OSHA 3348 METAL SCRAP RECYCLING

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1 IndoorAir Quality in Commercial and Institutional Buildings OSHA 3430-04 2011

2 OccupationalSafetyandHealthActof1970 “To assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women; by authorizing enforcement of the standards developed under the Act; by assisting and encouraging the States in their efforts to assure safe and healthful working conditions; by providing for research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health.” This publication provides a general overview of a particular standards-related topic. This publication does not alter or determine compliance responsibilities which are set forth in OSHA standards, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 . More- over, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts. Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission. Source credit is requested but not required. This information will be made available to sensory- impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 693-1999; teletypewriter (TTY) number: 1-877- 889-5627.

3 Indoor Air Quality in Commercial and Institutional Buildings Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor OSHA 3430-04 2011 The guidance is advisory in nature and informational in content. It is not a standard or regulation, and it neither creates new legal obligations nor alters existing obligations created by OSHA standards or the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Pursuant to the OSH Act, employers must comply with safety and health standards and regulations issued and enforced by either OSHA or by an OSHA- approved State Plan. In addition, the Act’s General Duty Clause, Section 5(a)(1), requires employers to provide their workers with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm.

4 Contents 3 Introduction Appendix A: Common Indoor Air 14 Contaminants Background 3 Benefits of Mitigation of IAQ Problems 4 Appendix B: Steps to Improve 4 Health Effects 17 Indoor Air Quality 5 Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants Appendix C: HVAC System 6 Common Pollutant Categories 18 Maintenance Checklist 6 Prevention or Control IAQ Problems Appendix D: Investigating IAQ 6 IAQ Management Approach 19 Problems and Complaints 7 Identification and Assessment 7 Control Methods Appendix E: Selected Resources 20 8 Seeking Professional Assistance Hazard Recognition 20 Evaluation and Control 21 Applicable Standards and 9 Regulations Appendix F: OSHA-Sponsored 9 OSHA Standards EnvironmentalTobacco Smoke 9 Standard Interpretations 23 Workshops 10 State Programs Workshops I - III 23 National Consensus Standards 10 References 24 11 OSHA Assistance 2 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

5 Background Introduction Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a major concern to IAQ has been identified by the EPA as one of the businesses, schools, building managers, tenants, top five most urgent environmental risks to public and workers because it can impact the health, health (2). The Centers for Disease Control and comfort, well-being, and productivity of the building Prevention (CDC) estimates that the majority of occupants. OSHA recognizes that poor IAQ can be Americans spend approximately 90 percent of their hazardous to workers’ health and that it is in the time indoors (3). On average, office workers spend best interest of everyone that building owners, approximately 40 hours a week in office buildings. managers, and employers take a proactive approach These workers also study, eat, drink, and, in certain to address IAQ concerns. work settings, sleep in enclosed environments where make-up air (i.e., fresh air added to re- This OSHA guidance document on IAQ provides circulated air) may be compromised. For this practical recommendations that will help prevent reason, some experts believe that more people may or minimize IAQ problems in commercial and suffer from the effects of indoor air pollution than institutional buildings, and help resolve such from outdoor air pollution. problems quickly if they do arise. It provides flexible guidance to employers to help them keep their Each building has its own set of circumstances. buildings free of pollutants or conditions that lead Air quality may be determined by the site of the to poor IAQ. It also provides information on good building, its original design, renovations, whether IAQ management, including control of airborne air handling systems have been maintained, pollutants, introduction and distribution of adequate occupant densities, activities conducted within the make-up air, and maintenance of an acceptable building, and the occupants’ satisfaction with their temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and environment. IAQ problems can arise from a single humidity are important because thermal comfort source or any combination of factors. Inadequate underlies many complaints about “poor air quality.” IAQ may begin with poor building design or failure Some of the information presented here has been of the building enclosure or envelope (roof, facade, derived from the Environmental Protection Agency’s foundation, etc.). Other issues may be associated (EPA) report, “ An Office Building Occupant’s Guide with the location of the building and mixed uses of 1 to IAQ ” (1) and other documents listed in Appendix the building. Many common IAQ problems are E, Selected Resources. The issue of environmental associated with improperly operated and maintained tobacco smoke will only be addressed in Appendix heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) F, or indirectly in discussions of air quality relative to systems, overcrowding, radon, moisture incursion some possible components of tobacco smoke, e.g., and dampness, presence of outside air pollutants, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, particulates, etc. and the presence of internally generated contami- In 1998, OSHA conducted a series of three workshops nants such as use of cleaning and disinfecting on this issue and the proceedings of these workshops supplies and aerosol products, off-gassing from were published in 1999. See Appendix F for more materials in the building, and use of mechanical information. equipment. Improper temperature and relative humidity conditions can also present problems, This document is directed primarily at employers, especially concerning comfort. building owners and managers, and others responsible for building maintenance, but may also Many IAQ complaints are associated with flaws be used as a basic reference for all those involved in building design and by inadequate routine in IAQ issues. Furthermore, information presented preventive maintenance of building enclosures here can help with the decision of whether or not (envelopes), plumbing, and HVAC systems (2, 4, 5). the services of an outside professional may be To resolve many IAQ problems, a preventive main- needed. The advice of a medical professional should tenance program should be established based on always be sought if there are any immediate health the system’s recommended maintenance schedule issues. Contractors and other professionals (e.g., outlined by the architect or engineer, the manufac- industrial hygienists or other environmental health turer, or an HVAC professional. Regular preventive and safety professionals) who respond to IAQ maintenance not only ensures that systems are concerns, as well as members of the general public, operating properly, but also can result in cost may also find this information helpful. savings, improved operating efficiency, and 1 The numbers in parentheses refer to specific entries in the last section of this document titled “References.” I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 3

6 Research has linked building dampness with increased worker productivity (6). The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), among others, has significant health effects. Numerous species of demonstrated that IAQ issues can be readily and bacteria and fungi, in particular filamentous fungi practically addressed when building systems are (mold), can contribute significantly to indoor air retrofitted for energy efficiency. pollution (4, 15-20). Whenever sufficient moisture is (http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=221#v2008) present within workplaces, these microbes can grow and affect the health of workers in several ways. Benefits of Mitigation of IAQ Problems Workers may develop respiratory symptoms, Good IAQ in buildings is an important component allergies, or asthma (8). Asthma, cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, sinus congestion, sneezing, of a healthy indoor environment. It contributes to a favorable and productive environment for building nasal congestion, and sinusitis have all been occupants, giving them a sense of comfort, health, associated with indoor dampness in numerous studies (21-23). Asthma is both caused by and and well-being. Significant increases in worker productivity have also been demonstrated when the worsened by dampness in buildings. The most air quality was adequate (6). Research has also effective means to prevent or minimize adverse health effects is to determine the sources of shown that workers in buildings with adequate air persistent dampness in the workplace and eliminate quality have reduced rates of symptoms related to them. More details on preventing mold-related poor air quality (7). problems can be found in the OSHA publication Health Effects titled: “Preventing Mold-Related Problems in the Indoor Workplace” (17). Other environmental factors Symptoms related to poor IAQ are varied depending such as poor lighting, stress, noise, and thermal on the type of contaminant. They can easily be discomfort may cause or contribute to these health mistaken for symptoms of other illnesses such as allergies, stress, colds, and influenza. The usual clue effects (8). is that people feel ill while inside the building, and the symptoms go away shortly after leaving the building, or when away from the building for a period of time (such as on weekends or a vacation). Health or symptom surveys, such as the one included in Appendix D, have been used to help ascertain the existence of IAQ problems. Failure of building owners and operators to respond quickly and effectively to IAQ problems can lead to numerous adverse health consequences. Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experi- enced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later (8, 9, 10). Symptoms may include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; headaches; dizziness; rashes; and muscle pain and fatigue (11, 12, 13, 14). Diseases linked to poor IAQ include asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (11, 13). The specific pollutant, the concentration of exposure, and the frequency and duration of exposure are all important factors in the type and severity of health effects resulting from poor IAQ. Age and preexisting medical conditions such as asthma and allergies may also influence the severity of the effects. Long- term effects due to indoor air pollutants may include respiratory diseases, heart disease, and cancer, all of which can be severely debilitating or fatal (8, 11, 13). 4 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

7 Renovation Activities: When painting and other Sources of Indoor renovations are being conducted, dust or other Air Pollutants by-products of the construction materials are sources of pollutants that may circulate through a The relative importance of any single source building. Isolation by barriers and increased depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits, ventilation to dilute and remove the contaminants how hazardous those emissions are, occupant are recommended. proximity to the emission source, and the ability of the ventilation system (i.e., general or local) to Local Exhaust Ventilation: Kitchens, laboratories, remove the contaminant. In some cases, factors maintenance shops, parking garages, beauty and such as the age and maintenance history of the nail salons, toilet rooms, trash rooms, soiled laundry source are significant. rooms, locker rooms, copy rooms and other specialized areas may be a source of pollutants Sources of indoor air pollution may include: when they lack adequate local exhaust ventilation. The location of a building Building Site or Location: Building Materials: Disturbing thermal insulation or can have implications for indoor pollutants. sprayed-on acoustical material, or the presence of Highways or busy thoroughfares may be sources wet or damp structural surfaces (e.g., walls, ceilings) of particulates and other pollutants in nearby or non-structural surfaces (e.g., carpets, shades), buildings. Buildings sited on land where there was may contribute to indoor air pollution. prior industrial use or where there is a high water table may result in leaching of water or chemical Building Furnishings: Cabinetry or furniture made pollutants into the building. of certain pressed-wood products may release pollutants into the indoor air. Design and construction flaws Building Design: may contribute to indoor air pollution. Poor Building Maintenance: Workers in areas in which foundations, roofs, facades, and window and door pesticides, cleaning products, or personal-care openings may allow pollutant or water intrusion. products are being applied may be exposed to Outside air intakes placed near sources where pollutants. Allowing cleaned carpets to dry without pollutants are drawn back into the building (e.g., active ventilation may promote microbial growth. idling vehicles, products of combustion, waste con- tainers, etc.) or where building exhaust reenters into Building occupants may be Occupant Activities: the building can be a constant source of pollutants. the source of indoor air pollutants; such pollutants Buildings with multiple tenants may need an include perfumes or colognes. evaluation to ensure emissions from one tenant do not adversely affect another tenant. Building Systems Design and Maintenance: When the HVAC system is not functioning properly for any reason, the building is often placed under negative pressure. In such cases, there may be infiltration of outdoor pollutants such as particulates, vehicle exhaust, humid air, parking garage contaminants, etc. Also, when spaces are redesigned or renovated, the HVAC system may not be updated to accommodate the changes. For example, one floor of a building that housed computer services may be renovated for offices. The HVAC system would need to be modified for office employee occupancy (i.e., modi- fying temperature, relative humidity, and air flow). I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 5

8 Prevention and Control of Common Pollutant Categories IAQ Problems IAQ Management Approach Although there are numerous indoor air pollutants Ideally, an employer should use a systematic that can be spread through a building, they typically approach when addressing air quality in the work- fall into three basic categories: biological, chemical, place. The components of a systematic approach for and particle (1). addressing IAQ are the same as those for an overall safety and health program approach, and include Biological management commitment, training, employee in- Excessive concentrations of bacteria, viruses, fungi, volvement, hazard identification and control, and dust mites, animal dander, and pollen may result program audit. Management needs to be receptive from inadequate maintenance and housekeeping, to potential concerns and complaints, and to train water spills, inadequate humidity control, workers on how to identify and report air quality condensation, or water intrusion through leaks in concerns. If employees express concerns, prompt the building envelope or flooding. and effective assessment and corrective action is the responsibility of management. Chemical Sources of chemical pollutants (gases and vapors) It is recommended that building owners/managers include emissions from products used in the develop and implement an IAQ management plan to building (e.g., office equipment; furniture, wall address, prevent, and resolve IAQ problems in their and floor coverings; pesticides; and cleaning and specific buildings. The EPA’s report, IAQ Tools for consumer products), accidental spills of chemicals, Office Buildings , provides a set of flexible and products used during construction activities such as specific activities that can be useful to building adhesives and paints, and gases such as carbon owners/managers for developing such a plan. A key monoxide, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide, feature of the plan is the selection of an IAQ Coordi- which are products of combustion. nator. The role and functions of an IAQ Coordinator are described in Section 3 of the EPA’s report, IAQ (24). Other critical Tools for Schools Action Kit Particle (Non-biological) features of the plan include establishing necessary Particles are solid or liquid, non-biological, sub- IAQ policies, assessing the current status of IAQ in stances that are light enough to be suspended in the buildings through periodic inspections, maintaining air. Dust, dirt, or other substances may be drawn appropriate logs and checklists, performing into the building from outside. Particles can also be necessary repairs and upgrades, and implementing produced by activities that occur in buildings such follow-up assessments or other needed actions. as construction, sanding wood or drywall, printing, copying, and operating equipment. Employers who lease space should be familiar with the building management’s program and methods Some of the most common indoor air pollutants, for mitigating or resolving indoor air quality prob- and the means to control or prevent them, are lems. It is especially important for employers to discussed in Appendix A. know who to contact in buildings where there is mixed use and pollutants are emanating from other sources in the building. Employers should negotiate leases that specify IAQ performance criteria. For example, a lease should specify that the space be ventilated with outdoor air while occupied and at a rate described in ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. An important management strategy is to foster a team approach for problem solving and consensus building. The IAQ Team should include, but not necessarily be limited to, building occupants, administrative staff, facility operators, custodians, building healthcare staff, contract service providers, and other interested parties. 6 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

9 the effectiveness of ventilation (5, 26), and exces- Lastly, following up with affected personnel will sive population density (e.g., overcrowding). serve to validate the effectiveness of the mitigation activities. For more information about the IAQ • Ensure that good housekeeping practices are management approach, refer to OSHA’s Safety and being applied. Health Topics Page on Injury and Illness Prevention • Ensure that routine preventive maintenance and Programs. upkeep of buildings is being performed. A (http://www.osha.gov/dsg/topics/safetyhealth/index.html). preventive maintenance program provides the care to all building systems and components that Identification and Assessment keeps them operating at peak performance Methods used in an IAQ investigation may include according to manufacturer’s specifications, and identifying pollutant sources, evaluating the HVAC also allows for early detection of problems system performance, observing production (1, 18). processes and work practices, measuring contamination levels and employee exposures, • Ensure that scheduled renovations are isolated providing medical testing or physical examinations, from the building’s general dilution ventilation conducting employee interviews, and reviewing system when occupants are in the building. records of medical tests, job histories, and injuries and illnesses. The Appendices provide resources Control Methods and checklists that building owners, managers, and There are three basic control methods for lowering occupants can use to investigate IAQ complaints, concentrations of indoor air pollutants: document walkthrough inspections, and correct IAQ problems. 1. Source management Source management includes removal, substitution, To prevent IAQ problems effectively and efficiently, and enclosure of sources. It is the most effective building managers should know and understand control method when it can be applied practically. the history of the building (construction, uses, For example, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety maintenance, etc.). If possible, owners and man- Commission recommends installing carpets that are agers should maintain blueprints and construction low-volatile organic compound (VOC) emitters, and documents, including information about any encourages consumers to ask retailers or installers renovations of the building. about the carpet industry’s voluntary “green label” program for new carpets (27). According to the Some important practices include: carpet industry, the green and white logo displayed • Inspect and assess the building envelope, includ- on carpet samples informs the consumer that the ing the roof, walls, and foundation, and promptly specific manufacturer’s product has been tested by respond to identified problems. Routinely check an independent laboratory and has met the criteria the building for water leaks, seals around doors for very low emissions (28). The label, however, and windows, and any visible damp or moist is not a guarantee that the carpet will not cause parts of the building. Clean and dry any damp or health problems (27). Another example is that the wet building materials and furnishings within 24 employer can set up temporary barriers or place the to 48 hours after detection to prevent the growth space under negative pressure relative to adjoining of mold. areas to contain the pollutants during construction activities. • Ensure and validate that the building is maintained under a slight positive pressure (i.e., 2. Engineering controls air comes out of the building when exterior doors are opened). a. Local exhaust Local exhaust, such as a canopy hood, is very • Check whether the temperature and humidity are effective in removing point sources of pollutants maintained in a recommended comfort range before they can be dispersed into the building’s (temperature: 68 to 78 degrees and relative indoor air. humidity: 30% to 60%) (25). b. General dilution ventilation • Ensure that routine maintenance of the HVAC General dilution ventilation systems, when prop- system is being performed, including the erly designed, operated, and maintained, will performance of the system bringing outdoor air control normal amounts of air pollutants. A well- into the building. (1). designed and functioning HVAC system controls • Monitor carbon dioxide (CO ) levels. The carbon 2 temperature and relative humidity levels to dioxide levels can be used as a rough indicator of I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 7

10 storing food properly, and choosing cleaning provide thermal comfort, distributes adequate products and methods that minimize the amounts of outdoor air to meet the ventilation introduction of pollutants into the building (18). needs of building occupants, and also dilutes and These steps are outlined in Appendix B. removes odors and other contaminants. Testing and rebalancing of HVAC systems are essential when partitions are moved in buildings. Appen- Seeking Professional Assistance Some indoor air problems can be resolved when dix C contains an HVAC System Maintenance Checklist that can be used to assist in routine good practices are put in place to control maintenance of the HVAC system. For certain contaminants and building personnel follow good situations, such as painting and carpet cleaning, housekeeping approaches. Other problems may be difficult to resolve, however, and may require temporarily increasing ventilation can help dilute the concentration of vapors in the air. outside assistance. A building owner or manager may first want to consult local, state, or federal c. Air cleaning government agencies (e.g., education, health, Air cleaning primarily involves the removal of environmental protection, or agriculture agencies) particles from the air as the air passes through for assistance or direction in solving IAQ problems. the HVAC equipment. Most HVAC system These governmental agencies may be able to help filtration is provided to keep dirt off of coil an employer identify the types of experts who could surfaces to promote heat transfer efficiency. best assist them. Most smudging observed around air supply diffusers in a ceiling result from entrainment Examples of experts include: (trapping) of dirt particles in the space that accumulate there because of poor housekeeping. • Structural engineers - address issues with structural elements such as corrosion problems 3. Administrative controls in a building’s foundation; a. Work Schedule • Architects - responsible for designing the Through scheduling, managers can significantly building envelope and can mitigate water intrusion problems by designing vapor barriers; reduce the amount of pollutant exposure in their buildings. For instance: • Mechanical engineers - test and balance HVAC 1. Eliminate or reduce the amount of time a systems and may be able to assess and recom- worker is exposed to a pollutant (i.e., schedul- mend repairs/replacement of HVAC systems and ing maintenance or cleaning work to be local exhaust ventilation systems; and accomplished when other building occupants • Industrial hygienists - assess general IAQ are not present). parameters such as air changes in a building, 2. Reduce the amount of chemicals being used carbon dioxide levels, carbon monoxide levels, by or near workers (i.e., limit the amount of and other indoor pollutants, and also evaluate chemicals being used by the worker during contaminant levels. maintenance or cleaning activities). 3. Control the location of chemical use (i.e., There may be private firms or consultants in your perform maintenance work on moveable area with experience in IAQ work. Such firms may equipment in a maintenance shop as opposed be found in general resources such as a telephone to the general area, or locate the equipment directory (e.g., under “Engineers,” “Environmental (e.g., printers, copiers) in a separate room). and Ecological Services,” “Laboratories-Testing,” or “Industrial Hygiene Consultants”), on the Internet, b. Education or by asking building owners/managers for referrals. Education of building occupants regarding IAQ Some professionals who work with IAQ issues must is important (29). If occupants are provided with meet licensing and certification requirements to information about the sources and effects of practice in their disciplines. A consultant should pollutants under their control, and about the base any testing recommendations or protocol on proper operation of the ventilation system, they a thorough visual inspection, walkaround, and can alert their employer and/or take action to interviews with building occupants. reduce their personal exposure. c. Housekeeping Housekeeping practices should include prevent- ing dirt from entering the environment (using, for example, walk-off mat systems), removing dirt once it is in the building, disposing of garbage, 8 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

11 Applicable Standards and Regulations OSHA does not have a general IAQ standard, but does provide guidelines addressing the most common workplace complaints about IAQ, which are typically related to temperature, humidity, lack of outside air ventilation, or smoking. OSHA standards address potential hazardous conditions leading to serious physical harm or death. Such standards may include those for specific air contaminants, ventilation systems, or the General Duty Clause of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act). This section highlights OSHA standards, standards interpretations (official OSHA letters of interpretation of its standards), and national consensus standards related to IAQ. OSHA Standards All OSHA regulations, interpretations, and the OSH Act can be found on www.osha.gov. Important OSHA statues and standards include: • Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 often referred to as the General Duty Clause, requires employers to “furnish to each Section 5(a)(1), of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.” Section 5(a)(2) requires employers to “comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act.” Some of the applicable OSHA Standards are: • 29 CFR 1904, Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illnesses. • 29 CFR 1910.94, Ventilation. • 29 CFR 1910.1000, Air Contaminants. • 29 CFR 1910.1048, Formaldehyde. • 29 CFR 1910.1450, Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. Standard Interpretations • Enforcement policy for respiratory hazards not covered by OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits. (January 24, 2003.) https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=24749. • Air monitoring results, citations, and employee exposure records. (March 27, 2002.) https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=24261. • The use of ozone gas from ozone generators in a large room. (April 3, 1995.) https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=21753. • Request for a list of all OSHA-regulated air contaminants. (March 22, 1995.) https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=21731. • Record retention requirements for indoor air quality documents and reports. (August 1, 2002.) http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=24255. • Reiteration of existing OSHA policy on indoor air quality: office temperature and environmental tobacco smoke. (February 23, 2003.) http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=24602. I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 9

12 State Programs The (OSH Act) encourages states to develop and operate their Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 own job safety and health plans. States with plans approved and monitored by OSHA under section 18(b) of the OSH Act must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements. There are currently 27 State Plan states and territories: Twenty-two of these states and territories administer plans covering both private and public (state/territory and local government) workers; the other plans, Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, and the Virgin Islands, cover public-sector workers only. Additional information on State Plans may be found at http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/osp/index.html. For the most part, these OSHA-approved State Plans adopt standards that are identical to the federal OSHA standards. However, some states have adopted state-specific standards that are at least as effective as the Federal OSHA standards, including the New Jersey IAQ standard. The New Jersey IAQ standard, (N.J.A.C. 12:100-13; 2007) sets standards for indoor air quality in existing buildings occupied by public employees during their regular working hours. State of California IAQ Program. (http://www.cal-iaq.org/about-us/about-cal-iaq) This program is a part of the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), separate from the State OSHA program. The purpose of the California IAQ program is to conduct and promote the coordination of research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, surveys, and studies relating to the causes, effects, extent, prevention, and control of indoor pollution in California. National Consensus Standards Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). • 62.1-2010, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. This standard specifies recommended outdoor air ventilation rates. The recommended outdoor ventilation rates are based on olfactory studies, and ac- ceptable indoor air quality is met when 80% or more of the exposed people do not express dissatisfac- tion. Whereas ASHRAE Standard 62 has always been considered a design standard for ventilation, building owner/operators should pay particular attention to Section 8 titled Operations and Maintenance. Section 8 offers guidance to the building owner/operator as to what outdoor air ventilation components should be maintained, what tasks should be performed, and the minimum frequency for performing those tasks. • Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Specifies temperatures that 55-2010, approximately 80 percent of building occupants should find acceptable. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). • E1971–05, Standard Guide for Stewardship for the Cleaning of Commercial and Institutional Buildings. 1 0 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

13 Consultation Services OSHA Assistance Consultation assistance is available on request OSHA can provide extensive help through a variety to employers who want help in establishing and of programs, including technical assistance about maintaining a safe and healthful workplace. Largely effective safety and health programs, state plans, funded by OSHA, the service is provided at no cost workplace consultations, and training and education. to the employer. Primarily developed for smaller employers with more hazardous operations, the consultation service is delivered by state govern- Safety and Health Management ments employing professional safety and health System Guidelines consultants. Comprehensive assistance includes an Effective management of worker safety and health appraisal of all mechanical systems, work practices, protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and occupational safety and health hazards of the and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses workplace and all aspects of the employer’s present and their related costs. In fact, an effective safety job safety and health program. In addition, the and health management system forms the basis of service offers assistance to employers in developing good worker protection, can save time and money, and implementing an effective safety and health increase productivity and reduce employee injuries, program. No penalties are proposed or citations illnesses and related workers’ compensation costs. issued for hazards identified by the consultant. To assist employers and workers in developing OSHA provides consultation assistance to the effective safety and health management systems, employer with the assurance that his or her name OSHA published recommended Safety and Health and firm and any information about the workplace Federal Program Management Guidelines (54 will not be routinely reported to OSHA enforcement (16): 3904-3916, January 26, 1989). These Register staff. For more information concerning consultation voluntary guidelines can be applied to all places of assistance, see OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov. employment covered by OSHA. The guidelines identify four general elements Strategic Partnership Program critical to the development of a successful safety OSHA’s Strategic Partnership Program helps and health management system: encourage, assist and recognize the efforts of • Management leadership and worker involvement, partners to eliminate serious workplace hazards and • Worksite analysis, achieve a high level of worker safety and health. • Hazard prevention and control, and Most strategic partnerships seek to have a broad • Safety and health training. impact by building cooperative relationships with The guidelines recommend specific actions, groups of employers and workers. These partner- under each of these general elements, to achieve ships are voluntary relationships between OSHA, an effective safety and health management system. employers, worker representatives, and others (e.g., The Federal Register notice is available online at trade unions, trade and professional associations, www.osha.gov. universities, and other government agencies). For more information on this and other agency State Programs programs, contact your nearest OSHA office, or visit Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 The OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov. (OSH Act) encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health plans. OSHA OSHATraining and Education approves and monitors these plans. Twenty-five OSHA area offices offer a variety of information states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands currently services, such as technical advice, publications, operate approved state plans: 22 cover both private audiovisual aids and speakers for special engage- and public (state and local government) employ- ments. OSHA’s Training Institute in Arlington ment; Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York Heights, IL, provides basic and advanced courses in and the Virgin Islands cover the public sector only. safety and health for Federal and state compliance States and territories with their own OSHA- officers, state consultants, Federal agency personnel, approved occupational safety and health plans must and private sector employers, workers and their adopt standards identical to, or at least as effective representatives. as, the Federal OSHA standards. The OSHA Training Institute also has established OSHA Training Institute Education Centers to I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 1 1

14 address the increased demand for its courses from OSHA Publications the private sector and from other federal agencies. OSHA has an extensive publications program. These centers are colleges, universities, and non- For a listing of free items, visit OSHA’s website at profit organizations that have been selected after a www.osha.gov or contact the OSHA Publications competition for participation in the program. Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution OSHA also provides funds to nonprofit Avenue, NW, N-3101, Washington, DC 20210; organizations, through grants, to conduct workplace telephone (202) 693-1888 or fax to (202) 693-2498. training and education in subjects where OSHA believes there is a lack of workplace training. Contacting OSHA Grants are awarded annually. To report an emergency, file a complaint, or seek For more information on grants, training and OSHA advice, assistance, or products, call (800) education, contact the OSHA Training Institute, 321-OSHA or contact your nearest OSHA Regional Directorate of Training and Education, 2020 South or Area office listed at the end of this publication. Arlington Heights Road, Arlington Heights, IL 60005, The teletypewriter (TTY) number is (877) 889-5627. (847) 297-4810, or see Training on OSHA’s website Written correspondence can be mailed to the at www.osha.gov. For further information on any nearest OSHA Regional or Area Office listed at the OSHA program, contact your nearest OSHA regional end of this publication or to OSHA’s national office office listed at the end of this publication. at: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20210. Information Available Electronically By visiting OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov, OSHA has a variety of materials and tools available you can also: on its website at www.osha.gov. These include • File a complaint online, electronic tools, such as Safety and HealthTopics , • Submit general inquiries about workplace safety ; regulations, directives and eTools , Expert Advisors and health electronically, and publications; videos and other information for • Find more information about OSHA and employers and workers. OSHA’s software programs occupational safety and health. and eTools walk you through challenging safety and health issues and common problems to find the best solutions for your workplace. 1 2 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

15 Region VII OSHA Regional Offices Kansas City Regional Office (IA*, KS, MO, NE) Region I Two Pershing Square Building Boston Regional Office 2300 Main Street, Suite 1010 (CT*, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT*) Kansas City, MO 64108-2416 JFK Federal Building, Room E340 (816) 283-8745 (816) 283-0547 FAX Boston, MA 02203 (617) 565-9860 (617) 565-9827 FAX Region VIII Denver Regional Office Region II (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT*, WY*) New York Regional Office 1999 Broadway, Suite 1690 (NJ*, NY*, PR*, VI*) Denver, CO 80202-5716 201 Varick Street, Room 670 (720) 264-6550 (720) 264-6585 FAX New York, NY 10014 (212) 337-2378 (212) 337-2371 FAX Region IX San Francisco Regional Office Region III (AZ*, CA*, HI*, NV*, and American Samoa, Philadelphia Regional Office Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands) (DE, DC, MD*, PA, VA*, WV) 90 7th Street, Suite 18100 The Curtis Center San Francisco, CA 94103 170 S. Independence Mall West (415) 625-2547 (415) 625-2534 FAX Suite 740 West Philadelphia, PA 19106-3309 Region X (215) 861-4900 (215) 861-4904 FAX Seattle Regional Office (AK*, ID, OR*, WA*) Region IV 1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715 Atlanta Regional Office Seattle, WA 98101-3212 (AL, FL, GA, KY*, MS, NC*, SC*, TN*) (206) 553-5930 (206) 553-6499 FAX 61 Forsyth Street, SW, Room 6T50 * These states and territories operate their own Atlanta, GA 30303 OSHA-approved job safety and health programs and (678) 237-0400 (678) 237-0447 FAX cover state and local government employees as well as private sector employees. The Connecticut, Region V Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Virgin Islands Chicago Regional Office plans cover public employees only. States with ap- (IL*, IN*, MI*, MN*, OH, WI) proved programs must have standards that are 230 South Dearborn Street identical to, or at least as effective as, the Federal Room 3244 OSHA standards. Chicago, IL 60604 Note: To get contact information for OSHA Area (312) 353-2220 (312) 353-7774 FAX Offices, OSHA-approved State Plans and OSHA Consultation Projects, please visit us online at Region VI www.osha.gov or call us at 1-800-321-OSHA. Dallas Regional Office (AR, LA, NM*, OK, TX) 525 Griffin Street, Room 602 Dallas, TX 75202 (972) 850-4145 (972) 850-4149 FAX (972) 850-4150 FSO FAX I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 1 3

16 Carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 Appendix A: Common Indoor is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas (36). It CO 2 Air Contaminants is a product of completed carbon combustion and the by-product of biological respiration. ASHRAE The purpose of this section is to provide additional states that CO concentrations in acceptable outdoor 2 information about several common indoor air air typically range from 300-500 ppm. Adverse contaminants. may occur since it is an health effects from CO 2 asphyxiant gas. At concentrations above 15,000 Carbon monoxide (CO) ppm, some loss of mental acuity has been noted CO is a colorless, odorless gas produced by the (36). The OSHA PEL is 5,000 ppm as an 8-hour TWA. incomplete burning of material containing carbon. The CO levels can be used as a rough indicator of 2 2 CO poisoning can cause brain damage and death. the effectiveness of ventilation (26), and excessive Common sources of CO are leaking vented increases in population density in a structure. CO 2 combustion appliances, automobile exhaust, buildings with higher occupant densities, and is parking garages, etc. When not properly ventilated, diluted and removed from buildings based on emitted CO can build up. Employees exposed to outdoor air ventilation rates. Therefore, examining low levels of CO may feel sick with headache and levels of CO in indoor air can reveal information 2 nausea, and will feel better when exposed to fresh regarding occupant densities and outdoor air air outside. However, their symptoms will recur levels may indicate a ventilation rates. High CO 2 shortly after returning to their workplace if CO is problem with overcrowding or inadequate outdoor not eliminated. air ventilation rates. CO Poisoning Symptoms Carbon Dioxide Poisoning – Symptoms Poisoning due to low levels of CO can be confused , a by-product of normal cell function, is CO 2 with influenza symptoms, food poisoning, or other removed from the body via the lungs in the exhaled illnesses, and can be a long-term health risk if left can increase the air. Exposure to high levels of CO 2 unattended. Some of the symptoms of low-level CO amount of this gas in the blood, which is referred to poisoning are shortness of breath, mild nausea, and as . As the severity of hypercarbia or hypercapnia mild headaches (30-35). hypercapnia increases, more symptoms ranging from headache to unconsciousness appear, and it Prolonged exposure to high levels of CO can lead to can also lead to death (36, 37). brain damage and even death. Adequate ventilation is an important control measure. The OSHA Pesticides Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for CO is 50 parts Pesticides are any substances or mixture of per million (ppm) as an 8-hour time-weighted aver- substances used for preventing, destroying, age (TWA); the National Institute for Occupational repelling, or mitigating any pest. These substances Safety and Health has a Recommended Exposure include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and Limit (REL) of 35 ppm as a 10-hour TWA. According various other substances used to control pests. to the American Conference of Governmental Pesticides can cause harm to humans, animals, and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the threshold limit the environment because they are designed to kill value for CO is 25 ppm as an 8-hour TWA. or otherwise adversely affect living organisms. Pesticides can also kill potential disease-causing Carbon Monoxide Detectors organisms (8, 38). In addition to having a professional inspect Pesticide Poisoning Symptoms appliances and furnaces, commercially available Symptoms of pesticide poisoning depend heavily carbon monoxide detectors can be used to monitor on the pesticide to which the worker was exposed. the levels of carbon monoxide in buildings through- Symptoms often appear within minutes of pesticide out the year. The manufacturer’s instructions on exposure, but may take much longer to develop. placement and maintenance should be followed. The most common symptoms include headache, tears in the eyes, vomiting, sweating, and general weakness. Exposure to high doses may cause 2 in the blood, CO is a chemical asphyxiant; it displaces O 2 seizures and death. thereby suffocating the person exposed. 1 4 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

17 Steps to Reduce Exposure Small dust particles may remain airborne for long Integrated Pest Management Principles should periods, while large particles settle more quickly. always be implemented. Pesticide products should However, particles that have settled may be easily be used according to application and ventilation resuspended in the ambient air by currents of air or instructions provided by the manufacturer. In other disturbances. Drapery, carpet and other places addition: where dust collects can harbor these contaminants; dirty cooling coils, humidifiers, condensate drains, • Mix or dilute pesticides outdoors; and ductwork can incubate bacteria and molds. • Increase ventilation when using pesticides; Areas with high humidity can accelerate their • Use non-chemical methods of pest control when growth. possible; • Do not store unneeded pesticides; The most common sources of biological air • Dispose of unwanted containers safely; and contaminants are moisture-laden areas that support the growth of mold and bacteria present in the air • Keep indoor spaces clean, dry, and well venti- (8, 16, 19, 44). Also, wet surfaces can provide a lated to avoid pest problems. breeding ground for insects such as dust mites. Radon Moisture-induced microbial growth can result from Radon is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless water leaks and/or by condensation due to high radioactive gas (6, 13, 17, 39, 40). It comes from the humidity. Persistent dampness and microbial natural decay of uranium and some other radionu- growth on interior surfaces and in building clides that are present in soil. Radon is responsible structures should be avoided or minimized as they for most of the public’s exposure to ionizing radia- may lead to adverse health effects (15). Common tion (39, 40). It is often the single largest contributor sources of moisture in buildings include: plumbing; to an individual's background radiation dose, and roof and window leaks; flooding; condensation on levels can vary widely from location to location. cold surfaces, e.g., pipe sweating; poorly maintained Radon gas can accumulate in buildings, especially drain pans; and wet foundations caused by land- in confined areas such as attics and basements. scaping or gutters that direct water into or under the Radon penetrates cracks and drain openings in building. Water vapor from unvented or poorly foundations, basements, and crawl spaces. Some vented kitchens, showers, combustion appliances, building materials will also release radon into the or steam pipes can also create conditions that air. It can also be found in some spring waters and promote microbial growth. The most effective hot springs, where it can be released into the air means to prevent or minimize adverse health effects when the water is drawn for use indoors. Exposure is to determine the sources of persistent dampness to radon may cause lung cancer in humans. in the workplace and eliminate them. Also, strict adherence to a housekeeping schedule and use of The EPA recommends taking actions to reduce HEPA-filtered vacuum cleaners will help reduce radon exposure if levels exceed four picocuries per ambient levels of allergens. liter of air (4 pCi/L) (25). Active soil depressurization and building ventilation are the two most commonly Damp Indoor Environments used strategies for controlling radon in buildings. Damp indoor environments have been associated Radon reduction methods include sealing concrete with many serious health effects, including asthma, slab floors, basement foundations, and water hypersensitivity, and sinusitis. Moisture incursion drainage systems, and increasing ventilation. leading to dampness can result from water leaks These techniques are usually cost-effective, and and/or by condensation due to high humidity. can greatly reduce or eliminate contamination and Common sources of moisture in buildings include: the associated health risks. plumbing; roof and window leaks; flooding; condensation on cold surfaces, e.g., pipe sweating; Biological Contaminants poorly-maintained drain pans; and wet foundations Animals, plants, and microbes are sources of air due to landscaping or gutters that direct water into pollutants. Dander from animals, pollens from or under the building. Water vapor from unvented plants, and microbes, may act as allergens when or poorly-vented kitchens, showers, combustion they are inhaled. These biological contaminants are appliances, or steam pipes can also create usually attached to dust particles of various sizes. conditions that promote microbial growth. I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 1 5

18 Well-designed, -constructed and –maintained Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) building envelopes are critical to the prevention and VOCs refer to organic chemical compounds that control of excess moisture and microbial growth by have significant vapor pressures, and that can avoiding thermal bridges and preventing intrusion adversely affect the environment and human health. by liquid or vapor-phase water. Management of VOCs are emitted as vapors from certain solids or moisture requires proper control of temperatures liquids, and include a variety of chemicals, some of and ventilation to avoid high humidity, condensation which may have short- and long-term adverse on surfaces, and excess moisture in materials. health effects (17, 45, 46). Concentrations of many Ventilation should be distributed effectively in spaces, VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten and stagnant air zones should be avoided (5, 8). times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. ASHRAE recommends relative humidity levels Examples include paints and lacquers, paint between 30 and 60 percent for optimum comfort strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building (25). Higher humidity may result in microbial materials and furnishings, office equipment such as growth. A consistently implemented good-house- copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbon- keeping plan is essential to eliminate or reduce the less copy paper, and graphics and craft materials, microbial growth in the building. including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions (8). More commonly Legionella known VOCs include benzene, formaldehyde, Legionellosis or Legionnaires’ Disease is caused by methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and tetra- a waterborne bacterium, , which grows Legionella chloroethylene (13). Exposure to VOCs can result in best in slow-moving, or still warm water (42-44). both acute and chronic health effects, depending on The primary route of exposure is aerosolization, many factors such as the level of exposure and the most commonly from domestic hot-water systems length of exposure. A few VOCs, such as benzene, (e.g., showers, sprays, etc.). Mist from evaporative have been directly linked to cancer in humans, and cooling towers without biocide treatment is another others are suspected of causing cancer. reported source. Outbreaks in medical facilities can occur because the patients often have weak or Since people today spend most of their time at suppressed immune systems. home or in an office, long-term exposure to VOCs in the indoor environment can contribute to IAQ re- For cooling towers and evaporative condensers, lated problems (31). In offices, VOCs result from prevention efforts center on improving the location new furnishings, wall coverings, and office equip- and maintenance of the cooling towers to limit the ment such as photocopy machines, which can off- Legionella growth and spread of bacteria. These gas VOCs into the air (47, 48). Good ventilation and devices should be inspected and thoroughly cleaned air-conditioning systems are essential to reduce at least once a year. Corroded parts, such as drift VOC emissions in the indoor environment (47). eliminators, should be replaced, and algae and accumulated scale should be removed. Cooling Steps to Reduce Exposure water should be treated constantly with antimicro- (http://www.epa.gov/iaq/voc.html) bial agents. Ideally, an automatic water-treatment • Use products according to manufacturer’s system should be used that continuously controls directions. the quality of the circulating water. • Make sure that plenty of fresh air is provided when using these products. For domestic hot-water systems, prevention efforts • Discard used containers safely. focus on controlling water temperature, avoiding • Buy quantities that can be used in short periods dead-legs, avoiding stagnation, and cleaning of time. storage tanks to limit the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria. 1 6 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

19 What workers can do Appendix B: Steps to • Do not block air vents or grilles. 3 Improve Indoor Air Quality • Water and maintain office plants properly. What employers can do • Dispose of garbage promptly and properly. • Maintain a good working relationship with • Store food properly. building management on indoor environmental • Avoid bringing products into the building that issues. could release harmful or bothersome odors or • Place office furniture and equipment in locations contaminants. based on the adequate air circulation, tempera- • Notify the building or facility manager ture control, and pollutant removal functions of immediately if you suspect an IAQ problem. the HVAC system. • Coordinate with building management when responsibility for design, operation, and maintenance of the ventilation system is shared. • Avoid procedures and products that can cause IAQ problems. • Integrate IAQ concerns into purchasing decisions. • Work with the building manager to ensure use of only necessary and appropriate pest-control practices; use nonchemical methods when possible. • Work with building management and the contractor before starting to remodel or renovate to identify ways of minimizing building-occupant exposure, and to ensure that the air-distribution system is not disrupted. • Encourage building management to develop a preventive IAQ management program following guidance issued by the EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 3 See Item 29 in the last section of this document titled “References.” I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 1 7

20 Duct and Plenum equipment Appendix C: HVAC System Written inspection and maintenance program.   4 Maintenance Checklist Supply, exhaust, return grilles, and ducts clear   and clean. The following checklist can be used to investigate Routine inspection of ducts, debris, and microbial the HVAC system to make sure it is operating   growth (e.g., semi-annually). properly (e.g., the right mix of fresh air, proper distribution, and filtration systems are working, etc.) Provisions of cleanout (e.g., within four feet   downstream of duct expansions, supply air Cooling Towers openings, or where particulate deposition may occur). Written maintenance and inspection program.   Ductwork attached, not dented.   Operated in accordance with manufacturer   specifications. Insulation intact, not wet, and no microbial   growth. Inspected regularly (monthly, or as required).   Ductwork properly balanced. Treatment of waste to control microorganisms,     as required. Filtration systems Recordkeeping of biocide use – brand, volume,   Written maintenance, operating, and inspection   and results. programs. Training of workers for hazards involved.   Routine inspection.   Provision for measuring pressure drops across Humidifiers   the filtration system. Written maintenance and inspection program.   Inspected weekly during operation.   Cleaned and disinfected as required.   No visual buildup of mold or slime.   Disinfectants removed before reactivating   humidifiers. Cooling Coils Written maintenance and inspection program.   Monthly (or, as required) inspections during   operation. Removal of dirt, slime, and mold, as required.   Upstream filters operating properly.   Drain Pans, drainage systems Written maintenance and inspection program.   Monthly inspection (or, as required).   Drains maintained in free-flowing condition.   No accumulation of stagnant water.   No buildup of slime, mold, or dirt.   Removal of dirt, slime, and mold, as required.   Sample water for microbes, as required.   4 See Items 24 and 37 in the last section of this document titled “References.” 1 8 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

21 • Between floors Appendix D: Investigating • Any recent changes in: IAQ Problems and • Work space Complaints • General office • Building Identifying the cause(s) of IAQ problems and complaints may be difficult if an obvious source is • New equipment added to the office not evident. Investigating unclear IAQ problems should take into account patterns and factors, such When occupant complaints are related to symptoms as occupant complaints and symptoms, location(s) or health problems, medical evaluation may be in the building, time of day, seasonal differences, required. Persons with respiratory diagnoses that and relationship to activities inside or outside the may be caused or exacerbated by workplace building. Below are suggestions of information that exposures should discuss these with their treating may be helpful to collect. physician, and treating physicians may access additional expertise through the network of National Once information is gathered, it should then be Institute for Occupational Safety and Health analyzed for patterns and possible causes of the (NIOSH)-funded Education and Research Centers, IAQ problem. The analysis may point to specific or through the member clinics of the not-for-profit methods, such as those discussed on page 7 Association of Occupational and Environmental (Identification and Assessment). The next step is to Clinics. Workers’ compensation systems differ by fix problems identified and evaluate the results. states, but may also be available to support medical Has the fix resolved the problems or complaints? care for work-related diseases. If not, then further investigation will need to be pursued. Consultation with safety and health EPA and NIOSH have published two excellent professionals or other experts should be considered resources to screen and investigate IAQ problems. at any point during an IAQ investigation. The first, published in 1991, is Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers Information that may be helpful in IAQ (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/baqtoc.html). Chapter 6- investigations: “Diagnosing IAQ Problems” provides a systematic approach and includes tools, such as logs, question- General office conditions: naires, diaries, and checklists. The second, pub- lished by EPA and NIOSH in 2002, is a companion • Housekeeping document that updates and expands on the 1991 • How often is the office vacuumed? Indoor Air Quality publication. The 2002 publication, • How often are carpet and drapes shampooed? Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) • How often are floors waxed? , (http://www.epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/i-beam/index.html) • Are there any visible signs of dust? is separated into modules, and includes online • Have pesticides been applied recently? interactive examples of problems and solutions. • Is there any evidence of moisture intrusion into the building? Air quality in the office: • Odor • Dry • Humid • Dusty • Warm • Cool • Drafts • Temperature fluctuation • Within office • Between offices I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 1 9

22 Appendix E: Selected Resources Hazard Recognition IAQ problems can be caused by improperly operated and maintained HVAC systems, overcrowding, microbiological contamination, outside air pollutants, and off-gassing from materials in the office and mechanical equipment. Related problems also may include discomfort problems due to improper temperature and relative humidity conditions. The following references aid in recognizing IAQ hazards in the workplace: • OSHA Technical Manual. OSHA Directive TED 01-00-015 [TED 1-0.15A] (1999, January 20). https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_toc.html • Indoor Air Quality Investigation. Contains guidelines for IAQ investigations, recommendations on sampling instrumentation and methods, as well as guidelines for employers to prevent or alleviate IAQ problems. https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iii/otm_iii_2.html • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. OSHA Fact Sheet (2002) . http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_General_Facts/carbonmonoxide-factsheet.pdf • Mold. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page. https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/molds/index.html • Stachybotrys Chartarum. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page. https://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_267785.html#General • Indoor Environmental Quality. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Safety and Health Topic Page. Links to several other NIOSH publications, including the NIOSH fact sheet on IEQ. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv • Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning from Small Gasoline-Powered Engines and Tools. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication No. 96-118, (1996). Gives examples of the many situations in which people have been poisoned because they did not recognize the danger of using small gasoline-powered engines indoors. These poisonings can occur quickly, even in the presence of what many would consider “adequate ventilation,” and in areas that many would define as relatively open spaces, such as parking garages. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/carbon2.html • Fact Sheet: Ventilation and Air Quality in Offices. Environmental Protection Agency. Gives an overview of sources of indoor air pollution, health problems and ventilation, control, ventilation standards and building codes, ventilation system problems and solutions, air cleaners, economic considerations, and resolving air-quality problems. http://www.epa.gov/iedweb00/pubs/ventilat.htm • Air - Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Environmental Protection Agency. Contains an introduction to IAQ, a listing of common pollutants, and references to IAQ publications, hotlines, and links. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs • Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. March 2001. Presents guidelines for the investigation, evaluation, and remediation/cleanup of mold and moisture problems in schools and commercial buildings. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/mold_remediation.html • An Office Building Occupant’s Guide to Indoor Air Quality. Describes factors that contribute to indoor air quality and comfort problems, and the roles of building managers and occupants in maintaining a good indoor environment. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/occupgd.html • The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. April 1995. Provides a comprehensive online booklet on IAQ concerns in homes. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/insidest.html • IAQ Resources. Provides a listing of various hotlines and resources related to IAQ. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/iaqinfo.html 2 0 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

23 • Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments. New York City Department of Health. Addresses mold contamination of building components (walls, ventilation systems, support beams, etc.) that are chronically moist or water damaged. http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/epi/moldrpt1.shtml • Indoor Air Quality Publications. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Contains an index of CPSC publications related to IAQ. http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/iaq.html Evaluation and Control Methods used in an IAQ investigation may include: identification of pollutant sources; evaluation of HVAC system performance; observation of production processes and work practices; measurement of contamination levels and employee exposure; medical testing or physical examinations; employee interviews; and review of records of medical tests, job histories, and injuries and illnesses. The following resources provide information about evaluating and controlling IAQ in the workplace. Evaluation • Volatile Organic Compounds in Air. OSHA Method PV2120. May 2003. https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/partial/pv2120/pv2120.html • Ozone in Workplace Atmospheres (Impregnated Glass Fiber Filter). OSHA Method ID-214. March 1995. https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id214/id214.html • Carbon Monoxide in Workplace Atmospheres (Direct-Reading Monitor). OSHA Method ID-209. March 1993. https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id209/id209.html • Sulfur Dioxide in Workplace Atmospheres (Impregnated Activated Beaded Carbon). OSHA Method ID-200. April 1992. https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id200/id200.html • Carbon Monoxide in Workplace Atmospheres. OSHA Method ID-210. March 1991. https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id210/id210.html • Formaldehyde in Workplace Atmospheres (3M Model 3721 Monitor). OSHA Method ID-205. December 1990. https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id205/id205.html • Carbon Dioxide in Workplace Atmospheres. OSHA Method ID-179. June 1987. https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id172/id172.html • For additional information, see OSHA's Safety and Health Topics Pages on: - Formaldehyde https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/formaldehyde/index.html - Hazardous and Toxic Substances https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardoustoxicsubstances/index.html - Legionnaires’ Disease https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/legionnairesdisease/index.html - Sampling and Analysis https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/samplinganalysis/index.html - Styrene https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/styrene/index.html • EPA: IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/actionkit.html • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), through its Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program, responds to requests from employers, employees and their representatives, and government agencies. NIOSH conducts workplace assessments to determine if workers are exposed to hazardous materials or harmful conditions, and whether these exposures are affecting workers’ health. NIOSH has conducted more than 200 IAQ-related HHEs. Recent reports can be found on NIOSH’s Indoor Environmental Quality website at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv • Department of Energy. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools. Building Technology Program. U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/energysmartschools/ess_o-and-m-guide.pdf • GSA 2003 Facilities Standards (P100) Overview. Environmental Policies & Practices. http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/101230 I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 2 1

24 • U.S. Green Building Council LEED for Existing Buildings. Leadership in Environmental and Energy Design for Existing Buildings. http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=221#v2008 Control • A Brief Guide to Mold in the Workplace. OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin. October 10, 2003. https://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib101003.html • Ventilation. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page. https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ventilation/index.html • Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 91-114. Also, referenced as Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Publication No. 400/1-91/003. December 1991. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/baqtoc.html • Building Air Quality: Action Plan. Publication No. 98-123. Also, referenced as EPA Publication No. 402-K-98-001. June 1998. Provides an 8-step building air-quality action plan for building owners and managers to be used with NIOSH Publication No. 91-114 and EPA Publication No. 400/1-91/033. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/98-123a.html 2 2 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

25 Workshop II Appendix F: OSHA- ® OSHA/ACGIH Environmental Tobacco Smoke Work- Sponsored Environmental shop Proceedings, Publication #99-078 Tobacco Smoke Workshops ® Environmental Proceedings of the OSHA/ACGIH Workshop I Tobacco Smoke Workshop held June 6, 1998, in Workshop Summary: Assessing Exposure to Cincinnati, OH. The workshop brought together a Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Workplace. panel of ventilation experts, along with hospitality Environmental Health Jonathan M. Samet. industry managers and design engineers, to discuss , vol. 107, no. S2, May Perspectives Supplements effective and non-effective ventilation strategies for 1999. smoking sections in restaurants and bars. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a term now Workshop III widely used to refer to the mixture of sidestream Workshop on Health Risks Workshop Summary: smoke and exhaled mainstream smoke that pollutes Attributable to ETS Exposure in the Workplace. air in locations where tobacco smoking is taking Maritta S. Jaakkola and Jonathan M. Samet (Johns place. A multidisciplinary workshop was convened Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA). to address key issues related to ETS exposure in the Environmental Health Perspectives , vol. 107, supp. workplace in order to prepare the groundwork for a 6, December 1999. risk assessment of the hazard ETS poses to workers. Workshop participants concluded that substantial This 1998 workshop was convened to address the evidence was now available on worker exposure to health risks of exposure to environmental tobacco ETS using both direct and indirect approaches to smoke (ETS) in the workplace. It was paired with a exposure assessment, and that these data could be 1997 workshop on issues related to ETS exposure in used to project distribution of exposures to ETS in work environments. The 1998 workshop involved a the nation's workplaces. This summary of the multidisciplinary group of participants who re- discussions at the workshop is an overview of the viewed evidence on the quantitative risks to health suggested approach to exposure assessment. posed by ETS and discussed the development of http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1999/Suppl-2/309-312samet/abstract.html risk assessment methodology for the future. I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 2 3

26 References U.S. EPA. An Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality. 1. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/occupgd.html 2. U.S. EPA. Indoor Air Quality. The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/insidest.html CDC. Healthy Housing Reference Manual. Chapter 5: Indoor Air Pollutants and Toxic Materials. 3. http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha05.html 4. NIOSH Recommendations for the Cleaning and Remediation of Flood-Contaminated HVAC Systems: A http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/emres/Cleaning-Flood-HVAC.html Guide for Building Owners and Managers. 5. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) (2010). ASHRAE Standard 62.1. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Atlanta, GA. 6. Fisk, W.J. (2000). Health and Productivity Gains from Better Indoor Air Environments and Their Rela- tionship with Building Energy Efficiency. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 25: 537-566. 7. Spengler, J. D., Samet, J. M., and McCarthy, J. F. (2001). Indoor Air Quality Handbook. McGraw-Hill. 8. U.S. EPA. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/ia-intro.html#Indoor%20Air%20Pollution%20and%20Health American Thoracic Society. Environmental Controls and Lung Disease. American Review of 9. Respiratory Disease, 1990, 142: 915-939. 10. American Lung Association. Health Effects and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution, Parts I and II, 1989, Publication No. 0857C. http://www.indoorpollution.com/air_pollution.htm 11. European Concerted Action. Indoor Air Quality & Its Impact on Man. Environment and Quality of Life. Report 10. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution on Human Health (1991). 12. U.S. EPA. Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. (Last updated April 28, 2010). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/hpguide.html 13. Bernstein, J. A., Alexis, N., Bacchus, H., Bernstein, I. L., Fritiz, P., et al. (2008). The Health Effects of Nonindustrial Indoor Air Pollution. Journal of Allergy and Immunology, 12(3): 585-590. 14. Stapczynski, J.S., 2004. Chapter 62: Respiratory Distress. Tintinalli, J.E., Kelen, G.D., Stapczynski, J.S., Ma, O.J., and Cline, D.M. Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine, 6th Edition. 15. World Health Organization (WHO) (2009). WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mould. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/43325/E92645.pdf 16. CDC Online Source for Credible Health Information: Mold. http://www.cdc.gov/mold 17. OSHA. Preventing Mold-Related Problems in the Indoor Workplace. OSHA 3304-04N 2006. http://www.osha.gov/Publications/preventing_mold.pdf 18. CDC. Healthy Housing Reference Manual. Chapter 5, Indoor Air Pollutants and Toxic Materials. http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha05.html 19. U.S. EPA. IAQ Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM): TIA Maintenance and Housekeeping Programs. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/i-beam/text/maintenance_and_housekeeping.html#IAQ%20Housekeeping%20Tasks 20. OSHA. A Brief Guide to Mold in the Workplace. OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin, October 10, 2003. http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib101003.html 21. Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2004). Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 22. Fisk, W. J., Lei-Gomez, Q., Mendell, M. J. (2007). Meta-analysis of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effects with Dampness and Mold in Homes. Indoor Air 17(4):284-296. 23. World Health Organization (WHO) (2009). WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mould. WHO Regional Office for Europe. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/43325/E92645.pdf 2 4 Occupational Safety and Health Administration

27 24. U.S. EPA. Indoor Air Quality. Tools for Schools Action Kit IAQ Coordinator’s Guide: A Guide to Implementing an IAQ Program. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/tools4s2.html 25. ASHRAE Standard 55 (2010). Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. 26. ASTM Standard D-6245-98. Using Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Evaluate Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation. 27. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Tips for Purchasing and Installing New Carpet. CPSC Document #454. http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/454.html 28. Carpet and Rug Institute (1999). Carpet and Indoor Air Quality Technical Bulletin. http://www.carpet-rug.org/technical_bulletins/9902_Carpet_and_IAQ.pdf 29. NIOSH. Building Air Quality: Action Plan. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/baqact4.html 30. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. The Senseless Killer. 1993 GAO Publication No. 1993-0-356-764. 31. Mott, J. A., Wolfe, M. I., Alverson, C. J., Macdonald, S. C., Baily, C. R., Ball, L. B., et al. (2002). National Vehicle Emissions Policies and Practices and Declining U.S. Carbon Monoxide Mortality. JAMA, 288: 988-995. 32. American Lung Association. Carbon Monoxide Indoors. http://www.lungusa.org/healthy-air/home/resources/carbon-monoxide-indoors.html 33. U.S. EPA. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Carbon Monoxide. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html 34. OSHA. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Fact Sheet, 2002. 2 pages. http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_General_Facts/carbonmonoxide-factsheet.pdf 35. OSHA. Carbon Monoxide in Workplace Atmospheres. OSHA Method ID-210, March 1991. http://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id210/id210.html 36. Health Canada. Indoor Air Quality in Office Buildings. Carbon Dioxide. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/air/office_building-immeubles_bureaux/co2-eng.php 37. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Health Effects of Carbon Dioxide Gas. http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/chem_profiles/carbon_dioxide/health_cd.html 38. U.S. EPA. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticide. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pesticid.html 39. U.S. EPA. A Citizen’s Guide to Radon. The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon. EPA 402/K-09/001. January 2009. http://www.epa.gov/radon 40. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Radon. September 2008. CAS ID #: 14859-67-7. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=71 41. OSHA. Mold. Safety and Health Topics Page. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/molds/index.html 42. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Legionnaires Disease. http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/diseases/legion.html 43. CDC. Legionellosis Resource Site (Legionnaires’ Disease and Pontiac Fever). Patient Facts: Learn More about Legionnaires’ disease. http://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/patient_facts.html 44. OSHA. Legionnaires’ Disease. Safety and Health Topics Page. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/legionnairesdisease/index.html 45. OSHA. Volatile Organic Compounds in Air. OSHA Method PV2120, May 2003. http://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/partial/pv2120/pv2120.html 46. U.S. EPA. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/voc.html 47. Yu, C. and Crump, D. (1998). A Review of Emission of VOCs from Polymeric Materials Used in Buildings. Building and Environment, 33(6): 357-374. 48. Hrigaray, P., Newby, J. A., Clapp, R., Hardell, L., Howard, V., et al. (2007). Lifestyle-Related Factors and Environmental Agents Causing Cancer. An Overview. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 61(10): 640-658. I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y I N C O M M E R C I A L A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L B U I L D I N G S 2 5

28 For more information: Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor www.osha.gov (800) 321-OSHA (6742)

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