2002 and 2003 to investigate this issue. This report is one product of their work. The National Study Group reviewed strong evidence that academic ability is a developed (and developable) ability, one that is not simply a function of one’s biological endowment or a fixed aptitude. Recognizing academic ability as a malleable ability, the National Study Group argues that closing the gaps in academic achievement between groups of students from different social divisions (class, ethnicity, gender, and language) will require the development of intellective competence in a wide range of individuals through interventions in our homes, communities, and schools. Affirmative development of academic ability is nurtured and developed through (1) high-quality teaching and instruction in the classroom, (2) trusting relationships in school, and (3) supports for pro-academic behavior in the school and community. These pedagogical and social activities and Learning Point Associates

9 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 2 Executive Summary environmental supports build a developmental “scaffolding” around and within which students find support for growth in abilities and dispositions to: • Perceive critically. • Explore widely. • Bring rational order to chaos. • Bring knowledge and techniques to bear on the solution of problems. • Test ideas against explicit and considered moral values and empirical data. • Recognize and create relationships between concrete and abstract phenomena. Intellective competence reflects the effective orchestration of affective, cognitive, and situative mental processes in the service of sense making and problem solving. These competencies focus not only on what we want learners to know and know how to do, but also on what we want learners to be and become—that is, compassionate and independently critical thinking members of humane communities. Intellective competence reflects intellective character. This report describes one approach—one that necessitates simultaneous interventions at the classroom, school, and community levels—in order to reach that goal. The National Study Group’s conclusions and recommendations were guided by the following ideas and are addressed in the body of the report in the following order: • The nature and extent of the academic achievement gaps between majority and minority students. • Teaching and learning for knowledge acquisition, improved comprehension, page 2 and understanding in the classroom. • The psychological processes, especially trust, associated with minority academic achievement in schools. • The environmental supports necessary for the development of intellective competence and character. The charge to the National Study Group and now to the nation is guided by the belief that we cannot overlook the essential need to focus on improving the learning opportunities and academic achievement of minority and low-income students. Demographic shifts in our nation’s population mandate that we attend specifically to these students’ achievement if we expect as a nation to maintain our standard of living, our level of prosperity, and our place in the global economy. Simply put, we need the knowledge and contributions of students of color—together with the knowledge and contributions of all our students and all our adults—to maintain our democracy. A systemic approach to closing achievement gaps and improving learning for all students necessitates access to a combination of educational interventions in the classroom, school, and community. High levels of academic ability can be obtained for all students by applying proven ❙ pedagogical practices and adopting policies that are within our reach. Learning Point Associates

10 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 3 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP ACADEMIC ABILITY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT GAPS Educators generally are perplexed when trying to find ways to raise the achievement of black, Hispanic, and Native American students. For example, when superintendents of large urban school districts were surveyed recently, they listed the issue of the achievement gaps between minority and nonminority students as one of their major concerns (Huang, Reiser, Parker, Muniec, & Salvucci, 2003). Many of these educators spoke of their frustrations and said, repeatedly, that they need practical advice—research that tells them what to do in their schools and classrooms to address this challenge. The National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic Ability believes that contemporary research in the learning sciences and on the transfer of learning may provide the guidance that educators need to help reduce the achievement gaps. T he Nature of the Academic Achievement Gaps Decades of data on national trends in standardized tests in reading, mathematics, and science confirm the existence of achievement gaps for certain ethnic-minority student populations and students living in poverty. Table 1 shows these differences in science, mathematics, and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for samples of 8th- and 12th-grade students nationally from 1996 to 2000 for science and mathematics and from 1998 page 3 to 2002 for reading. At each grade level, black and Hispanic students perform significantly lower than white students in science, mathematics, and reading. T able 1. NAEP Scores for Grades 8 and 12: Science, Mathematics, and Reading GRADE 8 GRADE 12 1996 2000 1996 Science 2000 122 121 Blacks 123 124 130 128 Hispanics 129 128 Whites 159 162 159 154 Mathematics 1996 2000 2000 1996 243 247 274 280 Blacks Hispanics 251 253 287 283 Whites 282 286 310 308 1998 2002 Reading 1998 2002 244 267 269 245 Blacks 273 Hispanics 275 247 243 292 270 White 297 272 Sources: (O’Sullivan, Lauko, Grigg, Qian, & Zhang, 2003) T he Nation’s Report Card: Science 2000 T (Braswell, Lutkus, Grigg, Santapau, Tay-Lim, & Johnson, 2001) he Nation’s Report Card: Mathematics 2000 T (Grigg, Daane, Jin, & Campbell, 2003) he Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2002 Learning Point Associates

11 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 4 Academic Ability and Academic Achievement Gaps ends in black and white average scores on the SAT, taken by college-bound high school juniors Tr and seniors, tell much the same story. Table 2 shows the average SAT verbal and mathematical easoning scores for black and white students over the past eight years—1996 through 2003. The r black-white SAT score gaps are seen clearly in these trend lines; the gap is about one standard deviation (or 100 points) in the scale score metric—a significant difference by any standard. Graphing these differences makes it clear that the gaps increase in size over time (see Figure 1). able 2. Differences in SAT Verbal and Mathematical Scores T or Black and White Students f Mean SAT Verbal Scores Mean SAT Mathematical Scores White Black Y ear Black White 422 523 1996 434 526 434 1997 526 526 423 1998 528 426 526 434 434 1999 528 422 527 426 434 530 528 2000 433 2001 529 426 531 533 427 527 430 2002 431 2003 529 534 426 Sources: Digest of Education Statistics, 2000 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001) (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003) Digest of Education Statistics, 2002 (College Entrance Examination Board, 2003) 2003 College-Bound Seniors: Tables and Related Items page 4 Figure 1. Differences in SAT Verbal and Mathematical Scores f or Black and White Students 110 108 106 104 102 100 98 96 SCORE DIFFERENCES 94 V: Wh-BI 92 : Wh-BI M 90 1999 2000 2003 2001 2002 1998 1996 1997 YEAR Sources: (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001) Digest of Education Statistics, 2000 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003) Digest of Education Statistics, 2002 (College Entrance Examination Board, 2003) 2003 College-Bound Seniors: Tables and Related Items Learning Point Associates

12 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 5 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP These achievement scores have urgent ramifications for students’ subsequent educational attainment. Success in high school and on the SAT and ACT controls who enrolls in college. For example, the 11-year trend in college entrance rates indicates a continuing, long-term gap between black and white students (see Figure 2). Although black-white enrollment rates nearly r eached equality in about 1998, the gap soon reappeared and has not diminished since then. Figure 2. 11-Year Trend in College Entrance Rates f or Black and White Students 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% Whites 30% Blacks PERCENTAGE OF COHORT 20% 10% page 5 0% 1993 1992 1997 1996 1995 1994 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 YEARS Source: No. 132 (Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2003) Opportunity, A host of other indicators of academic achievement show similar differences by race and ethnicity. Indeed, compelling evidence has accumulated that suggests these achievement gaps appear even before disadvantaged African-American and Hispanic children enter kindergarten (Camara & Schmidt, 1999; Jencks & Phillips, 1998; Mickelson, 2003). On the other hand, educational opportunities and academic achievement for some ethnic- minority groups in the United States appear to be on the rise, judging from several of the findings outlined by the National Center for Education Statistics report Status and Trends in the Education of Blacks (Hoffman, Llagas, & Snyder, 2003). The percentage of black children whose mothers have obtained a high school education has increased significantly since 1974. It also appears that more minority students have completed high school and gone on to college. Many black educa- tors hold teaching appointments in institutions that are not historically minority. Unfortunately, we seem to have reached a plateau with respect to gains made in the 1960s, ‘70s and ‘80s in student academic achievement. The findings of Hoffman, Llagas, and Snyder (2003) include the following: • Black children are more likely than white or Hispanic children to be enrolled in center-based preprimary education at the ages of 3, 4, and 5. • Most minority students attend public schools where minorities represent the majority of the student body. Seventy-three percent of black 4th-grade students were enrolled in schools with more than half of the students eligible to receive a free or reduced-price lunch. Learning Point Associates

13 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 6 Academic Ability and Academic Achievement Gaps • Long-term trends in NAEP scores show increased performance in reading for minority students between 1971 and 1999. Trends in performance on NAEP mathematics and science also show improvements over the long term. • Although black high school graduates completed more academic courses in 1998 than in 1982, their academic credit totals remained lower than those of whites in 1998. However, blacks’ vocational credit totals were higher than those of whites. • In 1998, black students were less likely than white students to take advanced mathematics courses and some advanced science courses and less likely than Hispanic students to take advanced foreign language classes. Between 1984 and 2000, the number of black students per 1,000 12th graders taking Advanced Placement (AP) examinations increased. However, fewer black students per 1,000 12th graders than white or Hispanic students took AP exams in 2000. • In 1999, a lower percentage of minority and Hispanic children than white children were in private schools. • Nearly one fourth of all bachelor’s degrees earned by blacks in 1999 were earned at historically black colleges and universities. • The proportion of blacks completing college increased between 1975 and 2000; however, blacks still remained less likely than whites to earn degrees. Minorities in Higher Education 2002–2003: According to the American Council on Education’s (Harvey, 2003) regarding the sciences and engineering, African- wentieth Annual Status Report T American students earned only 12,149 bachelor’s degrees in social sciences, 4,851 degrees in biological/life sciences, and 4,324 degrees in engineering during 2000–01. The figures are even more alarming on the graduate level. With respect to doctoral degrees, African Americans earned only 80 degrees in physical science, 190 degrees in life science, 299 degrees in social science, page 6 and 82 degrees in engineering during 2000-01 (Harvey, 2003). These figures are cause for concern in light of the fact that minority students represent approximately 11 percent of all students enrolled in higher education (Wilds, 2000). This reality is of particular concern not just for the gifted and talented African-American students who do not persist and graduate in the sciences but also for the K–12 education continuum and the nation, which increasingly privileges those skills and intellective competencies required for meaningful participation in an advanced technological society. These intellective competencies include the abilities to bring order to the chaos created by information overload; to reason; to uncover relationships between phenomena; and to use comparison, context, intent, and values in arriving at judgments. Such competencies are respected and sought after in both technologically developed and underdeveloped societies. Indeed, the capacity to function effectively in these domains is the essence of intellective competence, which increasingly is the universal currency in technologically advanced societies. Almost 75 years ago, DuBois (1940) warned against the neglect of gifted and talented minority students. Current attention, however, is primarily focused on the overrepresentation of minorities on the left end of the academic achievement distribution to the neglect of those on the right end. These problems include a persistent gap between minority and majority students in general, a larger gap between high-achieving minority and high-achieving majority students, and the tendency of traditional indicators of high academic achievement to overpredict the subsequent academic achievement of many minority students. These often ignored findings were first eported in Equality of Educational Opportunity by Coleman et al. (1966) and in the 1980s and r ‘90s by Durán (1983), Ramist, Lewis, and McCamley-Jenkins (1994), and W. W. Willingham (1985). Learning Point Associates

14 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 7 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP Affirmative Development of Academic Ability and Intellective Competence The National Task Force on Minority High Achievement (1999) concluded that these problems equire a national effort at the affirmative development of academic ability. Academic ability is r one expression of human intellective competence that, increasingly, is recognized as the universal currency of societies that are technologically advanced. Academic ability references capabilities such as the following: • Critical literacy and numeracy. • Mathematical and verbal reasoning. • Skill in creating, recognizing, and resolving relationships. • Classification of information and stimulus material. • Problem solving from both abstract and concrete situations, as in deductive and inductive reasoning. • Sensitivity to multiple contexts and perspectives. • Skill in accessing and managing disparate bodies and chunks of information. • Resource recognition and utilization (help seeking). • Self-regulation (including metacognitive competence and metacomponential strategies). Such capabilities appear to be the products of exposure to the demands of specialized cultural page 7 experiences—schooling being the most common—that interact with a wide variety of human potentials (Cole, Gay, Glick, & Sharp, 1971; Cole & Scribner, 1974; Hunt, 1966; Martinez, 2000; Sternberg, 1994). We therefore conclude that academic ability is a developed ability—the quality of which is not primarily a function of one’s biological endowment or fixed aptitudes. With the ecognition of academic ability as a developed ability, the National Study Group for the r Affirmative Development of Academic Ability begins with the assumption that closing the gaps in academic achievement between groups of students from different social divisions (class, ethnicity, gender, and language) will require the affirmative development of such ability in a wide range of individuals through certain interventions in our homes, communities, and schools. Affirmative development of academic ability is based on the notion that such abilities are nurtured and developed through (1) high-quality teaching and instruction in the classroom, (2) trusting relationships in school, and (3) environmental supports for pro-academic behavior in the school and community. These pedagogical and social activities and environmental supports should reflect a type of developmental “scaffolding” around and within which students can find support for growth in the development of abilities and dispositions to: • Perceive critically. • Explore widely. • Bring rational order to chaos. • Bring knowledge and techniques to bear on the solution of problems. • Test ideas against explicit and considered moral values and empirical data. • Recognize and create relationships between concrete and abstract phenomena. Learning Point Associates

15 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 8 Academic Ability and Academic Achievement Gaps According to Gordon (2001), the mastery of academic learning is instrumental to the develop- ment of intellective competence. In Gordon’s vision of teaching, learning, and assessment, academic outcome standards are central. However, it is the explication of what we want learners to know about specific disciplines and be able to do that must be considered as instrumental to what we want learners to become. There is no question about the importance of what students learn and are taught. Most of us would agree that teaching and learning independent of content (subject matter) is problematic. However, just as teaching and learning without subject matter are vacuous, teaching and learning should not be so constrained by content that the purpose of engagement with these pedagogical endeavors is precluded. Gordon (2001) also argues that the purpose of learning, and the teaching by which it is enabled, is to acquire knowledge and technique to develop adaptive human intellect. Developed abilities are not so much reflected in the specific discipline-based knowledge a student may have, but in the student’s ability and disposition to adaptively and efficiently use knowledge, technique, and values in mental processes to engage and solve both common and novel problems. In summary, intellective competence is more than what advanced societies understand and measure as “intelligence.” Intellective competence reflects the integration of academic content with mental processes such as reasoning and critical thinking applied within an ever-changing but highly relevant social context, which results in the mental activity that is necessary to make sense of experiences and to solve problems. This end goal is less focused on what we want learners to know and know how to do, and is more sharply focused on what we want learners to be and become—compassionate and independently critical thinking members of humane communities. From this perspective, intellective competence may be a reflection of intellective character. page 8 The next three sections of the report describe the research base as well as educational appli- cations at the classroom, school, and community levels that—if appropriately integrated and implemented—should lead to high academic achievement and the development of intellective ❙ competence in all students. Learning Point Associates

16 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 9 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP HIGH-QUALITY TEACHING AND INSTRUCTION IN THE CLASSROOM Modern constructivist views of learning and cognition emphasize that the child is an active learner who engages the world in trying to make sense of it. In the ideal world, the home, school, and neighborhood serve as the child’s laboratory; there are books at home, museums in the neighborhood, and adequate facilities in the school. The child has peers to serve as companions in exploration and adult guidance to structure interactions that are maximally conducive to learning. Support for learning continues and becomes more formalized in the classroom, with school serving as an extension of the learning environment in the home and community. Although the above description may approximate the learning environments of affluent children in this country, it is a far cry from the settings in which too many others reside. Poor children— who are disproportionately African American, Hispanic, and Native American—often grow up in high-crime, inner-city neighborhoods. Parents often need to protect their children from these neighborhoods instead of letting them explore. In these same neighborhoods, adult authority figures often are lacking and peer interactions are as apt to result in harm as in good. (See Cauce et al., 2003, for a recent review of this literature.) Nurturing Intellective Competence page 9 The constructivist perspective of learning is based on a simple proposition: Students come to school with constructed understandings of the world—not with empty minds to be filled up through lectures, drills, and rote learning. They have prior knowledge, albeit sometimes incom- plete, of their worlds and how things in it work. Contemporary theorists subscribe to the belief that the knowledge with which a learner comes to school affects his or her ability to learn and acquire new knowledge. By extension, if what teachers are attempting to teach conflicts with the previously constructed knowledge of the student, this new knowledge will make little sense and will be ill constructed and unavailable for future use in other settings (Anderson, 1987; Brooks & Brooks, 1999; von Glasersfeld, 1989; Resnick, 1987; Schauble, 1990). Obviously, this constructivist perspective has important implications for promoting long-term r etention and transfer. Much of the failure to transfer new learning to other contexts may stem from the buzz of confusion that learners experience when previously constructed knowledge and new knowledge (and novel contexts) conflict or are not well aligned (Everson & Renzulli, in press). Simply making the new knowledge clearer to students, the research suggests, will not enhance understanding or lead to adaptive forms of transfer (Cheng & Holyoak, 1985; Gentner, Ratterman, & Forbus, 1993; Gick & Holyoak, 1983). The drill and practice—as well as other direct teaching methods—found in many large, urban, and otherwise poorly funded schools might be working to mitigate against transfer. This type of instruction may be particularly damaging to minority students attending these schools. More to the point, the achievement gaps between white and black children as early as kinder- garten suggest that, indeed, all students are constructing knowledge long before they enter school. Some students, perhaps, have constructed understandings and acquired knowledge that may be more feasible and relevant to the classroom; others have not. Some students apparently Learning Point Associates

17 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 10 High-Quality Teaching and Instruction in the Classroom arrive at school with richer and deeper stores of prior knowledge—stories, words, and schemas for understanding the world around them (Lee, in press). Research indicates that the body of private understandings that many students have acquired before coming to school may be incomplete, inaccurate, and in conflict with what the curricula demand of them (Di Sessa, 1988). W ith this caveat in mind, a handful of teaching and learning strategies can provide teachers and students respectively with a framework to refocus the learning process. These strategies include knowledge acquisition, improved comprehension through consolidation and automaticity, deep understanding, and learning for transfer. It is important to note that these strategies are defined in a somewhat arbitrary manner and do not represent clear demarcations in the learning process or distinct teaching techniques. They are merely an organizational device to ensure that our treat- ment of teaching is comprehensive and that we do not gloss over aspects of learning (such as automaticity and deep understanding) that typically get little treatment in the literature. 1. Teaching for Knowledge Acquisition Knowledge acquisition remains a critical stage in the learning process; it is the building block for all other processes. The more that is learned about higher-order thought processes, the clearer it becomes that such processes do not occur independently of the information a child already pos- sesses. All aspects of learning build upon the knowledge base that exists. Current understanding of pedagogical research strongly suggests that the first step in teaching for knowledge acquisition involves taking the time to find out what knowledge children already bring to the situation (Lee, in press). During the acquisition stage, using conventional teaching techniques, new information is page 10 combined with these existing theories or preconceptions. This combination determines whether the resulting construction is accurate. Vosniadou and Brewer’s (1992) work on the child’s model of the world illustrates this point beautifully. They found that if children have a mental model of the world as flat (a model perfectly in tune with their experience of it), when they “learn” that it is r ound, their resulting model may be that of the world as a pancake. In other words, children take their original flat model of the world and superimpose roundness on it. This example nicely illus- trates why it is the teacher’s job to figure out what the student’s mental model is and then teach from that as a starting point. Inquiry-based instructional techniques do an exceptionally good job of drawing out a student’s assumptions and using them as the building blocks for the construction of new knowledge. Such inquiry-based approaches begin with the learner’s previous knowledge. They then actively engage him or her to search not only for answers but also for explanations. Inquiry-based approaches also involve the student in gathering new information, analyzing it, and—in the process—discarding some explanations that may have appeared to make sense. A growing body of research suggests that inquiry-based approaches lead to a broader and more robust acquisition of knowledge than a student obtains from a more conventional, didactic teaching approach. Most of the research on inquiry-based techniques has been conducted on learning science and mathematics because inquiry-based approaches have been primarily used in these fields. (Palincsar & Brown, 1984), has been used to improve r A similar technique, eciprocal teaching eading comprehension. This interactive teaching approach is based on questioning, clarification, r summarization, and prediction. Each of these elements is aimed at understanding the meaning of Learning Point Associates

18 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 11 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP the text. Not only do students actively participate in these activities (e.g., questioning, clarifica- tion) that are necessary for comprehension, but they watch the teacher model these behaviors. This relatively simple teaching technique has shown some dramatic and durable improvements in student learning (Brown & Campione, 1994; Brown, Campione, Webber, & McGilly, 1992). Because of the essential role of knowledge acquisition in all other aspects of learning, focusing on improving African-American and Hispanic children’s knowledge acquisition, whether it be in terms of information or actual learning skills, is the first step in bridging the achievement gaps. As Resnik and Hall (1998) put it, “What we know now is that just as facts alone do not constitute true knowledge and thinking power, so thinking processes cannot proceed without something to think about” (p. 101). Or, to put it even more simply, how much one knows affects how well one thinks. 2. Teaching for Improved Comprehension Through Consolidation and Automaticity After children acquire basic facts, they need to make this new information theirs, assimilating it into their existing network of ideas. The notion of improved comprehension primarily includes two key concepts: consolidation and automaticity. Both concepts are described in detail in this section. The process of consolidation is essential for new information to stick, or to stay with an individual for a prolonged period, becoming part of long-term memory. Consolidation happens best when learning is “deep” and goes beyond the simple ability to parrot information or to explain concepts at a surface level. It is likewise essential that basic skills become automated before they can be built upon effectively (Cauce, in press). Automaticity is the ability to perform page 11 a complex task without conscious awareness or effort. Through repeated practice, the task itself becomes an automatic process. Information-processing models of knowledge acquisition distinguish between effortful and auto- matic processes. Effortful processes require the use of mental resources, including consciousness and intentionality, in addition to effort. The consolidation of knowledge and learning for auto- maticity are important because they free up energy for other activities that require mental effort. Indeed, younger, as opposed to older, children are less likely to use even basic memory and/or metacognitive strategies, or to benefit from such strategies when used, precisely because they are effortful (see Bjorklund, 1995, chapter 4, p. 116). It is only when cognitive processing becomes more efficient with age that children begin to effectively use more sophisticated learning strategies. For example, somewhere between fourth and eighth grade there is a shift from learning to read to reading to learn. But, this shift only occurs after—and if—reading becomes a practiced, automated skill. Until this happens, limitations in working memory capacity are too great to permit the interaction between syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic information that is necessary for comprehension. It is only after reading becomes more automatic and there is excess working memory capacity that comprehension becomes the primary task of reading. Practice is the best strategy for developing improved comprehension. With practice, compre- hending complex processes becomes less effortful and more automatic. Practice can be formal or not. For example, some parents may sit down very purposely with their children and go over the day’s school lessons or listen to their child read aloud. Or, they may pay for tutors to do such activities. Others may simply provide an opportunity for practicing some skills during routine activities, such as bedtime reading. Some children, however, may not get any opportunities for practice outside the classroom. Learning Point Associates

19 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 12 High-Quality Teaching and Instruction in the Classroom Most children develop the underlying skills that make reading relatively automatic from the combination of what they get at school and at home. However, a small proportion of children, who may represent as many as 40 percent in some urban schools, benefit from having skills such as phonemic awareness and phonic word attack taught much more systematically (Hook & Jones, 2002; Sanders, 2001). Some evidence suggests early preventive intervention of this type can help students develop greater comprehension and fluency (Torgesen, Rashotte, & Alexander, 2001). This research suggests that children who do not get ready support for, or opportunities to practice, r eading skills may benefit from more direct and explicit classroom support and instruction. The importance of developing comprehension, especially for children in environments that do not support learning, cannot be emphasized enough. What might readily appear to be deficits in higher-order processing might more accurately be attributed to a failure to develop fluency and comprehension of much simpler skills. Without the latter, the former may simply not be attainable. 3. Teaching for Deep Understanding As Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1989) note, teaching of abstract concepts in the absence of authentic, naturalistic situations overlooks the fact that “understanding is developed through continued, situated use” (p. 2). The importance of this type of learning also places emphasis on the home environment or supplementary educational settings where learning and practice may occur in more naturalistic settings (Gordon & Bridglall, 2002; Steinberg, 1996). The cognitive apprenticeship approach emphasizes the role of collaborative learning and social interaction. In this sense, it is worth noting that while most school situations emphasize individual learning, most authentic learning situations involve collaboration, including social discourse (Resnick, 1988; Resnick, Soaljo, Pontecorvo, & Burge, 1997). page 12 T wo key approaches have been associated with learning that emphasizes understanding: (also called concept-based learning). active learning and problem-based learning Key to these approaches is the recognition that learning takes place through a dialectical process of active par- ticipation, and not just within an individual’s mind. It is this type of participation that leads to what has been called Problem-based or engaged learning illustrates that to really engaged learning. understand what is learned, it is essential to place learning within an appropriate and authentic activity context. From the perspective of situated cognition, problem-based learning, and learning communities, learning is as much an act of socialization to “habits and skills of interpretation and meaning construction” (Resnick, 1989, p. 39) as it is a purely cognitive act. This richer way of looking at learning and teaching is especially important for nonmainstream children because it highlights the fact that many important skills are learned implicitly, through the course of everyday or authentic interactions. If children already are engaged with their parents or other adults in planting a garden at home (or building a birdhouse, or raising a gerbil), they may not need to get this type of learning in the school context. But, to the degree that some youth are not exposed to environments in which such learning takes place and is encouraged, they will be at a disadvantage (Hung, 2002) unless such lessons are provided at school. 4. Teaching for Transferability School learning is important only if one believes that what is learned in one context can be trans- ferred to others. T ransferability is the ability to make connections to skills learned in one context and transfer those skills to another context. Because of the importance of transferability, a great Learning Point Associates

20 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 13 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP deal has been written about the learning conditions that enhance this process. Key points to emphasize are the following: • Strategies used to enhance deep understanding and automaticity also lead to transferability. For example, one of the most important factors influencing transfer is mastery. Students who learn specific subject material well find it easier to transfer that knowledge to other subjects or material (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Klahr & Carver, 1988). • Comprehension enhances transfer (Bransford & Stein, 1993). Without an understanding of the deeper concepts and/or their connections to other information, problem-solving transfer may fail because students cannot see beyond superficial content-relevant aspects of a problem. In one study, Bassok and Holyoak (1989) showed that 90 percent of students who used a distance equation to successfully solve a physics problem could not use the same equation to answer a question about salary increases, although it was an analogous problem. When learning is overly contextualized or occurs only in the context of solving a very specific problem, transferability may be compromised (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1997). • Transferability can be greatly increased when issues of transferability (e.g., the implications of one task for another) are highlighted during instruction (Anderson, Reder, & Simon, 1996). For example, after students have learned to solve the distance equation mentioned above, the teacher could provide them with the additional example of salary increases to promote further transfer of knowledge. But, even more indirect strategies for transferability have been found to enhance it. For example, strategies similar to reciprocal teaching, which is used page 13 to improve comprehension, also have been found to benefit transferability (Scardamalia, Bereiter, & Steinbach, 1984). In addition, problem-based learning and lessons acquired in a situated learning environment are more likely to lead to the transfer of knowledge to real-life problems (Im & Hannafin, 1999). Thus, while there are unique issues involved in transfer- ability, teaching for knowledge acquisition, teaching for consolidation and automaticity, and especially teaching for deep understanding also enhance the transferability of knowledge. In most instances, instruction should involve some preparation in the form of modeling before students begin to work on a complex new problem. Equally important is for teachers to provide what Cazden (2001) calls “as needed” support while students are in the act of problem solving— whether individually, working in groups, or through whole-class work. Here, both the sequence of problem types and the manner in which students are socialized to engage with these problems are important. Key socialization strategies include exploring, articulating, and debating the following: • The features of the problem to which the learner should pay attention and why. • What each student already knows and doesn’t know about these features. • What these features signal about concepts and problem-solving strategies that may be relevant. • The strengths and weaknesses of what will inevitably be multiple solution paths. • The goodness of fit of solutions (i.e., what the solution explains or accounts for and what it does not). If such socialization experiences are a routine part of instruction across subject matters and grades, students are more likely to develop several important dispositions and competencies: Learning Point Associates

21 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 14 High-Quality Teaching and Instruction in the Classroom (1) a willingness to persist with difficult problems in the face of uncertainty; (2) a willingness and ability to search one’s repertoire of existing knowledge to look for connections to new problems, particularly when the connections are not obvious; and (3) a sensitivity to look closely for ecognizable patterns that help define the kind of problem one is tackling (known in the cognitive r These dispositions or competencies defining and constraining the problem space). literature as are not developed in the short run, and especially not in erratic learning environments. ansfer of Knowledge: Challenges and Educational Applications Tr Applying what is learned in school to address problems in other settings is the very essence of the product of effective learning. Indeed, the very reason children are sent to school is so they will acquire the knowledge, skills, and abilities that will serve them later in life, when they are in the “real world.” Distressingly, the research on the problem of transfer of learning suggests that there is a wholesale failure of learning from instruction (Bransford & Schwartz, 1999; Haskell, 2001; McKeough, Lupart, & Marini, 1995). This problem is even more troubling when viewed in the larger social context of the black-white achievement gap (Mortenson, 2003). A large (and growing) body of research evidence is available on how people learn and what teachers can do to promote learning for transfer, and this research ought to influence classroom practice. In this section of the report, we make the case for designing instruction based on prin- ciples of learning derived from the learning sciences—the interdisciplinary field of research from psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, philosophy, computer science, anthropology, and educa- tion—to enhance the critical thinking abilities of all students. We aim to transfer what nearly two decades of research has taught us about how to improve learning, problem solving, long-term page 14 re tention, and the transfer of learning to novel situations. The research we review suggests we are poised to capitalize on knowledge of how people think, learn, and remember; it offers instruc- tional design principles to improve classroom learning and promote transfer of learning for all students. Obviously, these views are not entirely our own but derive from our reading of a number of researchers and scholars, including Bransford and Schwartz (1999), Halpern and Hakel (2003), and DeCorte (2003). We then describe the key findings from the literature on transfer of learning and emphasize the cognitive perspective, which stresses students’ ability to learn during transfer. conclude by suggesting how these learning principles can be applied in the classroom to We improve teaching, learning, and transfer for all students. Scientific inquiry into the question of transfer of learning has a long history, dating back more than a century to the work of E. L. Thorndike (Thorndike & Woodworth, 1901). From the very —that is, how well what a person beginning, this line of research has suggested that transfer learns in one set of circumstances transfers or is adapted to other, novel situations—is both fragile and controversial. Indeed, the only clear finding from this long history of research is that there have been a number of failed attempts at achieving transfer, as well as a number of successes (Barnett & Ceci, 2002; Detterman & Sternberg, 1993). In an especially clear treatment of the r esearch on transfer, Bransford and Schwartz (1999, p. 62) refer to the “agonies and ecstasies” that characterize this body of research. It would not be unfair, for example, to summarize the literature on transfer by concluding that “there is no evidence to contradict Thorndike’s general conclusions: Transfer is rare” (Detterman, 1993, p. 15). Learning Point Associates

22 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 15 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP Despite the pessimism, a number of researchers have pointed out recently that research is uncovering a number of important learning perspectives and principles that appear to be capable of enhancing transfer (DeCorte, 2003; Halpern & Hakel, 2003). In a classic study that involved teaching subjects to throw darts while underwater, Judd (1908) demonstrated the value of promoting understanding as part of the initial learning experience. Judd’s experiment demon- strates the benefits of guided practice. Two groups of boys practiced throwing darts at an underwater target. Prior to practice, the experimental group was instructed about how water efracts light and how this principle may affect the accuracy of their performance. The control r group was not given this instruction, but simply practiced. Boys in the experimental group were more accurate at throwing darts at new targets at varying depths. Building on these early studies, Bransford and Stein (1993) studied how learning with under- standing affects transfer. In general, these studies show that when presented in a problem-solving context, knowledge and information are more likely to be recalled and activated in novel problem-solving situations. Rethinking the problem of transfer from a cognitive perspective may yield insights into how strategic knowledge about learning, including monitoring one’s learning across domains and contexts (Bransford & Schwartz, 1999; Brown, 1978; Tobias & Everson, 2002), enhances performance in novel settings. The question before us is: Do we have the strategies and principled pedagogical approaches that flect our best understanding of how students learn? Work done recently under the auspices of re the National Research Council (Bransford, Brown & Cocking, 2000) suggests that indeed we do, page 15 and the report makes a strong case for affecting students’ long-term retention and transfer by improving how we teach. The authors write: Modern theories of learning and transfer retain the emphasis on practice, but they specify the kinds of practice that are important and take learner characteristics (e.g., existing knowledge and strategies) into account (e.g., Singley & Anderson, 1989). In the discussion below, we explore key characteristics of learning and transfer that have important implications for education: • Initial learning is necessary for transfer, and a considerable amount is known about the kinds of learning experiences that support transfer. • Knowledge that is overly contextualized can reduce transfer; abstract representations of knowledge can help promote transfer. • Transfer is best viewed as an active, dynamic process rather than a passive end-product of a particular set of learning experiences. • All new learning involves transfer based on previous learning, and this fact has important implications for the design of instruction that helps students learn. (p. 53) Building on this work, Bransford and Schwartz (1999), DeCorte (2003), Halpern (1998), Halpern and Hakel (2002, 2003), Sternberg, (2002), and D. T. Willingham (2002, 2003), among others, provide specific guidance by applying the sciences of learning to the challenge of teaching for transfer and preparing students for future learning. Through a variety of collaborative efforts, these researchers have developed theories and extracted basic principles that, we suspect, can be applied broadly in schools and classrooms. On the following pages, we describe a r epresentative set of these principles and offer examples of possible educational applications. Learning Point Associates

23 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 16 High-Quality Teaching and Instruction in the Classroom 1. Provide Opportunities for Students to Practice at Retrieval Research tells us that a powerful way to promote long-term retention and transfer is to allow students to practice retrieving previously taught material from long-term memory. Opportunities to practice can occur either during review for tests or in actual testing sessions (Cull, 2000; Dempster & Perkins, 1993; Glover, 1989; Wheeler & Roediger, 1992). Teachers are encouraged to work with students as they retrieve information and knowledge from both short-term and long- term memories. Doing so repeatedly, in varied contexts, strengthens students’ ability to access these knowledge bases and solidifies their ability to recall previously learned material from long- term memory, thus promoting transfer across contexts. Halpern and Hakel (2002, 2003) also tell us that repeated testing helps in the recall of information. Teachers are encouraged to align class- oom discussions, homework assignments, and tests so that important information will have to r be remembered at different times throughout the academic year or course, enhancing long-term r etention. Test questions also offer an opportunity for “practice at retrieval” and deepen students’ knowledge of the material being tested. Ideally, tests should be cumulative; test items should probe for understanding of the material. The key idea is to cue students’ prior knowledge in ways that are relevant to the learning context. 2. Vary the Conditions of Learning The key idea here is that when learning takes place under a variety of conditions and contexts, conceptual understanding becomes more rounded and multiple retrieval cues are activated. Research from the learning sciences provides insights into the benefits of providing differing types of problems and alternative solution strategies. Though we are warned that learning may take longer and be somewhat less enjoyable to students, research suggests that students and teachers page 16 will see significant gains in long-term retention and transfer. 3. Maximize Time for Learning Another factor to seriously consider in supporting minority-student learning is making sure that students have the time needed to learn. Research has demonstrated that when time to learn is allowed to vary, the best predictor of mastery learning is a student’s prior knowledge. On the other hand, when time available for learning is held constant, a student’s intelligence is the best predictor of mastery (Anderson & Block, 1977; Bloom, 1971). Regardless of what one thinks about the construct of intelligence or its validity, it is clear that when time to learn is held constant, as is typically the case in the present educational system, it leads to the outcome that ability is a better predictor than learning per se. Learning can be viewed as a result of opportunity to learn and perseverance. But, while the perseverance is up to the student, the teacher controls the oppor- tunity to learn. Ideally, a learner-centered environment would allow opportunities to be better matched to the student’s, rather than the teacher’s, needs. 4. Represent Knowledge Using Alternate Forms Learning is more powerful when students are prompted to take information presented in one format and “represent” it in an alternative way. Cognitive research tells us that we process information in multiple ways—visually and through auditory-verbal channels. Students’ learning and recall can be improved by integrating information from both the verbal and visual-spatial forms of representation. Teachers are encouraged, therefore, to use both modes of representation in all their learning tasks, explicitly and consciously incorporating multiple forms of representation into their instructional designs. Learning Point Associates

24 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 17 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP 5. Build on Students’ Prior Knowledge and Experience Research comparing experts to novices reveals that experts have a larger knowledge base, compared to novices, and can compile information into more meaningful chunks, which further facilitates learning. For example, relative to novices, chess experts have a better memory for positions of chess pieces on a game board (Chi, Feltovich, & Glaser, 1981). When chess pieces are placed randomly on the board, however, this advantage disappears, suggesting that chess experts do not have superior general memory; rather, they are able to draw upon their knowl- edge of common chess positions when useful for remembering and developing game strategies. As noted earlier, students arrive in the classroom with sets of assumptions and beliefs that serve as a mental framework for learning. As they construct knowledge, students build on their prior knowledge to infuse meaning into newly learned material. In this way, prior knowledge influences how students interpret new information and decide what aspects of this information are relevant and irrelevant. 6. Emphasize Knowledge and Skill Development eachers, teaching assistants, and tutors need to make explicit those concepts and processes that T students need to know, understand, and internalize in order to achieve mastery. This approach is especially important if students have not had previous intensive exposure to mathematics and the sciences, for example. The research literature is replete with findings that support the idea that peer study groups create opportunities for academic and social support, which appear to con- tribute to higher academic achievement (Treisman, 1992). Peer study groups can serve more than page 17 the purpose of helping students master the concepts in their fields; they also enable students to r egard themselves as part of an academic community. In addition, peer study groups promote con- versations in which participants have to articulate their own ideas and listen to the ideas of others. Peer study group interactions also ensure that students make their work and thinking public; students are thus exposed to different perspectives and the knowledge fund of their peers. The peer study group setting exposes students to peers who also struggle with various ideas and subject content. The result is that students learn quickly that excelling in a subject does not mean being able to solve problems quickly and easily but rather working very hard and persevering. 7. Infuse Lessons With Strategies for Learning For students, learning new concepts and developing understanding is often difficult and uncom- fortable. Students’ views of the world are challenged, and long-held beliefs are questioned in the teaching and learning process. Students and teachers often complain that some subjects, such as mathematics and science, are just too difficult for them to learn. All of us want learning to be easy. Thus, when students are faced with some school subjects, they become discouraged by the difficulty they encounter during the learning process. Halpern and Hakel (2003) remind teachers that optimizing learning depends on what we want students to learn and what students already know about that subject. Teachers can help students by discussing ways of learning, infusing their lessons with strategies for learning to learn, and surfacing students’ own beliefs about learning. 8. Provide Systematic Feedback Not surprisingly, and as discussed earlier, students come to school with preconceived ideas about the subjects they are taught in the classroom. Even if these notions are wrong, belief in them can solidify based on ordinary, everyday experiences, especially when objective, corrective feedback is not provided. This lack of feedback has serious implications for learning and performance. Learning Point Associates

25 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 18 High-Quality Teaching and Instruction in the Classroom For instance, students may come to believe incorrectly in causation by attributing an effect to a salient possible causal agent without considering plausible alternative causes, engaging in spurious causal reasoning. Similarly, students often may rely on self-created devices to judge or interpret events and outcomes. These mental shortcuts may not always lead to correct solutions or to the resolution of complex problems. We also know that students, typically, have poor metacognition—that is, they are poor judges of what they know and do not know (Tobias & Everson, 2002). These misguided notions and feelings of confidence about what they know may also develop in the course of learning. Learners may be fooled into believing that they are learning by the apparent ease of their performance; in contrast, optimal learning is usually derived from moderately difficult learning situations. Teachers can become more aware of students’ common misconceptions and lead discussions in class that address such misconcep- tions. They also can provide systematic feedback on homework assignments, tests, and projects throughout the course of instruction to combat the persistence of erroneous thinking. 9. Use Dynamic Classroom Assessment Research is emerging, largely from a psychometric perspective, indicating that some standardized test items and tasks are more difficult for black students than for white students, even when the two groups are equal with respect to their ability levels and have been taught by the same teachers in the very same classes. From a cognitive perspective, it has been suggested that the test items may have features or characteristics that are more or less salient with respect to class- oom learning, and that these saliency characteristics differ for black and white students. These r test items—which often are considered the final transfer task, particularly in high-stakes testing situations—have been viewed as presenting “sequestered problem solving” (Bransford & Schwartz, 1999, p. 68). In such situations, students rarely have the opportunity to seek help from page 18 other resources, such as other students, teachers, or texts. They rarely have the opportunity to engage in trial-and-error forms of learning, get feedback, or even revise their work. By shifting to a perspective that looks at transfer in terms of preparing students for future learning, as DeCorte (2003) and Bransford and Schwartz (1999) suggest, we are then free to look at assessments as opportunities to gauge students’ abilities to learn in knowledge-rich environ- ments. The key idea is that assessments serve as opportunities to measure students’ abilities to learn new information and relate this new learning to previous experiences. According to Bransford and Schwartz, “Assessments can be improved by moving from static, one-shot measures of ‘test taking’ to environments that provide opportunities for new learning” (p. 88). These dynamic forms of assessment hold promise for promoting transfer and reducing the achievement gaps. For example, teachers who direct their instruction to forms of “teaching to the test” often find that their students have difficulty engaging in metacognitive knowledge moni- toring. By treating the testing situation as external to the learning environment, as a hurdle to be leaped, or as a one-shot maximal performance event, they are depriving students of the oppor- tunity to assess their own learning, to monitor and regulate their learning strategies, and to capitalize on corrective feedback and engage in new learning. By incorporating dynamic forms of assessment in the classroom, teachers have a tool that will allow them to better measure how prior learning and experience have prepared their students for future learning—knowledge that ❙ in itself promotes transfer of learning. Learning Point Associates

26 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 19 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP THE IMPORTANCE OF TRUSTING RELATIONSHIPS IN SCHOOL The social-psychological literature points to a clear message that feelings of trust in the insti- tution, and in those who are seen to represent the interests of those institutions (e.g., teachers, professors, administrators), are a fundamental building block in the affirmative development of high minority achievement (Bryk & Schneider, 2002; Mendoza-Denton & Aronson, in press; Steele & Aronson, 1995, 2000). Yet successful minority students are increasingly likely, as they move up the achievement ladder, to encounter contexts and situations in which their group has been historically excluded and underrepresented. Psychosocial Processes That Hinder the Development of Academic Ability The past decade in particular has witnessed an explosion of research on the experience of being stigmatized, attributable in large part to research on two separate but related phenomena: One is attributional ambiguity (Crocker & Major, 1989), and the other is stereotype threat (Steele & Attributional ambiguity involves the challenge that a student of color may Aronson, 1995, 2000). face when receiving feedback about his or her performance and the difficulty of determining when feedback (particularly critical feedback) is accurate or is actually reflective of racial bias page 19 is the awareness that others Stereotype threat on the part of the one giving the feedback. may judge one’s performance in terms of one’s racial background, rather than in terms of one’s individual background. These general findings have been replicated with a variety of methodologies and seem to indicate a robust phenomenon. What implications does this have for affirmative development? As one begins to think about this issue, a particular conundrum begins to take shape for the high-achieving minority student. On the one hand, an important aspect of academic achievement comes from the integration of academic success into the self-concept (Steele, 1992). Similarly, people want to achieve mastery and have at least some control over their outcomes (Bandura, all 1986). Thus, when faced with negative feedback or obstacles along the way that high- may be faced with a achieving students are bound to face, minority students in particular catch-22 with attributional ambiguity at its heart. If one receives negative feedback, should one discount it because it may be more reflective of external bias than of one’s own internal ability? Or does it in fact reflect one’s own internal ability? Moreover, if one chooses to see it as reflective of one’s own ability, is one ignoring or being foolishly blind to systematic biases that can affect one’s evaluations? Such a state of uncertainty can be distracting and intrusive, and may moreover lead to confusion when thinking about effective coping strategies for addressing the negative feedback itself. The point here is that high-achieving minority students in particular have reason both to be attracted to explanations for negative feedback when it is received, and as such, may have a more difficult time resolving the state of attributional ambiguity. Stereotype threat becomes a relevant psychological process when people find themselves in contexts where a stereotype about their group is applicable. As such, Hispanic and African- American students may be particularly vulnerable to stereotypes in the domain of academics, because the stereotype surrounding these students concerns a generalized suspicion about their Learning Point Associates

27 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 20 he Importance of Trusting Relationships in School T intelligence. Importantly, the effects of stereotypes can occur without the stereotyped individual himself or herself believing the stereotype—one simply has to have the knowledge of the stereo- type and the awareness that others may view him or her through that stereotype. To the degree that schooling in general and standardized testing in particular place particular emphasis on diag- nosis of ability as a gateway for tracking, or college admissions, or other future opportunities, the implications of feeling stereotyped in relation to minority student achievement are profound. The effects of stereotyping are potentially more pronounced the higher one comes to reaching the top. As the College Board’s National Task Force on Minority High Achievement (1999) notes, “The negative impacts of these beliefs do not seem to be confined to the most disadvantaged underrepresented minority students; they can undermine the achievement of high SES [socioeco- nomic status] students as well” (p. 16). Indeed, when combined with the possibility that the state of attributional ambiguity may be more pronounced, and more difficult to dispel, for students who succeed at succeeding, a picture of the psychological weight of being a high-achieving minority student in this country comes increasingly into focus. Direct or vicarious experiences of exclusion, discrimination, and prejudice can lead people to anxiously anticipate that they will be similarly treated in contexts where the possibility of such new treatment exists. Minority students in particular are likely to experience doubts about their accept- ance in educational institutions, and such concerns are likely to be accentuated in academic environments and institutions that high-achieving minority students strive for. Longitudinally, students who entered the university with concerns about how welcome they would be experienced less diverse friendships and felt less trust and obligation toward the university at the end of their first year in college than students who entered with fewer concerns. As sopho- page 20 mores and juniors, they also reported decreased attendance at academic review sessions, as well as increased anxiety about approaching professors and teacher assistants with academic problems. Unsurprisingly, prejudice apprehension was predictive of students’ change in grade- point average over the first five semesters of college, such that students who experienced prejudice apprehension were particularly likely to experience a decrease in their grades over time (Mendoza-Denton, Purdie, Downey, & Davis, 2002). “Since students have only a limited amount of time and emotional energy, those able to concentrate on their academic tasks, without constant concern about their place on the campus and their relationships to others, are most likely to do well academically,” note Bowen and Bok (1998, p. 82). Building Trust If affirmative development is based on the notion that academic abilities are nurtured and devel- oped through pedagogical, social, and interpersonal supports, the research cited throughout this r eport suggests that beyond the opening of doors and beyond the achievement of numerical diversity, educators—and the institutions that they represent—must work together towards the achievement of relational diversity (Fine, Weis, & Powell, 1997). By r elational diversity, we mean a type of diversity in which institutions are not merely filling numerical quotas but instead are actively working to secure the trust and confidence of those students to whom they have opened their doors. As the summarized research implies, such trust and confidence is a critical component of minority students’ achievement on several levels. Learning Point Associates

28 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 21 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP When high-achieving minority students succeed, many times they will be faced with situations and environments where their group membership becomes particularly salient. As research on prejudice apprehension shows, concerns about one’s belonging can directly impact one’s achieve- ment by leading people to not take advantage of the various resources that the institution may offer. Although this self-protective strategy minimizes the possibility of rejection and future prejudice, it also reduces the number of resources and support systems one can count on when faced with the difficulties that all students face. We have argued that minority students may experience the psychological impact of being a member of a stigmatized group more acutely as they become more academically successful. The r easons for this are twofold: First, such success implies developing an academic identity, which for minority students is a threatened identity. Second, as minority students become more successful, the likelihood increases that educational opportunities and institutions will continue being over- r epresented by majority group members—thereby increasing suspicions about one’s belonging ❙ and acceptance. page 21 Learning Point Associates

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30 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 23 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP SUPPORTS FOR PRO-ACADEMIC BEHAVIOR IN THE SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY In our collective experience, most education-related policy stems from deficits-based approaches. We purposely have taken a developmental and strengths-based approach to the conceptual- ization of intellective competence. A number of key environmental supports are critical to the development of intellective competence: • Access to education-relevant capital. • Supportive family, community, and academic environments. • Socialization to the attitudinal and behavioral demands of high academic achievement. • Academic and social integration. • Exposure to various forms of supplementary education. • Exposure to models of academic excellence and exemplars of scholarly practice. Access to Education-Relevant Capital For students of color, the problems of inequality of access to many of the environmental supports that undergird pro-academic behavior in schools and communities are critical factors. What is the page 23 nature of the education-relevant capital that high-achieving students more often have access to through their families and communities? According to Bourdieu (1986), Coleman et al. (1966), Gordon (1999), and Miller (1995), there are several types of capital, as illustrated in Table 3. able 3. Education-Relevant Capital T T ype of Capital Definition CULTURAL Collected knowledge, techniques, and beliefs of a people. FINANCIAL Income; wealth; family, community, and societal economic resources available for education. Physical developmental integrity, health, nutritional condition. HEALTH HUMAN Social competence, tacit knowledge, and other education-derived abilities as personal or family assets. INSTITUTIONAL Quality of and access to educational and socializing institutions. PEDAGOGICAL Supports for appropriate educational treatment in family, school, and community. PERSONAL Disposition, attitudes, aspirations, efficacy, sense of power. POLITY Societal membership, social concern, public commitment, political economy. Social network relationships, social norms, cultural styles and values. SOCIAL Obviously, wealth is more than money. It is the accessibility and control of resources. If we are correct in assuming that the effectiveness of schools and other institutions that serve students are in part a function of the availability of such wealth-derived capital for investment in human develop- ment, we may have in this relationship a catalyst for pedagogical, political, and social intervention. Learning Point Associates

31 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 24 Supports for Pro-Academic Behavior in the School and Community Supportive Family, Community, and Academic Environments amily Environments F In 1966, Coleman et al. concluded that differences in the family backgrounds of students, as opposed to school characteristics, accounted for the greatest amount of variance in their academic achievement. This finding was later found to be less so for low-income and ethnic- minority children than for the general population (Gordon, 1999), but typically, family background and income stand as strong predictors of achievement in school (Gordon, 1999; Jaynes & illiams, 1989; Sexton, 1961). In related works, Mercer (1973) and Wolf (1966, 1995) posited that W the presence of family environmental supports for academic development may explain this associ- ation between family status and student achievement. They made the now obvious point that books, positive models, help with homework, and a place to study in the home are associated with school achievement. Community Environments Because learning is influenced in fundamental ways by its context, promoting student achieve- ment via the community requires the development of norms for the classroom, schools, and the community that both support and inform core learning values. In some schools, the norms may equire that students build their own information base; other norms may encourage academic risk r taking and provide opportunities for students to make mistakes, obtain feedback, and revise their thinking. School norms also must support students’ comfort in revealing their preconceptions about a subject, their questions, and their progress toward understanding new conceptual con- structs related to the subject. Teachers need to design classroom activities and promote students’ page 24 intellectual camaraderie and attitudes toward learning that build a sense of community and esponsibility for each other. These activities may take the form of students solving problems r together by building on each other’s knowledge, asking questions to clarify explanations, and suggesting differing solutions (Brown & Campione, 1994). In this way, cooperation and argu- mentation in problem solving enhance cognitive development (Evans, 1989; Goldman, 1994; Habermas, 1990; Kuhn, 1991; Moshman, 1995a, 1995b; Newstead & Evans, 1995; Salmon & Zeitz, 1995; Youniss & Damon, 1992) and are factors in enabling student achievement. Lave and Wegner (1991) found that a community-centered approach also supports teachers in establishing a community of learners among themselves. Such a community fosters comfort with questioning (not just with knowing the answer) and is a model for creating new ideas that build on the contributions of individual members. Community membership also can promote in teachers a sense of ownership of new ideas that they can transfer to their classroom. Ultimately, teachers need to develop new ways to link classroom learning to other aspects of students’ lives. This strategy can be operationalized in requiring that students actively participate in community service. For example, in some education programs, all students are encouraged or required to take part in a community service activity. This strategy can help to make concrete the value of “giving back” to the larger community and deliberately encouraging students to focus on outreach activities and service to the broader community. Community service could include volunteer work with at-risk youth, tutoring, organizing environmental projects, collecting food for homeless shelters, or participating in campus outreach activities to middle schools. Community service roles give students the status and responsibility of representing their school in the community. Although the program staff is responsibile for enabling community activity, the community itself grows Learning Point Associates

32 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 25 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP from the human relations and interactions among all the participants: students, former students, graduate students, teachers, program staff, and university leadership. The community is at its most vital when students take an active role in shaping their own environment (Hrabowski, 2002). Academic Environments In environments that are learner centered, teachers pay close attention to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students bring into the classroom. This strategy focuses on distilling students’ preconceptions about various subjects while simultaneously promoting a better understanding of students. Teachers need to become aware of the following concepts: • Cultural differences can affect students’ comfort level in working collaboratively instead of individually. These differences also are reflected in the background knowledge that students bring to a new learning situation (Moll, Tapia, & Whitmore, 1993). • Students’ conceptions of what it means to be intelligent can affect their performance. Students who think that intelligence is a fixed entity are more likely to be performance oriented as opposed to learning oriented; they want to look good rather than risk making mistakes while learning. These students are especially likely to give up when tasks become difficult. In contrast, students who think that intelligence is malleable are more willing to struggle with challenging tasks and are more comfortable with risk (Dweck, 1989; Dweck & Legget, 1988). eachers in learner-centered classrooms are attentive to each student’s individual progress and T page 25 develop appropriate tasks that facilitate a more sophisticated understanding of the material. For instance, teachers can present students with challenging material that they can manage; that is, the difficulties are demanding enough to maintain engagement but not so difficult as to lead to discouragement. This approach demonstrates the teacher’s understanding of his or her students’ knowledge, skill levels, and interests (Duckworth, 1987). The underlying principle is Vygotskian (Vygotsky, 1978) in that most of the learning is within the learner’s zone of proximal development at the growing edge of mastery. Socialization to the Attitudinal and Behavioral Demands of High Academic Achievement Although the challenges may be greater for minority students to excel academically (given issues re lated to race, gender, and culture bias), continuous monitoring and advising of students should emphasize the skills, values, and habits that students need to acquire and practice in their academic lives. Students should be socialized to (1) understand the importance of reading, knowing where to seek answers, solving problems, and asking questions; (2) accept their ethical and moral responsibility not only to work hard but also to work to be among the best; and (3) set high standards, follow through, be dependable, and understand how to work well with others. Similarly, given the universal importance of advanced technologies and complex communication skills, students need to learn how to use these technologies, and how to speak and write with clarity and confidence in the standard vernaculars. Students need to be reminded that these skills and abilities are necessary in the classroom and eventually in their professional lives. On yet another level, students should be coached on the importance of interacting, working, and coex- isting effectively with diverse people and remaining open to new experiences without threat to their own identities. Academic socialization is thus directed at shaping the attitudes, dispositions, and habits of mind toward pro-academic intellective pursuits. Learning Point Associates

33 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 26 Supports for Pro-Academic Behavior in the School and Community Academic and Social Integration Research and contemporary practice show that the academic and social integration of students leads to higher grade-point averages, persistence, and retention (Maton, Hrabowski, & Schmitt, 2000; Treisman, 1992). This strategy can be operationalized in the social domain through stead- fast commitment from district and school leadership, teachers, and students with respect to celebrating diversity; promotion of help seeking from a variety of sources; peer supportiveness; high academic goals; and meaningful community service. In the academic domain, consistent emphasis on solid preparation and conceptual mastery of difficult concepts; involvement in faculty esearch; and special faculty attention to the needs of underrepresented students collectively r encourage and reinforce students’ participation. These acts of inclusion are intended to ensure that all students develop academic and social competencies, have a sense of membership in the learning enterprise, and are capable of discharging the responsibilities of such membership in academic and social environments. Exposure to Various Forms of Supplementary Education Gordon (Gordon, Meroe, & Bridglall, in press) defines supplementary education as the formal and informal learning and developmental enrichment opportunities provided for students outside of school and beyond the regular school day or year. Some of these activities may occur inside the school building but are beyond those included in the formal curriculum of the school. After-school care is, perhaps, the most widespread form of supplementary education, but supplements to schooling also include the special efforts that parents exert in support of the intellective and personal development of their children. These efforts may range from provisions for good health and nutrition to extensive travel and deliberate exposure to life in multiple cultures. page 26 Many activities, considered routine in the settings in which they occur, are nonetheless thought to be implicitly and deliberately engaged in to ensure adequate intellective and academic develop- ment of young people. These routines include reading to and with one’s children; dinner table talk and inclusion in other family discussions of important issues; exposure to adult models of behaviors supportive of academic learning; active use of the library, museums, and community and religious centers as sources of information; help seeking from appropriate sources; and investments in reference and other education materials. In related but different domains are efforts directed at influencing children’s choices of friends and peers, guiding and controlling use of their spare time, guiding and limiting their time spent watching television, and encouraging their participation in high-performance learning communities (Clark, 2002). Parents of high-achieving students understand and emphasize academic achievement by supple- menting their children’s education with travel, dance lessons, scouting, tutoring, summer camp, and other activities. Indeed, informed parents, scholars, and educators have known for some time now that schools alone cannot enable or ensure high academic achievement (Coleman, 1966; Gordon, 2001; Wilkerson, 1985). James Comer (1997) asserts this position more forcefully in aiting for a Miracle: Why Our Schools Cannot Solve Our Problems—And How We Can. W Colloquial knowledge among many parents “in the know” reflects awareness that a number of experiences and activities occurring outside of school appear to enable schooling to work. Learning Point Associates

34 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 27 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP Exposure to Models of Academic Excellence and Exemplars of Scholarly Practice We advocate the pairing of students with mentors who are professional role models in students’ areas of interest. Mentors can be recruited from a variety of settings, including universities, private laboratories, government facilities, and corporations. Pairings or assignments of students and mentors should ideally be long term but can be targeted to the developmental phase or stage of the student. Mentors can consult with students on educational and career issues, as well as topics ranging from class scheduling, internship experiences, school placements, career choices, and personal concerns. Lectures, business meetings, laboratory visits, and social encoun- ters with mentors can express mentor and mentoree relationships formally. The mentoring elationship also can be expressed informally through social outings, letter writing, and recre- r ational activities. These facets of mentoring can facilitate educational and professional growth ❙ across the learning continuum. page 27 Learning Point Associates

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36 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 29 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP ALL STUDENTS AT THE TOP: WHAT WILL IT TAKE? The state of education for minority students is clearly multidimensional and complex. Arguably, the most critical problem in education faced by minority students is the gap in academic achieve- ment known to exist between minority and nonminority students. This problem is manifested at all achievement and socioeconomic levels. re medy this situation, the National Study Group for the Affirmative Development of Academic To Ability proposes that the education community embark upon a deliberate effort to develop academic abilities in a broad range of students who have a history of being resource deprived and who, as a consequence, are underrepresented in the pool of academically high-achieving students. The deliberate or affirmative development of academic ability should include more equitable access to a variety of capitals and educational interventions. The authors of this report and the National Study Group members chose the title of the report carefully to reflect our goal of enabling all students to reach the top, both academically and in their personal endeavors. Due to the urgency of the problem, there is a critical need for the education establishment to work together with the social and political institutions in this country to lead what we consider to be a charge to the nation. In describing this charge, we have attempted to marshal what we know from multiple research domains to address the achievement gaps. We recognize that our knowledge as researchers tends to be discrete and disconnected. page 29 What is most needed, then, is a bundling and systemic application of our best research, strate- gies, and practices to close the achievement gaps and to enhance learning opportunities for all students simultaneously in the home, classroom, school, and community. Conclusions Throughout this report, we have emphasized a developmental approach to teaching and learning—the affirmative development of academic ability—which we believe will lead not only to higher academic achievement for all students and closing the academic achievement gaps between diverse student groups, but also to the development of intellective competence in segments of the population with whom schools have typically not been successful. We have suggested that access to education-relevant forms of capital, combined with research-based educational interventions, may be necessary in closing the achievement gaps that exist between black, Hispanic, Native American, and low-income children and their European-American, Asian- American, and more economically advantaged peers. The conclusions and recommendations that follow provide a first step toward engaging education practitioners, policymakers, parents, and community members in leading the charge to ensure that all students receive the kinds of instruc- tion and support necessary to meet the goals of the No Child Left Behind Act and to achieve high academic standards by the year 2014. move all students to the top by 2014, the National Study Group concludes that efforts at To the affirmative development of academic ability should be guided by the following educational experiences in homes, classrooms, schools, and communities for all students: Learning Point Associates

37 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 30 All Students at the Top: What Will It Take? • In local communities, attention should be given to socializing young people to the specific behavioral and dispositional requirements of high levels of academic work and to the explication of examples of what such efforts and products look like. • Because academic success is associated with community and family environments that strongly support academic development, families and communities should be strengthened in their capacity to provide a wide variety of supplemental education supports for the academic and personal development of children. • Schools and other educative institutions should give greater attention to the promotion of feelings of trust in our schools, trust in the people who staff these institutions, and trust in the processes by which teaching and learning transactions are managed. • Schools can reinforce the belief that high levels of academic ability should be recognized as a universal civil right—a right that should not be compromised by fear of being stereotyped based on one’s identity or the social division to which one is assigned. • Attention should be given in schools and classrooms to reconciling the possible tensions between the several purposes of education—intellect development, skills development, and moral development (Wallace, 1966)—and the political agendas of diverse learners, to the end that academic learning can be seen as compatible with the purposes that inform those who must do the learning. • Increased opportunities should be created for continuous exposure to high-performance learning environments in which children successfully experience high expectations and joyful but rigorous challenges that are at the growing edges of their zones of proximal develop- ment—the areas just beyond each student’s learning comfort zone. • Teaching and learning in the classroom should reflect a balanced focus between the content page 30 and processes that are expected to be mastered and the metacognitive understandings and strategies that are essential to making sense of one’s experiences. • For students, time and effort must be devoted to learning tasks that are relevant to the knowledge and skills to be mastered. Recommendations The National Study Group agrees that what we know about the development of high levels of academic ability can be reflected in pedagogical practices and polices that are within our reach. Y et determining the most appropriate and timely avenues to implement research-based proposals to improve education necessitates actively seeking opportunities to leverage existing national, state, and local policies and programs. In order to ensure that all students have access to educa- tional experiences that are guided by the above conclusions, the National Study Group offers the following practical and immediately actionable recommendations at the national, state, and local levels. National Level • Colleges, universities, and policymakers should influence teacher preparation programs to r efocus their curricula to strengthen teacher knowledge of subject matter and to reflect the esearch from the learning sciences. This task will ensure that classroom teachers will be able r to introduce rigorous content and learning experiences leading to intellective competence Learning Point Associates

38 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 31 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP in all students. The current reauthorization of the Higher Education Act offers a timely avenue for influencing teacher preparation programs. • As members of Congress and the U.S. Department of Education officials seek ways to enhance the No Child Left Behind Act, they should encourage states to broaden assessment programs to include the following: curriculum-embedded assessments, more frequent assessment probes, and dynamic measures of student learning behavior and outcomes—all of which are thought to lead to the type of school and classroom environments that support the affirmative development of academic ability. State Level • In collaboration with foundations and institutions of higher education, state education agencies should refocus the preparation of school leaders on the development of high-performance learning environments. In such environments, high expectations are widespread, and teachers are held accountable for content-rich instruction delivered in a context that is culturally relevant and free from prejudicial behavior for all students. • Building on existing federal and state funding streams that provide enrichment opportunities for students such as the 21st Century Community Learning Center grants and the provisions for supplemental education services in the No Child Left Behind Act, state officials in Departments of Education and Departments of Health and Human Services should work together to refine the criteria that qualify providers of these services to design programs that set high expectations for all students. page 31 Local Level • In the continuing professional development of teachers and administrators, special attention should be given to better enabling staff to meet the instructional requirements of an increas- ingly diverse student body. Such instructional requirements should build on what we know from research about the conditions necessary for the successful transfer of knowledge. • Teachers and school-level administrators need to reinforce daily with students, their families, and the community the belief that all students can learn to high standards and achieve intellective competence. • Teachers who believe that affirmative development of academic ability is the key to achieving intellective competence—and structure their instruction accordingly—should r eceive incentives to nurture other teachers to follow a similar approach. At the very least, teachers who do not believe that academic ability is developable in all students should r eceive assistance with finding a more suitable teaching or work assignment. Clearly, students in the most high-need situations require teachers who believe in their ability to learn but who also can deliver the rigorous content and experience that undergird the development of intellective competence. The charge to the National Study Group and now to the nation is guided by the belief that we cannot overlook the essential need to focus on improving the learning opportunities and academic achievement of minority and low-income students. Demographic shifts in our nation’s population mandate that we attend specifically to these students’ achievement if we expect as a nation to maintain our standard of living, our level of prosperity, and our place in the global economy. Simply put, we need the knowledge and contributions of students of color—together with the ❙ knowledge and contributions of all our students and all our adults—to maintain our democracy. Learning Point Associates

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40 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 33 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP REFERENCES Anderson, C. W. (1987). Strategic teaching in science. In B. F. Jones, A. S. Palincsar, D. S. Ogle, & E. G. Strategic teaching and learning: Cognitive instruction in the content areas (pp. 73–91). Carr (Eds.), Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Anderson, L., & Block, J. (1977). Mastery learning. In D. Treffinger, J. Davis, & R. Ripple (Eds.), New York: Academic Press. Handbook on teaching educational psychology. Education Researcher, Anderson, J., Reder, L., & Simon, H. (1996). Situated learning and education. 25 (4), 5–11. Bandura, A. (1986). Englewood Cliffs, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 1–26. 52, Barnett, S. M., & Ceci, S. J. (2002). When and where do we apply what we learn? A taxonomy for far transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 128 (4), 612–637. Bassok, M., & Holyoak, K. J. (1989). Inter-domain transfer between isomorphic topics in algebra and ournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15 physics. J (1), 153–166. (2nd ed.). Bjorklund, D. F. (1995). Children’s thinking: Developmental function and individual differences page 33 New York: Brooks/Cole. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Bloom, B. B. (1971). Mastery learning. Handbook of theory and research for the Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), (pp. 241–258). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. sociology of education Bowen, W. G., & Bok, D. (1998). T he shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (2000). (Expanded ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. and school Bransford, J. D., & Schwartz, D. L. (1999). Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. In A. Iran-Nejad & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Review of research in education (pp. 61–100). ashington, DC: American Educational Research Association. W he IDEAL problem solver T Bransford, J. D., & Stein, B. S. (1993). (2nd ed.). New York: Freeman. Braswell, J. S., Lutkus, A. D., Grigg, W. S., Santapau, S. L., Tay-Lim, B., & Johnson, M. (2001). T he nation’s ashington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. r eport card: Mathematics 2000. W Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2001517 edagogical Bridglall, B. L, & Gordon, E. W. (2002, March). The idea of supplementary education. P Inquiry & Praxis, 3. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://iume.tc.columbia.edu/reports/ip3.pdf Bridglall, B. L., & Gordon, E. W. (in press). Introduction to the NCREL study group report. In E. W. Gordon & B. L. Bridglall (Eds.), he affirmative development of academic ability. Lanham, MD: T Rowman and Littlefield. Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Learning Point Associates

41 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 34 References Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. (Vol. 1, pp. 77–165). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Advances in instructional psychology In R. Glaser (Ed.), Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1994). Guided discovery in a community of learners. In K. McGilly (pp. 229–272). Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (Ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Brown, A. L., Campione, J. C., Webber, L. S., & McGilly K. (1992). Interactive learning environments: A new look at assessment and instruction. In B. R. Gifford & M. C. O’Connor (Eds.), Alternative views of aptitude, achievement and instruction. Boston: Kluwer. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18 (1), 32–42. T Bryk, A. S., & Schneider, B. (2002). New York: Russell rust in schools: A core resource for improvement. Sage Foundation. Group differences in standardized testing and social stratification Camara, W. J., & Schmidt, A. E. (1999). (College Board Report No. 99-5). New York: The College Board. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://www.collegeboard.com/repository/rr9905_3916.pdf Cauce, A. M. (in press). Teaching and learning for knowledge acquisition, consolidation and automaticity, and understanding. In E. W. Gordon & B. L. Bridglall (Eds.), he affirmative T Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. development of academic ability. Cauce, A. M., Stewart, A., Rodriguez, M. D., Cochran, B., & Ginzler, J. (2003). Overcoming the odds? Adolescent development in the context of urban poverty. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 343–363). New York: Cambridge University Press page 34 ortsmouth, NH: Cazden, C. (2001). Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning. P Heinemann. 391–416. Cheng, P. W., & Holyoak, K. J. (1985). Pragmatic reasoning schemas. Cognitive Psychology, 17, Chi, M. T. H., Feltovich, P. J., & Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics 121–152. problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, In-school and out-of-school factors that build student achievement: Research- Clark, R. (2002, December). based implications for school instructional policy (Policy Issues No. 13, pp. 11–18). Naperville, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://www.ncrel.org/gap/clark/ T he Jasper project: Lessons in curriculum, Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1997). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. instruction, assessment, and professional development. New York: Cole, M., Gay, J., Glick, J., & Sharp, D. W. (1971). T he cultural context of learning and thinking. Basic Books. New York: Wiley. Cole, M., & Scribner, S. (1974). Culture and thought: A psychological introduction. Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., Weinfeld, F. D., et al. (1966). ashington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. W Equality of educational opportunity. College Entrance Examination Board. (2003). Graph 10: SAT scores vary by race/ethnicity. In Retrieved July 27, 2004, from 2003 college-bound seniors: Tables and related items. http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2003/pdf/graph10.pdf Learning Point Associates

42 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 35 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP aiting for a miracle: Why our schools can’t solve our problems—and how we can. New Comer, J. (1997). W Y ork: Dutton. Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. 608–630. Psychological Review, 96, Cull, W. (2000). Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for pplied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 215–235. cued recall. A Dabady, M. (2003). Measuring racial disparities and discrimination in elementary and secondary (6), 1048–1051. eachers College Record, 105 T education: An introduction. DeCorte, E. (2003). Transfer as the productive use of acquired knowledge, skills, and motivations. (4), 142–146. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12 Dempster, F. N., & Perkins, P. G. (1993). Revitalizing classroom assessment: Using tests to promote 197–203. learning. J ournal of Instructional Psychology, 20, Detterman, D. K. (1993). The case for the prosecution: Transfer as epiphenomenon. In D. K. ansfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Detterman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Tr Norwood, NJ: Ablex. ansfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition and instruction. Tr Detterman, D. K., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (1993). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Di Sessa, A. A. (1988). Knowledge in pieces. In G. Forman & P. Pufall (Eds.), Constructivism in the computer age (pp. 49–70). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. page 35 DuBois, W. E. B. (1940). Dusk of dawn: An essay toward an autobiography of a race concept. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company. New “The having of wonderful ideas” and other essays on teaching and learning. Duckworth, E. (1987). ork: Teachers College Press. Y Latino college Durán, R. (1983). Prediction of Hispanics’ college achievements. In M. Olivas (Ed.), (pp. 241–245). New York: Teachers College Press. students oundation for a psychology of education Dweck, C. S. (1989). Motivation. In A. Lesgold & R. Glaser (Eds.), F (pp. 87–13). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Dweck, C., & Legget, E. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273. Evans, J. St. B. T. (1989). Bias in human reasoning. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Everson, H. T., & Renzulli, J. (in press). The problem of transfer and adaptability: Applying the learning sciences to the challenge of the achievement gap. In E. W. Gordon & B. L. Bridglall (Eds.), T he affirmative development of academic ability. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. F ine, M., Weis, L., & Powell, L. C. (1997). Communities of difference: A critical look at desegregated spaces created for and by youth. 247–284. Harvard Educational Review, 67, Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of psychological inquiry. 906–911. American Psychologist, 34, Gentner, D., Ratterman, M. J., & Forbus, K. D. (1993). The roles of similarity in transfer: Separating etrievability from inferential soundness. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 524–575. r Learning Point Associates

43 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 36 References Gick, M. L., & Holyoak, K. J. (1983). Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 1–38. Syntheses, 80, Glasersfeld, E., von (1989). Cognition, construction of knowledge, and teaching. 121–140. J Glover, J. A. (1989). The “testing” phenomenon: Not gone but nearly forgotten. ournal of Educational Psychology, 81, 392–399. Goldman, A. I. (1994). Argument and social epistemology. J ournal of Philosophy, 91, 27–49. Gordon, E. W. (1999). New York: Teachers Education and justice: A view from the back of the bus. College Press. P edagogical Gordon, E. W. (2001, September). The affirmative development of academic abilities. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://iume.tc.columbia.edu/reports/ip2.pdf Inquiry and Praxis, 2. Gordon, E. W. (with Meroe, A. S.) (1999). Common destinies—Continuing dilemmas. In E. W. Gordon, (pp. 52–66). New York: Teachers College Press. Education and justice: A view from the back of the bus Supplementary education. Gordon, E. W., Meroe, A. S., & Bridglall, B. L. (Eds.). (in press). Landham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Grigg, W. S., Daane, M. C., Jin, Y., & Campbell, J. R. (2003). T he nation’s report card: Reading 2002. W ashington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003521 Habermas, J. (1990). Moral consciousness and communicative action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Halpern, D. F., (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains: Dispositions, skills, (4), 449–455. American Psychologist, 33 structure training, and metacognitive monitoring. page 36 Halpern, D. F., & Hakel, M. D. (Eds.) (2002). A pplying the science of learning to university teaching and learning (New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 89). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Halpern, D. F., & Hakel, M. D. (2003). Applying the science of learning to the university and beyond: (4), 37–41. T Change, 35 eaching for long-term retention and transfer. Minorities in higher education, 2002–2003: Twentieth annual status report. Harvey, W. B. (2003). ashington, DC: American Council on Education. W Tr New York: Academic Press. ansfer of learning: Cognition, instruction and reasoning. Haskell, R. E. (2001). Hoffman, K., Llagas, C., & Snyder, T. D. (2003). Status and trends in the education of blacks (NCES 2003–034). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003034 Hook, P. E., & Jones, S. D. (2002, Winter). The importance of automaticity and fluency for spectives, 28 (1), 9–14. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from efficient reading comprehension. Pe r http://www.resourceroom.net/readspell/2002_automaticity.asp Hrabowski, F. A., III. (2002). Postsecondary minority student achievement: How to raise performance College Board Review, 195, and close the achievement gap. 40–48. Institute of Education Sciences findings Huang, G., Reiser, M., Parker, A., Muniec, J., & Salvucci, S. (2003). Arlington, VA: Synectics. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from interviews with education policymakers. from http://www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/findingsreport.pdf Hung, D. (2002). Situated cognition and problem-based learning: Implications for learning and 393–414. J instruction with technology. ournal of Interactive Learning Research, 13, Learning Point Associates

44 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 37 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP Hunt, J. (1966). Toward a theory of guided learning in development. In R. J. Ojemann & K. Pritchett Cleveland, OH: Educational Research Council. Giving emphasis to guided learning. (Eds.), Im, J., & Hannafin, M. (1999). Situated cognition and learning environments: Roles, structures, and Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://tecfa.unige.ch/staf/staf-e/ implications for design. pellerin/staf15/situacogn.htm W Ja ashington, ynes, G. D., & Williams, R. M., Jr. (1989). A common destiny: Black and American society. DC: National Academy Press. W ashington, DC: Brookings J encks, C., & Phillips, M. (1998). T he black-white test score gap. Institution Press. Educational Review, dd, C. H. (1908). The relation of special training to general intelligence. Ju 36, 28–42. Klahr, D., & Carver, S. M. (1988). Cognitive objectives in a LOGO debugging curriculum: Instruction, Cognitive Psychology, 20, learning, and transfer. 362–404. he skills of argument. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. K T uhn, D. (1991). New York: Lave, J., & Wegner, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press. Lee, C. (in press). The educability of intellective competence. In E. W. Gordon & B. L. Bridglall (Eds.), T he affirmative development of academic ability. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. page 37 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Martinez, M. E. (2000). Education as the cultivation of intelligence. Maton, K., Hrabowski, F., & Schmitt, C. (2000). African American college students excelling in the sciences: College and postcollege outcomes in the Meyerhoff Scholars Program. J ournal of Research in Science Teaching, 37 (7), 629–654. T McKeough, A., Lupart, J., & Marini, A. (1995). eaching for transfer: Fostering generalization of learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Mendoza-Denton, R., & Aronson, J. (in press). Making the pinnacle possible: Psychological processes associated with minority students’ achievement. In E. W. Gordon, & B. L. Bridglall (Eds.), The affirmative development of academic ability. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Mendoza-Denton, R., Purdie, V., Downey, G., & Davis, A. (2002). Sensitivity to race-based rejection: ournal of Personality and Social Implications for African-American students’ college experience. J 896–918. Psychology, 83, Labeling the mentally retarded: Clinical and social system perspectives on mental Mercer, J. (1973). r etardation. Berkeley: University of California Press. Mickelson, R. A. (2003). When are racial disparities in education the result of racial discrimination? eachers College Record, 10 T A social science perspective. (6), 1052–1086. Miller, L. S. (1995). An American imperative: Accelerating minority educational advancement. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Moll, L. C., Tapia, J., & Whitmore, K. F. (1993). Living knowledge: The social distribution of cultural Distributed cognitions (pp. 139–163). Cambridge, sources for thinking. In G. Salomon (Ed.), England: Cambridge University Press. ostsecondary Mortenson, T. (2003, March). Earnings by educational attainment, 1958 to 2001. P Education Opportunity, 129. Learning Point Associates

45 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 38 References 265–281. Moshman, D. (1995a). The construction of moral rationality. Human Development, 38, 53–64. Moshman, D. (1995b). Reasoning as self-constrained thinking. Human Development, 38, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Table 133. Scholastic Assessment Digest of education est (SAT) averages, by race/ethnicity: 1986–87 to 1999–2000. In T Wa statistics, 2000. shington, DC: Author. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d00/tables/PDF/table133.pdf National Center for Education Statistics. (2003). Table 133. Scholastic Assessment Digest of education est (SAT) averages, by race/ethnicity: 1986–87 to 2001–02. In T Wa shington, DC: Author. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from statistics, 2002. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d02/tables/PDF/table133.pdf A nation at risk: The imperative for National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). ashington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. W educational reform. Reaching the top. National Task Force on Minority High Achievement. (1999). New York: The College Board. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://www.collegeboard.com/repository/reachingthe_3952.pdf spectives on thinking and reasoning: Essays in honour Pe Newstead, S. E., & Evans, J. St. B. T. (Eds.). (1995). r Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. of Peter Wason. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1425 (2002). Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.html O’Sullivan, C. Y., Lauko, M. A., Grigg, W. S., Qian, J., & Zhang, J. (2003). he nation’s report card: Science T 2000 (NCES 2003453). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved July page 38 27, 2004, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003453 P alincsar, A., & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and Cognition and Instruction, 1 comprehension-monitoring activities. (2), 117–175. ell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. (2003, June). College P entrance rate by race/ethnicity and gender for recent high school graduates Opportunity, 132. 1959 to 2002 [Spreadsheet]. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://www.postsecondary.org/archives/Reports/Spreadsheets/EntranceRate.htm Student group differences in predicting college Ramist, L., Lewis, C., & McCamley-Jenkins, L. (1994). (College Board Report No. 93-1). New York: The grades: Sex, language, and ethnic groups College Board. Education and learning to think. W Resnick, L. (1987). ashington, DC: National Academy Press. Resnick, L. (1988). Treating mathematics as an ill-structured discipline. In R. Charles & E. Silver (pp. 32–60). Reston, VA: National (Eds.), T he teaching and assessing of mathematical problem solving Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Resnick, L. (1989). Problem solving in everyday practice. In R. J. Charles & E. A. Silver (Eds.). e teaching and assessing of mathematical problem solving. Th Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Daedalus: Resnick, L., & Hall, M. W. (1998). Learning organizations for sustainable education reform. he Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 127 (4), 89–118. T Discourse, tools, and reasoning: Situated Resnick, L. B., Saljo, R., Pontecorvo, C., & Burge, B. (1998). cognition and technologically supported environments. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag. Learning Point Associates

46 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 39 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP 1–23. Salmon, M. H., & Zeitz, C. M. (1995). Analyzing conversational reasoning. Informal Logic, 17, Sanders, M. (2001). Understanding dyslexia and the reading process: A guide for educators and parents. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Scardamalia, M., Bereiter, C., & Steinbach, R. (1984) Teachability of the reflective processes in 173–190. Cognitive Science, 8, written composition. Schauble, L. (1990). Belief revision in children: The role of prior knowledge and strategies for 31–57. enerating evidence. g J ournal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49, Education and income: Inequalities in our public schools. New York: Viking Press. Sexton, P. C. (1961). Singley, M. K., & Anderson, J. R. (1989). T he transfer of cognitive skill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 68–78. e Atlantic Monthly, Th Steele, C. M. (1992, April). Race and the schooling of black Americans. Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual performance of African 797–811. J Americans. ournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (2000). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African (Key Readings in Americans. In C. Stangor (Ed.), Stereotypes and prejudice: Essential readings Social Psychology, pp. 369–389). Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis. Steinberg, L. (1996). Beyond the classroom. Why school reform has failed and what parents need to do. New ork: Simon and Schuster. Y page 39 New York: Macmillan. Encyclopedia of human intelligence. Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (1994). Sternberg, R. J. (2002). Raising the achievement of all students: Teaching for successful intelligence. Educational Psychology Review, 14 (4), 383–393. Thorndike, E. L., & Woodworth, R. S. (1901). The influence of improvement in one mental function upon the efficiency of other functions. 237–261. Psychological Review, 8, obias, S., & Everson, H. T. (2002). T Knowing what you know and what you don’t: Further research on metacognitive knowledge monitoring (Research Report No. 2002-3). New York: The College Board. Retrieved July 27, 2004, from http://www.collegeboard.com/repository/cbreport20013_10769.pdf esen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Alexander, A. W. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: rg To Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, fluency, and the (pp. 333–355). Timonium, MD: York Press. brain Tr eisman, P. U. (1992). Studying students studying calculus: A look at the lives of minority (5), 362–372. mathematics students in college. T he College Mathematics Journal, 23 Vo sniadou, S., & Brewer, W. F. (1992). Mental models of the earth: A study of conceptual change Cognitive Psychology, 24, in childhood. 535–585. Cambridge, MA: Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press. allace, W. (1966). Student culture: Social structure and continuity in a liberal arts college. W Chicago: Aldine. Wheeler, M. A., & Roediger, H. L. (1992). Disparate effects of repeated testing: Reconciling Ballard’s 240–245. Psychological Science, 3, (1913) and Bartlett’s (1932) results. Learning Point Associates

47 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 40 References Minorities in higher education, 1999–2000: Seventeenth annual status report. W ilds, D. J. (2000). W ashington, DC: American Council on Education. W estport, CT: Mediax. ilkerson, D. A. (1985). W Educating all our children. American Educator, 26 illingham, D. T. (2002). Inflexible knowledge. W (4), 31–33. W illingham, D. T. (2003). Students remember what they think about. American Educator, 27 (2), 37–41. Success in college: The role of personal qualities and academic ability. New York: W illingham, W. W. (1985). The College Board. W esting problems in olf, R. M. (1966). The measurement of environments. In A. Anastasi (Ed.), T (pp. 491–503). Washington, DC: American Council on Education. perspective W T he Journal of Negro olf, R. M. (1995). The measurement of environments: A follow-up study. Education, 64 (3), 354–59. Y ouniss, J., & Damon, W. (1992). Social construction in Piaget’s theory. In H. Berlin & B. Pufal (Eds.), Piaget’s theory: Prospects and possibilities (pp. 267-286). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. page 40 Learning Point Associates

48 87434 LEAR All Students book 9/23/04 3:26 PM Page 41 ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP APPENDIX: KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS achievement gap. The statistical phenomenon of predictable lower performance on standardized tests by African-American, Hispanic, Native American, and low-income students as compared to their white, Asian, and more economically advantaged peers. affirmative development of academic ability. The deliberate effort to equip students with strategies that build knowledge and develop techniques to solve both common and novel problems in pursuit of high academic achievement. attributional ambiguity. The challenge that a student of color may face when receiving feedback about his or her performance and the difficulty of determining when feedback (particularly critical feedback) is accurate or is actually reflective of racial bias on the part of the one giving the feedback. automaticity. The ability to perform a complex task without conscious awareness or effort. Through repeated practice, the task itself becomes an automatic process. Systematic ways of reasoning, of inferring patterns from one’s environ- intellective competence. page 41 ments, and using them to maintain practices and to invent new ones; highly adaptive, rich habits of thinking; engagement in meaningful problem solving. Academic intellective competence is a highly specialized set of abilities that are a direct result of particular kinds of experiences over long periods of time in Western schooling. stereotype threat. The awareness that others may judge one’s performance in terms of one’s racial background, rather than in terms of one’s individual background. supplementary education. The formal and informal learning and developmental enrichment opportunities provided for students outside of school and beyond the regular school day or year. Examples of supplementary education include reading with and to one’s child on a daily basis, family trips to the museum or other learning environments, and community-based after-school tutoring programs, to name a few (Bridglall & Gordon, 2002). transfer. How well what a person learns in one set of circumstances is adapted to other, novel situations. Learning Point Associates

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50 87434 LEAR All Students Cover 9/23/04 3:30 PM Page 1 North Central Regional Educational Laboratory ALL REACHIN A Report of the Strategies for Closing Academic Achievement Gaps 800.356.2735 > www.learningpt.org ALL STUDENTS REACHING THE TOP 1120 East Diehl Road, Suite 200 > Naperville, Illinois 60563

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