Microsoft Word dove white paper final.doc

Transcript

1 “THE REAL TRUTH ABOUT BEAUTY: A GLOBAL REPORT” Findings of the Global Study on Women, Beauty and Well-Being September 2004 Dr. Nancy Etcoff – Harvard University Dr. Susie Orbach – London School of Economics Dr. Jennifer Scott – StrategyOne Heidi D’Agostino – StrategyOne Commissioned by Dove, a Unilever Beauty Brand “‘Beauty is truth, truth beauty’ -- that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.” John Keats – Ode on a Grecian Urn 1

2 ABOUT THE STUDY The Real Truth About Beauty study was commissioned by Dove, one of Unilever’s largest beauty brands, to further the global understanding of women, beauty and well-being – and the relationship between them. It had its genesis in a growing concern that portrayals of female beauty in popular culture were helping to perpetuate an idea of beauty that was neither authentic nor attainable. Dove was concerned that this limited portrayal of beauty was preventing women from recognizing and enjoying beauty in themselves and others. The company was also aware that – in a world where female beauty is highly valued – this situation could also impact women’s well-being, happiness and self-esteem. Dove’s mission, in commissioning The Real Truth About Beauty study, was to explore empirically what beauty means to women today and why that is. Further, Dove wanted the study to assess whether it was possible to talk and think about female beauty in ways that were more authentic, satisfying and empowering. The Real Truth About Beauty findings detailed in this White Paper are based on quantitative data collected from a global study of 3,200 women, aged 18 to 64. StrategyOne – an applied research firm based in New York – managed the study in collaboration with Dr. Nancy Etcoff and Massachusetts General Hospital - Harvard University, and with the expert consultation of Dr. Susie Orbach of the London School of Economics. The survey was fielded between February 27 and March 26, 2004, using the field services of MORI International. Interviews were conducted in, Italy, France, Portugal, Netherlands, Brazil, across ten countries: the U.S., Canada, Great Brita Argentina and Japan. The survey has a margin of error of ±1.7 percentage points among the total sample of 3,200. To inform the structure and content of the study, Dove first commissioned a global literature review, which examined existing research and writing on beauty, appearance and self-worth. This review was conducted by the specialist secondary research and media analysis group of StrategyOne. It was designed to review current public knowledge on the topic and to isolate any gaps that might exist in the discourse. The review scanned materials available in 22 languages from 118 countries. It tapped multiple databa ses provided through the National Library of Medicine and PubMed, as well as the Reuters and Dow Jones newswires and the Factiva News database. It may be accessed on the Internet at: www.ca mpaignforrealbeauty.com . The Literature Review is supplemented by ongoing quarterly updates based on analysis of the latest data and information gathered from global databases. 2

3 FOREWORD BY SYLVIA LAGNADO - GLOBAL BRAND DIRECTOR, DOVE This powerful study was born out of a desire to talk to women around the world about female beauty. Dove knows that the relationship women have with beauty is complex: it can be powerful and inspiring, but elusive and frustrating as well. We sponsored this study in order to probe more deeply into this intricate relationship. Dove wanted to understand how women r beauty; how they feel about female beauty’s define beauty; how satisfied they are with thei s their well-being. This work is groundbreaking portrayal in society; and, how beauty affect because no one had undertaken a comprehensive study of this nature before. And, the results are truly enlightening. Dove wants more women to feel that beauty is within their reach and this study is instrumental in showing us how to achieve this goal. The results demonstrate the need to present a wider definition of beauty than is currently available to women – regardless of where they live. By doing this, Dove can not only help women feel beautiful every day, we can help them lead more satisfied lives. Dove adopted a rigorous academic approach to this research. It commissioned the services of established applied research companies, StrategyOne and MORI International, to ensure that the implementation of the study met criteria and codes of conduct established by global research associations, including ICC/ESOMAR and the Am erican Council of Research Organizations (ACRO). In addition, Dove utilized leading independent thinkers and academic institutions for expert guidance and support for the study hypotheses, quantitative research design, and data analysis. Finally, Dove ensured that the study itself contained no reference to the brand or its parent, Unilever, and participants remained unaware of their sponsorship of the study. 3

4 FOREWORD BY DR. NANCY ETCOFF - HARVARD UNIVERSITY In 1913, Webster’s dictionary defined beauty as “properties pleasing the eye, the ear, the intellect, the aesthetic faculty or the moral sense.” But in 2004, the default definition of beauty has shriveled pitifully. The contributions of the ear, the intellect, the broader aesthetic faculty or the moral sensibilities are gone. Beauty is visual; in fact, it is the same visual – the eye popping features and stunning proportions of a few hand picked beauty icons. No wonder many people turned away from beauty. In the 1980s and 1990s beauty fell out of academic discourse. Some people waved it away, denying its reality or power. But beauty never went away and it is time to reclaim it. As we used to know, beauty is so much more. The Real Truth About Beauty study on women, beauty and well-being is a landmark, a revolutionary step forward in reclaiming beauty and re- examining it with a 21st century point of view. It realizes that beauty is never going away and that it has enormous power. It knows that beauty should not be reduced to a political or cultural problem but understood as a basic human pleasure. This study used rigorous methodology to canvass women in many corners of the world, allowing them to deconstruct and reconstruct their notions of beauty. The study does not suggest that women are self-loathing or in despair or mere victims. Far from it. But they do not feel the power and pride of beauty, either. Only the minority of women see themselves as above average in appearance, and only 2% claim to be beautiful. It is important to put this finding in context. Studies of well-being and self esteem show that people in western cultures (but not East Asia) rate themselves as better than average on everything from kindness, intelligence, and popularity to their skills as a mate or parent or as an employee or a driver. “Average” is an unusually low rating. Indeed, the study shows that women are less satisfied with their beauty than with almost every other dimension of life except their financial success. There is enormous room for improvement. The Real Truth About Beauty study makes it clear that it is time to lift the quota system on images of beauty. The diversity of human beau ty has been strained through a sieve of culture, status, power and money and what has emerged is a narrow sliver of the full panorama of human visual splendor. Beauty is diverse and the human eye thrills to new pleasures and fresh sources of inspiration. Ethereal weightlessness and Nord ic features are not its only incarnation. As Darwin wrote, “If all our women were to become as beautiful as the Venus de Medici we should for a time be charmed but we should soon wish for variety and as soon as we had obtained variety we should wish to see certain characteristics in our women a little exaggerated beyond the then existing common standard.” Let the discussions and debates begin and let us reclaim and rejoice in authentic, diverse human beauty once again. 4

5 FOREWORD BY DR. SUSIE ORBACH – THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS Women want to see the idea of beauty expanded. As this ten country survey so clearly shows, women see emotional qualities, character and individuality as equally expressive of beauty as the narrow physical aspects of beauty that currently dominate popular culture. To be sure, women want to be physically attractive and they want to be perceived as such. Their looks are important to how they feel about themse lves, how they regard beauty in themselves and in others. But at the heart of this study is a result which is highly significant: Women regard being beautiful as the result of qualities and circumstance: being loved, being engaged in ose relationship, being happy, being kind, having activities that one wants to do, having a cl confidence, exuding dignity and humor. Women, who are like this, look beautiful. They are beautiful. When it comes to strictly physical attributes, the images of manufactured femininity are rejected as being too narrow, as inauthentic and as insufficient. The great majority of women want broader definitions of how women’s physical beau ty is visually represented. Seventy five percent of women in the study would like to see considerably more diversity in the images of beauty. They want to see women of different shapes, they want to see women of varying sizes and they want a broader range of ages in the pictures of women than those who, at present, saturate our visual field. These results are in a sense, no surprise at all. The last fifty years have witnessed an interesting paradox. Beauty – as an idea and an ideal – has moved away from being the exclusive province of the Hollywood dream factory, of fashion models and the young bride, to become an essential attribute to which women of all ages need to pay heed. But at the same time that women of all ages and classes want to claim beauty for themselves, there has been an insidious narrowing of the beauty aesthetic to a limited physical type – thin, tall – which inevitably excludes millions idea of beauty and the and millions of women. The conjunction between democratizing the limiting of what constitutes the ideal of beauty has caused considerable anguish to women – young to old – who strive to find in themselves the means to meet those aesthetic values which have come to make up what we regard as beautiful. Women’s interest in and preoccupation with beauty, is not some easily dismissed concern. This study shows conclusively that women now judge beauty as important and even crucial as they navigate today’s world. In attempting to democratize and make accessible to all the idea of , along the lines they beauty, women are eager to see a redefinition and expansion of the ideals see it and away from the limiting, narrowed and restricted body shapes and sizes we see in moving images and in print. 5

6 The overwhelming majority of women (despite the popularity of Extreme Makeover™) do not wish to expose themselves to the surgeon’s scalpel. But neither do they wish to be excluded because they fail to find their beauty reflected in the images which bombard them, on average, in 2000 advertisements per week. What women in this study tell us is that a sense of legitimacy and respect is wrapped up with beauty in today’s world. Whether this sentiment dismays or delights us, it poses a serious challenge. And it is this in the first instance: For the idea of beauty to become truly democratic and inclusive, then beauty itself must be revitalized to reflect women in their beauty as they really are rather than as portrayed in the current fictions that dominate our visual culture. With such fictions removed, the many hours of anguish, spent in self criticism, or in the attempt to reshape themselves so that they do in some ways resemble the ideal, have a chance to be freed up and find expression in the many other desires and ambitions that women hold. 6

7 STUDY METHODOLOGY The Real Truth About Beauty study was managed by StrategyOne – a specialist applied research firm based in New York – in conjunction with Dr. Nancy Etcoff of Harvard University and Dr. Susie Orbach of the London School of Economics. The study consisted of a 3,200-respondent telephone survey, conducted among women aged 18 to 64 in ten countries. Each interview lasted between 20 and 25 minutes (depending on translation length) and respondents were interviewed by native speakers in their own language. Interviews were conducted in each of the followi ng countries: U.S., Canada, Great Britain, Italy, France, Portugal, Netherlands, Brazil, Argentina and Japan. Three hundred (300) interviews were conducted in each country, except the U.S., where 500 interviews were conducted. This was to allow for a more robust analysis of the U.S. data. Interviewing took place between February 27 and March 26, 2004 using the telephone field services of MORI International based in London. MORI is one of the most reputable fielding services in the world, with a global scope and significant in-country resources for the effective implementation of studies across a wide variety of languages, dialects and cultures. The survey was designed in English and translated into se ven other languages by MORI translators. Local country representatives of both MORI and Dove revi ewed the translations in detail to ensure that they were as consistent as possible with the original – while allowing for local nuances. The data were weighted for each country to ensure accurate representation by age, marital status, income/social class, ethnicity and region. The margin of sampling error at the 95% level of confidence is ±1.7 for total respondents (3,200), ±4.4 for the U.S. (sample of 500), and ±5.7 for all other countries (sample of 300). This means that, in 95 times out of a hundred, when a sample of this size and composition is drawn , findings will not differ by more than 1.7 percentage points in either direction for the total sample, and plus or minus 5.7 percentage points within each country (plus or minus 4.4 percentage points for the U.S.). This margin of error is small – particularly at the global level – making the data highly reliable. 7

8 FINDINGS 8

9 WOMEN’S RELATIONSHIP TO THEIR OWN BEAUTY oring to what extent women perceive and The Real Truth About Beauty study began by expl experience themselves as beautiful, and the reasons why. Specifically, the study tried to determine: how comfortable women are with using the word to describe themselves; their level on their sense of well-being; and, how important of satisfaction with their own beauty; its impact it is to them. The initial part of the study specifically asked women to reflect on their own beauty. It was only later in the study that women were asked to reflect on beauty as a concept or in relation to others. Thus, at the outset of the study – before women had a sense of the subject matter of the investigation – the objective was to obtain as accurate an understanding as possible of women’s relationship with their own beauty, unmediated by ideals or stimulus that encouraged deeper reflection on the concept. Ownership of the Word “Beautiful” Study data reveal that “beautiful” is not a word women willingly associate with themselves. In the study, women were given a list consisting only of positive or neutral adjectives to describe their looks (including; “natural,” “average,” “b eautiful,” “sexy” and “gorgeous”) and asked to choose the one they felt most comfortable with. By an overwhelming majority, women around the world are most comfortable using the words natural (31%) or average (29%) to describe their looks. ♦ Only 2% of women around the world choose beautiful to describe their looks, fewer even than choose “attractive” (9%), “feminine” (8%), “good-looking” (7%) or “cute” (7%). Analysis reveals that this lack of identificati on with “beautiful” holds across all age groups, with only 4% of 18-29 year-olds choosing “beautiful” as a word to describe their looks. 9

10 Self-descriptors for one ’ s looks Total Respondents 31% Natural 25% Average 9% Attractive 8% Feminine 7% Good-looking 7% Cute 5% Pretty 2% Beautiful 1% Sophisticated 1% Sexy 1% Stunning 0% Gorgeous 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% Excludes none of these, C1 – Which ONE of the following words, if any, would you be most comfortable using to don’t know and refused describe the way you look? A country-by-country analysis reveals that there are interesting distinctions between the two most popular descriptors of “average” and “natural .” “Natural” is the descriptor of choice among Canadian, Italian, French, Argentinean and Japanese women, while Brazilian, Portuguese, British and Dutch women are most likely to describe themselves as “average.” 6% of Brazilian women choose “beautiful” to describe themselves – the highest number ♦ among all countries studied. 10

11 Self-descriptors for one ’ s looks CAN ITA FRA NLD PRT BRA ARG JPN USA GBR Natural 22% 21% 37% 43% 28% 27% 20% 40% 43% 36% Average 27% 25% 31% 12% 13% 28% 37% 42% 10% 26% Attractive 18% 20% 4% 6% 12% 3% 5% 8% 2% 9% Feminine 5% 3% 5% 9% 8% 19% 9% 8% 13% 3% Good-looking 11% 2% 8% 3% 9% 4% 0% 13% 8% 16% Cute 1% 7% 11% 1% 9% 9% 3% 10% 9% 6% Pretty 5% 2% 7% 2% 1% 17% 5% 9% 1% 0% Beautiful 2% 1% 2% 1% 3% 2% 6% 3% 0% 3% Sophisticated 2% 1% 2% 1% 0% 0% 2% 2% 2% 1% Sexy 1% 0% 2% 0% 2% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% Stunning 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1% Gorgeous 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 0% 1% Excludes none of these, C1 – Which ONE of the following words, if any, would you be most comfortable using to don’t know and refused describe the way you look? Ranked on total respondents Deeper probing on this issue revealed that four in ten women around the world strongly agree do not feel comfortable describing themselves as (8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale) that they beautiful. NOTE: Throughout this study, we have used “strongly agree” data (top 3 box), meaning that women had to select 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale where 1 was “completely disagree” and 10 was “completely agree.” This is in keeping with research convention. From the perspective of the lay reader, it is important to remember that - in all cases - “strongly agree” represents very firmly held beliefs—not simple accord. Thus, “beauty” is not only a word that women are very unlikely to choose to describe their looks; it is also one which many actually feel “uncomfortable” using to describe themselves. This level of “discomfort” illustrates the degree to which women have become distanced from today’s idea of female beauty. ♦ Importantly, women feel this way regardless of age. Thus 40% of 18 to 29 year-olds strongly agree that they do not feel comfortable describing themselves as beautiful, with 43% of 30 to 44 year-olds and 42% of 45 to 64 year-olds also feeling this way. A country-by-country comparison reveals that women from Great Britain are more ♦ likely than women from other countries to feel uncomfortable describing themselves as beautiful, followed by women from Argentina, Italy and the U.S. 11

12 Discomfort in describing self as beautiful Total Respondents “I do not feel comfortable describing myself as beautiful” 100% 80% 60% 42% 40% 17% 20% 0% Strongly agree (top 3 box) Strongly disagree (bottom 3 box) 10 pt. scale C57 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. Discomfort in describing self as beautiful “I do not feel comfortable describing myself as beautiful” 100% Strongly agree 80% 54% 60% 49% 45% 44% 41% 41% 40% 36% 35% 34% 40% 20% 0% a e n ly K zi l a SA a gal U a p nc It U ntina a a tu Br e J Fr Canad Por Arg Netherlands Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C57 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. 12

13 Self-Evaluations of Beauty and Physical Appearance The Real Truth About Beauty study went on to conduct an assessment of how women evaluate their own beauty. Throughout this exploration, women were asked to evaluate both their beauty and their physical attractiveness. This was partly to determine how women assess themselves, and partly to discern whether women evaluate their “beauty” any differently from their “physical attractiveness.” While similar assessments of both would not confirm a causal connection (i.e., beauty is based solely on physical appearance), it would suggest that women think about the two in similar ways, seeing them as having a great deal of overlap and perhaps as being interchangeable. Results show that, overall, women do not rate their own “beauty” and their “physical attractiveness” differently across various measures (such as evaluation and satisfaction). Thus the two concepts appear – in these respects – interchangeable. Data show that the vast majority of women rate themselves “average” in terms of their “beauty” and their “physical attractiveness.” ♦ Almost three-quarters of women (72%) rate their beauty “average” and 69% rate their physical attractiveness “average.” ♦ Overall, 13% see themselves as somewhat less or much less beautiful or physically attractive than others. ♦ 16% of all women think of themselves as “somewhat more” or “much more” physically attractive than others. Apart from the similarity in the ratings across both concepts, the very substantial number of n prefer not to distinguish themselves from respondents opting for “average,” indicates that wome other women in terms of either their beauty or physical attractiveness. 13

14 Comparison to other women physical attractiveness beauty – Total Respondents 3% 12% 72% 13% Beautiful 3% 69% 13% Physically attractive 15% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% Much/somewhat more than average Much/somewhat less than average DK/Refused Average C4 – Compared to other women, do you think you are...? C39 – Compared to other women, do you think you are...? Country comparisons reveal that women in Japan are significantly more likely to rate their beauty and their physical attractiveness poorly compared to other women. They are significantly more likely to think of themselves as “somewhat less” or “much less” beautiful or physically attractive. Indications from numerous other studies as comparative subjects among the Japanese are that these relatively depressed scores for Japan are reflective of a broad and consistent cultural trend. 14

15 Comparing beauty to other women 1% 71% 17% 11% USA 1% 17% 71% 11% Canada 2% 13% 75% 10% UK 2% 79% 10% 9% Italy 3% 5% 81% 11% France 2% 17% 17% 64% Netherlands 2% 85% 6% 7% Portugal 0% 83% 7% 10% Brazil 6% 58% 19% 17% Argentina 11% 10% 26% 53% Japan 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% Much/somewhat more beautiful Average in beauty Much/somewhat less beautiful DK/Refused C4 –Compared to other women, do you think you are...? Comparing physical attractiveness to other women 2% 10% 63% 25% USA 2% 8% 73% 17% Canada 1% 11% 71% 17% UK 1% 10% 79% 10% Italy 6% 15% 69% 10% France 1% 13% 69% 17% Netherlands 1% 8% 87% 4% Portugal 1% 14% 76% 9% Brazil 3% 16% 55% 26% Argentina 10% 12% 32% 46% Japan 40% 100% 20% 60% 0% 80% Much/somewhat more physically attractive Average in physical attractiveness Much/somewhat less physically attractive DK/Re fus ed C39 –Compared to other women, do you think you are...? 15

16 While it is noteworthy that most women see themselves as at least “average” in attractiveness, these results must be interpreted in light of an extensive body of research which finds that people in most Western cultures (but not East Asian cultures, such as Japan) tend to rate themselves as significantly “above average” in virtually every domain. Thus, women’s self rating of physical attractiveness is lower than their predicted self rating in other domains. The study did illustrate a difference between the way in which women evaluate their body weight in comparison to their beauty and physical attractiveness. Despite mostly categorizing themselves as “average” on beauty and physical attractiveness, almost half of all women (47%) rate their body weight as “too high” – a trend that increases with age. ♦ This is particularly the case in the U.S. (60%), Great Britain (57%) and Canada (54%). ♦ Italian and Argentinean women are most likely to say their weight is “just right.” Thus we can see that a particular aspect of physical appearance can elicit very different ratings from women, and also how a perceived sense of being overweight is of concern to literally millions of women in the countries studied. 16

17 Defining one ’ s weight Total Respondents 100% 80% 48% 60% 47% 40% 20% 4% 0% Too high Too low Just right Excludes don’t know/refused = 1% E2 – Would you describe your body weight as ...? ’ s weight Defining one 3% 2% 60% 35% USA 1% 0% 54% 45% Canada 3% 57% 40% 0% UK 0% 3% 32% 65% Italy 0% 3% 45% 52% France 1% 8% 42% 49% Netherlands 0% 6% 39% 55% Portugal 0% 7% 51% 42% Brazil 0% 8% 30% 62% Argentina 1% 5% 42% Japan 52% 80% 100% 0% 40% 20% 60% Just right Too low DK/Refused Too high E2 – Would you describe your body weight as ...? It is important to recognize that, while these assessments often reflect hard data on overweight and obesity levels in many of the countries, this study does not demonstrate whether the women who are medically overweight/obese are also those who feel overweight. It is worth noting the significant disparity between perception of overweight and medical ♦ reality in Japan and, to a lesser extent, Canada. 17

18 Perception of Weight vs. The Reality of Weight Reality - Perception - “Too high” Obese/Overweight 62% 60% USA Canada 40% 54% UK 57% 57% Italy 32% 36% France 45% 47% Netherlands 42% 42% Portugal 60% 39% Brazil 47% 51% Argentina 30% 54% Japan 23% 52% Source: International Association for the Study of Obesity Personal Satisfaction with Beauty, Physical Appearance and Life in General The study also explored how women feel about their beauty and physical appearance – specifically whether they are happy with these and how important it is for them to be happy with these. Importantly, almost half of all women (48%) strongly agree (8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale) , I feel worse about myself in general,” clearly with the statement that: “When I feel less beautiful illustrating the impact these feelings can have on overall self-esteem and happiness. 18

19 Beauty, Well-Being and Self-Esteem Total Respondents “When I feel less beautiful, I feel worse about myself in general” 100% 80% 60% 48% 40% 11% 20% 0% Strongly disagree (bottom 3 box) Strongly agree (top 3 box) C50 – Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. The study assessed levels of satisfaction among women regarding their beauty, physical attractiveness, facial attractiveness, and body weight and shape. ♦ The study finds that women make little distinction between their own physical attractiveness, facial attractiveness and beauty when reporting levels of overall personal satisfaction. The majority of women around the world remain only somewhat satisfied with their beauty (58%), physical attractiveness (59%) and facial attractiveness (58%). This large “somewhat satisfied” response is comprised of women who could be “happier” with their beauty and appearance – although it would be a mistake to classify them as “unhappy.” 19

20 ♦ It is likely to be women from this group who are most receptive to messages about beauty and appearance in the media and popular culture because, although they derive some satisfaction from how they look, they certainly believe they could be more satisfied, and may well strive to be so. Just 13% of all women say they are very satisfied with their beauty, 12% with their physical attractiveness, 17% with their facial attractiveness and 13% with their body weight and shape. level of satisfaction with beauty ♦ Across countries studied, a comparatively higher and physical and facial attractiveness is found in Argentina, the U.S., Canada and the Netherlands. ♦ levels of satisfaction with their In comparison, women in Japan have the lowest beauty and physical and facial attractiveness. The majority of women are significantly less satisfied with their body weight and shape than with their beauty and physical attractiveness. ♦ attractiveness and While 71% are somewhat or very satisfied with their physical beauty, only 57% of women worldwide are somewhat or very satisfied with their weight and shape. body The exception to this rule is Japan – where only one in five women are satisfied with their attractiveness, beauty and their body weight and shape. physical Satisfaction beauty - physical attractiveness - face - body Total Respondents Very/Somewhat Satisfied 71% 0% 19% 10% Satisfaction with beauty 13% 58% Satisfaction with physical 0% 12% 17% 71% 59% 12% attractiveness Satisfaction with facial 0% 10% 15% 75% 58% 17% attractiveness Satisfaction with body 31% 12% 44% 0% 13% 57% weight and shape 80% 40% 20% 60% 100% 0% Somewhat satisfied Neither Very/somewhat dissatisfied DK/Refused Very satisfied C2 – How satisfied would you say you are with your own beauty? C37 – How satisfied would you say you are with your own physical attractiveness? C41 – Now thinking specifically about your face, how satisfied would you say you are with your facial attractiveness? E1 – How satisfied would you say you are with your current body weight and shape? 20

21 with beauty Satisfaction Very/Somewhat Satisfied 0% 7% USA 16% 21% 56% 77% 0% 10% 10% Canada 80% 22% 58% 0% 14% 25% UK 14% 47% 61% 0% 6% Italy 18% 7% 69% 76% 1% 9% 20% France 70% 68% 2% 0% 4% 19% 77% Netherlands 16% 61% 0% 1% 17% Portugal 82% 7% 75% 0% 6% 25% Brazil 69% 9% 60% 1% 4% 9% Argentina 22% 64% 86% 41% 3% 33% 23% Japan 0% 23% 40% 0% 20% 60% 80% 100% Somewhat satisfied Very/somewhat dissatisfied Very satisfied DK/Refused Neither C2 – How satisfied would you say you are with your own beauty? Satisfaction with phy sical attractiveness Very/Somewhat Satisfied 0% 11% 11% 55% 23% 78% USA 6% 1% 84% 9% 69% 15% Canada 0% 15% 21% 49% 15% UK 64% 0% 7% 19% 65% 9% Italy 74% 4% 8% 0% 18% 70% 74% France 3% 1% 14% 67% 15% Netherlands 82% 8% 0% 16% 70% 6% 76% Portugal 0% 10% 26% 55% 9% 64% Brazil 8% 85% 0% 7% 65% 20% Argentina 1% 4% 41% 23% 32% 22% Japan 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% DK/Refused Very/somewhat dissatisfied Neither Somewhat satisfied Very satisfied C37 – How satisfied would you say you are with your own physical attractiveness? 21

22 y weight and shape Satisfaction with bod Very/Somewhat Satisfied 1% 36% 8% 39% 16% 55% USA 0% 23% 8% 49% 20% Canada 69% 0% 36% 14% 34% 16% UK 50% 0% 18% 19% 51% 12% Italy 63% 2% 1% 24% 18% 55% France 57% 0% 25% 11% 43% 21% Netherlands 64% 0% 18% 17% 58% 7% 65% Portugal 37% 0% 0% 54% 9% Brazil 63% 0% 27% 4% 43% 26% Argentina 69% 3% 20% 59% 20% 1% 17% Japan 60% 100% 40% 20% 80% 0% Neither Very/somewhat dissatisfied DK/Refused Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied E1 – How satisfied would you say you are with your current body weight and shape? To further explore satisfaction with beauty and appearance in relation to satisfaction with other dimensions of life, women were read a list of different aspects of their lives (in randomized order) and asked to rate their level of satisfaction with each on a 10-point scale. Results show most happy with their health and with their relationships – with family, that women are . friends and romantic partners ♦ A notable exception is Japan – where romantic relationships receive extremely low satisfaction scores. This may be due to the fact that the Japanese translation for “romantic relationship” used in the study has far more idealized connotations than in the English version and is thus perceived as harder to achieve by Japanese respondents. Relatively speaking, women are least satisfied with their physical attractiveness, body weight and shape, beauty and financial success. ♦ Again, it is instructive to compare women’s satisfaction with physical appearance against the extensive literature on life satisfaction and well-being. Large scale surveys in the United States, Western Europe and other Westernized countries find life satisfaction ratings to be in the 70-80% range. This suggests that satisfaction with appearance is lower than overall satisf action with life. Indeed, in this study, the only domain women are less satisfied with is their financial success. Levels of satisfaction for beauty, appearance and financial success still show about a third of (i.e. choosing 8, 9 or 10 on a 10-point scale). women claiming that they are “very satisfied” 22

23 ♦ Thus, we see approximately two-thirds of women who could be happier than they currently are with these key dimensions of their lives. s life Satisfaction with factors in one ’ Total Respondents 80% Family relationships 72% Friends 71% Health 60% Romantic relationship 50% Spirituality or religious faith 43% Professional success Body weight and shape 41% Beauty 39% 38% Physical attractiveness Financial success 37% 40% 60% 0% 100% 20% 80% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale B12-B21 – Now, I am going to read that same list again, but this time, please tell me how satisfied you currently are with each of the following things in your own life. Please use a 10- point scale where 1 means “Not at all satisfied” and 10 means “Extremely satisfied”. s life Satisfaction with factors in one ’ ARG ITA NLD PRT CAN FRA JPN GBR USA BRA Family relationships 79% 81% 83% 73% 82% 85% 83% 66% 82% 86% Friends 79% 63% 71% 74% 81% 74% 77% 68% 68% 74% Health 65% 72% 63% 78% 75% 69% 65% 83% 80% 62% Romantic relationship 71% 62% 59% 62% 70% 65% 49% 70% 74% 16% Spirituality or religious 69% 36% 50% 30% 49% 63% 27% 48% 81% 32% faith Professional success 47% 43% 38% 45% 46% 31% 52% 53% 52% 18% Body weight and shape 35% 57% 54% 47% 38% 40% 46% 43% 17% 38% Beauty 43% 30% 42% 31% 25% 42% 62% 50% 13% 45% Physical attractiveness 33% 43% 44% 30% 40% 14% 25% 42% 53% 50% Financial success 34% 38% 36% 41% 34% 36% 45% 40% 20% 45% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale B12-B21 – Now, I am going to read that same list again, but this time, please tell me how Ranked on total satisfied you currently are with each of the following things in your own life. Please use a 10- respondents point scale where 1 means “Not at all satisfied” and 10 means “Extremely satisfied”. 23

24 We can conclude from these results that, while their own beauty and physical appearance are not the primary drivers of women’s well-being, they are important players. Importantly, the study shows that the majority of women are only “somewhat satisfied” with their beauty, indicating – again – that there is a desire for improvement. This improvement would contribute not only to their satisfaction with their appearance but presumab ly to their satisfaction with life as a whole. ♦ Data on women’s evaluation of their own beauty and physical appearance is at parity – suggesting that they feel similarly about each. This indicates that there may be ways in which women equate one with the other when they are evaluating themselves. Indeed, if beauty and physical attractiveness are seen as congruent concepts, there is a reticence on women’s part to call themselves “beautiful” or to use any close synonyms such as “attractive,” “pretty” or “good-looking.” 24

25 PERCEPTIONS OF HOW BEAUTY IS PORTRAYED IN POPULAR CULTURE Having assessed how women think about and evaluate their own beauty and appearance, The Real Truth About Beauty study went on to ask women to speculate upon popular ideas of beauty. The survey explored women’s perspectives on the social cues about beauty that emerge from the mass media and popular culture. This was partly to discern the degree to which external norms drive women’s assessments of their own beauty and physical attractiveness. In reviewing the findings, it became apparent that – when women report on the messages they get from popular culture and the media – the idea of “beauty” and the idea of “physical attractiveness” are treated as largely synonymous. Furthermore, both are seen as highly valued by society, but, at the same time, rendered almost impossible to attain. The study reveals that women see beauty and physical attractiveness as increasingly socially mandated and rewarded , with almost two-thirds strongly agreeing that: ♦ “Women today are expected to be more physically attractive than their mother’s generation was” (63%); and, ♦ “Society expects women to enhance their physical attractiveness” (60%). Furthermore, 45% of all women strongly agree that “women who are more beautiful have greater opportunities in life.” Interestingly, Japanese women are the only group who do not see society as mandating the idea of beauty and physical attractiveness. We speculate that this is because ideals of “physical attractiveness” and “beauty” are more internalized among Japanese women. They see less dissonance or conflict between what they desire and Japanese social norms. Social pressures are reinforced by perceptions regarding the role of men in driving up the beauty standard. More than half of women (59%) strongly agree that “physically attractive women are more valued by men.” ♦ Given the high value placed on marriage and romantic relationships by women and the importance of these to their happiness and self-esteem, we can see how this perception can negatively impact life satisfaction and well-being—especially among younger women. 25

26 Perceptions about Physic al Attractiveness/Beauty Total Respondents Strongly agree Women today are expected to be more physically 63% attractive than their mother's generation was Society expects women to 60% enhance their physical attractiveness Physically attractive women 59% are more valued by men Women who are beautiful 45% have greater opportunities in life. 20% 80% 40% 0% 100% 60% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C43, C45, C46, C48 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell Strongly agree me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. Perceptions about Physical Attractiveness/Beauty CAN GBR ITA FRA NLD PRT BRA ARG JPN USA Women today are expected to be more physically 60% 63% 62% 67% 55% 73% 79% 81% 33% 52% attractive than their mother’s generation was Society expects women to enhance their physical 42% 59% 57% 62% 71% 64% 67% 73% 13% 75% attractiveness Physically attractive women 71% 63% 50% 51% 59% 57% 60% 69% 73% 40% are more valued by men Women who are beautiful have greater opportunities in 52% 44% 28% 37% 50% 49% 50% 40% 66% 39% life. Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C43, C45, C46, C48 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell Strongly agree me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 Ranked on total means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. respondents 26

27 The study also demonstrates that women tend to believe that the popular meanings of beauty and . Thus: narrowed and unattainable physical attractiveness have become increasingly ♦ Well over half of all women (57%) strongly agree that “the attributes of female beauty have become very narrowly defined in today’s world.” More than two-thirds (68%) of women strongly agree that “the media and ♦ advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty that most women can’t ever achieve.” Women over 30 tend to believe this more strongly than women 18 to 29. Furthermore, almost half of survey respondents (47%) strongly agree with the relatively extreme statement: “Only the most physically attractive women are portrayed in popular culture.” ♦ Again, we see significantly less dissonance between society and self in the responses of Japanese women to these statements. Popular Portrayals of Beauty /Physical Attractiveness Total Respondents Strongly agree The media and advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty 68% that most women can’t ever achieve The attributes of female beauty 57% have become very narrowly defined in today’s world Only the most physically 47% attractive women are portrayed in popular culture 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale D6, D2, D1 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to Strongly agree what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. 27

28 Popular Portrayals of Beau ty/Physical Attractiveness USA CAN GBR ITA FRA NLD PRT BRA ARG JPN The media and advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty that 20% 81% 69% 74% 80% 72% 72% 62% 66% 77% most women can’t ever achieve The attributes of female beauty have become very narrowly 57% 70% 59% 24% 63% 67% 42% 47% 67% 60% defined in today’s world Only the most physically attractive women are portrayed in 33% 53% 51% 35% 47% 51% 59% 46% 59% 31% popular culture Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale D6, D2, D1 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to Strongly agree what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means Ranked on total you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. respondents 28

29 WHAT MAKES WOMEN FEEL BEAUTIFUL? The Real Truth About Beauty study also explored the concepts that women say actually make men’s self-evaluation of their own beauty and them feel beautiful in today’s world. Given wo physical appearance, and their feelings about this – as well as their assessment of how beauty is portrayed in popular culture, it was clearly important to discover what drove women’s sense of their own beauty. This area of investigation was also used to explore how important physical attributes are versus other elements, and to assess the degree to which women feel beautiful through comparing themselves to other women. Data show that women rely primarily on personal experience to feel beautiful, rather than external reinforcement. When women were asked what personally makes them feel beautiful, loving relationships , self-realization and self-care tops the list. ♦ Being loved and having a strong relationship or marriage are of great importance in making women feel beautiful. ♦ This goes hand-in-hand with doing something you love and taking good care of yourself. ♦ To a lesser extent, external factors such as liking how one looks in the mirror and being in good physical shape also play a role in making women feel beautiful. Importance in Making Feel Beautiful “ You ” Total Respondents 88% Being loved 86% Doing something you really love to do 82% Taking good care of yourself 81% Having a strong relationship or marriage 75% Being in good physical shape 70% Having a close circle of friends 66% Liking how you look in the mirror 55% Being professionally successful 51% Receiving compliments from others on how you look 51% Being financially successful 48% Having a rich spiritual or religious life 29% Looking better than others you know (co-workers/friends) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C25-C36 – Now, thinking about yourself, how important is each of them in making you Satisfaction top 2 box feel beautiful? Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means it is “Not at all important” Dissatisfaction bottom 2 box and 10 means it is “Extremely important”. 29

30 Importance in Making “ ” Feel Beautiful You PRT CAN ITA USA NLD GBR BRA ARG JPN FRA Being loved 91% 89% 91% 91% 82% 84% 92% 94% 93% 70% Doing something you really love 80% 84% 83% 88% 86% 91% 91% 96% 96% 68% to do Taking good care of yourself 86% 86% 77% 79% 72% 80% 84% 97% 84% 78% Having a strong relationship or 86% 56% 82% 68% 82% 89% 82% 78% 90% 91% marriage Being in good physical shape 84% 75% 76% 69% 87% 65% 85% 85% 79% 46% Having a close circle of friends 51% 78% 74% 64% 68% 76% 78% 65% 76% 78% Liking how you look in the mirror 65% 70% 79% 56% 36% 64% 94% 81% 31% 84% Being professionally successful 36% 48% 51% 38% 60% 60% 29% 77% 83% 69% Receiving compliments from 46% 43% 55% 52% 50% 35% 62% 80% 59% 39% others on how you look Being financially successful 23% 50% 41% 53% 37% 57% 68% 76% 56% 45% Having a rich spiritual or 68% 56% 46% 18% 72% 43% 23% 49% 19% 79% religious life Looking better than others you 48% 38% 19% 22% 24% 27% 37% 26% 14% 43% know (co-workers/friends) Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C25-C36 – Now, thinking about yourself, how important is each of them in making you feel Ranked on total beautiful? Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means it is “Not at all important” and 10 respondents means it is “Extremely important”. Statistical analysis reveals that women who are more satisfied with their beauty are significantly more likely to assign a greater value to social connections, self-realization and self-care in making them feel beautiful than women who are less satisfied with their beauty. ♦ This reinforces the hypothesis that a more nuanced concept of beauty corresponds with higher levels of well-being regarding one’s own beauty. “ You ” Feel Beautiful Importance in Making Total Respondents * 91% Being loved 77% * 88% Doing something you really love to do 75% 85% * Taking good care of yourself 75% * 83% Having a strong relationship or marriage 68% Satisfied 78% * Being in good physical shape with beauty 64% * 73% Having a close circle of friends 61% Dissatisfied with beauty * 71% Liking how you look in the mirror 51% * 59% Being professionally successful 42% * 54% Receiving compliments from others on how you look 44% 52% Being financially successful 49% 48% Having a rich spiritual or religious life 54% 31% Looking better than others you know (co-workers/friends) 27% 0% 100% 80% 40% 60% 20% * Denotes significant difference Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C2/C25-C36 – How satisfied would you say you are with your own beauty? Now, thinking Satisfaction top 2 box about yourself, how important is each of them in making you feel beautiful? Please use a Dissatisfaction bottom 2 box 10-point scale where 1 means it is “Not at all important” and 10 means it is “Extremely Ranked on total respondents important”. 30

31 BEAUTY, PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS AND THE ROLE OF GROOMING AND COSMETIC SURGERY The study investigated the degree to which personal grooming and care play a role in helping women feel physically attractive – given that the physical is an important element of their sense ful contributor to making women feel beautiful. of their own beauty and that self-care is a power When turning to products to make them feel more physically attractive, women around the world use deodorant above and beyond other personal care items. This is followed by hair care products, perfume, body moisturizer and facial care products. ♦ Younger women are more likely than older women to report using deodorant, perfume and makeup to make themselves feel more physically attractive. In comparison, older women report higher usage of hair coloring. ♦ Women from Japan are significantly less likely than women from other countries surveyed to use deodorant, perfume, body moisturizer and facial care products to feel more attractive. This may be because Japanese women tend to regard these products as standard hygiene and maintenance and look to other, more color-based items to feel “more physically attractive.” Thus, Japanese women are much more likely to report using makeup/color cosmetics ♦ and skin-lightening products to make them feel attractive. re physically attractive Products used to feel mo Total Respondents 82% Deodorant 75% Hair care products 74% Perfume 70% Body moisturizer 70% Facial care products 68% Make-up/color cosmetics 57% Hair coloring 46% Nail care products 21% Skin-tanning products 9% Skin-lightening products 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% Excludes none of these, C42 – Which of the following types of products, if any, do you currently use to make you feel don’t know and refused more physically attractive? 31

32 Products used to feel mo re physically attractive CAN ITA FRA NLD PRT BRA ARG JPN USA GBR Deodorant 92% 91% 80% 80% 94% 82% 85% 90% 28% 92% Hair care products 67% 84% 65% 66% 86% 85% 82% 67% 67% 74% Perfume 71% 63% 88% 76% 82% 85% 71% 87% 85% 30% Body moisturizer 79% 81% 87% 67% 67% 68% 64% 83% 80% 21% Facial care products 78% 63% 76% 82% 82% 70% 77% 62% 73% 34% Makeup/color cosmetics 68% 78% 67% 68% 72% 48% 53% 64% 86% 75% Hair coloring 56% 65% 56% 56% 58% 36% 61% 62% 61% 60% Nail care products 55% 55% 29% 37% 41% 39% 73% 52% 31% 44% Skin-tanning products 9% 14% 11% 28% 26% 29% 8% 22% 28% 36% Skin-lightening products 6% 6% 3% 5% 0% 5% 9% 5% 44% 4% Excludes none of these, C42 – Which of the following types of products, if any, do you currently use to make you feel don’t know and refused more physically attractive? Ranked on total respondents Women draw the line between using personal care products and “cosmetic surgery,” with only one in four women ever considering cosmetic surgery and only 3% admitting to ever having cosmetic surgery performed on them. ♦ Women who are less satisfied with their beauty are significantly more likely than those who are more satisfied to report considering cosmetic surgery. ♦ Half of all women in Brazil have considered having cosmetic surgery, with 7% reporting having some kind of cosmetic surgery completed – the highest of all countries surveyed. ♦ Women from Italy, Portugal and the Netherlands are the least likely to consider having cosmetic surgery. While only a quarter of women have ever considered having cosmetic surgery, this number increases to almost four in ten women if the proce dures were safe and free. This is particularly true in Brazil, Argentina and the U.S. However, only 24% of women who are satisfied with their beauty would consider ♦ cosmetic surgery even if the procedures were safe and free. 32

33 Considered having cosmetic surgery Total Respondents Yes 26% No 73% DK/Refused 1% F1 – Have you ever considered having any type of cosmetic surgery performed on you? Considered Having Cosmetic Surgery DK/Refused No Yes USA 30% 69% 1% Canada 23% 1% 76% UK 21% 79% 0% 0% Italy 15% 85% France 28% 72% 0% 0% Netherlands 18% 82% Portugal 14% 85% 1% 0% Brazil 54% 46% 0% Ar g e n t i n a 32% 68% Japan 71% 3% 26% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% F1 – Have you ever considered having any type of cosmetic surgery performed on you? 33

34 Considered having cosmetic surgery - with beauty satisfaction Total Respondents 1% 75% 24% Satisfied with beauty 1% 61% Dissatisfied with beauty 38% 0% 40% 60% 80% 100% 20% Yes No DK/Refused F1 – Have you ever considered having any type of cosmetic surgery performed on you? 34

35 TELLING THE REAL TRUTH ABOUT BEAUTY Through the latter half of the study, women were asked to respond to various statements and ideas concerning the meaning of female beauty. Findings affirmed that women around the world are able and willing to embrace a conception of beauty that defies the narrow, physically-focused standards set for them by popular culture, and which admits to a far greater and nuanced range of “the beautiful.” Despite the fact that women rate their own beauty and physical attractiveness almost identically on numerous measures, they are able to clearly distinguish between the two concepts when asked about them in theory. This indicates that women have the capacity and desire to think about and experience beauty in complex and dimensionalized ways – even though they may shy away from openly claiming it for themselves. In particular, women clearly have the ability and desire to think of beauty in broader terms than physical attractiveness. Thus, two-thirds ♦ of all women strongly agree that “physical attractiveness is about how one looks, whereas beauty includes much more of who a person is.” Scope of Beauty Total Respondents “Physical attractiveness is about how one looks, whereas beauty includes much more of who a person is” 100% 80% 63% 60% 40% 20% 7% 0% Strongly agree (top 3 box) Strongly disagree (bottom 3 box) C47 – Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what 10 pt. scale extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. 35

36 Importantly, women see female beauty as consisting of a range of qualities and attributes – often in combination. In fact, they rate many inner qualities ahead of physical appearance attributes in their evaluation of “what makes a woman beautiful.” This does not mean that women reject the physical components of beauty – far from it. Rather, it demonstrates that “beauty” is seen by women as richer and more complex than the physical ideals that dominate popular culture. happiness, kindness, confidence, dignity and as Thus women rate qualities such as humor powerful components of female beauty, along with the appearance of a woman’s skin, and facial appearance and body weight and shape . physical ♦ Although all women rate certain inner qualities as very important to making a woman beautiful, women in Italy and Brazil in particular place greater value than and , facial and those in other countries in physical appearance skin appearance body weight and shape in defining a woman’s beauty. ♦ Women from Brazil, Argentina, Italy and Japan also place a relatively greater level of value on having a sense of style and makeup and cosmetics in defining a woman’s beauty, compared to women in other countries surveyed. Importance of attributes in making a woman beautiful (1 of 2) Total Respondents Happiness 89% 86% Kindness Confidence 83% 81% Dignity 78% Humor Intelligence 75% 72% Wisdom 67% Appearance of skin 64% Overall physical appearance 62% Facial appearance 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C6-C24 – Now, I am going to read you a list of attributes, and I’d like you to tell me how important each of them is in making a woman beautiful. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means “Not at all important” and 10 means “Extremely important”. 36

37 Importance of attributes in making a woman beautiful (2 of 2) Total Respondents 61% Sense of style 56% Body weight and shape 54% Hairstyling 51% Youthfulness 49% Professional success Sexiness 46% 43% Financial success Spirituality/religious 42% faith 36% Makeup/cosmetics 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C6-C24 – Now, I am going to read you a list of attributes, and I’d like you to tell me how important each of them is in making a woman beautiful. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means “Not at all important” and 10 means “Extremely important”. Importance of attributes in making a woman beautiful (1 of 2) GBR USA FRA NLD PRT BRA ARG JPN CAN ITA Happiness 88% 89% 92% 90% 78% 93% 96% 92% 83% 90% Kindness 92% 92% 68% 85% 83% 82% 86% 89% 89% 91% Confidence 88% 83% 89% 57% 80% 85% 96% 94% 70% 88% Dignity 96% 85% 95% 62% 92% 94% 83% 63% 66% 78% Humor 80% 44% 92% 95% 83% 74% 72% 87% 79% 73% Intelligence 85% 74% 94% 62% 54% 58% 92% 90% 68% 73% Wisdom 75% 55% 60% 85% 60% 69% 76% 62% 83% 90% Appearance of skin 57% 56% 81% 61% 57% 57% 92% 73% 70% 75% Overall physical 85% 60% 47% 64% 80% 58% 43% 73% 51% 75% appearance Facial appearance 51% 46% 50% 84% 60% 49% 70% 87% 67% 59% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C6-C24 – Now, I am going to read you a list of attributes, and I’d like you to tell me how Ranked on total important each of them is in making a woman beautiful. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 respondents means “Not at all important” and 10 means “Extremely important”. 37

38 Importance of attributes in making a woman beautiful (2 of 2) GBR ITA FRA NLD PRT BRA ARG JPN USA CAN Sense of style 61% 80% 54% 47% 57% 78% 81% 63% 37% 53% Body weight and shape 43% 46% 71% 56% 42% 67% 81% 68% 49% 47% Hairstyling 63% 48% 68% 59% 50% 41% 68% 56% 56% 40% Youthfulness 43% 51% 38% 71% 41% 27% 69% 77% 50% 51% Professional success 43% 32% 59% 38% 26% 70% 79% 64% 40% 44% Sexiness 39% 47% 60% 28% 22% 68% 82% 55% 29% 33% Financial success 38% 34% 48% 30% 20% 39% 71% 55% 39% 58% Spirituality/religious faith 62% 38% 20% 49% 16% 15% 38% 72% 61% 37% Makeup/cosmetics 28% 34% 47% 36% 21% 33% 51% 15% 55% 51% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C6-C24 – Now, I am going to read you a list of attributes, and I’d like you to tell me how Ranked on total important each of them is in making a woman beautiful. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 respondents means “Not at all important” and 10 means “Extremely important”. In an attempt to support the hypothesis that women with the greatest capacity for seeing beauty as more than just physical attractiveness are in fact happier with their own beauty, the study statistically compared responses from women who are more satisfied with their own beauty against those who are less satisfied. ♦ Importantly, women who are more satisfied with their own beauty are significantly more likely than those who are less satisfied to think that non-physical factors, including happiness, confidence, dignity, humor, intelligence and wisdom contribute to making a woman beautiful. ♦ In comparison, women who are less satisfied with their beauty are significantly more likely than those who are more satisfied to think that makeup/cosmetics make a woman beautiful. 38

39 Importance of attributes in making a woman beautiful (1 of 2) Total Respondents 90% * Happiness 84% 86% Kindness 86% 85% * Confidence 74% 84% * Dignity 73% Satisfied with beauty 81% * Humor 66% Dissatisfied with beauty 77% * Intelligence 67% 73% * Wisdom 66% 70% Appearance of skin 67% 65% Overall physical appearance 62% 63% Facial appearance 61% 20% 100% 0% 40% 80% 60% * Denotes significant difference Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C2/C6-C24 – How satisfied would you say you are with your own beauty? Now, I am going Satisfaction top 2 box to read you a list of attributes, and I’d like you to tell me how important each of them is in Dissatisfaction bottom 2 box making a woman beautiful. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means “Not at all Ranked on total respondents important” and 10 means “Extremely important”. Importance of attributes in making a woman beautiful (2 of 2) Total Respondents 62% Sense of style 60% 58% Body weight and shape 56% 55% Hairstyling 52% Satisfied 53% with beauty Youthfulness 47% Dissatisfied 51% * Professional success with beauty 43% * 48% Sexiness 37% 44% Financial success 42% * 44% Spirituality/religious faith 35% 36% Makeup/cosmetics * 42% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% * Denotes significant difference Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C2/C6-C24 – How satisfied would you say you are with your own beauty? Now, I am going Satisfaction top 2 box to read you a list of attributes, and I’d like you to tell me how important each of them is in Dissatisfaction bottom 2 box making a woman beautiful. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means “Not at all Ranked on total respondents important” and 10 means “Extremely important”. 39

40 Not only do a majority of women believe that “beauty includes much more of who a person is,” but also that beauty is something that can be found in . Thus, many different types of women they strongly agree that: “A woman can be beautiful at any age” (89%); ♦ “Every woman has something about her that is beautiful” (85%); and, ♦ ♦ “Beauty can be achieved through attitude, spirit and other attributes that have nothing to do with physical appearance” (77%). Importantly, this idea of female beauty is interwoven with the idea of happiness and self- realization . ♦ Not only do women agree that happiness is the primary element making a woman beautiful, but they strongly agree that they themselves feel most beautiful when they are happy and fulfilled in their lives (86%). Women want younger generations of girls and women to inherit this broader concept of beauty, with 82% strongly agreeing that, “If I had a daughter, I would want her to feel beautiful, even if she was not physically attractive.” Perceptions about beauty Total Respondents Strongly agree A woman can be beautiful at any age 89% I feel most beautiful when I am happy 86% and fulfilled in my life I think that every woman has 85% something about her that is beautiful If I had a daughter, I would want her to feel beautiful even if she is not 82% physically attractive Beauty can be achieved through attitude, spirit and other attributes 77% that have nothing to do with physical appearance 100% 60% 40% 20% 0% 80% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C49, C51-C53, C56 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell Strongly agree me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. 40

41 Perceptions about beauty 30-44 18-29 45-64 A woman can be beautiful at any age. 91% 89% 87% I feel most beautiful when I am happy and fulfilled in my life. 87% 87% 84% I think that every woman has something about her that is 87% 84% 85% beautiful. If I had a daughter, I would want her to feel beautiful even if 83% 78% 84% she is not physically attractive. Beauty can be achieved through attitude, spirit and other 80% 76% 75% attributes that have nothing to do with physical appearance. Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C49, C51-C53, C56 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell Strongly agree me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 Ranked on total means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. respondents Perceptions about beauty CAN PRT ITA FRA NLD USA BRA ARG JPN GBR A woman can be beautiful at any 87% 94% 97% 87% 91% 87% 88% 96% 91% 74% age I feel most beautiful when I am 95% 84% 65% 92% 97% 88% 83% 88% 84% 81% happy and fulfilled in my life I think that every woman has something about her that is 82% 90% 85% 91% 92% 84% 80% 88% 88% 66% beautiful If I had a daughter, I would want her to feel beautiful even if she is 76% 78% 79% 87% 78% 91% 61% 90% 82% 90% not physically attractive Beauty can be achieved through attitude, spirit and other attributes 82% 88% 57% 87% 82% 64% 76% 74% 72% 81% that have nothing to do with physical appearance Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C49, C51-C53, C56 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell Strongly agree me to what extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 Ranked on total means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. respondents Statistical analysis reveals that women who are more satisfied with their beauty are significantly more likely than those who are less satisfied to believe that every woman has something about her that is beautiful and to feel most beautiful when they are most fulfilled in their own lives. 41

42 ♦ Although causality cannot be proven, these data indicate that a deeper, more complex and multi-faceted appreciation of beauty in general may help women feel both more beautiful and happier. Perceptions about beauty Total Respondents Strongly agree * 91% A woman can be beautiful at any age 83% * 89% I feel most beautiful when I am happy and fulfilled in my life 74% Satisfied with beauty I think that every woman has * 88% something about her that is Dissatisfied 72% beautiful with beauty * If I had a daughter, I would want 85% her to feel beautiful even if she 74% is not physically attractive Beauty can be achieved through * 79% attitude, spirit and other attributes that have nothing to do 69% with physical appearance * 0% 100% 60% 40% 80% 20% * Denotes significant difference Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale C2/C49, C51-C53, C56 - How satisfied would you say you are with your own beauty? Now, Satisfaction top 2 box I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what extent you Dissatisfaction bottom 2 box agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely Ranked on total respondents disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. 42

43 WHAT WOMEN WANT: THE MEDIA AND TRUTH TELLING ABOUT BEAUTY The study explored the degree to which women feel that the mass media have a role to play in portraying and communicating their broader idea of beauty. Their assessment that the mass media play a role in creating a narrow, unattainable definition of beauty, was borne out in their responses to statements about how they would like to see the media portray beauty. Women around the world would like to see the media change in the way it represents beauty, with the majority strongly agreeing that they wished that: ♦ Female beauty was portrayed in the media as being made up of more than just physical attractiveness (76%). ♦ The media did a better job of portraying women of diverse physical attractiveness – age, shape and size (75%). The Media and Beauty Total Respondents Strongly agree I wish female beauty was portrayed in the media as being 76% made up of more than just physical attractiveness. I wish the media did a better job of portraying women of diverse 75% physical attractiveness - age, shape & size 100% 60% 40% 20% 0% 80% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale D3 & D4 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what Strongly agree extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. 43

44 The Media and Beauty 45-64 18-29 30-44 I wish female beauty was portrayed in the media as being made up of more than just physical attractiveness 76% 76% 76% I wish the media did a better job of portraying women of diverse physical attractiveness – age, shape and size 75% 73% 75% Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale D3 & D4 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what Strongly agree extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you Ranked on total “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. respondents The Media and Beauty CAN USA ITA FRA NLD PRT BRA ARG JPN GBR I wish female beauty was portrayed in the media as being 65% 59% 86% 86% 73% 85% 68% 81% 74% 77% made up of more than just physical attractiveness I wish the media did a better job of portraying women of diverse 81% 86% 80% 75% 75% 41% 77% 69% 66% 91% physical attractiveness – age, shape and size Top 3 box of 10 pt. scale D3 & D4 - Now, I am going to read you a list of statements, and I’d like you to tell me to what Strongly agree extent you agree or disagree with each. Please use a 10-point scale where 1 means you Ranked on total “Completely disagree” and 10 means you “Completely agree”. respondents 44

45 Further, a large number of women around the world would like to see women of different body weights and shapes, ages, and everyday women as well as models depicted in the media and advertising. Younger women 18-29 and 30-44 are more interested in seeing women of various ♦ body weights and shapes, where older women are more likely to have an interest in seeing women of different ages as well as various body weights and shapes. Better Ways to Depict Women in the Media Total Respondents --Top Two Choices Women of different body 48% weights and shapes 38% Women of different ages Everyday women as well as 37% models Women of different ethnic 22% backgrounds 20% Women active in their lives Models without enhancing the 15% way they look 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% D8 – I am going to read you a list of things regarding the media. Please tell me in which two of the following ways, if any, you most think the media could be doing a better job of depicting women in the media and advertising. 45

46 Better Ways to Depict Women in the Media Total Respondents--Top Two Choices BRA CAN FRA NLD PRT ITA ARG JPN USA GBR Women of different body 60% 52% 63% 44% 57% 20% 47% 41% 46% 37% weights and shapes 36% 29% 33% 47% 39% Women of different ages 31% 54% 45% 30% 42% Everyday women as well 48% 46% 52% 39% 9% 33% 41% 19% 48% 34% as models Women of different ethnic 28% 20% 23% 17% 21% 22% 28% 28% 18% 14% backgrounds Women active in their 30% 13% 18% 10% 26% 17% 8% 37% 20% 26% lives Models without enhancing 14% 15% 12% 13% 13% 8% 22% 31% 14% 10% the way they look Ranked on total D8 – I am going to read you a list of things regarding the media. Please tell me in which two respondents of the following ways, if any, you most think the media could be doing a better job of depicting women in the media and advertising. 46

47 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The Real Truth About Beauty study is the first attempt to both “deconstruct” and “reconstruct” women’s perceptions of female beauty using applied research across ten countries. It shows that women globally hold remarkably similar views on beauty (with the exception of Japanese women on some measures). The study demonstrates that authentic beauty is a concept lodged in women’s hearts and minds and seldom articulated in popular culture or affirmed in the mass media. As such, it remains unrealized and unclaimed. This idea of beauty appears to have been replaced by a narrower definition that is largely located in limited ideals of physical appearance. It appears that the word “beauty” has – in many ways – become functionally defined as “physical attractiveness.” This definition of beauty is powerfully communicated through the mass media and has been assimilated through popular culture. It is this ideal that many women measure themselves against and aspire to attain. However, because this ideal is extremely difficult to achieve, women find it difficult to think of themselves as beautiful. This can contribute to unhappiness and low self-esteem and self-worth – especially among those women (often younger) who are more likely to take their cues from popular culture. This study clearly outlines the components of true beauty and affirms that, while they include physical attractiveness, they also include happi ness, kindness, wisdom, dignity, love, authenticity and self-realization. Through this study, the possibilities for the beautiful to be known, found and represented have been infinitely extended. The ways in which female beauty can move us have been profoundly deepened. Just as women lay some of the blame for the perpetuation of inauthentic beauty on popular culture and the mass media, they also believe that that the latter can be a force for reconfiguring the former so that true beauty becomes the new standard – with unprecedented power to open minds and move emotions. True beauty will not be driven by theory or ideology, but by its resonance in the hearts and minds of those who encounter it. This study has given women the opportunity to speak about what it can be. However, its articulation is the obligation of those who speak to women around the world about their beauty every hour of every day – in the visual images and words of the mass media. Their challenge is to know true beauty when they feel it and to faithfully represent it in the ways in which they speak about it. 47

48 ION, PLEASE CONTACT: FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMAT Dr. Jennifer Scott President, StrategyOne (212)704-8286 [email protected]ategyone.net Heidi D’Agostino Vice President, StrategyOne (212)704-8295 Heidi.d’[email protected] StrategyOne A subsidiary of Edelman 1500 Broadway New York, New York 10036 48

Related documents