AM/FM Requirements of Geographic Information Systems: A Commentary

Transcript

1 AM/FM of Requirements Geographic A Systems: Commentary Information John A. Thorpe, Surveys, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO President, Analytical 80132 M. Duane Gilbert, Inc., MetroData, Springs, CO 80132 Vice-President, Colorado files to the customer information file, so that the facility's map INTRODUCTION proc~dures proper location, accounting and service ca~ be ~p­ (AMlFM) MANAGEMENT MApPINGIFACILlTIES AUTOMATED HE is proper Another plied. requisite engmeenng of trackmg major T of domain util- the to large seen is generally be marketplace design and building construction functions. These functions must ity computerized assist which are to graphics using companies materials ordering system, so that when a new to be the linked in the While facilities. their managing acronym was AM/FM work order is prepared an engineer can sit down at a graphics coined consultant, utilities well-known a Emery, A. Henry by materials terminal, design the new service, have the automat- ago describe to utilities' Geographical Infor- over nine years accounting the through tracked procedures the ordered, ically city in (GIS), Systems the term has grown to be used mation drawings maps system, design and work entire the and made, well. de- disciplines and as county This paper will attempt to order process completed logical computer in When sequences. have large utility the the of some which uses companies scribe new and constructed is service in the place, perhaps two months graphics interactive for AM/FM their in systems. and GIS later, design drawing is the to an as-built drawing converted building One of the first attempts at was system AM/FM an updated automatically are data attribute and graphics the and 1968, Colorado of Company Service Public the when made in database. Interactive graph- in the permanent computer central, in (PSCO), Denver, started a pilot development project on PSCO's database a detailed with combined ics productivity can create subsidiary, Cheyenne, Fuel and Power Company. The Light, of gains area of the repetitive to as much in each 20:1 as 2:1 project objectives prove coordinate plane state the that were to economic valuable for processes efficiency and returns. the be could locations geographic system link to keys as used facilities' integrated an in together systems mapping and files MAPS UTILITY used his- Information Management System. Maps have been torically schematically to size, location, the display accurately or There process are three main phases in the mapping of an accounting, material, indexing of data for cities, counties and system: AM and streets, parcels, show typically maps These utilities. gas of the geographical land base • Building lines, and zoning accesses, ways, water sewer features. other • Overlaying of the property parcel maps that indicated technologies New database graphics, interactive structures of the utility • Overlaying computer costs, reduced telecommunications, managers, and developed had literacy, computer point mapping the that the to BASE LAND GEOGRAPHICAL more and data requirements could be managed much efficiently coordi- combining manual and computer systems into one by the In case of the telephone industry, there is little requirement nated data graphic computer required The system. computer from accuracy, the for land base is often digitized so USGS the was systems distribution electric of model and gas PSCO 1:24,000 aerial high-altitude by supplemented sheets, quad designed along constructed the proposed and with connections photography base maps out of date. the are The land where new meter gas new a a to com- system, computer transformer road consists of centerlines and drainage features, with very system Map- new customer computer puter and system. the feet. Cost of and accuracy of plus or an minus fifty else little planning, engineering, ping, marketing, servicing and accounting digital minimal, but mapping useful~ess is preparation is its system. use the with enhanced be all could new this of to often confined because company there utility the IS minimal In there have been many major developments recent years, in others by accuracy of level this in interest community. the the utilities different two in placed be can These area. cate- in electric, Gas, water and wastewater utilities have stringent more conversion of existing maps, where creation of gories: 1) new a accuracy requirements. The PSCO used rectified photo- and accurate geographic land base is a not (such requirement have for their first enlargements area. These proved to pilot the 2) and industry); telephone the in as and new of building good with subdivisions New areas. some in accuracy limited bases use geographical land accurate through the of photogram- accuracy PSCO requiring properly, together fit not did survey In metry. the second case, database owners hope to defray some to ItS commenced PSCO When re-mapping. extensive complete costs of the high up-front by sharing at least the land and parcel base main in task mapping 1984, it insisted on an orthophoto map base with other members of their communities. National to built standards. Accuracy Map mapping tool best be to proven has Photogrammetry for the new derived land base. Whether the land base a is building NEEDS UTILITY COMPANY digitizing or orthophotos from on stereoplotting direct Utility just as other companies, need to manage companies, has photographs using aerial many of technique the instruments, as asset assets as efficiently their possible. Their most important as (such methods other digitizing over advantages outstanding rather of and equipment, but plant inventory their be may not Notably, maps.) existing allow techniques triangulation aerial corporate records which and the customer database of facility high for maps accuracy. homogeneous prepared In and addition, up built been These years. has many of records a over period date. to up be will cost initial the the high, is since However, the large reside, in 90% of on utility companies in the USA, five or pay-back more years. typical may be period the IBM mainframe computers. Interactive graphics enable at companies least display the map data on a computer screen, to MAPS PROPERTY PARCEL in of means a provide to ac- order and understanding better the Most utility company maps show property boundaries in huge the computers. stored in the databases cessing utility of parcels and form In some communities the lotlines. One of the most important requirements is a link from the 0099-1112/87/5310-1403$02.25/0 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING, ©1987 American Society for Photogrammetry pp. Vol. 1987, October 1403-1404. 10, No. 53, and Remote Sensing

2 1404 ENGINEERING REMOTE SE SING, 1987 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC & the are available source of property records, often maps best develop elaborate software to allow the conversion companies than lines maps. are county or city the Property being better thereby "scrubbing," the of optimizing do to computer much utility to the of company which must important aware the be digitizing the process. of features. similar other and existence lines frontage easements, to must be customer the connected The utility services such as poles Positioning of facilities and underground pipes some means, and here the use df the information system by with land ownership is to critical. reference Files/Dual Independent Map Encoding (GBF/ GeographiC Base western to is the States United important the It in that realize to be of great value. Methods been have proven has file DIME) is system cadastral based section corners which in many on automatically of depictions graphical the connect to developed linked cases limited accuracy and are to often not the have factor. confidence street addresses with an 85% buildings with Coordinate Plane State appropriate sub-divisions When System. of matched, reporting Exception those not field combined with they often laid were were out, and coordinate systems, on local 100% correlation. is necessary to achieve checking, was little or no requirement for precise until recently there accurate and bounds or an connection to description by metes SYSTEMS COMPUTER is that property records cadastral boundaries. The result adjacent been have systems AM/FM and GIS different many on built computerized into converted be cannot graphical form by often systems, but currently the market computer hardware/software coordinate geometry practical only The calculation. or method is dominated by Intergraph, Synercom, Environmental Systems to base layer may property the constructing of be parcel best- and International Business Machines Research Institute (ESRI) of lots block each base, land parcel to fit the and then digitize points weak and (IBM). of these systems has its strong Each make to lot-lines the fit the accurate land base map maps which not eval- be discussed here). The critical issues in will (which well possible. as as computer response time, are display, a system graphiCS uating to the ability amounts of stored information, da- huge handle access and connectivity, and the ability to the structure tabase OVERLAYS UTILITY STRUCTURE databases which corporate exist. already It has been said that lines Utility by form computerized their to converted are If 20% only is mapping of a utility AM/FM true, is this system. old utility digital new superimposing land the the over maps structure the of design proper inter- its and then database the base poles, of information graphical the digitizing and maps, more far is important an than action attributes stored the with attribute together under-ground power with the pipes, lines, and display. graphiCS elaborate of pipe a transformer, existence of type (e.g., information pole, size, Connectivity between the graphical and attribute files, etc.). Summary any maintained. be must system utility of life-blood the is which that process map-making the the of phase most in is It this important it is GIS, any in as just to In system, AM/FM an map from innovative techniques are being introduced. Because map-making that a computerized is the report one only remember system and is not companies conversion data some labor-intensive, a is the final requirement. The AM portion is traditionally continue function. basic important return will largest the However, term, industry (an "scrubbing" labor-intensive use to very converted all available data to be gather from existing to meaning from come in live We system. the of of FM portion the age the maps graphiCS coordinated for them preparing and records and efficief)t manual information, and interactive is merely an tool graphics and procedures to manually draft files) the attribute with which we can create, maintain and access that information. .. a means to an end. before maps new Other into them digitizing the computer. CALL PAPERS FOR First Special on Videography The Workshop University, State Haute, Indiana Indiana Terre 19-20 May 1988 Workshop-sponsored by the American Society for Photogrammetry and This Sensing and approved unanimously at Remote the Biennial Workshop on Color Aerial Photography Eleventh the Plant Sciences Including Applications of Videography-will in provide an excellent opportunity to gain insight and share experiences in the rapidly growing field of videographic remote sensing. which workshop focus on all aspects of remote sensing will have a videographic element. Thus, any application of This special videographic algorithm for analysis of videographic data, suitable sensor systems, image proce~Sing videography, development videographic data, use of videographic data in GIS applications, etc., are among of topics of interest in this workshop. the An half-day workshop, with demonstrations of video sensors and intensive data processing, will be taught by ex erts video which upon technology this in with little or no experience in videography, thereby providing a foundation those field in for this to build. remaining day and one half will can devoted The paper sessions and demonstrations which will provide insight one be (1) current videographic research applications; and (2) advances in sensors, hardware, and software. into to a paper should submit an abstract not present exceed 300 words by 15 January 1988 to to Those wishing Mausel W. Paul ISU Remote Sensing Lab (ISURSL) Geology and Geography of Dept. Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 47809

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