A Place To Call Home

Transcript

1 A PLACE TO CALL HOME The Case for Increased Federal Investments in Affordable Housing

2 A Place to Call Home A PLACE TO CALL HOME The Case for Increased Federal Investments in Affordable Housing Campaign for Housing and Community Development Funding (CHCDF) C/O National Low Income Housing Coalition 1000 Vermont Avenue, NW Suite 500Washington, D.C. 20005 http://nlihc.org/partners/chcdf The National Low Income Housing Coalition prepared this report for the Campaign for Housing and Community Development Funding (CHCDF). Elayne Weiss is the principal author. Assistance provided by Natalie Brown. CHCDF is an education, strategy, and action hub for national organizations dedicated to preserving and expanding federal housing and community development funding for lower-income families and communities. CHCDF’s members include a full continuum of national housing and community development organizations, including faith-based, nonprofit, private sector, financial/intermediary, public sector and advocacy groups. Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of all CHCDF members. Acknowledgements: All photos and success stories in this report were provided by local and state organizations, unless otherwise noted. CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHCDF Members 1 ... ... 2 Executive Summary 4 Why Affordable Housing Matters ... ... 4 Homelessness and Poverty Reduction Educational Attainment and Economic Mobility ... 5 ... 6 Health Outcomes ... Food Insecurity and Early Childhood Development 6 Mental Health 7 ... ... Environmental Health Hazards 8 ... 8 Housing Accessibility and the Provision of Supportive Services Reducing Healthcare and Other Costs 9 ... Strengthening the Economy ... 10 Creating Local Jobs ... 10 Jobs Supported Through HUD Investments ... 11 ... The Need for Affordable Housing 14 The Role of Federal Investments in Affordable Housing ... 15 ... Funding Levels for HUD and USDA Affordable Housing Programs 17 Affordable Housing Success Stories ... 21 HOME, Inc., Iowa ... 22 Foundation Communities, Texas ... 23 DOORWAYS, Missouri 24 ... Twin Falls Housing Authority, Idaho ... 25 Homeword, Montana ... 26 Pennrose, Pennsylvania ... 27 Greystone Affordable Housing Initiatives LLC, Tennessee ... 28

4 Ohio Capital Corporation for Housing, Ohio ... 29 ... 30 Institute for Disability Studies, Mississsippi 31 Cook Inlet Housing Authority, Alaska ... ... 32 Testimonials Appendix ... 33 ... 3 4 HUD Programs ... 3 4 Housing Choice Vouchers Project-Based Rental Assistance (PBRA) ... 4 3 ... 5 Public Housing 3 ... 3 5 Community Development Block Grant Program Homeless Assistance Programs 3 6 ... HOME Investment Partnerships Program ... 3 6 Housing for the Elderly (Section 202 Program) ... 3 7 Housing for Persons with Disabilities (Section 811 Program) ... 7 3 ... 8 Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS (HOPWA) 3 ... 3 8 Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Fair Housing Programs 3 9 ... Housing Trust Fund ... 3 9 Native American, and Native Hawaiian Housing Programs ... 40 USDA Programs 40 ... Rural Rental Housing Loans (Section 515) ... 41 Farm Labor Housing Loans And Grants (Section 514/516) ... 41 Rural Rental Assistance (Section 521) ... 41 Single Family Housing Direct Home Loans (Section 502) ... 41 Mutual and Self-Help Housing (Section 523) ... 41

5 A Place to Call Home CHCDF MEMBERS American Federation of State, County and Municipal National Center for Healthy Housing Employees National Center for Housing & Child Welfare American Planning Association National Center on Family Homelessness Arc of the United States National Coalition for Asian Pacific American B’nai B’rith International Community Development National Coalition for Homeless Veterans Catholic Charities USA National Coalition for the Homeless Center on Budget and Policy Priorities* National Community Development Association Coalition on Human Needs Coan and Lyons National Council of La Raza Compass Group National Development Council National Disability Rights Network* Corporation for Supportive Housing* Council of Large Public Housing Authorities* National Fair Housing Alliance Council of State Community Development Agencies National Health Care for the Homeless Council National Housing Conference* Enterprise Community Partners* National Housing Law Project Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Washington Office National Housing Resource Center Friends Committee on National Legislation National Housing Trust* General Board of Church and Society of the United National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty Methodist Church National Leased Housing Association Grounded Solutions Network National Low Income Housing Coalition* Habitat for Humanity International National NeighborWorks Association Housing Assistance Council National Network to End Domestic Violence LeadingAge* NeighborWorks America Local Initiatives Support Corporation* NETWORK, A National Catholic Social Justice Lobby Low Income Investment Fund Poverty and Race Research Action Council Lutheran Services in America Public Housing Authorities Directors Association National Affordable Housing Management Association Rebuilding Together National AIDS Housing Coalition Reconnecting America National Alliance on Mental Illness Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism National Alliance of Community Economic Development Robert A. Rapoza Associates Associations Rural Community Assistance Program, Inc. National Alliance to End Homelessness* Stewards of Affordable Housing for the Future* National Association of Affordable Housing Lenders United States Conference of Catholic Bishops National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials* *Indicates organization is a member of the CHCDF National Association for Latino Community Asset Steering Committee Builders 1 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

6 A Place to Call Home EXECUTIVE SUMMARY But the need continutes to grow. More households ederal investments in affordable housing—at rent their homes than ever before. However, housing the U.S. Departments of Housing and Urban supply and rental assistance have not kept pace with Development (HUD) and Agriculture (USDA)— F provide families and communities with the resources demand, leading to rising rents across the nation. As a result, more families now spend the majority of their they need to thrive. Evidence-based research has shown income to keep a roof over their heads, and family that when families have stable, decent, and accessible homes that they can afford, they are better able to find and young adult homelessness rates are rising in many employment, achieve economic mobility, perform better communities. Moreover, much of our nation’s affordable in school, and maintain improved health. Access to housing infrastructure, similar to our transportation affordable housing has wide ranging, positive impacts. infrastructure, is deteriorating and is often inaccessible to people with disabilities. Increasing and preserving access to affordable housing in areas of opportunity helps families climb the economic Every state and congressional district is impacted. ladder, leading to greater community development and There is no silver-bullet solution. Housing challenges bolstering economic productivity and job creation. differ from community to community. Congress and Federal investments in affordable housing have lifted the Trump administration, as well as state and local millions of families out of poverty. Without these governments, must use every tool available to solve investments, many of these families would be homeless, the problem. A comprehensive set of solutions to end living in substandard or overcrowded conditions, or housing insecurity in America includes: preserving struggling to meet other basic needs because too much and rehabilitating our nation’s existing affordable of their limited income would go to paying rent. Despite housing stock; increasing investment in the production their proven track record, HUD and USDA affordable of affordable housing for low income families; and housing programs have been chronically underfunded. expanding rental assistance and other housing programs Today, of the families who qualify for housing assistance, that help make housing affordable. Underlying all these only a quarter will get the help that they need. 2 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

7 A Place to Call Home Since the Budget Control Act went into effect, Congress solutions is the need to increase federal investment in has reached short-term agreements to increase spending affordable housing. above the caps and provide very limited budgetary However, low federal spending caps required by the relief with parity for defense and non-defense spending, have decreased funding Budget Control Act of 2011 which includes investments in affordable housing. Low for affordable housing and community development spending caps, however, will return in FY 2018 unless the programs, impacting the ability of Congress to invest in White House and Congress act again. these solutions. These looming budget cuts threaten affordable housing For example, HUD housing and community development and community development investments and millions funding was $4.3 billion or 8.4% lower in 2016 than in of low income families. For these reasons, the Campaign 2010, adjusted for inflation. The programs hardest hit by for Housing and Community Development Funding funding cuts have been Public Housing (-$1.6 million), (CHCDF) calls on Congress to lift the spending caps CDBG (-$1.4 billion), HOME (-$1.0 billion), and with parity for defense and non-defense programs and to housing for the elderly and people with disabilities (-$641 ensure the highest level of funding possible for affordable million). housing. While we must work to reduce our nation’s This has only made it more difficult to ensure low income deficit over the long-term, balancing our budget should seniors, people with disabilities, families with children, not be done on the backs of the low income families in and other vulnerable populations are stably housed. our nation. Instead, we should invest in the resources Further budget cuts will continue to undermine this families and communities need to thrive. critical piece of the federal safety net. CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 3

8 A Place to Call Home WHY AFFORDABLE HOUSING MATTERS A robust body of research has shown that access to affordable housing has broad, positive impacts on WHAT HOME MEANS TO JASMINE families, seniors, people with disabilities, and the economy. Increasing and preserving the supply of affordable housing and rental assistance in areas connected to good schools, well-paying jobs, healthcare, and transportation helps families climb the economic ladder and leads to greater community development. In addition, children who live in a stable, affordable homes enjoy better health and educational outcomes, greater access to economic opportunities, enjoy better mental and physical well-being, and benefit from stronger communities. Research shows that increasing access to most cost-effective strategy the affordable housing is “[My boys] haven’t had a backyard 1 for reducing childhood poverty in the United States. before. I can’t wait for them to be able According to the Harvard Joint Center for Housing to run around back there. This home Studies, families in affordable housing can spend nearly five times as much on healthcare, a third more on food, means everything to us.” and twice as much on retirement savings. They can pay down debt, save to pay for college, or buy a home when communities of opportunity, and supports local job they are not struggling to pay housing costs. creation and increased incomes. Decent and accessible affordable housing, coupled with coordinated services, has been shown to improve HOMELESSNESS AND 2 health outcomes for seniors. As the nation’s low income 3 access seniors become a larger share of the population, POVERTY REDUCTION to affordable housing with coordinated services is key Access to decent, accessible, and affordable housing to healthy aging in place and will also bring savings by provides stability for vulnerable households and prevents avoiding costlier institutional settings. homelessness. A strong body of research has shown that Investing in affordable housing for low income rental assistance can decrease the likelihood that a low 4 households bolsters productivity and economic growth, HUD’s Family income family experiences homelessness. provides a long-term asset that connects workers to Options study showed that long-term housing subsidies had a greater positive impact on housing stability than . Journal of Housing Economics. Retrieved from Newman, S. J. & Holupka C. S. (2014). http://www. Housing Affordability and Investments in Children 1 sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1051137713000600 ; Fischer, W. (2015). Research Shows Housing Vouchers Reduce Hardship and Provide Platform for Long- . Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved from Term Gains Among Children http://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/3- 10-14hous.pdf Reducing Child Poverty in the US: Costs and Impacts of Policies Proposed by the Children’s Defense Fund ; Giannarelli, L., Lippold, K. et al. (2015). . http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000086-Reducing-Child-Poverty-in-the- Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from . US.pdf 2 Levine, C. A. & Johns A. R. (2008). Multifamily Property Managers’ Satisfaction with Service Coordination . Washington, DC: Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.gov/portal/Publications/PDF/Multifamily_prop.pdf ; Szanton, S. L., Wolff, J.L. et al. (2015). Preliminary data from community aging in place, advancing better living for elders, a patient-directed, team-based intervention to improve physical function and decrease nursing home utilization: the first 100 individuals to complete a centers for Medicare and Medicaid services innovation project . Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. ; Golant S. M., Parsons P. & Boling P.A. (2010). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644085 Assessing the Quality of Care Found in Affordable Clustered Housing-Care Arrangements: Key to Informing Public Policy https://www.huduser.gov/portal/periodicals/ . Washington, DC: Cityscape. Retrieved from cityscpe/vol12num2/ch1.pdf . . Cambridge, MA: Author. 3 Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. (2014). Housing America’s older adults: meeting the needs of an aging population Retrieved from . http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/jchs-housing_americas_older_adults_2014.pdf . Washington, DC: Homeless Research Institute. Retrieved from 4 Shinn, M. (2009). Ending Homelessness for Families: The Evidence for Affordable Housing https://b.3cdn.net/naeh/b39ff307355d6ade38_yfm6b9kot.pdf . 4 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

9 A Place to Call Home 5 income inequality, better schools, lower rates of violent emergency shelter care. Long-term housing subsidies 11 crime, and a larger share of two-parent households. reduced the proportion of families that were homeless or doubled-up in the previous six months by 50% and A groundbreaking Harvard study by economist Raj reduced the proportion of families who experienced a Chetty offers persuasive evidence of the impact of 6 Project-based transitional housing shelter stay by 75%. affordable housing on upward economic mobility for also reduced the proportion of families who experienced 12 Using new tax data, Chetty and his colleagues children. 7 a shelter stay. assessed the long-term outcomes for children who moved at a younger age to lower poverty neighborhoods Other studies have repeatedly found that families leaving as part of HUD’s Moving to Opportunity experiment. homeless shelters for subsidized housing live in safer and Chetty’s study found that children who were younger higher quality communities and are less likely to return than 13 when their family moved to lower poverty to a shelter than families who did not receive housing 8 neighborhoods saw their earnings as adults increase by assistance. approximately 31%, an increased likelihood of living in Housing assistance is also one of the most effective ways better neighborhoods as adults, and a lowered likelihood to lift families and children out of poverty. In fact, a of becoming a single parent. recent analysis of Census data conducted by the Center Another study found that young adults who had lived on Budget and Policy Priorities shows that housing in public or voucher-assisted housing as teenagers assistance raised 4 million people out of poverty in 2012, 9 had higher earnings and lower rates of incarceration including 1.5 million children. than young adults from unassisted low income 13 The study suggests that housing vouchers households. EDUCATIONAL and public housing provide low income parents with greater financial resources to devote to their children’s ATTAINMENT AND development, which improves adult outcomes later in life. ECONOMIC MOBILITY Other research shows that children living in stable, Where our children grow up and live matters. Every affordable homes are more likely to thrive in school and extra year that a child spends in a better neighborhood have greater opportunities to learn inside and outside environment improves the child’s economic outcome the classroom. Children in low income households as an adult, as indicated by measures such as income, that live in affordable housing score better on cognitive likelihood of college attendance, and probability of development tests than those in households with 10 Counties with higher rates avoiding teenage pregnancy. 14 unaffordable rents. Researchers suggest that that is of upward mobility among low income children tend to partly because parents with affordable housing can have less economic and racial segregation, lower levels of invest more in activities and materials that support their 5 Gubits, D., Shinn, M. et al. (2016). . Washington, DC: U.S. Family Options Study: 3-Year Impacts of Housing and Services Interventions for Homeless Families https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/Family-Options-Study-Full-Report.pdf . Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved from Ibid . 6 7 Ibid . 8 Rog, D. J., Holupka, C. S., & Patton, L. C. (2007). Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children . Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from ; Shinn, M., Weitzman, B. C. et al. (1998). Predictors of Homelessness https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/75331/report.pdf Among Families in New York City: From Shelter Request to Housing Stability . American Journal of Public Health, 88(11). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508577/pdf/amjph00023-0057.pdf ; Shinn, M. (2009). Ending Homelessness for Families: The Evidence for Affordable Housing . Washington, DC: Homeless Research Institute. Retrieved from https://b.3cdn.net/naeh/b39ff307355d6ade38_yfm6b9kot.pdf . . Washington, DC: Author. Retrieve from 9 Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2015). Chart book: Accomplishments of the Safety Net http://www.cbpp.org/ research/poverty-and-inequality/chart-book-accomplishments-of-the-safety-net . 10 Chetty, R., & Hendren, N. (2016). The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility: Childhood Exposure Effects and County-Level Estimates . Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/hendren/files/movers_paper2_vinterim.pdf . 11 Ibid . 12 The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Chetty, R., Hendren, N., & Katz, L. (2015). . Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from Experiment . http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/final/MTO_IRS_2015.pdf Andersson, F., Haltiwanger, J. C., & Kutzbach, M. (2016). Childhood Housing and Adult Earnings: A Between-Siblings Analysis of Housing Vouchers and Public 13 . Housing . Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w22721 25(1), 116-151. Retrieved from 14 Newman, S. J. & C. S. Holupka (2015). Housing Affordability and Child Well-Being . Housing Policy Debate, http://www. tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10511482.2014.899261 . 5 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

10 A Place to Call Home 15 children’s development. Parents also are able to save more money for their children’s college tuition when they are not WHAT HOME MEANS rent burdened and are more likely to attend a parent teacher FOR SHELLIE 16 conference. “Living at Low income children who switch schools frequently the Housing due to housing instability or homelessness tend to perform less well in school, have learning disabilities Authority at and behavioral problems, and are less likely to graduate the City of 17 When they grow up, they are also from high school. Austin allows more likely to be employed in jobs with lower earnings 18 for my rent to Moreover, students who attend and skill requirements. schools with large populations of hypermobile children be affordable also suffer academically since more time must be devoted so that I can 19 to review and catching up on work. concentrate on completing HEALTH OUTCOMES school and Housing contributes to a person’s mental and physical become self- health and well-being. Safe, decent and accessible 20 sufficent.” affordable housing acts is a veritable “vaccine,” contributing to positive health outcomes and ensuring that families thrive. It allows families and seniors to populations, such as the elderly, people with disabilities, put more resources towards paying for healthcare and and people experiencing homelessness. wholesome foods, while also ensuring children grow up in a household free of environmental hazards, such as lead FOOD INSECURITY AND EARLY paint. Families that can afford their own home are not forced to “double up” with others in overcrowded living CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT situations and are less likely to face mental health stressors Adults with significant housing cost burdens often forego that come with financial burdens and frequent moves. healthcare, such as adhering to a treatment plan or Affordable housing also provides an important platform 21 having a prescription filled, and skimp on food, causing for delivering supportive health services to vulnerable significant health problems and limiting their children’s 22 Severely cost burdened learning and early development. . Journal of Housing Economics, 24(June 2014), 89-100. Retrieved from 15 Housing Affordability and investments in children Newman, S. J. & C. S. Holupka (2014). . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1051137713000600 16 Public and Affordable Housing Research Corporation (2016). Housing is a Foundation . Cheshire, CT: Author. Retrieved from https://www.housingcenter.com/ . sites/default/files/FINAL_NB_2016%20PAHRC%20Report.pdf 17 The Longitudinal Effects of Residential Mobility on the Academic Achievement of Urban Elementary and Middle Voight, A., Shinn, M., & Nation, M. (2012). . Educational Researcher, 41(9), 385-392. Retrieved from ; Cunningham, M., & http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3102/0013189X12442239 School Students MacDonald, G. (2012). Housing as a Platform for Improving Education Outcomes among Low-Income Children . Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/25331/412554-Housing-as-a-Platform-for-Improving-Education-Outcomes-among-Low-Income-Children. . Washington, DC: Center ; Fischer, W. (2015). PDF Research Shows Housing Vouchers Reduce Hardship and Provide Platform for Long-Term Gains Among Children on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved from . http://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/3-10-14hous.pdf Fischer, W. (2015). Research Shows Housing Vouchers Reduce Hardship and Provide Platform for Long-Term Gains Among Children . Washington, DC: Center on 18 Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved from . http://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/3-10-14hous.pdf 19 Cunningham, M., & MacDonald, G. (2012). Housing as a Platform for Improving Education Outcomes among Low-Income Children . Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/25331/412554-Housing-as-a-Platform-for-Improving-Education-Outcomes- among-Low-Income-Children.PDF . 20 Sandel, M. T. (2016, February 25). Housing is a Critical Vaccine [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.enterprisecommunity.org/2016/02/housing-critical- vaccine . Housing Affordability and Health Among Homeowners and Renters 21 Pollack, C. E., Griffin, B. A., & Lynch, J. (2010). . American Journal of Preventive Medicine,39(6), 515-521. Retrieved from http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(10)00455-1/pdf . 22 Children’s HealthWatch. (2011). Behind Closed Doors: The hidden health impacts of being behind on rent . Cambridge, MA: Author. Retrieved from http:// Assessing the effect childrenshealthwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/behindcloseddoors_report_jan11-.pdf ; Fletcher, J. M., Andreyeva, T., & Busch, S. H. (2009). 15(2), 79-93. Retrieved from . Journal of Children and Poverty, of changes in housing costs on food insecurity https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_ id=1503043 ; Cutts, D. B., Meyers, A. F. et al. (2011). U.S. Housing Insecurity and the Health of Very Young Children . American Journal of Public Health, 101(8), . 1508-1514. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134514/ 6 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

11 A Place to Call Home In families that do receive housing assistance, children households living in rural areas make particularly deep 23 are more likely to have a nutritious diet and to meet cuts to spending on food and healthcare. 28 when compared to other “well-child” criteria Families that are behind on rent are more likely than children whose families are on the wait list for housing families with stable housing to compromise living 29 In 2011, families living in affordable housing assistance. expenses to pay medical bills and vice versa, and spent nearly five times more on healthcare and a third 24 have greater food insecurities. They are also more more on food compared to their severely cost-burdened likely to participate in non-housing federal assistance 30 peers. 25 programs. Children in these families are more likely to be in fair or poor health and are at greater risk at being MENTAL HEALTH delayed in their social, emotional, motor, or cognitive 26 development. Furthermore, children who are homeless Affordable housing has positive impacts on mental 31 or insecurely housed are more likely to witness and be health and well-being. A study found that housing 27 victims of domestic violence and sexual abuse. assistance can reduce psychological distress, as well as post-traumatic stress disorder, among formerly homeless 32 families. Research has also shown stable housing 33 decreases depression among seniors and anxiety and 34 aggression among adolescents. In contrast, housing instability and homelessness have been linked to an increased risk of depression and mental illness for adults 35 and children over their lifetimes. Socially integrated, affordable housing also serves as a foundation for providing services to people with serious mental illness (SMI), while affording them the dignity of integration with the wider community. It is a cornerstone of community-based mental healthcare. Without access to housing and services, people with SMI often end up homeless or in inappropriate institutional settings, such as prisons or jails. Homeless people with SMI are also http://www.jchs. . Cambridge, MA: Author. Retrieved from The State of the Nation’s Housing Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. (2014). 23 . harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/sonhr14-color-full.pdf http:// . Cambridge, MA: Author. Retrieved from ). Behind Closed Doors: The hidden health impacts of being behind on rent 24 Children’s HealthWatch. (2011 . childrenshealthwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/behindcloseddoors_report_jan11-.pdf Ibid 25 . . Developmental 26 .; Coley, R. L., Leventhal, T. et al. (2013). Ibid Relations between housing characteristics and the well-being of low-income children and adolescents https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23244408 49(9), 1775-1789. Retrieved from Psychology, . 27 University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development (2010). Unstable Living Situations and Early Childhood Mental Health . Pittsburgh, PA: Author. Retrieved from . https://www.ocd.pitt.edu/Files/PDF/ECMH-unstableliving.pdf Such as maintaining a healthy weight, lack of developmental concerns, and being in good or excellent health. 28 29 Cook, J. T., Ettinger de Cuba, S. et al. (2009). Rx for Hunger: Affordable Housing . Cambridge, MA: Children’s HealthWatch. Retrieved from http://www.issuelab. org/resource/rx_for_hunger_affordable_housing . http://www.jchs. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. (2013). The State of the Nation’s Housing. Cambridge, MA: Author. Retrieved from 30 harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/son2013.pdf . Burt, M. R., Wilkins, C., & Mauch, D. (2011). 31 Medicaid and Permanent Supportive Housing for Chronically Homeless Individuals: Literature Synthesis and Environmental Scan . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/76196/ Family Options Study: 3-Year Impacts of Housing and Services Interventions for Homeless Families . Washington, ; Gubits, D., Shinn, M. et al. (2016). ChrHomlr.pdf DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved from https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/Family-Options-Study-Full- Report.pdf . 32 Ibid. Robison, J., Schensul, J. J. et al. (2009). Mental health in senior housing: Racial/ethnic patterns and correlates of major depressive disorder 33 . Aging & Mental Health,13(5), 659-673. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13607860802607298?journalCode=camh20 . 34 Coley, R. L., Leventhal, T. et al. (2013). Relations between housing characteristics and the well-being of low-income children and adolescents . Developmental Psychology, 49(9), 1775-1789. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23244408 . Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of Gilman, S. E., Kawachi I. et al. (2003). 35 ; Children’s HealthWatch. (2011). Psychological Medicine, 33(8), 1341-1355. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14672243 major depression. . Boston, MA: Author. Retrieved from Behind Closed Doors: The hidden health impacts of being behind on rent http://childrenshealthwatch.org/wp-content/ . uploads/behindcloseddoors_report_jan11-.pdf CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 7

12 A Place to Call Home more likely to frequent emergency rooms at great public HOUSING ACCESSIBILITY AND THE expense. Studies have shown that formerly homeless PROVISION OF SUPPORTIVE SERVICES adults with mental illness are more likely to spend fewer days in the hospital and improve their mental health Accessible affordable housing serves as a crucial platform 36 outcomes after receiving stable housing. for delivering supportive health services to vulnerable populations. Accessible housing allows people with disabilities and seniors, who are more likely to develop ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARDS mobility impairments as they age, to remain in their Environmental hazards in substandard housing pose a homes and receive community-based care instead of grave risk to the health and well-being of low income becoming institutionalized. Accessibility features also families and children. Statistics and key findings prevent accidents, like falls, that can cause future mobility regarding the long-term effects of housing-related impairment. Publicly subsidized rental units are more health hazards are alarming. Childhood exposure to likely to be accessible than other lead can have lifelong consequences, apartments. One study found that including decreased cognitive function, public housing and privately-owned developmental delays, behavior subsidized rental units were 2.5 problems, and, exposure at very high times more likely than owner- levels of lead, can cause seizures, coma, occupied units to be livable for and even death. New research shows 42 people with mobility issues. that children living in HUD-assisted Demand for accessible housing is housing have lower levels of lead in expected to grow significantly by their blood compared to children whose 37 2040 when seniors will account families remain unassisted. 43 for 21% of the U.S. population. Low income children living in Between 2015 and 2035, the nation’s substandard housing are more at risk for number of senior households will 38 asthma and hospitalization. Asthma increase by 20 million from 29.9 is a leading common chronic disease 44 million to 49.6 million. The numbers of low income among children in the U.S. and leads to high levels of seniors will also grow. In 2015, about 15 million older 39 24 million people in the U.S. have school absences; adults were low income; in 2035, 27 million older adults 40 asthma, including 8.6% of children under 18 years old. 45 will be low income. Low income seniors cannot afford market rate homes and need assistance to afford safe, Between 2007 and 2008, the economic costs to society of decent, and accessible homes. lead poisoning and asthma were estimated at $50 billion 41 and $56 billion respectively. 36 Kyle, T., & Dunn, J. R. (2008). Effects of housing circumstances on health, quality of life and healthcare use for people with severe mental illness: a review . Health & Social Care in the Community, 16(1), 1-15. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18181811 ; Martinez, T. E., & Burt, M. R. (2006). Impact of http://shnny.org/ . Psychiatric Services,57(7), 992-999. Retrieved from Permanent Supportive Housing on the Use of Acute Care Health Services by Homeless Adults uploads/Supportive_Housing_and_Acute_Care_Services_Use.pdf . 37 Children who lived in HUD-assisted households had half the prevalence of higher blood levels when compared to children whose families received no housing assistance. Ahrens, K. A., Haley, B. A. et al (2016). Housing Assistance and Blood Lead Levels: Children in the United States, 2005–2012 . American Journal of Public Health , 106(11), 2049-2056. Retrieved from http://howhousingmatters.org/articles/low-income-families-children-live-hud-assisted-housing-lower-levels- lead-blood/ . Childhood Asthma and Environmental Interventions , 115(6), 971-975. Retrieved from https:// Wu, F., & Takaro, T. K. (2007). 38 . Environmental Health Perspectives . . www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1892116/ 39 Akinbami, L. J., Moorman, J. E., & Liu, X. (2011). Asthma Prevalence, Health Care Use, and Mortality: United States, 2005–2009 . Hyattsville, MD: National Health . https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr032.pdf Statistics Report. Retrieved from . 40 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). Asthma Statistics . Author. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/asthma.htm 41 Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes . Washington, DC: National Low Income Housing Coalition’s Advocates’ Guide. Retrieved from Kruse, J. (2016). http:// nlihc.org/sites/default/files/2016AG_Chapter_5-3.pdf . Chan, S. & Gould Ellen, I. (2016). 42 Retrieved from , Housing Policy Debate. Housing for an Aging Population http://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/Housing_for_an_ Aging_Population.pdf . An Aging Nation: The Older Population in the United States Ortman, J. M., Velkoff, V. A., & Hogan, H. (2014). 43 . Retrieved . Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau from https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p25-1140.pdf. 44 Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. (2014). Projections & Implications for Housing a Growing Population: Older Households 2015- . 2035 . Cambridge, MA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/harvard_jchs_housing_growing_population_2016.pdf 45 Ibid. 8 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

13 A Place to Call Home and small cities that have been particularly hard hit by Supportive housing has also been shown to help individuals with substance abuse disorders, mental the epidemic. USDA has recently announced a plan to finance transitional housing for people receiving illness, and chronic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and 48 diabetes, achieve better health outcomes by making treatment for opioid addiction in 22 states. it easier for people to seek medical care and maintain 46 their treatment regimens. In particular, people REDUCING HEALTHCARE AND OTHER experiencing homelessness often face difficulties in COSTS properly storing their prescriptions, some of which may require refrigeration, and going to follow-up doctor’s Research suggests that affordable housing can help appointments. A recent study found that supportive reduce healthcare costs. The federal government may housing successfully reduced the use of detox services realize cross-sector cost savings by placing people and emergency room visits by people struggling with experiencing homelessness into permanent supportive 47 substance abuse. housing, especially individuals with complex health needs who have been homeless for an extended As the opioid epidemic continues to claim more victims, period of time. The total cost of providing housing the need for more supportive housing units will become and wrap-around supportive services is often less ever more critical as people will need a safe and stable than the total cost of services people access while place to recover. This is especially true in rural towns experiencing homelessness including shelters, non- Average Monthly Medicaid Health Care Expenditures acute emergency room After Move-In to Affordable Housing Before Affordable Housing visits, inpatient psychiatric $700 care, and encounters with law enforcement and first $616 $600 responders. Dennis Culhane’s $532 landmark study in 2002 found $525 $500 that a homeless, mentally ill $441 person on the streets of New $386 $400 York City costs taxpayers $338 $40,451 a year. Supportive housing reduces these annual $300 $262 $240 costs by a net $16,282 per 49 housing unit. $200 Another study conducted $100 by the Center for Outcomes Research and Education $0 (CORE) found affordable All Affordable Housing Types Housing for Seniors and Permanent Supportive Housing Family Housing housing reduced overall People with Disabilities healthcare expenditures by Source: Amanda Saul, Cheryl Gladstone, Maggie Weller, Keri Vartanian, Bill Wright, Grace Li and Mari Matsumoto. (2016) 50 Health in Housing: Exploring the Intersection between Housing and Health Care . Portland, OR: Center for Outcomes Research and 12% for Medicaid recipients. Education and Enterprise Community Partners, Inc. Researchers attribute these 46 Spillman, B. C., Allen, E. H., & Spencer, A. (2015). Evaluation of the Medicaid Health Home Option for Beneficiaries with Chronic Conditions: Annual Report - Year Three . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/163041/HHOption3. pdf . 47 Hall, G., Davidson, C. et al. (2014). Public Service Use and Costs Associated with NY/NY III’s Supportive Housing for Active Substance Users . New York, NY: The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Retrieved from https://www.centeronaddiction.org/sites/default/files/files/4_public- service-use-and-costs-associated-with-ny-ny-III-supportive-housing-for-active-substance-users.pdf . U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Communications. (2016, August 31). 48 USDA Announces Initiative to Provide Transitional Housing for Rural Americans in Recovery from Substance Use Disorders [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentid=2016/08/0186.xml . 49 Culhane, D. P., Metraux, S. & Hadley, T. (2002). Public Service Reductions Associated with Placement of Homeless Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Supportive http://shnny.org/uploads/The_Culhane_Report.pdf . Housing . Housing Policy Debate, (13)1. Retrieved from . Portland, OR: Author 50 Centers for Outcomes Research and Education. (2016). Health in Housing: Exploring the Intersection Between Housing & Health Care . . https://s3.amazonaws.com/KSPProd/ERC_Upload/0100981.pdf Retrieved from CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 9

14 A Place to Call Home savings to more cost-efficient use of health services, with an 18% decrease in costly emergency department WHAT HOME MEANS TO MARV visits and a 20% increase in less costly primary care 51 The study estimated that total annual savings services. “I never imagined I would need to to Medicaid would be $936,000 for the 1,625 study live in subsidized housing, but I thank participants. God every day that Coleman House was here for me when I needed it!” STRENGTHENING THE ECONOMY Investing in affordable housing strengthens our economy, creating jobs, boosting families’ incomes, and encouraging further development. Each dollar invested in affordable housing infrastructure boosts local economies by leveraging public and private resources to lift resident earnings and local tax revenue, as well as to support job creation and retention. In fact, building 100 affordable rental homes generates $11.7 million in local income, $2.2 million in taxes and other revenue for local governments, and 161 local jobs in the first year 52 alone. Affordable housing development also benefits costs, these families would be better able to move to areas local business through increased patronage created by with growing local economies where their wages and the sale of construction materials and new neighborhood employment prospects may improve. customers. High housing costs constrain opportunities for families Like roads and bridges, affordable housing is a long- to increase earnings, causing slower GDP growth. In fact, term asset that helps communities and families succeed. researchers estimate that the growth in GDP between Without the burden of higher housing costs, families 1964 and 2009 would have been 13.5% higher if families 53 would be better able to move to areas with growing had better access to affordable housing. This would have local economies where their wages and employment led to a $1.7 trillion increase in total income, or $8,775 54 prospects may improve. Increasing and preserving The lack of affordable in additional wages per worker. the supply of affordable housing—especially in areas housing prevents lower income households from moving connected to good schools, well-paying jobs, healthcare, to communities with more economic opportunities and and transportation—will help more families climb the makes it difficult for businesses to attract and retain the economic ladder and help communities meet their workers they need. workforce needs. A recent study found that the shortage of affordable CREATING LOCAL JOBS housing in major metropolitan areas costs the American HUD programs boosts local economies, supporting economy about $2 trillion a year in lower wages and hundreds of thousands of jobs each year. CHCDF productivity. The lack of affordable housing acts as a estimates that in fiscal year (FY) 2015, HUD investments barrier to entry, preventing lower income households supported 537,297 jobs. Of those jobs, 301,217 were from moving to communities with more economic directly supported by HUD programs, while 236,080 opportunities. Without the burden of higher housing were supported indirectly. 51 Ibid. . Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from 52 National Association of Home Builders. (2015). The Economic Impact of Home Building in a Typical Local Area https:// www.nahb.org/~/media/Sites/NAHB/Economic%20studies/1-REPORT_local_20150318115955.ashx?la=en . 53 Ibid. Ibid. 54 10 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

15 A Place to Call Home JOBS SUPPORTED THROUGH HUD INVESTMENTS (FY 2015, YEAR-ONE IMPACT ONLY) DIRECT JOBS INDIRECT JOBS TOTAL JOBS STATE FY 2015 HUD INVESTMENT 1,398 $187,925,675 2,965 AK 1,567 AL $571,623,690 4,093 3,219 7, 311 $278,193,944 AR 1,556 3,544 1,988 AZ 3,842 3,633 7,475 $509,255,502 $5,624,477,593 38,741 CA 68,586 29,845 CO $501,277,396 3,471 2,691 6,162 CT $796,688,591 5,401 4,179 9,580 DC $446,835,003 2,295 5,450 3,156 $120,166,727 833 DE 1,485 652 FL $1,757,525,728 12,450 9,533 21,983 GA $1,095,886,062 7,827 6,060 13,887 HI 1,553 1,194 2,746 $225,000,328 IA $238,168,144 1,733 1,363 3,096 ID $92,518,741 668 544 1,212 26,575 11,617 14,958 IL $2,117,889,147 IN $593,824,650 3,351 7,614 4,263 $210,254,798 1,220 2,752 KS 1,532 $514,229,706 3,627 KY 6,463 2,836 LA $694,927,097 4,845 3,706 8,551 MA $2,128,991,693 14,410 11,152 25,562 MD 7,188 5,445 12,634 $1,041,797,988 ME $214,494,012 1,496 1,190 2,685 MI $1,051,617,464 7,614 6,004 13,619 $639,062,338 MN 4,547 3,589 8,136 MO $613,794,148 3,508 7,941 4,433 $378,746,782 2,655 MS 4,734 2,079 MT $106,257,875 780 737 1,518 NC $868,214,028 6,214 4,927 11,141 ND 627 590 1,217 $87,275,474 NE $164,263,640 1,184 948 2,132 NH $182,465,105 1,257 974 2,231 11,870 9,080 20,950 NJ $1,695,309,877 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 11

16 A Place to Call Home STATE DIRECT JOBS INDIRECT JOBS TOTAL JOBS FY 2015 HUD INVESTMENT $176,220,217 1,072 2,344 NM 1,272 NV $252,045,185 1,795 1,453 3,248 $5,875,737,173 41,102 NY 72,909 31,807 OH 11,565 9,056 20,621 $1,626,463,637 $425,025,992 3,080 2,884 5,964 OK OR $415,360,263 2,909 2,320 5,229 PA $1,820,907,572 10,319 23,589 13,280 $322,706,249 2,221 RI 3,979 1,758 SC $440,801,065 3,128 2,459 5,587 SD $112,110,412 820 815 1,635 TN 4,863 3,865 8,727 $679,790,176 TX $2,166,830,531 15,632 12,010 27,642 UT $159,885,335 1,160 924 2,084 10,354 4,496 VA 5,859 $836,618,633 VT 555 1,266 710 $103,902,623 $812,292,653 5,652 4,517 10,169 WA $494,262,199 3,612 3,008 6,620 WI WV $218,900,430 1,590 1,225 2,815 WY $42,936,727 309 268 577 GRAND TOTAL $42,731,756,018 301,217 236,080 537,297 are supported. For every $1 million spent through the To calculate HUD’s overall impact on job creation, CHCDF analyzed HUD data relating to the agency’s program’s operating fund, 6.15 direct jobs and 4.54 indirect jobs are supported. The data provided by HUD major housing programs and their funding levels in combined funding for the public housing capital fund FY15. CHCDF examined the following programs: public and operating fund into a single amount for the program’s housing, Housing Choice Voucher program, housing counseling, Choice Neighborhood Initiative, Indian overall funding level. To determine how much funding went into each account to calculate the number of jobs Housing Block Grant program, Section 8 Project-Based supported, CHCDF used HUD’s summary of FY15 Rental Assistance program, Section 202 Housing for the Elderly program, Section 811 Supportive Housing enacted level provided in HUD’s FY17 Congressional Justifications. As a result, public housing funding in FY15 for Persons with Disabilities program, Community Development Block Grant program, HOME Investment supported 42,633 direct and 34,007 indirect jobs. Partnerships program, Continuum of Care program, Congress provided $19.79 billion for the Housing Choice Emergency Solutions Grant program, and the Housing Voucher program in FY 2015. HUD also reports that for Opportunities for Persons with AIDS program. every $1 million spent through the program, 6.29 direct CHCDF used HUD’s FY13 jobs multiplier data adjusted, jobs and 4.60 indirect jobs are supported. As a result, CHCDF estimates that in FY15, the Housing Choice for inflation. Voucher program has helped support 124,367 direct jobs According to HUD, Congress provided $5.84 billion for and 91,034 indirect jobs. the public housing programs in FY15. HUD also reports HUD data shows that Congress provided $78.88 million that for every $1 million spent through the program’s capital fund, 10.03 direct jobs and 8.86 indirect jobs for the Choice Neighborhood Initiative in FY 2015. HUD CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 12

17 A Place to Call Home program’s contract renewals, 6.36 direct jobs and 5.22 also reports that for every $1 million spent through the program, 9.59 direct jobs and 11.25 indirect jobs are indirect jobs are supported. As a result, CHCDF estimates supported. As a result, CHCDF estimates that in FY15, that in FY15, Section 811 has helped support 958 direct jobs and 786 indirect jobs. the Choice Neighborhood Initiative program has helped support 756 direct jobs and 887 indirect jobs. In FY 2015, Congress provided $39.08 million for the Housing Counseling Assistance program. HUD also According to HUD, Congress provided $660.26 million reports that for every $1 million spent through the for the Indian Housing Block Grants in FY 2015. HUD program, 20.81 direct jobs are supported. As a result, also reports that for every $1 million spent through the program, 8.02 direct jobs and11.17 indirect jobs are CHCDF estimates that in FY15, the Housing Counseling Assistance program has helped support 813 direct jobs. supported. As a result, CHCDF estimates that in FY15, Indian Housing Block Grants has helped support 5,467 Congress provided $2.92 billion for the Community direct jobs and 7,617 indirect jobs. Development Block Grant program (CDBG) in FY 2015. Congress provided $9.78 billion for the Section 8 Project- HUD also reports that for every $1 million spent through Based Rental Assistance program in FY 2015. HUD the program, 10.79 direct jobs and 9.67 indirect jobs are supported. As a result, CHCDF estimates that in FY15, also reports that for every $1 million spent through the program, 6.36 direct jobs and 5.22 indirect jobs are CDBG has helped support 31,551 direct jobs and 28,295 supported. As a result, CHCDF estimates that in FY15, of indirect jobs. Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance program has HUD data shows that Congress provided $895.98 helped support 62,238 direct jobs and 51,062 indirect million for the HOME Investment Partnerships program jobs. (HOME) in FY 2015. HUD also reports that for every $1 million spent through the program, 8.51 direct jobs In FY 2015, Congress provided $485.52 million for the and 9.09 indirect jobs are supported. As a result, CHCDF Section 202 Housing for the Elderly program (Section estimates that in FY15, the HOME program has helped 202). HUD reports that for every $1 million spent support 7,627 direct jobs and 8,148 indirect jobs. through the program to renew rental assistance contracts, 6.36 of direct jobs and 5.22 indirect jobs are supported. Congress also provided $1.66 billion for Homeless UD reports that for every $1 million spent through the Assistance Grants, which include the Continuum of Care program to fund service coordinators, 20.81direct jobs and Emergency Solutions Grants programs, in FY 2015. and 9.75 indirect jobs are supported.The data provided HUD also reports that for every $1 million spent through by HUD combined funding for the Section 202 program’s the program, 9.74 direct jobs and 5.39 indirect jobs are contract renewals and service coordinators into a single supported. As a result, CHCDF estimates that in FY15, amount for the program’s overall funding level. To Homeless Assistance Grants have helped support 16,168 determine how much funding went into each account direct jobs and 8,942 indirect jobs. to calculate the number of jobs supported, CHCDF Moreover, Congress provided $395.06 million for the used HUD’s summary of FY15 enacted level provided Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS program in HUD’s FY17 Congressional Justifications. As a result, (HOPWA) in FY 2015. HUD also reports that for every CHCDF estimates that in FY15, Section 202 supported $1 million spent through the program, 11.46 direct jobs 4,261 direct and 2,903 indirect jobs. and 6.73 indirect jobs are supported. As a result, CHCDF According to HUD, Congress provided $150.58 million estimates that in FY15, HOPWA has helped support for the Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons with 4,526 direct jobs and 2,658 indirect jobs. Disabilities program (Section 811) in FY 2015. HUD also reports that for every $1 million spent through the CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 13

18 A Place to Call Home THE NEED FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING also at high risk of falling behind on their rent, being evicted, More people are renting their homes than ever before. Demand for rental housing has reached its highest level since and becoming homeless, which can set them back further by 55 the 1960s. contributing to job losses and family separations. Vacancy rates are at their lowest levels since 1985, and rents have risen at an annual rate of 3.5%, the fastest pace Despite the need, just one in four families who are eligible in three decades. Growth in the supply of low-cost rental units for housing assistance get the help they need. This is because has not kept pace with the significant growth in demand. Congress—under both Republican and Democratic Between 2003 and 2013, the number of low-cost units renting leadership—has chronically underfunded federal housing for less than $400 increased by 10%, but the number of programs for decades. For example, because of underfunding, 56 renter households in need of these units increased by 40%. 10,000 public housing units are lost each year to disrepair, In large part, this is due to stagnating wages, tight mortgage while the public housing capital backlog is likely close to $40 standards, and high home prices, which have put even more 60 billion dollars and grows at a rate of $3.4 billion per year. strain on renters’ pocketbooks and put homeownership out of reach for The Shrinking Public Housing Stock (1996-2015) many Americans. The increased demand for rental 1,350,000 housing has caused rents to rise 1,326,224 across the nation, leading to more 1,300,000 1,282,099 low income families having to spend 1,250,000 most of their income on keeping a roof over their heads. The Joint 1,200,000 1,169,505 1,168,503 Center for Housing Studies of 1,150,000 Harvard University recently reported 1,119,864 that nearly three quarters of the 1,100,000 nation’s 9.6 million lowest income 1,050,000 renters—those with incomes less than Total Available Public Housing Units $15,000 per year—dedicate more 1,000,000 than half of their income towards 2000 2010 2005 1996 2015 57 A full-time worker their housing. earning the prevailing minimum Source: A Picture of Subsidized Households (HUD) wage cannot afford a modest two- bedroom apartment in any state, 58 These Meanwhile, waiting lists for public housing and housing metropolitan area, or county in the United States. households have little left to spend on basic needs, like food or choice vouchers are often closed or have years-long wait 61 medicine, and have no means to save for retirement or college. times. The loss of public housing and of other existing This is the definition of “housing poverty.” Unaffordable rents federally-supported housing is something our nation cannot afford. can lead to undernourished children because, as sociologist 59 They are Matthew Desmond put it, “The rent eats first.” The State of the Nation’s Housing 55 http://www.jchs. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. (2016). . Cambridge, MA: Author. Retrieved from harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/americas_rental_housing_2015_web.pdf . Ibid. 56 . Ibid 57 NLIHC’s 58 Out of Reach report shows the difference between wages and the price of housing in every state, county, and jurisdiction by estimating each locality’s “housing wage”, the hourly wage a full-time worker needs to earn in order to afford a modest, two-bedroom apartment. In 2016, the national housing wage was $20.30 per hour. A worker earning the federal minimum wage would need to work 112 hours a week—or 2.8 full-time jobs—just to afford a modest two- . Out of Reach . Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://nlihc.org/oor bedroom apartment. National Low Income Housing Coalition. (2016). 59 Desmond M. (2016). Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City . New York: Crown. https://portal.hud.gov/ Retrieved from . . Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates Inc Capital Needs in the Public Housing Program Finkel, M., Lam, K. et al. (2010). 60 . hudportal/documents/huddoc?id=PH_Capital_Needs.pdf Housing Spotlight: the Long Wait for a Home 61 National Low Income Housing Coalition. (2016). . Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://nlihc.org/article/ . housing-spotlight-volume-6-issue-1 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 14

19 A Place to Call Home THE ROLE OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN AFFORDABLE HOUSING While decent, accessible housing remains unavailable Homelessness worked together with states and local communities to address veterans’ homelessness, which or unaffordable for far too many today, the affordable housing crisis would be significantly worse without the has seen nearly a 50% reduction since 2010. That federal investments provided by the HUD and USDA’s achievement was largely made possible by increased federal funding directly targeted at those in need of Rural Housing Service (RHS). assistance. In the past 20 years alone, HUD has provided housing HUD also administers several innovative programs, assistance to more than 35 million including the Jobs-Plus and Family Self-Sufficiency households. Without the opportunity that HUD programs, that have helped thousands of adults living provided, many of these families would be homeless, living in substandard or overcrowded in assisted housing to improve their employment and earnings. Congress has already taken steps to expand conditions, or unable to afford other basic necessities because so much of their income is spent on rent. In fact, a recent analysis of U.S. Sheltered and Unsheltered Homeless Veterans Census data conducted by the (2007-2016) Center on Budget and Policy Priorities shows that housing 80, 000 assistance raised 4 million 000 70, people out of poverty in 2012, 60, 000 including 1.5 million children, 000 50, and has significantly reduced 000 40, 62 000 30, homelessness. 000 20, Since 1934, HUD, the Federal 10, 000 Housing Administration, and 0 2014 2016 2013 2009 2007 2008 2015 2012 2011 2010 RHS have insured over 44 million home mortgages and less Veterans me Total Ho 50,000 multifamily project less Sheltered Home Veterans mortgages—providing an Unsheltered Home less Ve terans especially critical safety net during the recent mortgage Source: The 2016 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report to Congress, 2007-2016 Point-in-Time Estimates by States. crisis and ensuing recession. Federal programs continue to leverage billions of dollars in private resources to preserve these programs in recent years, and research favors and expand the supply of affordable housing so needed by this approach over one that would impose costly and low income families. burdensome new requirements on housing authorities and families. The federal government also plays a critical role in convening and providing leadership to states and local The role of federal affordable housing investments is even communities to develop and implement strategies for more important given the limited ability of the private addressing housing insecurity and homelessness in our market to address these needs. In fact, the private market nation. For example, HUD, the Department of Veterans often cannot provide rental housing that is affordable to Affairs, and the United State Interagency Council on 62 http://www.cbpp.org/ . Washington, DC: Author. Retrieve from Chart book: Accomplishments of the Safety Net Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2015). research/poverty-and-inequality/chart-book-accomplishments-of-the-safety-net . CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 15

20 A Place to Call Home 63 the lowest income households without public subsidy. construction costs can help, but ultimately are not 66 enough to close the gap without subsidies. Private sector housing developers have testified before Congress that without federal resources, the private HUD Secretary Dr. Ben Carson explains that “when 64 market would not invest in affordable housing at all. it comes to deep affordability, though, removing all This is because there is significant gap between the rents regulatory barriers won’t get you there. It comes down to that low income households can afford and the costs of subsidy. Subsidy levels haven’t changed appreciably under 65 Democratic or Republican administrations.” This is a role building and maintaining rental housing. Since the that only the federal government can play. rents collected from low income residents do not cover their operating costs, developers cannot produce enough You can learn more about HUD’s affordable housing and revenue to pay their lenders and investors. Modifying community development programs in the appendix. land use restrictions and regulations or reducing 63 Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. (2015). America’s Rental Housing: Expanding Options for Diverse and Growing Demand . Cambridge, MA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/americas_rental_housing_2015_web.pdf . 64 U.S. Cong., House Financial Services Subcommittee on Housing and Insurance. (April 16, 2015). The Future of Housing in America: Increasing Private Sector Participation in Affordable Housing [ Cong. Rept. 114-14 from 114 Cong., 1 sess.]. Retrieved from http://financialservices.house.gov/uploadedfiles/114-14.pdf . 65 Urban Institute & National Housing Conference. (2016). http://apps. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved at The cost of affordable housing: Does it pencil out?. urban.org/features/cost-of-affordable-housing/ . . Ibid 66 16 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

21 A Place to Call Home FUNDING LEVELS FOR HUD AND USDA AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAMS HUD INVESTMENTS IN AFFORDABLE HOUSING (FY 2015—IN MILLIONS) INDIAN HOUSING HOUSING FOR GRAND HOUSING HOMELESS HOUSING PUBLIC CHOICE HOPWA FOR THE CDBG PERSONS WITH ST HOME VOUCHERS FHIP PBRA HOUSING COUNSELING TOTAL ASSISTANCE BLOCK ELDERLY DISABILITIES GRANTS $11.3 $0 $97.7 $0 $4.1 $3.5 AK $11.6 $1.3 $1.1 $0 $0.3 $187.9 $54.9 $2.1 $199.8 $187.8 $0 $2.2 $2.1 $40.0 $12.2 AL $100.4 $6.3 $1.8 $0.3 $0.6 $571.6 $18.2 AR $54.4 $0 $0 $3.9 $23.1 $7.6 $7.9 $60.2 $3.6 $2.8 $0.1 $0 $278.2 $114.6 $187.4 $28.9 $0.8 $132.2 $2.5 $48.9 $14.7 AZ $55.6 $6.1 $1.8 $0.0 $1.1 $509.3 $29.2 $222.2 CA $15.0 $48.1 $35.8 $356.9 $120.2 $204.2 $1,039.0 $54.4 $13.9 $1.8 $4.4 $5,624.5 $3,508.4 CO $274.4 $40.8 $0 $2.6 $2.0 $33.8 $12.4 $17.3 $ 111. 6 $4.5 $1.3 $0.4 $0.3 $501.3 CT $392.1 $0 $0.1 $3.5 $35.6 $10.4 $17.8 $235.3 $10.6 $1.8 $0.2 $1.1 $796.7 $88.2 $136.6 $194.6 $0 $11.2 $13.7 $3.7 $10.6 $0 $1.9 $1.0 $7.9 $2.0 $446.8 DC $63.6 $48.1 $14.9 $0 $0 $0.9 $6.4 $4.1 DE $38.5 $1.5 $1.3 $0.1 $0.3 $120.2 $4.1 FL $176.5 $0.3 $1.1 $35.5 $130.2 $43.9 $937.0 $318.5 $29.7 $6.7 $0.5 $2.3 $1,757.5 $75.4 GA $523.7 $184.3 $15.0 $0 $21.4 $75.9 $24.0 $37.9 $199.4 $9.4 $2.3 $2.0 $0.7 $1,095.9 $7.5 HI $0 $0 $0.6 $12.2 $5.2 $34.5 $33.8 $2.9 $1.0 $0 $0.4 $225.0 $127.0 IA $ 111. 8 $ 11.1 $0 $0.3 $0.4 $33.0 $7.8 $13.7 $58.4 $1.1 $0.5 $0.1 $0 $238.2 $3.8 ID $2.4 $0 $3.8 $0 $11.3 $44.1 $3.8 $21.8 $0.8 $0.3 $0.2 $0.3 $92.5 $2.6 $0.6 $2,117.9 IL $843.0 $365.5 $0 $0 $10.4 $149.3 $39.1 $93.2 $562.6 $40.5 $ 11.1 IN $225.5 $0 $0 $3.2 $60.4 $17.7 $30.0 $178.7 $6.6 $2.2 $0.1 $0.5 $593.8 $68.9 $58.6 $73.3 $1.7 $1.5 $23.7 $7.2 $10.8 $0 $1.5 $0.9 $0 $0 $210.3 KS $31.1 $217.3 $90.0 $0.5 $0 $1.8 $39.0 $12.6 KY $127.0 $4.0 $2.1 $0.3 $0.3 $514.2 $19.3 LA $102.4 $0.5 $0.5 $7.8 $43.9 $12.4 $396.4 $95.6 $6.0 $4.1 $0.5 $1.1 $694.9 $23.7 MA $981.4 $214.9 $0 $1.2 $5.8 $91.2 $23.0 $50.4 $730.1 $21.3 $5.8 $2.6 $1.3 $2,129.0 $29.0 MD $0 $0 $21.1 $44.3 $12.4 $132.1 $208.9 $13.0 $5.5 $1.5 $0.3 $1,041.8 $573.8 ME $91.0 $20.1 $0 $4.0 $0 $16.5 $4.2 $6.4 $67.6 $3.2 $1.0 $0.2 $0.3 $214.5 $27.3 MI $99.8 $0 $14.2 $4.1 $ 111. 2 $386.4 $65.2 $326.5 $11.2 $2.3 $1.8 $1.6 $1,051.6 $48.0 MN $258.0 $78.5 $0 $18.2 $1.2 $12.8 $27.3 $182.3 $6.5 $2.9 $3.1 $0.3 $639.1 MO $261.3 $15.0 $0.1 $3.0 $57.2 $16.4 $32.4 $145.0 $9.2 $5.4 $0.1 $0.3 $613.8 $68.5 $163.3 $9.7 $0 $3.1 $5.5 $26.5 $7.8 MS $113.4 $3.4 $1.6 $0.6 $- $378.7 $43.8 $2.6 MT $0 $25.9 $0 $7.5 $3.8 $8.0 $20.1 $1.2 $0.5 $0.3 $0.2 $106.3 $36.2 NC $384.4 $172.1 $0 $18.6 $6.2 $70.2 $24.3 $29.2 $150.3 $7.2 $4.1 $1.2 $0.3 $868.2 $1.7 ND $0 $20.4 $0 $4.9 $3.3 $5.6 $10.9 $0.1 $0.4 $0.1 $0.1 $87.3 $39.6 NE $75.7 $22.9 $0 $5.5 $0.4 $15.7 $5.2 $8.4 $27.7 $1.4 $0.9 $0.1 $0.3 $164.3 $3.7 NH $16.7 $0 $0 $0 $11.3 $89.9 $4.5 $50.5 $5.2 $0.2 $0.2 $0.3 $182.5 $0.9 $1,695.3 $0.3 NJ $734.3 $226.4 $0.3 $0 $59.1 $79.5 $22.4 $49.4 $497.8 $18.9 $6.0 17 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

22 A Place to Call Home INDIAN HOUSING HOUSING FOR PUBLIC HOUSING GRAND HOMELESS HOUSING HOPWA CDBG HOME ST VOUCHERS PBRA CHOICE FOR THE PERSONS WITH FHIP ASSISTANCE COUNSELING BLOCK TOTAL HOUSING ELDERLY DISABILITIES GRANTS $81.4 $ 17.1 $0 $16.4 $0.6 $16.1 $5.1 $6.7 $29.6 $2.1 $1.0 $0.0 $0 $176.2 NM $148.0 $15.3 $0 NV $1.4 $19.9 $8.5 $12.7 $21.8 $1.3 $1.6 $0.0 $0.3 $252.0 $21.2 $191.9 NY $0 $6.1 $52.9 $286.6 $88.9 $1,404.5 $1,330.3 $72.2 $9.1 $2.7 $3.6 $5,875.7 $2,426.9 OH $600.7 $254.9 $0.8 $0 $3.7 $137.2 $36.5 $78.5 $479.4 $24.7 $8.1 $0.1 $1.9 $1,626.5 OK $152.5 $0 $97.4 $1.1 $24.4 $9.5 $11.7 $72.7 $2.1 $1.7 $0.1 $0.3 $425.0 $51.6 $15.6 OR $0 $15.9 $1.5 $31.3 $12.4 $29.1 $58.3 $3.5 $1.7 $0.1 $0.7 $415.4 $245.2 PA $627.9 $411.2 $0.3 $0 $16.6 $168.3 $38.6 $106.2 $416.9 $23.7 $7.9 $2.2 $1.1 $1,820.9 $8.7 RI $0 $0.5 $0.9 $15.3 $4.7 $47.6 $149.9 $6.7 $3.9 $0.0 $0 $322.7 $84.6 $440.8 $168.1 $71.4 $0 $1.5 $6.4 $34.3 $11.3 $14.5 $125.0 $4.3 $3.5 $0.1 $0.4 SC $0 SD $112.1 $0.2 $35.0 $5.1 $0 $34.8 $0 $6.4 $3.3 $2.2 $24.4 $0.5 $0.3 TN $236.4 $15.1 $0 $4.9 $45.1 $16.4 $21.5 $168.4 $6.4 $2.5 $0.7 $0.6 $679.8 $161.7 $126.4 TX $0.3 $2.2 $22.6 $215.6 $60.5 $242.4 $326.8 $20.6 $5.7 $2.4 $1.8 $2,166.8 $1,139.5 UT $84.6 $6.5 $0 $4.2 $0.5 $19.3 $6.3 $9.4 $26.6 $1.6 $0.6 $0.0 $0.2 $159.9 $27.2 VA $101.7 $0.3 $0.1 $13.9 $50.5 $17.4 $392.6 $222.6 $5.8 $2.1 $2.3 $0.3 $836.6 $ 7.1 VT $56.2 $6.1 $0 $0 $0 $0.3 $3.4 $2.4 $27.0 $1.1 $0.3 $0.0 $103.9 WA $494.9 $0 $40.0 $3.6 $50.8 $17.9 $ 2 7.1 $92.6 $8.3 $2.8 $0.3 $1.7 $812.3 $72.5 $ 2 7.1 WI $15.0 $20.7 $2.1 $48.9 $17.3 $36.6 $159.2 $4.4 $1.9 $0.1 $0.8 $494.3 $160.2 WV $86.3 $24.9 $0 $0 $11.5 $18.7 $5.2 $7.7 $61.9 $1.1 $1.2 $0.1 $0.3 $218.9 $3.5 WY $2.7 $0 $3.8 $0 $3.5 $15.7 $1.1 $11.9 $0.5 $0.2 $0 $0 $42.9 $42,731.8 $39.1 $38.4 Total $19,785.7 $5,839.6 $78.9 $660.3 $395.0 $2,924.6 $896.0 $1,659.3 $9,778.9 $485.5 $150.6 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 18

23 A Place to Call Home USDA INVESTMENTS IN AFFORDABLE HOUSING (FY 2015—IN MILLIONS) SECTION DIRECT GUARANTEED FARM LABOR GUARANTEED SELF-HELP 504 REPAIR RENTAL DIRECT RENTAL TOTAL HOUSING ST HOMEOWNERSHIP HOMEOWNERSHIP LOANS/ LOANS HOUSING RENTAL LOANS INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE LOANS LOANS/GRANTS LOANS GRANTS AL $1.8 $0 $4.5 $29.3 $0 $1.7 $502.5 $17.8 $447.4 $11.4 $102.7 AK $0 $0 $5.2 $0.1 $0 $119.5 $0.3 AZ $278.0 $0.6 $0 $0 $16.5 $1.8 $2.4 $315.7 $16.3 $13.6 $0 $0.7 $0.3 AR $22.2 $0.7 $0 $404.5 $366.9 CA $563.0 $0.5 $16.6 $4.1 $91.1 $8.5 $35.3 $819.7 $100.6 CO $19.8 $306.9 $0.3 $0 $0 $12.0 $1.1 $0 $340.0 CT $4.1 $0.1 $0 $2.3 $8.5 $0 $0 $146.0 $130.9 $5.3 $0.1 $0 $0 $7.6 $0 $0 $146.9 DE $133.9 $28.6 $629.7 $1.0 $0 $0 FL $2.1 $1.8 $717.8 $54.7 GA $524.7 $1.3 $0 $10.8 $28.6 $0 $1.3 $566.7 $0 HI $14.9 $217.2 $0.4 $1.9 $0 $7.8 $1.4 $0 $243.5 ID $219.8 $0.3 $0 $0 $13.5 $0.5 $4.0 $243.1 $5.0 IL $19.8 $326.5 $2.2 $0 $2.9 $26.8 $0 $0 $378.3 IN $22.2 $594.8 $1.0 $0 $1.1 $19.4 $0.6 $0 $639.1 $0 $266.8 $0 IA $9.1 $237.1 $1.0 $0 $0 $19.7 KS $5.4 $0.2 $0 $0.5 $9.5 $0 $1.1 $159.0 $142.3 $30.7 $2.7 $0 $17.1 $19.9 $0.5 $0 $552.9 KY $482.0 $26.2 $686.2 $2.0 $0 $8.5 LA $0 $0.7 $761.7 $38.1 ME $244.2 $0.6 $0 $16.3 $28.1 $0.8 $0 $291.7 $1.7 MD $10.0 $506.8 $0.2 $0 $3.8 $15.5 $0 $0 $536.2 MA $205.0 $0.3 $0 $0.6 $10.8 $0 $0 $223.3 $6.6 MI $26.7 $753.8 $1.9 $0 $0 $30.3 $0.2 $1.2 $814.0 $0 MN $517.1 $0.7 $0 $19.1 $18.3 $0 $0 $555.2 $0 MS $26.9 $321.8 $2.2 $0 $0 $44.0 $0.1 $395.0 MO $20.3 $1.2 $0 $1.7 $18.6 $0 $0 $621.0 $579.2 $7.1 $0.1 $0 $0 $5.8 $0.5 $0 $210.5 MT $196.9 $2.1 $103.1 $0.1 $0 $0.5 NE $0 $0 $111.5 $5.8 NV $118.4 $0.2 $0 $7.9 $9.0 $0 $1.6 $137.0 $0 NH $9.0 $146.9 $0.8 $0 $12.1 $12.4 $0 $0 $181.1 NJ $168.3 $0.1 $0 $0 $9.0 $0 $0 $187.7 $10.3 NM $15.3 $50.5 $0.5 $0 $0 $16.0 $1.4 $1.8 $85.5 NY $18.2 $232.8 $.9 $0 $10.5 $23.9 $0 $0 $286.3 $1,080.6 $4.9 $1.1 NC $49.0 $941.4 $3.3 $0 $11.0 $70.0 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 19

24 A Place to Call Home SECTION DIRECT GUARANTEED FARM LABOR SELF-HELP RENTAL GUARANTEED 504 REPAIR DIRECT RENTAL TOTAL HOMEOWNERSHIP ST HOMEOWNERSHIP HOUSING LOANS ASSISTANCE HOUSING RENTAL LOANS LOANS/ INVESTMENT LOANS LOANS/GRANTS LOANS GRANTS $3.9 $0 $0.1 ND $0 $4.0 $0 $1.0 $66.0 $56.9 OH $557.2 $1.2 $0 $1.3 $24.9 $0 $4.9 $609.9 $20.4 OK $16.0 $255.2 $0.8 $0 $0 $18.7 $1.0 $0.7 $292.4 OR $12.0 $0.1 $0 $3.0 $18.8 $0.7 $0 $480.0 $445.4 PA $642.0 $1.5 $0 $8.2 $26.5 $0.2 $3.5 $703.1 $21.2 RI $2.7 $32.9 $0.1 $0 $0 $1.9 $0 $0 $37.6 SC $27.2 $521.9 $1.3 $2.4 $11.0 $ 2 7.1 $0 $0 $590.8 $203.2 $0 $11.2 SD $11.1 $179.1 $0.3 $0 $0.5 $1.0 TN $20.5 $1.7 $0 $17.8 $26.2 $0 $20.4 $1,018.2 $931.7 TX $764.2 $2.8 $0 $3.0 $47.9 $0.1 $14.6 $862.0 $29.4 UT $25.6 $422.6 $0.2 $0 $0 $8.1 $3.5 $0.9 $460.9 $2.8 VT $80.6 $0.3 $0 $9.7 $7.3 $0 $0 $100.7 $4.3 VA $13.8 $626.2 $1.1 $675.4 $0.9 $29.1 $0 $0 WA $27.9 $0.3 $0.3 $2.5 $28.2 $2.6 $7.6 $606.8 $537.4 WV $231.3 $0.5 $0 $0 $16.1 $0.3 $1.6 $257.1 $7.3 WI $13.6 $372.5 $0.9 $0 $0.4 $18.6 $0.6 $0 $406.7 $0 WY $235.2 $0 $0 $7.1 $4.1 $0 $0.6 $ 247.1 GRAND $31.4 $113.5 $20,658.5 $1,066.4 $875.8 $18,368.5 $42.7 $25.8 $134.4 TOTAL CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 20

25 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORIES CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 21

26 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: IOWA HOME, INC. Mission: HOME, Inc. develops affordable housing and provides both rental and homeownership counseling and education. In five decades, we Pam Carmichael <> have created 367 units of affordable housing and provided homeownership 515-779-3886 opportunities to 272 low income families, 91% of whom stay in their home <> for the long term. We have provided homeownership and rental housing [email protected] counseling and education to more than 160,000 households and have made <> org $3 million in improvements to the homes of 266 elderly and/or disabled <> homeowners since 2000. As a HUD-certified agency, we use the HUD homeincdsm.com Housing Counseling grant program for homeownership counseling and supportive services, as well as the HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) for development of affordable rental and homeownership units and <> City: Des Moines City: Emergency Solutions Grant (ESG) funds for homeless prevention. Congressional Congressional District: Story: For 50 years, HOME, Inc. has developed affordable housing and <> District: IA-3 provided both rental and homeownership counseling and education. HOME, Inc. has worked with thousands of families and individuals who all have Use of Funds: <> HOME, Inc. education Federal has followed for more than 25 <> Programs: Federal Programs: years. <> Housing Counseling: Anne came to <> $17,500 HOME, Inc. as a <> single mom who <> Total Federal Dollars: was struggling <> $17,500 financially. She was accepted into Total Federa Dollars: our lease-to-purchase program and received HOME, Inc.’s homeownership counseling and supportive services. Over two years, Anne developed Development: <> credit score and save $4,000 for down payment and closing costs. During her rental term, she also learned how to maintain her home and Rental Assistance/ earned equity, which decreased her sale price. She has lived in her home for Services: <> invested in a second home, and five years ago, she purchased a duplex. These additional properties are the foundation of her rental business. Other Financing: <> people who are willing to work for it. Total Project In her own words: “I was a single mom making $14,000 a year back in 1990. Cost: <> I had no child support, no government help as I made $40 more than was allowed to be eligible for assistance. So life was tough and I was not sure I could do this by myself. Without HOME, Inc., I would not have learned how to save or value my abilities to do for myself. This certainly didn’t happen overnight, but the realness of this program gave me opportunities above and beyond.” 22 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

27 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: TEXAS FOUNDATION COMMUNITIES Foundation Communities is a local nonprofit based in Austin, Mission: Texas. We provide affordable, attractive homes and free onsite support Alyah Khan services for over 6,000 residents, including low income families, veterans, seniors, and individuals with disabilities. We offer an innovative, proven 512-610-4009 model that empowers our residents and neighbors to achieve educational success, financial stability, and healthier lifestyles. We own and operate 22 [email protected] communities. We rely on critical federal funding to construct new affordable foundcom.org housing communities and provide rental assistance to vulnerable populations. Story: Capital Studios, the first affordable housing in downtown Austin in 45 years, opened in December 2014. It is now home to 135 low income individuals, City: Austin including formerly homeless veterans, seniors and individuals with disabilities. The community is owned and operated by local nonprofit Foundation Congressional District: Communities. TX-25 For many residents, living at Capital Studios offers a fresh start. David, a veteran who served in the U.S. Navy, was living on the street before finding a Use of Funds: home with Foundation Communties. New construction, rental He now works at a downtown assistance church and has a renewed sense of purpose in life. At Capital Studios, Federal Programs: David gets support through an CDGB: $1.15 million onsite case manager and has access to free education, financial stability VASH: $403,200/year and health services, such as college LIHTC: $11.70 million level courses, one-on-one financial coaching and integrated primary and Total Federal Dollars: mental healthcare. Development: Capital Studios includes a beautiful outdoor courtyard and community $12.98 million kitchen where residents can get to know their neighbors and members of the larger Austin community who volunteer with us. David has been able to Rental Assistance/ cultivate meaningful relationships and, as a result, is healthier and happier. Services: HUD Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funding was critical in $403,200/year the construction of Capital Studios. We received $1.15 million in CDBG funds during the development period of 2012-2014, which covered pre-development Other Financing: and construction costs. Foundation Communities also partnered with the $9.02 million Veterans Administration to make apartments available for over 50 formerly homeless veterans–including David–who are VASH voucher holders. The Total Project Cost: project also received a $1 million grant from the Federal Home Loan Bank of $22 million San Francisco. Capital Studios sits just two blocks from the Texas State Capitol. To David and his Affordable homes fellow residents, it is a beautiful and affordable home. But to Austin, as a whole, it created or preserved: represents a step towards making the city a better place for everyone to live. 135 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 23

28 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: MISSOURI DOORWAYS Mission: DOORWAYS is an interfaith nonprofit organization that provides housing and related supportive services to improve quality of life and Britta Smith <> health outcomes for people affected by HIV/AIDS. DOORWAYS is the only 314-328-2716 organization in the Saint Louis, Missouri area whose sole mission is to provide <> affordable, secure housing and related services for people living with HIV/ [email protected] AIDS. This mission is based on research that demonstrates that stable housing <> org is the primary requisite for the most effective and compassionate treatment, <> management and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Funding through HUD’s doorwayshousing.org Continuum of Care (COC) and Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) programs are critical for us to be able to carry out our mission. St. Louis <> City: City: Story: Jasmine is a young mother who came to St Louis, Missouri from Georgia to provide love and support to her sick and ailing father. When Congressional District: Congressional Jasmine arrived, she was not prepared to manage the details necessary to build <> MO-1 District: a life for herself and her daughter. Desperately in need of a safe place to stay, they had to “couch surf ” in her dad’s room at a senior living facility. Use of Funds: Use of Funds: <> Rental assistance, a stranger to supportive services challenges; Federal she was born Programs: Federal Programs: <> HIV positive <> CoC: $238,019 and has always been faced with <> Total Federal Dollars: interruptions <> $238,019 related to her <> health. She was <> not in an active treatment plan Total Federa Dollars: prior to moving to St. Louis, due to many family complications. As a result, her health began to decline and she began searching for healthcare. <> She really wanted an apartment so that she and her daughter could have a place to call home. They didn’t have any furniture, just a few essential personal Rental Assistance/ hygiene items. DOORWAYS quickly secured a two-bedroom apartment Services: <> DOORWAYS was able to help Jasmine because of a $238,000 grant through HUD’s CoC program. Other Financing: <> certificate, Social Security card, or identification card. DOORWAYS helped her obtain her out of state birth certificate, and then used that to get her other Total Project documents. <> Cost: Today, Jasmine is employed, active in a treatment plan, and participates in the quarterly program meetings where she receives education and life skills necessary to provide hope, housing and healthcare to her daughter and herself. CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 24

29 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: IDAHO TWIN FALLS HOUSING AUTHORITY Mission: The Twin Falls Housing Authority is a high-performing small housing authority that was established in 1940 and has played a key role Leanne Trappen providing affordable housing options for low to moderate income people in 208-733-5765 rural southern Idaho. Twin Falls Housing Authority recognizes the complex challenges facing those who need affordable housing and seeks to stay [email protected] connected with community resources in an effort to help improve their lives. twinfallshousing.com Twin Falls Housing Authority provides safe, decent affordable housing in good repair to approximately 250 households. The Twin Falls Housing Authority idahohousing.com is governed by five members, consisting of community leaders and residents commissioners. We are committed to providing our tenants with high standards Twin Falls City: of professionalism, both in the housing we provide and the customer service we Rural Housing deliver. Congressional District: Story: Angela, a single mother of two ID-2 and a resident to Twin Falls Public Housing Authority since 2011, is currently building Use of Funds: her own home. Because of public housing’s Rental assistance, affordable rent, Angela was able to maintain her family’s housing while obtaining her homeownership nursing degree, placing Angela in a better Federal Programs: position for other housing options. Public Housing: $490,000/ However, with a 1.2% vacancy rate, her year ability to find affordable housing is limited. The increasing need for available, affordable rental housing, has resulted in higher rent rates. SHOP: $240,000 USDA Sec. 523: $157,500 Connecting low income families to community resources is essential in rural areas and the Twin Falls Housing Authority, along with other organizations, Total Federal Dollars: have focused on opportunities for family and housing stability. Through these resources, Angela submitted an application for the USDA Self-Help Housing Development: grant program (USDA Sec. 523) with South Central Community Action $397,500 Partnership (SCCAP). HUD’s Self-Help Housing Opportunity Program (SHOP) further supported Angela and her family. For several months, Angela, Rental Assistance/ along with several other families who received Sec. 523 and SHOP grants, Services: worked to build their new homes. $490,000/year Angela and her family moved into their new home in February 2017, creating an opportunity for another family to obtain housing stability with the Twin Falls Housing Authority. SCCAP’s housing program has helped numerous families living in public housing or using a Housing Choice Voucher become homeowners. Local organizations work together to provide housing stability for vulnerable populations. Coordinated efforts target those most in need. The ability to obtain a conventional construction loan with a manageable monthly payment was a dream until becoming eligible for this program. Angela has developed many new skills achieving the American Dream of homeownership. CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 25

30 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: MONTANA HOMEWORD Mission: Homeword is a nonprofit organization headquartered in Missoula, Montana, that uses sustainable methods to provide safe, healthy Andrea Davis <> housing people can afford and strengthens community through housing counseling and education for those in need. Since 1994, Homeword has built <> 406-532-4663 or renovated 528 housing units across the state for people primarily earning 60% or less of the area median income. The addition of three projects in 2017 <> [email protected] will result in a total of 723 units produced throughout Montana. Homeword homeword.org <> also provides housing and financial counseling and education. These services include homebuyer, financial, renter and foreclosure prevention education and counseling. Financial Fitness and Rent Wise classes are offered free of charge. Free one-on-one coaching sessions are available. Since 1997, 12,000 people Missoula City: City: <> have been served by these services. Congressional District: Congressional Story: Fireweed Court, a 12-unit mixed-financed affordable housing project, is District: MT-AL <> the first Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) project Homeword developed in 1999. HUD funding played a critical role in that it provided gap funding for Use of Funds: Use of Funds: <> New construction buildings and targets households earning less than 50% area median income. Federal Federal Programs: Located in Missoula, Montana along <> Programs: HOME: $325,457 busy Russell Street, Homeword LIHTC: $688,750 <> organized a resident-focused art project that led to the creation of a <> Total Federal Dollars: straw-bale wall to provide a noise and <> $1.01 million safety barrier. Residents learned how <> to create and apply mosaics to the <> Other Financing: wall, thus creating a sense of place in their new home. $172,000 Total Federa Dollars: Missoula has long had a tight housing Total Project Cost: market given its desirability, lack of Development: <> more than 12,000 University of Montana students. Historically, Missoula was Affordable homes an extractive-based economy, but those jobs have been replaced by service- Rental Assistance/ created or preserved: oriented jobs, many of which provide low or moderate wages. <> with low wages or fixed incomes make the most of their limited resources. <> Kim, a resident at Fireweed Court, took Homeword’s classes and saved $100 Total Project per month for years to build up a down payment for her own home, which <> Cost: she purchased in 2010. Her son, Emerson, is now a Dartmouth and Vassar graduate. 26 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

31 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: PENNSYLVANIA PENNROSE Pennrose is a premier multifamily development and residential Mission: property management company, offering extensive expertise in complex, Lee Reedy multi-phase urban and suburban development, including mixed-use development for both market-rate and mixed-income communities. From 267-386-8612 new construction to historic preservation, Pennrose maximizes value and [email protected] provides outstanding quality, achieving unparalleled success in the more than 200-plus apartment communities and 10,000-plus units that have been pennrose.com developed and/or managed. Pennrose utilizes a variety of HUD funds to fulfill our mission of transforming communities by creating high quality real estate developments and delivering outstanding value to our clients and partners. These funds are in the form of Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC), City: Allentown vouchers, and Rental Assistance Demonstration programs. Congressional District: Sacred Heart Senior Residences in Allentown, Pennsylvania is a Story: PA-15 61-unit affordable apartment community for seniors aged 62 and up, co- developed by Pennrose and the Allentown Housing Authority. The Allentown Use of Funds: Comprehensive Plan 2020 specifically recognizes the New construction, rental need for affordable housing assistance for the elderly, and states as a main goals “the provision Federal Programs: of sufficient affordable and HOME: $1.35 million special needs housing within PBV: $167,563/year the City and on a regional LIHTC: $11.69 million l e v e l .” The 78,011 square foot, four- Total Federal Dollars: story structure will include 54 one-bedroom units and seven two-bedroom units. Amenity space available only to residents will include a community Development: room with kitchenette, wellness or exercise room, game room, library, lobby $13.04 million lounge, common laundry rooms, and roof terrace. Rental Assistance/ Rental subsidies will increase the viability of the project, while still serving Services: seniors in the lowest income tiers. Twenty-four of the rental units will be subsidized by project-based vouchers (PBVs) and the remaining 37 will be $167,563 LIHTC units with no rental subsidy. Seven of the units are affordable at 20% Other Financing: of the area median income (AMI), 25 units are affordable at 50% AMI, and 29 units are affordable at 60% AMI. $1.17 million This project received City of Allentown HOME Investment Partnerships Total Project Cost: program (HOME) funds in the amount of $1,350,000. It is predicted that $14.22 million within one year after project completion, 14 new jobs would be created (12 full-time and 2 part-time), 131 non-permanent construction jobs will be Affordable homes created by the project, and total state tax generation will be $90,000. created or preserved: Sacred Heart is being developed in collaboration with Sacred Heart Hospital 61 with the first floor of the building having 6,884 square feet of space, which the hospital anticipates to use for geriatric, physical therapy, and other senior focused medical functions. CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 27

32 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: TENNESSEE GREYSTONE AFFORDABLE HOUSING INITIATIVES LLC Greystone Affordable Housing Initiatives LLC, an affiliate of Mission: Greystone, is a finance and transaction management company that is focused Tanya Eastwood <> on meeting the challenges associated with the recapitalization, rehabilitation 919-573-7502 and preservation of affordable housing throughout the U.S. To date, Greystone <> has coordinated the rehabilitation and preservation of over 8,200 apartment [email protected] units with another 5,800 in various stages of completion. The company’s <> com mission is to create meaningful and significant impacts on communities <> by helping to provide low income households with decent, safe affordable greyco.com housing. Story: Faced with the dire future of 20 aging affordable housing properties City: <> City: White House across Tennessee, the Hallmark Companies, Inc. sought a way to recapitalize and rehabilitate the communities in an efficient and timely manner. Greystone Congressional Rural Housing orchestrated a complex financial transaction to save 793 apartments, which <> District: are home to low income residents across 16 counties in the state. Congressional District: Greystone worked closely with the Tennessee Housing Development Agency TN-6 Use of Funds: <> as both USDA’s Use of Funds: Rural Housing Federal Rehabilitation, preservation Service (RHS) Programs: <> national office Federal Programs: <> and Tennessee USDA Sec. 538: $19.3 state office, <> million to coordinate <> USDA Sec. 515: $2.44 and secure the <> financing needed million <> to acquire and LIHTC: $16.43 milllion rehabilitate the Total Federa Dollars: housing. Total Federal Dollars: At 25 to 35 years old, these rural housing communities were nearing the end of $60.13 million Development: <> Other Financing: and exterior systems. Greystone was able to pool the financing into one large bond transaction, which is a prime example of using economies of scale to make Rental Assistance/ $28.47 million a huge impact for a cluster of homes here and there across the state (where <> The financing included sources such as tax-exempt bonds, Low Income Housing $88.6 million Tax Credits (LIHTC), USDA Rural Housing Service Section 515 loans, USDA <> created or preserved: The 793 units were scheduled for speedy rehabilitation over a 12-month period, which included dozens of workers descending on the various Total Project 793 communities in rapid succession to complete renovations. This was all Cost: <> accomplished without any long-term displacement of the residents. The overwhelming reactions from residents are a testament to the impact that USDA financing and a careful orchestration of tax-exempt bonds can make on the lives of thousands across rural areas of the country. CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 28

33 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: OHIO OHIO CAPITAL CORPORATION FOR HOUSING Mission: The Ohio Capital Corporation for Housing (OCCH) is a nonprofit financial intermediary based in Columbus, Ohio that works with Hal Keller private and public developers to create affordable housing opportunities. OCCH is an independent nonprofit organization with its own board of 614-224-8446 directors. Its mission is “to cause the construction, rehabilitation, and preservation of affordable housing.” OCCH’s core activity is raising private [email protected] capital from corporations for investment in affordable housing developments occh.org utilizing the Low Income Housing Tax Credit program (LIHTC). As a syndicator of these tax credit transactions, OCCH performs long-term asset management and related activities for its investors, developers, and property managers. OCCH has raised over $3.7 billion in private capital and invested in City: Lancaster over 40,000 units of affordable housing in over 750 developments. Rural Housing Pearl House provides safe and affordable rental housing, combined Story: with comprehensive supportive services to allow families to focus on Congressional District: successful recovery from the devastating impact of addiction. The project was OH-15 funded in part through equity Use of Funds: generated by the Rental assistance LIHTC program, as well as a loan Federal Programs: from the Federal PBV: $238,667/year Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati. LIHTC: $4.32 million Units are further subsidized by Total Federal Dollars: HUD project- Development: based vouchers (PBVs). $4.32 million On August 4, 2016, Senator Rob Portman visited Pearl House and toured the Rental Assistance/ adjacent treatment center. He then hosted a roundtable with resident families Services: who are in recovery and members of the Fairfield County Drug Taskforce. $238.667/year The visit was the fifth stop on his seven-city tour across Ohio to highlight his Comprehensive Addiction and Recover Act, which was signed into law by Other Financing: President Obama in July 2016 after being passed by overwhelming bipartisan majorities of the House and Senate. The law will help combat the devastating $1.29 million heroin and prescription drug epidemic rippling through rural America and Total Project Cost: provides funding for treatment, prevention, recovery, overdose reversal, law $5.61 million enforcement and criminal justice reform. Portman stated, “ Pearl House is a model for the state and the county on long- term recovery [...].” CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 29

34 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: MISSISSIPPI INSTITUTE FOR DISABILITY STUDIES Mission: The Institute for Disability Studies (IDS) at the University of Southern Mississippi has committed to enhancing the lives of Mississippians <> Heather Steele with disabilities for the past 40 years. IDS focuses on education and early intervention, housing, health and recreation, and employment. Quality of life <> 601-266-4097 is enhanced through leadership activities that promote policies of inclusion at home, school, work, and recreational settings. In the area of housing, the [email protected] <> Home of Your Own Program (HOYO) has assisted more than 677 families in <> usm.edu/disability-studies 65 Mississippi counties in becoming homeowners. This program focuses on creating a support system that identifies potential homebuyers, analyzes their housing needs and financial capacity and prepares them for homeownership. <> City: Kosciusko City: Story: Anita and her family moved to Hattiesburg after fleeing Congressional Rural Housing a domestic violence situation. <> District: She was referred to the Home Congressional District: of Your Own (HOYO) Program <> Use of Funds: individualized budget, credit, and Down payment and closing Federal homeownership counseling and attended a homebuyer education <> Programs: cost assistance, mortgate class. Ms. Steele told her about the <> loan Individual Development Account <> (IDA) program to help towards the Federal Programs: <> purchase of a home. HOME: $13,174 <> Anita reached her goal of saving $1,000, USDA Sec. 502: $59,726 <> but a few weeks later, her daughter died in a car accident out of state. Anita Total Federa Dollars: Total Federal Dollars: used the money for funeral expenses, putting her goal of homeownership on hold. $ 72,900 However, Anita was still able to earn her college degree. She moved away from <> Anita contacted Ms. Steele in February 2016 and asked about how she could purchase a home of her own. Anita was provided budget and credit Rental Assistance/ counseling and was guided through the home buying process. She completed <> requirements and process. Other Financing: <> for a home. Anita located a 3-bedroom home and was able to purchase it using two grants from the HOYO program, including $13,174 in HOME Total Project Investment Partnerships program (HOME) funds through Mississippi Home Cost: <> Corporation. She also received a $10,500 grant from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas. Prior to moving into her home, her rent was $359 per month and now she has a house payment of $310.65. 30 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

35 A Place to Call Home AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUCCESS STORY: ALASKA COOK INLET HOUSING AUTHORITY Mission: Cook Inlet Housing Authority (CIHA) is one of 14 regional housing authorities established in the 1970s to address poor housing Gabriel Layman conditions throughout Alaska. Its service area includes the state’s largest 907-793-3004 urban center, Anchorage, small towns, and remote Alaska Native villages accessible only by sea and air. CIHA is a Tribally Designated Housing Entity [email protected] that leverages Native and non-Native federal housing resources to serve all org eligible Alaskans. It has become one of Alaska’s largest housing developers and managers, with a rental portfolio of more than 1,400 homes. CIHA’s cookinlethousing.org developments have been recognized nationally by the National Association of Home Builders, the Charles L. Edson Tax Credit Excellence Awards, HUD, and the American Planning Association. City: Anchorage Because of complex market conditions, mixed-income housing Story: Congressional District: developments are uncommon in Anchorage. Because of the availability of AK-AL Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC), Indian Housing Block Grant program (IHBG) funding, and other private and state resources, CIHA was New Use of Funds: able to develop Loussac Place, a mixed-income community, despite the market barriers. construction Loussac Place Federal Programs: is home to an Indian Housing Block incredible diverse Grant: $4.17 million community. Its first residents LIHTC: $20.65 million include a recent Total Federal Dollars: widow with five young children, $24.82 million a retired senior couple on a fixed-income, a pharmaceutical marketing professional with a Other Financing: college degree, a single father employed as a traveling sales representative, and $12 million a recently homeless veteran. Total Project Cost: Loussac Place includes a community building, where residents have access to $36.82 million a library and a computer lab. A gathering room provides space for financial fitness classes, job and education fairs, and cultural celebrations. CampFire Affordable homes Alaska provides onsite afterschool programming for families living at Loussac created or preserved: Place, allowing them to work or to pursue education or job training. 120 After five years, Loussac Place is enabling families to stabilize and thrive. The Lupie family lives at Loussac Place and proudly reports that for the first time in their lives, their Alaska Native children do not feel subjected to racial discrimination in their own community. Through a partnership with CampFire Alaska, several Loussac Place families received scholarships to send their children to an overnight summer camp, where the kids experienced many “firsts”—including their first canoe ride, first hike, and first time away from home. A parent told us, “I can’t afford to take my kids to something like this. Thank you for bringing CampFire here.” One child who attended the camp shared, “I never knew how to follow the Big Dipper to the North Star. I’m going to look for it at night.” CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 31

36 A Place to Call Home TESTIMONIALS When I was 18 years old, I was kicked out of my house by my parents. It “ Taressa Ariss, Adrian, Michigan: was safer living on the streets of Ventura County, California than in my home with my mother. I moved back to Michigan and stayed with family after living on the streets for 8 months. At the age of 19, I got married and was doubled up with a friend. A year later, I began the process to divorce my husband. It took three years to afford the lawyer to complete the divorce. Soon, I was on the streets of Warren, Michigan homeless. I stayed with friends for a few weeks and slept in my car until I got pregnant with my first child. Over the years, I’ve found myself in a cycle of abusive relationships that often left me and my children homeless, sleeping at campgrounds, or crashing at the homes of family and friends for six years. Eventually, my children and I escaped my abusive relationship and ran away to Lenawee County. We stayed at a domestic violence shelter. It took me 14 years to finally become housed in a stable housing unit. We lived in an accessible apartment and paid $7.00 a month to live there for six years. I married my childhood sweetheart and I have been successfully housed for the last eight years. I now use my experince of being homeless and in an abusive relationship to help others in my community by speaking publicly and serving on the Homeless Continuum of Care Committee.” “I am a senior citizen in my late 60s. Because my only income is Social Regina Sabin, Bronx, New York: Security, I live below the poverty level. I live in a rental housing development that is affordable to low to middle income renters like me. In 2001, my then 86 year old, disabled mother developed dementia. Because no one else could help her, I moved in with mother into her small apartment. With my added income from work, we together paid the larger part of the rent with some assistance from HUD’s Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program. As time went on, her condition got worse. I had to work only part time as she could not be alone. My mother passed away in 2009. HUD’s HCV program allowed me to care for my mother in her own home, instead of moving her to an institution, which would have cost the government a great deal more. As a senior citizen, I am now able to live in dignity and safety, despite my very low income, because of HUD assistance. I have no spouse, children, or surviving family to help me. Without the HCV Program, I would be homeless and would rather take my own life rather than live in the streets. Without the HCV Program, I could not survive.” Margaret Upchurch, Barnegat, New Jersey: “In 2008, I was living in North Carolina when I lost the job that I held for 21 years. By 2010, I went through all of my savings just to survive. I lost her home, my car, and couldn’t find work anywhere. My sister invited her to stay with her in New Jersey. After living with my sister for almost a month, she told me that I couldn’t stay there anymore. I ended up experiencing homelessness three times between 2010 and 2016. The second time I became homeless was when Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast in 2012. After being displaced by Hurricane Sandy, I was able to find a home that I rent with her two sons in Barnegat, New Jersey. I receive $2,100 per month from Social Security Disability Insurance, but I paid $1,500 in rent. The hardest thing about paying such high rent is not being able to buy food or pay my utilities. Fortunately, since September 2016, I started to receive housing assistance through HUD’s Community Development Block Grant- Disaster Recovery program that has helped families recover from being displaced from their homes by Hurricane Sandy. My assistance is set to expire in August 2017.” 32 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

37 A Place to Call Home Chrissy Simonds, Manchester, New Hampshire: “I applied to live in Family in Transitions (FIT), a program that houses homeless single women and children. They didn’t just give my son and me a home, they also gave me a second chance at having a good life. I went into the program as a battered woman with such low-self esteem that I believed I deserved to be beaten because I had irrated my abuser. That if he didn’t abuse me, it meant he didn’t love me. I had not gone past the eighth grade and I just didn’t feel good about myself. I felt unwanted and unloved. My family had turned their backs on me and I didn’t have anyone I could trust. I walked out eighteen month’s later and had received my GED due to a volunteer from a community college that volunteered at FIT, where they tutored me in math. I walked away with self-confidence that I never had felt before. It was all due to FIT giving me the tools I needed to become the mother I was meant to be. I had taken classes on how to budget my money,balance a check book, self esteem, parenting, and so many other classes that helped me to never become homeless again. I won’t make the same mistakes I made because I’m not the same person I was before I went into FIT. I am now on a board called Housing Benefits, and I went through a program called Granite Leaders that’s run by the New Hampshire Coalition to End Homelessneess. It was about learning how to advocate. I appreciate everything FIT did for us. I couldn’t have done it without them.” Lisa Davis, Granby, Colorado: “ I am a tenant at Grand Living Apartments in Granby, Colorado. I rely solely on Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and receive less than $15,000 annually. I am 51 years old. In 2009, I became very ill and was no longer able to work. I had used up my savings and was facing homelessness. Ironic, since I had been the director of a local homeless coalition. Fortunately, in 2011, I was approved for SSDI and was able to move into Grand Living Apartments. Senior Housing Options manages Grand Living Apartments and is a nonprofit serving low income elderly households and adults with disabilities throughout Colorado. Because of USDA’s Section 515 Rural Rental Housing Loan program and Section 521 Rural Rental Assistance program, the rent is affordable and the apartments serve very low income households earning less than 50% of the area median income. The current wait list is over a year with a 1% annual vacancy rate, demonstrating the high need for affordable housing for low income elderly and disabled adults in Grand County. Grand County is very rural, but has a high cost of living associated with a local economy reliant on recreation and tourism. Without USDA Rural Housing programs, people in need of affordable housing in Grand County often have no choice but to live in substandard housing, become homeless, or move to urban areas, losing access to informal support networks, such as extended family and faith-based organizations. Because of Grand Living Apartments, I am able to live in the community where I grew up and I am able to be close to my elderly parents.” Michelle Price, Seaside Heights, New Jersey: “My name is Michelle. I am a 35 year old woman from Ocean County, New Jersey. Growing up, I never ever thought that I would be in need of any type of resources or help. But a few years ago, I took some wrong roads that did not lead me in the right direction, at no one’s fault but my own. I didn’t have the adequate coping skills needed to deal with the ups and downs of life and I abused drugs. I ended up finding myself in a very dark place. I had no family, no real friends, and no one I could turn to for help or support. I had lost my job, I had no where to live, and I was pregnant. I needed to fix myself and quick. Getting clean was actually easier then finding a decent place to live. Luckily, someone told me about Special Response and they helped me so much. I found a place in Seaside Heights, a small one-bedroom apartment. For two years, Special Response helped pay my rent. Within that time, I was able to find a part-time job, which turned into a full-time job. I was able to become self-sufficient, saving money and paying bills. My son now has a home to go to, somewhere stable and safe! I’ve made friends. Life has been good, and I am so unbelievably thankful and appreciative for the help I received!” 33 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

38 A Place to Call Home APPENDIX HCVs are thus a cost-effective investment that reduces HUD PROGRAMS homelessness and improves family well-being, including children’s chances of long-term success. HOUSING CHOICE Unfortunately, the demand for vouchers far outstrips VOUCHERS their supply. A recent study, conducted by the National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC), looking at Housing Choice Vouchers (HCV) provide a stepping waiting lists for public housing and vouchers found that stone for struggling families to keep a roof over their more than half (53%) of HCV waiting lists are closed to heads, help make ends meet, and provide a better future new applicants. Of these, 65% of HCV waiting lists have for their children. Two studies released in 2015 show been closed for at least one year. On average, a family will how HCVs can help children grow up in stable homes, wait 1.5 years to receive a voucher. Twenty-five percent of stay in school, and improve their future prospects. voucher wait lists for HCVs had a wait time of at least 3 A ground-breaking analysis by Harvard economists Raj 3 years. Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, and Lawrence Katz found that young children whose PROJECT- families used a housing voucher to move to better BASED neighborhoods were later RENTAL more likely to attend college and less likely to ASSISTANCE become single parents, and earned more as adults than (PBRA) children in similar families The Section 8 project- who did not make such based rental assistance 1 moves. (PBRA) program provides rental assistance that is The final report of the leveraged by the private Family Options Study, sector to develop and which HUD just released, operate rental homes for 1.2 million low income and is the first rigorous, large-scale evaluation of alternative very low income households living across the country. strategies to reduce homelessness among families with Fifty-six percent of these households include someone children. Families living in shelters in 12 cities were with a disability or who is elderly. The average income of randomly assigned one of several types of assistance, 2 households receiving PBRA is less than $12,000. PBRA Families who were given including housing vouchers. housing stabilizes neighborhoods and contributes to a housing voucher were much less likely to experience local economic bases. PBRA allows seniors to live in subsequent episodes of homelessness, compared to the communities they helped to build, provides modest families who received other types of assistance, the homes for residents who cannot work because of injury study found. Families using vouchers also experienced or disability and offers a foundation to build on for young significantly less domestic violence, and their children families who are just starting out or who are struggling were less likely have behavior problems or to change with our slow economy. Privately-owned properties with schools. PBRA generate $460 million in property taxes for local municipalities annually and directly support 55,000 jobs. Chetty, R., Hendren, N., & Katz, L. (2015). The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity 1 . Experiment. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/final/MTO_IRS_2015.pdf 2 Gubits, D., Shinn, M. et al. (2016). Family Options Study: 3-Year Impacts of Housing and Services Interventions for Homeless Families. Washington, DC: U.S. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/Family-Options-Study-Full-Report.pdf . Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved from http://nlihc.org/article/ . Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from Housing Spotlight: The Long Wait for a Home National Low Income Housing Coalition. (2016). 3 . housing-spotlight-volume-6-issue-1 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 34

39 A Place to Call Home of public housing properties to leverage outside sources PBRA contracts also act as a critical support for project financing, allowing owners to leverage private debt and of private and public funds needed for repairs, including proven, efficient financing tools like LIHTC. Already equity—often through the Housing Credit—to permit RAD has spurred over $3.2 billion in construction project refinancing and rehabilitation. PBRA supports the financing from the more than 44,000 units that have stock of long-term affordable housing and helps protect closed. RAD also allows properties financed under federal investments which would be prohibitively costly outdated “legacy programs” like Section 8 Moderate to reproduce. According to HUD, the PBRA portfolio leverages over $17 billion in private financing and equity. Rehabilitation and the Rent Supplement program to convert to project-based Section 8 assistance, further streamlining HUD’s operations. PUBLIC HOUSING NLIHC’s wait list study reported that 11% of public Public housing is home to over 1.1 million low income housing waiting lists are closed to new applicants and families and an essential asset for local communities. 4 that of these, 37% have been closed for at least one year. Over half of public housing households are headed The average wait time is 9 months for public housing. by seniors and persons with disabilities. Families with Twenty-five percent of public housing waiting lists had a approximately 750,000 children comprise more than wait time of at 1.5 years. 35% of public housing households. Like other forms of rental assistance, public housing residents benefit by affordable, stable housing that frees household resources COMMUNITY to focus on employment, education and self-sufficiency. DEVELOPMENT BLOCK Consequently, public housing authorities, which operate public housing and the Section 8 HCV program, are GRANT PROGRAM engaged in developing transformational partnerships The Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) with other important and interested stakeholders Program invests in rural, urban, and suburban areas by to benefit children, seniors, people with disabilities, providing flexible funding for a wide range of community veterans, people experiencing homelessness, and development uses. CDBG is often one of few sources for familial caregivers including parents, adult children and infrastructure that supports the development of housing. grandparents. Authorized by Title I of the Housing and Community Public housing plays a central role in the country’s Development Act of 1974, nearly 1,200 State and local approach to addressing affordable housing needs. Public grantees receive a direct allocation of funds through the housing authorities take innovative approaches to program annually. More than 7,250 communities have improve their residents’ lives across the country, such access to the funding. Since 1974, CDBG has invested as workforce development and asset building programs. over $144 billion in communities. This investment has Public housing authorities also develop innovative leveraged three to four times this amount, resulting in funding mechanisms to improve resident wellness and a $432 billion to $576 billion in non-federal investment health outcomes through continuum of care models, with in communities over the 41-year life of the program, the added benefit of achieving savings in Medicaid and resulting in a large rate of return on federal investment. Medicare expenses, and reducing hospital and emergency CDBG funding is used locally to aid in the prevention room visits. and elimination of blight, address urgent community The Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD) is an needs, and benefit low and moderate income example of a recent HUD innovation to bring our public people through the provision of public facilities and st housing stock into the 21 century. Deep underfunding improvements, public services, housing, and economic has left some public housing properties across the development. country in need of recapitalization, with a capital needs According to HUD, between Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 and backlog of over $26 billion. RAD can put some public FY 2013, CDBG economic development activities created housing on more stable financial footing by converting or retained more than 421,183 permanent jobs, while its funding stream to project-based Section 8, which is the program also provided rehabilitation assistance to more stable, predictable and flexible, allowing a portion more than 1.3 million owner-occupied housing units. Ibid. 4 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 35

40 A Place to Call Home From FY 2007 to 2013, CDBG assisted more than 232,000 providing stable, affordable housing with wrap around businesses with business expansion and from FY 2005 to services. With greater investment in HUD’s programs to serve individuals and families that are in crisis, we cannot 2013, the program provided or improved public facilities only end homelessness for all populations by 2020, but that assisted in providing critical services for more than 33.7 million people. These improvements included may help other systems operate more effectively and efficiently. sanitary water and sewer systems, improved drainage systems, safe streets and transit ways. HOME INVESTMENT HOMELESS ASSISTANCE PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM PROGRAMS For over 20 years, the HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) has proven to be one of the most HUD’s McKinney-Vento Homelessness Assistance effective, locally driven tools to help states and programs, which include the Continuum of Care program (CoC) Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), communities provide access to safe, decent, and affordable housing for low income residents. HUD provide funding for some of the most cost-effective reports that since its authorization in 1990, $27.2 billion housing solutions communities use to serve the highest need populations. The in HOME funds have leveraged $132 billion in program supports over 340,000 housing public and private resources to help build and preserve opportunities for homeless more than 1.2 million individuals and families. It gives communities affordable homes and the ability to provide to provide direct rental emergency shelters and assistance to more than safe havens for homeless 285,000 families. HOME households, creates advocates estimate that this investment has supported permanent supportive nearly 1.6 million jobs and housing for homeless has generated $101 billion individuals who are experiencing multiple in local income. challenges and provides With HOME, Congress created a program that provides families the ability to quickly move into stable housing states and communities with unmatched flexibility and while they connect with other services and systems. local control to meet the housing needs that they identify Further, Congress has invested heavily in the HUD- as most pressing. HOME is the only federal housing Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (VASH) program program exclusively focused on addressing such a wide range of housing activities. States and local communities to serve homeless veterans and has seen positive results. use HOME to fund new production where affordable Since 2009, the number of homeless veterans has housing is scarce, rehabilitation where housing quality is been reduced by 33 percent. Communities have made a challenge, rental assistance when units are available but significant improvements to delivering housing and unaffordable, and provide homeownership opportunities other critical services in order to better serve homeless populations and the nation has seen an overall decrease when those are most needed. this flexibility means that states and communities can quickly react to changes in in the homeless population. But more still needs to be their local housing markets. done. Moreover, HOME plays a key role in ensuring the success As HUD spends just over $2 billion on programs to of other federal programs, such as the LIHTC program support homeless populations through its various and U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Housing programs, it saves other systems a far greater amount of money. Independent studies have proven that an programs, because it often provides essential soft funding individual cycling between different emergency response to fill financing gaps and make affordable housing systems, like criminal justice and emergency health developments financially feasible. services, costs approximately twice as much as simply 36 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

41 A Place to Call Home poor than seniors today, many of whom live in poverty. HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY We must return to building affordable senior housing through the Section 202 program and also preserve and (HUD SECTION 202 expand other programs that meet the affordable housing PROGRAM) needs of our lowest income seniors. Enacted to allow seniors to live with dignity by providing housing assistance and a platform for services, the HOUSING FOR PERSONS Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly program provides funding to nonprofit organizations to develop WITH DISABILITIES (HUD and operate housing for seniors with very low incomes. SECTION 811 PROGRAM) Research has shown service-enriched affordable The Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons with housing slows the growth of Medicaid costs while also Disabilities is an essential federal program that assists the allowing people to age in place. The Section 202 Service lowest income people with the most significant and long- Coordinator Grant Program funds trained staff in Section term disabilities to live independently in the community 202 senior housing to assist residents with their needs by providing affordable housing linked with voluntary and provide linkages to community-based services. services and supports. Through a substantial body of According to HUD, senior households with very low research conducted over the past 20 years, supportive incomes are the most housing has proven to likely to pay more than be a cost-effective and they can afford for their successful approach to housing. The 2015 HUD addressing the affordable study of worst-case housing and supportive housing needs found that services needs of people out of 7.72 million renter with significant and long households with worst-case term disabilities who need housing, 1.47 million are community-based supports senior renter households. and services to live in the According to Harvard’s community. More than Joint Center for Housing 30,000 units of permanent Studies, only one in three supportive housing have seniors eligible for rental been developed under assistance receives it. Of the Section 811 Capital those who are not assisted, Advance Program, while an two-thirds have worst-case housing needs. additional 7,500 units of permanent supportive housing The Section 202 program has been one of the most are being developed through the Section 811 Project- successful federal programs for building quality, safe, Based Rental Assistance (PRA) program. and affordable senior housing for decades. The program Congress passed major reforms to the Section 811 has long been recognized for creating affordable housing program in 2010. The reforms are intended to promote serving the nation’s most vulnerable seniors that is well a national expansion of integrated supportive housing by managed by mission-driven nonprofits. Seniors residing fostering partnerships among state housing and health in Section 202 housing can enjoy an enhanced quality of and human service agencies to leverage mainstream life as they safely age in their communities. More than affordable housing, Medicaid, and related community- 6,000 properties with more than 300,000 rental units have based support services resources, and to ensure people provided housing and, in many cases, supportive services with disabilities most in need can access these new to seniors in both large and small communities. housing opportunities. Unfortunately, in FY 2012 Congress eliminated the The most significant innovation is the new Section 811 Section 202 Capital Advance Program to fund the PRA option which - for the first time - provides cost- development of new units. The population of seniors effective PRA subsidies directly to state housing agencies over age 75 will almost double in 2035 compared to 2015. leveraging dollars from other sources of funding for As the U.S. population ages, it will also be much more CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 37

42 A Place to Call Home and 70 percent receiving transitional housing remaining development of new permanent supportive housing units. This new PRA option is intended to identify, stimulate, stably housed or at reduced risk of homelessness. During and support innovative state-level partnerships and the 2014-2015 program year, 11,577 individuals were newly placed in housing, including 2,106 who were strategies to substantially increase integrated permanent formerly homeless, 95% having contact with healthcare supportive housing opportunities. In the final two providers, and 94% accessing and maintaining health years in which Congress funded new units for the old insurance. 811 capital advance program (FY 2010 and 2011), only 975 units were developed. By contrast, the new PRA Without additional resources in the current fiscal program will develop more than 7,500 units of integrated year, implementation of the long awaited HOPWA permanent supportive housing with only three years formula update—importantly switching from counting of funding (FY 2012-2014). These PRA units will help cumulative AIDS to living HIV/AIDS— may result in the generate millions in savings as an alternative to costly loss of housing assistance to more than 3,000 households. institutional care for people with disabilities. Though need is vastly greater than the 49,125 households served by the program in the current year, HOPWA is key HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES to preventing and ending homelessness among people with HIV/AIDS by enabling them to access and adhere to FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS care resulting in better individual and community health The Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS outcomes program (HOPWA), was authorized in 1990 through the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act LEAD HAZARD CONTROL during the early years of the epidemic as a response to the unique and numerous obstacles faced by individuals AND HEALTHY HOMES living with HIV/AIDS to acquire stable housing, due to HUD’s Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy poverty, housing instability or stigma. Stable housing has Homes (OLHCHH) has enabled communities with long been identified as one of the greatest unmet needs large numbers of pre-1978 housing and pre-1940 rental for people living with HIV/AIDS and their families and housing, respectively, in which there are high rates of housing is a proven cost-effective healthcare intervention. childhood lead poisoning cases, to identify and control HOPWA prevents homelessness by providing short-term lead-based paint hazards in eligible housing. and permanent housing, creating access to life-saving Recent research confirms that housing policy has a medical care and support services, and promoting profound impact on public health, and for any public adherence to treatments among patients. As such, health agenda to be effective, it must include a housing HOPWA is a powerful tool for prevention of the spread component. The statistics and key findings regarding the of the virus. long-term effects of housing-related health hazards are HOPWA affords communities the flexibility – now alarming. Over half a million children under five years through 139 eligible formula jurisdictions – to craft old in the U.S. have elevated blood lead levels. Childhood HIV/AIDS housing responses to meet their unique exposure to lead can have lifelong consequences needs, whether through the construction of community including decreased cognitive function, developmental residences with supportive services, short-term rental, delays, behavior problems, and, at very high levels can mortgage and utility assistance to people with HIV/AIDS cause seizures, coma, and even death. Asthma is a leading who are homeless or at risk of homelessness or project- common chronic disease among children in the U.S and based or tenant-based rental assistance for permanent 5 24 million people leads to high levels of school absences; supportive housing. Part of HOPWA’s effectiveness is in the U.S. have asthma, including 8.6% of children under its ability to operate as a gap-filler with other HUD 18 years old. In 2007-2008, the economic costs to society low income programs to meet community HIV/AIDS of lead poisoning and asthma were estimated at $50 housing need. billion and $56 billion respectively. HOPWA continues to be an uncontrovertibly efficient The number of children under five with blood poisoning and cost-effective program, with 96% of clients receiving would have included an additional 265,000 children long-term assistance in 2015 achieving housing stability . https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr032.pdf 5 38 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

43 A Place to Call Home if not for HUD programs’ actions to control hazards HUD, 71% of the cases in which a FHIP organization is a complainant result in conciliation or a cause finding, in over 370,000 housing units. These funds are vitally important for helping cities and states end childhood lead making it a highly successful federal investment in addressing housing discrimination. In FY 2014, HUD poisoning. Healthy homes interventions prevent injury, neurological and respiratory diseases, and cancer and awarded FHIP grants to more than 100 private fair housing and other qualified nonprofit organizations in 40 even death from toxins such as carbon monoxide and radon. Each dollar invested in lead hazard control returns states and the District of Columbia. at least $17 and positions children and their families for State and local government agencies certified by HUD greater opportunities in the future. to enforce fair housing American Healthy Housing laws that are substantially equivalent to the Fair Survey data from 2005- 2006 estimated that 37 Housing Act receive FHAP million housing units have funds. HUD funds FHAP agencies by reimbursing lead paint, and 23 million units are estimated to have them based on the number of cases they successfully significant lead-based process. In addition, paint hazards (in the form of deteriorated lead paint, FHAP funds help cover contaminated house dust administrative expenses and/or contaminated bare and training. Between 2013 and 2014, FHAP soil). 3.6 million of these agencies investigated 13,254 households are estimated to currently house children complaints of housing discrimination. under six, of which 1.1 million are low income. HUD’s lead hazard control grant program should carry out The Department’s long-awaited fair housing initiative, the risk assessment, inspection and abatement for the 1.25 Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing (AFFH) rule, has million high-risk units in which young children reside or the potential to expand residential integration and reduce are likely to be born or move into. disparities in access to opportunity across neighborhoods and communities separated by race, class and disability. The AFFH rule is intended to reduce barriers and FAIR HOUSING PROGRAMS support integration to increase opportunity. The AFFH There are two federal programs dedicated solely to assist rule will also help guide HUD program participants, in the enforcement of the Fair Housing Act—an essential including states, local governments, and PHAs to meet role in ensuring that all households can access a range the obligation established by the Fair Housing Act to of housing options and opportunities. The Fair Housing affirmatively further fair housing. Initiatives Program (FHIP) funds private fair housing organizations, and the Fair Housing Assistance Program (FHAP) funds the fair housing enforcement programs of HOUSING TRUST FUND state and local government agencies. The national Housing Trust Fund (HTF) is the first new federal housing resource in a generation, and it is FHIP funds private fair housing organizations to provide education and outreach to their local populations and exclusively targeted to help build, preserve, rehabilitate, and operate housing affordable to people with the lowest housing providers, and to enforce the Fair Housing Act incomes. In 2016, the first $174 million in HTF dollars by investigating allegations of rental, sales, homeowner were allocated to states. By law, 90% of HTF dollars must insurance, and lending discrimination. FHIP is a be used for the production, preservation, rehabilitation, competitive grant program administered by HUD’s Office or operation of affordable rental housing. Up to 10% may of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. In 2012 and 2013, FHIP-funded organizations investigated 38,600 be used to support homeownership activities for first- complaints of housing discrimination across the country time homebuyers, such as producing, rehabilitating, or for families and communities, more than twice that of preserving owner-occupied housing, as well as providing all state and federal agencies combined. According to CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 39

44 A Place to Call Home down payment assistance, closing costs, and interest rate in tribal communities by encouraging greater self- buy-downs. management of housing programs and by encouraging private sector financing to complement limited IHBG the most highly targeted federal rental The HTF is dollars. housing capital and homeownership program. By law, at least 75% of HTF dollars used to support rental housing Activities eligible to be funded with NAHASDA assistance must serve extremely low income (ELI) households include new construction, rehabilitation, acquisition, earning no more than 30% of the area median income infrastructure, and various support services. Housing (AMI) or the federal poverty limit. All HTF dollars must assisted with these funds may be either rental or benefit households with homeowner units. NAHASDA funds can also be used for very low incomes earning certain types of community no more than 50% of AMI. In comparison, most other facilities. Generally, only families with incomes that do federal housing programs can serve families up to 80% not exceed 80% of the area of AMI. median income are eligible for assistance. Because the HTF is administered by HUD as a In 2000, NAHASDA was block grant, each state has amended to include the the flexibility to decide how Native Hawaiian Housing Block Grant program to best use HTF resources (NHHBG), which provides to address its most pressing eligible affordable housing housing needs. States decide assistance to low income which developments to native Hawaiians eligible to reside on Hawaiian home lands. support. USDA PROGRAMS NATIVE AMERICAN, The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Rural AND NATIVE HAWAIIAN Development (RD) arm runs several rental housing and homeownership programs through its Rural Housing HOUSING PROGRAMS Service. Together, these programs serve more than Enacted in 1996, Native American Housing Assistance 800,000 households and have provided homeownership and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (NAHASDA) opportunities to more than 2 million low-income rural provides assistance to Indian tribes and Alaska Natives to families who would not have been able to become allow affordable housing-related activities for low income homeowners otherwise. families residing on reservations and other tribal areas. NAHASDA resulted in the largest change in the history of federal housing programs available to tribal housing RURAL RENTAL HOUSING entities, and it recognized tribal sovereignty and self- LOANS (SECTION 515) determination. NAHASDA created the Indian Housing Under the Section 515 program, USDA makes direct Block Grant program (IHBG) that awards grants to eligible Indian tribes or their tribally designated housing loans to developers to finance affordable multifamily entities, and Native Alaskans for a range of affordable rental housing for very low income and low income families, seniors, and people with disabilities. Section housing activities that primarily benefit low income 515 loans have an interest rate as low as 1%, amortized Indian families living on Indian reservations or in other over 50 years, to finance modest rental or cooperatively- Indian areas. The amounts of annual IHBGs are based on a formula that considers need and the amount of existing owned housing. Section 515 loans can be used for new construction as well for the rehabilitation of existing housing stock. properties. Funds may also be used to buy and improve NAHASDA enhances tribal capacity to address the land, and to provide necessary facilities such as water substandard housing and infrastructure conditions and waste disposal systems. However, no new rental 40 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING

45 A Place to Call Home Rural Rental or Section 514/516 Farm Labor Housing properties have been developed under Section 515 since 2012; the program’s entire appropriation for the last few programs. The Section 521 program provides rental years has been used to preserve existing units. assistance to cover the difference between 30% of a tenant’s income and the monthly rental rate of their The vast majority (93%) of Section 515 tenants have apartment. incomes less than 50% of area median income. More than half of the assisted households are headed by elderly people or people with disabilities. SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING DIRECT HOME LOANS FARM LABOR (SECTION 502) HOUSING LOANS The Section 502 program is credited with building more than $40 billion in wealth for our nation’s poorest AND GRANTS(SECTION families, while also being one of the most cost-effective 514/516) federal housing programs. The program provides low and very low income applicants with payment assistance The Section 514 Farm Worker Housing Loan program so that they can purchase safe, decent, and sanitary makes direct loans to develop housing for year-round and migrant or seasonal domestic farm laborers; they have an housing in eligible rural areas. The payment assistance interest rate as low as 1% for 33 year terms. Some Section helps reduce the applicant’s mortgage payment for a short period of time. 514 borrowers, such as nonprofits, are also eligible for Section 516 grants. Section 514/516 funds can be used for new construction MUTUAL AND SELF-HELP as well as for the rehabilitation of existing properties. HOUSING (SECTION 523) Funds may also be used to buy and improve land, and USDA’s Self-Help Housing program is celebrated to provide necessary facilities such as water and waste as the only federal housing program that combines disposal systems. “sweat equity” with safe, affordable mortgages, and technical assistance. Under the program, small groups RURAL RENTAL ASSISTANCE of six to twelve rural families join together on nights and weekends to build each other’s homes, reducing (SECTION 521) construction costs, earning equity in their homes, and The Section 521 Rural Rental Assistance program is making lasting investments in their communities. available in some properties financed by the Section 515 CAMPAIGN FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 41

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